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Sample records for peruviana mollusca caenogastropoda

  1. A new species of Indo-Pacific Modulidae (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda).

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    Lozouet, Pierre; Krygelmans, Anouchka

    2016-04-12

    Modulidae is a littoral cerithioid family exclusively encountered in tropical and subtropical regions. It contains 12 to 15 living species (some species are not clearly delimited). Only one species is known to occur in the vast Indo-Pacific region (Bouchet 2015) and two species in the eastern Atlantic. By comparison, the tropical American regions are relatively rich with at least eleven living species (two or three species in the eastern Pacific and nine or more in the western Atlantic), and an equivalent number or more of fossil species (Landau et al. 2014).

  2. Physalis peruviana seed storage

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    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  3. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa.

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    Miranda, Nelson A F; van Rooyen, Ryan; MacDonald, Angus; Ponder, Winston; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S) DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named "Assiminea" aff. capensis (Sowerby). These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  4. Phylogenetic reconstruction and shell evolution of the Diplommatinidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole B; Van Dooren, Tom J M; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2012-06-01

    The fascinating and often unlikely shell shapes in the terrestrial micromollusc family Diplommatinidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) provide a particularly attractive set of multiple morphological traits to investigate evolutionary patterns of shape variation. Here, a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction, based on five genes and 2700 bp, was undertaken for this family, integrated with ancestral state reconstruction and phylogenetic PCA of discrete and quantitative traits, respectively. We found strong support for the Diplommatininae as a monophyletic group, separating the Cochlostomatidae into a separate family. Five main clades appear within the Diplommatininae, corresponding with both coiling direction and biogeographic patterns. A Belau clade (A) with highly diverse (but always sinistral) morphology comprised Hungerfordia, Palaina, and some Diplommatina. Arinia (dextral) and Opisthostoma (sinistroid) are sister groups in clade B. Clade C and D solely contain sinistral Diplommatina that are robust and little ornamented (clade C) or slender and sculptured (clade D). Clade E is dextral but biogeographically diverse with species from all sampled regions save the Caroline Islands. Adelopoma, Diplommatina, Palaina, and Hungerfordia require revision to allow taxonomy to reflect phylogeny, whereas Opisthostoma is clearly monophyletic. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests a sinistral origin for the Diplommatinidae, with three reversals to dextrality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae

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    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 % son (1 inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm, (2 maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm, (3 maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm y (4 madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm. En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried out the histological and morphological characterization of the reproductive system of P. patula catemacensis under laboratory conditions. We found that the reproductive development of this snail depended more on the size than on the age the animals, and identified four development main stages, both for males and females. The main stages and their mean lengths ± confidence interval at P < 0.05 were (1 immature or not differenced (from 0.72 to 7 mm, (2 early maturation (from 18.95 ± 1.96 mm, (3 intermediate maturation (from 29.29 ± 4.9 mm, and (4 full maturity (from 35.89 ± 3.92 mm. This species is ovoviviparous, both sexes are separated, and fertilization is internal. Albumin and calcium carbonate secretion in females are performed through the albumin gland, a trait that distinguishes this species from others, such as P. paludosa and P. canaliculata. The stage of development can be identified by means of using anatomical traits, such as the albumin gland (in the case of females, or the intromittent organ (in males

  6. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae)

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    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU; ESTHER URIA-GALICIA; FÉLIX ESPINOSA-CHÁVEZ; FERNANDO MARTÍNEZ-JERÓNIMO

    2003-01-01

    El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicame...

  7. Antioxidant activities of Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sue-Jing; Ng, Lean-Teik; Huang, Yuan-Man; Lin, Doung-Liang; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Huang, Shan-Ney; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2005-06-01

    Physalis peruviana (PP) is a widely used medicinal herb for treating cancer, malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism. In this study, the hot water extract (HWEPP) and extracts prepared from different concentrations of ethanol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 95% EtOH) from the whole plant were evaluated for antioxidant activities. Results displayed that at 100 mug/ml, the extract prepared from 95% EtOH exhibited the most potent inhibition rate (82.3%) on FeCl2-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate. At concentrations 10-100 microg/ml, this extract also demonstrated the strongest superoxide anion scavenging and inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase activities. In general, the ethanol extracts revealed a stronger antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol and HWEPP. Compared to alpha-tocopherol, the IC50 value of 95% EtOH PP extract was lower in thiobarbituric acid test (IC50=23.74 microg/ml vs. 26.71 microg/ml), in cytochrome c test (IC50=10.40 microg/ml vs. 13.39 microg/ml) and in xanthine oxidase inhibition test (IC50=8.97 microg/ml vs. 20.68 microg/ml). The present study concludes that ethanol extracts of PP possess good antioxidant activities, and the highest antioxidant properties were obtained from the 95% EtOH PP.

  8. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa

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    Nelson Miranda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI and nuclear (28S DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named “A.” aff. capensis (Sowerby. These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  9. On growth and form of irregular coiled-shell of a terrestrial snail: Plectostoma concinnum (Fulton, 1901) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Diplommatinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Kok, Annebelle C M; Schilthuizen, Menno; Urdy, Severine

    2014-01-01

    The molluscan shell can be viewed as a petrified representation of the organism's ontogeny and thus can be used as a record of changes in form during growth. However, little empirical data is available on the actual growth and form of shells, as these are hard to quantify and examine simultaneously. To address these issues, we studied the growth and form of a land snail that has an irregularly coiled and heavily ornamented shell-Plectostoma concinnum. The growth data were collected in a natural growth experiment and the actual form changes of the aperture during shell ontogeny were quantified. We used an ontogeny axis that allows data of growth and form to be analysed simultaneously. Then, we examined the association between the growth and the form during three different whorl growing phases, namely, the regular coiled spire phase, the transitional constriction phase, and the distortedly-coiled tuba phase. In addition, we also explored the association between growth rate and the switching between whorl growing mode and rib growing mode. As a result, we show how the changes in the aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture shape, size and growth trajectory, and the changes in growth rates, are associated with the different shell forms at different parts of the shell ontogeny. These associations suggest plausible constraints that underlie the three different shell ontogeny phases and the two different growth modes. We found that the mechanism behind the irregularly coiled-shell is the rotational changes of the animal's body and mantle edge with respect to the previously secreted shell. Overall, we propose that future study should focus on the role of the mantle and the columellar muscular system in the determination of shell form.

  10. A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina

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    Liew, Thor-Seng; Vermeulen, Jaap Jan; Marzuki, Mohammad Effendi bin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online. PMID:24715783

  11. On growth and form of irregular coiled-shell of a terrestrial snail: Plectostoma concinnum (Fulton, 1901 (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Diplommatinidae

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    Thor-Seng Liew

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The molluscan shell can be viewed as a petrified representation of the organism’s ontogeny and thus can be used as a record of changes in form during growth. However, little empirical data is available on the actual growth and form of shells, as these are hard to quantify and examine simultaneously. To address these issues, we studied the growth and form of a land snail that has an irregularly coiled and heavily ornamented shell–Plectostoma concinnum. The growth data were collected in a natural growth experiment and the actual form changes of the aperture during shell ontogeny were quantified. We used an ontogeny axis that allows data of growth and form to be analysed simultaneously. Then, we examined the association between the growth and the form during three different whorl growing phases, namely, the regular coiled spire phase, the transitional constriction phase, and the distortedly-coiled tuba phase. In addition, we also explored the association between growth rate and the switching between whorl growing mode and rib growing mode. As a result, we show how the changes in the aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture shape, size and growth trajectory, and the changes in growth rates, are associated with the different shell forms at different parts of the shell ontogeny. These associations suggest plausible constraints that underlie the three different shell ontogeny phases and the two different growth modes. We found that the mechanism behind the irregularly coiled-shell is the rotational changes of the animal’s body and mantle edge with respect to the previously secreted shell. Overall, we propose that future study should focus on the role of the mantle and the columellar muscular system in the determination of shell form.

  12. A new withanolide glycoside from physalis peruviana

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    Ahmad; Malik; Afza; Yasmin

    1999-03-01

    A new withanolide glycoside, 17beta-hydroxy-14, 20-epoxy-1-oxo-[22R]-3beta-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-witha-5, 24-dienolide (1), has been isolated from the whole plant of Physalis peruviana. Its identity was determined using a combination of spectroscopic data including 2D NMR techniques and chemical transformations.

  13. Oil goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

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    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-02-12

    Whole berries, seeds, and pulp/peel of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, triacylglyerols, phytosterols, fat-soluble vitamins, and beta-carotene. The total lipid contents in the whole berries, seeds, and seedless parts were 2.0, 1.8, and 0.2% (on a fresh weight basis), respectively. Linoleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by oleic acid as the second major fatty acid. Palmitic and stearic acids were the major saturates. In pulp/peel oil, the fatty acid profile was characterized by higher amounts of saturates, monoenes, and trienes than in whole berry and seed oils. Neutral lipids comprised >95% of total lipids in whole berry oil and seed oil, while neutral lipids separated in lower level in pulp/peel oil. Triacylglycerols were the predominant neutral lipid subclass and constituted ca. 81.6, 86.6, and 65.1% of total neutral lipids in whole berry, seed, and pulp/peel oils, respectively. Nine triacylglycerol molecular species were detected, wherein three species, C54:3, C52:2, and C54:6, were presented to the extent of approximately 91% or above. The highest level of phytosterols was estimated in pulp/peel oil that contained the highest level of unsaponifiables. In both whole berry and seed oils, campesterol and beta-sitosterol were the sterol markers, whereas Delta5-avenasterol and campesterol were the main 4-desmethylsterols in pulp/peel oil. The tocopherols level was much higher in pulp/peel oil than in whole berry and seed oils. beta- and gamma-tocopherols were the major components in whole berry and seed oils, whereas gamma- and alpha-tocopherols were the main constituents in pulp/peel oil. beta-Carotene and vitamin K(1) were also measured in markedly high levels in pulp/peel oil followed by whole berry oil and seed oil, respectively. Information provided by the present work is of importance for further chemical investigation of goldenberry oil and industrial utilization of the berries as a raw

  14. Isolation, Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Property of Thevetia Peruviana

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    R. Thilagavathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thevetia peruviana seeds contain glucosides of neriifolin, acetylneriifolin and thevetin. Seed oil distillates of Thevetia peruviana have been found to contain anti-bacterial activity. In the persent work, the fresh flowers of Thevetia peruviana was subjected to phytochemical studies. The results of the study showed that the flowers contain quercetin, kaempferol and quercetin-7-o-galactoside. The structure of the isolated compound was characterized by UV, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. The anti-inflammatory character of the isolated compound was tested by in vitro method and the results of the study revealed that the isolated compound showed a biphasic property.

  15. Ten new withanolides from Physalis peruviana.

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    Fang, Sheng-Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Ten new withanolides, including four perulactone-type withanolides, perulactones E-H (1-4), three 28-hydroxy-withanolides, withaperuvins I-K (5-7), and three other withanolides, withaperuvins L-N (8-10), together with six known compounds (11-16) were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis peruviana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D and 2D NMR, IR, HR-MS) and chemical methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. De weekdieren van de Nederlandse brakwatergebieden (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscs of the brackish waters in the Netherlands (Mollusca) The Netherlands is a river delta rich in brackish waters. The organisms in these waters need to be adapted to extreme conditions, especially large fluctuations in chlorinity. However, several species occur optimally in this habitat.

  17. Notes on Loricata (Mollusca) 11-14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1985-01-01

    Four new species of chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) are described, viz Leptochiton (L.) dispersus and L. (L.) permodestus from Transkei, L. (L.) meiringae from the eastern Cape Province, S Africa (note 11) and Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) vanbellei from the Mediterranean Sea (note 14). New records

  18. Health-promoting compounds in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud; Boekel, van Tiny

    2016-01-01

    Background The fruit of Physalis peruviana L., known as Cape Gooseberry (CG) is a source of a variety of compounds with potential health benefits. Therefore, CG has been subject of scientific and commercial interest. Scope and approach This review paper evaluates changes of such health-promoting

  19. Anticancer potential of Thevetia peruviana fruit methanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Silva, Alberto; Tavares-Carreón, Faviola; Figueroa, Mario; De la Torre-Zavala, Susana; Gastelum-Arellanez, Argel; Rodríguez-García, Aída; Galán-Wong, Luis J; Avilés-Arnaut, Hamlet

    2017-05-02

    Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum or Cascabela peruviana (L.) Lippold (commonly known as ayoyote, codo de fraile, lucky nut, or yellow oleander), native to Mexico and Central America, is a medicinal plant used traditionally to cure diseases like ulcers, scabies, hemorrhoids and dissolve tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of methanolic extract of T. peruviana fruits on human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of T. peruviana methanolic extract was carried out on human breast, colorectal, prostate and lung cancer cell lines and non-tumorigenic control cells (fibroblast and Vero), using the MTT assay. For proliferation and motility, clonogenic and wound-healing assays were performed. Morphological alterations were monitored by trypan blue exclusion, as well as DNA fragmentation and AO/EB double staining was performed to evaluate apoptosis. The extract was separated using flash chromatography, and the resulting fractions were evaluated on colorectal cancer cells for their cytotoxic activity. The active fractions were further analyzed through mass spectrometry. The T. peruviana methanolic extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on four human cancer cell lines: prostate, breast, colorectal and lung, with values of IC 50 1.91 ± 0.76, 5.78 ± 2.12, 6.30 ± 4.45 and 12.04 ± 3.43 μg/mL, respectively. The extract caused a significant reduction of cell motility and colony formation on all evaluated cancer cell lines. In addition, morphological examination displayed cell size reduction, membrane blebbing and detachment of cells, compared to non-treated cancer cell lines. The T. peruviana extract induced apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by DNA fragmentation and AO/EB double staining. Fractions 4 and 5 showed the most effective cytotoxic activity and their MS analysis revealed the presence of the secondary metabolites: thevetiaflavone and cardiac glycosides. T. peruviana extract has

  20. [Species composition and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yun-hai; Lv, Shan; Gu, Wen-biao; Liu, He-xiang; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the species diversity and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City. From August 2012 to October 2013, all kinds of habitats in 8 districts and counties in Shanghai City, namely Jiading, Qingpu, Baoshan, Minhang, Songjiang, Jinshan, Chongming, Pudong, were selected for the field survey according to the distribution characteristics of the river system, and all the specimens of medical mollusca in the investigation sites were collected and classified by morphological identification. Meanwhile, the species composition, habitats as well as the fauna of the medical mollusca collected were analyzed. A total of 5,211 specimens were collected, which belonged to 2 classes, 14 families, 18 genera and 25 species, including Oncomelania hupensis hupensis, Pomacea canaliculata, Parafossarulus striatulus, Alocinma longicornis, Physa acuta, Galba pervia, Hippeutis cantori, etc. The species numbers of medical mollusca in Chongming, Jinshan, Pudong new area and Qingpu districts (counties) were 22, 22, 21 and 20, respectively, which were more than those of other areas. The habitat analysis suggested that the species numbers in the river and wetland were the most, both of which were 14 species. The main faunas of the medical mollusca in Shanghai were the cosmopolitan and oriental species. The freshwater gastropod species are paucity in Shanghai City, but almost of them can be served as the intermediate hosts of certain parasites to transmit snail-related parasitic diseases, so the surveillance of medical mollusca should be strengthened.

  1. Metabolism of 60Co in mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1983-01-01

    After mollusca were bred in 60 Co-labeled sea water or were given 60 Co-labeled feed for certain hours, their tissues including the liver were removed as experimental samples. 60 Co metabolism was observed by the Sephadex gel filtration profile. A gel chromatogram of the liver in gastropoda showed a marked peak of 60 Co on the high-molecular side. Although the peak was observed on both high- and low-molecular sides in pelecypoda, it was more marked on the high-molecular side than on the low-molecular side. In cephalopoda, the peak pattern was similar to that in the other mollusca, but the proportion of low-molecular components was comparatively large. The gel filtration profile of 60 Co in various tissues of cephalopoda revealed the incorporation of 60 Co into the high-molecular components in blood, three peaks in the kidneys, and the incorporation of 60 Co into the low-molecular components in the branchial heart. The metabolism of 60 Co was dependent upon the chemical form of Co in gastropoda, and organic 60 Co was specifically observed in the high-molecular components. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Accumulation of cesium-137 by useful mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    1978-01-01

    There are few data available on the radioactive contamination of marine mollusca, especially cephalopoda. Therefore, in this paper, data obtained on the radioactive contamination of cephalopoda were compared with those on pelecypoda and gastropoda. The uptake and elimination experiments were carried out by means of radioisotope tracer methods, and the concentration factors of 137 Cs due to radioactive fallout were estimated. The contamination of cephalopoda was also compared with those of other marine organisms in terms of concentration factor. The activity ratios in the organs or tissues of octopus were in the range of 3.5 and 12.8 on the 14th day after the beginning of exposure and those of squid were in the range of 8.8 and 10.9 on the 6th day after the commencement of the experiment. The biological half time was 90 days for octopus from the observation over 75 days, while it was 31 days for clam from the results of 75 days' experiment. The concentration factors of 137 Cs due to radioactive fallout were in the range of 3 and 23 for cephalopoda, 7 and 28 for pelecypoda and 24 and 30 for gastropoda, respectively. It was concluded that no difference in the concentration factors was clearly observable among the classes of mollusca, but the values were substantially similar to those of crustaceans and slightly lower than those of marine fish. (auth.)

  3. A novel 1,10-seco withanolide from Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Sheng-Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai; Li, Bo

    2010-07-01

    A novel 1,10-seco withanolide, 1,10-seco withaperuvin C (1), together with four known withanolides, 4 beta-hydroxywithanolide E (2), visconolide (3), withanolide F (4), and withaphysanolide (5), was isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis peruviana. The structures of compounds 1-5 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis. In addition, the possible biogenetic relationships among these five withanolides are discussed.

  4. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbaqueba, Jaime; Sánchez, Pilar; Sanchez, Erika; Núñez Zarantes, Victor Manuel; Chacon, Maria Isabel; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Physalis peruviana, commonly known as Cape gooseberry, is an Andean Solanaceae fruit with high nutritional value and interesting medicinal properties. In the present study we report the development and characterization of microsatellite loci from a P. peruviana commercial Colombian genotype. We identified 932 imperfect and 201 perfect Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) loci in untranslated regions (UTRs) and 304 imperfect and 83 perfect SSR loci in coding regions from the assembled Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome. The UTR SSR loci were used for the development of 162 primers for amplification. The efficiency of these primers was tested via PCR in a panel of seven P. peruviana accessions including Colombia, Kenya and Ecuador ecotypes and one closely related species Physalis floridana. We obtained an amplification rate of 83% and a polymorphic rate of 22%. Here we report the first P. peruviana specific microsatellite set, a valuable tool for a wide variety of applications, including functional diversity, conservation and improvement of the species.

  5. Minerals and essential fatty acids of the exotic fruit Physalis peruviana L. Minerais e ácidos graxos essenciais da fruta exótica Physalis peruviana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Eliseu Rodrigues; Ismael Ivan Rockenbach; Ciriele Cataneo; Luciano Valdemiro Gonzaga; Eduardo Sidinei Chaves; Roseane Fett

    2009-01-01

    Physalis peruviana is an exotic fruit that belongs to the Solanaceae family and which has recently started to be produced in Brazil, mainly in the Southern region. Once there is few data regarding its chemical composition, this work presents the centesimal and mineral composition and the fatty acid profile of the lipidic fraction of Physalis peruviana. Concerning the centesimal composition, Physalis presented high contents of ashes and total lipids, 0.8 and 3.16 g.100 g-1, respectively. In it...

  6. Antioxidant Capacity and Metal Content of Physalis Peruviana L. Fruit Sold in Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Eken

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The dietary intake of medicinal food with antioxidant activity and required amounts of trace elements is important to pursue good healthy life. In our study, we aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity and metal content of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L. fruit sold in markets in Kayseri. Material and Method: The antioxidant capacity of P. peruviana fruit was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The DPPH radical scavenger capacity of the methanol extract of fruit was compared with known antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT as references. The metal content of P. peruviana fruit was measured by using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. Results: The fruit of P. peruviana was found to possess DPPH free radical scavenging activity but the antioxidant capacity was lower than the standard substances. Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50 values of P. peruviana, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and BHT were determined as 32 mg/ml, 3.8 mg/ml, 3.51 mg/ml, and 1.21 mg/ml, respectively. As a result of the analysis by AAS, it was observed that P. peruviana fruit contented plentiful trace elements and the content of heavy metal was small amount or not detected. Discussion: These observations suggest that the fruit of P. peruviana has a potential source of antioxidant and trace elements of natural origin.

  7. Antinociceptive effect of critoniella acuminata, physalis peruviana and salvia rubescens

    OpenAIRE

    Munóz, Carol; Vergel, Nadezdha E.; Aragón, Diana Marcela; Ospina, Luis Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antinociceptivo de extractos, fracciones y compuestos de Critoniella acuminata, Physalis peruviana y Salvia rubescens mediante los métodos de placa caliente, contorsiones abdominales inducidas por ácido acético y ensayo de la formalina. La fracción de Critoniella acuminata en dosis de 100 mg/kg p.o. presentó actividad antinociceptiva al aumentar el tiempo de reacción del animal ante la aplicación de un estímulo térmico (método de la placa caliente), mient...

  8. Radiation induced mutants in cape-gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Roy, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Dry seeds of Physalis peruviana (n=24) were irradiated with different doses of gamma-rays. The M 1 plants were grown to maturity and their seeds collected and sown separately for M 2 generation. Mutants were isolated from M 2 seedlings and plants. Mutant characters obtained were virido-albino chlorophyllous, high yielding, small leaf and fruit, semi-sterile and curly leaf type etc. The high yielding and small leaf and fruit mutants bred true in M 3 and M 4 generation reproducing the characters of the M 2 generation. (author)

  9. Hydroxyester disaccharides from fruits of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Humberto; Duque, Carmenza; Knapp, Holger; Winterhalter, Peter

    2002-02-01

    The 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside of ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate and the diastereomeric 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosides of (3R) and (3S)-butyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, respectively, were isolated by chromatographic methods from fruits of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) harvested in Colombia. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The three glycoconjugates can be considered as immediate precursors of ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate and butyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, which are important aroma volatiles found in the fruit.

  10. De nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior in Nederland (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyne, de R.

    2002-01-01

    The narrow whorlsnail Vertigo angustior in the Netherlands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In June and July 2001, a special survey was held in several coastal areas in the province of Zuid- Holland, the Netherlands. The main objective was retrieving additional data on the occurrence of Vertigo angustior

  11. Overwinteringsgedrag van de nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveld, A.

    2005-01-01

    Overwintering habits of the land snail Vertigo angustior (Mollusca) During a mollusc survey in 2004 en 2005 in the province of Zuid-Holland special attention was paid to Vertigo angustior. The species was observed overwintering in large groups, up to hundreds of specimens together, between mosses

  12. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the

  13. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana

    OpenAIRE

    Simbaqueba, Jaime; S?nchez, Pilar; Sanchez, Erika; N??ez Zarantes, Victor Manuel; Chacon, Maria Isabel; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mari?o-Ram?rez, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Physalis peruviana, commonly known as Cape gooseberry, is an Andean Solanaceae fruit with high nutritional value and interesting medicinal properties. In the present study we report the development and characterization of microsatellite loci from a P. peruviana commercial Colombian genotype. We identified 932 imperfect and 201 perfect Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) loci in untranslated regions (UTRs) and 304 imperfect and 83 perfect SSR loci in coding regions from the assembled Physalis peruvi...

  14. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites (Al Basset, Latakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus gaederopus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus decorus persicus and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus decoruspersicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  15. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2006-10-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites(Al Basset, Lattakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus persicus and Spondylus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus persicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  16. Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Darakhshan; Khan, Hira; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Liver is the main site in the body for intense metabolism and excretion. A number of chemicals and drugs which are used routinely cause liver damage. The present study investigates the antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana whole ripe fruit, water and ethanol extracts of fruit in normal as well as in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxicated rats. The CCl(4) treated rats showed marked elevation in liver enzymes: alanine transaminse, aspratate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and other biochemical parameters: bilirubin, creatinine and urea, thus indicating liver injury. Whereas animal treated/fed with various preparations of Physalis peruviana showed significant lowering effect (pPhysalis peruviana showed highest activity in both rat models while ripe fruit and ethanol extract showed moderate activity compared to standard drug.

  17. The Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome: assembly, annotation and gene model prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzón-Martínez Gina A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physalis peruviana commonly known as Cape gooseberry is a member of the Solanaceae family that has an increasing popularity due to its nutritional and medicinal values. A broad range of genomic tools is available for other Solanaceae, including tomato and potato. However, limited genomic resources are currently available for Cape gooseberry. Results We report the generation of a total of 652,614 P. peruviana Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs, using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs, with an average length of 371 bp, were obtained from a normalized leaf cDNA library prepared using a Colombian commercial variety. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 24,014 isotigs and 110,921 singletons, with an average length of 1,638 bp and 354 bp, respectively. Functional annotation was performed using NCBI’s BLAST tools and Blast2GO, which identified putative functions for 21,191 assembled sequences, including gene families involved in all the major biological processes and molecular functions as well as defense response and amino acid metabolism pathways. Gene model predictions in P. peruviana were obtained by using the genomes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato and Solanum tuberosum (potato. We predict 9,436 P. peruviana sequences with multiple-exon models and conserved intron positions with respect to the potato and tomato genomes. Additionally, to study species diversity we developed 5,971 SSR markers from assembled ESTs. Conclusions We present the first comprehensive analysis of the Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome, which will provide valuable resources for development of genetic tools in the species. Assembled transcripts with gene models could serve as potential candidates for marker discovery with a variety of applications including: functional diversity, conservation and improvement to increase productivity and fruit quality. P. peruviana was estimated to be phylogenetically branched out before the

  18. The Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome: assembly, annotation and gene model prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A; Zhu, Z Iris; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz S; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2012-04-25

    Physalis peruviana commonly known as Cape gooseberry is a member of the Solanaceae family that has an increasing popularity due to its nutritional and medicinal values. A broad range of genomic tools is available for other Solanaceae, including tomato and potato. However, limited genomic resources are currently available for Cape gooseberry. We report the generation of a total of 652,614 P. peruviana Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs, with an average length of 371 bp, were obtained from a normalized leaf cDNA library prepared using a Colombian commercial variety. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 24,014 isotigs and 110,921 singletons, with an average length of 1,638 bp and 354 bp, respectively. Functional annotation was performed using NCBI's BLAST tools and Blast2GO, which identified putative functions for 21,191 assembled sequences, including gene families involved in all the major biological processes and molecular functions as well as defense response and amino acid metabolism pathways. Gene model predictions in P. peruviana were obtained by using the genomes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Solanum tuberosum (potato). We predict 9,436 P. peruviana sequences with multiple-exon models and conserved intron positions with respect to the potato and tomato genomes. Additionally, to study species diversity we developed 5,971 SSR markers from assembled ESTs. We present the first comprehensive analysis of the Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome, which will provide valuable resources for development of genetic tools in the species. Assembled transcripts with gene models could serve as potential candidates for marker discovery with a variety of applications including: functional diversity, conservation and improvement to increase productivity and fruit quality. P. peruviana was estimated to be phylogenetically branched out before the divergence of five other Solanaceae family members, S

  19. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in testes of rats treated with Physalis peruviana L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 12 weeks caused a significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. These decreases in sex hormones were reduced with Physalis peruviana L. (Cape gooseberry) juice supplementation. In addition, testicular activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase suppressed with CCl4 were elevated after P. peruviana juice supplements. P. peruviana juice supplementation significantly increased the testicular glutathione and significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and the nitric oxide production compared with the CCl4 group. In addition, the decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes after CCl4 was ameliorated by P. peruviana Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were prevented with the supplementation of P. peruviana juice. Furthermore, P. peruviana juice attenuated CCl4-induced apoptosis in testes tissue by inhibition of caspase-3 activity. The results clearly demonstrate that P. peruviana juice augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that the juice may have a therapeutic role in free radical-mediated diseases and infertility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Glycosidically bound flavor compounds of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, H; Knapp, H; Winterhalter, P; Duque, C

    2001-04-01

    The bound volatile fraction of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit harvested in Colombia has been examined by HRGC and HRGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis using a nonselective pectinase (Rohapect D5L). Forty bound volatiles could be identified, with 21 of them being reported for the first time in cape gooseberry. After preparative isolation of the glycosidic precursors on XAD-2 resin, purification by multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography and HPLC of the peracetylated glycosides were carried out. Structure elucidation by NMR, ESI-MS/MS, and optical rotation enabled the identification of (1S,2S)-1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2). Both glycosides have been identified for the first time in nature. They could be considered as immediate precursors of 1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol, typical volatiles found in the fruit of cape gooseberry.

  1. El cultivo de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Marley Ruiz Gaitan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available La uchuva (Physalis peruviana L., es una planta herbácea que tiene una amplia distribución en américa del sur, actualmente se cultiva en Perú, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, California, Sudáfrica, Kenia, Egipto, el Caribe, Asia, Hawái y Costa Rica. Colombia se ha situado cómo el mayor productor y exportador a nivel mundial lo que hace que el cultivo de la uchuva se destaque como un potencial de desarrollo promisorio para las diferentes regiones productoras del país, esto se debe a los excelentes precios del mercado extranjero y la viabilidad de la fruta en pos cosecha. La uchuva es un cultivo que requiere labores agronómicas tales como la poda, fertilización, tutorado, y además de esto condiciones ambientales determinadas para su óptimo desarrollo. Los distintos derivados de esta baya se comercializan con facilidad además de todos los beneficios que aportan al cuerpo. Palabras clave: Cultivo, uchuva, exportación, labores agronómicas.

  2. Types of Cenozoic Mollusca from Java in the Martin Collection of Naturalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    An updated type catalogue of the Martin Collection (fossil Mollusca, predominantly from the Cenozoic of Java, Indonesia) is presented. Type specimen data, updated locality data, and illustrations are given.

  3. Minerals and essential fatty acids of the exotic fruit Physalis peruviana L. Minerais e ácidos graxos essenciais da fruta exótica Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Physalis peruviana is an exotic fruit that belongs to the Solanaceae family and which has recently started to be produced in Brazil, mainly in the Southern region. Once there is few data regarding its chemical composition, this work presents the centesimal and mineral composition and the fatty acid profile of the lipidic fraction of Physalis peruviana. Concerning the centesimal composition, Physalis presented high contents of ashes and total lipids, 0.8 and 3.16 g.100 g-1, respectively. In its mineral composition, K, Mg, Ca and Fe were the main elements, and Fe is present in concentrations higher than those in the common sources such as beans. The lipidic fraction presented predominance of the linoleic acid (72,42% in its composition.Physalis peruviana é uma fruta exótica pertencente à família Solanaceae com produção recente no Brasil, principalmente na região Sul. Como há poucos dados em relação à sua composição química, este trabalho apresenta a composição centesimal e mineral e o perfil de ácidos graxos da fração lipídica da Physalis peruviana. Em relação à composição centesimal, a physalis apresentou alto conteúdo de cinzas e de lipídios totais, 0,8 e 3,16 g.100 g-1, respectivamente. Em sua composição mineral, o K, Mg, Ca e Fe foram os principais elementos, estando o ferro presente em concentrações superiores em relação a fontes conhecidas como o feijão. A fração lipídica apresenta predominância de ácido linoleico (72,42% em sua composição.

  4. Evaluación del efecto producido por Thevetia peruviana en un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ofelia Romero

    2017-11-15

    Nov 15, 2017 ... with MSG-induced obesity and, by means of bio-assay guided fractionation, to identify the chemical compounds contained in the active extract. ..... T. peruviana and Orlistat (positive control) lowered blood cholesterol levels, but the only group that achieved a significant difference (p = 0.013), and levels very ...

  5. Determining the pharmacological activity of Physalis peruviana fruit juice on rabbit eyes and fibroblast primary cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Juan Manuel; Fontanilla, Marta Raquel; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Espinosa, Lady

    2008-07-01

    The pharmacologic activity of compounds isolated from Physalis peruviana has been demonstrated. The use of this fruit juice for treating pterygium has been reported in Colombian traditional medicine. However, studies demonstrating the fruit juice's pharmacologic activity when used in this disease have not been published to date. In the present study the anti-inflammatory and cytostatic activities of P. peruviana fruit juice in a rabbit eye inflammatory model were investigated. A novel rabbit eye inflammation model was developed for studying the juice's anti-inflammatory activity (based on an adaptation of the Draize test). Cytostatic activity was evaluated by measuring and comparing growth rates of cultured fibroblasts exposed and not exposed to various fruit juice concentrations. P. peruviana fruit juice exhibited a mild anti-inflammatory activity compared with methylprednisolone, a known anti-inflammatory drug. An interesting dose-dependent cytostatic effect on cultured fibroblasts was also established. The data found suggest that the P. peruviana fruit juice anti-pterygium effect described in traditional medicine may be related to its inhibiting fibroblast growth. The present study contributes to the pharmacologic knowledge regarding a remedy commonly used in Colombian traditional medicine.

  6. [Antiinflammatory activity of extracts and fractions obtained from Physalis peruviana L. calyces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Luis A; Matiz, Germán E; Calle, Jairo; Pinzón, Roberto; Ospina, Luis F

    2007-03-01

    Cape gooseberry calyces (Physalis peruviana) have been used in folk medicine for their medicinal properties including anticancer, antimycobacterial, antipyretic, diuretic, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties. The antiinflammatory effect was evaluated for extracts and fractions obtained from Physalis peruviana calyces in a mice model of acute inflammation. The fractions responsible for antiinflammatory activity were extracted for possible identification. The Physalis peruviana calyces were extracted by percolation with organic solvents. The primary hydroalcoholic fraction was purified by column chromatography. The antiinflammatory effect of extracts and fractions was evaluated using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced mouse model of ear edema. Thirty-eight secondary fractions were obtained by column chromatography of primary hydroalcoholic fraction. Six fractions, evaluated in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation assay, showed significant antiinflammatory activity (pPhysalis peruviana calyces was confirmed and validated its use in folk medicine. Fractions responsible for the antiinflammatory action were identified and seem promising for phytomedicinal development. Further studies are needed to isolate and identify the active constituents of these fractions as well as to ascertain the mechanisms involved in the antiinflammatory effect.

  7. Evaluating the effect of storage conditions on the shelf life of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Boekel, van Tiny; Verkerk, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is the fruit of the plant Physalis peruviana L. and has gained commercial and scientific interest for its contents of health-promoting compounds. An integral approach to estimate shelf life of cape gooseberry was conducted taking into account physicochemical, microbiological and

  8. Misaligned Preferences And Perceptions On Quality Attributes Of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L) Supply Chain Actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, M.L.; Linnemann, A.R.; Pascucci, S.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L) is the second most exported fruit in Colombia. The market has grown in the last years due to the interest of consumers in this exotic, good appearance and nutritious fruit. Although, Cape Gooseberry is promising in various aspects, the supply chain still

  9. In vitro studies on the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activity of Physalis peruviana extracts and the phagocytic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Willington; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Granados, Diana; Delgado, Gabriela

    2010-03-01

    The study of plants used in traditional medicine has drawn the attention of researchers as an alternative in the development of new therapeutics agents, such as the American Solanaceae Physalis peruviana, which has significant anti-inflammatory activity. The Physalis peruviana anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol or ether calyces extracts on the phagocytic process was assessed by using an in vitro phagocytosis model (Leishmania panamensis infection to murine macrophages). The Physalis peruviana extracts do not inhibit microorganism internalization and have no parasiticide effect. Most ET and EP extracts negatively affected the parasite's invasion of macrophages (Infected cells increased.). This observation might result from a down-regulation of the macrophage's microbicide ability associated with a selective reduction of proinflammatory cytokines levels. Physalis peruviana's anti-inflammatory activity described in this model is related to an immunomodulatory effect exerted on macrophages infected, which directly or indirectly "blocks" their ability to secrete soluble proinflammatory mediators.

  10. Cape Gooseberry [Physalis peruviana L.] Calyces Ameliorate TNBS Acid-induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jenny; Ocampo, Yanet; Franco, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Physalis peruviana [cape gooseberry] is highly appreciated for its commercial value. The Colombian ecotype is in great demand in the international market, particularly for the unique morphological characteristics of the calyx, which has extended use as a traditional herbal remedy in Colombia because of its anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, the anti-inflammatory activity of the total ethereal extract of Physalis peruviana calyces was evaluated in preventive and therapeutic protocols in a TNBS acid-induced colitis rat model. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of TNBS. An evaluation of macroscopic and histopathological parameters in colonic tissue was performed, along with the determination of myeloperoxidase enzyme activity, cytokine levels and gene expression. Additionally, effects on nitric oxide release by lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS free radicals were determined. The treatment with the Physalis peruviana extract produced a significant improvement in the colonic tissue at both macroscopic and histological levels. IL-1β and TNF-α production was reduced by the extract in both experimental approaches. The groups treated with Physalis peruviana showed a tendency to MUC2 up-regulation and down-regulation of COX-2, iNOS, NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 expression. Nitric oxide release in RAW264.7 macrophages was significantly inhibited. The Physalis peruviana extract showed intestinal anti-inflammatory activity in the TNBS-induced colitis model, placing this species' calyx, a natural derivative, as a promising source of metabolites that could be used in treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Physical and chemical characteristics of goldenberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Gökçen; İzli, Nazmi; Ünal, Halil; Uylaşer, Vildan

    2015-04-01

    Some physical and chemical characteristics of goldenberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) were investigated. These characteristics are necessary for the design of equipments for harvesting, processing, transportation, sorting, separating and packing. The fruit length, diameter, geometric and arithmetic mean diameters, sphericity, surface area, projected areas (vertical-horizontal) and aspect ratio of goldenberries were determined as 17.52 mm, 17.31 mm, 17.33 mm, 17.38 mm, 98.9 %, 0.949 cm(2), 388.67-387.85 mm(2) and 0.988, respectively. The mass of fruit, bulk density, fruit density, porosity and fruit hardness were 3.091 g, 997.3 kg/m(3), 462.3 kg/m(3), 53.61 % and 8.01 N, respectively. The highest static coefficient of friction was observed on rubber surface, followed by stainless steel sheet, aluminum sheet, and plywood materials. The dry matter, water soluble dry matter, ash, protein, oil, carbohydrate, titratable acidity, pH, total sugar, reducing sugar, antioxidant capacity were 18.67 %, 14.17 %, 2.98 %, 1.66 %, 0.18 %, 13.86 %, 1.26 %, 6.07, 63.90 g/kg, 31.99 g/kg and 57.67 %, respectively. The fresh fruits have 145.22 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g total phenol content and skin colour data represented as L*, a*, b*, Chroma (C) and Hue angle (α) were 49.92, 25.11, 50.23, 56.12 and 63.48, respectively.

  12. Genetic relatedness between cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and M. flabellifolia and M. Peruviana based on both RAPD and AFLP markers

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    Colombo Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Manihot is still uncertain and the genetic origin of cassava (M. esculenta Crantz continues to be controversial. We studied the degree of genetic relatedness between cassava and two naturally occurring species (M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana which are probably involved in the evolution of cassava, using RAPD and AFLP molecular markers. Thirty-three clonal accessions of cassava of known genetic diversity and 15 accessions of the wild species M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana were analyzed using 92 polymorphic RAPD bands and 73 polymorphic AFLP bands. The genetic markers were unable to differentiate the two wild species, which confirms their botanical similarity. Half of the total number of amplified bands were monomorphic in all of the genotypes evaluated. The mean genetic similarity (Jaccard between cassava and the species M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana was 0.59. A grouping analysis (neighbor-joining method with RAPD markers of cultivated cassava, M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana and the other wild species located the genotypes of cassava and M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana at one extremity and the three Mexican species (M. aesculifolia, M. michaelis and M. chlorostica at the other. An intermediate position between these groups was occupied by two wild species (M. glaziovii and M. reptans native to central and northeastern Brazil. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the species M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana gave rise to the cultivated species.

  13. Effects of Physalis peruviana L on Toxicity and Lung Cancer Induction by Nicotine Derived Nitrosamine Ketone in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Elshama, Said Said; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) is considered a key tobacco smoke carcinogen inducing lung tumors. Physalis peruviana L (harankash) is considered one plant with marked health benefits. This study aimed to evaluate Physalis peruviana L effect on the toxic effect of NNK induced lung cancer in the rats by using pulmonary histopathological, immunohistochemical and DNA flow cytometric analyses. Sixty adult male rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of fifteen animals. The first group received saline, the second received two successive toxic doses of NNK only while the third received two successive toxic doses of NNK with a single daily dose of Physalis peruviana L. The fourth group received a single daily dose of Physalis peruviana L only. Toxic doses of NNK induced hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in the lung and positive immunoreactivity for Ki-67 and p53 staining with disturbance of the lung DNA content. Administration of Physalis peruviana L with NNK led to a mild pulmonary hyperplasia and weak expression of Ki-67 and p53 with an improvement in the lung DNA content. Physalis peruviana L may protect against NNK induced lung carcinogenesis due to its antioxidant and anti-proliferative effects.

  14. Identificación de una nueva proteína en Leishmania (Viannia peruviana

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    Maxy De los Santos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de la secuencia nucleotídica y aminoacídica de un clon de la biblioteca de expresión en fago λgt11 de Leishmania (Viannia peruviana, estableció identidad parcial con los genes de las proteínas acídicas ribosomales P2 de Leishmania (Leishmania infantum. Este hallazgo unido a ciertos dominios geonómicos conservados, sugeridos de la comparación de 14 secuencias de otras proteínas P1 eucarióticas, confirman que la secuencia del inserto de clon codifica la proteína acídica ribosomal P1 de L. (V. peruviana denominada LpP1. Este es el primer reporte sobre este tipo de proteína en el género Leishmania.

  15. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of calyces from Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Reina M; Aragón, Diana M; Ospina, Luis F; Ramos, Freddy A; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana calyces are used extensively in folk medicine. The crude ethanolic extract and some fractions of calyces were evaluated in order to explore antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the TPA-induced ear edema model. The antioxidant in vitro activity was measured by means of the superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions. The butanolic fraction was found to be promising due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, a bio-assay guided approach was employed to isolate and identify rutin (1) and nicotoflorin (2) from their NMR spectroscopic and MS data. The identification of rutin in calyces of P. peruviana supports the possible use of this waste material for phytotherapeutic, nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations.

  16. Sucrose esters from Physalis peruviana calyces with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Luis A; Ocampo, Yanet C; Gómez, Harold A; De la Puerta, Rocío; Espartero, José L; Ospina, Luis F

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana is a native plant from the South American Andes and is widely used in traditional Colombian medicine of as an anti-inflammatory medicinal plant, specifically the leaves, calyces, and small stems in poultice form. Previous studies performed by our group on P. peruviana calyces showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in an enriched fraction obtained from an ether total extract. The objective of the present study was to obtain and elucidate the active compounds from this fraction and evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro. The enriched fraction of P. peruviana was purified by several chromatographic methods to obtain an inseparable mixture of two new sucrose esters named peruviose A (1) and peruviose B (2). Structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations. The anti-inflammatory activity of the peruvioses mixture was evaluated using λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and lipopolysaccharide-activated peritoneal macrophages. Results showed that the peruvioses did not produce side effects on the liver and kidneys and significantly attenuated the inflammation induced by λ-carrageenan in a dosage-dependent manner, probably due to an inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, which was demonstrated in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of sucrose esters in P. peruviana that showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest the potential of sucrose esters from the Physalis genus as a novel natural alternative to treat inflammatory diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Actividad antinflamatoria de extractos y fracciones obtenidas de cálices de Physalis peruviana L.

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    Luis A. Franco

    2007-03-01

    Conclusión. Este estudio confirma la actividad antinflamatoria atribuida a los cálices de Physalis peruviana y también valida su uso en la medicina popular. Se identificaron las principales fracciones responsables de la actividad antinflamatoria, las cuales parecen ser promisorias para el desarrollo de fitopreparados. Se requieren estudios posteriores para aislar e identificar los compuestos responsables de la actividad y también para investigar el mecanismo involucrado en el efecto antinflamatorio observado.

  18. Effect of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" fruit extract in Mus musculus var. swis with induced hyperlipidemi.

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    Julio Campos Florián

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the hypolipidemic activity of the fruit of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by triton. Mus musculus var. swis males as experimental animals. We worked with four groups of mice, the white group received distilled water orally and saline intraperitoneally, the control group received distilled water orally and intraperitoneally triton, the problem group 1 received orally 0.05g/100g Physalis peruviana extract intraperitoneally and triton and the problem group 2 received orally 0.2g/100g extract of Physalis peruviana and triton intraperitoneally. After 24 hours of administering the treatments were performed measurements of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Mean levels of cholesterol (mg/dL were: 58.87 ± 11.54 (white, 121.71 ± 15.00 (control, 58.08 ± 9.21 (Problem 1 and 66 78 ± 16.77 (Problem 2. Average levels of triglycerides (g /L were: 0.48 ± 0.07 (white, 1.84 ± 0.18 (control, 0.34 ± 0.10 (Problem 1 and 0.94 ± 0.25 (Problem 2. We found significant reductions (p <0.000 concentrations of both cholesterol and triglycerides in relation to those obtained in the group treated only with Triton.

  19. Selection of antagonistic bacteria isolated from the Physalis peruviana rhizosphere against Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrea, R; Cabezas, L; Sierra, R; Cárdenas, M; Restrepo, S; Jiménez, P

    2011-09-01

    Cape gooseberries (Physalis peruviana) have become increasingly important in Colombia for both domestic consumption and the international export market. Vascular wilting caused by Fusarium oxysporum is the most damaging disease to P. peruviana crops in Colombia. The control of this pathogen is mainly carried out by chemical and cultural practices, increasing production costs and generating resistance. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to test rhizobacteria isolates from P. peruviana rhizosphere against F. oxysporum under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Over 120 strains were isolated, and five were selected for their high inhibition of F. oxysporum growth and conidia production under in vitro conditions. These strains inhibited growth by 41-58% and reduced three- to fivefold conidia production. In the in vivo assays, all the tested isolates significantly reduced fungal pathogenicity in terms of virulence. Isolate B-3.4 was the most efficient in delaying the onset of the first symptoms. All isolates were identified as belonging to the genus Pseudomonas except for A-19 (Bacillus sp.). Our results confirmed that there are prospective rhizobacteria strains that can be used as biological control agents; some of them being able to inhibit in vitro F. oxysporum growth and sporulation. Incorporating these bacteria into biological control strategies for the disease that causes high economical losses in the second most exported fruit from Colombia would result in a reduced impact on environment and economy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Cytogenetics of Physalis peruviana L. and Physalis floridana Rydb. genotypes with differential response to Fusarium oxysporum

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    Sara A. Liberato G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporumis considered the main constraint of cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, production in Colombia. P. peruvianaand P. floridana genotypes with differential resistance responses against F. oxysporum have been identified previously. In the present study, the genotypes were evaluated in order to complement the knowledge of cytogenetics diversity in Physalisand to design hybridization strategies to support breeding of cape gooseberry crop. The chromosome number in mitotic dividing cells from root-tips of tissue culture plantlets was determined, from which the average mitotic hour was estimated at 12:00 hours for P. peruviana and 10:00 for P. floridana. Chromosomic complements of 2n = 4x = 48 and 2n = 2x = 24 were found for each one of the two species. Additionally, flow cytometry analyses detected variation within P. peruviana with a nuclear DNA content of 2.33 pg for the 2n = 24 genotype and variations ranged from 5.77 to 8.12 pg for 2n = 48 genotypes. In P. floridanaDNA content was 2.29 pg in the 2n = 24 genotype and 4.03 pg in the 2n = 48 genotype. There was a significant effect (α = 0.01 of the number of chromosomes on nuclear DNA content for the two species.

  1. [Cytotoxic effect of physalis peruviana in cell culture of colorectal and prostate cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe-Mauricio, Angel; Callacondo, David; Rojas, José; Zavala, David; Posso, Margarita; Vaisberg, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    The plants have been used as drugs for centuries. However, limited research has been done on its great potential as sources of new therapeutic agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Physalis peruviana cytotoxic activity on cell lines HT-29, PC-3, K-562 and VERO. The HT-29 cell lines, PC-3, K-562 and VERO, were exposed to four concentrations of P. peruviana ethanolic leave and stem extracts, also at different concentrations of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which were used as positive controls. We found rates of growth within 48 hours, then we determined the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) using linear regression analysis and the index of selectivity of each sample. The P. peruviana ethanolic leave and stem extracts showed cytotoxic activity. The IC50 in g/mL in leaves and stems were, 0.35 (r =-0.95 p peruviana leaves and steams ethanolic extracts were more cytotoxic than cisplatin and 5 FU, on the lines HT-29, PC-3 and K562. Furthermore the P. peruviana cytotoxic effects were less than cisplatin and 5-FU for VERO control cells lines.

  2. Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Related to Yield and Quality of Fruit in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arias, Francy L; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Núñez Zarantes, Victor M

    2018-01-01

    Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist plant breeding programs to investigate the genetic basis of agronomic traits. In this study, we evaluated 18 traits related to yield, (FWP, NF, FWI, and FWII), fruit size-shape (FP, FA, MW, WMH, MH, HMW, DI, FSI, FSII, OVO, OBO), and fruit quality (FIR, CF, and SST), in a diverse collection of 100 accessions of Physalis peruviana including wild, landraces, and anther culture derived lines. We identified seven accessions with suitable traits: fruit weight per plant (FWP) > 7,000 g/plant and cracked fruits (CF) peruviana .

  3. On six species of marine Mollusca from suriname, four of which are new

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren, van C.O.

    1971-01-01

    Four new species are here described in order to have their descriptions published before "Seashells of Wia Wia" by D. J. Green & R. H. Hill and the second part of my paper on the Holocene and Recent marine Mollusca of Suriname will appear. Notes are added on two species for which names are used

  4. On fossil Mollusca from the island of Mandul, East-Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1950-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the examination of a fairly big collection of mollusca from the island of Mandul, north of Tarakan, East-Borneo. The material was collected by Dr. Van Holst Pellekaan while investigating the geology of Mandul in the service of the “Bataafsche Petroleum

  5. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

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    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  6. Capacidad entomocida de cepas nativas de Beauveria sp. sobre Schistocerca piceifrons peruviana (Lynch Arribalzaga, 1903

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    Nicolaza Pariona

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro cepas de Beauveria sp. (ABvPr11, ABvPr8, ABvPr3 y ABvSr4, fueron aisladas y caracterizadas de ejemplares de la langosta Schistocerca piceifrons peruviana procedentes de la Provincia de Huamanga del Departamento de Ayacucho. La capacidad entomocida de las 4 cepas fue evaluada en la langosta Schistocerca piceifrons peruviana. Los resultados muestran que todas las cepas, en soluciones de 108 conidias/mL, producen un 100% de mortalidad. El tiempo que se necesitó para eliminar el 100% de las langostas, para las cepas ABvPr11, ABvPr8, ABvSr4 y ABvPr3 fue de 12, 14 y 16 días respectivamente. Al décimo día se observó diferencias significativas respecto a la mortalidad, entre la cepa ABvPr11(90% y la cepas ABvSr4(74%, ABvPr8(72% y ABvPr3(64.6%. Posteriormente se determinó el tiempo de letalidad al 50% (TL50 de la población de langostas, con un intervalo de 8,38 a 9,16 días y el tiempo de letalidad al 80% (TL80 fue de 9,6 a 11,5 días. La cepa ABvPr11 presentó la mayor actividad entomocida para el control de Schistocerca piceifrons peruviana L.A.

  7. GELEIA DE PHYSALIS PERUVIANA L.: CARACTERIZAÇÃO BIOATIVA, ANTIOXIDANTE E SENSORIAL

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    Josiane Kuhn RUTZ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos de Physalis peruviana L, além de carboidratos, apresentam compostos bioativos como os carotenoides e compostos fenólicos, no entanto, é um fruto que apresenta alta perecibilidade. Sendo assim, o processamento deste em diversos produtos consiste em uma alternativa para aumentar seu consumo e sua vida útil. Neste estudo foram elaboradas duas formulações de geleias com os frutos de Physalis peruviana L, sendo uma tradicional e uma light, nas quais foram avaliadas suas características físico-químicas, conteúdo de fitoquímicos e a aceitação sensorial. A geleia light apresentou maiores teores de carotenoides e de compostos fenólicos totais do que a geleia tradicional, devido ao maior percentual de polpa utilizado. No entanto, a atividade antioxidante não apresentou correlação positiva com o conteúdo dos fitoquímicos avaliados. Como esperado, a geleia tradicional apresentou maiores teores de açúcares, sólidos solúveis totais e menor acidez. Pela avaliação sensorial, não foram observadas diferenças signifi- cativas entre as duas formulações de geleias, obtendo-se para ambas altos índices de aceitabilidade. A elaboração de geleias é uma alternativa viável para a utilização do Physalis peruviana L, e a geleia light que além de ser considerada mais saudável pela menor adição de sacarose e, portanto com menor conteúdo calórico, também apresenta um maior teor de carotenoides e compostos fenólicos totais, apresentando o mesmo grau de aceitabilidade que a tradicional.

  8. Morphologic characterization of forty six accessions of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), in Antioquia (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Trillos González, Ofelia; Cotes Torres, José Miguel; Medina Cano, Clara Inés; Lobo Arias, Mario; Navas Arboleda, Alejandro Alberto

    2008-01-01

    La uchuva, Physalis peruviana L., crece como planta silvestre en las zonas tropicales altas de América, estando el centro de origen y diversificación en los Andes Suramericanos, principalmente de Colombia, Perú y Ecuador. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 46 accesiones de uchuva provenientes del Banco de Germoplasma de la nación Colombiana, a cargo de La Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuarias, CORPOICA, en el Centro de Investigación La Selva, ubicado en la vereda Lla...

  9. SECADO DE UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L) POR AIRE CALIENTE CON PRETRATAMIENTO DE OSMODESHIDRATACIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    CASTRO, Adriana M; RODRÍGUEZ, Ligia; VARGAS, Edgar M

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinan las condiciones de temperatura más favorables para un proceso de secado de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L) con aire caliente, con deshidratación osmótica (DO) como pretratamiento, utilizando una solución de sacarosa de 70o Brix a 40oC durante 16 horas. Se realiza un seguimiento de la degradación de β-caroteno con el tiempo y la temperatura. En la fruta tratada con aire caliente a 60oC y pretratada con DO, se obtiene una pérdida total de β-caroteno del 98%. La fruta...

  10. Comparative characterization of the leaf tissue of Physalis alkekengi and Physalis peruviana using RNA-seq and metabolite profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Fukushima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Physalis in the Solanaceae family contains several species of benefit to humans. Examples include Physalis alkekengi (Chinese-lantern plant, hōzuki in Japanese used for medicinal and for decorative purposes, and Physalis peruviana, also known as Cape gooseberry, which bears an edible, vitamin-rich fruit. Members of the Physalis genus are a valuable resource for phytochemicals needed for the development of medicines and functional foods. To fully utilize the potential of these phytochemicals we need to understand their biosynthesis, and for this we need genomic data, especially comprehensive transcriptome datasets for gene discovery. We report the de novo assembly of the transcriptome from leaves of P. alkekengi and P. peruviana using Illumina RNA-seq technologies. We identified 75,221 unigenes in P. alkekengi and 54,513 in P. peruviana. All unigenes were annotated with gene ontology (GO, Enzyme Commission (EC numbers, and pathway information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG. We classified unigenes encoding enzyme candidates putatively involved in the secondary metabolism and identified more than one unigenes for each step in terpenoid backbone- and steroid biosynthesis in P. alkekengi and P. peruviana. To measure the variability of the withanolides including physalins and provide insights into their chemical diversity of Physalis, we also analyzed the metabolite content in leaves of P. alkekengi and P. peruviana at 5 different developmental stages by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We discuss that comprehensive transcriptome approaches within a family can yield a clue for gene discovery in Physalis and provide insights into their complex chemical diversity. The transcriptome information we submit here will serve as an important public resource for further studies of the specialized metabolism of Physalis species.

  11. Comparative Characterization of the Leaf Tissue of Physalis alkekengi and Physalis peruviana Using RNA-seq and Metabolite Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Nakamura, Michimi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Mami; Knoch, Eva; Mori, Tetsuya; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Morita, Masaki; Hirai, Go; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    The genus Physalis in the Solanaceae family contains several species of benefit to humans. Examples include P. alkekengi (Chinese-lantern plant, hôzuki in Japanese) used for medicinal and for decorative purposes, and P. peruviana , also known as Cape gooseberry, which bears an edible, vitamin-rich fruit. Members of the Physalis genus are a valuable resource for phytochemicals needed for the development of medicines and functional foods. To fully utilize the potential of these phytochemicals we need to understand their biosynthesis, and for this we need genomic data, especially comprehensive transcriptome datasets for gene discovery. We report the de novo assembly of the transcriptome from leaves of P. alkekengi and P. peruviana using Illumina RNA-seq technologies. We identified 75,221 unigenes in P. alkekengi and 54,513 in P. peruviana . All unigenes were annotated with gene ontology (GO), Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers, and pathway information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We classified unigenes encoding enzyme candidates putatively involved in the secondary metabolism and identified more than one unigenes for each step in terpenoid backbone- and steroid biosynthesis in P. alkekengi and P. peruviana . To measure the variability of the withanolides including physalins and provide insights into their chemical diversity in Physalis , we also analyzed the metabolite content in leaves of P. alkekengi and P. peruviana at five different developmental stages by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We discuss that comprehensive transcriptome approaches within a family can yield a clue for gene discovery in Physalis and provide insights into their complex chemical diversity. The transcriptome information we submit here will serve as an important public resource for further studies of the specialized metabolism of Physalis species.

  12. Grazing effects of the periwinkle Echinolittorina peruviana at a central Peruvian high rocky intertidal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Firstater, Fausto N.; Fanjul, Eugenia; Bazterrica, M. Cielo; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Tarazona, Juan; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2008-03-01

    Echinolittorina peruviana is the most common gastropod in the high intertidal zone of Peru, representing more than 80% of the individuals present at that zone. Experimental removal of snails was used to evaluate their effects on (a) abundance of epilithic biofilm, (b) barnacle recruitment, and (c) abundance of macroalgae under “normal” conditions of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Experiments were carried out from October 2005 to April 2007 at two intertidal levels of a semi-protected rocky shore of central Peru. Results demonstrated that E. peruviana is able to control biofilm abundance and barnacle recruitment at both heights investigated, with marked effects in the lower zone. Erect macroalgae ( Ulva spp. and Gelidium spp.) were less affected by grazing; but negative effects were observed on macroalgal crusts. Season and physical stress seem to play a more important role in the abundance of macroalgae in the high intertidal. Our results are similar to those reported elsewhere for high shore littorinids and represent baseline data to understand how the role of intertidal consumers will vary under the cold (La Niña) and warm (El Niño) phases of ENSO on these shores.

  13. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of Physalis peruviana root as hepato-renal protective agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hassan, Emad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana root as a functional food with hepato-renal protective effects against fibrosis. The chemical composition of the plant root suggested the presence of alkaloids, withanolides and flavonoids. Five compounds were isolated and their structures elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. One compound was isolated from the roots: cuscohygrine. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control treated with ethanolic root extract, CCl(4) group, CCl(4) treated with root extract, and CCl(4) treated with silymarin as a standard herbal drug. The evaluation used the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). The liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. The results suggested safe administration, and improvement of all the investigated parameters. The liver and kidney histopathological analysis confirmed the results. In conclusion, P. peruviana succeeded in protecting the liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to discern their pharmacological applications and clinical uses.

  14. Identification of Immunity Related Genes to Study the Physalis peruviana – Fusarium oxysporum Pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; González, Carolina; Rodríguez, Edwin A.; López, Camilo E.; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    The Cape gooseberry ( Physalis peruviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P . peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC–NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance. PMID:23844210

  15. Physalis peruviana pomace suppresses highcholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Physalis peruviana (goldenberry is a promising fruits that can be an ingredient in several functional foods. No reports are available on the effect of the administration of goldenberry pomace on different aspects of the plasma lipid profile in experimental animals. According to the chemical composition of the fruit pomace which includes high levels of bioactive compounds, the hypothesis was that feeding Physalis peruviana pomace may have health-promoting and hypercholesterolemic impacts on rats fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding goldenberry pomace on hypercholesterolemia by analyzing the changes in lipid profiles in HCD fed rats. The chemical composition, lipid profiles (fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols and phenolic contents of the fruit pomace were determined. Generally, rats fed the fruit pomace showed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triacylglycerol (TAG and total low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol as well as higher levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol in comparison with animals fed HCD and cholesterol free diets (CFD. Histological examinations of the liver and kidney were also studied. The results demonstrated that goldenberry pomace consumption provides overall beneficial effects on reversing HCD associated detrimental changes.Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto es un fruto prometedor que puede ser parte de diferentes alimentos funcionales. No hay datos disponibles sobre el efecto de la administración del orujo de aguaymanto sobre diferentes aspectos del perfil de lipídos plasmáticos en animales de experimentación. De acuerdo con la composición química del orujo de la fruta que incluye altos niveles de compuestos bioactivos, se demostró la hipótesis de que la alimentación con orujo de Physalis peruviana puede tener efectos saludables y sobre la hipercolesterolemia en ratas alimentadas con una dieta alta en colesterol (HCD

  16. ESTUDIO QUÍMICO DE LA CORTEZA DE Remijia peruviana “Cascarilla”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vargas Arana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizó el análisis cualitativo de los metabolitos secundarios  y la cuantificación e identificación de los alcaloides presentes en la corteza de Remijia peruviana, la cual forma parte de la familia Rubiaceae, caracterizada por sintetizar  mayoritariamente alcaloides. Se ha aislado y determinado la estructura química de cinco alcaloides quinolínicos: tres nuevos derivados, Quinina acetato (1, Quinina alcohol (2 y N-Etil Quinina (3; y dos reportados anteriormente en la literatura: Quinina (4 y Cinchonina (5. La estructura de los nuevos alcaloides fueron elucidados por análisis básicos de espectroscopía RMN, incluyendo correlaciones homonuclear y heteronuclear (COSY, NOESY, HMBC y HSQC.

  17. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana Juss and its antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwaniyi, Omolara O.; Adegoke, Haleemat I.; Adesuji, Elijah T.; Alabi, Aderemi B.; Bodede, Sunday O.; Labulo, Ayomide H.; Oseghale, Charles O.

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesizing of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms or various plant parts have proven more environmental friendly, cost-effective, energy saving and reproducible when compared to chemical and physical methods. This investigation demonstrated the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles at 460 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared showed that the glycosidic -OH and carbonyl functional group present in extract were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. X ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction analyses were used to confirm the nature, morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with average size of 18.1 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed activity against fungal pathogens and bacteria. The zone of inhibition observed in the antimicrobial study ranged between 10 and 20 mm.

  18. Gamma radiations induced meiotic abnormalities in cape gosseberry (Physalis peruviana Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The cytological alterations were systematically scored in Physalis peruviana after treatment with 5 to 60 Krads of gamma radiation. In control plant diplotenediakinesis revealed 24 bivalents and cytokinesis produced normal tetrads, whereas PMCs of differently treated plants showed various anomalies viz., altered configuration of chromosomes, clumping/sickness, fragments, bridges, laggards, unequal segregation and non-orientation of chromosomes and unequal groupings of chromosomes. Abnormal karyokinesis and/or cytokinesis led to the formation of abnormal sporads which later on causes pollen and plant sterility. While every type of anomaly is dose-dependent and tend to increase with advancing dose showing a fair degree of correlation with the dose of radiation. The persistence of meiotic abnormalities with reduce d frequency in M 2 generation also bears correlation with administered dose. (author). 10 refs

  19. The protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Bauomy, Amira A; Diab, Marwa M S; Shata, Mohamed Tarek M; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F

    2014-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg bwt of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of Physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh 1 h before cadmium for 5 days. Cadmium treatment induced marked disturbances in neurochemical parameters as indicating by significant (p Physalis has a beneficial effect in ameliorating the cadmium-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in the brain of rats.

  20. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat.

  1. Optimization of soxhlet extraction and physicochemical analysis of crop oil from seed kernel of Feun Kase (Thevetia peruviana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwari, Kotta, Herry Z.; Buang, Yohanes

    2017-12-01

    Optimizing the soxhlet extraction of oil from seed kernel of Feun Kase (Thevetia peruviana) for biodiesel production was carried out in this study. The solvent used was petroleum ether and methanol, as well as their combinations. The effect of three factors namely different solvent combinations (polarity), extraction time and extraction temperature were investigated for achieving maximum oil yield. Each experiment was conducted in 250 mL soxhlet apparatus. The physicochemical properties of the oil yield (density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, and water content) were also analyzed. The optimum conditions were found after 4.5 h with extraction time, extraction temperature at 65 oC and petroleum ether to methanol ratio of 90 : 10 (polarity index 0.6). The oil extract was found to be 51.88 ± 3.18%. These results revealed that the crop oil from seed kernel of Feun Kase (Thevetia peruviana) is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

  2. Preliminary studies on antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, M; Asha, V V

    2007-04-20

    Physalis peruviana is a medicinal herb used by Muthuvan tribes and Tamilian native who reside in the shola forest regions of Kerala, India against jaundice. It was evaluated for its antihepatotoxic, phytochemical analysis and the acute toxicity of the most promising extract in rats. Water, ethanol and hexane extracts of Physalis peruviana (500mg/kg body weight) showed antihepatotoxic activities against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity. The ethanol and hexane extracts showed moderate activity compared to water extract, which showed activity at a low dose of 125mg/kg. The results were judged from the serum marker enzymes. Histopathological changes induced by CCl(4) were also significantly reduced by the extract. Further, the extract administration to rats resulted in an increase in hepatic GSH and decrease in MDA. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various components in the crude aqueous extract. The extract was found to be devoid of any conspicuous acute toxicity in rats.

  3. Comparative Characterization of the Leaf Tissue of Physalis alkekengi and Physalis peruviana Using RNA-seq and Metabolite Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Nakamura, Michimi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Mami; Knoch, Eva; Mori, Tetsuya; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Morita, Masaki; Hirai, Go; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    The genus Physalis in the Solanaceae family contains several species of benefit to humans. Examples include P. alkekengi (Chinese-lantern plant, hôzuki in Japanese) used for medicinal and for decorative purposes, and P. peruviana, also known as Cape gooseberry, which bears an edible, vitamin-rich fruit. Members of the Physalis genus are a valuable resource for phytochemicals needed for the development of medicines and functional foods. To fully utilize the potential of these phytochemicals we...

  4. Analysis of Alkaloids from Physalis peruviana by Capillary GC, Capillary GC-MS, and GC-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwabo, C; Rollmann, B; Tilquin, B

    1993-04-01

    The alkaloid composition of the aerial parts and roots of PHYSALIS PERUVIANA was analysed by capillary GC (GC (2)), GC (2)-MS and GC (2)-FTIR. Eight alkaloids were identified, three of those alkaloids are 3beta-acetoxytropane and two N-methylpyrrolidinylhygrine isomers, which were not previously found in the genus PHYSALIS. A reproduction of the identification of alkaloids detected in the plant by the use of retention indices has been proposed.

  5. Cobertura plástica e densidade de plantio na qualidade das frutas de Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Abreu Moura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Physalis peruviana L. é uma espécie pertencente à família Solanaceae, que vem sendo incorporada em plantios de pequenas frutas, com alto potencial produtivo para regiões subtropicais. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a qualidade das frutas de P. peruviana L., produzidas com ou sem cobertura plástica sobre o dossel das plantas e em duas densidades de plantio (0,5 e 1,0 m entre plantas, sendo de 3,0 m o espaçamento entre linhas. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, com seis blocos e dez plantas por parcela. Foram avaliadas as características qualitativas das frutas, como coloração, quantidade de antocianinas totais, vitamina C, cinzas, sólidos solúveis totais, sacarose, glicose, açúcares totais, acidez titulável, firmeza e umidade. A maior densidade de plantio e o plantio sem cobertura plástica sobre o dossel das plantas resultaram em melhor qualidade das frutas de P. peruviana L.

  6. Detección de metabolitos secundarios en Ambrosia peruviana Willd y determinación de la actividad antibacteriana y antihelmíntica Secondary metabolite detection in Ambrosia peruviana Willd and determination of antibacterial and antihelmintic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Guauque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En el conocimiento etnofarmacológico, Ambrosia peruviana es conocida como una planta antiinfecciosa y antihelmíntica. Dados los altos índices de resistencia bacteriana y parasitaria, se realizó la tamización fitoquímica preliminar siguiendo la metodología de Sanabria, y ensayos biológicos frente a aislamientos clínicos bacterianos, parásitos caninos y Artemia salina. Los ensayos de citotoxicidad en A. salina se realizaron por exposición de los adultos a concentraciones variables de los extractos. La actividad antibacteriana se realizó por los métodos de difusión en disco y concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM. Se determinó el porcentaje de huevos que tenían el embrión del parásito, en el medio de cultivo se mantuvieron en lactato de Ringer con suplemento al 10% de RPMI y 1X ATM. Se determinó el porcentaje de huevos con embrión, o fecundados, liberados en el medio de cultivo con adición de extracto etanólico y acuoso secos de A. peruviana. Los ensayos de la especie vegetal frente a helmintos se realizaron al sumergir los adultos en medio con suplemento de extracto etanólico seco (usando diferentes concentraciones y con fracciones ricas en alcaloides. Se identificó la presencia de alcaloides, glucósidos cardiotónicos, quinonas, flavonoides, carbohidratos, taninos y saponinas. La concentración letal media para el extracto etanólico seco fue 64,2 µg/ml, mientras que para el extracto acuoso fue de 840,4 µg/ml. Los extractos no presentaron actividad antibacteriana. Los ejemplares adultos de T. canis presentaron disminución de la motilidad frente a extractos secos, mientras que en la fracción de alcaloides murieron luego de 4 horas de exposición. Los extractos de A. peruviana sobre huevos de T. canis permitieron una disminución en el porcentaje de huevos con embrión que no dependía del extracto observado sino de la concentración empleada.Ambrosia peruviana has been reported as an anti-infective and anti

  7. Association analysis for disease resistance to Fusarium oxysporum in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; González, Carolina; Fernández-Pozo, Noé; Mueller, Lukas A; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2016-03-18

    Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum is the most important disease in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. The development of resistant cultivars is considered one of the most cost-effective means to reduce the impact of this disease. In order to do so, it is necessary to provide breeders with molecular markers and promising germplasm for introgression of different resistance loci as part of breeding schemes. Here we described an association mapping study in cape gooseberry with the goal to: (i) select promising materials for use in plant breeding and (ii) identify SNPs associated with the cape gooseberry resistance response to the F. oxysporum pathogen under greenhouse conditions, as potential markers for cape gooseberry breeding. We found a total of 21 accessions with different resistance responses within a diversity panel of 100 cape gooseberry accessions. A total of 60,663 SNPs were also identified within the same panel by means of GBS (Genotyping By Sequencing). Model-based population structure and neighbor-joining analyses showed three populations comprising the cape gooseberry panel. After correction for population structure and kinship, we identified SNPs markers associated with the resistance response against F. oxysporum. The identification of markers was based on common tags using the reference genomes of tomato and potato as well as the root/stem transcriptome of cape gooseberry. By comparing their location with the tomato genome, 16 SNPs were found in genes involved in defense/resistance response to pathogens, likewise when compared with the genome of potato, 12 markers were related. The work presented herein provides the first association mapping study in cape gooseberry showing both the identification of promising accessions with resistance response phenotypes and the identification of a set of SNP markers mapped to defense/resistance response genes of reference genomes. Thus, the work also provides new knowledge on candidate

  8. Some fossil species of Babylonia seen in ultraviolet light, with description of a new species (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren, van C.O.; Gittenberger, E.

    1972-01-01

    When preparing a revision of the genus Babylonia for "Indo-Pacific Mollusca", edited by Dr. R. Tucker Abbott, we tried ultraviolet light to see the outline of the colour-pattern of some fossil species. Later on we saw the same method described by Mrs. Katherine Krueger (1971). Dr. H. E. Coomans of

  9. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

    2001-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  10. The architecture and associated fauna of Perouvianella peruviana, an endemic larger benthic foraminifera from the Cenomanian–Turonian transition interval of central Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consorti, Lorenzo; Navarro-Ramirez, Juan Pablo; Bodin, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    -strategist foraminifera coexisted with P. peruviana. Moreover, a first description of the soritid taxa Pseudopeneroplis oyonensis n. gen., n. sp. is provided. Interestingly,the superposition of local and global environmental patterns onto the Western Peruvian shelf water masses triggered a mass development...... that were not affected by environmental conditions related to the Cenomanian–Turonian transition. A new architectural analysis of P. peruviana tests found in abundance in central Peru has permitted a detailed update on its systematic and functional morphology. The paleoenvironment associated with the P...

  11. Caracterização físico-química e anatômica de Physalis peruviana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Filipe Almendagna

    2014-01-01

    Planta de grande valor nutricional e econômico, que está sendo incorporada aos plantios de pequenos frutos, é a Physalis peruviana L. Essa frutífera está sendo difundida gradativamente no mercado internacional, principalmente por seu sabor e suas características medicinais, o que torna muito atrativa sua comercialização. O ponto de colheita é um fator considerado importante em todo o processo agrícola, sua determinação notadamente em Physalis peruviana permite máximo aproveitamento pós-colhei...

  12. Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae in the control of slug and snail pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panigrahi

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract prepared from Kernels of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana (Pers. Schumann (Family : Apocynaceae was found under experimental conditions, to be toxic ti the slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac and the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, the important agrihorticultural pests of Indo-Pacific countries. Concentrations as low as 1% (w/v killed all the slugs exposed in less than 981.00 (± SD 22.76 min, and 2% of the extract killed 100% of the slugs L. alte and 50%, 50% and 30% of the snail A. fulica in between 92.34 (± SD 6.63 - 321.33 (± SD 4.14 and 271.20 (± SD 17.54 - 298.26 (± SD 16.69 min respectively. The most effective concentration of the extract was 20%; it killed 100% of exposed slugs and snails within a short time (40-50 and 90-1440 min respectively when the extract was exposed on the soil in experimental trays or when it was applied to potato slices offered as food to the gastropods.

  13. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ozlem Perk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  14. Renoprotective Effect of Egyptian Cape Gooseberry Fruit (Physalis peruviana L. against Acute Renal Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Ali Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Physalis peruviana L. extract (PPE on acute renal injury in rats. Adult male rats (n=36 were divided into six groups that were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (33 days. The first group was normal group, the second and the third groups were administered orally with 100 and 150 mg PPE/kg body weight (BW respectively, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg BW cisplatin once on the 28th day to induced ARI, and the fifth and sixth groups were treated like the second and the third groups and were injected with cisplatin on the 28th day. Many bioactive compounds were found in PPE. PPE did not cause any changes in the second and third groups compared to normal control group. Administration of PPE prior to cisplatin injection caused significant reduction in relative kidney weight, serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen, and significant increments in body weight, feed intake, total protein, albumin, and total globulin compared to cisplatin group. Pretreatment with PPE improved kidney histology and diminished the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and enhanced other antioxidant enzymes in kidney homogenate compared to cisplatin group.

  15. The potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. fruit in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Diab, Marwa M S; Othman, Mohamed S; Aref, Ahmed M; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced hepatorenal toxicity in Wistar rats. Herein, cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (6.5 mg/kg bwt/day) was intraperitoneally injected for 5 days, and methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh) was pre-administered to a group of Cd-treated rats by an oral administration at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg bwt for 5 days. The findings revealed that CdCl2 injection induced significant decreases in kidney weight and kidney index. Cadmium intoxication increased the activities of liver enzymes and the bilirubin level, in addition to the levels of uric acid, urea and creatinine were increased in the serum. The pre-administration of MEPh alleviated hepatorenal toxicity in Cd-treated rats. Physalis was noted to play a good hepatorenal protective role, reducing lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and enhancing enzymatic activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant molecule, glutathione, in hepatic and renal tissues of Cd-treated rats. Moreover, physalis treatment was able to reverse the histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues and also increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein in liver and kidney of rats. Overall, the results showed that MEPh can induce antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects and also exerts beneficial effects for the treatment of Cd-induced hepatorenal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S J; Tsai, J Y; Chang, S P; Lin, D L; Wang, S S; Huang, S N; Ng, L T

    2006-12-06

    Physalis peruviana L. (PP) is a medicinal herb widely used in folk medicine. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) method was employed to obtain three different PP extracts, namely SCEPP-0, SCEPP-4 and SCEPP-5. The total flavonoid and phenol concentrations, as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these extracts were analyzed and compared with aqueous and ethanolic PP extracts. Among all the extracts tested, SCEPP-5 demonstrated the highest total flavonoid (234.63+/-9.61 mg/g) and phenol (90.80+/-2.21 mg/g) contents. At concentrations 0.1-30 microg/ml, SCEPP-5 also demonstrated the strongest superoxide anion scavenging activity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect. At 30 microg/ml, SCEPP-5 significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 microg/ml)-induced cell cytotoxicity in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells. At 10-50 microg/ml, it also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO release and PGE2 formation in a dose-dependent pattern. SCEPP-5 at 30 microg/ml remarkably blocked the LPS induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Taken together, these results suggest that SCEPP-5, an extract of SFE-CO2, displayed the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as compared to other extracts. Its protection against LPS-induced inflammation could be through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression.

  17. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Karent; Osorio, Edison

    2016-04-15

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued, however it is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In this study, Cape gooseberry PPO was isolated and biochemically characterized. The enzyme was extracted and purified using acetone and aqueous two-phase systems. The data indicated that PPO had the highest substrate affinity for chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol and catechol. Chlorogenic acid was the most suitable substrate (Km=0.56±0.07 mM and Vmax=53.15±2.03 UPPO mL(-1) min(-1)). The optimal pH values were 5.5 for catechol and 4-methylcatechol and 5.0 for chlorogenic acid. Optimal temperatures were 40°C for catechol, 25°C for 4-methylcatechol and 20°C for chlorogenic acid. In inhibition tests, the most potent inhibitor was found to be ascorbic acid followed by L-cysteine and quercetin. This study shows possible treatments that can be implemented during the processing of Cape gooseberry fruits to prevent browning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermodynamic Properties, Sorption Isotherms and Glass Transition Temperature of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption and desorption isotherms of fresh and dried Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. were determined at three temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C using a gravimetric technique. The data obtained were fitted to several models including Guggenheim-Anderson- De Boer (GAB, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, Henderson, Caurie, Smith, Oswin, Halsey and Iglesias-Chirife. A non-linear least square regression analysis was used to evaluate the models. The Iglesias-Chirife model fitted best the experimental data. Isosteric heat of sorption was also determined from the equilibrium sorption data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and was found to decrease exponentially with increasing moisture content. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to the sorption isotherms and indicated an enthalpy-controlled sorption process. Glass transition temperature (Tg of Cape gooseberry was also determined by differential scanning calorimetry and modelled as a function of moisture content with the Gordon-Taylor, the Roos and the Khalloufi models, which proved to be excellent tools for predicting glass transition of Cape gooseberry.

  19. In-tube extraction for the determination of the main volatile compounds in Physalis peruviana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupska, Magdalena; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2017-01-01

    An analytical procedure based on in-tube extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been developed for the analysis of 24 of the main volatile components in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) samples. According to their chemical structure, the compounds were organized into different groups: one hydrocarbon, one aldehyde, four alcohols, four esters, and 14 monoterpenes. By single-factor experiments, incubation temperature, incubation time, extraction volume, extraction strokes, extraction speed, desorption temperature, and desorption speed were determined as 60°C, 20 min, 1000 μL, 20, 50:50 μL/s, 280°C, 100 μL/s, respectively. Quantitative analysis using authentic standards and external calibration curves was performed. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the analytical procedure were calculated. Results shown the benzaldehyde, ethyl butanoate, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-butanol, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol were the most abundant volatile compounds in analyzed fruits (68.6-585 μg/kg). The obtained data may contribute to qualify cape gooseberry to the group of superfruits and, therefore, increase its popularity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Basak Ozlem; Ilgin, Sinem; Atli, Ozlem; Duymus, Hale Gamze; Sirmagul, Basar

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg(-1) for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice) and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  1. Withanolides derived from Physalis peruviana (Poha) with potential anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang-Ngern, Mayuramas; Youn, Ui Joung; Park, Eun-Jung; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Simmons, Charles J; Wall, Marisa M; Ruf, Michael; Lorch, Sam E; Leong, Ethyn; Pezzuto, John M; Chang, Leng Chee

    2016-06-15

    Three new withanolides, physaperuvin G (1), with physaperuvins I (2), and J (3), along with seven known derivatives (4-10), were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis peruviana. The structures of 1-3 were determined by NMR, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 4, 5, and 10 with potent nitric oxide inhibitory activity in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 values in the range of 0.32-7.8μM. In addition, all compounds were evaluated for potential to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity with transfected human embryonic kidney cells 293. Compounds 4-7 inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity with IC50 values in the range of 0.04-5.6μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Renoprotective effect of Egyptian cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) against acute renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Physalis peruviana L. extract (PPE) on acute renal injury in rats. Adult male rats (n = 36) were divided into six groups that were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (33 days). The first group was normal group, the second and the third groups were administered orally with 100 and 150 mg PPE/kg body weight (BW) respectively, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg BW cisplatin once on the 28th day to induced ARI, and the fifth and sixth groups were treated like the second and the third groups and were injected with cisplatin on the 28th day. Many bioactive compounds were found in PPE. PPE did not cause any changes in the second and third groups compared to normal control group. Administration of PPE prior to cisplatin injection caused significant reduction in relative kidney weight, serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen, and significant increments in body weight, feed intake, total protein, albumin, and total globulin compared to cisplatin group. Pretreatment with PPE improved kidney histology and diminished the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and enhanced other antioxidant enzymes in kidney homogenate compared to cisplatin group.

  3. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LOS COMPUESTOS VOLÁTILES ACTIVOS OLFATIVAMENTE EN UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gutierrez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el estudio de los compuestos activos olfativamente en el aroma de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. se identificaron los compuestos volátiles, obtenidos por 3 técnicas, extracción líquido-líquido con pentano-diclorometano (1:1 (LL, Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE y Headspace-Microextracción en fase sólida (HS-MEFS, y se encontraron diferencias en la calidad del aroma de los extractos mediante el análisis olfatométrico. La técnica SAFE permitió obtener un extracto con un aroma muy semejante al de la fruta fresca. Los compuestos que presentaron los valores más altos de factor de dilución de aroma (FD fueron: hexanal, 3-hidroxi-2-butanona, 2-metilpropanol, 2-hidroxibutanoato de etilo, octanoato de etilo y 3-hidroxibutanoato de butilo. En el extracto LL se detectaron algunos compuestos sin actividad olfativa en la fruta; en contraste, mediante la técnica de HS-MEFS no fue posible detectar todos los compuestos activos olfativamente, principalmente los de mayor polaridad. Estos resultados muestran la utilidad del nuevo enfoque de análisis en química de aromas, el cual le da más relevancia al análisis olfativo en estos estudios.

  4. Identification of immunity related genes to study the Physalis peruviana--Fusarium oxysporum pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; González, Carolina; Rodríguez, Edwin A; López, Camilo E; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC-NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance.

  5. Identification of immunity related genes to study the Physalis peruviana--Fusarium oxysporum pathosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix E Enciso-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site, CC (Coiled-Coil, TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor. We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI, eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL and nine (CC-NBS-LRR, or CNL candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%, biological process (85% and cellular component (79% using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance.

  6. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  7. Micropropagação e aclimatização de Physalis peruviana e Physalis alkekengi

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Jaqueline Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer o desenvolvimento de um protocolo de propagação in vitro para as espécies Physalis peruviana e Physalis alkekengi. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Micropropagação, casa de vegetação e fitotron da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Lages-SC. O estabelecimento das plantas foi em meio MS com diferentes tempos de exposição dos explantes, segmentos nodais, ao álcool 70% (0 e 1 minuto) e...

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSICO QUÍMICA DE LA UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana EN LA REGIÓN DE SILVIA CAUCA CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DA GROSELHACAPA (Physalis peruviana NA REGIÃO DE SILVIA CAUCA PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GOLDEN BERRY FRUIT (Physalis peruviana IN THE REGION OF SILVIA CAUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME HUMBERTO MENDOZA CH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la uchuva (Physalis peruviana se destaca como un producto de exportación y en la actualidad ocupa el segundo lugar, después del banano. En la zona de Silvia (Cauca se cultivan frutas como la mora, el lulo, la uchuva; estas no son aprovechadas por la poca capacitación técnica y capacidad de negociación de los productores, lo que origina pérdidas de estos productos, en época de cosecha. En esta investigación se analizó una de las frutas con mayor potencial de mercado como es la uchuva (Physalis peruviana determinando sus características fisicoquímicas y dimensionales en términos de color, Brix, actividad de agua, pH, acidez titulable, densidad, viscosidad, contenido de ácido ascórbico, sólidos totales y azucares reductores totales. En el mercado rural de Silvia (Cauca el ecotipo de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana encontrado se caracterizó por poseer grados de coloración 4, 5 y 6 predominando los lotes con grado de maduración 5 con un 43,3%. Los datos fueron analizados aplicando los test de DUNN y Kruskal Wallis. Se encontró que esta es una fruta apta para el procesamiento con valores de pH 3,7, acidez 2,0%, sólidos solubles 13%.Na Colômbiae a groselha-capa (Physalis peruviana destaca-se como produto de exportação na atualmente ocupa o segundo lugar,após bananas. Na área de Silvia (Cauca são cultivadas frutas como, a moras, lulo, groselha-capa e elas não são exploradas pelo pouco poder de negociação dos produtores e capacitação técnica que causa perdas destes produtos na época da colheita. Esta pesquisa analisou uma das frutas com maior potencial no mercado comoé groselha-capa (Physalis peruviana determina-se suas características físico-químicas e dimensionais em termos de cor, teor de Brix, ativida de água, pH, acidez titulável, densidade, viscosidade, teor de ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais e açúcares redutores totais. No Silvia (Cauca mercado rural ecótipo de groselha capa (Physalis

  9. Succinea peruviana (Gastropoda en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris (Sauria en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay, Lima, Perú

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    José Pérez Z.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa de la presencia del caracol Succinea peruviana en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris, la misma que habita el mesohábitat de Lomas con árboles en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay. Este es el primer informe del consumo de caracoles por lagartijas del Desierto Costero Peruano

  10. Biosynthesis of 24-methylsterols from (1,2-/sup 13/C/sub 2/) acetate; dihydrobrassicasterol and campesterol in tissue cultures of Physalis peruviana and ergosterol in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, S.; Uomori, A.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeda, K. (Shionogi and Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Research Lab.)

    1984-09-01

    The /sup 13/C labelling patterns of the two methyl groups at C-25 of dihydrobrassicasterol biosynthesized from (1,2-/sup 13/C/sub 2/) acetate differ from those of campesterol and 24-methylenecholesterol obtained from cultured cells of Physalis peruviana and ergosterol from yeast.

  11. Biosynthesis of 24-methylsterols from [1,2-13C2] acetate; dihydrobrassicasterol and campesterol in tissue cultures of Physalis peruviana and ergosterol in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, S.; Uomori, A.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeda, K.

    1984-01-01

    The 13 C labelling patterns of the two methyl groups at C-25 of dihydrobrassicasterol biosynthesized from [1,2- 13 C 2 ] acetate differ from those of campesterol and 24-methylenecholesterol obtained from cultured cells of Physalis peruviana and ergosterol from yeast. (author)

  12. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LA RESISTENCIA MECÁNICA A LA FRACTURA Y FUERZA DE FIRMEZA PARA FRUTA DE UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF MECHANICAL RESISTANCE TO FRACTURE AND FIRMNESS FORCE FOR UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor José Ciro Velasquez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo la caracterización reológica de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. a través de la respuesta mecánica bajo ensayos de compresión unidireccional a pruebas de firmeza y fractura, para 3 grados de madurez (verde, pintón y maduro y los días transcurridos después de la cosecha (1, 3, 5, 7, 9 días. Los resultados indicaron que la fuerza de firmeza y la resistencia mecánica a la fractura en dos sentidos de carga longitudinal y transversal disminuyen con el tiempo de poscosecha de la fruta, indicando que el fruto maduro es mas susceptible al daño mecánico con respecto al verde y pintón.A rheological characterization under unidirectional compression of uchuva fruits (Physalis peruviana L. was undertaken measuring the flesh firmness force and the fracture force according to three specifc developmental stages unripe, ripenning, ripe and five postharvest times (1,3,5,7 and 9 days. The results showed that the flesh firmness and the mechanical resistance to the fracture in two loading directions longitudinal and transversal diminish with the postharvest time. Moreover, the ripe fruit is more susceptible to mechanical damage with respect to unripe and ripening fruit.

  13. Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de Physalis peruviana L. In vitro establishment and multiplication of Physalis peruviana L.

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    Anderson da Costa Chaves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando o estabelecimento e a multiplicação in vitro de Physalis, foram realizados dois experimentos. Para o estabelecimento, testou-se 5 procedimentos de desinfestação das sementes (P1: Álcool 70% durante 30 segundos; P2: Hipoclorito de Sódio 2,5% durante 3 minutos; P3: Hipoclorito de Cálcio 2,5% por 3 minutos; P4: Álcool 70% por 30 segundos + Hipoclorito de Sódio 2,5 % por 3 minutos; P5: Álcool 70% por 30 segundos + Hipoclorito de Cálcio por 3 minutos. Metade das sementes foi mantida no escuro e a outra metade foi transferida para sala de crescimento com 16 horas de fotoperíodo, densidade de fluxo luminoso de 42 µmol.m-2 s-1 e temperatura de 25 + 2 ºC. Ao final dos 28 dias, o procedimento 3 mostrou as maiores taxas de contaminação in vitro . Sendo que as maiores porcentagens de germinação foram obtidas nos procedimentos de desinfestação 1, 2 e 4. Para a multiplicação foram avaliados os meios de cultura MS e MS¾ (reduzido em 25% dos sais do meio inteiro, e as concentrações de: 0,0; 0,1; 0,2 ou 0,3 mg L-1 de BAP. Foram utilizados frascos com 30 mL de meio de cultura com o pH ajustado para 5,8 e ágar na concentração de 6 g L-1. Ao final de 21 dias, observou-se maior número de brotações na concentração de 0,3 mg L-1 de BAP para os dois meios de cultura estudados.Aiming the in vitro establishment and the multiplication of Physalis peruviana L., two experiments were conducted. For the establishment it was tested five procedures of desinfestation of the seeds, (P1: alcohol 70% for 30 seconds; P2: sodium hypochlorite 2.5% for three minutes; P3: calcium hypochlorite 2.5% for three minutes; P4: alcohol 70% for 30 seconds + sodium hypochlorite 2.5% for three minutes; P5: alcohol 70% for 30 seconds + calcium hypochlorite for three minutes. Half of the seeds were maintained in the darkness and the other half were transferred for growth room with 16 hour- photoperiod, luminous flow density of 42 µmol.m-2 s-1 and temperature

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A.; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A.; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; Landsman, David

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) and Immunity Related Genes (IRGs). In addition, 642 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers were identified and used for the genetic diversity analysis. A total of 121 alleles were detected in 24 InDels loci ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.04 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles in the SNP markers was two. The observed heterozygosity for P. peruviana with InDel and SNP markers was higher (0.48 and 0.59) than the expected heterozygosity (0.30 and 0.41). Interestingly, the observed heterozygosity in related taxa (0.4 and 0.12) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.59 and 0.25). The coefficient of population differentiation FST was 0.143 (InDels) and 0.038 (SNPs), showing a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among P. peruviana and related taxa. Higher levels of genetic variation were instead observed within populations based on the AMOVA analysis. Population structure analysis supported the presence of two main groups and PCA analysis based on SNP markers revealed two distinct clusters in the P. peruviana accessions corresponding to their state of cultivation. In this study, we identified molecular markers useful to detect genetic variation in Physalis germplasm for assisting conservation and crossbreeding strategies. PMID:26550601

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2015-12-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) and Immunity Related Genes (IRGs). In addition, 642 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers were identified and used for the genetic diversity analysis. A total of 121 alleles were detected in 24 InDels loci ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.04 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles in the SNP markers was two. The observed heterozygosity for P. peruviana with InDel and SNP markers was higher (0.48 and 0.59) than the expected heterozygosity (0.30 and 0.41). Interestingly, the observed heterozygosity in related taxa (0.4 and 0.12) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.59 and 0.25). The coefficient of population differentiation F ST was 0.143 (InDels) and 0.038 (SNPs), showing a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among P. peruviana and related taxa. Higher levels of genetic variation were instead observed within populations based on the AMOVA analysis. Population structure analysis supported the presence of two main groups and PCA analysis based on SNP markers revealed two distinct clusters in the P. peruviana accessions corresponding to their state of cultivation. In this study, we identified molecular markers useful to detect genetic variation in Physalis germplasm for assisting conservation and crossbreeding strategies.

  16. Comportamiento del fruto de uchuva Physalis peruviana L., bajo diferentes temperaturas de almacenamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elberth Hernando Pinzón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de la uchuva Physalis peruviana L. es muy apetecido en los mercados internacionales, por sus características nutracéuticas; sin embargo, por ser un fruto climatérico, los procesos de maduración se dan de forma acelerada disminuyendo considerablemente su vida poscosecha. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior se han desarrollado diferentes técnicas que permiten desacelerar los procesos normales de maduración, entre las que se encuentran, la modificación de atmósferas o el almacenamiento a diferentes temperaturas, siendo éste último, muy utilizado por la facilidad de manejo y bajo costo. Por lo anterior, se evaluó el comportamiento del fruto de uchuva ecotipo Colombia sometido a diferentes temperaturas de almacenamiento, a los que se les evaluó la pérdida de masa fresca, índice de color, firmeza, sólidos solubles totales y acidez total. Se presentaron diferencias significativas para todas las variables evaluadas entre los tratamientos bajo refrigeración y el testigo. La temperatura de almacenamiento, influyó sobre todas las características físicas y químicas evaluadas de manera satisfactoria, ya que luego de 18 días después de almacenamiento los frutos refrigerados conservaron su calidad, siendo favorable para su comercialización; sin embargo, se espera en estudios futuros realizar pruebas de vida en anaquel que permitan descartar fisiopatías que afecten la presentación del producto así como su consumo.

  17. ALARGAMIENTO Y ENRAIZAMIENTO DE VITROPLANTAS DE CEREZA DEL PERÚ (Physalis peruviana L.

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    Oscar Martínez-Montiel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La cereza del Perú (Physalis peruviana L. es una planta importante por su alto contenido en minerales, vitaminas A y C, su efecto antidiabético, además contribuye a la disminución de albúmina en riñones. El cultivo de tejidos permitiría su propagación masiva en corto plazo. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de la concentración de las sales Murashige y Skoog (MS, en el alargamiento y enraizamiento in vitro; además se comparó el sustrato tradicional de aclimatación de plántulas con un sustrato hidropónico. Para el enraizamiento in vitro los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con las sales MS a una concentración del 50 %, lo que produjo mayor altura en brotes (14.4 cm, incremento en tamaño de la raíz (6 cm, en número de hojas (4.3 y en número de yemas (3.3. El enraizamiento ocurrió simultáneamente con el alargamiento in vitro y no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los dos sistemas de aclimatación aplicados. Se logró 100 % de plántulas aclimatadas establecidas en un sistema bajo cubierta, hasta su fructificación en un periodo de 90 días.

  18. Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Related to Yield and Quality of Fruit in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

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    Francy L. García-Arias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist plant breeding programs to investigate the genetic basis of agronomic traits. In this study, we evaluated 18 traits related to yield, (FWP, NF, FWI, and FWII, fruit size-shape (FP, FA, MW, WMH, MH, HMW, DI, FSI, FSII, OVO, OBO, and fruit quality (FIR, CF, and SST, in a diverse collection of 100 accessions of Physalis peruviana including wild, landraces, and anther culture derived lines. We identified seven accessions with suitable traits: fruit weight per plant (FWP > 7,000 g/plant and cracked fruits (CF < 4%, to be used as parents in cape gooseberry breeding program. In addition, the accessions were also characterized using Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS. We discovered 27,982 and 36,142 informative SNP markers based on the alignment against the two cape gooseberry references transcriptomes. Besides, 30,344 SNPs were identified based on alignment to the tomato reference genome. Genetic structure analysis showed that the population could be divided into two or three sub-groups, corresponding to landraces-anther culture and wild accessions for K = 2 and wild, landraces, and anther culture plants for K = 3. Association analysis was carried out using a Mixed Linear Model (MLM and 34 SNP markers were significantly associated. These results reveal the basis of the genetic control of important agronomic traits and may facilitate marker-based breeding in P. peruviana.

  19. Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasali, Félicien Mushagalusa; Kadima, Justin Ntokamunda; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Ngbolua, Koto-te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha-Tshibey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To verify the antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. popularly used in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to point out the possible toxicity. Method Aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaves powder were administrated to guinea pigs at the dose range of 100 mg/kg to 3.2 g/kg of body weight. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by glucose tolerance test, loading animals with glucose 4 g/kg and measuring blood glucose concentrations at various times. The effect was compared to the control and glibenclamide as antidiabetic reference drug. Acute toxicity was evaluated by recording mortality rate, changes on blood biomarkers and damage caused to vital organs. Results At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the aqueous extract induced a significant reduction of peak concentration at 30 min after glucose loading as compared with control or reference (PPhysalis peruviana L. present hypoglycemic activity in animal model, but at high doses the plant may cause severe intoxication.

  20. Antihepatoma activity of Physalis angulata and P. peruviana extracts and their effects on apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Ng, Lean-Teik; Chen, Ching-Hsein; Lin, Doung-Liang; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2004-03-05

    Physalis angulata and P. peruviana are herbs widely used in folk medicine. In this study, the aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from the whole plant of these species were evaluated for their antihepatoma activity. Using XTT assay, three human hepatoma cells, namely Hep G2, Hep 3B and PLC/PRF/5 were tested. The results showed that ethanol extract of P. peruviana (EEPP) possessed the lowest IC50 value against the Hep G2 cells. Interestingly, all extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on normal mouse liver cells. Treatment with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, a protonophore, caused a reduction of membrane potential (Deltapsim) by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. At high concentrations, EEPP was shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction as demonstrated by the following observations: (i) EEPP induced the collapse of Deltapsim and the depletion of glutathione content in a dose dependent manner; (ii) pretreatment with the antioxidant (1.0 microg/ml vitamin E) protected cells from EEPP-induced release of ROS; and (iii) at concentrations 10 to 50 microg/ml, EEPP displayed a dose-dependent accumulation of the Sub-G1 peak (hypoploid) and caused G0/G1-phase arrest. Apoptosis was elicited when the cells were treated with 50 microg/ml EEPP as characterized by the appearance of phosphatidylserine on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. The results conclude that EEPP possesses potent antihepatoma activity and its effect on apoptosis is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. NMR-based metabolic study of fruits of Physalis peruviana L. grown in eight different Peruvian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruenda, Helena; Cabrera, Rodrigo; Cañari-Chumpitaz, Cristhian; Lopez, Juan M; Toubiana, David

    2018-10-01

    The berry of Physalis peruviana L. (Solanaceae) represents an important socio-economical commodity for Latin America. The absence of a clear phenotype renders it difficult to trace its place of origin. In this study, Cape gooseberries from eight different regions within the Peruvian Andes were profiled for their metabolism implementing a NMR platform. Twenty-four compounds could be unequivocally identified and sixteen quantified. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test revealed that all of the quantified metabolites changed significantly among regions: Bambamarca I showed the most accumulated significant differences. The coefficient of variation demonstrated high phenotypic plasticity for amino acids, while sugars displayed low phenotypic plasticity. Correlation analysis highlighted the closely coordinated behavior of the amino acid profile. Finally, PLS-DA revealed a clear separation among the regions based on their metabolic profiles, accentuating the discriminatory capacity of NMR in establishing significant phytochemical differences between producing regions of the fruit of P. peruviana L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efecto del extracto del fruto de Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" en Mus musculus var. swis con hiperlipidemia inducida.

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    Julio Campos Florián

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente i nvestigación fue determinar la actividad hipolipidémica del fruto de Physalis peruviana “tomatillo” en un modelo de hiperlipidemia aguda inducida con tritón. Se utilizaron Mus musculus var. swis machos como animales de experimentación. Se trabajó con cuatro grupos de ratones, el grupo blanco recibió agua destilada por vía oral y solución salina fisiológica por vía intraperitoneal, el grupo control recibió agua destilada por vía oral y tritón por vía intraperitoneal, el grupo problema 1 recibió por vía oral 0.05g/100g del extracto de Physalis peruviana y tritón por vía intraperitoneal y el grupo problema 2 recibió por vía oral 0.2g/100g del extracto de Physalis peruviana y tritón por vía intraperitoneal. Luego de 24 horas de administrar los tratamientos se re alizaron las mediciones en suero de las concentraciones de colesterol y triglicéridos. Los niveles promedio de colesterol (mg/dL fueron: 58.87±11.54 (blanco, 121.71±15.00 (control, 58.08±9. 21 (problema 1 y 66.78±16.77 (problema 2. Los niveles promedio de triglicéridos (g/L fueron: 0.48±0.07 (blanco, 1.84±0.18 (control, 0.34±0.10 (problema 1 y 0.94±0.25 (problema 2. Se encontró reducciones significativas (p<0.000, tanto de las concentraciones de colesterol como de triglicéridos en relación a las o btenidas en el grupo tratado sólo con tritón.

  3. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE PARENTALES Y POBLACIONES F1 INTER E INTRAESPECÍFICAS DE Physalis peruviana L. Y P. floridana Rydb.

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    JHON ALEXANDER BERDUGO CELY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La uchuva, Physalis peruviana, es un frutal andino de importancia para la exportación; el principal limitante de su producción en Colombia es el marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporum. En el presente trabajo se propuso generar poblaciones F1 entre parentales contrastantes por su respuesta a éste patógeno y evaluarlas molecularmente como apoyo al conocimiento y uso de los recursos genéticos de la especie. Para ello, cuatro genotipos de P. peruviana y uno de la especie relacionada P. floridana, fueron caracterizados a nivel morfo-agronómico empleando 34 variables cualitativas y 20 cuantitativas, y a nivel molecular con 328 marcadores tipoCOSII y 154 IRGs. Dichos genotipos se utilizaron como parentales para la generación y caracterización molecular de poblaciones F1. Las variables cuantitativas permitieron diferenciar las especies P. floridana y P. peruviana así como genotipos cultivados y silvestres dentro de P. peruviana. Se encontró un 100% de viabilidad en cruces F1 intraespecíficos y un 50% en interespecíficos, siendo viables aquellos donde P. floridana fue receptor de polen. A nivel molecular no se identificaron polimorfismos dentro de P. peruviana pero sí entre P. floridana y P. Peruviana. En una población F1 de 51 individuos generada entre las especies se encontró un total de 127 alelos con un promedio de 3,18 por locus, un PIC de 0,358 y altos valores de heterocigocidad (Ho: 0,737 y He: 0,449. Los análisis de PCA y agrupamiento permitieron discriminar la población F1 en tres grupos, en su mayoría con mayor similitud al parental P. floridana. Lo anterior se reflejó en una distorsión mendeliana del 75% favorecida por la presencia de un 63,75% de alelos maternos. El estudio aporta conocimiento sobre la cruzabilidad en uchuva y la variabilidad genética de genotipos parentales y poblaciones F1.

  4. Operationally defined species characterization and bioaccessibility evaluation of cobalt, copper and selenium in Cape gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L.) by SEC-ICP MS.

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    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-03-01

    Physalis peruviana could attract great interest because of its nutritional and industrial properties. It is an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and carotenoids. Physalis Peruviana is also known to have a positive impact on human health. Unfortunately, still little is known about trace elements present in Physalis Peruviana and their forms available for the human body. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate bioaccessibility and characterization of species of cobalt, copper and selenium in Physalis Peruviana fruits. Total and extractable contents of elements were determined by mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS). In order to separate the different types of metal complexes Physalis peruviana fruits were treated with the following solvents: Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (pH 7.4) and ammonium acetate (pH 5.5). The best efficiency of extraction of: cobalt was obtained for ammonium acetate (56%) and Tris-HCl (60%); for copper was obtained for SDS (66%), for selenium the best extraction efficiency was obtained after extraction with SDS (48%). To obtain information about bioaccessibility of investigated elements, enzymatic extraction based on in vitro simulation of gastric (pepsin) and intestinal (pancreatin) digestion was performed. For copper and selenium the simulation of gastric digestion leads to the extraction yield above 90%, while both steps of digestion method were necessary to obtain satisfactory extraction yield in the case of cobalt. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to on-line ICP MS detection was used to investigate collected metal species. The main fraction of metal compounds was found in the 17 kDa region. Cobalt and copper create complexes mostly with compounds extracted by means of ammonium acetate and SDS, respectively. Cobalt, copper and selenium were found to be highly bioaccessible from Physalis Peruviana. Investigation of available standards of cobalt and selenium

  5. Agrofenología de Physalis peruviana L. en invernadero y fertirriego

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    R. Mora-Aguilar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el comportamiento agrofenológico de seis colectas silvestres de Physalis peruviana L., introducidas de Perú, desde agosto de 2003 hasta febrero de 2004 se realizó el presente estudio en invernadero y fertirriego en Chapingo, México. Se utilizó el diseño de bloques al azar con seis repeticiones; la unidad experimental estuvo constituida por 10 contenedores de polietileno (40 cm de altura y 25 cm de diámetro rellenos con arena de tezontle que fueron colocados en hileras paralelas al sistema de riego; la separación entre contenedores e hileras fueron 50 y 80 cm, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron diferencias genotípicas significativas entre colectas para rendimiento de fruto, peso fresco de fruto con y sin cáscara, altura total de planta y a la primera bifurcación, diámetro de tallo y número de hojas por planta. A los 64 días después del transplante una colecta procedente de Huancayo alcanzó mayor altura de planta (85 cm, diámetro del tallo (1.33 cm y número de hojas por planta (67. El rendimiento medio de fruto fue de 22 t⋅ha-1. El número de frutos por planta, la altura total de planta y a la primera bifurcación, y el número total de hojas por planta, correlacionaron positivamente con el rendimiento total de fruto. El desarrollo fenológico de todas las colectas fue similar a través del tiempo: germinaron en 12 días, mientras que la floración, el crecimiento y la madurez de los frutos empezó a los 42, 52 y 146 días después del transplante, respectivamente; sin embargo, hubo traslape en el periodo de ocurrencia de tales etapas debido al hábito de crecimiento indeterminado de la especie y similar repuesta en el ambiente de producción

  6. ÁCIDOS FENÓLICOS E ATIVIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE EM FRUTO DE PHYSALIS PERUVIANA L

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    Ismael Ivan ROCKENBACH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Physalis peruviana (physalis é uma fruta exótica com produção crescente no Brasil, havendo poucos trabalhos científicos realizados sobre a mesma. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o potencial antioxidante da fruta physalis e seu perfil de ácidos fenólicos. Foram determinados o conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos através do método Folin-Ciocalteau e a atividade antioxidante através do método ABTS (2,2´azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolin 6-ácido sulfônico em diferentes extratos. O perfil de ácidos fenólicos presentes em diferentes frações na fruta também foi determinado. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais obtido para o extrato metanólico foi de 57,9 mg GAE 100g-1 fruta fresca e a atividade antioxidante de 31 μMol g-1. Foram encontrados 10 ácidos fenólicos nas três frações avaliadas, predominando os ácidos salicílico e protocatequínico. A fração de ácidos fenólicos esterificados solúveis apresentou maior conteúdo de fenólicos totais (346,1 mg 100g-1 refletindo na maior atividade antioxidante, expressa como valor TEAC (185,3 μMol 100g-1. Os resultados obtidos mostraram alto conteúdo de fenólicos totais e considerável atividade antioxidante para o fruto physalis, comparáveis a diversas outras frutas tradicionalmente consumidas no Brasil. Assim, o fruto physalis pode ser considerado uma boa fonte de compostos antioxidantes naturais.

  7. Changes in ABA, IAA and JA levels during calyx, fruit and leaves development in cape gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Flórez, F; López-Cristoffanini, C; Jáuregui, O; Melgarejo, L M; López-Carbonell, M

    2017-06-01

    Changes in abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) content in developing calyx, fruits and leaves of Physalis peruviana L. plants were analysed. Plant hormones have been widely studied for their roles in the regulation of various aspects related to plant development and, in particular, into their action during development and ripening of fleshly fruits. The obtained evidences suggest that the functions of these hormones are no restricted to a particular development stage, and more than one hormone is involved in controlling various aspects of plant development. Our results will contribute to understand the role of these hormones during growth and development of calyx, fruits and leaves in cape gooseberry plants. This work offers a good, quickly and efficiently protocol to extract and quantify simultaneously ABA, IAA and JA in different tissues of cape gooseberry plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Complete genome sequence of an isolate of Potato virus X (PVX) infecting Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Pablo A; Alzate, Juan F; Montoya, Mauricio Marín

    2015-06-01

    Transcriptome analysis of a Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) plant with leaf symptoms of a mild yellow mosaic typical of a viral disease revealed an infection with Potato virus X (PVX). The genome sequence of the PVX-Physalis isolate comprises 6435 nt and exhibits higher sequence similarity to members of the Eurasian group of PVX (~95 %) than to the American group (~77 %). Genome organization is similar to other PVX isolates with five open reading frames coding for proteins RdRp, TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, and CP. 5' and 3' untranslated regions revealed all regulatory motifs typically found in PVX isolates. The PVX-Physalis genome is the only complete sequence available for a Potexvirus in Colombia and is a new addition to the restricted number of available sequences of PVX isolates infecting plant species different to potato.

  9. Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) juice as a modulator agent for hepatocellular carcinoma-linked apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Serag, Hanaa M; Qadir, Makwan S; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2017-10-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) fruit is highly nutritious with high content of health-promoting compounds including minerals, phenolic compounds, as well as vitamins A and C. Physalis peruviana fruits were used as mutagenic, antispasmodic, anticoagulant, and antileucemis agents. The objective of the present work was to study the role of cape gooseberry juice (CG) as a natural modulator agent for adverse aspects associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The results recorded that HCC rats had a significant disturbance in blood indices. An elevation in serum level of the inflammatory (TNF-ά, CRP, and Argenase), hepatic apoptotic markers (P53, Bax, and Caspase 3) and a reduction of Blc2% were recorded in HCC rats. The results exhibited the significant disturbance and arrest in hepatic cell cycle (% of M1: SubG1 phase, M2: G0/1 phase of diploid cycle, M3: S phase, and M4: G2/M phase) as well as liver cell viability status in HCC rats. Numerous histopathological alterations were detected in hepatic tissues of HCC rats such as inflammation, damage of hepatocytes, dilated congested central vein with degenerated endothelial cells and congested blood sinusoids in addition to collagen fibers in hepatocytes and central vein indicating hepatic fibrosis. The tested parameters were little improved upon treatment of HCC rats with Adriamycin (ADR, Doxorubicin is a generic name of a drug). HCC rats received CG showed an improvement in all tested parameters. The effects of CG were through down regulation of p53 expression and up-regulation of Bcl2 domain protected hepatic structure from extensive damage. CG plus ADR exhibited an enhanced antitumor impact in HCC and this combination might have an important value in the treatment of HCC. CG was more effective than ADR, and it has a remarkable role in the management of hepatic disorders besides its success as a chemo-sensitizer for ADR treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  10. First Evidence of a Hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana DNA Detected from the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Lutzomyia tejadai in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania was examined in the Department of Huanuco of Peru, where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is endemic. A total of 2,997 female sand flies were captured by CDC light traps and Shannon traps, of which 2,931 and 66 flies were identified as Lutzomyia tejadai and Lu fischeri, respectively. Using crude DNA extracted from individual sand flies as a template, Leishmania DNA was detected from one Lu. tejadai. The parasite species was identified as a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana on the basis of cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. The result suggested that Lu. tejadai is responsible for the transmission of the hybrid Leishmania circulating in this area. PMID:26735142

  11. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

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    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  12. MOLLUSCA' BIODIVERSITY (GASTROPODA AND BIVALVIA AS A BIO INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF WATER IN THE COASTAL ISLAND OF TUNDA ISLAND, BANTEN

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    Indria Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on Juli 2017 in the coastal region of Tunda Island. This study aims to determine the Biodiversity of Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia As Bioindicator of Water Quality In Coastal Area of Tunda Island, Banten. Sampling consists of 2 observation stations, namely the mangrove coastal area (3 transects and the seagrass coastal area (2 transects determined by purposive sampling. The observation of each station is done by using the quadratic transect method with 100 m transect line distance, and in each transect line there are 5 observation plots measuring 1m2 x 1m2. The data analysis includes density, biodiversity, bio-indicators of water quality based on diversity index. Result of research on 5 transect found 45 type Mollusca which represent 2 class, that is Gastropoda class of 29 species Gastropoda joined in 14 Family. As for Bivalvia class found 16 species incorporated in 9 families. The total density of Mollusca is 541.2 ind / m2 which consists of 392.4 ind / m2 for Gastropoda class and 148.8 ind / m2 for Bivalvia class. Mollusca diversity was calculated using the diversity index of Shannon-Wienner (H '. The results of diversity index ranged from 3.1356 - 3.3314 with high category. Bioindicator of aquatic quality using diversity index indicates that the coastal area of Tunda Island belongs to a very mildly polluted category.

  13. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia

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    Ângela Teresa Silva-Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae. The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  14. Caracterización morfológica de cuarenta y seis accesiones de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L., en Antioquia (Colombia Morphologic characterization of forty six accessions of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L., in Antioquia (Colombia

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    Ofelia Trillos González

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La uchuva, Physalis peruviana L., crece como planta silvestre en las zonas tropicales altas de América, estando el centro de origen y diversificación en los Andes Suramericanos, principalmente de Colombia, Perú y Ecuador. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 46 accesiones de uchuva provenientes del Banco de Germoplasma de la nación Colombiana, a cargo de La Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuarias, CORPOICA, en el Centro de Investigación La Selva, ubicado en la vereda Llanogrande del municipio de Rionegro (Antioquia, Colombia. Los genotipos de uchuva se sembraron utilizando un diseño látice siete por siete simple desbalanceado duplicado. Las accesiones se ubicaron en parcelas constituidas por cinco plantas, de las cuales se evaluaron las tres plantas centrales de las dos replicaciones y cinco estructuras por planta. Se empleó un listado de 69 descriptores, 40 de ellos cualitativos y 29 cuantitativos, 56 de los cuales (81,16% fueron útiles en la diferenciación de las accesiones. Para las variables cualitativas se estimaron los coeficientes de disimilaridad de Gower, que fluctuaron desde 0 a 0,20; y para las variables cuantitativas se estimaron los valores de distancia Euclediana, que fluctuaron entre 0,25 y 1,22.Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L grows wild in tropical areas of South America. The Centre of origin and diversity is located at the Andean zone between Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. This work is about morphological characterization of forty six accessions of Cape gooseberry from a Germplasm Bank of the Colombian Nation at the Experimental Station of "La Selva" located at Rionegro (Antioquia, Colombia. The experimental design used was a lattice seven by seven simple unbalanced and duplicated. Each accession was planted at rows with five plants and five structures of tree plants of each row were evaluated. Sixty eight morphological descriptors were used and 56 of them (81,16% were useful to accessions

  15. Quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora de El Salvador, América Central

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    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador se habían registrado los poliplacóforos Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 y Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Recolectamos quitones en aguas someras de El Salvador en julio del 2002, agragando a la lista a Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; Acanthochitona ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 y Acanthochitona hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. Ampliamos la distribución documentada de I. dispar hacia el norte y describimos brevemente una especie innominada de Lepidochitona.Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from El Salvador, Central America. Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Of these, I. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. The known geographic distribution of I. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 171-176. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  16. Mollusca from a species-rich deep-water Leptometra community in the Alboran Sea

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    Serge Gofas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An exceptional species richness for Mollusca was found on Avempace bank (349-365 m, Djibouti group, Alboran Sea, where the most abundant species was the crinoid Leptometra phalangium. A sample of sediment sieved on a 0.5-mm mesh yielded 156 species of molluscs (83 live-taken, 1772 specimens with a high Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’(log2=3.60. The dominant mollusc was Limopsis aurita and the six most common species accounted for 77% of the specimens. On the other hand, 42 species were represented by only one or two specimens. Two species are described as new, three more are first findings in the Mediterranean and two are first findings in Iberian waters. One-third of the species have not been reported from the neighbouring, well-explored Alboran Island platform. There is a considerable balance between the trophic groups, denoting a stable and structured community. Most of the species have an extensive Atlantic range, and most have a planktonic larval stage. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the fauna benefits from a diverse influx of larvae carried in by the more superficial incoming Atlantic current. Because of its exceptional richness, this type of bathyal community with Leptometra and Limopsis should be considered a high priority for habitat conservation in the Mediterranean deep sea.

  17. Efecto de la aplicación de elicitores sobre la producción de 4β-hidroxiwithanólido E, en raíces transformadas de Physalis peruviana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Piñeros-Castro, Yineth; Otálvaro-Álvarez, Ángela; Velásquez-Lozano, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo: Estudiar la producción del metabolito 4β-hidroxiwithanólido E, mediante el cultivo in vitro de raíces transformadas de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) y evaluar el efecto de la influencia de la aplicación de diferentes elicitores sobre la producción de dicho metabolito. Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvieron raíces transformadas de Physalis peruviana L. mediante infección con Agrobacterium rhizogenes C106. Se cultivaron las raíces transformadas en medio líquido Murashige & Skoog, durant...

  18. Efecto de la aplicación de elicitores sobre la producción de 4-hidroxiwithanólido E, en raíces transformadas de Physalis peruviana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Piñeros-Castro, Yineth; Programa de Ingeniería de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano. Carrera 4 # 22-60. Bogotá; Otálvaro-Álvarez, Ángela; Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Carrera 30 # 45-03. Bogotá; Velásquez-Lozano, Mario; Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Carrera 30 # 45-03. Bogotá

    2009-01-01

    Efecto de la aplicación de elicitores sobre la producción de 4b- hidroxiwithanólido E, en raíces transformadas de Physalis peruviana L.  Objetivo: Estudiar la producción del metabolito  4b-hidroxiwithanólido E,  mediante el cultivo in vitro de raíces transformadas de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) y evaluar el efecto de la influencia de la aplicación de diferentes elicitores sobre la producción de dicho metabolito.  Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvieron raíces transformadas de Physalis peruvian...

  19. Söke Ovasında (Aydın) yeni bir kültür bitkisi: Yer Kirazı/Altın Çilek (Physalis peruviana)

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Yasemin; Günal, Nurten

    2018-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an economically valuable species of Physalis in the family of Solanaceae. Native to the tropical South America, Cape Gooseberry then spread to tropical, subtropical, and sometimes mild climate zones. Physalis peruviana is a plant that highly needs heat, sun light and moisture, and that does not withstand low temperature and strong winds. It is not so much selective in terms of soil.Cape Gooseberry/Golden Strawberry was first grown in the town Bağarası i...

  20. Effect of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene on the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry fruits (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguera-López, Helber E; Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Herrera, Aníbal O

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits are highly perishable berries that exhibit a climacteric respiratory behavior. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene and the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene on the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry fruits (ecotype Colombia). Fruits were treated with ethylene, in an ethephon application (1000 µL L -1 ), and pretreated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1 µL L -1 ), 1-methylcyclopropene+ethylene, and results compared with a control without application. Subsequently, the fruits were maintained at room temperature (20 ℃, 75% RH) for up to 11 days. The pretreatment of the cape gooseberry fruits with 1-methylcyclopropene delayed most of the ripening-associated parameters, with a reduction in the respiration rate and ethylene production, skin color development, total soluble solids, total carotenoid content, loss of firmness, loss of total titratable acidity and emission of volatile compounds such as ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl decanoate, and hexyl decanoate. Conversely, application of ethephon accelerated most of these physiological changes and also overcame most of the effects prevented by the ethylene action inhibitor. Altogether, the results supported the idea of a climacteric-like behavior for cape gooseberry fruits and pointing out that the pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene may be a promising and efficient postharvest treatment to delay maturity and extend the postharvest period. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Withanolides from Aeroponically Grown Physalis peruviana and Their Selective Cytotoxicity to Prostate Cancer and Renal Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Babyak, Ashley L; Marks, Hanna R; Brooks, Alan D; Tewary, Poonam; Xuan, Li-Jiang; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Sayers, Thomas J; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2017-07-28

    Investigation of aeroponically grown Physalis peruviana resulted in the isolation of 11 new withanolides, including perulactones I-L (1-4), 17-deoxy-23β-hydroxywithanolide E (5), 23β-hydroxywithanolide E (6), 4-deoxyphyperunolide A (7), 7β-hydroxywithanolide F (8), 7β-hydroxy-17-epi-withanolide K (9), 24,25-dihydro-23β,28-dihydroxywithanolide G (10), and 24,25-dihydrowithanolide E (11), together with 14 known withanolides (12-25). The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data, and 12-25 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. All withanolides were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of tumor cell lines including LNCaP (androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma), 22Rv1 (androgen-resistant human prostate adenocarcinoma), ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma), M14 (human melanoma), SK-MEL-28 (human melanoma), and normal human foreskin fibroblast cells. Of these, the 17β-hydroxywithanolides (17-BHWs) 6, 8, 9, 11-13, 15, and 19-22 showed selective cytotoxic activity against the two prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and 22Rv1, whereas 13 and 20 exhibited selective toxicity for the ACHN renal carcinoma cell line. These cytotoxicity data provide additional structure-activity relationship information for the 17-BHWs.

  2. Safety of sucrose esters from Physalis peruviana L. in a 28-day repeated-dose study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Yanet C; Caro, Daneiva C; Rivera, David E; Franco, Luis A

    2017-06-01

    Although extracts and consumed foods from Physalis species contain sucrose esters from their glandular trichomes, there is no experimental data available on their toxicological effects. As peruvioses A and B isolated from Physalis peruviana L. calyces have proved to be effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds, this work aimed to investigate their sub-acute toxicity study and genotoxicity. For this, CD-1(ICR) mice were treated intraperitoneally with peruvioses at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days, to simulate therapeutic and over-therapeutic dosage levels. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed and their organs weighted, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Toxicological endpoints included clinical signs; food consumption; body and organ weights; hematological and biochemical parameters; as well as macroscopic and microscopic examination of tissues. The results showed no significant differences between treated animals and control group at macroscopic, histological, molecular, and biochemical levels. In addition, a combination of mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test, comet assay in peripheral blood cells, and Ames test, did not reveal genotoxic effects induced by peruvioses. Taken together, our data suggests that peruvioses A and B can be safely employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Peruvioses A to F, sucrose esters from the exudate of Physalis peruviana fruit as α-amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Carlos-A; Castellanos, Leonardo; Aragón, Diana M; Martínez-Matamoros, Diana; Jiménez, Carlos; Baena, Yolima; Ramos, Freddy A

    2018-05-22

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana is widely used in traditional Colombian medicine as an antidiabetic treatment. The aim of the study reported here was to identify the compounds responsible for the hypoglycemic activity using the α-amylase inhibition test. Bioguided fractionation of a dichloromethane extract of the sticky exudate that covers the fruit allowed the isolation and identification of three new sucrose esters, named as peruvioses C-E (1-3), along with the known peruvioses A (6), B (5) and F (4), the structures of which were elucidated by extensive NMR and MS experiments. These compounds proved to be responsible for the hypoglycemic activity observed in the extract. Peruviose D (2) showed the highest activity, with an inhibitory activity value of 84.8%. This is the first study to establish the potential of sucrose esters as α-amylase inhibitors and to explain the hypoglycemic effect that has traditionally been attributed to gooseberry fruit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of cultivar and ripening time on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Karent; Sepulveda-Ortega, Stella; Lara-Guzman, Oscar; Navas-Arboleda, Alejandro A; Osorio, Edison

    2015-05-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued for its organoleptic properties and bioactive compounds. Considering that the presence of phenolics and ascorbic acid could contribute to its functional capacity, it is important to investigate the quality parameters, bioactive contents and functional properties with respect to genotype and ripening time. In this study the genotype effect was evaluated in 15 cultivars for two different harvest times. Changes during maturation were recorded in two commercial cultivars within seven levels of maturity. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that phenolic content and ORAC value were mainly affected by harvest time and that ascorbic acid content and DPPH level were mainly affected by genotype. In addition, acidity, phenolic content, ORAC value and inhibition of LDL oxidation decreased with maturity, but soluble solids content, ascorbic acid content, β-carotene content and DPPH-scavenging activity were higher in mature fruits. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant properties of Cape gooseberry fruit were strongly affected by cultivar, harvest time and maturity state. Consequently, the harvest time must be scheduled carefully to gain the highest proportion of bioactive compounds according to the specific cultivar and the environment where it is grown. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Occurrence of Colombian datura virus in Brugmansia hybrids, Physalis peruviana L. and Solanum muricatum Ait. in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, P; Palkovics, L

    2005-01-01

    Colombian datura virus (CDV) has been found to infect angel trumpets (Brugmansia spp.) frequently and cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) and pepino (Solanum muricatum) sporadically in Hungary. A CDV BRG/H isolate was characterized. It had flexuous thread-like virions of about 750 x 12 nm in size. Host range and symptomathological studies revealed its great similarity to authentic CDV isolates. Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and lines resistant to Potato virus Y (PVYN) either genically or transgenically proved highly susceptible to the BRG/H isolate. Tomato (L. esculentum cvs.) was systemically susceptible to this isolate, but some lines of Lycopersicon hirsutum and L. peruvianum turned out to be resistant. Browallia demissa, Ipomoea purpurea, N. megalosiphon and S. scabrum were demonstrated as new experimental hosts of CDV. The BRG/ H isolate proved to be transmissible by the aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. in a non-persistent manner. Potyvirus-specific coat protein (CP) gene sequences of about 1700 bp from angel trumpet, cape gooseberry and pepino plants were amplified by RT-PCR. The cloned BRG/H CP gene showed a 99.12-99.31% identity with other CDV isolates. CDV has been found for the first time to infect naturally cape gooseberry and pepino. Since the botanical genus name of original hosts of CDV has changed from Datura to Brugmansia, we propose to change the virus name from CDV to Angel trumpet mosaic virus (ATMV).

  6. Respuesta de Physalis peruviana a la fertilización con diferentes dosis de N, P y K en el Altiplano de Pasto, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Silva Parra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En un Andisol Typic dystrandept del Altiplano de Pasto (2800 m.s.n.m., 12.6°C, 820 mm/año y 900 h de luz solar, Colombia, se evaluaron algunas variables de crecimiento, contenido de nutrientes y producción de uvilla (Physalis peruviana como respuesta a la fertilización con N, P y K. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación de urea (46% N como fuente de N, superfosfato triple-SPT (46% de P2O5 como fuente de P y cloruro de potasio-KCl (60% K2O como fuente de K, en dosis iguales para cada fuente, de 80, 150 y 300 kg/ha/año aplicados en dos épocas al momento del trasplante y 30 días después, antes de la floración. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en fuentes y dosis (P ≤ 0.01 en todas las variables analizadas. Las dosis de 300 kg/ha de urea, 150 kg/ha de SPT y 300 kg/ha de KCl favorecieron la mayor altura de planta, la materia seca y la absorción de NPK (P ≤ 0.05. La absorción de N fue mayor que la de K y éste a su vez que la de P en todas las interacciones evaluadas (P ≤ 0.05. La aplicación de 300 kg/ha de cada uno de los fertilizantes ocasiono incremento del rendimiento de P. peruviana. Por otra parte, fueron encontrados efectos positivos en la absorción NPK en relación con los rendimientos de Physalis peruviana con 300 kg/ha de urea, 150 kg/ha de SPT y 300 kg/ha de KCl (P ≤ 0.05, por tanto se recomiendan estas dosis de fertilizantes.

  7. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DO PONTO DE COLHEITA DE Physalis peruviana L. NA REGIÃO DE SÃO MATEUS, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Francisca Pancieri de Almeida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos de Phisalys peruviana são climatéricas, sua colheita, normalmente se inicia quando os frutos apresentam coloração alaranjada e cálice amarelo. Objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar o estádio de maturação ideal para a colheita da P. peruviana L. na região de São Mateus, Norte do Espírito Santo. Foi avaliada massa dos frutos com e sem o cálice (g, diâmetros transversais e longitudinais (mm e sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix (SST. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, contendo três frutos por repetição. Os frutos com cálice de coloração amarelo apresentaram os maiores valores de massa com e sem o cálice, o mesmo ocorreu com diâmetros laterais e diâmetros transversais, já, em relação ao conteúdo de SST foram observados em frutos com estágio de cálice amarelo-esverdeado e amarelo-amarronzado. Os frutos de Phisalys peruviana devem ser colhidos quando frutos apresentarem cálice de cor amarelo-esverdeado a amarelo-amarronzados, pois são nessas fases de coloração de cálice, que os frutos apresentam maiores acúmulos de sólidos solúveis totais e maiores massas.

  8. Homology and homoplasy of swimming behaviors and neural circuits in the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, James M.; Sakurai, Akira; Lillvis, Joshua L.; Gunaratne, Charuni A.; Katz, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    How neural circuit evolution relates to behavioral evolution is not well understood. Here the relationship between neural circuits and behavior is explored with respect to the swimming behaviors of the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opithobranchia). Nudipleura is a diverse monophyletic clade of sea slugs among which only a small percentage of species can swim. Swimming falls into a limited number of categories, the most prevalent of which are rhythmic left–right body flexions (LR) and rhythmic dorsal–ventral body flexions (DV). The phylogenetic distribution of these behaviors suggests a high degree of homoplasy. The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying DV swimming has been well characterized in Tritonia diomedea and in Pleurobranchaea californica. The CPG for LR swimming has been elucidated in Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris, which are more closely related. The CPGs for the categorically distinct DV and LR swimming behaviors consist of nonoverlapping sets of homologous identified neurons, whereas the categorically similar behaviors share some homologous identified neurons, although the exact composition of neurons and synapses in the neural circuits differ. The roles played by homologous identified neurons in categorically distinct behaviors differ. However, homologous identified neurons also play different roles even in the swim CPGs of the two LR swimming species. Individual neurons can be multifunctional within a species. Some of those functions are shared across species, whereas others are not. The pattern of use and reuse of homologous neurons in various forms of swimming and other behaviors further demonstrates that the composition of neural circuits influences the evolution of behaviors. PMID:22723353

  9. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845; Acanthopleura granulate (Gmelin 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893. This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 129-136. Epub 2011 March 01.

  10. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-27

    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  11. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Chamberednautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores

  12. Caracterización morfológica de cuarenta y seis accesiones de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.), en Antioquia (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Trillos González,Ofelia; Cotes Torres,José Miguel; Medina Cano,Clara Inés; Lobo Arias,Mario; Navas Arboleda,Alejandro Alberto

    2008-01-01

    La uchuva, Physalis peruviana L., crece como planta silvestre en las zonas tropicales altas de América, estando el centro de origen y diversificación en los Andes Suramericanos, principalmente de Colombia, Perú y Ecuador. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 46 accesiones de uchuva provenientes del Banco de Germoplasma de la nación Colombiana, a cargo de La Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuarias, CORPOICA, en el Centro de Investigación La Selva, ubicado en la vereda Lla...

  13. Preferencia de hospedero y parámetros de desarrollo de copitarsia decolora sobre plantas seleccionadas para la diversificación del cultivo de Uchuva (Physalis peruviana)

    OpenAIRE

    Peraza Arias, Andres Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    En el sistema productivo de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana), existen diferentes especies de artrópodos, en su mayoría polífagos como Copitarsia decolora (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), que se alimentan de hojas jóvenes y frutos afectando la producción. El manejo de nóctuidos en el cultivo incluye el manejo de malezas, control químico y biológico. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la preferencia por plantas hospedero y los parámetros del desarrollo de Copitarsia decolora ...

  14. IMPREGNACIÓN DE UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. DE FORMA SEMIESFÉRICA CON UNA EMULSIÓN FORTIFICANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISAEL CORTÉS-RODRÍGUEZ

    Full Text Available La fortificación de frutas con componentes activos (CA mediante el proceso de impregnación a vacío (IV es una alternativa para el desarrollo de alimentos funcionales. En el presente estudio se evaluó el proceso IV en uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. de forma semiesférica con emulsiones que contienen sacarosa o sucralosa, calcio y vitaminas (B9, D y E;y su influencia sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas del fruto. La respuesta a la IV se evaluó en términos de fracción y deformación volumétrica en la etapa de vacío (X1, γ1 y al final del proceso (X, γ, y de la porosidad efectiva (εe. La respuesta a la IV se afectó por el líquido de impregnación, siendo mejor con las emulsiones a base de sucralosa: X= 24,90±0,97%, X1= -10,60±0,05%, γ= 11,80±0,04%; γ1= 0,90±0,01% y εe= 2,70±0,06%; y los CA expresados como porcentaje del valor diario de referencia según la normativa colombiana, fueron: 16,4±3,3%, 12,1±1,2%, 104,0±2,8% y 55,9±1,3% para calcio y vitaminas B9, D y E, respectivamente. La ingeniería de matrices, utilizando la técnica IV y aplicada en uchuva afectó propiedades como actividad acuosa, humedad, sólidos solubles, color y textura, y representa una metodología efectiva para generar valor agregado y mayor competitividad en la cadena de uchuva.

  15. Supercritical carbon dioxide extract of Physalis peruviana induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human lung cancer H661 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Chang, Shun-Pang; Lin, Doung-Liang; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Hou, Fwu-Feuu; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2009-06-01

    Physalis peruviana L. (PP) is a popular folk medicine used for treating cancer, leukemia, hepatitis, rheumatism and other diseases. In this study, our objectives were to examine the total flavonoid and phenol content of different PP extracts (aqueous: HWEPP; ethanolic: EEPP; supercritical carbon dioxide: SCEPP-0, SCEPP-4 and SCEPP-5) and their antiproliferative effects in human lung cancer H661 cells. Among all the extracts tested, results showed that SCEPP-5 possessed the highest total flavonoid (226.19 +/- 4.15 mg/g) and phenol (100.82 +/- 6.25 mg/g) contents. SCEPP-5 also demonstrated the most potent inhibitory effect on H661 cell proliferation. Using DNA ladder and flow cytometry analysis, SCEPP-5 effectively induced H661 cell apoptosis as demonstrated by the accumulation of Sub-G1 peak and fragmentation of DNA. SCEPP-5 not only induced cell cycle arrest at S phase, it also up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein (Bax) and down-regulated the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP). Furthermore, the apoptotic induction in H661 cells was found to associate with an elevated p53 protein expression, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, these results conclude that SCEPP-5 induced cell cycle arrest at S phase, and its apoptotic induction could be mediated through the p53-dependent pathway and modification of Bax and XIAP proteins expression. The results have also provided important pharmacological backgrounds for the potential use of PP supercritical fluid extract as products for cancer prevention.

  16. The influence of drying on the physiological quality of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. fruits added with active components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudy Ana Cabrera Ordoñez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated products added with active components (AC represent a healthy alternative for modern consumer. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying process conditions on the physiological quality attributes of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. impregnated under vacuum with AC and dehydrated. A factorial design was performed with two independent variables, 2 levels per variable (temperature: 50 and 60ºC, air velocity: 2.0 and 3.0 m.s-1 and three replicates per drying condition. In fact, cape gooseberry fruits were previously impregnated under vacuum with an emulsion containing calcium and vitamins B9, C, D3 and E, which were subjected to dehydration until a water activity of approximately 0.6. In addition, drying rate curves presented in all cases two periods of decreasing speed. An increase of drying temperature decreases the processing time, presenting a greater AC degradation, while the air velocity offers a non-significant effect. The treatment which have allowed an AC better retention and low processing times was 60° C and 2 m.s-1, reaching levels of 204.8 ± 10.5 mg, 137.0 ± 34.7 μg, 13.6 ± 0.9 mg, 2.2± 0.6 μg, 7.0±1.2 mg for calcium and vitamins B9, C, D3 and E, respectively per 50 g serving of dehydrated cape gooseberry. An integration of the vacuum impregnation process with conventional air-drying, represents an effective technological alternative, which confers a higher added value to cape gooseberry fruit.

  17. Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with downregulation of Hsp90 client proteins and histone modification by 4β-hydroxywithanolide E isolated from Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Sang-Ngern, Mayuramas; Chang, Leng Chee; Pezzuto, John M

    2016-06-01

    Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae) is used for culinary and medicinal purposes. We currently report withanolides, isolated from P. peruviana, inhibit the growth of colon cancer monolayer and spheroid cultures. A detailed mechanistic evaluation was performed with 4β-hydroxywithanolide E (4HWE). Treatment of HT-29 cells with low concentrations of 4HWE inhibited growth while enhancing levels of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and reducing levels of several cell cycle-related proteins. Apoptosis was induced at higher concentrations. In addition, 4HWE treatment downregulated the levels of Hsp90 client proteins. Nuclear sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was increased and histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 was decreased. An additional consequence of SIRT1 elevation in the nucleus may be inhibition of c-Jun activity. The expression of 21 genes was altered, including downregulation of PTGS2, and this correlated with reduced protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Overall, efficacious induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest at low concentrations, and induction of apoptosis at higher concentrations are interesting 4HWE-mediated phenomena that are accompanied by a complex array of molecular events. Considering the worldwide prevalence of colon cancer, and the unique mode of action mediated by 4HWE, it is reasonable to investigate additional mechanistic details and the potential utility of this compound. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. First record of Stibarobdella moorei (Annelida, Hirudinea, Piscicolidae) a marine leech parasitizing Octopus bimaculatus (Mollusca: Octopodidae) from the Mexican Pacific coast

    OpenAIRE

    López-Peraza D. J.; Hernández-Rodríguez M.; Barón-Sevilla B.; Bückle-Ramírez L. F.; Grano-Maldonado M. I.

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of the parasitic marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910) (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae) along the northwest Mexican Pacific coast is described for the first time. This ectoparasite was collected from the skin of the Octopus bimaculatus (Verril, 1983) (Mollusca: Octopodidae). Stibarobdella loricata (Hardig, 1924) is synonymized with S. moorei as this species resembles other species of the genus based on tubercle patterns and the presence of papillae and a marginal fringe on the...

  19. Nervous system development in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Olga V; Skiteva, Olga I; Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Dyachuk, Vyacheslav A

    2018-01-01

    have not been observed previously in molluscs. Finally, we performed a morphology-based comparative analysis of neuronal structures among bivalve, conchiferan, and aculiferan species. We described the development of the nervous system during the larval development in Crassostrea gigas . These data greatly advance the currently limited understanding of neurodevelopment in bivalves and mollusks, which has hampered the generation of a ground pattern reconstruction of the last common ancestor of Mollusca. Our morphological data support phylogenomic data indicating a closer Bivalvia-Gastropoda sister group relationship than the Bivalvia-Scaphopoda (Diasoma) group relationship.

  20. Optimization of biodiesel production from Thevetia peruviana seed oil by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system coupled with genetic algorithm and response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogaga Ighose, Benjamin; Adeleke, Ibrahim A.; Damos, Mueuji; Adeola Junaid, Hamidat; Ernest Okpalaeke, Kelechi; Betiku, Eriola

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil was extracted from Thevetia peruviana seeds and converted to FAME. • The FFA of the oil was first reduced to <1% by esterification process. • The conversion of the esterified oil to FAME was modeled using ANFIS and RSM. • The developed models by ANFIS and RSM for transesterification process had R"2 ≈ 1. • GA and RSM gave the maximum FAME yield of 99.8 wt.% and 98.8 wt.%, respectively. - Abstract: This work focused on the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and response surface methodology (RSM) as predictive tools for production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seed oil. Two-step transesterification method was adopted, in the first step, the high free fatty acid (FFA) content of the oil was reduced to <1% by treating it with ferric sulfate in the presence of methanol. While in the second step, the pretreated oil was converted to FAME by reacting it with methanol using sodium methoxide as catalyst. To model the second step, central composite design was employed to study the effect of catalyst loading (1–2 wt.%), methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1–12:1) and time (20–60 min) on the T. peruviana methyl esters (TPME) yield. The reduction of FFA of the oil to 0.65 ± 0.05 wt.% was realized using ferric sulfate of 3 wt.%, methanol/FFA molar ratio of 9:1 and reaction time of 40 min. The model developed for the transesterification process by ANFIS (coefficient of determination, R"2 = 0.9999, standard error of prediction, SEP = 0.07 and mean absolute percentage deviation, MAPD = 0.05%) was significantly better than that of RSM (R"2 = 0.9670, SEP = 1.55 and MAPD = 0.84%) in terms of accuracy of the predicted TPME yield. For maximum TPME yield, the transesterification process input variables were optimized using genetic algorithm (GA) coupled with the ANFIS model and RSM optimization tool. TPME yield of 99.8 wt.% could be obtained with the combination of 0.79 w/v catalyst

  1. Biodiversidad de gasterópodos terrestres (Mollusca en el Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier, Tucumán, Argentina

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    María José Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se analizaron parámetros de diversidad de la malacofauna terrestre del Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos en parcelas de 10x10m tomadas en transectas altitudinales, para un total de 22 169 especímenes recolectados. Las identificaciones taxonómicas se llevaron a cabo a nivel de especie. Se construyó una matriz de especies por parcela para analizar patrones de diversidad y se utilizaron estimadores no paramétricos (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 y Chao 2 para calcular la diversidad del Parque, el grado de completitud del muestreo y la agregación espacial de los datos. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker y Jaccard. La riqueza del Parque fue estimada en 32 especies distribuidas en 21 géneros y 13 familias. Solo una especie pertenece a Caenogastropoda, el resto son Pulmonados Stylommatophora y Systellommatophora. La familia más representada fue Charopidae mientras que la especie con mayor abundancia relativa fue Adelopoma tucma. La riqueza y diversidad fue levemente mayor en chaco seco que en bosque húmedo de Yungas. Los valores de diversidad obtenidos fueron elevados en comparación con estudios previos realizados en el noroeste Argentino.

  2. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

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    Abraham Breure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = O. bensoni (Reeve, 1849; Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789; Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848; Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909; Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821; Bulimus (Eurytus corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007 and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  3. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  4. Comunidades de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora de la Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México

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    Cedar I García Ríos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A las ocho especies de poliplacóforos registradas en Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México, o cerca de ella, agregamos a Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata y Acanthochitona arragonites. El análisis de las comunidades estudiadas usando técnicas de ordenación sugiere que podría relacionarse la exposición al oleaje con la riqueza y la diversidad de especies. La comunidad recolectada en condiciones intermedias de exposición al oleaje presentó mayor número de especies y mayor diversidad de acuerdo con el índice de Shannon.Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora at Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness and higher diversity (Shannon’s index. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 177-182. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  5. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H

    2013-01-01

    The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  7. ON THE PALEOFAUNA INVERTEBRATES (MOLLUSCA, ARTROPODA; INSECTA OF DIATOMITE DEPOSITS OF SHAMB–1 LOCALITY (SISIAN SUITE, EARLY PLEISTOCENE, ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. A. Маrjanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study of fossil insects from diatomaceous sediments of Shamb-1 locality of Sisian Suite (Early Pleistocene. The collection of fossils plants and animals of Institute of Botany of NAS RA and authors' findings served as material for study.Methods. The material is processed and prepared for study by conventional methods in paleontology for prints and fossils of insects from diatomaceous sediments. There are 654 samples studied: 2 samples were with mollusks’ imprints and 652 samples with imprints of insects, from which preserved marks on 291samples allowed to identify them up to order, family, genus and species.Results. The studied material refers to the Mollusca and Arthropoda (Insecta types. Insects are represented by species of orders Orthoptera (2 fam., Homoptera (1 fam., Heteroptera (2 fam., Coleoptera (15 fam., Hymenoptera (2 fam., Diptera (1 fam.. Coleopteras dominate among them and are presented with following species of the family – Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Silphidae, Elateridae, Buprestidae, Lampyridae, Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Tenebrionidae, Coccinellidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae.Main conclusions. An analysis of the taxonomic composition of paleofauna was done, which corresponds to the recent fauna and with considering modern ecological characteristics of systematical groups and species. In the investigated location of Shamb-1 a version is suggested about the palaeolandscapes and palaeoclimate in the Early Pleistocene.

  8. The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy Scripts: Poha Berry (Physalis peruviana) with Potential Anti-inflammatory and Cancer Prevention Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leng Chee; Sang-Ngern, Mayuramas; Pezzuto, John M; Ma, Carolyn

    2016-11-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, during a historic event in Spring 2016, graduated the first two students in the Pacific region to earn a PhD in pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo. The college offers PhD programs in these five disciplines: Cancer Biology, Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacology. One of the Pharmacognosy dissertations focused on plant-derived natural products with potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive activities. Physalis peruviana (Pp) L. originated in tropical South America. It has become naturalized and is found readily on the Island of Hawai'i. The edible fruits are commonly known as cape gooseberry or poha in Hawai'i. In part of our study, three new withanolides, physaperuvin G ( 1 ), physaperuvins I-J ( 2 - 3 ), along with four known withanolides, namely, 4β-hydroxywithanolide E ( 4 ), withaperuvin C ( 5 ), and physalactone ( 6 ), coagulin ( 7 ) were isolated from the aerial parts of P. peruviana . In addition, two known compounds, phyperunolide F ( 8 ), and withanolide S ( 9 ), were isolated and identified from the poha berry fruits. The structures and absolute stereochemistry of new compounds from poha were elucidated by several spectroscopy methods: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry analyses. All isolated poha compounds (aerial parts and fruits) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) with transfected human embryonic kidney cells 293. Most of the isolated natural compounds showed activity with these assays. Additional studies were performed with models of colon cancer. Specifically, 4β-hydroxywithanolide E (4HWE) inhibited the growth of colon cancer monolayer and spheroid cultures. The compound induced cell cycle arrest at low

  9. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Helena; Taylor, John D; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Todt, Christiane; Ikebe, Chiho; Rabone, Muriel; Glover, Adrian G

    2017-01-01

    We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ' cf ' as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  11. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Wiklund

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ, central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ‘cf’ as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  12. Evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of virgin polystyrene microbeads in freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Stefano; Gagné, François; André, Chantale; Della Torre, Camilla; Auclair, Joëlle; Hanana, Houda; Parenti, Camilla Carla; Bonasoro, Francesco; Binelli, Andrea

    2018-08-01

    Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×10 5 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×10 5 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×10 6 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×10 6 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days. The PM uptake in the mussel body and hemolymph was assessed using confocal microscopy, while the chronic toxicity of PMs was evaluated on exposed mussels using a comprehensive battery of biomarkers of cellular stress, oxidative damage and neuro- genotoxicity. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that MPs concentrated in the gut lumen of exposed mussels, absorbed and transferred firstly in the tissues and then in the hemolymph. The results revealed that PMs do not produce oxidative stress and genetic damage, with the exception of a significant modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in mussels exposed to MIX 1. Regarding neurotoxicity, we observed only a significant increase of dopamine concentration in mussels exposed to both MIXs, suggesting a possible implication of this neurotransmitter in an elimination process of accumulated PMs. This research represents a first study about the evaluation of virgin MP toxicity in zebra mussel and more research is warranted concerning the long term neurological effects of virgin MPs. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sterile mutant of Verbena hybrida induced by heavy ion beam irradiation and wild species V. peruviana exhibit self-incompatible phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H; Hayashi, Y; Abe, T [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Kanaya, T; Suzuki, K [Suntory Flowers Ltd., Higashiomi (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Garden verbenas (Verbena hybrida) belonging to the Verbenaceae family are originated from interspecific hybridization among several species, many cultivars frequently produce seeds. Recently, a sterile mutant has been isolated in the verbena cultivar 'Coral Pink' of Temari series (Suntory Flowers Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) by mutation induction using heavy-ion beams at RIKEN Accelarator Research Facility (RARF, Saitama, Japan). We investigated pollen and ovule fertility assessed by acetocarmin staining, seed-set following controlled-pollination tests and behavior of pollen tubes in pistils with the sterile mutant of 'Coral Pink' (SC) and its original fertile one (FC). As the results, although SC has functional male and female gametes, few self-pollinated flowers carry out seed-set, leading to sterile phenotype. Additionally, the sterile mechanism of SC was compared with the wild species V. peruviana (VP) which is one of origin of Temari series and exhibits sterility. Interestingly, similar phenotype was observed in PV. We further investigated, therefore, whether there are differences on self-incompatible reaction between SC and VP. (author)

  14. Sterile mutant of Verbena hybrida induced by heavy ion beam irradiation and wild species V. peruviana exhibit self-incompatible phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Abe, T.; Kanaya, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Garden verbenas (Verbena hybrida) belonging to the Verbenaceae family are originated from interspecific hybridization among several species, many cultivars frequently produce seeds. Recently, a sterile mutant has been isolated in the verbena cultivar 'Coral Pink' of Temari series (Suntory Flowers Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) by mutation induction using heavy-ion beams at RIKEN Accelarator Research Facility (RARF, Saitama, Japan). We investigated pollen and ovule fertility assessed by acetocarmin staining, seed-set following controlled-pollination tests and behavior of pollen tubes in pistils with the sterile mutant of 'Coral Pink' (SC) and its original fertile one (FC). As the results, although SC has functional male and female gametes, few self-pollinated flowers carry out seed-set, leading to sterile phenotype. Additionally, the sterile mechanism of SC was compared with the wild species V. peruviana (VP) which is one of origin of Temari series and exhibits sterility. Interestingly, similar phenotype was observed in PV. We further investigated, therefore, whether there are differences on self-incompatible reaction between SC and VP. (author)

  15. Genetic diversity of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Lutzomyia spp., with special reference to Lutzomyia peruensis, a main vector of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kento; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2013-05-01

    The genetic divergence caused by genetic drift and/or selection is suggested to affect the vectorial capacity and insecticide susceptibility of sand flies, as well as other arthropods. In the present study, cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences were determined in 13 species circulating in Peru to establish a basis for analysis of the genetic structure, and the intraspecific genetic diversity was assessed in the Lutzomyia (Lu.) peruensis, a main vector species of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana in Peruvian Andes. Analysis of intraspecific genetic diversity in the cyt b gene sequences from 36 Lu. peruensis identified 3 highly polymorphic sites in the middle region of the gene. Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on the cyt b gene sequences of 130 Lu. peruensis in 9 Andean areas from 3 Departments (Ancash, Lima and La Libertad). The results showed that the populations of La Libertad were highly polymorphic and that their haplotypes were distinct from those of Ancash and Lima, where dominant haplotypes were observed, suggesting that a population bottleneck may have occurred in Ancash and Lima, but not in La Libertad. The present study indicated that the middle region of the cyt b gene is useful for the analysis of genetic structure in sand fly populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of carotenoid profiles in goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits at various ripening stages and in different plant tissues by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzbach, Lara; Pfeiffer, Anne; Weber, Fabian; Schieber, Andreas

    2018-04-15

    Carotenoid profiles of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits differing in ripening states and in different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, and calyx of ripe fruits) were investigated by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS n . Out of the 53 carotenoids detected, 42 were tentatively identified. The carotenoid profile of unripe fruits is dominated by (all-E)-lutein (51%), whereas in ripe fruits, (all-E)-β-carotene (55%) and several carotenoid fatty acid esters, especially lutein esters esterified with myristic and palmitic acid as monoesters or diesters, were found. In overripe fruits, carotenoid conversion products and a higher proportion of carotenoid monoesters to diesters compared to ripe fruits were observed. Overripe fruits showed a significant decrease in total carotenoids of about 31% due to degradation. The observed conversion and degradation processes included epoxidation, isomerization, and deesterification. The peel of ripe goldenberries showed a 2.8 times higher total carotenoid content of 332.00 µg/g dw compared to the pulp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physalis peruviana L. inhibits airway inflammation induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide through inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and induction of heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Ah; Lee, Jae-Won; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Lee, Gilhye; Lim, Yourim; Kim, Jung Hee; Paik, Jin-Hyub; Choi, Sangho; Paryanto, Imam; Yuniato, Prasetyawan; Kim, Doo-Young; Ryu, Hyung Won; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Seung Jin; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2017-11-01

    Physalis peruviana L. (PP) is a medicinal herb that has been confirmed to have several biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of PP on cigarette smoke (CS)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation. Treatment with PP significantly reduced the influx of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung of mice with CS- and LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. PP also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the BALF. PP effectively attenuated the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the lung. In addition, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression were increased by PP treatment. In an in vitro experiment, PP reduced the mRNA expression of TNF-α and MCP-1, and the activation of ERK in CS extract-stimulated A549 epithelial cells. Furthermore, PP increased the activation of Nrf2 and the expression of HO-1 in A549 cells. These findings suggest that PP has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  18. Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Potential Activity of Physalis peruviana Fruit Extracts on Cervical Cancer (HeLa) and Fibroblast (L929) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier-Giraldo, Helen; Díaz-Barrera, Luis Eduardo; Delgado-Murcia, Lucy Gabriela; Valero-Valdivieso, Manuel Fernando; Cáez-Ramírez, Gabriela

    2017-10-01

    It was purposed to evaluate the biological potential of ethanol and isopropanol crude extracts of ripe Physalis peruviana fruits. Cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of the expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were evaluated on human cervical cancer (HeLa) and murine fibroblast (L929) cells. The composition was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet/visible detection. The presence of ursolic acid and rosmarinic acid was found in both solvents. However, gallic acid, quercetin, and epicatechin were higher in isopropanol extracts ( P < .05). The results indicated a relationship among the total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxic activity that was dependent on the solvent used. Isopropanol extracts presented a half-maximal inhibition concentration value (IC 50 ) of 60.48 ± 3.8 μg/mL for HeLa cells and 66.62 ± 2.67 μg/mL for L929 fibroblasts. The extracts reduced the release of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Extracts showed anticancer and immunomodulatory potential for new complementary pharmaceutical products development.

  19. Potato virus Y (PVY) Isolates from Physalis peruviana are Unable to Systemically Infect Potato or Pepper and Form a Distinct New Lineage Within the PVYC Strain Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kelsie J; Chikh-Ali, Mohamad; Hamasaki, Randall T; Melzer, Michael J; Karasev, Alexander V

    2017-11-01

    Poha, or cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), is a plant species cultivated in Hawaii for fresh fruit production. In 2015, an outbreak of virus symptoms occurred on poha farms in the South Kohala District of the island of Hawaii. The plants displayed mosaic, stunting, and leaf deformation, and produced poor fruit. Initial testing found the problem associated with Potato virus Y (PVY) infection. Six individual PVY isolates, named Poha1 to Poha6, were collected from field-grown poha plants and subjected to biological and molecular characterization. All six isolates induced mosaic and vein clearing in tobacco, and three of them exhibited O-serotype while the other three reacted only with polyclonal antibodies and had no identifiable serotype. Until now, PVY isolates have been broadly divided into pepper or potato adapted; however, these six PVY isolates from poha were unable to establish systemic infection in pepper and in four tested potato cultivars. Whole-genome sequences for the six isolates were determined, and no evidence of recombination was found in any of them. Phylogenetic analysis placed poha PVY isolates in a distinct, monophyletic "Poha" clade within the PVY C lineage, suggesting that they represented a novel, biologically and evolutionarily unique group. The genetic diversity within this poha PVY C clade was unusually high, suggesting a long association of PVY C with this solanaceous host or a prolonged geographical separation of PVY C in poha in Hawaii.

  20. Determinación de los parámetros para la simulación matemática del proceso de deshidratación de la uchuva (Physalis Peruviana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahecha Godoy, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar experimentalmente los parámetros necesarios para la simulación matemática del proceso de deshidratación de la Uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.). Para ello se evaluó el proceso de deshidratación con aire caliente para dos pre-tratamientos: escaldado, osmodeshidratado y testigo sin ningún tratamiento especial. Como parámetros para la simulación matemática del proceso de deshidratación de la uchuva se determinaron las ecuaciones para el Contenido de Humeda...

  1. First record of Stibarobdella moorei (Annelida, Hirudinea, Piscicolidae a marine leech parasitizing Octopus bimaculatus (Mollusca: Octopodidae from the Mexican Pacific coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Peraza D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the parasitic marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910 (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae along the northwest Mexican Pacific coast is described for the first time. This ectoparasite was collected from the skin of the Octopus bimaculatus (Verril, 1983 (Mollusca: Octopodidae. Stibarobdella loricata (Hardig, 1924 is synonymized with S. moorei as this species resembles other species of the genus based on tubercle patterns and the presence of papillae and a marginal fringe on the oral sucker. The present finding throws new light on the biodiversity and host preference of the ectoparasite and suggests a successful migration to unusual host. The coast of the Pacific Ocean, particularly in the Bay of Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico is a new geographical distribution area for S. moorei, and O. bimaculatus is a new host reported for this leech. The morphology of this ectoparasite is briefly described.

  2. Variabilidad geográfica en la tolerancia térmica y economía hídrica del gastrópodo intermareal Nodilittorina peruviana (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822 Geographic variability in thermal tolerance and water economy of the intertidal gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE MIGUEL ROJAS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available El gastrópodo Nodilittorina peruviana es un habitante común de la zona intermareal rocosa de la costa norte y centro de Chile. Las poblaciones de esta especie se caracterizan por presentar distribuciones agregadas. Por medio de mediciones de terreno y ensayos de laboratorio se evaluó la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades de termorregulación y conservación de agua, en individuos pertenecientes a dos localidades de la costa de Chile que presentan distintos regímenes termales (Taltal 25º 25' S; 70º 29' W y Las Cruces 33º 35' S; 71º 38' W. Los resultados indican que la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades termorregulatorias es dependiente de las condiciones locales. A pesar de que los individuos de ambas localidades presentaron puntos de tolerancia térmica similares, los caracoles de Taltal mostraron tasas de pérdidas de agua menores. El tamaño de las agregaciones se relacionó en forma negativa con la tasa de pérdida de agua de los individuos de ambas localidades. En el caso de Taltal se observó un límite de tolerancia menor que en Las Cruces y una relación positiva entre tamaño de la agregación y temperatura grupal. Los resultados demuestran que las condiciones ambientales locales puede ser determinante para la efectividad de los mecanismos de termorregulación.The gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana inhabit rocky intertidal of the north and center Chile. Populations of this species exhibits aggregated distributions. Through field and lab records we studied the effect of spatial distribution of snails on their thermoregulatory and water conservation efficiencies. We studied individuals from two localities of the Chilean coast with different climatic conditions (Taltal 25° 25 ` S; 70° 29 ` W and Las Cruces 33° 35 ` S; 71° 38 ` W. Results indicate that the influence of spatial distribution thermoregulatory efficiency is dependent of the local conditions. Although individuals from both localities

  3. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  4. 4beta-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ching-Yu; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Hseu, You-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Tsai, Ming-Tz; Guo, Zong-Lun; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Liu, Yin-Chang; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Ching; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2010-02-18

    The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4beta-Hydroxywithanolide (4betaHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 microg/mL 4betaHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4betaHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4betaHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 microg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4betaHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 microg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 microg/mL for 24 h. In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4betaHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.

  5. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Zong-Lun; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Liu, Yin-Chang; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Ching; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Hseu, You-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Tsai, Ming-Tz

    2010-01-01

    The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4βHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G 1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G 2 /M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G 2 /M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer

  6. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. Results It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4βHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer. PMID:20167063

  7. The Roles of 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana on the Nrf2-Anti-Oxidant System and the Cell Cycle in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chieh Yu; You, Bang Jau; Lee, Chia Lin; Wu, Yang Chang; Lin, Wen Hsin; Lu, Te Ling; Chang, Fei-Ching; Lee, Hong Zin

    2016-01-01

    4[Formula: see text]-Hydroxywithanolide E is an active component of the extract of Physalis peruviana that has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects. Although the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM)-dependent DNA damage signaling pathway in 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced apoptosis of breast cancer MCF-7 cells was demonstrated in our previous study, the relationship between ROS production and the cellular defense system response in 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced cell death requires further verification. The present study suggests that ROS play an important role in 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced MCF-7 cell death in which anti-oxidants, such as glutathione or N-acetylcysteine, can resist the 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced accumulation of ROS and cell death. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine or glutathione can reverse the 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced changes in the cell cycle distribution and the expression of cell cycle regulators. We found that the 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced ROS accumulation was correlated with the upregulation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-downstream genes, such as antioxidative defense enzymes. In general, the activity of Nrf2 is regulated by the Ras signalling pathway. However, we demonstrated that Nrf2 was activated during 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced MCF-7 cell death in spite of the 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced inhibition of the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway. The activity and protein expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase were involved in the 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced ROS production in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E was demonstrated to significantly reduce the sizes of the tumor nodules in the human breast cancer MDA-MB231 xenograft tumor model.

  8. Evaluation of an edible coating based whey protein and beeswax on the physical and chemical quality of gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Osorio Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It was developed and optimized an edible coating based whey protein concentrate and beeswax. An experimental design 32 was used, this was evaluated by response surface methodology, it was obtained that the optimal formulation with a concentration of 15% beeswax and 10% whey protein, reduced by 35.49% weight loss of the fruit with respect to weight loss of control treatments. The optimal treatment was characterized and evaluated on the physicochemical properties of the gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. in two storage conditions: environment (17- 2 ºC y HR: 69% and cooling (4 -2 ºC y HR: 66%. The results for the 15th day evaluation indicated a decrease in the percentage of weight loss, in storage environment and cooling (36.20% and 41.50% respectively. Control treatments decreased acidity in storage environment and cooling 3.88% and 4.92% respectively, compared to coating treatments. pH have not significantly change with any treatment. The coating prevent reduction of soluble solids 3.76% to environmental conditions and 2.27% to cooling conditions. For maturity index were not any significant changes between control treatments and coating treatments, in both conditions. The firmness remained without any significant changes except treatment environment uncoated, this presented a loss of firmness of 12.04% compared to the treatment environment coated. The respiration rate indicates a climacteric peak at day 8th for environment and at day 10th for cooling. For some properties, the cooling treatment uncoated and environment treatment coated have not any significant changes whereby the coating application can be an alternative to the cooling.

  9. Physalis peruviana extract induces apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells through CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Ng, Lean-Teik; Lin, Doung-Liang; Huang, Shan-Ney; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2004-11-25

    Physalis species is a popular folk medicine used for treating cancer, leukemia, hepatitis and other diseases. Studies have shown that the ethanol extract of Physalis peruviana (EEPP) inhibits growth and induces apoptotic death of human Hep G2 cells in culture, whereas proliferation of the mouse BALB/C normal liver cells was not affected. In this study, we performed detailed studies to define the molecular mechanism of EEPP-induced apoptosis in Hep G2 cells. The results further confirmed that EEPP inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. At 50 microg/ml, EEPP significantly increased the accumulation of the sub-G1 peak (hypoploid) and the portion of apoptotic annexin V positive cells. EEPP was found to trigger apoptosis through the release of cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO and Omi/HtrA2 from mitochondria to cytosol and consequently resulted in caspase-3 activation. Pre-treatment with a general caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) prevented cytochrome c release. After 48 h of EEPP treatment, the apoptosis of Hep G2 cells was found to associate with an elevated p53, and CD95 and CD95L proteins expression. Furthermore, a marked down-regulation of the expression of the Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and XIAP, and up-regulation of the Bax and Bad proteins were noted. Taken together, the present results suggest that EEPP-induced Hep G2 cell apoptosis was possibly mediated through the CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway.

  10. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zong-Lun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry, demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299 using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. Results It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p p 50 of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.

  11. The potential protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats is mediated by suppression of oxidative stress and downregulation of MMP-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtisam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Aref, Ahmed M; Othman, Mohamed S; Kassab, Rami B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    The active constituent profile in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) juice was determined by GC-MS. Quercetin and kaempferol were active components in the juice. In this study we have evaluated its potential protective effect on hepatic injury and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Twenty-eight rats divided into 4 groups: Group I served as control group, and Group II received weekly i.p. injection of 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Group III were supplemented with Physalis juice via the drinking water. The animals of Group IV received Physalis juice as Group III and also were intraperitoneally injected weekly with 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by improvement in liver enzymes serum levels, reduction in collagen areas, downregulation in expression of the fibrotic marker MMP-9, reduction in the peroxidative marker malonaldehyde and the inflammatory marker nitric oxide, and restoration of the activity of antioxidant enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems, namely, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities. The results show that the potential hepatoprotective effects of Physalis peruviana may be due to physalis acts by promotion of processes that restore hepatolobular architecture and through the inhibition of oxidative stress pathway.

  12. Efecto de la aplicación de elicitores sobre la producción de 4b-hidroxiwithanólido E, en raíces transformadas de Physalis peruviana L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Piñeros-Castro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of elicitor application on the production of 4-b-hydroxy withanolide E by hairy roots of Physalis peruviana. Objectives: Tostudy the metabolite 4-b-hydroxy withanolide E production by the in vitro culture of golden berry (Physalis peruviana L. transformedroots, and to evaluate the effect of different elicitors on the metabolite production. Materials and methods: Hairy roots of Physalisperuviana L were obtained through infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes C106. Hairy roots were cultured on Murashige & Skoogliquid medium for four weeks, before being exposed to different concentrations of copper sulfate, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid during24 hours. Metabolite contents were quantified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results: The highest amount of 4-b-hydroxy withanolide E in hairy root tissues (0.323 mg/g of dry roots was obtained after exposing the tissues to 10 mM salicylic acid aselicitor. Conclusions: 4-b-hydroxy withanolide E production in hairy roots was improved by using elicitors such as salicylic acid andcopper sulphate. The highest concentration of the metabolite in hairy roots treated with elicitors was 1.538 times the control concentration(without elicitor treatment.

  13. Caracterización palinológica y viabilidad polínica de Physalis peruviana L. y Physalis philadelphica Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagos Tulio César

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Physalis peruviana L. y P. philadelphica Lam. son dos solanáceas de importancia económica para Colombia y México. Existen grandes vacíos en el conocimiento de la palinología y viabilidad polínica de estas dos especies. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar su grano de polen y determinar su viabilidad bajo condiciones con­trastantes de climas frío y cálido. La caracterización del polen se hizo a través de la técnica de acetólisis (en microscopía de luz y por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se determinaron variables como el eje polar, el diámetro ecuatorial, el número, posición y carácter de las aberturas (NPC, lado de apocolpo/apoporo, forma polínica, contorno en vista polar y en vista ecuatorial, tipos de área polar y de abertura, y el tipo polínico. Estas variables permitieron descri­bir y caracterizar el grano de polen de los genotipos estudiados. Con el empleo de técnicas de fijación de flores en antesis y tinción con acetocarmín, se hizo un análisis de la viabilidad polínica bajo microscopía de luz. Las dos especies presentan un grano de po­len zono-tricolporado, de tamaño mediano en P. pe­ruviana y pequeño en P. philadelphica. Los ambientes marginales reducen la viabilidad del polen pero no afectan su fertilidad.

  14. FRUTOS DE UCHUVA (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA L. ECOTIPO ‘COLOMBIA’ MÍNIMAMENTE PROCESADOS, ADICIONADOS CON MICROORGANISMOS PROBIÓTICOS UTILIZANDO LA INGENIERÍA DE MATRICES MINIMALLY PROCESSED CAPE GOOSEBERRY FRUITS (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA L. ‘COLOMBIAN’ ECOTYPE, ADDED WITH PROBIOTIC MICROORGANISMS USING THE MATRIX ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Tatiana Marin Arango

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alimentos con microorganismos probióticos se ha incrementado en los últimos años debido a los beneficios saludables que estos proporcionan. El desarrollo de nuevos alimentos con probióticos diferentes a los productos lácteos, representa un reto para los investigadores y la industria. El presente estudio desarrolló a nivel piloto frutos de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. mínimamente procesados con microorganismos probióticos, combinando el efecto benéfico de la cepa comercial Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 con la aplicación de la Ingeniería de Matrices como metodología de obtención de alimentos funcionales. Se utiliza como líquido de impregnación una solución de glucosa al 14% p/p, con concentración inicial de inóculo de 5 en la escala de McFarland (1,5 x 109 UFC/mL. Las uchuvas recién impregnadas alcanzaron conteos de células viables de 1,95 ± 0,28 x 10(9 UFC/100 g de uchuva fresca (9,28 ± 0,06 x 109 ciclos log UFC/100 g uchuva fresca y a los 15 días de almacenamiento a 4 ºC los conteos de células viables fueron de 2,20 ± 0,59 x 10(9 UFC/100 g de uchuva fresca. (9,32 ± 0,14 x 109 ciclos log UFC/100 g uchuva fresca. Estos niveles de concentración de microorganismos probióticos en la uchuva son similares a los encontrados en los productos lácteos, como el yogurt, helados, quesos, entre otros.Food consumption with probiotic microorganisms has been increased in the last years due to its healthy benefits that they provide. The development of new food with probiotics apart from dairy products represents a challenge for both researchers and industry. The present study developed at pilot level cape gooseberry fruits (Physalis peruviana L. minimally processed with microorganisms probiotics, combining the beneficent effect of the strain commercial Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 with the application of the matrix Engineering as methodology to obtain functional foods. As liquid of impregnation a solution of glucose at

  15. Caracterización morfológica de 29 introducciones de Physalis peruviana L. de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira Morphological characterization of 29 introductions of Physalis peruviana L. from the collection of the National University of Colombia at Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Madriñán Palomino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physalis peruviana L. (uchuva), de la familia Solanaceae, es una de las frutas más importantes en términos de exportaciones para Colombia debido a sus propiedades nutricionales y medicinales. En nuestro país la caracterización morfológica y evaluación de los bancos de germoplasma ha comenzado a implementarse. El objetivo de la presente investigación es la caracterización morfológica mediante descriptores discriminantes de 29 Introducciones de uchuva representativas de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira. El trabajo se realizó en la Reserva Natural "La Albecia", vereda Regaderos, corregimiento de Aují, Municipio de El Cerrito - Valle del Cauca, a una altura de 1945 msnm, temperatura de 18-20°C, humedad relativa 70-80% y precipitación anual de 900-1200 mm. El ensayo se desarrolló en tres fases. En la primera se escogieron 29 introducciones representativas de la colección de trabajo de uchuva (CTU). En la segunda se estableció el ensayo bajo un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar (BCA) y en la última fase se recopiló la información mediante descriptores cuantitativos y cualitativos previamente seleccionados. Se obtuvo un dendrograma a partir del análisis de conglomerado de varianza mínima de Ward, que determinó cinco grupos para las variables cualitativas. El tercer grupo explica el mayor grado de similitud entre las 29 introducciones evaluadas, con un porcentaje del 27.58. La mayor variabilidad estuvo relacionada con los caracteres del fruto: peso con y sin cáliz, grados Brix y diámetros polares y ecuatoriales.Physalis peruviana L. (gooseberry) Solanaceae family, is one of the most important to export for Colombia because its nutritional and medicinal properties. In Colombia, the morphological characterization and evaluation of germplasm banks has begun to be implemented. This research aims the morphological characterization by using descriptors able to discriminate 29

  16. Influence of fruit maturity and calyx drying on cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana l., stored at 18°C Influencia de la madurez del fruto y del secado del cáliz en uchuva (Physalis peruviana l., almacenada a 18°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Paola

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Cape gooseberry fruits at the maturity stages 3 (yellow greenish or 5 (yellow orange and with calyx drying for 6 hours at 18 or 24ºC, were stored at the temperature of 18ºC and 85 % relative humidity for 20 days, to evaluate physical-chemical and physiological changes. The cape gooseberry, a climacteric fruit, presented the maximum of respiration between 6 and 8 days of storage. The 6th day of storage seems to be crucial due to the very high metabolism and the maximum contents of sugars and acids on this day. Soluble solids tended to increase and the titratable acids went to diminish. The fruit's sugar content was characterized by a major concentration of sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. While the citric acid showed its highest level at the sixth storage day that of the tartaric acid increased constantly up to 18 days. The fruit maturity stage 3 is that which best conserved the sugars and organic acids evaluated. The maturity index influenced more than calyx drying the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry. Calyx drying at 24ºC caused the highest climacteric peak and originated the highest loss of fresh weight in fruits harvested at maturity index 5.

    Key words: Physalis peruviana; respiration; climacteric fruit; Brix degrees; organic acids; sugars.

    Frutos de uchuva en estados de madurez 3 (amarillo verdoso ó 5 (amarillo naranja y con secado del cáliz durante seis horas a 18 y 24ºC, se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente (18ºC y humedad relativa del 75% durante 20 días, con el fin de evaluar cambios físico-químicos y fisiológicos. La uchuva, fruto climatérico, presentó el máximo de respiración entre los 6 y 8 días de almacenamiento. El día 6 de almacenamiento parece ser crucial debido al metabolismo muy elevado y los contenidos más altos de azúcares y ácidos. Los sólidos solubles totales tendieron a aumentar, la acidez titulable a disminuir. El contenido de azúcares se caracterizó por

  17. A massive ingression of the alien species Mytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca into the Mediterranean Sea following the Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster

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    E. CASOLI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster occurred just off the coast of Italy on January 13th, 2012, and entailed the largest marine salvage operation in history. The salvage employed vessels from different European harbours, providing an unexpected means for transporting alien species into the Mediterranean. In this work we identified mussel species using fragments length polymorphism of a nuclear locus and report the first evidence of the transport of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mollusca, into the Mediterranean Sea, as a part of the fouling community of the hull of an accommodation barge arrived from a NE Atlantic location in October 2012. Furthermore, we describe the rapid growth of this species, under the ASV Pioneer, until its almost total extinction during the summer of 2013, which left a covering of mussel shells on the underlying Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, 1813. meadow. This high mortality rate indicated that M. edulis had been exposed to high stress conditions, probably due to different salinity, temperature, and oligotrophic conditions from its place of origin, and there was no spawning event or known settlement on the nearest infralittoral natural habitats. This event reminds us of how the Mediterranean Sea is constantly under alien-species pressure, due to human activities.

  18. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  19. (Lamark) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 2 Mean monthly surface water temperature and salinity values ..... Excluding the effect of the flood, the progression of the .... Growth and metabolism of Mactra lilacea. Abstract ... tolerance and osmoregulation in some estuarine bivalves.

  20. Análisis de la aptitud combinatoria de algunas características del fruto de Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagos Tulio César

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo se realizó con el objeto de evaluar la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG y específica (ACE y determinar la heterosis media parental (HP para algunas características del fruto en un dialélico de 10 parentales de P. peruviana. Los parentales de la colección Nariño fueron: UN03, UN14, UN24, UN26, UN35, UN40, UN43, UN45, UN48 y UN49. Entre estas introducciones se hicieron todos los cruzamientos directos y recíprocos. En dos localidades del departamento de Nariño (a 1.900 y 2.800 msnm se evaluaron el diámetro del fruto (DE, peso de fruto con cáliz (PFC, sólidos solubles totales (SST, ácido cítrico (AC, índice de madurez (IM y pH del jugo de frutos en estado 5 de madurez. El análisis de ACG y ACE se realizó con base en el método 1 de Griffing (1956. En los SST fueron importantes los efectos aditivos y de dominancia, siendo UN03 el de mayor ACG. Los híbridos UN40xUN45/UN45xUN40, UN26xUN48/ UN48xUN26,UN24xUN35/UN35xUN24 y UN35xUN48/UN48xUN35 presentaron los mayores efectos de ACE. En PFC sólo se presentaron efectos de dominancia. Los híbridos UN24xUN48/UN48xUN24, UN26xUN49/UN49xUN26 y UN14xUN03/UN03xUN14 el mayor valor de ACE. En DE, AC, IM y pH del jugo, no se encontraron diferencias de tipo genético ya que ACG y ACE no fueron significativos. A excepción del AC, las demás variables presentaron una HP igual a cero. UN26xUN48/UN48xUN26 en SST y UN40xUN49/UN49xUN40, UN43xUN35/UN35xUN43, UN49xUN35/ UN35xUN49 y UN24xUN35/UN35xUN24 en AC, mostraron una HP diferente de cero. Las correlaciones parciales fueron positivas para DE-PFC, SST-AC y SST-IM, y negativas para AC-IM.

  1. The linked units of 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA of razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierna, J; Jensen, K T; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2011-08-01

    The linkage between 5S ribosomal DNA and other multigene families has been detected in many eukaryote lineages, but whether it provides any selective advantage remains unclear. In this work, we report the occurrence of linked units of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) and U1 small nuclear DNA (U1 snDNA) in 10 razor shell species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae) from four different genera. We obtained several clones containing partial or complete repeats of both multigene families in which both types of genes displayed the same orientation. We provide a comprehensive collection of razor shell 5S rDNA clones, both with linked and nonlinked organisation, and the first bivalve U1 snDNA sequences. We predicted the secondary structures and characterised the upstream and downstream conserved elements, including a region at -25 nucleotides from both 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA transcription start sites. The analysis of 5S rDNA showed that some nontranscribed spacers (NTSs) are more closely related to NTSs from other species (and genera) than to NTSs from the species they were retrieved from, suggesting birth-and-death evolution and ancestral polymorphism. Nucleotide conservation within the functional regions suggests the involvement of purifying selection, unequal crossing-overs and gene conversions. Taking into account this and other studies, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which both multigene families could have become linked in the Pharidae lineage. The reason why 5S rDNA is often found linked to other multigene families seems to be the result of stochastic processes within genomes in which its high copy number is determinant.

  2. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Ctenophora, Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  3. Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spreading throughout a new ecosystem is the last step of an exotic species to become invasive. In the case of invasive aquatic molluscs, tolerance to air exposure is one of the main mechanisms allowing overland translocation and spreading. The mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca is native to New Zealand but it has spread worldwide, invading ecosystems in Europe, Australia, America and Asia. The aim of our study is to assess mudsnail tolerance to air exposure, which may contribute to the successful overland translocation of this species. We conducted a laboratory experiment with four levels of air exposure (9, 18, 24 and 36 hours in a controlled climatic chamber. Snails were placed for 60 seconds in a laboratory paper filter to remove surface snail water. Then they were placed back in empty vessels during the four periods of air exposure, except the control group, which was immediately returned to water. At the end of each period of air exposure all vessels were filled with water and the cumulative mortality was monitored after 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours of rehydration. The calculated Lethal Times (i.e. the time of air exposure (in hours necessary to cause the death of 50% (LT50 or 99% (LT99 of the population and their 95% confidence limits at 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours were 28.1 (25.2–31.9, 26.9 (24.2–30.1, 25.9 (23.4–28.9 and 25.9 (23.4–28.9 hours, respectively for LT50, and 49.6 (42.7–63.3, 45.6 (39.9–56.5, 43.2 (38.0–53.0 and 43.2 (38.0–53.0 hours, respectively for LT99. Therefore an air exposure time over 43 hours caused the death of all studied individuals during all monitoring periods. Extending the monitoring period beyond 24 hours did not significantly change lethal times. Therefore, we recommend exposing fishing tools or boats at open air during at least 53 hours as a low cost measure to control mudsnail spread in early stages of invasion.

  4. A phylogenetic analysis of rissooidean and cingulopsoidean families (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione, Francesco; Ponder, Winston Frank

    2013-03-01

    The Rissooidea is one of the largest and most diverse molluscan superfamilies, with 23 recognized Recent families including marine, freshwater and terrestrial members. The Cingulopsoidea are a group of three marine families previously included within the Rissooidea. A previous molecular analysis including two rissooideans and one cingulopsoidean, indicated the possibility that the Rissooidea is at least diphyletic. We use new molecular data to investigate the polyphyly of Rissooidea and test the monophyly of Cingulopsoidea with a greatly increased taxon set. This study includes the greatest sampling to date with 43 species of 14 families of Rissooidea and all families of Cingulopsoidea. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of 16S and 28S show that there are two major clades encompassing taxa previously included in Rissooidea. These are the Rissooidea s.s. containing Rissoidae and Barleeiidae and the Truncatelloidea containing Anabathridae, Assimineidae, Falsicingulidae, Truncatellidae, Pomatiopsidae, Hydrobiidae s.l., Hydrococcidae, Stenothyridae, Calopiidae, Clenchiellidae, Caecidae, Tornidae, and Iravadiidae. Rissoidae is not monophyletic, with Lironoba grouping with Emblanda (Emblandidae) and Rissoina forming a separate clade with Barleeiidae. Iravadiidae is not monophyletic, with Nozeba being sister to the Tornidae. Tatea, usually included within Hydrobiidae, is distinct from that family and Nodulus, previously included in Anabathridae, groups with the hydrobiids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. FUERZA IÓNICA DE LA SOLUCIÓN NUTRITIVA Y DENSIDAD DE PLANTACIÓN SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DE FRUTOS DE Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Araceli Gastelum-Osorio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la solución nutritiva Steiner (SN a 25, 50, 75 y 100 % de su concentración original, en combinación con 4, 6 y 8 plantas·m-2 en un diseño experimental completamente al azar sobre el rendimiento y desarrollo de Physalis peruviana L. La investigación se condujo bajo invernadero de junio de 2010 a julio de 2011. Se cultivó el ecotipo Colombia en bolsas de plástico negro con tezontle y riego por goteo. Se evaluaron las variables rendimiento, número de frutos por planta, peso de frutos con cáscara y sin ella, y peso promedio del fruto. Para conocer la absorción nutrimental del cultivo se realizaron muestreos de hoja en etapa vegetativa (EV y etapa reproductiva (ER, y se determinaron los contenidos de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn y B. Las variables de calidad fueron sólidos solubles totales (SST; °Brix y pH del fruto. Se observaron diferencias significativas para las variables de rendimiento. El mayor rendimiento se obtuvo con la SN completa con 8 plantas·m-2. Con la SN al 75 y 100 % con 4 plantas·m-2 se obtuvo el mayor peso individual de fruto. En la EV la SN afectó la concentración de N, K, Mg, Fe y B, y la densidad influyó en la concentración de K. Durante la ER hubo diferencias en la concentración de K, P, Mg y Mn, debidas a la SN, y el Fe fue afectado por la densidad. Los SST y el pH del fruto no mostraron diferencias significativas.

  6. Caracterización morfológica de 29 introducciones de Physalis peruviana L. de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Madriñán Palomino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physalis peruviana L. (uchuva, de la familia Solanaceae, es una de las frutas más importantes en términos de exportaciones para Colombia debido a sus propiedades nutricionales y medicinales. En nuestro país la caracterización morfológica y evaluación de los bancos de germoplasma ha comenzado a implementarse. El objetivo de la presente investigación es la caracterización morfológica mediante descriptores discriminantes de 29 Introducciones de uchuva representativas de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira. El trabajo se realizó en la Reserva Natural "La Albecia", vereda Regaderos, corregimiento de Aují, Municipio de El Cerrito - Valle del Cauca, a una altura de 1945 msnm, temperatura de 18-20°C, humedad relativa 70-80% y precipitación anual de 900-1200 mm. El ensayo se desarrolló en tres fases. En la primera se escogieron 29 introducciones representativas de la colección de trabajo de uchuva (CTU. En la segunda se estableció el ensayo bajo un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar (BCA y en la última fase se recopiló la información mediante descriptores cuantitativos y cualitativos previamente seleccionados. Se obtuvo un dendrograma a partir del análisis de conglomerado de varianza mínima de Ward, que determinó cinco grupos para las variables cualitativas. El tercer grupo explica el mayor grado de similitud entre las 29 introducciones evaluadas, con un porcentaje del 27.58. La mayor variabilidad estuvo relacionada con los caracteres del fruto: peso con y sin cáliz, grados Brix y diámetros polares y ecuatoriales.

  7. Marine mollusca of oxygen isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 1, Revised generic positions and recognition of warm-water and cool-water migrants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beu, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Warm-water molluscs were transported to Wanganui Basin from the northeastern North Island during Pleistocene time as planktotrophic larvae. This is not possible at present, so their occurrence in Wanganui Basin correlates with breaches of the Auckland isthmus during high sea levels. The end of Nukumaruan time is clearly defined by the extinction of 29 genera of molluscs (most only locally) during this stage, including 15 at the end. The extinction likely was caused by the initial closure of the Auckland isthmus. Migrants to Wanganui from the northeastern North Island indicate that breaches of the isthmus during interglacials commenced in oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 25, just before the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT). Appearances of taxa from Australia at Wanganui during OIS 17-9 therefore indicate that warm-water taxa were transported to New Zealand during interglacial maxima after the MPT. The migrants provide the first molluscan biostratigraphy at the OIS scale. The Castlecliffian/Nukumaruan boundary, at the base of Ototoka tephra at Ototoka Beach, Wanganui, falls within OIS 57, with an age of c. 1.63 Ma. It is also dated at 1.63 Ma by the position with respect to the geomagnetic polarity time-scale of three chemically indistinguishable tephra in ODP core 1123. This paper presents the first results of a reassessment of the taxonomy and time ranges of the fossil marine molluscan fauna that occupied New Zealand during the last 2 m.y. (latest Pliocene-Holocene). Time ranges are compiled in oxygen isotope stages rather than in the traditional 'local' (or regional) stages in use in New Zealand. This should provide precision in time ranges of the order of 40,000-100,000 yr, rather than the 0.34-1.3 m.y. duration of New Zealand local stages of the latest Neogene (Nukumaruan, Castlecliffian, and Haweran Stages). The reassessment is aimed also, though, at providing evidence from Mollusca of climate change over this period. Much useful information on paleoclimates can be

  8. Caracterización morfológica de 29 introducciones de Physalis peruviana L. de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Physalis peruviana L. (uchuva, de la familia Solanaceae, es una de las frutas más importantes en términos  de exportaciones  para  Colombia  debido  a sus  propiedades  nutricionales  y medicinales. En nuestro país la caracterización morfológica y evaluación de los bancos de germoplasma ha comenzado a implementarse. El objetivo de la presente investigación es la caracterización morfológica mediante descriptores discriminantes de 29 Introducciones de uchuva representativas de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira. El trabajo se realizó en la Reserva Natural "La Albecia", vereda Regaderos, corregimiento de Auji, Municipio de El Cerrito - Valle del Cauca, a una altura de 1945 msnm, temperatura  de 18-20°C,  humedad  relativa  70-80%  y precipitación  anual  de 900-1200 mm. El ensayo se desarrolló en tres fases. En la primera se escogieron 29 introducciones representativas de la colección de trabajo de uchuva (CTU. En la segunda se estableció el ensayo bajo un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar (BCA y en la ültima fase se recopiló la información mediante descriptores cuantitativos  y cualitativos previamente seleccionados. Se obtuvo un dendrograma a partir del análisis de conglomerado de varianza mínima de Ward, que determinó cinco grupos para las variables cualitativas. El tercer grupo explica el mayor grado de similitud entre las 29 introducciones evaluadas, con un porcentaje del 27.58. La mayor variabilidad estuvo relacionada con los caracteres del fruto: peso con y sin cáliz, grados Brix y diámetros polares y ecuatoriales.

  9. Pectinoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Waren, A.; Gudmundsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Icelandic pectinoid fauna is reviewed, based on material from the benthic survey programme BIOICE and 17 species are recorded. Similipecten oskarssoni is proposed as a replacement name for Pecten groenlandicus var. minor Locard, 1898 (Propeamussiidae), which is considered a valid species.

  10. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Araujo

    2015-07-01

    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  11. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  12. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all

  13. ’n Vergelyking van die Mollusca-diversiteit in die Mooirivier (Noordwes-Provinsie soos gevind met opnames wat gemaak is in 1963 en weer 50 jaar later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius T. Wolmarans

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Die hoogste getal gedokumenteerde uitsterwings van enige belangrike taksonomiese groepword aan die Mollusca toegedig. Faktore wat hoofsaaklik hiervoor verantwoordelik is, sluitonder meer omgewingsveranderinge en antropogeniese impakte in wat tot die tot niet gaanvan die habitat aanleiding gee. Daarbenewens is die bewaringstatus van minder as 2% van dieongeveer 7000 molluskspesies wêreldwyd bekend tot dusver nog nie behoorlik geassesseernie. Die doel van die huidige ondersoek wat in 2014 uitgevoer is, was om die molluskdiversiteitvan die Mooirivier met die resultate van 1963 te vergelyk. Dit is gedoen deur ’n opnameuit te voer van die molluskdiversiteit by dieselfde lokaliteite as in 1963. Twee opnames isgemaak tydens ’n vroeë- en laatlaagvloeiperiode in 2014 by agt lokaliteite wat met dié vandie 1963-opnames ooreenstem. Die pH, elektriese geleiding (EG en temperatuur is ook byelk van die lokaliteite gemeet. Die identiteit van die 14 slakspesies wat in 1963 gevind is, hetooreengestem met 14 van die 15 in 2014. Die uitheemse indringerspesie Physa acuta is tydensdie 2014-opname vir die eerste keer in hierdie rivier gevind, waarskynlik weens ’n toename inorganiese verryking. In die 1963-opname is Burnupia mooiensis en Pisidium langlyanum by diemeeste lokaliteite gevind, en in 2014 Gyraulus connollyi en Ferrissia cawstoni. Die meeste van diemolluske uit hierdie gebied wat voorheen op rekord gestel is, is in 2014 gevind. Die pH watin 2014 ’n geringe tot aansienlike verlaging getoon het, word aan mynversuring toegeskryfen het nie ’n merkbare invloed op die molluskdiversiteit gehad nie. Die hoër elektriesegeleiding wat tydens die 2014-opname gemeet is, het vanweë die verdraagsaamheid vanvarswatermolluske in hierdie verband, ook geen verandering in die molluskdiversiteit teweeggebring nie. Die temperatuur was in die laatlaagvloei deurgaans hoër. Ondanks die feit dathierdie studies vyf dekades uitmekaar gedoen is en antropogeniese impakte

  14. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.                   

  15. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioliz Villafranca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo

  16. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha

  17. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  18. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in

  19. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna

  20. Lorentz Spengler's descriptions of chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.; Knudsen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper deals with an important Danish paper on the Polyplacophora, published in 1797 by Lorentz Spengler: Udförlig Beskrivelse over det mangeskallede Konkylie-Slaegt, af Linnaeus kaldet Chiton; med endeel nye Arter og Varieteter. -Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet, 4e Bind, Ie Hefte,

  1. Short Communication Myosotella myosotis (Mollusca: Ellobiidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myosotella myosotis is shown to be a well-established alien species in South Africa. Discovered in Port Elizabeth more than 100 years ago, it was initially thought to be indigenous and was described under two different names, but subsequent taxonomic work has demonstrated that these are synonyms of the variable and ...

  2. [Imposex in Voluta musica (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae) from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Ana Carolina; Miloslavich, Patricia; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2014-06-01

    Voluta musica is a dioecious marine gastropod endemic of the South Caribbean. Tributyltin (TBT) and copper (Cu) are potential inducers of imposex, an endocrine disorder by which females develop a penis and/or vas deferens. The goal of this work was to determine the imposex incidence in V. musica populations from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya. For this, we selected three sites (Isla Caribe, Isla Lobos and Bajo Cuspe) and made monthly samplings of 15 snails in each site, during one year, and determined: (1) sizes; (2) sex and imposex incidence and (3) the Relative Penis Length Index (RPLI). We also performed histological analysis of the gonads, and measured TBT and Cu concentrations in sediments from the studied localities. Our results showed that the total number of sampled females affected by imposex was 24.5% at Isla Caribe, 12% at Isla Lobos, and none at Bajo Cuspe. In sediments, Cu was detected mostly in Isla Lobos. The female gonads with imposex did not show any development of male cells in any of the sampled sites. The higher percentage of females with imposex matched with the higher boat traffic locality, and higher TBT level (Isla Caribe). No esterilization was evident in this work, nevertheless, the presence of TBT and Cu in the sediments and females with imposex were considered as a potential threat to V. musica populations in this region. In Venezuela there is no control over this particular issue, possibly because of the lack of information and research in this topic, but certainly, this information will be useful in biodiversity conservation policies.

  3. A new species of the operculate land snail genus Maizaniella from Liberia (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Maizaniella sapoensis spec. nov. from Liberia is described. The species is provisionally att ributed to the subgenus Spirulozania. It is by far the smallest known member of the genus, with an adult shell diameter of just over 2 mm.

  4. Ultrastructure of oogenesis in imposex females of Babylonia areolata (Caenogastropoda: Buccinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenpo, C.; Suwanjarat, J.; Klepal, W.

    2011-09-01

    During a tributyltin (TBT)-exposure experiment, the ultrastructural features of oogenesis have been examined in TBT-induced imposex females of Babylonia areolata and compared with those of the normal female. The results obtained from such experiment demonstrates that B. areolata exhibits a low to moderate intensity of imposex because all VDSI values are never higher than 3. Ultrastructures of germ cell development including oogonia, pre-vitellogenic, early vitellogenic, late vitellogenic and mature oocytes show that oogenesis in imposex female is similar to that of normal females except for the presence of numerous lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of the oocytes and the follicle cells in imposex females, indicating the degeneration of their oocytes. Vitellogenesis in B. areolata involves both auto- and heterosynthetic processes that resemble those of the basal gastropods and the pulmonates. In addition, the presence of cortical granules and microvilli are unique structures of this species.

  5. Euspermatozoon structure and euspermiogenesis in Cerithidea cingulata (Gmelin, 1791 (Caenogastropoda : Potamididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintamas Suwanjarat

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural characteristics of euspermatogenesis and mature euspermatozoa of Cerithidea cingulata are described. Euspermatogonia possesses a large round concentric nucleus with one or two nucleoli. The spermatocyte is characterized by the abundant cytoplasmic organelles and eccentric nucleus with chromatin distributed throughout as small granules. In the early spermatid, euspermiogenesis begins with the condensation of nucleus, the granular nuclear chromatin changes to fibrillar, lamellar and finally a homogenous and highly electron dense nucleus. The cytoplasm of the early spermatid contains a well developed Golgi complex with many vesicles and a prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum located between the connection of the two daughter cells. Acrosome formation starts with proacrosomal vesicle which usually appears close to the well developed Golgi complex. This proacrosomal vesicle differentiates into a pre-attachment acrosome which then moves anteriorly towards the nucleus and finally attaches to the nuclear apex. The features of euspermiogenesis and of the mature eusperm observed in Cerithidea cingulata are similar to many of those in Cerithioideans. The mature acrosome composes of a tapering acrosomal cone, an axial rod and a basal plate. The middle piece of the mature eusperm comprises four equal and non-helical mitochondrial elements around the axonemal microtubules. A dense ring structure separates the middle piece from the glycogen piece. The glycogen piece is the proximal part of the tail which consists of an axoneme surrounded by nine tracts of dense glycogen granules, while the end piece of the tail lacks glycogen. Euspermatozoa and euspermatogenesis of Cerithidea cingulata, though showing some differences between species, do share a number of basic structure features which distinguish potamidid snails from other relatively close families.

  6. Sexual dimorphism in shells of Cochlostoma septemspirale (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoroidea, Diplommatinidae, Cochlostomatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Reichenbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphisms in shell-bearing snails expressed by characteristic traits of their respective shells would offer the possibility for a lot of studies about gender distribution in populations, species, etc. In this study, the seven main shell characters of the snail Cochlostoma septemspirale were measured in both sexes: (1 height and (2 width of the shell, (3 height and (4 width of the aperture, (5 width of the last whorl, (6 rib density on the last whorl, and (7 intensity of the reddish or brown pigments forming three bands over the shell. The variation of size and shape was explored with statistical methods adapted to principal components analysis (PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA. In particular, we applied some multivariate morphometric tools for the analysis of ratios that have been developed only recently, that is, the PCA ratio spectrum, allometry ratio spectrum, and LDA ratio extractor. The overall separation of the two sexes was tested with LDA cross validation.The results show that there is a sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of shells. Females are more slender than males and are characterised by larger size, a slightly reduced aperture height but larger shell height and whorl width. Therefore they have a considerable larger shell volume (about one fifth in the part above the aperture. Furthermore, the last whorl of females is slightly less strongly pigmented and mean rib density slightly higher. All characters overlap quite considerably between sexes. However, by using cross validation based on the 5 continuous shell characters more than 90% of the shells can be correctly assigned to each sex.

  7. Extractability of Thevetia peruviana glycosides with alcohol mixture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Nitrogen extraction of defatted rapeseed with particular reference to United Kingdom rapeseed meal. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36: 520–530. Finnigan TJA, Lewis MJ (1988). Ethanolic Extraction of Commercial. Rapeseed Meal in the Production of Protein Concentrate of Reduced. Glucosinolate Content. J. Sci.

  8. Regeneracion adventicia de somaclones de uchuva (Physalis peruviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Gloria E.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Hipocoti1os de uchuva (Physalis peruvjana L. fueron utilizados en la inducción de callos y regeneración de plántulas. El medio basal de Murashige y Skoog (MS fue suplementado con bencil amino purina (BAP de 0 a 5,0 ppm, acido giberelico (GA3 0 Y 1,0 ppm en combinacion con acido naftalenoacetico (ANA de 0 a 1.0 ppm o con acido 2,4 diclorofenoxiacetico (2,4-D  de 0 a 1.0 ppm. La inducción de callos dependió de las interacciones hormonales y condiciones de luz. La regeneración de plántulas en medias que contenían ANA o cuando el medio no fue suplementado  con 2,4-D fue nula o muy poca. EI mayor numero de plántulas regeneradas fue observado en medios complementados con 1.0 ppm de BAP, 1,0 ppm de GA y 0,5 ppm de 2,4-D en condiciones de luz. Las plántulas regeneradas fueron micropropagadas en el medio basal de MS sin ningún suplemento hormonal. Finalmente, las plantas se evaluaron in vitro bajo condiciones de heladas simuladas.

    Palabras claves: Variaci6n somaclonal, inducción de callos morfogénesis indirecta, cultivo in vitro.

  9. Importancia y cultivo de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer,Gerhard; Almanza-Merchán,Pedro José; Miranda,Diego

    2014-01-01

    Physalis perurvianus L, foi adaptada no Peru e Chile e dai levada para outros países da América Latina, incluindo Brasil além da India, África do Sul e outros. Neste trabalho säo discutidas informações sobre seu cultivo em vários países, importancia econômica, aspectos botânicos, propagação, doenças e pragas e pós-colheita.

  10. Importancia y cultivo de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Fischer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physalis perurvianus L, foi adaptada no Peru e Chile e dai levada para outros países da América Latina, incluindo Brasil além da India, África do Sul e outros. Neste trabalho säo discutidas informações sobre seu cultivo em vários países, importancia econômica, aspectos botânicos, propagação, doenças e pragas e pós-colheita.

  11. Imposex en Voluta musica (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae en el Noreste de la Península de Araya, Venezuela

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    Ana Carolina Peralta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Voluta musica es un gasterópodo dioico endémico del Caribe sur. El TBT y el Cu, son potenciales causantes del imposex, fenómeno donde las hembras desarrollan un pene y/o vaso deferente. El objetivo fue determinar la incidencia de imposex en V. musica en el noreste de la Península de Araya. Se seleccionaron tres localidades y se captura-ron mensualmente 15 individuos durante un año para determinar: (1 talla de los individuos; (2 sexo y presencia de imposex; (3 índice Largo Relativo del Pene (RPLI. Se realizó histología de la gónada de los individuos. Se determinó TBT y Cu en el sedimento de cada localidad. En Isla Caribe, el 24.5% de las hembras presentó imposex, y se halló 3.9ngSn/g de TBT; en Isla Lobos, el 12% de las hembras desarrollaron imposex; en Bajo del Cuspe no se observó imposex. Se halló Cu en mayor concentración en Isla Lobos. Las gónadas femeninas con imposex no demos-traron masculinización. El mayor porcentaje de imposex coincide con la localidad de mayor tráfico de embarcacio-nes y con mayor nivel de TBT (Isla Caribe. No se eviden-ció esterilización, sin embargo la presencia de TBT, Cu e imposex son potenciales amenazas para las poblaciones de V. musica en la región. Hasta ahora, en Venezuela no se está tomando ninguna medida de control sobre este tema en particular, posiblemente por la escasez de información y orientación de las investigaciones hacia este tema, pero que sin duda se debería tomar en cuenta en las políticas para la conservación de la biodiversidad

  12. Immune Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae: Phagocytic Hemocytes in the Circulation and the Kidney.

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    Juan A Cueto

    Full Text Available Hemocytes in the circulation and kidney islets, as well as their phagocytic responses to microorganisms and fluorescent beads, have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, using flow cytometry, light microscopy (including confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Three circulating hemocyte types (hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes were distinguished by phase contrast microscopy of living cells and after light and electron microscopy of fixed material. Also, three different populations of circulating hemocytes were separated by flow cytometry, which corresponded to the three hemocyte types. Hyalinocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and no apparent granules in stained material, but showed granules of moderate electron density under TEM (L granules and at least some L granules appear acidic when labeled with LysoTracker Red. Both phagocytic and non-phagocytic hyalinocytes lose most (if not all L granules when exposed to microorganisms in vitro. The phagosomes formed differed whether hyalinocytes were exposed to yeasts or to Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria. Agranulocytes showed a large nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and few or no granules. Granulocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and numerous eosinophilic granules after staining. These granules are electron dense and rod-shaped under TEM (R granules. Granulocytes may show merging of R granules into gigantic ones, particularly when exposed to microorganisms. Fluorescent bead exposure of sorted hemocytes showed phagocytic activity in hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes, but the phagocytic index was significantly higher in hyalinocytes. Extensive hemocyte aggregates ('islets' occupy most renal hemocoelic spaces and hyalinocyte-like cells are the most frequent component in them. Presumptive glycogen deposits were observed in most hyalinocytes in renal islets (they also occur in the circulation but less frequently and may mean that hyalinocytes participate in the storage and circulation of this compound. Injection of microorganisms in the foot results in phagocytosis by hemocytes in the islets, and the different phagosomes formed are similar to those in circulating hyalinocytes. Dispersed hemocytes were obtained after kidney collagenase digestion and cell sorting, and they were able to phagocytize fluorescent beads. A role for the kidney as an immune barrier is proposed for this snail.

  13. Karyotype description of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), with an assessment of the taxonomic status of Pomacea patula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diupotex-Chong, María Esther; Cazzaniga, Néstor J; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel

    2004-12-01

    Mitotic chromosomes of the freshwater snail Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) were analyzed on gill tissue of specimens from the type locality (Lake Catemaco, Mexico). The diploid number of chromosomes is 2n = 26, including nine metacentric and four submetacentric pairs; therefore, the fundamental number is FN = 52, No sex chromosomes could be identified. The same chromosome number and morphology were already reported for P. flagellata, i.e., the other species of the genus living in Mexico. The basic haploid number for family Ampullariidae was reported to be n = 14 in the literature; so, its reduction to n = 13 is probably an apomorphy of the Mexican Pomacea snails. Lanistes bolteni, from Egypt, also shows n = 13, but its karyotype is much more asymmetrical, and seems to have evolved independently from P. flagellata and P. patula catemacensis. The nominotypical subspecies, P. patula patula (Reeve 1856), is a poorly known taxon, whose original locality is unknown. A taxonomical account is presented here, and a Mexican origin postulated as the most parsimonious hypothesis.

  14. Chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) from Alacranes Reef, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gómez, Adriana; Ortigosa, Deneb; Simões, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study represents the first comprehensive chiton study from Alacranes Reef, the largest reef system in the Gulf of Mexico. Nine chiton species were found in seven localities within the area, in the intertidal and subtidal to 12 m depth. SEM examination of C. janeirensis, A. hemphilli, T. schrammi and C. floridanus, showed variations in the sculpture and radular teeth morphology when compared to specimens of the same species from Florida Keys, Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The distribution ranges of T. schrammi, L. liozonis and S. floridana are extended into the south-western area of the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether, combining previous literature and the present survey, reports eleven chiton species which have now been recorded within the Alacranes reef area. PMID:28769624

  15. Planaxidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Zhang, Junlong; Lian, Xiping; Tan, Yehui

    2018-03-01

    Planaxidae is a family of tropical and subtropical marine gastropods that are adapted to an intertidal, rocky environment. The present study deals with three species in the family Planaxidae from the South China Sea: Planaxis sulcatus (von Born, 1778), Angiola longispira (Smith, 1872), and Supplanaxis niger (Quoy and Gaimard, 1833), based on specimens deposited in the Marine Biodiversity Collections of the South China Sea, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The taxonomic status, main morphological characteristics of the shell and radula, distribution, and habitat of these three planaxid species are presented. We also briefly discuss their morphological differences and the biogeographic distribution.

  16. Vanadium, rubidium and potassium in Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Seixas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The levels of vanadium, rubidium and potassium were determined in Octopus vulgaris caught during commercial fishing activities at three locations (Cascais, Santa Luzia and Viana do Castelo in Portugal in autumn and spring. We determined the concentration of these elements in digestive gland, branchial heart, gills, mantle and arms in males and females. At least five males and five females were assessed for each season/location combination. Elemental concentrations were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE. Vanadium was detectable only in digestive gland and branchial heart samples. Its concentration was not correlated with total weight, total length or mantle length. There were no differences in concentrations of V, Rb and K between sexes. There were significant differences in vanadium concentrations in branchial hearts in autumn between samples from Viana do Castelo and those from the other two sites. We found a significant positive relationship between the concentration of vanadium and those of potassium and rubidium in branchial hearts. Branchial hearts appear to play an important role in decontamination of V.

  17. Clio pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767 forma convexa (Boas, 1886) (Mollusca, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1973-01-01

    The pelagic fauna of the Red Sea shows special variation induced by its isolated character (Van der Spoel, 1971). Clio pyramidata from the Red Sea is usually incorrectly referred to as the tropical forma lanceolata (Lesueur, 1813) or the typical forma pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767. Some large samples

  18. Parasitism by a Digenea in Lucina pectinata (Mollusca: Lucinidae

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    M. M. Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lucina pectinata is an important economic resource in the Brazilian coast. This study reports parasitism caused by a Digenea in this species. The specimens (n = 470 were collected in December 2012 in a mangrove swamp of the Cachoeira River estuary, Bahia, Brazil. They were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length, and after macroscopic analysis for parasites and diseases cuts of 5 mm were fixated in Carnoy’s solution and processed by routine histology technique wherein sessions of 7 μm were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The tissues were examined using an optical microscope. The mean length of L. pectinata was 4.0 ± 0.53 cm. Microscopic analysis showed sporocysts containing both germ balls as cercariae of an unidentified Digenea (Platyhelminthes, these in various stages of development. The prevalence was 1.48% (7/470. In a parasitized specimen was macroscopic evidence of tissue densification of gills. The sporocysts were observed in mantle, gills, digestive gland and gonads, with evident alteration/destruction of tissues, including parasitic castration. There were no other parasites found, which is probably related to inaccessibility and chemical conditions in which lives L. pectinata, i.e., between 10 and 20 cm in mangrove sediment.

  19. Octopus tetricus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda as an ecosystem engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scheel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sydney octopus (Octopus tetricus occurs in unusual numbers on a shell bed of its prey remains that have accumulated as an extended midden where additional octopuses excavate dens. Here, O tetricus are ecosystem engineers, organisms that modulate availability of resources to other species and to their own species by causing physical state changes in materials. A community of invertebrate grazers and scavengers has developed on the shell bed. Fishes are attracted to the shell bed in numbers significantly greater than in nearby habitats. Large predators, including wobbegong sharks, were attracted to and fed on concentrations of fish, inhibiting the activities of the original engineers, the octopuses. Positive feedbacks included the accumulation of shell debris, increasing shelter availability for additional octopuses and aggregating fish. Negative feedbacks included reductions of nearby prey size and availability, aggression among octopuses, and predator limitation to octopus activity that would otherwise maintain the shell bed.

  20. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  1. Gundlachia dutrae: n. sp. from northwest Brazil (Mollusca: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

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    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Gundlachia, Gundlachia dutrae is described from northwest Brazil. It is distinguishable from other congenerie species by characteristics of the shell, radula and internal organs. Shell relatively high. Aperture near-circular; periostracum dark brown without periostracal hairs. Apex slightly inclined to the right, projected but not hooked, with an apical depression surrounted by a sculpture of well-marked irregular punctations. Shell surface with prominent radial sculpture. No septate specimens were observed. Ratios (n= 59: shell width/shell lenght = 0,66- 0,79 (mean 0,73; shell height/shell length = 0,32- 0,45 ( mean 0,37; shell height/shell width = 0,43- 0,63 (mean 0,51. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation dark brown or black, concentrated along the mantle collar. The dorsal surface of the right anterior muscle is elongated and medially constricted. The left anterior and the posterior muscles are almost elliptical. Adhesive area is V-shaped. Pseudobranch unpigmented bearing a very small and thin dorsal lobe. Ovotestis with more than 25 unbranched diverticula. Ovispermiduct with seminal vesicle rather developed. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the glandular wall of the uterus. Nidamental gland appendix ending into a bulbous swelling Spermathecal body almost rounded. Well-developed prostate with five long diverticula. Ejaculatory complex with long glandular flagellum, without a penis or true ultra-penis. "Penis sheath" developed. "Ultra-penis" projected as a tube inside the lumem of prepuce, with a slit between "ultra-penis" and "penis sheath". Rachidian tooth tetracuspid, with two median cusps assymmetrical and aculeated. Lateral teeth tricuspid, with a reduced endocon and a prominent mesocon. A well marked gap occurs between meso and ectocon. Marginal teeth similar to lateral ones. Jaw T-shaped, with about 28 dorsal plates.

  2. Variation in foraging activity of Acanthochitona garnoti (Mollusca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foraging activity of Acanthochitona gamoti was studied during spring and neap tides in three different habitats: an aeolian sandstone ... mm) during a spring tide new moon and least on a spring tide full moon (x = 4.0 h; x = 182 rnm). Chitons on the boulder ..... BECKLEY, L.E. 1994. Two Oceans: A guide to Marine Life of.

  3. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta.

  4. The non-marine Mollusca of St. Martin (Lesser Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1967-01-01

    After our studies about the marine mollusks of St. Martin, (COOMANS 1963a, 1963b), this publication will deal with the land and freshwater shells of the island. The non-marine mollusks of St. Martin were already fairly well known at the end of the last century (MAZÉ 1890, p. 22—34), who mentioned 36

  5. Chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora from Alacranes Reef, Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Reyes-Gómez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study represents the first comprehensive chiton study from Alacranes Reef, the largest reef system in the Gulf of Mexico. Nine chiton species were found in seven localities within the area, in the intertidal and subtidal to 12 m depth. SEM examination of C. janeirensis, A. hemphilli, T. schrammi and C. floridanus, showed variations in the sculpture and radular teeth morphology when compared to specimens of the same species from Florida Keys, Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The distribution ranges of T. schrammi, L. liozonis and S. floridana are extended into the south-western area of the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether, combining previous literature and the present survey, reports eleven chiton species which have now been recorded within the Alacranes reef area.

  6. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the

  7. Nematodes from Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica, the giant African snail, in the northeast of Argentina. A total of 373 snails were collected from the cities of Puerto Iguazú and Corrientes. Cysts (N= 2958 containing nematodes identified as L3 Strongyluris sp. were found in the mantle cavity of 87 snails from Puerto Iguazú City (Prevalence 23 %; Mean Intensity= 34; Mean Abundance= 8. The shell size correlated with prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance (p < 0.05 indicating that there is an exposure-infection constant rather than an accidental one. In other hand, the absence of infection in the smallest shell size suggests a threshold of size to be infected. Taking into account that there exist records of A. fulica infected by nematodes of medical and veterinary importance such as Angiostrongylus and Aelurostrongylus in some Brazilian states near Puerto Iguazú, we emphasize the need for snail surveillance.

  8. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R

    2014-03-14

    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups.

  9. Intramantle Inking: A Stress Behavior in Octopus bimaculoides (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    Several Pacific 2-spot octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) shipped from California and held in a recirculating seawater system at Illinois College exhibited an unusual postshipping stress behavior not previously documented in the literature. Ink, normally ejected into the surrounding seawater, was uncharacteristically retained in the mantle cavity. We describe the resulting behaviors, discuss successful resuscitation efforts, and briefly consider the possible role(s) that ink may have played in the death of one octopus. PMID:22330791

  10. Systematics of a widely distributed western North American springsnail, Pyrgulopsis micrococcus (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae), with descriptions of three new congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Bradford, Corbin

    2013-01-01

    We describe three new species of springsnails (genus Pyrgulopsis) from the Amargosa River basin, California and Nevada (P. licina sp. n., P. perforata sp. n., P. sanchezi sp. n.), each of which was previously considered to be part of P. micrococcus. We also restrict P. micrococcus to its type locality area (Oasis Valley) and redefine a regional congener, P. turbatrix, to include populations from the central Death Valley region and San Bernardino Mountains that had been previously identified as P. micrococcus. The five species treated herein form genetically distinct lineages that differ from each other by 4.2-12.6% for mtCOI and 5.2-13.6% for mtNDI (based on previously published and newly obtained data), and are diagnosable by shell and/or penial characters. The new molecular data presented herein confirm sympatry of P. licina and P. sanchezi in Ash Meadows (consistent with morphological evidence) and delineate an additional lineage of P. micrococcus (in the broad sense) that we do not treat taxonomically owing to the paucity of morphological material. Conservation measures are needed to ensure the long term persistence of populations of P. micrococcus and a genetically differentiated lineage of P. sanchezi which live in disturbed habitats on private lands.

  11. Effect of extracts of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-05-31

    May 31, 2014 ... Ridomil ® on growth on the black pod disease of cocoa. These extracts ... disease in cocoa beans production and causes up to ..... Trichoderma from the Amazon basin of South. America. Mycological Progress 3 (3): 199-210.

  12. Estudio citogenético en Physalis peruviana l. “Uchuva” (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra Cecilia Rodríguez Castillo

    2004-07-01

    los datos citogenéticos. Sé evalúo la acción de la colchicina, para inducir la poliploidización en esta especie, para ello se eligieron frutos del ecotipo “Colombia” con un alto contenido de azúcares y sus semillas se cultivaron in vitro con el inhibidor mitótico, obteniéndose un diploide directo de este ecotipo. Se recomendó hacer un seguimiento de este material, para evaluar esta técnica dentro del programa de fitomejoramiento.

  13. Rheological, Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Golden Berry (Physalis peruviana L.) after Convective and Microwave Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Nawirska-Olsza?ska, Agnieszka; St?pie?, Bogdan; Biesiada, Anita; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna; Oziemb?owski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Studies on methods for fixing foods (with a slight loss of bioactive compounds) and obtaining attractive products are important with respect to current technology. The drying process allows for a product with highly bioactive properties. Drying of Physalis fruit was carried out in a conventional manner, and in a microwave under reduced pressure at 120 W and 480 W. After drying, the fruits were subjected to strength and rheological tests. Water activity, content of carotenoids and polyphenols ...

  14. Migrante, madre, mediatrice, donna: una peruviana racconta l’incontro con se stessa

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    Maria Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To be a migrant woman includes different meanings: it means to be a breadwinner woman for personal or familiar decision; it means to be wife of an husband who will join her in the arrival country dealing with all the uncertainities of the labor market; it means to be a mother that drags her sons to an unknown new country or that fights daily to keep in touch with them when they leave overseas; but above all it means to be a woman that deals day by day with the cultural negotiation and with those stereotypes usually related with migration, doing it for herself and in order to create a better relationship with the arrival society. All these aspects are part of the interview done in february 2007 to a peruvian woman that lives in Naples since many years now and that is the main object of this article.

  15. Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de Physalis peruviana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves,Anderson da Costa; Schuch,Márcia Wulff; Erig,Alan Cristiano

    2005-01-01

    Visando o estabelecimento e a multiplicação in vitro de Physalis, foram realizados dois experimentos. Para o estabelecimento, testou-se 5 procedimentos de desinfestação das sementes (P1: Álcool 70% durante 30 segundos; P2: Hipoclorito de Sódio 2,5% durante 3 minutos; P3: Hipoclorito de Cálcio 2,5% por 3 minutos; P4: Álcool 70% por 30 segundos + Hipoclorito de Sódio 2,5 % por 3 minutos; P5: Álcool 70% por 30 segundos + Hipoclorito de Cálcio por 3 minutos). Metade das sementes foi mantida no es...

  16. Characterization of the genome of a novel ilarvirus naturally infecting Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-García, Yuliana M; Jaramillo-Mesa, Helena; Toro-Fernández, Luisa F; Marín-Montoya, Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Pablo A

    2018-06-01

    As part of an initiative to characterize viruses infecting Cape gooseberry in the province of Antioquia (Colombia), we report the genome sequence of a new member of the genus Ilarvirus (family Bromoviridae). This virus was identified in a Cape gooseberry plot in the municipality of Marinilla in a mixed infection with potato virus Y (PVY) as part of high-throughput sequencing initiative. Results were confirmed by nested RT-PCR and DAS-ELISA. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Cape gooseberry ilarvirus is a new member of subgroup 1 and it is most closely related to ageratum latent virus (AgLV). The name "Cape gooseberry ilarvirus 1" (CGIV-1) is proposed for this new ilarvirus.

  17. Thermal stability of phytochemicals, HMF and antioxidant activity in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Verkerk, Ruud; Boekel, van Tiny; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit recognised for having relevant contents of health-promoting compounds. Changes in the content of phytochemicals (ascorbic acid, β-carotene, catechin and epicatechin), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and antioxidant activity of this fruit were studied at various temperatures

  18. The Determination of Nitrogen Demand of Physalis (Physalis peruviana L.) in Yalova/Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ALBAYRAK, Barış; SÖNMEZ, İbrahim; BIYIKLI, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Güvey feneri meyvesi A, B, ve C vitaminleri, demir, fosfor, potasyum ve çinko bakımından zengindir. güvey fenerinin Türkiye'de yetiştiriciliği son yıllarda artış göstermektedir. Fakat Türkiye'de güvey fenerinin besin maddesi isteği ile ilgili herhangi bir çalışma da bulunmamaktadır. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı güvey fenerinde farklı azot dozlarının verim, beslenme ve bazı kalite kriterleri üzerine etkisini belirlemektir. Bu amaçla azotun 0 kg da-1, 4 kg da-1, 8 kg da-1, 12 kg da-1, 16...

  19. Development and Quality Evaluation of Ready to Serve (RTS Beverage from Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hemalatha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a process for the development of ready to serve (RTS beverages from enzyme liquefied (pectinase Cape gooseberry juice with additives and preservatives. Storage stability of the RTS beverage at both refrigerated temperature (LT: 4 ± 1 °C and room temperature (RT: 27 ± 2 °C were evaluated for 90 days for microbial, sensorial and physicochemical quality parameters. The stability of RTS beverage stored at LT (4 ± 1 °C was excellent with a retention of the primary quality attributes ascorbic acid (15.44 mg/100 mL, total phenolic content (15.50 mg GAE/100 mL, total carotene (1.07 mg/100 mL, β-carotene (0.78 mg/100 mL, high viscosity (30.29 cp, and with high sensory scores of the product (8.3 up to 90 days as compared to the overall acceptability (6.5 of RT stored RTS for 60 days. Additionally, both the LT and RT stored RTS beverages had microbial counts within the permissible limits. Therefore, both beverages were safe to consume at the end of storage duration. In conclusion, the RTS beverage developed from Cape gooseberry could be served as functional health drink alternative to synthetic soft drinks due to its unique features (high nutritive values, high organoleptic values and high stability of the product.

  20. Use of image analysis for monitoring the dilution of Physalis peruviana pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Licodiedoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop linear models using the image analysis coupled with density measurements to monitor the dilution of the Physalis juice in the concentrations ranging from 0 to 100% in mass of juice pulp. A sample corresponding to 20% in the mass of juice pulp was for validating purposes and a prediction of 19.9±0.3%. The models with three parameters showed the best predictions, providing this technique with a promising future for the monitoring the dilution of fruit juices.

  1. Rheological, Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Golden Berry (Physalis peruviana L.) after Convective and Microwave Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Stępień, Bogdan; Biesiada, Anita; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna; Oziembłowski, Maciej

    2017-07-29

    Studies on methods for fixing foods (with a slight loss of bioactive compounds) and obtaining attractive products are important with respect to current technology. The drying process allows for a product with highly bioactive properties. Drying of Physalis fruit was carried out in a conventional manner, and in a microwave under reduced pressure at 120 W and 480 W. After drying, the fruits were subjected to strength and rheological tests. Water activity, content of carotenoids and polyphenols and antioxidant activity as well as colour were also examined. The study showed that Physalis is a difficult material for drying. The best results were obtained using microwave drying at a power of 480 W. Physalis fruit microwave-dried by this method is characterized by higher resistance to compression than the fruit dried by convection. Dried fruit obtained in this way was characterized by higher contents of bioactive compounds, better antioxidant properties, and at the same time the lowest water activity.

  2. Anatomic Aspects of Formation and Growth of the Cape Gooseberry Fruit Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Mazorra

    2006-01-01

    confirmed that anatomically the Cape gooseberry fruits, ecotipo Colombia, and ruderal type are similar, which demonstrates the absence of appreciable anatomical changes that explain the greater size of the fruits of ecotipo Colombia.

  3. Rheological, Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Golden Berry (Physalis peruviana L. after Convective and Microwave Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Nawirska-Olszańska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on methods for fixing foods (with a slight loss of bioactive compounds and obtaining attractive products are important with respect to current technology. The drying process allows for a product with highly bioactive properties. Drying of Physalis fruit was carried out in a conventional manner, and in a microwave under reduced pressure at 120 W and 480 W. After drying, the fruits were subjected to strength and rheological tests. Water activity, content of carotenoids and polyphenols and antioxidant activity as well as colour were also examined. The study showed that Physalis is a difficult material for drying. The best results were obtained using microwave drying at a power of 480 W. Physalis fruit microwave-dried by this method is characterized by higher resistance to compression than the fruit dried by convection. Dried fruit obtained in this way was characterized by higher contents of bioactive compounds, better antioxidant properties, and at the same time the lowest water activity.

  4. Estudio de la diversidad citogenética de Physalis peruviana L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra Cecilia Rodríguez Castillo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available municipios de Villa de Leyva (Boyacá, Colombia, La Calera y Choachí (Cundinamarca, Colombia y dos cultivados, uno de ellos nativo, el ecotipo Colombia distribuido en el municipio de Subachoque (Cundinamarca y uno foráneo, procedente de Kenia, cultivado en el municipio de Paipa (Cundinamarca. Ápices radicales obtenidos a partir de semillas y de hojas en medios de cultivo in vitro enriquecidos con auxinas se emplearon para estandarizar el protocolo de obtención de cromosomas, con las diferentes técnicas de pretratamiento, fijación, hidrólisis y montaje de las muestras. Adicionalmente se evaluó la duración del ciclo celular para establecer la hora mitótica. Se encontró variabilidad genética entre los ecotipos evaluados. Los ecotipos silvestres presentaron una dotación cromosómica 2n=24, el ecotipo Colombia 2n=32 y el ecotipo Kenia 2n=48. Los ecotipos exhibieron también variación en las características morfológicas y anatómicas, que de acuerdo a la literatura, son un reflejo del nivel de ploidía, como altura, área foliar, número de estomas/mm', número de cloroplastos en las células guarda de los estomas, diámetro de frutos, semillas y contenido de masa seca.

  5. Characterization of the mechanical properties of the cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Javier Llanos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is the world’s leading producer of the cape gooseberry and it is a crop of great importance due to its high demand in the international market. The fruit, the part that is sold, is an ovoid-shaped, juicy berry, and its harvest starts when the fruit is orange-colored and the cap surrounding the fruit is yellowcolored. This labor is done manually. During this phase of collection, subsequent handling and transport to the places of packaging and marketing, the fruit is subjected to multiple loads which may deteriorate it in different ways, resulting in significant product losses. Rheological tests of unidirectional compression, punctures, and cuts at the peduncle were performed in order to characterize the mechanical response of the fruit to the type of forces exerted at harvest and post-harvest handling. It was found that the fruit’s firmness in unidirectional compression in the axial direction, with a ripeness grade of four, was 38.6 N, while the force required to separate the fruit from the peduncle was 15.1 N. The mechanical behavior of the cape gooseberry corresponds to a viscoelastic, anisotropic, highly variable material

  6. Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullariidae Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78; spire length/shell length = 0.10 - 0.18 (mean 0.13; aperture length/shell length = 0.70 - 0.77 (mean 0.73. The animal is longisiphonate. Renal organ brownish with marked invagination at its right edge. Ureter elongated with its long axis transverse to the main axis of the kidney. The radula is taenioglossate (2.1.1.1.2 and has on average 35 transverse rows of teeth. The form and arrangement of the radula teeth are nearly the same as in other Ampullariidae. The testis is cream-colored and lies in the first three whorls of the spire. Spermiduct uniformly narrow, running to the base of the spire. Seminal vesicle whitish, slightly pressed dorsoventrally. Prostate cylindric and thick, similar in color to the testis. Penis whiplike, with a closed circular spermiduct. Penis pouch ovoid completely envelping the penis. Penis sheath elongated, broad prosimally, tapering distally. Its inner surface shows a longitudinal channel along its proximal half and two glands, one on the middle and the other apical. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules situated on the surface of the digestive gland. Oviduct slender running along the columellar axis toward the base of the spire. Seminal receptalble tubiform, thick-walled and rounded proximally. Albumen gland large, pink, enclosing the receptacle and the spiral capsule gland. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Neste trabalho e estudada a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 baseada em material coletado na localidade-tipo. Concha com espessura moderada, globosa, castanha, com faixas espirais castanhas-escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros arredondados crescendo rapidamente em diâmetro, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande oval; lábio externo simples; umbigo pequeno e profundo; opérculo concêntrico, córneo. Razão: largura da concha/comprimento da concha = 0.74 - 0.83 (média 0.78; comprimento da espira/comprimento da concha = 0.10 - 0.18 (média 0.13; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha = 0.70 - 0.77 (média 0.73. Animal com sifão bem desenvolvido. A rádula é tenioglossa (2.1.1.1.2 e tem em média 35 fileiras transversais de dentes. A forma e a disposição dos dentes radulares são semelhantes ao padrão dos ampularídeos. Rim de cor castanha apresentando uma invaginação acentuada na parede direita. Ureter alongado e transversal ao eixo principal do rim. Testículo constituído por uma massa cor creme, ocupando as três primeiras voltas da espira. Espermiduto estreito e uniforme, correndo para a base da espira. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada levemente achatada dorso-ventralmente. Próstata cilíndrica e compacta com coloração semelhante à do testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote com canal espermático fechado e de contorno circular. Bolsa do pênis ovalada, envolvendo-o completamente. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída gradualmente da base para a extremidade; sua superfície interna apresenta um canal mediano em sua metade proximal e duas glândulas, uma mediana e outra apical. Ovário constituído por túbulos ramificados branco-amarelados situados superficilamente sobre a glândula digestiva. Oviduto estreito correndo pelo eixo columelar até a base da espira. Receptáculo seminal tubular com parede espessa e extremidade proximal alargada. Glândula de albume volumosa e rosada envolvendo o receptáculo seminal e a glândula da casca em espiral. Vestígio do aparelho copulador masculino (pênis e sua bainha presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas.

  7. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

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    Édgar Suarez B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1 Rhizophora mangle, 2 Avicennia germinans, 3Pelliciera rhizophorae y 4 Laguncularia racemosa. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta preferencia. Cerithidea montagnei presentó una mayor distribución horizontal, así como una mayor abundancia respecto de Littorina spp.

  8. Ocorrência do bivalve exótico Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, no Brasil Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. B. de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O molusco Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831, natural da América do Norte, foi localizado no litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2004, trazido provavelmente por água de lastro de navios. Na região, sua distribuição atualmente abrange zonas estuarinas adjacentes ao Porto do Recife. Os organismos foram encontrados restritos à região entre-marés, formando agregados densos com até 176.800 ind./m².The mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831 is native to North America. It was found at Pernambuco Coast, northeastern Brazil, in 2004, probably brought by ships' ballast water. The distribution of this species has been now spread to estuarial area near Recife Harbour. They showed a clumped distribution with a maximum of 176,800 ind./m² only in the intertidal zone.

  9. Comportamento agregativo em Subulina octona (Brugüière (Mollusca, Subulinidae Aggregative behavior in Subulina octona (Brugüière (Mollusca, Subulinidae

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    Sthefane D'ávila

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a existência de comportamento agregativo na espécie Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789 e obter evidências da mediação química desse comportamento. Foram utilizados 150 animais adultos, distribuídos em 15 caixas com terra vegetal (10 animais por caixa. Em cada caixa foram colocados quatro discos plásticos identificados, em posição eqüidistante, os quais serviram como abrigos para os animais. No experimento I, foram colocados 10 animais no centro de cada caixa. Após 24, 48, 96, 120, 144 e 168 horas foram observados o número de agregados formados, a posição dos agregados (sob qual abrigo, o número de indivíduos por agregado e o número de indivíduos isolados. No experimento II, todos os indivíduos foram transferidos para outras caixas contendo terra vegetal, três novos discos e o disco que continha o maior agregado após as 168 horas do experimento I (denominado disco condicionado. Foi verificado, após 24 e 48 horas, o número de indivíduos sob o disco condicionado. Em todas as caixas utilizadas e em todos os intervalos de tempo observados no experimento I, houve a formação de agregados. Houve um aumento significativo do número de indivíduos por agregado e uma diminuição do número de indivíduos isolados com o passar do tempo (ANOVA, p The current study aimed to verify the existence of aggregative behavior in Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789 and to obtain behavioral evidence of chemical mediation of this behavior. We used 150 adult animals allocated in 15 boxes with humus (10 animals per box. In each box we placed four identified plastic disks in an equidistant position. These disks worked as shelters for the animals. In experiment I, 10 animals were put in the middle of each box. After 24, 48, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours we observed the number of formed aggregations, as well as the position of the aggregates (in each shelter, the number of individual per aggregation and the number of isolated individuals. In order to test the hypothesis of conditioning of disks by chemicals compounds, the experiment II was carried out. All the individuals were transferred to other boxes with humus, three new disks and the disk containing the larger aggregate after the 168 hours of the experiment I (denominated conditioned disk. We verified, after 24 and 48 hours, the number of individuals below the conditioned disk. In experiment I, aggregations were observed in every used box and in every time intervals. In all boxes, there was a significant increase in the number of individuals per aggregation and a reduction in the number of isolated individuals until the end of the experiment (ANOVA, p < 0.005. In experiment II, after 24 hours, six from 15 boxes presented aggregations under the conditioned disk, and after 48 hours, seven boxes presented aggregations under conditioned disk. These were the aggregations with a larger quantity of individuals, which suggests the conditioning of the used disks by some factor, possibly a chemical compound.

  10. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

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    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species for Cuba and Venezuela is discussed and some considerations about Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000 species complex are given.

  11. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian

  12. A biomechanical model of rock drilling in the piddock Barnea candida (Bivalvia; Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederlof, R.; Muller, M.

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Barnea candida (Pholadacea) makes its burrow in clay, soft rock and peat. Barnea has developed a number of adaptations to accommodate this lifestyle. Four muscles enable burrowing. These are situated around a dorsal pivot in such a way that the piddock is able to rotate the shells around

  13. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae

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    Paula Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821, commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory conditions. We tested thymol+DMSO on 160 eggs, 160 10-day-old and 160 30-day-old juveniles. The results showed that thymol+DMSO (5 g/L and 2.5 g/L affected hatching success, acting as an ovicide. The tests with 10-day-old juveniles showed that thymol+DMSO at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L caused 90 and 100% of mortality, respectively. For the 30-day-old juveniles, thymol+DMSO caused 87.5% of mortality at 5 g/L, and 75% at 2.5 g/L. With regard to growth, the results were not significant. The 10-day-old individuals treated with thymol+DMSO showed only one reproductive event during the 120 days of the experiment. Thymol+DMSO showed molluscicidal and residual activity, which makes evident its potential for controlling snails, and consequently, snail-borne diseases.

  14. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic parte of female duct to penial complex = 1.36 to 2.81 ((mean 1.90 +- 0.33; penial sheath to prepuce = 042 to 0.96 (mean 0.67 +- 0.13. Comparison with Morelet’s type specimens of Planorbis orbiculus and P. retusus points to the identity of those nominal species with B. obstructa.

  15. New records and new species of cones from deeper water off Fiji (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Conidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Röckel, D.; Bouchet, P.

    2008-01-01

    A little less than 100 species of cones are known in the literature from waters around the Fiji islands, all intertidal to subtidal. We report here on the species taken by recent offshore and deep-water benthic sampling expeditions. Samples were taken to depths of 1300 m, although cones were taken

  16. Pseudoglessula Libera, a new Subulinid land snail from Guinea, West Africa (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solem, A.; Bruggen, van A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Study of some land snails collected in Guinea, West Africa, by Ms. Diane deVry has led to the description of a new species, Pseudoglessula libera. It is currently known only from several localities near Conakry, but probably has a wide distribution. Detailed comparisons with previously described

  17. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada

    1983-01-01

    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  18. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  19. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea in Ecuador?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.

  20. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  1. High accumulation of cobalt-60 by the particular organ or part of some species in mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Katsuhiko

    1981-01-01

    A large amounts of samples in marine Cephalopoda and Tridacna were sampled in north west pacific ocean, near Japan. The samples were separated into organs or parts for determination of Co-60 concentration. A peculiar accumulation of Co-60 by the branchial heart of Octopus was also recognized in field condition, but it had become apparent that branchial heart of squid had not same ability. Liver of Cephalopoda had the ability to highly accumulate the Co-60 and specific activity of squid was one order highter than Octopus. The concentration of Cobalt-60 in visceral muss kidney of Tridacna maxima lineally increased with increasing shell length but that in other soft parts was kept constant. After examination of the other papers it was assumed that Co-60 highly accumulated in these organs was transfered by the food chain. (author)

  2. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  3. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that

  4. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic ...

  5. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described.

  6. Invertebrate shells (mollusca, foraminifera) as pollution indicators, Red Sea Coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; Madkour, Hashem; Mansour, Abbas; Alharbi, Wedad; El-Taher, Atef

    2017-09-01

    To assess the degree of pollution and its impact on the environment along the Red Sea Coast, the most abundant nine species of recent benthic foraminifera and three species of molluscan shells have been selected for the analysis of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, and Cd concentrations. The selected foraminiferal species are: Textularia agglutinans, Amphispsorus hemprichii, Sorites marginalis, Peneroplis planatus, Borelis schlumbergeri, Amphistegina lessonii, Ammonia beccarii, Operculina gaimairdi, and Operculinella cumingii. The selected molluscan shells are: Lambis truncata and Strombus tricornis (gastropods) and Tridacana gigas (bivalves). The inorganic material analysis of foraminifera and molluscs from the Quseir and Safaga harbors indicates that foraminifera tests include higher concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe and Mn than molluscan shells. These results are supported by the black tests of porcelaneous foraminifera and reflect iron selectivity. The Cd and Pb concentrations in molluscan shells are high in the El Esh Area because of oil pollution at this site. The Cu, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the studied invertebrates are high at Quseir Harbor and in the El Esh Area because of the strong influence of terrigenous materials that are rich in these metals. The heavy metal contamination is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1) the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2) none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae) were monophyletic; (3) the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4) optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species. PMID:21059254

  9. Variações anatômicas em Lymnaea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações anatômicas de espécimes de L. columella coletados de diferentes criadouros situados em diversos Municípios do Estado de São Paulo: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. As comparações morfométricas foram baseadas em estudos do aparelho genital, rim e rádula. Foram medidos, para cada criadouro, os comprimentos do conjunto útero-vagina, dueto da espermateca, prepúcio e bainha do pênis. Foram ainda calculados os índices de relação entre bainha do pênis/prepúcio e estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação entre comprimento da concha e comprimento do prepúcio. Cortes longitudiais do complexo peniano foram também objeto de estudo. Em relação a rádula foram determinados o número de fileiras transversais e o número de dentes por fileira, e estabelecida uma fórmula radular aproximada para os diversos criadouros.Soft parts of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied in order to determine morphometric variations. These morphometric cornparisons were made upon reproductive system, kidney and radula of snail samples collected in different municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Length measurementes of uterus, duct of spermatheca, prepuce and penis sheath were taken; the ratio penis sheath/prepuce and correlation coefficients between length of shell and length of prepuce were established. Longitudinal sections of penial complex were also studied. The number of trans verse rows, number of teeth per rows and the length of shell were determined. For each sample, the radular formula was indicated.

  10. Studies on the physiology and endocrinology of reproduction of Helisoma duryi (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miksys, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Helisoma duryi is a hermaphroditic, freshwater, pulmonate snail native to North America. It has been proposed as a biological control agent against snail intermediate hosts of Schistosoma sp., a parasitic trematode in man. Very little is known of the physiology and endocrinology of reproduction of H. duryi. This thesis investigates vitello-genesis, endocrine control of the synthesis of albumen, a nutrient-rich fluid catabolized by developing embryos, and the possible endocrine role of the gonad. Light and electron microscopy, chemical extraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and radioimmunoassay are used to identify the yolk protein ferritin. It is proposed that ferritin synthesis, and its circulating levels, are regulated, probably indirectly, by a gonadal factor released into the blood. The rate of synthesis of albumen polysaccharides can be monitored in vitro by providing albumen gland explants with the precursor /sup 14/C-glucose and measuring /sup 14/C-polysaccharide produced. The basal synthetic activity of the gland reflects the reproductive activity of the snail.

  11. Stunting of the penis in Heleobia parchappii (Mollusca: Cochliopidae) and its relationship with parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Matías J; Parietti, Manuela; Etchegoin, Jorge A

    2017-02-08

    Penis anatomy is used to discriminate species of gastropods belonging to the family Cochliopidae; however, this characteristic may be affected by the presence of parasites. To evaluate the possible effect of parasites on penis length and number of papillae in Heleobia parchappii, 195 males were collected from the Nahuel Rucá Lagoon, Argentina. Male snails were only infected by trematode digeneans (total prevalence 45.13%). Three out of 9 species of digeneans registered showed prevalence values higher than 10%: Microphallus szidati, M. simillimus, and Notocotylidae sp. 1. The penis length of non-parasitized males and those parasitized by M. szidati and M. similimus increased with increased snail length; however, this increase was lower in infected snails. In the case of snails infected with Notocotylidae sp. 1, no relationship between shell length and penis length was apparent. Differences in the life cycles of these 3 digeneans could explain the null or lower penis growth rate in relation to host body growth. In contrast, no change was observed in the number of penial papillae of H. parchappii when these snails were infected by larval digeneans compared to those that were not infected. This indicates that penial papillae may be a more stable characteristic than penis length to discriminate between species within the Cochliopidae. The study of penial papillae should be central in the taxonomy and identification of new species within the Cochliopidae, as well as in previously described species.

  12. A new record of marine wood-borer (Mollusca: Teredinidae) from waters off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Wagh, A.B.

    The occurrence of Teredona princesae (Sivickis) has been reported for the first time from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Bombay. A brief description of the pallet and distribution of this species is presented...

  13. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dayrat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species O. typhae Buchannan, 1800, O. stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883, and O. reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850. With the exception of a re-description of O. typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935 and O. nigrum (Plate, 1893 are regarded as junior synonyms of O. stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species.

  14. THE BIOLOGY OF FISSURELLA MAXIMA SOWERBY (MOLLUSCA: ARCHAEOGASTROPODA) IN NORTHERN CHILE. 2. NOTES ON ITS REPRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretos, Marta; Tesorieri, Italo; Alvarez, Luis

    1983-12-01

    For 14 months, monthly samples were collected to study reproduction in Fissurella maxima at Huayquique. Results indicate that F. maxima is a dioecious species; no sign of hermaphroditism has been observed. The sex ratio is 1:1 in the different size classes analyzed. Ovaries are green and testis are median brown to yellowish white. Eggs in the ovary measure from 120-280 µ without envelopes. The gonads are parasitized by adult digenea trematods of the genus Proctoeces. Some effects of parasitism are discussed. Variations in mean monthly gonadosomatic index suggest that there is a main spawning period in late November-December (late spring-early summer) and a secondary period in July-August (winter). Fluctuations in mean gonad index show a close correlation with sea water temperature variations. The youngest mature specimens detected were about 5 cm in shell length (over two years old), but the majority of mature animals were over 6.5 cm.

  15. Cellular biomarker responses of limpets (Mollusca as measure of sensitivity to cadmiumcontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koot Reinecke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the availability and chemical nature of some heavy metals, sub-lethal toxicant levels may persist in the ocean waters and may cause physiological problems and toxicity in invertebrates and other marine organisms. Although studies of metal concentrations in False Bay showed relatively low mean concentrations of Cd, invertebrates such as molluscs, crustaceans and many other groups are able to accumulate high levels of heavy metals in their tissues and still survive in the heaviest polluted areas. They can accumulate numerous pollutants from natural waters in quantities that are many orders of magnitude higher than background levels. Bioaccumulation ofcadmium in intertidal species could cause stress which may be measurable at the cellular level. A variety of limpet species that may serve as suitable ecotoxicological monitoring species occur in abundance on rocky shores along the South African coastline. The aim of this study was to obtain sensitivity data which could contribute to the selection of a suitable monitoring species and the eventual establishment of a species sensitivity distribution model (SSD with a biomarker responseas endpoint. The limpets Cymbula oculus, Scutellastra longicosta, Cymbula granatina and Scutellastragranularis as well as water samples were collected at two localities in False Bay, South Africa. Analysis of water and biological samples were done by atomic absorption spectrometry. Exposures were done to three different sublethal concentrations of cadmium in the laboratory in static flow tanks over three days. There was a moderate increase in cadmium body concentrations over time. Results obtained at three exposure concentrations showed no significant differences in metal concentrations between the different C. oculus samples. Significant differences were obtained between the control and the exposure groups for each exposure time except between the control and the 1mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 24 and 72 hours of exposure. Cd body concentrations(soft tissue varied between 4.56 and 21.41µg/g (wet mass.Mean Cd concentrations in soft tissue of S. longicosta was considerably lower (varying between 1.18 and 19.58 µg/g Cd than in the tissues of C. oculus. The control group differed significantly from the 0.8 and 1 mg/L CdCl2 exposures after 48 and 72 hours. Mean Cd body concentrations in S. granular is were the highest of all exposed species, reaching a level of 148 µg/g Cd at the highest exposure concentration and differed significantly from the means of the other samples of the 0.8 mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 72 hours and from the 1 mg/L CdCl2 group after 24 hours. Significant differences were also obtained between theCd body concentrations of C. granatina for the three exposure concentrations and three exposure times. Lysosomal membrane integrity was determined for both exposed and control animals, using the neutral red retention assay. Three of the four species showed a significant decrease in retention times with an increase in Cd concentration. Inter-species differences in sensitivity to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations were reflected in the biomarker responses. Based on reduction of NRR times, the order of relative sensitivity to cadmium was S. granularis >C. oculus> S. longicosta.> C.granatina. 

  16. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANTIT

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  17. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not the main goal of this paper, the taxa Scaphopoda and Bivalvia are supported by 8 and by 7 synapomorphies respectively. The taxon Protobranchia resulted paraphyletic. Both scaphopod orders resulted monophyletic. The obtained cladogram is: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.Este estudo analisa a morfologia e anatomia detalhadas de 4 espécies de Scaphopoda e 5 espécies de bivalves protobrânquios. Ambas as classes são tradicionalmente agrupadas no táxon Diasoma, o qual vem sendo questionado por diferentes metodologias, tais como molecular e de desenvolvimento. Este estudo é desenvolvido sob uma metodologia filogenética, a qual a maior preocupação é fornecer um procedimento inteligível e testável. As espécies de Scaphopoda analisadas provieram da costa brasileira e pertencem à família Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] e Gadilidae [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. Estas espécies representam os ramos principais da classe Scaphopoda. Dos bivalves protobrânquios, representantes das famílias Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, da Flórida; S. notialis, n. sp. do S.E. Brasil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri, da Flórida] e Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, do sul do Brasil] são incluídos. Estas espécies representam os principais ramos dos bivalves basais. As descrições anatômicas de S. occidentalis e de P. carpentieri estão sendo publicadas em outro artigo, as das demais espécies estão incluídas neste, o qual também inclui um completo tratamento taxonômico. Além dessas espécies, representantes de outros táxons são operacionalmente incluídos como parte do ingroup (então os índices são compartilhados com eles, um procedimento visando testar a monofilia morfológica de Diasoma. Esses táxons são 2 bivalves lamelibrânquios [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; ambos publicados em artigos a parte]; Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda e (11 Nautilus, Cephalopoda basal, baseados em táxons basais. Os outgroups efetivos são (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora e (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. A análise filogenética baseada na morfologia revelou que o táxon Diasoma é suportado por 14 sinapomorfias, sendo separada de Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Embora não sendo o principal enfoque do presente artigo, os táxons Scaphopoda e Bivalvia são suportados por 8 e por 7 sinapomorfias respectivamente. O táxon Protobranchia resultou parafilético. O cladograma obtido é: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.

  18. [Reproductive aspects of Pomacea flagellata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae) at Bacalar lagoon, Quintana Roo, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Rivera, José J; Ocaña, Frank A; Navarrete, Alberto de Jesús; Carrillo, Rosa M de Jesús; Vargas-Espósitos, Abel A

    2016-12-01

    The freshwater snail Pomacea flagellata is native from Southeastern Mexico. Studies about this species are scarce and none has treated their reproduction. This snail has been exploited at Bacalar lagoon for many years, leading to a significant decrease in their abundance and currently, a permanent ban was proposed by the government. This work aimed to assess the temporal variations of mating frequency and the abundance of egg clutches of P. flagellata at Bacalar lagoon, as well as their relation with snails density and environmental variables. Sampling was done during the three climatic seasons: Rainy (July, August and September/2012), North or Cold fronts (December/2012 and January and February/2013) and Dry (March, April and May/2013) in 12 sampling stations located along the Bacalar lagoon. On each station a transect of 100 m length was set parallel to the edge, and the number of fresh egg clutches (pink color) laid over vegetation, rocks or manmade structures, were counted. In the water, three 50 x 2 m transects were set and the number of snails were counted as well as the mating frequency. Density of snails varied significantly among seasons, decreasing from the rainy to the dry season. There were no significant differences of snail abundance among months, nested in climatic seasons (ANOVA, p>0.05). During the rainy season the mating frequency was significantly higher than in the Norths, meanwhile in the dry season no mating were registered (Kruskal-Wallis, p˂0.05). Eggs clutches appeared from July to March. Density of egg clutches presented no differences between the Rainy and the North seasons (2.72 and 2.93 clutches/m, respectively), nonetheless during the dry season abundance of egg masses was significantly lower (0.1 clutches/m) (H, p˂0.05). Mating frequency was related with snail abundance (rs= 0.26; p<0.05) and water temperature (rs= 0.34; p<0.05) and the abundance of egg masses is related with snail abundance (rs= 0.46; p<0.05). In general, we observed that reproductive activity of P. flagellata at Bacalar lagoon is related with the warmer months and with higher rainfall. This finding is relevant to support the management of this resource in the region, so that to implement any management arrangement they must be aware that a temporal ban is necessary during the reproductive season at least.

  19. A molecular method to detect and identify the native species of southwestern Atlantic Crassostrea (Mollusca: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ludwig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897 are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828 and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819. Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.

  20. New species of Rissoidae from the Cape Verde Islands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Rolán, E.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment samples collected at the Cape Verde Islands contained many interesting micromolluscs. Amongst them, four new species of the family Rissoidae ( Alvania peli, A. nicolauensis, A. stocki and A. planciusi).

  1. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio P. Ávila; Jeroen Goud; António M. de Frias Martins

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean...

  2. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years.

  3. A new Indo-Pacific Zebina species (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sleurs, W.J.; Van Goethem, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A new, widespread, but uncommon Indo-Pacific rissoinine species, Zebina ( ? Zebina) malagazzae sp. nov. is described. It is compared with its morphologically closest relative, the tropical Eastern Pacific species Zebina axeliana (STRONG & HERTLEIN, 1951 ), with the holotype of Zebina constricta LASERON, 1956 from Christmas Island and with Zebina ( ?Zebina) japonica (WEINKAUFF, 1881).

  4. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition – a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak’s terrestrial malacofauna. PMID:28769723

  5. Acanthochitona terezae sp. n., um novo poliplacóforo da costa brasileira (Mollusca, Polyplacophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Guerra Júnior

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve uma nova espécie de poliplacóforo (Acanthochitona terezae para o litoral brasileiro, apresenta dados sobre sua morfologia e discute aspectos biogeográficos.The author describes a new species of chiton (Acanthochitona terezae from the coast of Brazil, adducing data on its morphology and biogeographic aspects.

  6. Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Seychelles with description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaast, P.

    1996-01-01

    Notes are given on nine chiton species, collected mainly during the 'Oceanic Reefs' Expedition to the Seychelles (1992-1993), with some biogeographical observations. Ischnochiton goudi (family Ischnochitonidae) is described as a new species.

  7. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.

  8. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  9. The first observations of Ischnochiton (Mollusca, Polyplacophora movement behaviour, with comparison between habitats differing in complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Liversage

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most species of Ischnochiton are habitat specialists and are almost always found underneath unstable marine hard-substrata such as boulders. The difficulty of experimenting on these chitons without causing disturbance means little is known about their ecology despite their importance as a group that often contributes greatly to coastal species diversity. In the present study we measured among-boulder distributional patterns of Ischnochiton smaragdinus, and used time-lapse photography to quantify movement behaviours within different habitat types (pebble substrata and rock-platform. In intertidal rock-pools in South Australia, I. smaragdinus were significantly overdispersed among boulders, as most boulders had few individuals but a small proportion harboured large populations. I. smaragdinus individuals emerge from underneath boulders during nocturnal low-tides and move amongst the inter-boulder matrix (pebbles or rock-platform. Seventy-two percent of chitons in the pebble matrix did not move from one pebble to another within the periods of observation (55–130 min but a small proportion moved across as many as five pebbles per hour, indicating a capacity for adults to migrate among disconnected habitat patches. Chitons moved faster and movement paths were less tortuous across rock-platform compared to pebble substrata, which included more discontinuities among substratum patches. Overall, we show that patterns of distribution at the boulder-scale, such as the observed overdispersion, must be set largely by active dispersal of adults across the substratum, and that differing substratum-types may affect the degree of adult dispersal for this and possibly other under-boulder chiton species.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huirong; Zhang, Jia-En; Guo, Jing; Deng, Zhixin; Luo, Hao; Luo, Mingzhu; Zhao, Benliang

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of the Achatina fulica in this study. The results show that the mitochondrial genome is 15,057 bp in length, which is comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 21 tRNA genes. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 35.47% of A, 27.97% of T 19.46% of C, and 17.10% of G. Except the ND3, 7 tRNA, ATP6, ATP8, COX3 and 12S-rRNA on the light strand, the rest are encoded on the heavy strand. Five types of inferred initiation codons are ATA (ND1, ND5), GTG (ND6), ATG (COX3, COX2), ATT (ND4) and TTG (COX1, ND2, ND3, ND4L, ATP6, ATP8, Cytb), and 3 types of inferred termination codons are T (COX3, ND2), TAA (ND1, ND4L, ND5, ND6, ATP6), and TAG (ND3, ND4, COX1, COX2, Cytb, ATP8). There are 24 intergenic spacers and 6 gene overlaps. The tandem repeat sequence (total 52 bp) of (AATAATT)n is observed in 16S-rRNA. Gene arrangement and distribution are inconsistent with the typical vertebrates.

  11. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, H M; Vaz, J F; Fontes, L R; Domingos, M de F

    1997-06-01

    Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri country, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  12. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Esther Maria; Castro, Rosane Nora; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2018-06-01

    For the first time, alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica experimentally infected with different parasite loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined. For this, the hemolymph activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hexokinase and the glucose concentrations in the hemolymph, as well as the polysaccharide reserves in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass, were assessed. Additionally, the contents of some carboxylic acids in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), permitting a better understanding of the alterations related to the host's oxidative metabolism. As the main results, activation of oxidative pathways, such as the glycolytic pathway, was demonstrated in response to the increase in the activity of hexokinase. This tendency was confirmed by the decrease in the contents of glucose in the hemolymph of parasitized snails, indicating that the infection by A. cantonensis alters the host's metabolism, and that these changes are strongly influenced by the parasite load. This metabolic scenario was accompanied by activation of the anaerobic fermentative metabolism, indicated not only by an increase in the activity of (LDH), but also by a reduction of the content of pyruvic acid and accumulation of lactic acid in the hemolymph of parasitized snails. In this circumstance, maintenance of the host's redox balance occurs through activation of the fermentative pathways, and LDH plays a central role in this process. Together, the results indicate that A. cantonensis infection induces activation of the anaerobic metabolism of A. fulica, characterized not only by the accumulation of lactic acid, but also by a reduction in the pyruvic acid and oxalic acid contents in the hemolymph of the infected snails.

  13. How well-known is the Cephalaspidean fauna (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Indo-Pacific region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    The gastropod group Cephalaspidea contains about 700 recent species worldwide. The status of the research on the group, indicated as the number of described species, in the tropical Indo-Pacific region is compared with other areas. The number ofspecies are 118 in the Indo-Pacific, 168 in Japan...

  14. Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Marescaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate species. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (COI is considered as the standard barcode for animals. We tested the use of this gene as an efficient DNA barcode and found that it allow rapid and accurate identification of adult Dreissena individuals.

  15. Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescaux, Jonathan; Van Doninck, Karine

    2013-12-30

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate species. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene (COI) is considered as the standard barcode for animals. We tested the use of this gene as an efficient DNA barcode and found that it allow rapid and accurate identification of adult Dreissena individuals.

  16. Phylogenetic Diversity of Cephalopoda (Animalia:Mollusca) Along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea Coastline

    KAUST Repository

    Byron, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    ecosystems, serving as part of the food chain and exhibiting population increases due to targeted teleost fisheries and global climate change. In order to assess the biodiversity of Cephalopoda in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, 87 specimens were collected from 25

  17. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  18. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

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    Claudio Ghiglione

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500µm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data. Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species, 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species, 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species, 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species, 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species. This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10.

  19. Deep-water Drilliinae, Cochlespirinae and Oenopotinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

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    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of a soft-bottom community from the continental slope of Campos Basin, off southeast Brazil, were obtained between 2001 and 2003 by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge. A total of 177 samples were taken at depths ranging from 700 to 1950 m. Mollusks were present at all of the stations and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Within the family Cochlespirinae we found: Leucosyrinx tenoceras (Dall, 1889, L. verrillii (Dall, 1881, expanding the known distribution of the latter species farther south, and L.? subgrundifera (Dall, 1888, which is the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and the shallowest depth at which it has ever been found. Within the family Drilliinae we found Splendrillia centimata (Dall, 1889, also the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and its shallowest depth. Within the subfamily Oenopotinae we describe here three new species in the genus Oenopota Mörch, 1852: O. seraphina n. sp., O. diabula n. sp. and O. carioca n. sp.

  20. Three New Records of Gastropoda (Mollusca) from the Nansha Islands, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Shi, Wei; Gong, Li

    2018-04-01

    The Nansha Islands, China, have extremely high marine biodiversity and hundreds of mollusks have been reported there. Benthos resources investigations of the intertidal and subtidal zone around the Nansha Islands have been continuously performed for decades, and recently, dozens of new species and new records of mollusks have been reported from this area. This paper dealt with three new record species of the Gastropoda from Chinese waters: Cerithium salebrosum Sowerby II, 1855, Vexillum militare (Reeve, 1845) and Vexillum bizonale (Dautzenberg et Bouge, 1923), respectively belonging to three families: Cerithiidae Fleming, 1822, and Costellariidae MacDonald, 1860. All specimens were collected from the Nansha Islands during the benthos resources investigations on the intertidal zone of islands and reefs in the South China Sea in recent years. Diagnosis and geographic descriptions of both genus and species, illustrations of each species were given in this contribution, and discussion of taxonomy, identification features and faunal characteristics were presented. All examined specimens were deposited in the Marine Biodiversity Collections of South China Sea, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda presentes en el litoral del norte peruano

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    Katia Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia registradas para el norte del Perú. El trabajo se basa en la recopilación de la literatura científica disponible para el área de interés. Se presentan las 17 especies reportadas para dicha zona, clasificadas dentro del Grupo Informal Opisthobranchia en 6 clados, 12 familias y 14 géneros. A pesar del alto potencial de diversidad que se le otorga a la costa norte peruana, el número de especies registradas es bajo, debido principalmente al escaso número de exploraciones e investigaciones realizadas.

  2. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

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    Rudolf Barth

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf Elastizitaet und Kontraktilitaet des Plasmalemmas. 6. Das zum Kopf zurueckgekehrte Protoplasma wird mit restlichen Mitochondrien als Kugel ausgeschieden und von den Naehrzellen phagocytiert. 7. Der Golgi-Koerper wird vor Beendigung der Protoplasmawanderung bereits in der letzten Haelfte der Geissel eliminiert.

  3. Sea Hare Aplysia punctata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Can Maintain Shell Calcification under Extreme Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Dupont, Sam; Sigwart, Julia D

    2016-10-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO 2 ), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO 2 ). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs. Specimens were examined for metabolic rate via closed-chamber respirometry, followed by removal and examination of the shell under confocal microscopy. Staining using calcein determined the amount of new calcification that occurred over 6 days at the end of the acclimation period. The width of new, pre-calcified shell on the distal shell margin was also quantified as a proxy for overall shell growth. Aplysia punctata showed a 30% reduction in metabolic rate under low pH, but calcification was not affected. This species is apparently able to maintain calcification rate even under extreme low pH, and even when under the energetic constraints of lower metabolism. This finding adds to the evidence that calcification is a largely autonomous process of crystallization that occurs as long as suitable haeomocoel conditions are preserved. There was, however, evidence that the accretion of new, noncalcified shell material may have been reduced, which would lead to overall reduced shell growth under longer-term exposures to low pH independent of calcification. Our findings highlight that the chief impact of ocean acidification upon the ability of marine invertebrates to maintain their shell under low pH may be energetic constraints that hinder growth of supporting structure, rather than maintenance of calcification.

  4. Effekte von Xenohormonen auf die limnischen Invertebraten Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) und Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca, Prosobranchia)

    OpenAIRE

    Schirling, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden Effekte von Xenohormonen auf Gammarus fossarum und Marisa cornuarietis anhand verschiedener Parameter, auf unterschiedlichen biologischen Ebenen dargestellt. In einem Laborexperiment mit G. fossarum, das Grundlage für weitere Untersuchungen im Rahmen dieser Arbeit war, konnte gezeigt werden, dass sich die Stressproteine hsp90 und hsp70 im Laufe der Oocytenreifung gegenläufig verhalten. Sowohl in einem Freilandversuch, bei dem der Einfluss von Kläranlageneinleitern ...

  5. A new alien snail species from the Eger stream, Hungary (Mollusca, Ampullariidae

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    Frisóczki, B.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our macrozoobenthon samplings carried out in the Eger stream during 2015–2016 resulted in recording an alien species Marisa cornuarietis (Linneaus, 1758 the giant ramshorn snail which has not been reported so far from outdoorwaters in Hungary. Here we report on collecting several specimens from the urban section of the stream close to the outflow of the Eger thermal spa.

  6. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  7. The genus Alvania on the Canary Islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Micromolluscs of the family Rissoidae and belonging to the genus Alvania s.l. from the Canary Islands and the Madeira archipelago are revised. For several species the type locality is restricted and lectotypes are designated for Rissoa canadensis d’Orbigny, 1839, R. euchila Watson, 1886, R.

  8. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  9. Great Lakes DNA barcode reference library: Mollusca, annelida, and minor phyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the research and development of DNA-based tools has improved both their sensitivity and costs. This technology has the potential to be useful in the early detection of aquatic invasive species, and can increase the scope of surveillance compared with traditional ...

  10. The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae, Pectinidae and Spondylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Marshall, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region are reviewed. Eight new species are described from the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone: Parvamussium cancellorum, Cyclochlamys austrina, Cc. delli, Cc. irregularis, Cc. munida, Cc. pileolus, Cyclopecten fluctuosus, and Catillopecten tasmani. Nine

  11. Changes in energetic metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae in response to exogenous calcium

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    L. D. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species. Sixty-day-old snails were distributed into six groups, five exposed to different concentrations of CaCO3 (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L and a control group. The exposure to CaCO3 was assessed over time, with analysis of 15 snails of each group in the following intervals: 1, 14, 21 or 30 days for hemolymph extraction. Concentrations of calcium and glucose in the hemolymph were determined by commercial kits, and organic acids were extracted using an ion exchange column and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration of calcium in the hemolymph showed no significant difference (p>0.05 from the control group and between the concentrations tested. Concentration of glucose decreased (p<0.05 in the treatments of exposure to 20 and 40 mg/L and increased when exposed to 80 and 100 mg/L CaCO3 compared to control and to other concentrations tested over 30 days. The organic acids pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate, fumarate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate presented increased concentrations, while propionate and acetoacetate, decreased concentrations, when exposed to CaCO3 compared to control. Considering the influence of different periods of exposure to CaCO3, on the 14th day, there were stronger alterations in the metabolism of B. glabrata. In conclusion, exposure to CaCO3 reduced the concentration of glucose, which is metabolized into pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, and also influenced the energetic metabolism pathways, indicating an aerobic or partially anaerobic functioning.

  12. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M.

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years. PMID:22693430

  13. The sensorial structures of Spondylus americanus Hermann,1781 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Spondylidae

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    Marina Gomes Viana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult animals of Spondylus americanus were analyzed and specialized sensorial structures, the sensorial papillae and the eyes, were characterized. The sensorial papillae were projections on the edge of the mantle in form of light brown fingers which had function of percepting stimulus coming from the medium. They were constituted by loose conjunctive tissues with longitudinal muscular fibers and externally covered by ciliated cubic epithelium, which presented high amount of melanocytes that gave the coloration of the papillae. The eyes were more complex, being on small stalks histologically similar to the papillae. They exhibited a circular formate and had a metallic blue color. Theses structures were constituted by a corneo epithelium, cornea, lens, retina, basal stalk, periocular band and optical nerve. The eyes were distributed asymmetrically to both valves related with the sedentarism of the species. Right valve presented a smaller number of eyes when compared to left one.Foram examinados exemplares adultos de Spondylus. americanus Hermann, 1781 e estruturas especializadas na percepção de estímulos foram caracterizadas: as papilas sensoriais e os ocelos. As papilas sensoriais são projeções do bordo manto em forma de dedos de cor castanha e com a função de perceber estímulos vindo do meio, são constituídas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo contendo fibras musculares longitudinais e revestidas externamente por epitélio cúbico ciliado, o qual apresenta grande quantidade de melanócitos, que dão a coloração das papilas. Os ocelos são mais complexos, estando sobre pequenos pedúnculos histologicamente semelhante às papilas, têm formato circular e possui cor azul metálica. Constituí-se por um epitélio córneo, córnea, lente, retina, pedúnculo basal, banda periocular e nervo óptico. Os ocelos distribuem-se assimetricamente por ambas as valvas, o que está relacionado com o sedentarismo da espécie. A valva direita apresenta menor número de ocelos quando comparada a esquerda.

  14. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  15. Phylogenetic Diversity of Cephalopoda (Animalia:Mollusca) Along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea Coastline

    KAUST Repository

    Byron, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    Although the Red Sea presents a unique environment with high temperature and salinity, it remains an area that is understudied. This lack of information is reflected in many areas, one which is biodiversity. Despite increasing work on biodiversity throughout the Red Sea and an increase in Cephalopoda studies, Cephalopoda in the Red Sea remain underrepresented, which is especially pronounced in molecular analyses. Members of the class Cephalopoda are considered to be major contributors to coral reef ecosystems, serving as part of the food chain and exhibiting population increases due to targeted teleost fisheries and global climate change. In order to assess the biodiversity of Cephalopoda in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, 87 specimens were collected from 25 reef locations between 17°N and 28°N latitude, as well as from the largest fish market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Taxonomic identification of specimens was determined using morphological comparisons with previously reported species in the Red Sea and the molecular barcoding region Cytochrome Oxidase I. 84 Red Sea sequences were compared with sequences from GenBank and analyzed using a complement of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood, and Bayesian inference trees. Species complexes were also investigated for Sepia pharaonis and Sepioteuthis lessoniana, which had been previously reported. From 17 cuttlefish, our study yielded three species, two of which matched previously reported species in GenBank. In addition, two distinct clades of Sepia pharaonis were identified. Of 35 squid collected, four species were identified, one of which did not match any other accepted species in literature, while Sepioteuthis lessoniana in the Red Sea formed a distinct clade. From 30 different specimens a total of five genera of Octopoda were present, forming six distinct species. Five Octopoda species collected did not match previously reported species, although many specimens were paralarvae or juveniles, so morphologically we could not compare to previously described species in the Red Sea. Cephalopoda fisheries in the Red Sea is low, and as their populations increase worldwide, this could be a viable fishery for Saudi Arabia. As such, further investigation into the role which cephalopods play in supporting biodiversity in the Red Sea is essential.

  16. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

    2005-08-01

    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and mineral components, provides a new insight into biomineralization mechanisms and controls. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. A checklist of land snails from the west coast islands of Sabah, Borneo (Mollusca, Gastropoda

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    Chee-Chean Phung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabah, situated in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, has the largest number of islands in Malaysia with more than 500 of various sizes and degrees of isolation. However, information on the islands’ biodiversity is limited. This study provides an up-to-date checklist of land snail species found on 24 west coast islands in Sabah. A total of 67 species (nearly 20% of the total number of land snail species in the state representing 37 genera and 19 families is enumerated based on systematic field surveys of 133 sampling plots, BORNEENSIS database records and species checklists published between 2000 and 2016. The number of species on the islands ranges from four to 29. Labuan Island has the highest number of species (29, followed by Tiga Island (25, Mantanani Besar Island (24 and Gaya Island (23. However, the populations of some land snail species may have declined as several previously recorded species on the islands were not found in a recent systematic field sampling. This checklist is provided as a baseline inventory for future island land snail studies and to better inform biodiversity conservation plans of marine parks and other islands on the Sabah west coast.

  18. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

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    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  19. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  20. Caloric variability of Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca, Bivalvia in Rosana Reservoir, Brazil

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    Yara Moretto Bagatini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate temporal and longitudinal variation of caloric density of Corbicula fluminea in Rosana Reservoir. Significant differences concerning the caloric density of C. fluminea were observed throughout the year at the three reservoir sites. The caloric density variation during the year was probably related to reproductive activity, which demanded higher allocation of energy in certain period. The food source used by this species might be an important factor in the caloric value temporal and spatial variation of C. fluminea in Rosana Reservoir.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a variação temporal e longitudinal da densidade calórica de C. fluminea no reservatório de Rosana. Diferenças significativas na densidade calórica de C. fluminea foram observadas ao longo do ano e nas três estações do reservatório. A variação na densidade calórica de C. fluminea, durante o ano, provavelmente foi relacionada à atividade reprodutiva, que exige uma maior alocação de energia em determinado período. O recurso alimentar utilizado por esta espécie pode ser um importante fator na variação temporal e espacial do valor calórico de C. fluminea no reservatório de Rosana.

  1. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various...

  2. Geochemical and Crystallographic Study of Turbo Torquatus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) From Southwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, L. M.; George, A. D.; Shaw, J.; Hart, R. D.; Roberts, M. P.; Becker, T.; Evans, N. J.; McDonald, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    Shells of the marine gastropod Turbo torquatus were sampled from three different locations along the Western Australian coastline, namely Marmion Lagoon (31°S), Rottnest Island (32°S), and Hamelin Bay (34°S). Marmion Lagoon and Rottnest Island have similar sea surface temperature ranges that are ˜1°C warmer than Hamelin Bay, with all sites influenced by the warm southward flowing Leeuwin Current. The shells were characterized using crystallographic, spectroscopic, and geochemical analyses. Shell mineral composition varies between the three sites suggesting the influence of sea surface temperature, oxygen consumption, and/or bedrock composition on shell mineralogy and preferential incorporation and/or elemental discrimination of Mg, P, and S. Furthermore, T. torquatus was found to exert control over the incorporation of most, if not all, the elements measured here, suggesting strong biological regulation. At all levels of testing, the concentrations of Li varied significantly, which indicates that this trace element may not be a suitable environmental proxy. Variation in Sr concentration between sites and between specimens reflects combined environmental and biological controls suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios in T. torquatus cannot be used to estimate sea surface temperature without experimentally accounting for metabolic and growth effects. The mineral composition and microstructure of T. torquatus shells may help identify sea surface temperature variations on geological time scales. These findings support the previously hypothesized involvement of an active selective pathway across the calcifying mantle of T. torquatus for most, if not all, the elements measured here.

  3. An annotated list of the species of the genus Corbicula from Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz

    1977-01-01

    The species of the genus Corbicula known from Indonesia are alphabetically listed and noted. Sixteen out of the 35 described species are considered valid, i.e. C. gustaviana, C. moltkiana, C. sumatrana, C. tobae and C. tumida from Sumatra; C. javanica, C. pulchella and C. rivalis from Java; C.

  4. Wood-Boring Bivalves (Mollusca: Teredinidae, Pholadidae) of Pacific coast of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantera K, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of wood-boring bivalves, ten of the family Teredinidae and two of family Pholadidae were collected in mangroves at 6 locations of the Pacific coast of Colombia. This paper presents a brief escription of these species, including size, ecological notes and geographical distribution.

  5. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

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    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to the right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell width/shell lenght = 0,60 - 0,67 (mean = 0,63; shell height/shell length = 0,50 - 0,61 (mean = 0,55; shell height/shell width = 0,33 - 0,40 (mean = 0,35. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation concentrated on the left side; three muscles are seen: a round posterior one on the left side, an elliptical muscle on the right anterior side and an almost almond-shaped one on the left anterior side. Tentacles with a medium core of black pigment. Pseudobranch two-lobed and folded, the dorsal lobe smaller than the vetral one. Ovotestis with 20 unbranched diverticula, around a short collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with an enlargement with several round outpocketings constituting the seminal vesicle. Carrefour as a round sac. Albumen gland almost cylindrical with several acinous diverticula. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the galndular wall of the uterus; uterus flattened and thin-walled. Spermathecal body almost rounded. Pear-shaped prostate without diverticula. Penial complex without flagellum but with well-developed ultra-penis and penis. Jaw horseshoe shaped. Radular forma 20.1.20; raquidian tooth quadricuspid, asymmetrical. The genus Laevapex Walker, 1903 is recorded for the first time in Brazil. It is easily distinguished from South American Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849 by its penial complex. Laevapex vazi is dedicated to Dr. Jorge Faria Vaz, from SUCEN-SP, who have been sent to me the specimens.

  6. Efecto de la temperatura de la Rizosfera sobre la distribución de la materia seca en uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. Effect of rizosphere temperature on the dry matter distribution in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Gerhard

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el hábitat natural de la uchuva en Colombia (de 1.600 a 2.800 msnm la temperatura edáfica varía de acuerdo con los
    factores climatológicos determinados por la altitud y por el manejo que se le de al suelo y al cultivo. Para estudiar el efecto de la temperatura en la rizosfera sobre la distribución
    de la materia seca en la uchuva y encontrar mecanismos de adaptación al altiplano colombiano, se cultivaron durante 11 semanas los ecotipos 'Colombia' y 'Sudáfrica' con temperaturas edáficas de 8, 15, 22 y 29°C bajo invernadero en Berlín, Alemania. Se utilizaron macetas plásticas de 2,5 L de capacidad y arena de cuarzo como substrato. Con el
    aumento de la temperatura en la rizosfera creció la producción de biomasa hasta un máximo a 22 y 29°C dependiendo del órgano de la planta y del ecotipo. La mayor acumulación de materia seca la obtuvo 'Colombia' a 29°C y 'Sudáfrica' a 22°C. Con 8°C de temperatura radical las plantas produjeron poca masa seca radical y foliar, mientras la materia de los frutos disminuyó en menor proporción, debido posiblemente a mecanismos de adaptación a los suelos fríos del altiplano. Los 22°C fomentaron más el crecimiento de las ramas principales, mientras las laterales tuvieron su óptimo a 29°C, posiblemente debido a un efecto hormonal. La mayor acumulación de materia seca en raíces,
    hojas y frutos del ecotipo 'Colombia' a 29°C se puede interpretar como una adaptación a los suelos calientes de las laderas expuestas al sol.
    In the natu ral habitat of cape gooseberry in Colombia, on sites from 1.600 to 2.800 m.a.s.l., soil temperature is affected by c1imatologicfactors, which are determined by the altitud and cultural and soil management practices. In order to study the effect of rizosphere temperature on the distribution of dry matter in the cape gooseberry plant and to find mecanisms of adaptation to the Colombian highland conditions, during 11 weeks 'Colombia' and 'Southafrica' ecotipes were groWn at root zone temperatures of 8, 15, 22 and 29°C under greenhouse conditions in Berlin, Germany. Two and a half L plastic pots and quartz sand as substrate were used. With rising rizosphere temperatures biomass production increased up to 22 and 29°C depending on plant organ and ecotype. The highest biomass accumulation achieved 'Colombia' at 29°C and 'Southafrica' at 22°C. At 8°C temperature low root and leaf dry matter were produced, while fruit producction was less affected. This indicates an adaptation to cold soils in the highlands. 22°C encouraged more the growth of main shoots while laterals had their optimum soil temperature at 29°C, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. The highest partitioning of dry matter of the Colombian ecotype to roots, leaves and fruits at 29°C is considered as an adaptation to the hot soils in the slopes exposed to the sun.

  7. EVALUACIÓN SENSORIAL DE FRESA (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) Y UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L.) FORTIFICADAS CON VITAMINA E SENSORY EVALUATION OF STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) AND CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L.) FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN E

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Restrepo Duque; Misael Cortés Rodríguez; Héctor Suárez Mahecha

    2008-01-01

    El desarrollo de tecnologías como la impregnación al vacío (IV), permite ofrecer al consumidor frutos mínimamente procesados, con alto valor nutricional y calidad sensorial similar al producto fresco. En esta investigación se presenta la evaluación sensorial de fresas y uchuvas fortificadas con vitamina E en función de atributos como: intensidad del color, sabor ácido, sabor dulce, sensación grasa, dureza, jugosidad y aceptación global. La evaluación sensorial se realizó para cada fruto media...

  8. EVALUACIÓN SENSORIAL DE FRESA (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. Y UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. FORTIFICADAS CON VITAMINA E SENSORY EVALUATION OF STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. AND CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L. FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Restrepo Duque

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de tecnologías como la impregnación al vacío (IV, permite ofrecer al consumidor frutos mínimamente procesados, con alto valor nutricional y calidad sensorial similar al producto fresco. En esta investigación se presenta la evaluación sensorial de fresas y uchuvas fortificadas con vitamina E en función de atributos como: intensidad del color, sabor ácido, sabor dulce, sensación grasa, dureza, jugosidad y aceptación global. La evaluación sensorial se realizó para cada fruto mediante pruebas descriptivas escalares de 9 bloques, donde el control (fruto fresco fue posicionado en el centro y los jueces evaluaron el grado de intensidad del atributo en comparación con el control. El proceso de IV mejoró la calidad sensorial de los frutos recién impregnados en términos de sabor y aceptación global. Estas muestras fueron evaluadas como más jugosas, más dulces y menos ácidas que las muestras frescas.The development of technologies such as vacuum impregnation (VI, allows the consumer fruits to offer minimally processed, with high nutritional value and similar sensorial quality to the fresh product. In this investigation the sensorial evaluation of strawberries and cape gooseberry fortified with vitamin E is presented in function of attributes like: intensity of the color, sour flavor, sweet flavor, fatty sensation, hardness, juiciness and global acceptance. The sensorial evaluation was carried out for each fruit by means of scalar descriptive tests of 9 blocks, where the control (fresh fruit was positioned in the central part and the judges evaluated the grade of intensity of the attribute in comparison with the control. The process of VI improved the sensorial quality of the fruits recently impregnated in terms of flavor and global acceptance. These samples were evaluated as juicier, sweeter and less acidic that the fresh samples.

  9. PROPAGACIÓN DE UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. MEDIANTE DIFERENTES TIPOS DE ESQUEJES Y SUSTRATOS PROPAGATION OF CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L. USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF CUTTINGS AND SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José López Acosta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de contribuir al conocimiento sobre la propagación asexual de uchuva, se estableció este experimento cuyo objetivo fue evaluar el uso de esquejes obtenidos de diferentes partes de la planta: del tercio alto, medio y bajo de la rama productiva, de hoja y de hoja con yema axilar. Se determinaron las características del enraizamiento (longitud, peso de materia fresca y seca de raíces, y algunos cambios de magnitud de los esquejes (peso de materia fresca del esqueje y longitud del brote axilar durante un período de la fase vegetativa del cultivo. Los esquejes ( 16 cm de longitud, 2 nudos, con un par de hojas en el nudo superior fueron establecidos en diferentes sustratos: arena; suelo:cascarilla de arroz (1:1 v/v y arena:suelo:cascarilla de arroz (1:1:1 v/v y mantenidos en condiciones de alta humedad relativa (90% y temperatura media de 24ºC. Los resultados demostraron diferencias estadísticas entre tipo de esqueje; siendo los del tercio alto, los que obtuvieron mayor longitud radical, mayor peso de materia fresca y seca de raíces y mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento. En cuanto a los sustratos, se encontró que las mejores condiciones para enraizamiento se presentaron en la arena, donde se obtuvieron plántulas con el porcentaje de enraizamiento más alto, sin embargo, las diferencias significativas solo se presentaron entre longitud de raíz y del brote axilar.In order to contribute to the knowledge of the asexual propagation of cape gooseberry, this study was established with the aim to evaluate the use of cuttings from different plant parts: first third (apical shoot part, medium and basal third of the productive shoot; leaf solely and leaf with axillary bud. The characteristics of rooting were identified (length, fresh and dry weight of roots, and some changes of cutting’s magnitude (fresh weight of the cutting, length of the axillary sprout during the vegetative growth cycle. The cuttings ( 16 cm long, 2 nodes, with a pair of leaves in the superior node were established in different substrates: sand; soil:rice husks (1:1 v/v and sand:soil:rice husks (1:1:1 v/v and were held under conditions of high relative humidity (90% and an average temperature of 24°C. The results showed statistical differences between types of cutting; being the apical third of the shoot, which obtained longest root length, highest root dry and fresh matter and percentage of rooting. Regarding substrates best conditions for rooting of cuttings were obtained in sand, where seedlings had the highest percentage of rooting, however significant differences only were found with root length and axillary sprouts.

  10. Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L processing alternatives for the profit of the fruits unsuitable for the marketing fresh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Castro Sánchez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of unsuitable fruits for marketing in fresh, represents an area with great economic potential. In the regions of Colombia where is produced cape gooseberry it is necessary to consider and develop processing alternatives of this fruit, because the losses in harvest and postharvest of gooseberry in the country, can reach up to 45% of the total production. In this research, it was developed pulp, jam and nectar of cape gooseberry ecotype Colombia with cracked and soft fruits, from Ventaquemada and Cienega, municipalities of the department of Boyaca. The results of this research have applications for the producing regions of cape gooseberry in Colombia that suffer from loss of fruit by cracking and softening. There were three formulations of each by-product, by varying the content of pulp in the final product and the physiochemical characterization, microbiological and sensorial. Finally, it was calculated the cost of each most accepted by-product by the panel. The results showed that at a microbiological l and physic-chemical level, the sub-products meet the regulations. At sensory level, the most widely accepted pulp pasteurized with sugar, the most accepted nectar was the formulation with 20% of pulp and the most widely accepted jam was the formulation with 50% of pulp. The cost to process 1 kg of fruit was 3,11 USD for pulp, 3,36 USD for nectar and 3,66 USD for jam.

  11. The population structure of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Diptera: Psycodidae), a Bartonella bacilliformis and Leishmania peruviana vector in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Caceres, Abraham G; Beati, Lorenza; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2012-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend), a sand fly disease vector of Carrion's disease and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes, was characterized by sequencing 653 bp of cytochrome b and 1,125 bp of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 genes of its mitochondrial genome. DNA sequence variation within and between valleys was compared in a sample of 220 sand flies from three valleys (Purisima, Huaylas, and Conchucos) and five departments (Amazonas, Cajamarca, Piura, Lima, and Huancavelica). Gene network and phylogenetic analyses indicated a high similarity of haplotypes collected within a single valley (0-0.52% nucleotide divergence). Flies from each valley had unique genotypes not shared with specimens from other valleys or from more distant regions (0.8-3.1% nucleotide divergence). Mountain ranges and geographic distance appear to have impeded migration (N(m) = < 0.18) between valleys and separated populations into discrete genetic units.

  12. Behavior in yield and quality of 54 cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. accessions from north-eastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera M. Axel M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This study evaluated the performance in production and fruit quality of 54 accessions of cape gooseberry collected from plants that were cultivated, feral and indeterminate from the north-east. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design with four replicates per accession in a greenhouse. We estimated the germination percentage (GP for 30 seeds per accession and with a random sampling of 20 fruits at 120 days after the beginning of harvest (dah, weight of the fruit with calyx (CFW, percentage of cracked fruit (CF, number of fruits per plant (NFP and yield (Y, were determined and at 105 dah total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, maturity ratio (MR = TSS/TTA, pH and ascorbic acid (AA were evaluated. Significant differences were observed in GP, Y and CFW with the highest values recorded at 91.23%, 6.17 kg/ plant and 5.68 g, respectively. For the variables TSS and CF, feral materials showed the highest values with 14.7°Brix and 23.93%, respectively. The results suggest the presence of significant variability in the Cape gooseberry germplasm analyzed that can be incorporated into future conservation and breeding programs.

  13. Effect of calcium chloride and refrigeration on the quality and organoleptic characteristics of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Alvarez Herrera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gooseberry is one of the exotic fruit species most important in Colombia. Calcium has been shown to be important for quality maintenance in fruits and vegetables, as it prevents a number of physiological disorders reinforce the cell walls and stabilize cellular membranes. With the aim to increase the fruit calcium concentration, a completely randomized design with four treatments was performed: a control and three applications of CaCl2 (0.5%, 1% and 2%, with four replicates, for a total of 16 experimental units (EU. The fruit was collected at maturity stage 6 according to the standard Icontec NTC 4580, completely healthy and homogeneous. The fruit was subsequently stored at 21 ± 1 ° C (RH 45%. The application of calcium in the gooseberry fruits decreased mass loss, firmness and ATT. Calcium treated fruit showed an increase in SST. In contrast, the treatments did not affect color. The doses of CaCl2 tested delayed ripening and prevented fruit deterioration.

  14. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of air-dried cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. at different ripeness stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Narváez-Cuenca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Because the use of drying at high temperatures might negatively affect the functional properties of fruits, the effect of air-drying at 60°C on the total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant capacity (AOC of cape gooseberry fruit was evaluated at three ripeness stages. The AOC was evaluated with 2,2'-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS , ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and beta-carotene-linoleate assays. The TPC and AOC increased in the fresh fruit as the ripeness stage increased. The TPC increased from 401.8±19.8 to 569.3±22.3 mg GA E/100 g dry weight (DW. The AOC values obtained with ABTS in the fresh fruit (ranging from 79.4±4.5 to 132.7±12.9 mumol trolox/g fruit DW were comparable to those obtained with FRAP (ranging from 82.9±16.3 to 153.9±31.7 mumol trolox/g fruit DW. The values assessed with DPPH ranged from 21.0±3.2 to 34.1±5.1 mumol trolox/g fruit DW. The beta-carotene-linoleate assay gave values ranging from 5.8±1.1 to 12.7±2.0 mumol a-tocoferol/g fruit DW. Air-drying the cape gooseberry fruit had a small influence on the TPC. The air-dried fruit had AOC values ranging from 27 to 164% of the value of the fresh fruit. While the ABTS assay produced higher values in the air-dried fruit than in the fresh fruit, the FRAP, DPPH, and beta-carotene-linoleate assays resulted in lower values in the air-dried fruit.

  15. Untargeted metabolomics reveals specific withanolides and fatty acyl glycoside as tentative metabolites to differentiate organic and conventional Physalis peruviana fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano, Sandra M; Muñoz-Jiménez, Ana M; Jiménez-Cartagena, Claudio; Londoño-Londoño, Julián; Medina, Sonia

    2018-04-01

    The agronomic production systems may affect the levels of food metabolites. Metabolomics approaches have been applied as useful tool for the characterization of fruit metabolome. In this study, metabolomics techniques were used to assess the differences in phytochemical composition between goldenberry samples produced by organic and conventional systems. To verify that the organic samples were free of pesticides, individual pesticides were analyzed. Principal component analysis showed a clear separation of goldenberry samples from two different farming systems. Via targeted metabolomics assays, whereby carotenoids and ascorbic acid were analyzed, not statistical differences between both crops were found. Conversely, untargeted metabolomics allowed us to identify two withanolides and one fatty acyl glycoside as tentative metabolites to differentiate goldenberry fruits, recording organic fruits higher amounts of these compounds than conventional samples. Hence, untargeted metabolomics technology could be suitable to research differences on phytochemicals under different agricultural management practices and to authenticate organic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Síntomas de deficiencia de macronutrientes y boro en plantas de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Fabio Ernesto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El desconocimiento de los signos y síntomas visibles de las deficiencias nutricionales no permite establecer oportunos correctivos para manejar plantas con suficiente vigor, producción y calidad de los frutos. Plantas de uchuva ecotipo Colombia, propagadas por semilla, se sembraron en sustrato de arena cuarcítica en materas de plástico (25 L, y se mantuvieron durante 135 días en condiciones de invernadero de plástico en Bogotá. Las deficiencias nutricionales se indujeron a través de soluciones nutritivas, usando el método del elemento faltante y empleando un diseño completamente al azar con ocho tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, a saber: T0. testigo con fertilización completa; T1. fertilización completa –N; T2. –P; T3. –K; T4. –Ca; T5. –Mg; T6. –B, y T7. agua potable únicamente. Solamente en el caso del nitrógeno se aplicó 15% del N de la fertilización completa. Quincenalmente se efectuó una descripción visual y se llevó un registro fotográfico de los síntomas manifestados. Las plantas con deficiencias de N, K y B presentaron los síntomas más severos, generando efectos negativos sobre la arquitectura y el deficiente porte de las plantas, además de causar una seria afección sobre el tejido vegetal. Las plantas deficientes en B tomaron una forma de roseta, típico síntoma hipoplástico. Las uchuvas que sufrieron deficiencias de P, Ca, Mg presentaron distorsiones en el color del follaje, observándose para la deficiencia de P, una coloración púrpura tanto en hojas de la zona reproductiva de la planta como en las del tallo principal. Las deficiencias de Mg y Ca, respectivamente, indujeron clorosis foliar intervenal y coloraciones anaranjadas.

  17. Influence of drying temperature on dietary fibre, rehydration properties, texture and microstructure of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zura-Bravo, Liliana; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Martinez-Monzó, Javier; Quispe-Fuentes, Issis; Puente, Luis; Di Scala, Karina

    2015-04-01

    The effects of air drying temperature on dietary fibre, texture and microstructure of the Cape gooseberry fruits during convective dehydration in the range of 50-90 ºC were investigated. The ratio of insoluble dietary fibre to soluble dietary fibre was higher than 7:1 for all dehydrated samples. At 50 ºC tissue structure damage was evidenced leading to the maximum water holding capacity (47.4 ± 2.8 g retained water/100 g water) and the lowest rehydration ratio (1.15 ± 0.06 g absorbed water/g d.m.). Texture analysis showed effects of drying temperatures on TPA parameters. Changes in microstructure tissue were also observed at the studied drying temperatures. Hot air drying technology leads not only to fruit preservation but also increases and adds value to Cape gooseberry, an asset to develop new functional products.

  18. Imbibition and percentage of germination of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. seeds under NaCl stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Diego

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia cape gooseberry is often grown on salt affected soils. The present study evaluated the effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on imbibition and percentage of germination of ‘Colombia’ ecotype cape gooseberry seeds. Under controlled laboratory conditions (25/20°C day/night temperature, 80% relative humidity, and a 12 hour photoperiod, the seeds were subjected to 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl concentrations (corresponding to respective electrical conductivity levels of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12.2 dS m-1, during an evaluation period of 299 hours. A significantly lower imbibition level, expressed as 35% of the fresh weight accumulated by the control seeds, was observed in the 120 mM NaCl treatment. At the end of the experiment, respective germination percentages of 97.6% and 96.4% were recorded in the salt-free seeds and in those exposed to 30 mM NaCl. In contrast, only 62.5% of those seeds treated with 120 mM NaCl germinated. Root malformations such as lack of elongation were observed in the highest NaCl concentration treatment. Regarding its germination process, cape gooseberry can be classified as moderately tolerant to sodium. In effect, after 299 h of treatment, there was no statistical difference in imbibition level or percentage of germination between the 0, 30 and 60 mM NaCl treatments.

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES TERMODINÁMICAS DE SORCIÓN DE LA UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L.) SORÇÃO TERMODINÁMICA AVALIAÇÃO DAS PROPRIEDADES GOOSEBERRY CAPE (Physalis peruviana L.) SORPTION THERMODYNAMICS PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF THE CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    FARID B. CORTÉS; ANDRÉS BETANCOURT; BENJAMIN ROJANO; VERONICA LÓPEZ; ERIKA ARENAS

    2012-01-01

    El equilibrio de sorción de agua a diferentes temperaturas (25, 35, 50 y 60°C) en un rango de humedad relativa, de 0.10 a 0.85, se determinó para la uchuva usando un método gravimétrico estático. El calor isostérico y la energía libre de Gibbs se calcularon desde el equilibrio de sorción. Los modelos de GAB, BET, SMITH, el modificado de Halsey, el modificado Chung-Pfost, el modificado de Oswin y el modificado de Henderson fueron probados para ajustar los datos experimentales. El modelo GAB fu...

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES TERMODINÁMICAS DE SORCIÓN DE LA UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. SORÇÃO TERMODINÁMICA AVALIAÇÃO DAS PROPRIEDADES GOOSEBERRY CAPE (Physalis peruviana L. SORPTION THERMODYNAMICS PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF THE CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARID B. CORTÉS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El equilibrio de sorción de agua a diferentes temperaturas (25, 35, 50 y 60°C en un rango de humedad relativa, de 0.10 a 0.85, se determinó para la uchuva usando un método gravimétrico estático. El calor isostérico y la energía libre de Gibbs se calcularon desde el equilibrio de sorción. Los modelos de GAB, BET, SMITH, el modificado de Halsey, el modificado Chung-Pfost, el modificado de Oswin y el modificado de Henderson fueron probados para ajustar los datos experimentales. El modelo GAB fue el más adecuado para describir las curvas de sorción. Los valores de contenido de humedad de la monocapa para la sorción a diferentes temperaturas fueron calculados usando el modelo BET. El calor isostérico decrece con el incremento en el contenido de humedad, mientras que la energía libre de Gibbs incrementa.O equilíbrio de sorção de água em diferentes temperaturas (25, 35, 35 e 60° C em uma faixa de umidade relativa, entre 0,10 e 0,85, foi determinada utilizando um método estático gravimétrico. Isostérico de calor e energia livre de Gibbs foram calculados a partir do equilíbrio de sorção. Os modelos de GAB, BET, SMITH, o Halsey modificado, modificado Chung-Pfost na Oswin modificado e Henderson modificado foram testados para ajuste dos dados experimentais. O modelo GAB é o mais adequado para descrever as curvas de adsorção. Os valores de umidade para a adsorção em monocamada em diferentes temperaturas foram calculadas utilizando o modelo de BET. calor isostérico diminui com o aumento da umidade, enquanto o aumento da energia livre de Gibbs.The equilibrium sorption of water at different temperatures (25, 35, 50 and 60°C at a relative humidity range, from 0.10 to 0.85, was determined using a static gravimetric method. Isosteric heat and Gibbs free energy were calculated from the sorption equilibrium. The models of GAB, BET, SMITH, the modified Hasley, modified Chung-Pfost on the modified Oswin and Henderson was tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model is most appropriate to describe the sorption curves. The moisture content values for the monolayer adsorption at different temperatures were calculated using the BET model. Isosteric heat decreases with increasing moisture energy increases.

  1. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. We solicited comments on the...

  2. Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae as an intermediate host of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae in Brazil Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae como hospedeiro intermediário de Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleurolophocercous cercariae emerged from naturally infected Melanoides tuberculata from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were used to perform experimental infection of laboratory-reared Poecilia reticulata. Mature metacercariae were obtained from the gills of fishes and force-fed to Mus musculus. The adult parasites which recovered from small intestines of mice were identified as Centrocestus formosanus. This is the first report of M. tuberculata as intermediate host of this heterophyid in Brazil.Cercárias do tipo pleurolofocerca emergidas de Melanoides tuberculata naturalmente infectados coletados na represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram utilizadas para a infecção experimental de Poecilia reticulata criados em laboratório. Metacercárias maduras foram obtidas nas brânquias dos peixes e administradas por via oral a Mus musculus. Parasitos adultos recuperados no intestino delgado dos camundongos foram identificados como Centrocestus formosanus. Este é o primeiro relato de M. tuberculata como hospedeiro intermediário deste parasito no Brasil.

  3. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  4. Algumas observações de campo sobre biologia e ecologia de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 (Mollusca, Pilidae Some field observation on biology and ecology of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 (Mollusca, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tito Guimarães

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas observações de campo sobre o pilídeo Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856, predador-competidor de planorbíneos hospedeiros intermediários da esquistossomose mansoni mostraram que: Cópula e oviposição são realizadas, preferencialmente, à noite e de madrugada. As desovas - cujas dimensões e formas dependem do número de ovos e tipos dos suportes - sao ovipostas, na maioria das vezes, de 6 a 10 cm acima do nível da água eclodindo após 9 a 30 dias de incubação; o número médio de ovos por desova foi de 236. A alimentação habitual deste molusco consiste de algas confervóides, além de vegetais aquáticos natantes e submersos; entretanto, e comum a utilização de outros materiais como alimento.Tem como habitat a zona marginal mais rasa das coleções hídricas onde e encontrado, predominando, aparentemente, nos ambientes lênticos. A distribuição espacial esta condicionada por determinadas características dos biótopos. Algumas aves aquáticas - anatídeos, ralídeos, etc.- revelaram-se importantes inimigos naturais, atacando além das desovas exemplares jovens e adultos; em determinadas condições podem constituir fator impeditivo da implantação e colonização de novos biótopos.Some field observations on the pilid Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856, predator-competitor of schistosomiasis mansoni planorbid intermediate hosts have shown that: Copula and oviposition are preferably carried out at night or at dawn. Eggmasses - whose dimension and shape depend on the number of eggs and types of supports - are often laid from 6 to 10 com above the water level and hatched 9 to 30 days after incubation; the average number of eggs/egg-mass was 236. Habitual food consist of confervoid algae, besides natant and submerged aquatic vegetation; it is common, however, the utilization of the other material as food. Its habitat is the shallower marginal zone of hidric collections, predominatly in lentic surrounding. Its spacial distribution is conditioned to the biotipe special characteristics. Some aquatic birds - anatid, ralid, etc. - reveal important natural enemies, attacking both young and adult specimens, besides the egg-masses; under certain conditions they may be an impedictive factor to the establishment and colonization of this pilid in new biotopes.

  5. A new species of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida commensal of Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae from Misiones, Argentina Una especie nueva de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida comensal de Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Damborenea

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., a commensal of Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, is described herein from specimens collected at Arroyo Yabotí-Miní (Misiones province, Argentina. Juveniles and adults were removed from the mantle cavity by host relaxation. Distinctive characters of the new species are: non-partitioned intestine; conical cirrus with 1 face flat and another concave; distal area with spines, as evidenced by a strong, oblique sclerotized ring, and 2 rows of long spines, an internal one with long spines arising from base of introvert and an external one arising from distal end of the introvert. The closest species are T. iheringi, T. rochensis and T. haswelli, which are also commensals of mollusc species. The presence of this new species of Temnocephala, and its similarity to the other species that are commensals of molluscan species, suggest the existence of a morphologically homogeneous group.Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., comensal de Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, se describe para el arroyo Yabotí-Miní, provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Se extrajeron ejemplares juveniles y adultos de la cavidad paleal, por relajación de los hospederos. Las características distintivas de la nueva especie son: intestino no septado, cirro de forma cónica, con una cara plana y otra cóncava, zona distal con espinas evidente por un fuerte anillo oblicuo esclerosado. Dos hileras de espinas se reconocen en el extremo distal, 1 interna de espinas largas, que surge desde la base del introverso, y 1 externa, que surge del extremo distal del mismo. Las especies más semejantes son T. iheringi, T. rochensis y T. haswelli, especies comensales de moluscos con las que es comparada. El hallazgo de esta nueva especie de Temnocephala y sus características semejantes a las restantes especies del género comensales de moluscos, sugieren que las especies conocidas hasta la fecha formen un grupo morfológicamente homogéneo.

  6. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri county, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  7. Spermatozoan ultrastructure in the trigonioid bivalve Neotrigonia margaritacea Lamarck (Mollusca): Comparison with other bivalves, especially Trigonioida and Unionoida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Spermatozoa of the trigonioid bivalve Neotrigonia margaritacea (Lamarck) (Trigoniidae, Trigonioida) are examined ultrastructurally. A cluster of discoidal, proacrosomal vesicles (between 9 to 15 in number) constitutes the acrosomal complex at the nuclear apex. The nucleus is short (2.4 2.6 μm long, maximum diameter 2.2 μm), blunt-conical in shape, and exhibits irregular lacunae within its contents. Five or sometimes four round mitochondria are impressed into shallow depressions in the base of the nucleus as is a discrete centriolar fossa. The mitochondria surround two orthogonally arranged centrioles to form, collectively, the midpiece region. The distal centriole, anchored by nine satellite fibres to the plasma membrane, acts as a basal body to the sperm flagellum. The presence of numerous proacrosomal vesicles instead of a single, conical acrosomal vesicle sets Neotrigonia (and the Trigonioida) apart from other bivalves, with the exception of the Unionoida which are also known to exhibit this multivesicular condition. Spermatozoa of N. margaritacea are very similar to those of the related species Neotrigonia bednalli (Verco) with the exception that the proacrosomal vesicles of N. margaritacea are noticeably larger than those of N. bednalli.

  8. Opisthobranchs from the western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species and ten new records (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Yonow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seventy species of opisthobranchs are described in this work based on collections from the Persian Gulf, Socotra, Kenya, Zanzibar, Madagascar, La Réunion, Mauritius, the Seychelles, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Ten species are newly recorded from the western Indian Ocean and four species are recorded in the scientific literature for the first time since their original descriptions. Two species are described as new: Cyerce bourbonica sp. n. from La Réand Doriopsilla nigrocera sp. n. from the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. Chromodoris cavae is removed from its synonymy with C. tennentana and redescribed from specimens from La Réunion, while several new synonyms are proposed for some commonly occurring species. Risbecia bullockii is recorded for the second time from the Indian Ocean and assigned to its correct genus.

  9. Seasonal variations in metal content of two Unio pictorum mancus (Mollusca, Unionidae populations from two lakes of different trophic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Renato TRINCHERINI

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of lake trophy on trace element accumulation by Unio pictorum mancus, a population from the mesooligotrophic Lake Maggiore was compared with a population from the eutrophic Lake Candia. The element content in soft tissue and shell biomass, the seasonal variations of element concentrations in soft tissues and shell, and the relationship between element concentrations in the water and those in the tissues were estimated in pursuit of this objective. Thirteen mussel samplings were performed in Lake Maggiore between May 2003 and September 2004 and in Lake Candia between June 2003 and August 2004. Filtered water samples were collected seasonally. Water, shell and soft tissue samples were analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS for the measurement of following elements: Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, As, Pb, Co, Cr, Mo, V, Cd, Be and Ca. The element concentrations in the mussel tissues and shell from Lake Maggiore were higher than those from Lake Candia. Due to the higher population density and higher element concentrations in the mussels of Lake Maggiore, the element content in the biomass per m2 in this lake far exceeded that in Lake Candia. The element concentrations in the mussel tissues, but not in their shells, of both lakes showed a seasonal pattern of variation; this was to be expected as a result of the slower turnover time of the elements in the shell than in the tissues. For all the elements, except Mo, Cr and Be, the "concentration factor" (C.F. value was higher in Lake Maggiore than in Lake Candia mussels, ranging from 10 to 104 and 10 to 103 respectively. The higher concentrations in the mussel tissues from Lake Maggiore were justified not merely by the higher element concentrations in the lake water, but probably also because other causes, such as element concentrations in food and element abundance in available forms, combine to affect the concentrations of the elements in the tissues.

  10. The effects of mercury exposure on the surface morphology of gill filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available each animal were analysed for mercury using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Mercury concentration increased from 0.13 (pre-immersion) to 87 mu g/g after day 24. Surface morphology remained normal for all animals in tank 2 and for those exposed to Hg...

  11. Detection and genetic distance of resistant populations of Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Lymnaeidae) to Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calienes, Aymé Fernandez; Fraga, Jorge; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Yong, Mary; Sanchez, Jorge; Coustau, Christine; Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Théron, André

    2004-09-01

    Twelve natural populations of Pseudosuccinea columella snails, sampled in the western and central regions of Cuba, were analyzed using the RAPD-PCR technique to screen for resistance to Fasciola hepatica. Ten OPA primers previously shown to produce marker bands for resistance and susceptibility were tested. A new population of P. columella (El Azufre, Pinar del Río) exhibited the amplification patterns of resistant snails, and its resistant status was confirmed after experimental exposure to miracidia. No genetic variability was detected across or within the susceptible isolates. Similarly, the novel resistant isolate displayed an RAPD profile identical to the profile of two other isolates previously identified as resistant to F. hepatica. However, clear differences in RAPD banding patterns and genetic distance were observed between resistant and susceptible isolates.

  12. Marine Mollusca of isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 3, Gastropoda (Vetigastropoda - Littorinimorpha)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beu, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Three new species: Grandicrepidula hemispherica (Nukumaruan, S Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria Granttaylori (Mangapanian-early Nukumaruan, Wanganui-Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria arahura (Waipipian-early Mangapanian, Westland and Hawke's Bay). Drawings of marine species in Smith's (1874) three plates of New Zealand molluscan types are republished. Further Australian molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Sabia australis (Lamarck), Clanculus plebejus (Philippi), both early Nukumaruan. Further northern New Zealand molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Stephopoma roseum (Quoy and Gaimard), OIS 13, 9. Distinctive gastropods extinct at end Nukumaruan: Struthiolaria frazeri (Hutton), Taxonia suteri (Marwick). Taniella planisuturalis (Marwick) (Opoitian-Nukumaruan, southern NZ) and Trivia (Ellatrivia) zealandica (Kirk) (Nukumaruan, Hawke's Bay-Wanganui; Castlecliffian, North Canterbury) occur in Castlecliffian (OIS 15?) rocks at Whakatane. Cantharidella tessellate (A. Adams) and Risellopsis varia (Hutton), formerly Haweran, are recorded from Nukumaruan and Castlecliffian rocks, respectively. New fossil late Nukumaruan-early Castlecliffian records listed from Mikonui-1 offshore well, Westland, include Malluvium calcareum (Suter) and 10 other species. Other biostratigraphically useful gastropods: Calliostoma (Maurea) nukumaruense (Laws) (Mangapanian-OIS 17); Argobuccinum pustulosum (Lightfoot), Semicassis labiate (Perry) (both earliest in OIS 7). New synonymy: Zeacumantus perplexus (Marshall and Murdoch) =Z. lutulentus (Kiener); Pelicaria vermis (Martyn) =all named Nukumaruan-Recent forms (other than P. rugosa (Marwick) and P. granttaylori n. sp.); Trivia flora Marwick =T.zealandica Kirk. Taxonomy revised: Zelippistes benhami (Suter) (OIS 13 and 9 at Wanganui), distinguished from Lippistes and Separatista; Stiracolpus species, informally; Maoricrypta profunda (Hutton), Waipipian-early Castlecliffian (- OIS 19); M. radiata (Hutton) (=incurva Zittel,=hochetteriana Woods, =wilckensi Finlay), (Middle Miocene?) Tongaporutuan-Opoitian; Eunaticina cincta (Hutton), holotype illustrated. (author). 427 refs., 22 figs.

  13. Seasonal variation in the abundance and distribution of Anomalocardia flexuosa (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae in an estuarine intertidal plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S. Silva-Cavalcanti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass of the infaunal mollusk Anomalocardia flexuosa (Linnaeus, 1767 evaluated a tidal plain at Goiana estuary (Northeast Brazil. Three hundred and sixty core samples were taken during an annual cycle from three intertidal habitats (A, B and C. Shell ranged from 2.20 to 28.48 mm (15.08 ± 4.08 mm. Recruitment occurred more intensely from January to March. Total (0–1,129 g m−2 differed seasons (rainy and dry, with highest values in the early rainy season (221.0 ± 231.44 g m−2; and lowest values in the late dry season (57.34 ± 97 g m−2. The lowest occurred during the late rainy (319 ± 259 ind m−2 and early dry (496 ± 607 ind m−2 seasons. Extreme environmental situations (e.g., river flow, salinity and water temperature at the end of each season also affected density ranges (late dry: 0–5,798 ind m−2; late rainy: 0–1,170 ind m−2. A. flexuosa in the Goiana estuary presented a dominance of juvenile individuals (shell length < 20 mm, with high biomass main the recruitment period. Average shell length, density and biomass values suggest overfishing of the stock unit. A. flexuosa is an important food and income resource along its whole distribution range. The species was previously also known as Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791.

  14. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmissi...

  15. Detection of Bioactive Compounds in the Mucus Nets of Dendropoma maxima, Sowerby 1825 (Prosobranch Gastropod Vermetidae, Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klöppel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sessile suspension-feeding wormsnail Dendropoma maxima, Sowerby 1825 (Vermetidae secretes a mucus net to capture planktonic prey. The nets are spread out over the corals and often have remarkable deleterious effects on them like changes in growth form and pigmentation shifts not uncommonly resulting in tissue necrosis. Until now, there is no explanation for this phenomenon although the indication as well as theories about its genesis is mentioned in several publications. Vermetids are well studied concerning the intraspecific competition with neighboring individuals but not in their interaction with other taxa like corals or fish. We did extensive in situ video recording and observed that fish avoided the plankton-load nets although several specialized taxa are known to be molluscivores, mucivores, and/or feed on plankton. As many molluscs use chemical weapons to combat feeding pressure and to defend themselves against predators, we screened empty and plankton-load mucus nets for potential bioactive metabolites. Bioactivity testing was performed with a recently developed system based on a chromatographic separation (high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC and a bioassay with luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Thus, we found at least two active compounds exclusively accumulated by the wormsnails themselves. This is the first record of bioactive properties in the whole family of Vermetidae.

  16. Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca; Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADLVC. Jorge

    Full Text Available The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 and benzene (C6H6. When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO4 and C6H6 and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate that anaerobic metabolism may occur at the beginning of P. perna mussels development, as observed in veliger larvae. The O:N ratio under experimental conditions showed low values indicating that catabolism in veliger larvae was predominantly proteic.

  17. Metal concentrations in Unio pictorum mancus (Mollusca, Lamellibranchia from of 12 Northern Italian lakes in relation to their trophic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo LODIGIANI

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test the reliability of environmental monitoring by bioaccumulators of pollutants; that is to establish a positive relationship between the pollutant concentrations in the bioaccumulator and those in the water in which it lives. To this end we analysed the contents of Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Ca in the soft tissues and shell of Unio pictorum mancus. The filtered water samples from the mussel habitat were analysed for the same metals. The mussels were collected from 15 stations settled in 12 Northern Italian lakes during the first two weeks of July 2001. These results were obtained: a metal concentrations varied widely with mussel size and among stations; b a significant positive correlation between the concentration of calcium in the water and in the mussel tissues, but no relationship emerged for the other metals; c no relationship between the metal concentrations in the tissues and those in the shell was found; d there was a certain tendency for Mn, Fe and Zn concentrations in the soft tissues to increase with shell size; e the sequence of the decreasing metal concentrations arranged for the tissues was similar to that of the shell, but rather different from that in the water; and f the concentration factor values of the trace metals were high for the shell and soft tissues. In highly productive lakes large size mussels dominated, whereas small mussels were more abundant in low productive lakes. Although the metal concentrations in the water of productive lakes were greater than in low productive ones, the metal concentrations in the tissues of the mussels from the latter were generally higher than those in the mussels from the former. We propose some hypotheses to explain this paradox. Finally, our results show that the metal concentrations in the mussels do not reflect the metal concentrations in the water in which they live. It follows that this commonly used but oversimplified monitoring system cannot be recommended. On the other hand mussels may be very useful for other purposes, such as identifying new pollutants or pollutants present in such low concentrations that they cannot be measured with the commonly used methods. The pollutant content of mussels may enable the variations in time of the pollutant level of an environment to be monitored. In addition, the transplantation of mussels from a clean site to a polluted one may be a useful tool for identify the pollutants of the receiving environment.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers for the Endangered Relict Mussel Hypanis colorata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Cardiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ovidiu Popa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypanis colorata (Eichwald, 1829 (Cardiidae: Lymnocardiinae is a bivalve relict species with a Ponto-Caspian distribution and is under strict protection in Romania, according to national regulations. While the species is depressed in the western Black Sea lagoons from Romania and Ukraine, it is also a successful invader in the middle Dniepr and Volga regions. Establishing a conservation strategy for this species or studying its invasion process requires knowledge about the genetic structure of the species populations. We have isolated and characterized nine polymorphic microsatellite markers in H. colorata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 28 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.613 to 1.000. The microsatellites developed in the present study are highly polymorphic and they should be useful for the assessment of genetic variation within this species.

  19. Abyssal Solenogastres (Mollusca, Aplacophora from the Northwest Pacific: Scratching the Surface of Deep-Sea Diversity Using Integrative Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska S. Bergmeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solenogastres (Aplacophora is a small clade of marine, shell-less worm-molluscs with close to 300 valid species. Their distribution ranges across all oceans, and whereas the vast majority of species has been collected and described from the continental shelf and slope, only few species are known from depths below 4,000 m. Following traditional taxonomy, identification of specimens to species level is complex and time-consuming and requires detailed investigations of morphology and anatomy—often resulting in the exclusion of the clade in biodiversity or biogeographic studies. During the KuramBio expedition (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies to the abyssal plain of the Northwest Pacific and the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, 33 solenogaster specimens were sampled from 4,830 m to 5,397 m. Within this study we present an efficient workflow to address solenogaster diversity, even when confronted with a high degree of singletons and minute body sizes, hampering the use of single individuals for multiple morphological and molecular approaches. We combine analyses of external characters and scleritome with molecular barcoding based on a self-designed solenogaster specific set of mitochondrial primers. Overall we were able to delineate at least 19 solenogaster lineages and identify 15 species to family level and beyond. Based on our approach we identified three key lineages from the two regionally most species-rich families (Acanthomeniidae and Pruvotinidae for deeper taxonomic investigations and describe the novel abyssal species Amboherpia abyssokurilensis sp. nov. (Cavibelonia, Acanthomeniidae using microanatomical 3D-reconstructions. Our study more than doubles the previous records of solenogaster species from the Northwest Pacific and its marginal seas. Almost all lineages are reported for the first time from the region of the (Northwest Pacific, vastly expanding distribution ranges of the respective clades. Moreover it doubles the number of Solenogastres collected from abyssal depths on a global scale and underlines the lack of exploratory α-diversity work in the abyssal zone for reliable species estimates in marine biodiversity.

  20. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  1. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paracuellos, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002, systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea with the object to quantify the abundance of the species in the locality, as well as their external biometry and spatial distribution. As a result, the presence of a probable reproductive population of P. ferruginea was found on the island. The negative effect provoked by the continuous presence of man was proved, prejudicing the population in those zones which were more accessible for their harvesting. For this reason, it is necessary to regulate the use of the natural resources of the island to favour the conservation and spontaneous recolonisation of the zone by P. ferruginea.

  2. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000–2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  3. Recrutamento larval e crescimento de teredinidae (mollusca-bivalvia em região entremarés de manguezais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Godoy Bueno Carvalho Lopes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O recrutamento larval e o crescimento de Teredinidae na região entremarés do manguezal da Praia Dura, Ubatuba, SP, foi acompanhado durante doze meses (08/84 a 08/85 utilizando coletores construídos com madeira de mangue. O tempo decorrido para se detectar a presença dos primeiros Teredinidae foi de aproximadamente sete meses após o início do experimento e o número de indivíduos por coletor foi muito reduzido no período de amostragem. Esses resultados contrastam com os obtidos por outros autores que instalaram coletores em ambiente marinho, mas são semelhantes aos obtidos por autores que instalaram coletores em regiões estuarinas do litoral brasileiro. Essas diferenças nos resultados talvez possam ser explicadas pelo fato da salinidade ser mais baixa e mais variável nos estuários que no ambiente marinho. A análise dos dados sobre o recrutamento larval, permite concluir que a espécie mais abundante foi Nausitora fustieula (Jeffreys, 1860, com principal época de instalação em março e taxa inicial de crescimento de 1,86 mm/day. As outras espécies de Teredinidae, Bankiaflmbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Bankia roehi Moll, 1931 e Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, apresentaram pequeno número de indivíduos e em função disso, não foi possível determinar suas épocas de instalação e respectivas taxas de crescimento.The larval settlement and growth of Teredinidae in the intertidal region of the Praia Dura mangrove, Ubatuba, SP, were undertaken during one year (08/84 to 08/85 using colectors made from mangrove wood. The presence of the first Teredinidae was detected approximately seven month after the inicial experiment and the number of specimens per coletor was small during the sampling period. These results contrast with those obtained by other authors working in a marine environment, but are similar to those obtained in experiments developed in Brazilian estuaries. The differences between data obtained in marine and estuarine environments, might be explained by the lower and more variable salinity gradient in estuaries. Larval settlement data revealed that the most abundant species was Nausitora fustieula (Jeffreys,1860, which settles on wood prefrerably in March, and has an initial growth rate of 1.86 mm/day. The other Teredinidae species Banida fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Bankia rochi Moll, 1931 and Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, occurred in a very small number of specimens and therefore, their time of settlement and growth rates could not be determined.

  4. Comparative studies on the histology and ultrastructure of the siphons of two species of Tellinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Brazil

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    João E.V.V. Vitonis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of the siphons for infaunal bivalves, only a few studies have examined their tissues using histology techniques or scanning electron microscopy. In the present study, the siphons of Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005 were investigated. The siphon walls are composed by a series of muscle sheets of longitudinal ("L", circular ("C" and radial ("R" fibers, with a clear pattern common to both species: there is a main median longitudinal layer (Lm, and two peripheral circular layers, one inner (Ci and one outer (Co, near the epithelia. A median circular layer (Cm separates an internal (Lmi from an outer (Lmo median longitudinal layer. Further, the Co is split by a thin outer longitudinal layer (Lo, forming Coi and Coo layers, the former being obliquely oriented. Thin radial fibers (R delimit clear packages of Lmi and Lmo fibers. In each siphon, there are six longitudinal nerve cords, running within the Lmi layer, adjacent to the Cm. The inhalant and exhalant siphons of M. biota are very similar in structure, but the Lmo of the exhalant siphon is almost twice as thick as its Lmi, while in the inhalant siphon these layers have similar thicknesses; the Coi is very thick, especially in the exhalant siphon. The inhalant siphon of T. lineata is very similar to that of M. biota, differing only with respect to the thickness of the Coi, which in the former species is not as well developed as in the latter. The Lmo of the exhalant siphon of T. lineata is by far the most developed layer, with the Lmi represented only by uniseriate small cells; in the vicinities of the nerve cords, the Cm is split in two layers. The epithelia of both siphons of M. biota and T. lineata bear ciliated receptors, which were difficult to observe as they were frequently covered with mucus. It was possible to observe that cilia are present in both species, differing in length and in the number per receptor between the inhalant and exhalant siphons, and between the species. Detailed comparisons among the siphons of M. biota and T. lineata and other bivalve species are very difficult, because of at least two reasons. First, each investigator has used different methods to prepare and observe the siphons through histological sections; and second, different nomenclatural schemes are used to describe the musculature of the siphons, causing confusion when the same layers are compared among different species. In order to unify the nomenclature of tissue layers of the bivalve siphons, we now propose a scheme to name these layers based on topological homology.

  5. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the o......The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report...... on the occurrence of the species in beds of European oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Limfjord, NW Jutland, Denmark. The morphology-based identification has been confirmed by genetic analysis. The species was probably introduced with oysters imported from France in the 1970s and 1980s. The invasion is still...... relatively localized but as the species has established a reproductive population, it may eventually spread to other parts of the fjord and in time pose a problem to the oyster fishery. The species’ invasion history is reviewed...

  6. In situ distribution and characterization of the organic content of the oyster shell Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Ball, Alexander D; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Farre, Bastien; Pouvreau, Stéphane; Salomé, Murielle

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation of commercial oysters is now facing the possible influence of global change in sea water composition, commonly referred to as "ocean acidification". In order to test the potential consequence of the predicted environmental changes, a cultivation experiment was carried out. The left and right valves of the oyster shell Crassostrea gigas differ in their structure; moreover, lenses of non compact layers are irregular. The shell layers of juvenile C. gigas are studied using a variety of highly spatially resolved techniques to establish their composition and structure. Our results confirm the presence of three different calcitic structural types. The role of the lenses of chalky layers is not yet deciplered. Despite a common mineralogy, the elemental composition of the layers differs. The sulphur aminoacids and sulphated polysaccharide contents of the intracrystalline and intercrystalline matrices differ, as well as those of the structural types. The possible different sensitivity of these structures to environmental changes is still unknown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anisospira velascorum, a new land snail from Mexico, with notes on the anatomy and histology (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Urocoptidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.

    1977-01-01

    During a collecting trip through southern and central Mexico (Breure, 1974) special attention has been paid to Bulimulidae and Urocoptidae. Among the material of urocoptids a new species has been found. Anisospira velascorum sp. n. (figs. 1-10, pl. 1) Description. — Shell up to 30.5 mm, 2.39 times

  8. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  9. Bioindicator Thais carinifera (mollusca, gastropoda: imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from 1993 to 2012

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    Nuzhat Afsar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from 1993 to 2012 at three (3 sites out of six (6 localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 were apparent in Thais carinifera. The intensity of imposex has remained comparatively low in the populations of harbours in close proximity to port Mohammad Bin-Qasim, namely; Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH and New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH where shipping activities are sporadic as compared to those in Manora Channel and the adjoining Karachi Port area where intensive shipping activity is rather frequent. Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin (TBT based antifouling paints over the past decade.

  10. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Zeidan

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex. The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  11. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, G C; Boehs, G

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex). The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  12. Imposex induction in Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae submitted to an organotin-contaminated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Alves de Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are affected by organotin compounds due to the cumulative, deleterious effects of these latter. The most evident and well known consequence of organotin contamination is imposex, a hormonal disruption that causes a superimposition of sexual male features in females of prosobranchia neogastropod molluscs such as Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Molluscs accumulate organotins mainly because of their poor ability to eliminate TBT and DBT from their tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze organotin uptake by ingestion experimentally, using uncontaminated subjects (S. haemastoma floridana fed with organotin-contaminated oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae. A total of 248 gastropods, distributed in 7 tanks with uncontaminated water and contaminated food, were used in this study, a control group being fed uncontaminated oysters. Every 15 days, the individuals of one of the tanks were examined for the presence of imposex. Development of imposex was measured using the VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indexes. The animals had already developed imposex within the first 15 days, all the indexes measured (RPLI, RPSI and VDSI having increased significantly with duration of exposure, indicating that the animals were probablycontaminated by the food and had accumulated the pollutant. New paths of imposex development were also observed.Organismos marinhos são afetados por compostos organoestânicos que causam uma série de efeitos deletérios aos mesmos. O mais conhecido efeito da contaminação por organoestânicos é o imposex. Esse fenômeno consiste na masculinização de fêmeas de moluscos neogastrópodes tais como Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Esses compostos tendem a se acumular em moluscos devido a sua baixa capacidade de eliminá-los. Um total de 248 indivíduos de S. haemastoma floridana foram coletados de uma população livre qualquer indício de imposex. Esses animais foram mantidos em 7 aquários, com aproximadamente 30 indivíduos cada, 1 desses aquários foi considerado como controle e os animas do mesmo alimentados com ostras obtidas de locais onde não se verificou a ocorrência de imposex em neogastrópodes nativos. Os animais nos outros 6 aquários foram alimentados com ostras obtidas em local onde a incidência de imposex entre os gastrópodes nativos revelou-se muito alta. A cada 15 dias, por um período total de 90 dias, os animais de um dos tanques eram retirados e analisados quanto à presença de imposex. Os níveis de imposex foram quantificados através da % de imposex e dos índices: RPLI, RPSI e VDSI. Observou-se a indução de imposex em S. haemastoma floridana através da dieta a partir de Crassostrea rhizophora e um aumento significativo dos índices com o decorrer do tempo de exposição. Os animais do aquário controle foram analisados ao fim do experimento não revelando qualquer indício de imposex.

  13. Comparative sensitivity of juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) under chronic exposure to cadmium and tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Ostermann, Sina; Theis, Christina; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2016-07-28

    To investigate a potential extension of a partial life cycle test protocol to a full life cycle test design, a comparative sensitivity analysis with juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum was performed. Neonates and adult snails were exposed to the metal cadmium (Cd) and the endocrine disruptor tributyltin (TBT) at nominal concentrations ranging from 1.56 to 50 μg Cd/L and from 25 to 1,000 ng TBT-Sn/L. The experiments were performed over 28 days at 16°C in a semi-static test design. Mortality was assessed for both life stages. Juvenile snails' specific growth rate and reproduction of adults were investigated as main endpoints. We determined effects on snails' survival, juvenile growth and embryo numbers in the brood pouch of adult snails under exposure to both chemicals. Juvenile control mortality was between 25% and 30% and significantly higher than in the control groups with adult snails. A higher sensitivity of juvenile snails compared to adults was observed for the endpoint mortality. Calculated LC50 in Cd exposed snails was 38.2 μg/L for adults and 15.0 μg/L for juvenile snails. Significant effects on mortality in TBT exposed adult snails occurred at the highest test concentration only with a LC50 of 535 ng Sn/L. Juvenile survival was significantly affected at 50.8 ng Sn/L and higher concentrations. Effect concentrations for the main endpoints reproduction and juvenile growth show comparable sensitivities. For Cd exposed groups, EC50 values were 11.3 μg/L for the endpoint reproduction in adult snails and 3.82 μg/L for juvenile growth with overlapping confidence intervals. TBT also significantly affected juvenile snails' growth (EC50: 178 ng Sn /L). EC50 for embryo numbers was 125 ng TBT-Sn/L. Results indicate the manageability of a FLC test starting with newly hatched snails. Precautions have to be taken to guarantee a sufficient number of surviving snails until adulthood so that reproduction can be assessed. For final decision for the practicability of a FLC, further tests are needed.

  14. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Askem, Clare; Benstead, Rachel; Brown, Rebecca; Coke, Maira; Ducrot, Virginie; Egeler, Philipp; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lagadic, Laurent; Le Page, Gareth; Macken, Ailbhe; Matthiessen, Peter; Ostermann, Sina; Schimera, Agnes; Schmitt, Claudia; Seeland-Fremer, Anne; Smith, Andy J; Weltje, Lennart; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Mollusks are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number of reproductive toxicants including some vertebrate endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, they have widely been ignored in environmental risk assessment procedures for chemicals. This study describes the validation of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum reproduction test within the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disrupters Testing and Assessment. The number of embryos in the brood pouch and adult mortality serve as main endpoints. The experiments are conducted as static systems in beakers filled with artificial medium, which is aerated trough glass pipettes. The test chemical is dispersed into the medium, and adult snails are subsequently introduced into the beakers. After 28 days the reproductive success is determined by opening the brood pouch and embryo counting. This study presents the results of two validation studies of the reproduction test with eleven laboratories and the chemicals tributyltin (TBT) with nominal concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 ng TBT-Sn/L and cadmium with concentrations from 1.56 to 25 μg/L. The test design could be implemented by all laboratories resulting in comparable effect concentrations for the endpoint number of embryos in the brood pouch. After TBT exposure mean EC 10 , EC 50 , NOEC and LOEC were 35.6, 127, 39.2 and 75.7 ng Sn/L, respectively. Mean effect concentrations in cadmium exposed snails were, respectively, 6.53, 14.2, 6.45 and 12.6 μg/L. The effect concentrations are in good accordance with already published data. Both validation studies show that the reproduction test with P. antipodarum is a well-suited tool to assess reproductive effects of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Symbiotic relationship between the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri (Ophidiiformes: Carapidae and the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pteriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orphal Colleye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At Makemo Atoll (French Polynesia, the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri lives in symbiosis with the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. Although the symbiont seems to live inside its host bivalve by using it as a shelter, additional data are still needed to better understand the exact nature of this association. For this purpose, we implemented an approach using stable isotope ratios of carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N. The δ13C and δ15N values were measured in tissues of the pearl oyster (gonads, gills, mantle and muscles, white muscle tissue from the fish and other food sources. This stable isotope approach was also complemented by the analysis of stomach contents in the carapid fish. Overall, the isotopic compositions measured in the present study support a commensal relationship between O. fowleri and P. margaritifera. In addition, our isotopic data bring new information about another guest living inside P. margaritifera, namely the palaemonid shrimp Conchodytes meleagrinae. Based on the δ13C and δ15N values, it appears that the shrimp might feed on the bivalve gonads.

  16. Phytochemical and molluscicidal activity of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Asteraceae in different lifestages of Subulina octona (Mollusca, Subulinidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the molluscicidal activity of aqueous extract of Mikania glomerata on the land snail Subulina octona and to assess the changes caused on the snail's fecundity, growth, hatchability and the offspring produced after exposure. Eggs, newly hatched and 30 day old snails were exposed to the sublethal concentration of M. glomerata extract for 24 and 48 h and the observations were made for 120 days. The presence of tannins, flavonoids and saponins were shown by phytochemical tests. The extract reduced significantly the hatchability and the survival of the offspring hatched from the exposed eggs. The eggs exposed for 48 h presented lower hatchability rates. There was a reduction on survival and growth of newly hatched and 30-days old snails exposed to the extract. These results indicated that the aqueous extract of M. glomerata could be applied as an alternative molluscicide for the control of this snail species efficiently.

  17. Diversidade e distribuição do gênero Alvania (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Rissoidae) no litoral brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Luciana Soares da

    2012-01-01

    Os Rissoidae Gray, 1847 são compostos por conchas pequenas ou micro-conchas, abundantes nos mares de todo mundo. Uma grande diversidade das espécies desse grupo é encontrada nas zonas de maré baixa e ao longo do litoral, onde há a maior ocorrência de algas, rochas, corais e outros locais que fornecem abrigo, todavia muitos ocorrem também em zonas de mar profundo. Em Rissoidae, Alvania é um dos mais diversos quanto ao número de espécies, sendo frequentes as descrições ou re-descrições de...

  18. Size and metal concentration in the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Mollusca: Bivalva) from Baia de Sepetiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Lacerda, L.D.; Lima, N.R.W.; Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.

    1983-11-01

    The natural variability of metal concentrations in M. guyanensis was estimated. The chosen parameter was size, as it is well correlated with most other metabolic functions and is of major concern in developing monitoring programs. The sampled area is in the mangrove swamp of Itingussu, Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janerio State, an area with increasing industrial activity and consequently with moderate levels of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. The analysis of metals in shells showed a significant inverse relationship for all metals, presenting a constant trend not observed in soft tissues. As the mechanisms of metal uptake and excretion in shells are slower than those of soft tissues, shells should be used as monitoring instruments. The results suggest that the relation between metal concentration and size in mollusks is a significant factor to be considered in monitoring programs. These relationships vary with species, and care should be taken in considering results obtained in species from temperature regions and those from the tropics, even when the species are closely related. 7 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. A Carboniferous chiton (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) at the end of its trail: a unique find from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Rindsberg, A. K.; Santos, A.; Pavela, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 171-179 ISSN 0375-7633 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Viséan * Recent * locomotion traces * tracemakers * Proleptochiton Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2016

  20. Imposex in Thais rustica (Mollusca: Neogastropoda (Lamark, 1822 as an indicator of organotin compounds pollution at Maceio coast (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Camillo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of OTC (organotin compounds as biocides in naval antifouling paints causes impacts on non-target organisms. One of these impacts is a syndrome called imposex in gastropod molluscs. Imposex is the imposition of male secondary sexual characteristics in female gastropods as result of endocrine disruption. In this preliminary study, imposex was observed in four out of ten sampled stations in Maceió: the city Port (100% females exhibited imposex, the Marine Emissary (23% females exhibited imposex, the Marine Terminal (35% females exhibited imposex and Saco da Pedra beach (12% females exhibited imposex. These stations were distributed in a NE-SW orientation from the Port southwards along the coastline, following the general circulation pattern of the area. The low values of VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indicate that Maceió Coast is a less contaminated area, probably because of low shipping activities together with the fact that the sampling zone is an open coastal system and not an enclosed bay. These results suggest that the imposex development in Thais rustica may be used as a biological indicator of OTC pollution.O uso de COE (compostos orgânicos de estanho como biocida em tintas antiincrustantes para embarcações causa impactos em organismos não-alvos. Um destes impactos é a síndrome chamada imposex, em moluscos gastrópodos. Imposex é a imposição de caracteres sexuais secundários masculinos em fêmeas de gastrópodos como resultado de desregulação endócrina. Neste estudo preliminar, o imposex foi observado em quatro de dez estações de amostragem em Maceió: o Porto de Maceió (100% de fêmeas imposexadas, o Emissário Submarino (23% de fêmeas imposexadas, o Terminal Marítimo (35% de fêmeas imposexadas e a praia do Saco da Pedra (12% de fêmeas imposexadas. Estas estações estão distribuídas no litoral no sentido NE/SW a partir do Porto, seguindo o padrão de circulação local. Os valores relativamente baixos dos índices VDSI, RPSI e RPLI indicam que a costa de Maceió é uma área moderadamente impactada. Isto poderia ser explicado pelo fato da costa não ser um sistema abrigado e pelo pequeno movimento de sua zona portuária. Estes resultados sugerem que o desenvolvimento do imposex em Thais rustica pode ser usado como indicador da poluição por COEs.

  1. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

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    Carvalho Omar dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.

  2. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

    2008-05-01

    Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas.

  3. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Southeast and South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville. The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  4. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Teles, Horácio M; Mota, Ester Maria; Lafetá, Cristiane; de Mendonça, Gomes Furtado; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.

  5. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2010-11-01

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  6. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Teles, Horácio MS; Mota, Ester Maria; Mendonça, Cristiane Lafetá Gomes Furtado de; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns. Exemplares de Achatina fulica foram experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Angiostrongylu...

  7. Immunochemical localization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in the symbiont-containing gills of Solemya velum (Bivalvia : Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Abbott, Marilyn S.; Veenhuis, Marten

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbuP2Case; EC 4.1.1.39) was examined by using two immunological methods in tissues of Solemya velum, an Atlantic coast bivalve containing putative chemoautotrophic symbionts. Antibodies elicited by the purified large

  8. Immunochemical localization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in the symbiont-containing gills of Solemya velum (Bivalvia: Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, C M; Abbott, M S; Veenhuis, M

    1988-10-01

    The distribution of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbuP(2)Case; EC 4.1.1.39) was examined by using two immunological methods in tissues of Solemya velum, an Atlantic coast bivalve containing putative chemoautotrophic symbionts. Antibodies elicited by the purified large subunit of RbuP(2)Case from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cross-reacted on immunoblots with a protein of similar molecular mass occurring in extracts of the symbiont-containing gill tissue of S. velum. No cross-reactivity was detected in symbiont-free tissue extracts. The antiserum also cross-reacted in immunoblots with proteins of Thiobacillus neapolitanus, a free-living sulfuroxidizing chemoautotroph whose RbuP(2)Case has been well characterized. In protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy studies, this antiserum consistently labeled the symbionts but not surrounding host gill tissue, indicating that the symbionts are responsible for the RbuP(2)Case activity.

  9. Microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) and relatives: markers for assessing exotic and native populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldheim, Kevin A; Brown, Joshua E; Murphy, Douglas J; Stepien, Carol A

    2011-07-01

    We developed and tested 14 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels, including the two species that have invaded many freshwater habitats in Eurasia and North America, where they cause serious industrial fouling damage and ecological alterations. These new loci will aid our understanding of their genetic patterns in invasive populations as well as throughout their native Ponto-Caspian distributions. Eight new loci for the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha polymorpha and six for the quagga mussel D. rostriformis bugensis were compared with new results from six previously published loci to generate a robust molecular toolkit for dreissenid mussels and their relatives. Taxa tested include D. p. polymorpha, D. r. bugensis, D. r. grimmi, D. presbensis, the 'living fossil'Congeria kusceri, and the dark false mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (the latter also is invasive). Overall, most of the 24 zebra mussel (N = 583) and 13 quagga mussel (N = 269) population samples conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations for the new loci following sequential Bonferroni correction. The 11 loci (eight new, three previously published) evaluated for D. p. polymorpha averaged 35.1 alleles and 0.72 mean observed heterozygosity per locus, and 25.3 and 0.75 for the nine loci (six new, three previously published) developed for D. r. bugensis. All but three of these loci successfully amplified the other species of Dreissena, and all but one also amplified Congeria and Mytilopsis. All species and populations tested were significantly divergent using the microsatellite data, with neighbour-joining trees reflecting their evolutionary relationships; our results reveal broad utility for resolving their biogeographic, evolutionary, population and ecological patterns. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Effects of food type, feeding frequency, and temperature on juvenile survival and growth of Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selck, Henriette; Aufderheide, John; Pounds, Nadine; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

    2006-06-01

    The present experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in order to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this paper we focus on the effects of a combination of food types and feeding frequencies (i.e., the frequency with which the snails were offered food) on juvenile growth and survival at different temperatures. Offspring produced in the laboratory by wild specimens of M. cornuarietis, from Puerto Rico, were used to test the effects of three types of food (lettuce, alginate with fish food, alginate with snail mix) fed at three frequencies (given ad libitum on 4/4, 2/4, or 1/4 d) on juvenile survival and growth. The 4-d feeding regimens were repeated four times, giving a total of 16 d for the experiments. The experiments were conducted at two temperatures (22 degrees and 25 degrees C) under a 12 h light:12 h dark photoperiod. Juvenile growth rates increased with increasing feeding frequency for all food types. The most rapid growth rates occurred in the high-frequency lettuce treatments and the slowest growth rates in the low-frequency lettuce and alginate with snail mix treatments. Juvenile snails grew faster at 25 degrees than at 22 degrees C, and mortality was about twice as high at the lower temperature. Growth rates were used to provide a rough estimate of time to maturity, which was determined to take about twice as long at 22 degrees than at 25 degrees C. The results showed that lettuce is the best food if supplied in abundance, but effects on growth are very dependent on feeding frequency and temperature. We conclude that 25 degrees C is a more appropriate temperature for maintaining populations than 22 degrees C, that lettuce provides a suitable food source, and that food should be supplied continuously for husbandry and toxicity testing of populations of M. cornuarietis.

  11. Effects of food type, feeding frequency, and temperature on juvenile survival and growth of Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Selck, Henriette; Aufderheide, John; Pounds, Nadine; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

    2006-01-01

    The present experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in order to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this paper we focus on the effects of a combination of food types and feeding frequencies (i.e., the frequency with which the snails were offered food) on juvenile gr...

  12. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Askem, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Mollusks are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number of reproductive toxicants including some vertebrate endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, they have widely been ignored in environmental risk assessment procedures for chemicals. This study describes the validation of the Potamopyrgus ant...

  13. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68

  14. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  15. Fine structure of the creeping larva of Loxosomella murmanica: additional evidence for a clade of Kamptozoa (Entoprocta) and Mollusca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    . The prototroch consists of two ciliary rings; a downstream collecting system is not present. Although there is a one-way gut with a lumen throughout, the larva obviously does not feed. A single pair of protonephridia is present. The foot sole shares distinct similarities with basic molluscs, particularly...

  16. Annotated type catalogue of the Megaspiridae, Orthalicidae, and Simpulopsidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described for 65 taxa of the Orthalicoidea, classified within the families Megaspiridae (14, Orthalicidae (30, and Simpulopsidae (20; one taxon is considered a nomen inquirendum. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Helix brephoides d’Orbigny, 1835; Simpulopsis cumingi Pfeiffer, 1861; Bulimulus (Protoglyptus dejectus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus iris Pfeiffer, 1853. The type status of Bulimus salteri Sowerby III, 1890, and Strophocheilus (Eurytus subirroratus da Costa, 1898 is now changed to lectotype according Art. 74.6 ICZN. The taxa Bulimus loxostomus Pfeiffer, 1853, Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855, Bulimus meobambensis Pfeiffer, 1855, and Orthalicus powissianus var. niveus Preston 1909 are now figured for the first time. The following taxa are now considered junior subjective synonyms: Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Helix (Cochlogena citrinovitrea Moricand, 1836; Vermiculatus Breure, 1978 = Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882. New combinations are: Kuschelenia (Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aequatoria (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aquila (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia badia (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia caliginosa (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia coagulata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kara indentata (da Costa, 1901; Clathrorthalicus magnificus (Pfeiffer, 1848; Simpulopsis (Eudioptus marmartensis (Pfeiffer, 1855; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia nucina (Reeve, 1850; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia peaki (Breure, 1978; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Clathrorthalicus phoebus (Pfeiffer, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia polymorpha (d’Orbigny, 1835; Scholvienia porphyria (Pfeiffer, 1847; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia purpurata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia quechuarum Crawford, 1939; Quechua salteri (Sowerby III, 1890; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia subfasciata Pfeiffer, 1853; Clathrorthalicus victor (Pfeiffer, 1854. In an addedum a lectotype is being designated for Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus var. pallidus Preston, 1909. An index is included to all taxa mentioned in this paper and the preceding ones in this series (Breure and Ablett 2011, 2012, 2014.

  17. Biomonitoring study of an estuarine coastal ecosystem, the Sacca di Goro lagoon, using Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, Angela; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Bolognesi, Claudia; Sciutto, Andrea; Roggieri, Paola; Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Capri, Ettore

    2013-01-01

    Coastal lagoons are constantly subjected to releases of chemical pollutants, and so organisms may be exposed to such toxicants. This study investigated through a multivariate approach the physiological status of bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, farmed in Sacca di Goro lagoon. Biomarkers at different levels of biological organization (catalase, superoxide dismutase, genotoxicity, reburrowing behavior) were evaluated at three sites exposed to different environmental conditions. A seasonal trend was observed, and micronucleus frequency was significantly lowest at the relatively pristine reference site. Enzymatic activity toward oxyradicals be quite efficient since variations in responsiveness were not consistent. However, behavioral impairment was observed in reburrowing rates. Sediment concentrations showed low PAH levels and high natural levels of trace metals Cr and Ni. DistLM statistical analysis revealed a non-significant relationship between selected biomarkers and xenobiotics. Therefore other potentially toxic compounds in admixture at low doses may be involved in driving differing spatial distribution of physiological impairment. -- Highlights: ► Health status assessment of bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, from lagoon of Sacca di Goro. ► Multiparametric approach (chemical analysis, biochemical and behavioral biomarkers). ► Impairments of burrowing kinetics in the contaminated site. ► Micronucleus genotoxicity test to detect effects of contaminants complex mixture. ► Multiple stress of chemicals in estuarine costal ecosystem. -- The bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum as a bioindicator in monitoring pollution of estuaries

  18. Deep-water Mangeliinae, Taraninae and Clathurellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the program “Environmental Characterization of the Campos Basin, RJ, Brazil”, from 2001 to 2003, samples were taken of soft bottoms from the continental slope of Campos Basin (off southeast Brazil by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge; 117 stations with depths from 700 to 1950 m were sampled. There were molluscs in all samples, and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Here we present the results obtained for the subfamilies Mangeliinae, Taraninae and Clathurellinae. Two species were found within Mangeliinae: Benthomangelia cf. macra (Watson, 1881 and Benthomangelia enceladus n. sp. Within Taraninae only one undescribed species was found: Taranis tanata n. sp. Within Clathurellinae we found four species: Corinnaeturris leucomata (Dall, 1881, recorded for the first time in the South Atlantic; Corinnaeturris rhysa (Watson, 1881, extending its described depth range; Corinnaeturris angularis n. sp., Typhlomangelia nivalis (Lovén, 1846, expanding its known distribution farther south; and Drilliola pulchella (Verrill, 1880. The type material of Drilliola loprestiana (Calcara, 1841, previously considered lost, has been located and is illustrated here. Drilliola crispata (Cristofori and Jan, 1832 is considered to be a nomen dubium.

  19. Dynamics and ecology of an Indo-Pacific conch,Conomurex persicus (Mollusca: Gastropoda in southeastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Mutlu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conomurex persicus, one of the tropical conchs, has been introduced to one of the subtropical regions, the northeastern Mediterranean Sea, and invaded sandy bottoms between 1 and 10 m deep. Population dynamics were studied from specimens collected with a standard dredge (60 x 15 cm mouth opening, 0.5 x 0.5 cm eye opening of net. Samples of C. persicus were collected monthly along the 5 and 10 m depth contours off Erdemli, Mersin, Turkey, in February and May 2000. Intra-annual density depended on salinity levels, while inter-annual density was correlated with bottom water temperature. Specimens underwent spring emergences and winter burial and sheltering (disappearance. Emergence took place in March when temperatures rose and the disappearance occurred in October-November when temperatures dropped. Adults live at 10 m, juveniles are recruited at a 5 m depth. Recruitment began in April and continued for the next 6 months. In contrast to shell width or shell lip thickness, shell length was not a convenient index for estimation of growth parameters. Annual production and mortality were calculated to be 7.86 g m-2 and 3.80 g m-2, respectively, in April-November. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1: 117-129. Epub 2006 Mar 31.El gastrópodo tropical Conomurex persicurs, ha sido introducido a una región subtropical, el noreste del Mar Mediterráneo, y ha invadido los fondos arenosos en un rango de profundidad de 1 a 10 m. Se estudiarion las dinámicas poblacionales a partir de especímenes recolectados mediante un dragado estándard (60 x 15 cm de apertura de entrada y 0.5 x 0.5 cm de tramado. Muestras de C. persicus fueron recolectadas mensualmente a produndidades de 5 y 10 m en las cercanías de Erdemil, Mersin, Turkey, en los meses de febrero y mayo del año 2000. La densidad dentro de un mismo año depende de los niveles de salinidad, mientras que al comparar años distintos está correlacionada con la temperatura del agua.

  20. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  1. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda – more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wägele Heike

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. Results Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs, and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups.

  2. Analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences of the ribosomal DNA in Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (Mollusca: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The first and second internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis, and B. t. guaibensis were sequenced and compared. The alignment lengths of these regions were about 655 bp and 481 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships among the Biomphalaria species were inferred by Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenetic trees produced, in most of the cases, were in accordance with morphological systematics and other molecular data previously obtained by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The present results provide support for the proposal that B. tenagophila represents a complex comprising B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis and B. t. guaibensis.

  3. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part III: Cyproterone acetate and vinclozolin as antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, M; Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Duft, M; Markert, B; Oehlmann, J

    2001-12-01

    The effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed in laboratory experiments. In this last of three publications, the responses of the fresh water snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (Nucella lapillus, Nassarius (Hinia) reticulatus) to the antiandrogenic model compounds cyproterone acetate (CPA) and vinclozolin (VZ) are presented. The snails were exposed to nominal CPA concentrations of 1.25 mg/L alone and simultaneously to a potent synthetic estrogen (ethinylestradiol), androgen (methyltestosterone) or an indirectly acting xeno-androgen (tributyltin) in experiments with adult specimens and in a life cycle test for 12 months. Marisa and Nucella were furthermore exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.03-1.0 microgram VZ/L for up to 5 months. The antiandrogens induced a number of biological responses in all three species. The length of the penis and of accessory male sex organs (e.g., penis sheath, prostate) were significantly reduced. For Marisa, this effect occurred only in sexually immature specimens and was reversible as the males attained puberty. Typical androgen-mediated responses (imposex development, delayed spermatogenesis, tubulus necrosis of the testis with orchitis and Leydig cell hyperplasia) were partially or totally suppressed by a simultaneous administration of CPA. In the two marine species even adult, sexually mature males responded to antiandrogens with a reduction of the male sex organs and an advancement of the sexual repose phase. The results for CPA and VZ are compared with the effects of an exposure to xeno-estrogens (bisphenol A, octylphenol) and xeno-androgens (triphenyltin, tributyltin) in the same species. Each group of endocrine disruptors induces a characteristic set of toxicological effects in prosobranch snails which can be used as endpoints in an organismic invertebrate test for the identification of endocrine mimetic test compounds. Estrogens cause primarily an induction of superfemales resulting in an increased female mortality by the enhancement of spawning mass and egg production. The main effects of androgens are a virilization of females by imposex development and a marked decrease of the fecundity. Compared with estrogens and androgens, the antiandrogen responses seem to be less drastic and might have--in contrast to the two other disruptor classes--no biologically significant effects at the population level.

  4. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part II: Triphenyltin as a xeno-androgen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Tillmann, M; Markert, B; Oehlmann, J; Watermann, B; Scherf, S

    2000-12-01

    In laboratory experiments the effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed. In this second of three publications the responses of the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus and the netted whelk Hinia reticulata) to the xeno-androgenic model compound triphenyltin (TPT) are presented. Marisa and Nucella were exposed via water (nominal concentrations 5-500 ng TPT-Sn/L) and Hinia via sediments (nominal concentrations 50-500 micrograms TPT-Sn/kg dry wt.) for up to 4 months. Female ramshorn snails but not the two marine species developed imposex in a time and concentration dependent manner (EC10 4 months: 12.3 ng TPT-Sn/L) with a comparable intensity as described for tributyltin. TPT reduced furthermore the fecundity of Marisa at lower concentrations (EC10 4 months: 5.59 ng TPT-Sn/L) with a complete inhibition of spawning at nominal concentrations > or = 250 ng TPT-Sn/L (mean measured +/- SD: > or = 163 +/- 97.0 ng TPT-Sn/L). The extension of the pallial sex organs (penis with accessory structures and prostate gland) of male ramshorn snails and dogwhelks were reduced by up to 25% compared to the control but not in netted whelks. Histopathological analyses for M. cornuarietis and H. reticulata provide evidence for a marked impairment of spermatogenesis (both species) and oogenesis (only netted whelks). The test compound induced a highly significant and concentration independent increase in the incidence of hyperplasia on gills, osphradia and other organs in the mantle cavity of N. lapillus indicating a carcinogenic potential of TPT. The results show that prosobranchs are sensitive to endocrine disruption at environmentally relevant concentrations of TPT. Also, M. cornuarietis is a promising candidate for a future organismic invertebrate system to identify endocrine-mimetic test compounds.

  5. Inhibition of dye-coupling in Patella (mollusca) embryos by microinjection of antiserum against Nephrops (arthropoda) gap junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serras, F.; Buultjens, T.E.J.; Finbow, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Antiserum raised against Nephrops gap junctions was injected into single cells of the 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-cell stage of the Patella vulgata embryos. The pattern of junctional communication by iontophoresis of Lucifer Yellow CH was tested at the 32-cell stage. The results show that the normal

  6. Effect of temperature on growth, mortality, reproduction, and production of adult Lymnaea obrussa Say (Mollusca:Gastropoda)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattice, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Shell lengths and egg production were measured weekly under constant (K; 10, 15, 20, 25 0 C) and varying temperature regimes during the reproductive period. Varying regimes included natural field temperature in a pond (F; diurnal and seasonal), mean daily field temperature (anti F; seasonal) and 5 and 10 0 C above anti F. Growth rate of large snails (>10 mm) was unaffected by temperature, but small snails (6 to 10 mm) grew fastest at 15 0 C(K). Growth and reproductive periods were longest, production was highest, and mortality rate was lowest at 15 0 C(K). Rate (per snail) of egg production increased with temperature. At equal mean temperature, regime affected growth rate only at anti F. Regime affected the following values as shown: mortality rate,F > anti F = K; rate of reproduction, F > K > anti F; and total production, K > anti F = F. The validity of extrapolation of energetic data from laboratory to field is discussed. Data relating production and temperature are valuable in thermal impact analysis. (U.S.)

  7. Effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, J.; Puppo, J.

    1999-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200-600 μg·l -1 ), Pb (350-700 μg·l -1 ) and Cu (10-20 μg·l -1 ) for 7 days. The highest concentrations were found in digestive gland for cadmium and copper, and in gills for lead, and the lowest values were observed in the foot. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), in general, was not inhibited by cadmium, lead or copper during the exposure. Only in clams exposed to cadmium (600 μg·l -1 , 7 days) and copper (20 μg·l -1 , 5 days) were observed significant differences (P -1 . A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between ALT and metal accumulation for cadmium, copper and lead in gills. In the case of soft body, only cadmium and lead showed a significant correlation. In summary, R. philippinarum can be considered a bioindicator species for cadmium and lead accumulation and ALT could be useful as biomarker of sublethal stress for these metals in soft tissues and gills. Only gills can be considered an adequate target tissue for copper. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus ( Drymaeus tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus ziczac da Costa, 1898.The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837; Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835; Drymaeus (Drymaeus lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus (Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844; Drymaeus (Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (K. culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (K. gayi (Pfeiffer, 1857; Kuschelenia (K. tupacii (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus aquilus (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus caliginosus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus purpuratus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus quechuarum (Crawford, 1939; Naesiotus cinereus (Reeve, 1849; Naesiotus dentritis (Morelet, 1863; Naesiotus fontainii (d’Orbigny, 1838; Naesiotus orbignyi (Pfeiffer, 1846; Protoglyptus pilosus (Guppy, 1871; Protoglyptus sanctaeluciae (E.A. Smith, 1889.Type material of the following taxa is figured herein for the first time: Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus coriaceus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimulus laxostylus Rolle, 1904; Bulimus pliculatus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus simpliculus Pfeiffer, 1855.

  9. Crecimiento y mortalidad de Pinctada imbricata (Mollusca: Pteridae en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el crecimiento, la distribución de tallas y la mortalidad de una población de Pinctada imbricata en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Venezuela, entre enero y diciembre de 2000. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente sobre transeptos perpendiculares a la línea de la costa con una rastra artesanal, tomando también datos sobre temperatura, oxígeno disuelto y salinidad de la columna de agua. La distribución de tallas fue variable con un predominio de tallas entre 50 y 70 mm, que constituyeron el 75% de la población. La mayor cantidad de juveniles fue observada en marzo, cuando la longitud media en la población fue de 55.8 mm. Los promedios de los pesos húmedo y seco siguieron la misma tendencia, con valores mínimos en junio, julio, septiembre y octubre de 2000. Las relaciones longitud-peso húmedo y longitud-peso seco fueron altamente significativas (P < 0.05. Los parámetros de la ecuación de crecimiento estacionalizada de von Bertalanffy fueron L∞ = 85.15 mm; K = 1.42 año–1, ts = 0.2, y C = 0.20; indicando un crecimiento lento (WP = 0.42 en el periodo de julio a noviembre, asociado con los parámetros ambientales del área con una longevidad estimada en 3 años. La mortalidad total fue de 14.35 año para los individuos pequeños (10–36 mm y 3.45 año, para los individuos grandes (36–84 mm. La alta tasa de crecimiento de P. imbricata muestra ser una ventaja para considerarla como una especie con potencial para actividades de acuicultura en la región. El banco ostrícola presenta buenas condiciones para mantener una explotación pesquera sostenida, tomando en consideración parámetros pesqueros como la captura registrada, el esfuerzo óptimo, la talla mínima de extracción, la mortalidad por pesca y la mortalidad natural.

  10. A high molecular weight proteoglycan is differentially expressed during development of the mollusc Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca; Gastropoda; Muricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandan, E; González, M; Inestrosa, N C; Tremblay, C; Urrea, R

    1992-12-15

    Incorporation of radioactive sulfate to hatched veliger larvae of the gastropod muricid Concholepas concholepas indicated that over 87% of the sulfated macromolecules were found in the detergent insoluble fraction, rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The sulfated material was solubilized with guanidine salt followed by urea dialysis and fractionated by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. Three sulfated compounds eluting at 0.7, 1.1, and 3.0 M NaCl, called peaks I, II, and III, respectively, were obtained. The sulfated compound present in peak I was degraded by pronase or sodium alkaline treatment to a small sulfated resistant material, suggesting the presence of a proteoglycan (PG). Filtration analysis on Sephacryl S-500 and SDS-PAGE of the intact PG indicates that it has a high molecular weight (360,000 to over 1 x 10(6)). Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against this PG were produced. The specificity of one mAb, the 6H2, was demonstrated by size chromatography and ELISA analysis. The epitope recognized by this mAb seems to be present in the core protein of the PG. Both the extent of sulfation and the presence of different sulfated species of PGs were evaluated during the development of this mollusc. A twelvefold increase in the incorporation of sulfate to PGs per milligram of protein was found in veliger larvae compared to blastula-glastula stages. This change correlated well with the differential expression of the sulfated PG present in peak I. Biochemical and immunological analysis indicate that high levels of this PG are found in veliger and trocophore larvae in comparison with blastula-gastrula and early juveniles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytogenetic characterisation of the razor shells Ensis directus (Conrad, 1843) and E. minor (Chenu, 1843) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tizón, Ana M.; Rojo, Verónica; Vierna, Joaquín; Jensen, K. Thomas; Egea, Emilie; Martínez-Lage, Andrés

    2013-03-01

    The European razor shell Ensis minor (Chenu 1843) and the American E. directus (Conrad 1843) have a diploid chromosome number of 38 and remarkable differences in their karyotypes: E. minor has four metacentric, one metacentric-submetacentric, five submetacentric, one subtelocentric and eight telocentric chromosome pairs, whereas E. directus has three metacentric, two metacentric-submetacentric, six submetacentric, six subtelocentric and two telocentric pairs. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a major ribosomal DNA probe located the major ribosomal genes on one submetacentric chromosome pair in both species; FISH with a 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) probe rendered one chromosomal (weak) signal for E. minor and no signal for E. directus, supporting a more dispersed organisation of 5S rDNA compared to the major ribosomal genes. The vertebrate telomeric sequence (TTAGGG) n was located on both ends of each chromosome, and no interstitial signals were detected. In this work, a comparative karyological analysis was also performed between the four Ensis species analysed revealing that the three European species studied so far, namely E. minor, E. siliqua (Linné 1758) and E. magnus Schumacher 1817 show more similarities among them than compared to the American species E. directus. In addition, clear karyotype differences were found between the morphologically similar species E. minor and E. siliqua.

  13. Molecular discrimination of Perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia) species using the polymerase chain reaction and species-specific mitochondrial primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blair, D.; Waycott, M.; Byrne, L.

    2006-01-01

    This work was prompted by the need to be able to identify the invasive mussel species, Perna viridis, in tropical Australian seas using techniques that do not rely solely on morphology. DNA-based molecular methods utilizing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach were developed to distinguish...

  14. Aspects of the biology of Mya arenaria and Ensis spp. (Mollusca; Bivalvia) in the Irish Sea and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Maud E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the general biology, including the reproductive cycle and health status, of two clam taxa in Irish waters, with particular reference to the Irish Sea area. Monthly samples of the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria, were collected from Bannow Bay, Co. Wexford, Ireland, for sixteen months, and of the razor clam, Ensis spp. from the Skerries region (Irish Sea) between June 2010 and September 2011. In 2010, M. arenaria in Bannow Bay matured over the summer mont...

  15. The Effects of Mercury Exposure on the Surface Morphology of Gill Filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.A.; George, R.C.; Marshall, D.J.; Anandraj, A.; McClurg, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that changes in the surface morphology of mussel (Perna perna) gill filaments may be used to indicate the relative toxicity of pollutants in the marine environment. Healthy, adult P. perna were collected and immersed in 2 free-flow tanks. Mercury was added to seawater as it entered tank 1 to achieve a constant level of 50 μg/l -1 over 24 days. Uncontaminated seawater was circulated over the mussels in tank 2 (control) for the same period. A 25 mm 2 area of gill filament was removed from each of the 5 specimens before and after 24 days immersion in tank 2, and after immersion for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 days in tank 1. These were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The remaining soft tissues from each animal were analysed for mercury using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Mercury concentration increased from 0.13 (pre-immersion) to 87 μg/g after day 24. Surface morphology remained normal for all animals in tank 2 and for those exposed to Hg for up to 8 days. However, from 16 to 24 days exposure there was a gradual increase in the diameters of microvilli, a depletion of abfrontal cilia, an increase in abnormal, perhaps necrotic cells and an unusual increase in the number of cilia on the lateral surfaces. These results confirm that P. perna is an efficient bio-accumulator and suggest that their gill pathomorphology may be a useful indicator of toxicity

  16. Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca : Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benke, Mandy; Reise, Heike; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Koene, Joris M

    Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis

  17. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanucci, Silvana; Minerdi, Daniela; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Mengoni, Alessio; Bazzicalupo, Marco

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability

  18. Calidad y madurez de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana l. en relación con la coloración del fruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Gerhard

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Las frutas de uchuva se clasificaron, después de la cosecha, en seis fases de coloración de la cascara, así: 0 = verde, 1 = verde amarillo, 2 = amarillo naranja. 3 == naranja claro, 4 = naranja, 5 = naranja oscura y 6 = naranja roja, a los cuales se le determinaron sus propiedades físicas y bioquímicas. Para describir el comportamiento entre las fases de coloración y las variables analizadas se propusieron modelos estadísticos polinomiales hasta el grado sexto. Los resultados mostraron que, durante el desarrollo 1a coloración del fruto aumento, proporcionalmente, su tamaño, peso fresco y la relación solidos solubles totales/acidez total titulable (SST/AIT hasta 1a fase 5, mientras la acidez titulable se redujo constantemente. Los coeficientes de determinación mas altos se encontraron para las variables acidez total titulable (R2 = 0,95 y relación SST/ATT (R2 = 0,98, y los mas bajos fueron para β-caroteno (R2 =0,79. Los solidos solubles (principalmente, sacarosa mostraron sus picos mas altos en las fases 3 y 4 y el contenido del β caroteno, en 1a fase 4, razón por la cual se supone que la madurez fisiológica se encuentra entre estos dos estados (3 y 4, naranja claro - naranja, En el estado de la sobremaduracion, color naranja roja, se observo una reducción marcada en tamaño y peso del fruto. Por la relación estrecha entre coloración y el desarrollo de los ingredientes del fruto, se propone que el color de la cascara es un indicador, de fácil uso en campo, para determinar calidad y madurez de la uchuva.

     

    Palabras claves: Desarrollo del fruto, carotenoides, Índice de madurez, acido ascórbico, provitamina A.

  19. Analysis of Volatile Components of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. Grown in Turkey by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yilmaztekin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components in cape gooseberry fruit at ripe stage were collected using headspace-solid phase microextraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three solid phase microextraction fiber coatings (DVB/CAR/PDMS, CAR/PDMS, and PDMS/DVB were tested for evaluation of volatile compounds. DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber showed a strong extraction capacity for volatile compounds and produced the best result in case of total peak areas. A total of 133 volatile compounds were identified in fruit pulp; among them 1-hexanol (6.86%, eucalyptol (6.66%, ethyl butanoate (6.47%, ethyl octanoate (4.01%, ethyl decanoate (3.39%, 4-terpineol (3.27%, and 2-methyl-1-butanol (3.10% were the major components in the sample extracts.

  20. Determinación de las causas del rajado del fruto de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. bajo cubierta. II. Efecto de la oferta de calcio, boro y cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooman Alexander

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluo la incidencia del rajado del fruto de uchuva, cultivada en macetas y bajo invernadero, con presencia y ausencia en la fertilizacion de los elementos calcio, cobre y boro, y sus interacciones. Los rendimientos en cosecha se redujeron por la ausencia de calcio y cobre pero el boro no incidio en este aspecto. El peso de los frutos individuales aumento por la ausencia del boro en la fertilizacion, mientras que la ausencia del calcio produjo frutos de menor peso y el cobre no incidio en este aspecto. En el tratamiento de fertilizacion completa, que incluyo todos los elementos, el rajado fue mas importante en las primeras semanas y menor hacia el final del periodo de cosecha. El rajado del fruto se expreso en funcion de la presencia de calcio y boro en la fertilizacion, con un incremento de 5,5 a 13% de frutos rajados cuando cualquiera de los dos era eliminado de la solucion nutritiva. El cobre no tuvo efecto sobre la incidencia del rajado. El tamano del fruto, aunque significativo, incidio poco sobre la ocurrencia del rajado.

  1. Physicochemical properties, nutritional value and techno-functional properties of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana) waste powder concise title: Composition of goldenberry juice waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Sayed M; Swailam, Hesham M; Embaby, Hassan El-Sayed

    2018-05-15

    Goldenberry waste powder, contained 5.87% moisture, 15.89% protein, 13.72% fat, 3.52% ash, 16.74% dietary fiber and 61% carbohydrates. Potassium (560 mg/100 g) was the predominant element followed by sodium (170 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (130 mg/100 g). Amino acid analysis gave high levels of cystine/methionine, histidine and tyrosine/phenylalanine. Goldenberry waste powder had good levels of the techno-functional properties including water absorption index, swelling index, foaming capacity and stability (3.38 g/g, 5.24 ml/g, 4.09 and 72.0%, respectively). Fatty acids profile showed that linoleic acid was the predominant fatty acid followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Iodine value (109.5 g/100 g of oil), acid value (2.36 mg KOH/g of oil), saponification value (183.8 mg KOH/g of oil), peroxide value (8.2 meq/kg of oil) and refractive index (1.4735) were comparable to those of soybean and sunflower oils. Goldenberry waste oil exhibited absorbance in the UV range at 100-400 nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of volatile components of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) grown in Turkey by HS-SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaztekin, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Volatile components in cape gooseberry fruit at ripe stage were collected using headspace-solid phase microextraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three solid phase microextraction fiber coatings (DVB/CAR/PDMS, CAR/PDMS, and PDMS/DVB) were tested for evaluation of volatile compounds. DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber showed a strong extraction capacity for volatile compounds and produced the best result in case of total peak areas. A total of 133 volatile compounds were identified in fruit pulp; among them 1-hexanol (6.86%), eucalyptol (6.66%), ethyl butanoate (6.47%), ethyl octanoate (4.01%), ethyl decanoate (3.39%), 4-terpineol (3.27%), and 2-methyl-1-butanol (3.10%) were the major components in the sample extracts.

  3. Efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla sobre uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. en invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niño Nancy Eunice

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudio se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca, bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante diez meses de cultivo. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 y 1.000 larvas J2/100 cc de suelo, sobre parámetros productivos de la uchuva: altura de las plantas, diámetro de tallo, peso fresco, peso seco y biomasa de follaje, peso fresco de raíces, índice de nodulación radicular y peso fresco de frutos. Se hizo análisis de varianza, pruebas de contrastes y prueba de Tukey (α=0,05, en un diseño completamente aleatorio, con seis tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, mediante el programa SAS v.8.0. El tratamiento de 500 larvas J2/100 cc suelo fue el que más afectó la altura de las plantas, el diámetro del tallo, la biomasa de follaje, el peso fresco de raíces y presentó el índice de nodulación radical más alto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados con M. hapla , para peso fresco, peso seco de follaje y peso fresco de frutos, ni para el número de larvas J2 en suelo y masas de huevos. Mediante la ecuación: Y = m + (1–mZP-T propuesta por Seinhorst (1965, se estableció un límite de tolerancia de 50 larvas J2 de M. hapla /100 cc suelo, para peso fresco de raíces y un límite de tolerancia de 450 larvas J2 de M. hapla /100 cc suelo, para biomasa de follaje.

  4. Eye trematode infection in small passerines in Peru caused by Philophthalmus lucipetus, an agent with a zoonotic potential spread by an invasive freshwater snail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Literák, I.; Heneberg, P.; Sitko, J.; Wetzel, E. J.; Callirgos, J. M. C.; Čapek, Miroslav; Basto, D. V.; Papoušek, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 4 (2013), s. 390-396 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Birds * Caenogastropoda * Digenea * DNA analysis * Echinostomida * Eye trematode * Fluke Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2013

  5. Estabilidad Fisicoquímica y Funcional de Uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. Impregnada a Vacío con Calcio y Vitaminas B9, D y E, Durante el Almacenamiento Refrigerado / Phisicochemical and Functional Stability of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. Vacuu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Correa Ruth Fabiola

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Debido a la creciente demanda de alimentossaludables, la industria alimentaria está mejorando el valornutritivo de estos, modificando su composición nutricional.Las frutas tropicales son ampliamente aceptadas por losconsumidores y a la vez representan una alternativa ideal para la obtención de alimentos funcionales a través de la incorporación de vitaminas y minerales. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar, en el transcurso del tiempo, variaciones en las propiedades fisicoquímicas, el contenido de vitaminas (C, B9, D y E y calcio, y la capacidad antioxidante (Folin, DPPH• y ABTS•+, de un producto de uchuva mínimamente procesado, fortificado por la técnica de impregnación a vacío (IV. Los resultados indican que una porción de 200 g de uchuva fortificada aporta el 81,6%; 72,3%; 38,9% y 50,2% de los valores diarios de referencia (VDR respectivos de las vitaminas B9, C, D y E, y el 15,4% de los de calcio. Durante el almacenamiento se encontró disminución de la concentración de las vitaminas B9 y E. Un comportamiento similar al de la vitamina E se presentó en la capacidad antioxidante (CA medida en la fracción liposoluble. La incorporación de componentes fisiológicamente activos en el interior de la estructura de las uchuvas mediante la técnica de IV, le confieren a la fruta mejores propiedades antioxidantes yfuncionales respecto a las uchuvas frescas. / Abstract. Due to the increasing demand of healthy foods, the food industry is improving the nutritional value of these by changing their nutritional composition. Tropical fruits are widelyaccepted by consumers and are an ideal alternative for obtaining functional foods through the addition of vitamins and minerals. The aim of this study was to evaluate, over time, variations in the physicochemical properties, vitamins (C, B9, D and E and calcium, and the antioxidant capacity (Folin, DPPH• and ABTS•+, in a cape gooseberry minimally processed product, fortified by the technique of vacuum impregnation (VI. The results indicate that 200 g of fortified cape gooseberry contributes with the 81.6%; 72.3%; 38.9% and 50.2% of the reference daily values (RDV for vitamins B9, C, D and E, and 15% of calcium. During storage was found decreased concentration of vitamins B9 and E. A similar behavior of vitamin E was found in the antioxidant capacity (CA measured in the liposoluble fraction. The incorporation of physiologically active components within the structure of cape gooseberry by the technique of IV, give to the fruit the best antioxidant and functional properties with respect to the fresh cape gooseberry.

  6. Cambio de los carbohidratos en el fruto de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. durante su desarrollo en relación al cáliz y las hojas Developmental changes of carbohydrates in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. fruits in relation to the calyx and the leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Gerhard

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucosa, fructosa, sacarosa y almidón se analizaron en frutos, cáliz y las dos hojas más cercanas al fruto durante el desarrollo de la uchuva bajo condiciones de invernadero de vidrio en Berlín-Alemania. El cáliz se eliminó totalmente o, verticalmente la mitad, a los 5; 25 y 45 días después del cuajamiento del fruto (DCF. Los frutos que se desarrollaron completamente sin cáliz redujeron sus tazas de crecimiento significativamente a partir de 10-15 días DCF. Los frutos con medio cáliz o aquellos con un cáliz separado a los 25 o los 45 días no fueron afectados en su crecimiento. En frutos y cálices, las tazas más altas de incremento de todos los carbohidratos se midieron durante los primeros 10 a 20 días de su desarrollo. En ambos órganos, la sacarosa tuvo las concentraciones más altas y aumentó considerablemente a partir de 20 a 30 días DCF en frutos y, a partir de 40 a 50 días, en cáliz. Los contenidos de la glucosa y fructosa se incrementaron en un nivel más bajo que la sacarosa y ambos mostraron un comportamiento muy similar en el fruto. El almidón disminuyó en forma constante en el fruto y en el cáliz a partir de los 10 a 20 días DCF y hasta la cosecha (60 días. En las hojas, el contenido más alto de los carbohidratos lo presentó el almidón siguiéndose una curva de Gauss durante el crecimiento del fruto. La sacarosa disminuyó en las hojas después de 40 días DCF, debido, probablemente, a un aumento de la translocación al fruto. En la madurez, los frutos secos tuvieron 47,2 % de carbohidratos y los cálices y las hojas, 5,7 y 7,4 %, respectivamente. Los frutos con cáliz separado a los cinco días DCF presentaron una menor concentración en los monosacáridos durante el crecimiento inicial y un menor contenido de sacarosa durante la mitad de su desarrollo. De los carbohidratos analizados, el almidón fue el más alto durante todas las etapas del desarrollo de los frutos que crecieron completamente sin el cáliz. Se supone que el cáliz juega un papel dominante en la producción y en la translocación de carbohidratos, principalmente de la sacarosa. Con su eliminación, el desarrollo del fruto es más demorado, lo cual se indica por los contenidos mayores de almidón. Así, el cáliz tiene, no solamente, una función protectora, sino que también, es una fuente importante para los asimilados, especialmente en la etapa temprana del
    crecimiento del fruto. La disminución en el contenido de sacarosa en las hojas a partir de la mitad del desarrollo del fruto podría ser debida a una mayor translocación desde la hoja al fruto.
    Glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch were analyzed in fruits, calyx and the two next leaves during fruit development of cape gooseberry under glasshouse conditions in Berlin-Germany. Calyx was eliminated completely or half-sided vertically 5, 25 and 45 days past fruit set (PFS. Fruits growing completely without calyx slowed down their
    growth rates significantly from 10-15days PFS on. Fruits with half-sided calyx or with a complete removal of the calyx after 25 and 45 days grew unaffectedly. Higher increment rates of all carbohydrates were measured during the first 10-20 days of fruít development in fruits and calyx. Both organs showed higher sucrose concentrations as compared to the other carbohydrates and sucrose rose sharply from 20-30 days PFS in fruits and from 40-50 days in calyx. Glucose and fructose content rose in a lower scale than sucrose and both had very
    similar increase patterns in the fruit. Starch decreased in fruit and calyx from 10-20 days PFS until harvest (60 days continuously. Leaf starch content was highest of the measured carbohydrates and followed a Gauss curve pattern type during fruit growth. Leaf sucrose decreased after 40 days PFS, probably due to an increased translocation to the fruit. 47.2 % of total dry matter in mature fruits were carbohydrates, whereas in calyx and leaves the percentages were 5.7 and 7.4 % respectively. Fruits with detached calyx 5 days PFS presented lower monosaccaride concentration during the inicial fruit growth and lower sucrose during the midseason of fruit development. From the analyzed carbohydrates starch was highest during all stages of fruit development in fruits growing completely without husk.
    It is supposed that the calyx plays a dominant role in both built up and translocation of carbohydrates, mainly sucrose. With its removal fruit development is delayed indicated by the increased starch contents during all development stages. Thus, calyx has not only a protective function but is also an important source for assimilates especially in the early growth stage of the fruit. The decrease in sucrose content of leaves from the midseason on of fruit development might be due to an increased translocation from the leaf to the fruit.

  7. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of 18 Introductions of Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana L. collection of the University of Nariño Caracterización Morfológica y Molecular de 18 Introducciones de Uchuva Physalis peruviana L. de la Colección de la Universidad de Nariño

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    Anjuly Tatiana Morillo Paz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen cape gooseberry introductions from the collection of Nariño's University were characterized through morphological and molecular RAM markers. For the morphological characterization were used 10 plants of each entry. Through the principal component analysis (PCA was found that 81.75 % of the total variability of the study population, regarding quantitative variables, is represented by three main components, defined by characteristics related to fruit and seed. The qualitative multiple correspondence analysis (MCA indicated that 61,51% of the total variability was explained by five factors, defined mainly by traits related to the flower and calyx. The classification analysis (CA based on morphological characterization, grouped introductions by total soluble solids and length of calyx. In the molecular characterization 66 polymorphic loci were found with bands of 500 to 3,000 bp. The value of heterozygosity for the 18 introductions was 0.44. Based on the Nei genetic distance criterion, it was found the less genetic distance (0.095 between A-34 and Sylvania, the largest genetic distance (1.42 occurred between Ecotype Colombia and Peru. Clusters of morphological and molecular characterization are mismatched, probably because phenotypical and genotypical characteristics, studied are governed by different factors.Fueron caracterizadas morfológica y molecularmente con marcadores RAM, 18 introducciones de uchuva de la colección de la Universidad de Nariño. Para la caracterización morfológica se sembraron 10 plantas de cada introducción. A través del análisis de componentes principales (ACP se determinó que el 81,75% de la variabilidad total de la población estudiada, respecto a las variables cuantitativas, está representada por tres componentes principales, definidos por características relacionadas con el fruto y la semilla. En cuanto a las cualitativas, el análisis de correspondencias múltiples (ACM indica que el 61,51% de la variabilidad total, está explicada por cinco factores, definidos principalmente por variables relacionadas con la flor y el cáliz. El análisis de clasificación (AC con base en la caracterización morfológica, agrupó las introducciones por sólidos solubles totales y longitud del cáliz. En la caracterización molecular se encontraron 66 locí polimórficos con bandas de 500 a 3.000 pb. El valor de heterocigosidad para las 18 introducciones fue de 0,44. Con base en el criterio de distancia genética de Nei, se encontró la menor distancia genética (0,095 entre UN-34 y Silvania, la mayor distancia genética (1,42 se dio entre el ecotipo Colombia y Perú. Los agrupamientos de la caracterización morfológica y molecular no fueron coincidentes, probablemente debido a que los caracteres fenotípicos y genotípicos estudiados son gobernados por diferentes factores.

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS AISLADOS DE GALLINAZA POR SU POTENCIAL PARA EL BIOCONTROL DE FUSARIUM (F. OXYSPORUM EN PLÁNTULAS DE UCHUVA (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA EVALUATION OF MICROORGANISMS INSOLATED FROM HEN MANURE FOR THEIR POTENCIAL AS BIOCONTROL AGENTS OF FUSARIUM (F. OXYSPORUM IN GOOSEBERRY (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Amézquita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, las pérdidas económicas ocasionadas por Fusarium oxysporum en el cultivo de uchuva son considerables. Se evaluaron hongos y bacterias aislados de 2 fuentes de gallinaza, su potencial como agentes de biocontrol de este patógeno. La evaluación se realizó en cajas de Petri con PDA para lo cual se colocó en el centro de las mismas, un disco de 5 mm de diámetro colonizado por el patógeno y a 3 cm del centro, sobre los ejes horizontal y vertical, cada uno de los aislamientos de la gallinaza. Los aislamientos que mostraron antagonismo fueron posteriormente evaluados in vitro por su capacidad de restringir el crecimiento y esporulación de F. oxysporum. Cada uno de los aislamientos que mostró el mayor potencial antagónico fue inoculado simultáneamente con el patógeno en plántulas de uchuva y evaluado por sus efectos en contra de la incidencia de la enfermedad y la muerte de las plántulas. Los resultados indicaron que de los 39 microorganismos aislados de la gallinaza pura, 6 mostraron antagonismo contra F. oxysporum y entre ellos los más efectivos para restringir in vitro su crecimiento y esporulación fueron los hongos H2 y H6 y las bacterias B17 y B19. Las bacterias B17 y B19 resultaron ser las más efectivas en reducir no sólo la incidencia sino también la muerte de plántulas ocasionada por el patógeno. Según los resultados de la identificación, los hongos H2 y H6 pertenecen a los géneros Geotrichum sp. y Trichoderma sp, respectivamente y las bacterias B17 y B19 al género Bacillus.In Colombia, economic losses due to attack of Fusarium oxysporum in the gooseberry plantation are considerable. Fungi and bacteria isolated from 2 hen manure sources were evaluated for their potential as biological control agents of this pathogen. The evaluation was conducted in Petri dishes containing PDA by placing a 5 mm diameter disk, colonized by this pathogen, in the center of the plates and at 3 cm from the center, over the horizontal and vertical axis, each of the microorganisms isolated from the hen manure. The isolated microorganisms that showed antagonism were later evaluated in vitro for their capacity to inhibit growth and sporulation of F. oxysporum. Each of the microorganisms that showed the greatest antagonism potential was simultaneously inoculated with the pathogen in gooseberry seedlings and evaluated for their effects against the incidence of the disease and the death of the seedlings. The results indicated that of the 39 microorganisms isolated from the pure hen manure, 6 showed antagonism against F. oxysporum and among them the most effective to inhibit in vitro its growth and sporulation were the fungi H2 and H6 and the bacteria B17 and B19. The bacteria B17 and B19 resulted to be the most effective in reducing not only the incidence, but also the death of the seedlings caused by the pathogen. According to the identification results, the H2 and H6 fungi belong to the genera Geotrichum and Trichoderma, respectively and the B17 and B19 bacteria to the genus Bacillus.

  9. Base temperature and simulation model for nodes appearance in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. Temperatura base e modelo de simulação da aparição de nós em plantas de fisalis(Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melba Ruth Salazar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Data was analyzed on development of the solanaceen fruit crop Cape gooseberry to evaluate how well a classical thermal time model could describe node appearance in different environments. The data used in the analysis were obtained from experiments conducted in Colombia in open fields and greenhouse condition at two locations with different climate. An empirical, non linear segmented model was used to estimate the base temperature and to parameterize the model for simulation of node appearance vs. time. The base temperature (Tb used to calculate the thermal time (TT, ºCd for node appearance was estimated to be 6.29 ºC. The slope of the first linear segment was 0.023 nodes per TT and 0.008 for the second linear segment. The time at which the slope of node apperance changed was 1039.5 ºCd after transplanting, determined from a statistical analysis of model for the first segment. When these coefficients were used to predict node appearance at all locations, the model successfully fit the observed data (RSME=2.1, especially for the first segment where node appearance was more homogeneous than the second segment. More nodes were produced by plants grown under greenhouse conditions and minimum and maximum rates of node appearance rates were also higher.Dados analisados durante o desenvolvimento de fisalis, espécie frutífera da família das solanáceas, foram usados para avaliar a aparição de nós em diferentes condições ambientais através de um modelo clássico termal de tempo. Os dados usados na análise foram obtidos de experimentos conduzidos em dois locais, com clima diferente, em campos abertos e em condições de estufa, na Colômbia. O modelo não-linear empírico segmentado foi usado para estimar a temperatura-base, e para estabelecer os parâmetros do modelo da simulação da aparição de nós em função do tempo. A temperatura-base (Tb usada para calcular o tempo termal (TT, ºCd para a aparição de nós foi 6,29 ºC. A inclinação do segmento linear foi de 0,023 e de 0,008 nós por TT, para o primeiro e segundo segmentos lineares, respectivamente. O tempo estimado para a aparição do nó foi de 1.039,5 ºCd depois do transplante, determinado a partir de uma análise estatística do modelo do primeiro segmento. Quando esses coeficientes foram usados para predizer a aparição de nós em todas as locações, o modelo ajustou-se dados observados adequadamente (RSME=2,1, especialmente para o primeiro segmento, onde a aparição de nós foi mais homogênea do que no segundo segmento. O número de nós e as taxas mínimas e máximas de aparição de nós foram maiores em plantas cultivadas em condições de estufa do que em plantas cultivadas nas demais condições.

  10. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  11. Toxicological perspective on the osmoregulation and ionoregulation physiology of major ions by freshwater animals: Teleost fish, crustacea, aquatic insects, and Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Anthropogenic sources increase freshwater salinity and produce differences in constituent ions compared with natural waters. Moreover, ions differ in physiological roles and concentrations in intracellular and extracellular fluids. Four freshwater taxa groups are compared, to investigate similarities and differences in ion transport processes and what ion transport mechanisms suggest about the toxicity of these or other ions in freshwater. Although differences exist, many ion transporters are functionally similar and may belong to evolutionarily conserved protein families. For example, the Na + /H + -exchanger in teleost fish differs from the H + /2Na + (or Ca 2+ )-exchanger in crustaceans. In osmoregulation, Na + and Cl - predominate. Stenohaline freshwater animals hyperregulate until they are no longer able to maintain hypertonic extracellular Na + and Cl - concentrations with increasing salinity and become isotonic. Toxic effects of K + are related to ionoregulation and volume regulation. The ionic balance between intracellular and extracellular fluids is maintained by Na + /K + -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), but details are lacking on apical K + transporters. Elevated H + affects the maintenance of internal Na + by Na + /H + exchange; elevated HCO 3 - inhibits Cl - uptake. The uptake of Mg 2+ occurs by the gills or intestine, but details are lacking on Mg 2+ transporters. In unionid gills, SO 4 2- is actively transported, but most epithelia are generally impermeant to SO 4 2- . Transporters of Ca 2+ maintain homeostasis of dissolved Ca 2+ . More integration of physiology with toxicology is needed to fully understand freshwater ion effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:576-600. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  12. Los moluscos terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda de Costa Rica: clasificación, distribución y conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidett Barrientos Llosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos terrestres son un grupo muy poco estudiado a nivel mundial. Hay 183 especies reportadas para Costa Rica, 30% son endémicas y 7% posiblemente están extintas. Se espera que en el país haya alrededor de 400 especies, de más del 95% se desconoce su biología, ecología, distribución, genética y otros campos de estudio. En Costa Rica las familias con mayor número de especies son Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae y Subulinidae. No obstante, es posible que Euconulidae sea aun más diversa, pues habitan las zonas altas del país que es en donde menos trabajo se ha hecho. El estudio de regiones altas aumentará el porcentaje de endemismo. Los futuros trabajos malacológicos taxonómicos, biológicos y ecológicos deben considerar la poca movilidad de este grupo, su tendencia a formar especies nuevas en simpatría, la especificidad de requerimientos de microhábitat, el hermafroditismo, la alta tasa de evolución (10% por millón de años y la divergencia entre especies (2-30%. Para proteger adecuadamente la biodiversidad de la malacofauna costarricense, se requiere de estudios que determinen la distribución y abundancia de las especies y el efecto del uso de la tierra y del climático.

  13. On the identities of the molluscan names described in A Short Zoology of Tahiti in the Society Islands by Anthony Curtiss in 1938 (Mollusca: Cephalopoda, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Tan, Siong Kiat

    2014-02-11

    Anthony Curtiss described two species of cephalopod and nine species of gastropod molluscs from Tahiti. Herein, we discuss and determine the identities of these eleven names. Ten of these names are considered to be junior subjective synonyms of well-known taxa, and one an unavailable name.

  14. Distribución del género Diplodon (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Hyriidae en territorio Argentino mediante el uso de Colecciones Biológicas

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    Santiago Hernán Torres

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Los bivalvos nacaríferos dulciacuícolas (“náyades”, son especies infaunales, endémicas de la RegiónNeotropical, pertenecientes a las familias Hyriidae (Swaison, 1840 y Etheriidae (Swaison, 1840. La alteración del ambiente y la competencia con especies invasoras como Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 y Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, impactan sobre las poblaciones naturales. En esta comunicación, se presenta el inicio de un Proyecto de investigación sobre la distribución geográfica de las especies del género Diplodon en la Argentina. Estas especies son un componente importante de la infauna de los cuerpos lóticos y lénticos, viviendo en fondos limosos, limo-arenosos, excepcionalmente en sustratos duros, con un régimen nutricio filtrador, teniendo un papel importante como recicladores de materia orgánica. Conocer la distribución de los bivalvos pertenecientes al género Diplodon en el territorio Argentino permitirá el reconocimiento de potenciales áreas prioritarias para su conservación. Sobre la base de la bibliografía disponible y los ejemplares de las especies del genero Diplodon depositados en la Colección Malacológica del Museo de La Plata (FCNyM-UNLP, se confeccionó una matriz de datos que incluye la identificación del ejemplar, la colección en que se encuentra depositado, el número de catálogo, la localidad y la fecha de colecta. Cada localidad fue ubicada mediante el uso de cartas geográficas de Argentina y revisiones bibliográficas en imágenes satelitales de GoogleEarth, asignando las coordenadas para cada punto. Como resultado del trabajo se obtiene la distribución de estas especies nativas y se discute el grado de solapamiento con las dos especies de bivalvos invasores y el impacto de actividades humanas. 

  15. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp. is Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S; 72°27'40.65"W, Aysén region.

  16. Observations on the symbiosis between Colus gracilis (Da Costa, 1778) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and Hormathia digitata (O.F. Müller, 1776) (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Aquarium observations of the behaviour of the actinian Hormathia digitata when mounting live specimens of the gastropod Colus gracilis are fully described for the first time. C. gracilis actively initiates an association with H. digitata by approaching and remaining stationary near the actinian.

  17. Reproductive activity and biochemical composition of the pullet carpet shell Venerupis senegalensis (Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Ria de Aveiro (northwestern coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Joaquim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study characterizes the reproductive cycle of Venerupis senegalensis (=V. pullastra from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal as well as its nutrient storage and exploitation strategy. The reproductive cycle followed a seasonal cycle that correlated negatively with sea surface temperature, and comprised a ripe stage in winter followed by a spawning period that began in late winter and ended in the early summer. This extended spawning may be an advantageous strategy for the species because it ensures a continuous supply of settlers. Gametogenesis began in late summer/early autumn and intensified with the decrease in temperature during autumn. The condition index increased even during the spawning period, which indicates that there is rapid recovery and that reserves are accumulated during late summer and used later in the gametogenic process. Proteins did not contribute significantly to gametogenesis and the glycogen pattern is typical of conservative species, since gametogenesis depends largely on the amount of glycogen stored. The lipid storage and utilization cycle showed that gametogenesis took place in autumn/winter and that energy reserves were accumulated in summer.

  18. The population density of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Mollusca, Lymnaeidae) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758), in the Caparaó microregion, ES, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, S C G; Freitas, D F; Carneiro, M B; Camargo, P F; Azevedo, J C; Martins, I V F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the population density of Lymnaea columella, an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in various aquatic habitats and in drinking water in the area of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, on Caparaó Microregion, municipality of Alegre, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Monthly samplings were performed at certain points between drainage areas and drinking water in cattle and goat production systems during the years 2010 to 2013. The mean temperature, precipitation and the frequency of samples of L. columella were analysed graphically according the monthly average during the study period. A total of 2,038 molluscs were collected, 1558 of which were L. columella, that predominated in all sampled points. The highest average of specimens observed for L. columella was in the years 2010 and 2013 (51.0), and occurred decreased in 2011 (19.8). The temperature and precipitation averaged is 23.7 °C and 141 mm/year, respectively. Rainfall peak occurred in March (2011, 2013) and November (2012), during these periods the population of L. columella growth. There was no significant difference in the relationship between the specimens observed with seasons (dry-wet), thus the population of L. columella remained stable and can be found throughout the year.

  19. Evaluation of magnesium and manganese in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: mollusca, bivalvia) collected in the cost of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cathartino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate magnesium and manganese concentrations in Perna perna mussels by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009 at Cocanha Beach in the city of Caraguatatuba (clean region), and at two sites in Santos Bay (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island). The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were carried out using a hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to Digital Spectral Analyzer. The elemental concentrations were calculated by the comparative method. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b oyster tissue and NRC DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The element concentrations in mussels on dry mass basis varied from 2734 ± 205 to 5138 ± 507 mg kg -1 for Mg and from 7.35±0.57 to 29.06±3.35 mg kg -1 for Mn. The results obtained in mussel analysis indicated that the samples collected in Itaipu in the winter season presented higher accumulation of Mg than the other sites. For Mn, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels collected in Palmas in summer time. (author)

  20. Description of two new species of Rissoella Gray, 1847 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia from Venezuela, with a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Caballer Gutierrez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Rissoella Gray, 1847 are described from Venezuela, one from the National Park Morrocoy, Rissoella morrocoyensis sp. n. and the other from the Wildlife Refuge Isla de Aves, Rissoella venezolanicola sp. n. R. morrocoyensis sp. n. has a deep umbilicus (partly closed, preumbilical cord, black head, hypobranchial gland marked by a pale yellow boomerang-shaped ribbon and it lives on the leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks & König, 1805. R. venezolanicola sp. n. has an angled preumbilical cord which extends to the columella delimiting a trapezoid, a hypobranchial gland marked by a yellow quaver-shaped ribbon and protoconch with fuchsia highlights. It lives on the brown alga Dictyota spp. The records of Rissoella in the Caribbean are revised and illustrations, a comparative table and a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus are provided.

  1. The Neotropical land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’

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    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The land snails collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacifíco’ (CCP, a Spanish expedition to South and Central America from 1862–1866, are restudied and revised. The historical context of the expedition and the study of its collected material are described. Biographical data is given for the main persons involved. The land snails were previously studied by Joaquin Hidalgo between 1867 and 1893. A total of 3,470 specimens belonging to 211 species are treated in this paper. Of 34 species mentioned by Hidalgo is his catalogue, the corresponding material could not be located. Bulimus visendus Hidalgo, 1869 is now placed in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896, a new combination.

  2. Single cell gel electrophoresis as a tool to assess genetic damage in Heleobia cf. australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda as sentinel for industrial and domestic pollution in Montevideo bay (Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Villar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in aquatic organisms in polluted areas is an important issue because contamination may alter their health at sublethal levels. Although molluscs have been widely used to monitor water pollution, there are no records of in vivo genotoxicity studies. Heleobia cf. australis, is distributed in almost all Uruguayan coastal ecosystems, including highly polluted sites. The comet assay is a damage genetic biomarker based on the migration of negatively charged DNA fragments produced by mutagenic agents in individual cells. Live individuals were collected in the Montevideo Bay (impacted area and Laguna Garzón (control to analyze the presence of mutagenic agents in the former site through comet assay. Cells from organisms of the impacted area showed significantly higher levels of genetic damage than those obtained in the control population, measured by percentage of DNA in the tail. Although preliminary, this approach supports the idea that H. cf. australis could be used as a sentinel to evaluate the presence of mutagenic agents in estuarine environments, alerting to the impact of contamination in its early stages.

  3. An annotated catalogue of Recent Pectinoidea (Mollusca, Pectinidae and Propeamussiidae) type material in the Museum of Natural History, Humboldt University, Berlin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Köhler, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper lists 22 pectinoid types (21 primary and one secondary) and three potential syntypes in the Museum of Natural History (ZMB) in Berlin. Eight lectotypes are designated herein for the stabilization of taxonomic names: Pecten aequatorialis, Pecten australis, Pecten clathratus, Camptonectes

  4. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de

    2013-01-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg -1 for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg -1 for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg -1 for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg -1 for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg -1 for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg -1 for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  5. Evaluation of magnesium and manganese in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: mollusca, bivalvia) collected in the cost of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cathartino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate magnesium and manganese concentrations in Perna perna mussels by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009 at Cocanha Beach in the city of Caraguatatuba (clean region), and at two sites in Santos Bay (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island). The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were carried out using a hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to Digital Spectral Analyzer. The elemental concentrations were calculated by the comparative method. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b oyster tissue and NRC DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The element concentrations in mussels on dry mass basis varied from 2734 {+-} 205 to 5138 {+-} 507 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg and from 7.35{+-}0.57 to 29.06{+-}3.35 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn. The results obtained in mussel analysis indicated that the samples collected in Itaipu in the winter season presented higher accumulation of Mg than the other sites. For Mn, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels collected in Palmas in summer time. (author)

  6. Diet and stable isotope analyses reveal the feeding ecology of the orangeback squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855 (Mollusca, Ommastrephidae in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Merten

    Full Text Available In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855 (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging. Stomach content analyses (via visual identification and DNA barcoding were combined with stable isotope data (∂15N and ∂13C of muscle tissue to describe diet, feeding habits and trophic ecology of S. pteropus. Additionally, stable isotope analyses of incremental samples along the squid's gladius-the chitinous spiniform structure supporting the muscles and organs-were carried out to explore possible diet shifts through ontogeny and migration. Our results show that S. pteropus preys mainly on myctophid fishes (e.g. Myctophum asperum, Myctophum nitidulum, Vinciguerria spp., but also on other teleost species, cephalopods (e.g. Enoploteuthidae, Bolitinidae, Ommastrephidae, crustaceans and possibly on gelatinous zooplankton as well. The squid shows a highly opportunistic feeding behaviour that includes cannibalism. Our study indicates that the trophic position of S. pteropus may increase by approximately one trophic level from a mantle length of 15 cm to 47 cm. The reconstructed isotope-based feeding chronologies of the gladii revealed high intra- and inter-individual variability in the squid's trophic position and foraging area. These findings are not revealed by diet or muscle tissue stable isotope analysis. This suggests a variable and complex life history involving individual variation and migration. The role of S. pteropus in transferring energy and nutrients from lower to higher trophic levels may be underestimated and important for understanding how a changing ocean impacts food webs in the eastern Atlantic.

  7. The influence of caffeine and thymol on the survival, growth and reproduction of Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789 (Mollusca, Subulinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Subulina octona is a terrestrial snail which serves as an intermediate host for the parasites. It is also an agricultural pest. The aim of this work was to assess, during 120 days, the effects of caffeine and thymol at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatchability, survival after hatching, growth and reproduction of S. octona under the laboratory conditions. A total of 240 eggs, 240 juveniles aged 10-day-old, and 240 aged 30-day-old were tested. The results showed that thymol (at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L and caffeine (at 5 g/L acted as ovicides. In the 10-day-old juveniles, caffeine at 5 g/L caused 25% mortality and at 2.5 g/L it caused 30% mortality. Thymol at 2.5 and 5 g/L caused 20 and 22.5% mortality, respectively. In the 30-day-old juveniles, caffeine at 5 g/L caused 47.5% mortality.Subulina octona é um molusco terrestre que atua como hospedeiro intermediário de parasitos. Também atua como praga agrícola. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 120 dias, o efeito da cafeína e do timol a 2,5g/L e a 5g/L, sobre a eclodibilidade, a sobrevivência após a eclosão, crescimento e a reprodução de S. octona em condições de laboratório. Foram testados 240 ovos, 240 jovens com 10 e 30 dias de vida. Os resultados dos testes mostraram que o timol (5g/L e 2,5g/L e a cafeína a 5g/L atuaram como ovicida. Nos jovens com 10 dias de vida a cafeína à 5g/L provocou uma mortalidade de 25% e a 2,5 g/L 30%. O timol a 2,5g/L e 5g/L provocou 20 e 22,5% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Nos jovens com 30 dias de vida a cafeína a 5g/L causou 47,5% de mortalidade. Esses resultados sugerem novos estudos no campo.

  8. Characterization of nine microsatellite markers and development of multiplex PCRs for the Chinese huge musel Anodonta (Sinanodonta) woodiana Lea, 1834 (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popa, O. P.; Bartáková, Veronika; Bryja, Josef; Reichard, Martin; Popa, L. O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, June (2015), s. 234-237 ISSN 0305-1978 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Invasive species * SSRs * Population genetics * Unionidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.988, year: 2015

  9. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro,Ricardo; Ávila,Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  10. On the doubtful records of Alvania platycephala, Alvania pagodula and Alvania didyma, with the description of two new rissoid species (Mollusca; Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, M.J.; Moolenbeek, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two new species of Alvania are described from Bermuda. Both species have been wrongly identified in the past. The generic classification is discussed but a definitive statement based only on conchological characters seems impossible.

  11. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setiaalexandrae sp. n., Setiaermelindoi sp. n., Setianetoae sp. n., and Manzoniamartinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  12. Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the Black Sea basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therriault, Thomas W; Docker, Margaret F; Orlova, Marina I; Heath, Daniel D; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2004-03-01

    Considerable uncertainty exists in determination of the phylogeny among extant members of the Dreissenidae, especially those inhabiting the Ponto-Caspian basin, as multiple systematic revisions based on morphological characteristics have failed to resolve relationships within this group of bivalves. In this study we use DNA sequence analyses of two mitochondrial gene fragments, 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), to determine phylogenetic relationships among Dreissena rostriformis, D. bugensis, D. polymorpha, D. stankovici, Congeria kusceri, and Mytilopsis leucophaeata. Dreissena stankovici was determined to represent a sister taxa to D. polymorpha and both are more closely related to other extant Dreissena species than Congeria or Mytilopsis. Sequence divergence between D. rostriformis and D. bugensis was relatively low (0.3-0.4%), suggesting that these two taxa constitute a single species. However, environmental differences suggest two races of D. rostriformis, a brackish water race (rostriformis) and a freshwater race (bugensis). Spread of bugensis-type individuals into habitats in the Caspian Sea that are occupied by rostriformis-type individuals may create novel hybridization opportunities. Species-specific molecular markers also were developed in this study since significant intraspecific variation in morphological features complicates dreissenid identification. Using two gene fragments (nuclear 28S and 16S), we identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) that distinguish among D. rostriformis/bugensis, D. polymorpha, and D. stankovici and revealed the presence of a cryptic invader to the Black Sea basin, Mytilopsis leucophaeata. This is the first report of this North American native in southern Europe.

  13. Population structure, biomass and production of the West African lucinid Keletistes rhizoecus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in Sivibilagbara swamp at Bodo Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabbey, N.; Hart, A. I.; Wolff, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    The West African lucinid bivalve Keletistes rhizoecus (Oliver, Basteria 50:47-64, 1986) is only known from the Niger Delta in Nigeria. Due to inaccessibility of its habitat population biology, growth parameters, biomass, and annual secondary production are unknown. The danger of oil pollution

  14. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors.

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    Lauren H Sumner-Rooney

    Full Text Available The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001. We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans.

  15. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora through the early life stages.

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    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda

    Full Text Available This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL" were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r, close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning, respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females and 19.51-26.60 mm (males, S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females and 23.45-32.27 mm (males, S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females and 25.45-32.87 mm (males. Sexual differentiation (in S0 of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  16. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zivkovic (Dana); R. Créton (Robbert); G. Zwaan (Gideon); W.C. de Bruijn (Wim); M.R. Dohmen (M.René)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity

  17. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Dana; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; Bruijn, Wim; Dohmen, M.René

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs of Lymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas in Bithynia eggs it was localized...

  18. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and food preferences of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Merambong shoal, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Wan Nurul Wan Hassan; Mazlan, Abd Ghaffar; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2017-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium is one of the marine gastropod mollusks that have high commercial value, particularly in the aquaculture sector in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the feeding and food items of L. canarium at different ontogenetic stages (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) from Merambong shoals, Malaysia. Field observations on feeding activity were conducted, followed by detailed laboratory analysis on the stomach content. Five-minutes observations on randomly selected individuals were conducted at the field sampling site and their feeding activities were recorded with reference to age stage. Various shell sizes from each ontogenetic stage were randomly collected and quickly anaesthetized with ice and preserved in 10% formalin before being transported to the laboratory for stomach content analyses. Field observations showed that L. canarium mainly grazed on epiphytes occurring on seagrass (46.67%), followed by sediment surface (40%) and epiphytes occurring on macroalgae (13.33%). Stomach content analyses showed a significant difference ( P 0.05) was detected between the three main food items (diatoms, sand particles and detritus) among the ontogenetic stages. Therefore, feeding activity revealed the role of the dog conch in the marine food network. While, classification of the types of food consumed by L. canarium through stomach content analysis determines the particular position of the gastropod in the food chain. Further studies are needed to provide a better insight between trophic relationships of L. canarium with marine ecosystem.

  19. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Laura Rocha Guerino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. RESULTS Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7% were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. CONCLUSIONS All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  20. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerino, Laura Rocha; Pecora, Iracy Lea; Miranda, Marcel Sabino; Aguiar-Silva, Cryslaine; Carvalho, Omar Dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2017-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7%) were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae): a novel location of putative control regions (CR) in the mitogenome within Pulmonate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhang-Ping; Dai, Xia-Bin; Zhang, Shuai; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The whole sequence (15,057 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica (order Stylommatophora) was determined. The mitogenome, as the typical metazoan mtDNA, contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCG), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA). The tRNA genes include two trnS without standard secondary structure. Interestingly, among the known mitogenomes of Pulmonata species, we firstly characterized an unassigned lengthy sequence (551 bp) between the cox1 and the trnV which may be the CR for the sake of its AT bases usage bias (65.70%) and potential hairpin structure.

  2. New records of Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae for the São Paulo and Paraná States.

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    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx matheroni is a succineid gastropod that lives on aquatic macrophytes and on emergent vegetation in the wetlands of inner deltas, lakes and dikes. Occurrences of this species were recorded in the municipalities of Ibitinga (SP and Paranaguá (PR, broadening its distribution southwards in South America. Until now this species had been recorded in Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij and Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais (Brazil, as well as on the islands of Guadalupe and Trinidade.

  3. Megadenus atrae n. sp., an endoparasitic eulimid gastropod (Mollusca) from the black sea cucumber Holothuria atra Jaeger (Aspidochirotida: Holothuriidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tsuyoshi; Warén, Anders; Kano, Yasunori

    2017-07-01

    An eulimid gastropod, Megadenus atrae n. sp., endoparasitic in the cloacal chamber of the black sea cucumber Holothuria atra Jaeger is described from Okinawa, Japan, as the fifth species of the genus. Conspecific specimens have also been found from southeast India, northeast Australia and New Caledonia. The generic assignment is justified by the presence of (i) a thick, long proboscis that bears a large fold (pseudopallium) near the base and a collar-like structure at the middle, (ii) a thin, globose shell that is covered by the pseudopallium, and (iii) sexual dimorphism with the female generally larger than the male. The new species is distinguishable from the four previously described congeners by its cauldron-shaped pseudopallium, moderately-developed collar of the proboscis and rounded basal lip of the shell. The comparisons of the size and sex of solitary and paired individuals support a previous hypothesis that the species of Megadenus Rosén, 1910 are protandrous with environmental sex determination. The present species occurs mostly as monogamous pairs despite its very low population density, implying that the presence of a conspecific individual acts as a cue for larval settlement. Both mechanisms would increase individual reproductive success in such permanent parasites with low prevalence and abundance as the species of Megadenus.

  4. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in gill filaments of the lucinid Codakia orbiculata (Montagu, 1808) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during bacterial decolonization and recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabeth, Nathalie H; Gustave, Sylvie D D; Gros, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    The shallow-water bivalve Codakia orbiculata which harbors gill-endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria can lose and acquire its endosymbionts throughout its life. Long-term starvation and recolonization experiments led to changes in the organization of cells in the lateral zone of gill filaments. This plasticity is linked to the presence or absence of gill-endosymbionts. Herein, we propose that this reorganization can be explained by three hypotheses: (a) a variation in the number of bacteriocytes and granule cells due to proliferation or apoptosis processes, (b) a variation of the volume of these two cell types without modification in the number, and (c) a combination of both number and cell volume variation. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed cell reorganization in terms of proliferation and apoptosis in adults submitted to starvation and returned to the field using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and structural analyses. We observed that cell and tissue reorganization in gills filaments is due to a variation in cell relative abundance that maybe associated with a variation in cell apparent volume and depends on the environment. In fact, bacteriocytes mostly multiply in freshly collected and newly recolonized individuals, and excess bacteriocytes are eliminated in later recolonization stages. We highlight that host tissue regeneration in gill filaments of this symbiotic bivalve can occur by both replication of existing cells and division of undifferentiated cells localized in tissular bridges, which might be a tissue-specific multipotent stem cell zone. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Chaetogaster limnaei (annelida: oligochaeta) as a parasite of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, and the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis (mollusca: bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, D B; Ricciardi, A; Babapulle, M N; Klein, K A; Rosen, D A

    1996-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis, were found to be infected by the naidid oligochaete Chaetogaster limnaei at four sites in the St. Lawrence River. This is the first report of this species infecting dreissenids anywhere in the world. Most worms inhabited the mantle cavity, where they caused erosion of the mantle and gill epithelia as determined by histopathological examination. Others penetrated various tissues; one had invaded the ovary and was feeding on oocytes and ovarian tissues. Of 606 mussels examined, 166 (27.4%) harbored at least 1 C. limnaei. The prevalence varied between 1% and 80%, depending on the collection site and date. The worms were slightly but significantly more prevalent in D. bugensis than in D. polymorpha. The intensity ranged from 1 to 18 worms per infected host. Variations in prevalence and intensity were not related to the size or sex of the host, but the data did suggest some seasonality.

  6. Novos registros de Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae para os Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, Brasil

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    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p187 Omalonyx matheroni é um gastrópode sucineídeo que ocorre nas macrófitas aquáticas e vegetações adjacentes de planície de inundação de rios, em lagos e açudes. Registra-se a ocorrência dessa espécie para os municípios de Ibitinga (SP e Paranaguá (PR, estendendo sua distribuição mais ao sul da América do Sul. Até o presente momento, a espécie tinha sido registrada para Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij e Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro e Minas Gerais (Brasil, além das ilhas de Guadalupe e Trinidade.

  7. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low concentrations for Chacopata and high concentration for La Restinga; the polyunsaturated fatty acids were between 4.66 and 35.55% with lower values for Chacopata and higher values for Chaguaramas samples. P. viridis is recommended for human being consumption, according to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids found for this species.

  8. Crecimiento del pulpo Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda de la costa de Yucatán, México: un análisis de largo plazo

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    Marta Rocío Nepita Villanueva

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Los parámetros de crecimiento del pulpo (Octopus maya de las costas de Yucatán (México fueron estimados en siete años comprendidos entre 1983-1987, 1989 y 1992. A tales efectos se realizó un análisis de frecuencia de tallas de 19 251 pulpos muestreados de la captura comercial, con un intervalo de longitud de manto comprendido entre 50 y 240 mm. Se usaron los métodos indirectos ELEFAN, PROJMAT y SLCA. La incertidumbre de las estimaciones inherente a cada método y derivada del diseño de muestreo fue analizada con la técnica jackknife. Los parámetros de crecimiento L y K se unificaron a efectos comparativos mediante el índice phi prima (. El método ELEFAN resultó ser el más adecuado para estimar los parámetros de crecimiento de O. maya, brindando valores en el rango de aquellos previamente reportados en la literatura, mientras que PROJMAT y SLCA mostraron problemas en la convergencia de los parámetros, y tendieron a subestimarlos. Las estimaciones mediante jackknife detectaron poca variabilidad intermensual en pero gran variabilidad interanual. Los estimadores de precisión de la técnica jackknife, error porcentual y coeficiente de variación porcentual, no difirieron significativamente entre métodos. Las estimaciones de derivadas del ELEFAN variaron entre 4.19 y 5.23, coincidiendo con aquellas reportadas en la literatura (entre 4.25 y 4.91, mientras que PROJMAT y SLCA aportaron valores significativamente menores. Los resultados de dicho métodos condicen además con aspectos de la biología de la especie (e.g., corta longevidad. Sugerimos utilizar el ELEFAN conjuntamente con jackknife para estimar los parámetros de crecimiento de Octopus maya.Growth of the octopus (Octopus maya off Yucatan (Mexico was estimated from a long-term study (seven years by the length-based methods ELEFAN, PROJMAT and SLCA. Some 19 251 octopuses with a range of mantle length between 50 and 240 mm were sampled from commercial landings in 1983 - 1987, 1989 and 1992. The jackknife technique was applied to deal with uncertainty in growth estimates resulting from chance variations in sampling design. The growth index was used for comparative purposes. Results differed markedly among methods: ELEFAN produced parameter estimates within the range reported in the literature, whereas PROJMAT and SLCA showed problems to converge in an optimum combination of parameters, and tended to underestimate them. Jackknife analysis revealed very low intraannual variability in but high variability among years, especially when applying PROJMAT. No significant differences were found in precision parameters -percent error and coefficient of variation- among methods. Estimates of derived by ELEFAN varied between 4.19 and 5.23 and agreed with those reported in the literature (between 4.25 and 4.91, whereas PROJMAT and SLCA estimates were significantly lower. We suggest the use of ELEFAN, together with jackknife to estimate growth parameters of Octopus maya.

  9. Biología reproductiva del pulpo Octupus mimus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda de la región de Matarani, Arequipa, Perú

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    Victor Ishiyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available De mayo de 1995 a abril de 1996, se realizaron al azar muestreos mensuales de 25 ejemplares de Octopus mimus de los desembarques del puerto de Matarani, Arequipa (16° 59'40"S y 72° 06'13"W. Son animales gonocóricos, presentan dimorfismo sexual, y los machos tienen el brazo ectocotilizado o copulador. La proporción de sexos fue de 2,1:1,0 a favor de los machos; se determinaron ocho estadios de desarrollo de los ovocitos, durante la ovogénesis. De acuerdo a su comportamiento reproductivo, se estableció la siguiente escala de madurez gonadal: a indiferenciado, b inmaduro, c inicio de maduración, d en desarrollo, e maduros, fl cópula, g postcópula, autofecundación y evacuación, h postevacuación. Las hembras maduras se encontraron preferentemente, en la primavera y verano; los machos maduros a fines de la primavera y en el verano; la cópula se realizó preferentemente durante el verano; la autofecundación y evacuación de los huevos, se evidenciaron en agosto (50%, octubre 50%, noviembre (71,4%, diciembre (33% y enero (33%. La primera madurez en los machos se encontró a los 9,5 cm y en las hembras a los 12,5 cm de la longitud dorsal del cuerpo. Se observó algunas hembras con ovocitos maduros en lisis y con inicio de ovogénesis avanzada de un nuevo ciclo, que evidencia que no todas las hembras mueren después de cuidar los huevos hasta el final de la eclosión.

  10. Analysis of trace elements in the shells of short-necked clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with respect to reconstruction of individual life history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Jumpei; Sakamoto, Wataru

    1998-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) concentration in the shells of short-necked clams collected at different locations (Shirahama, warm area and Maizuru, cold area, Japan) was analyzed by two methods, PIXE and EPMA. The Sr concentration of external surface of shell umbo, which was made during short term at early benthic phase, was analyzed by PIXE, and was ranged from 1000 to 3500 ppm for individuals. The Sr concentration of clams collected at Shirahama showed positive correlation with shell length (SL) in individuals with SL < 31 mm, whereas clams collected at Maizuru did not show significant correlation. This result may be caused from the difference of the spawning seasons between two areas. The Sr concentration of cross section of shell umbo, which develops thicker continuously during their life to form faint stratum structure, was analyzed by EPMA along the line across the stratum structure. Some surges and long term waving patterns of the Sr concentration were observed. These results suggest that the life histories of individual clams could be recorded in the shell umbo cross sections as variations of trace elements and analyses of trace elements could clarify the histories of individual clams. (author)

  11. Occurrence, population dynamics and habitat characterization of Mytella guyanensis (Lamarck, 1819 (Mollusca, Bivalvia in the Paraíba do Norte river estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Kioharu Nishida

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Mytellaguyanensis occurrence and population dynamics were performed in the Paraíba do Norte river estuary. The characterization and the influence of temperature, salinity and substrate, as well as the associated fauna and flora on the population were also examined. Mytella guyanensis lives buried in the substrate of the mangrove intertidal zone of the Paraíba do Norte river estuary, from the mouth to 24 km upriver. Average annual density of this bivalve species was 5.2 individuals per m², with a predominantly aggregated distribution. The most frequent size was between 4.5 and 5.5 cm in length. Analysis of the substrate demonstrated the presence of two types of substrates in relation to the percentage of silt and clay and the water content. Besides interfering in the population density, the substrate heterogeneity may be a decisive factor in aggregation. Eight species of crustacean decapods and one bivalve species were identified as associated fauna.A ocorrência de M, guyanensis no estuário do Rio Paraíba do Norte foi mapeada, determinando-se sua presença ao longo dos afluentes e ilhas aí existentes. O estudo da dinâmica da população foi realizado em área protegida da Ilha da Restinga, coletando-se os animais ao longo de 37 transecções. A cada mês foram feitos 60 lançamentos com um delimitador de 0,1 m², sobre uma ou mais transecções. Todo o substrato foi retirado juntamente com os exemplares de M. guyanensis e a fauna associada, até a profundidade de 10 cm. A triagem dos exemplares menores foi feita por peneiramento do substrato. O tipo de substrato foi anotado a cada lançamento. Dois tipos de substrato estão presentes na área: um substrato de tipo consistente, constituido por 89.7% de silte e argila e 10.3% de areia fina e outro de tipo não consistente contendo 74.5% de silte e argila e 25.5% de areia fina. O substrato de tipo não consistente apresenta quantidade de água significativamente maior que o de tipo consistente. Mytella guyanensis vive enterrada no solo numa profundidade máxima de 1,0 cm, sempre envolvida pelos filamentos do bisso. A densidade média anual observada para a espécie foi de 5,2 indivíduos por m²; a distribuição espacial predominante foi do tipo agregado, sofrendo interferência do tipo de substrato presente. Houve preferência de fixação da espécie pelo substrato do tipo consistente. Animais entre 4,5 e 5,5 cm de comprimento ocorrem o ano todo, sendo mais numerosos aqueles com comprimento entre 4,5 e 5,0 cm. A presença de formas jovens foi assinalada em baixa frequência em alguns meses do ano. A salinidade da água estuarina variou de acordo com o regime pluviométrico da região, permanecendo dentro dos níveis de tolerância da espécie. A fauna associada está representada por oito espécies de crustáceos e por uma de molusco bivalve.

  12. Diet and stable isotope analyses reveal the feeding ecology of the orangeback squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Mollusca, Ommastrephidae) in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Véronique; Christiansen, Bernd; Javidpour, Jamileh; Piatkowski, Uwe; Puebla, Oscar; Gasca, Rebeca; Hoving, Henk-Jan T

    2017-01-01

    In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging. Stomach content analyses (via visual identification and DNA barcoding) were combined with stable isotope data (∂15N and ∂13C) of muscle tissue to describe diet, feeding habits and trophic ecology of S. pteropus. Additionally, stable isotope analyses of incremental samples along the squid's gladius-the chitinous spiniform structure supporting the muscles and organs-were carried out to explore possible diet shifts through ontogeny and migration. Our results show that S. pteropus preys mainly on myctophid fishes (e.g. Myctophum asperum, Myctophum nitidulum, Vinciguerria spp.), but also on other teleost species, cephalopods (e.g. Enoploteuthidae, Bolitinidae, Ommastrephidae), crustaceans and possibly on gelatinous zooplankton as well. The squid shows a highly opportunistic feeding behaviour that includes cannibalism. Our study indicates that the trophic position of S. pteropus may increase by approximately one trophic level from a mantle length of 15 cm to 47 cm. The reconstructed isotope-based feeding chronologies of the gladii revealed high intra- and inter-individual variability in the squid's trophic position and foraging area. These findings are not revealed by diet or muscle tissue stable isotope analysis. This suggests a variable and complex life history involving individual variation and migration. The role of S. pteropus in transferring energy and nutrients from lower to higher trophic levels may be underestimated and important for understanding how a changing ocean impacts food webs in the eastern Atlantic.

  13. Molecular identification of similar species of the genus Biomphalaria (Mollusca: Planorbidae determined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

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    Caldeira Roberta Lima

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater snails Biomphalaria straminea, B. intermedia, B. kuhniana and B. peregrina, are morphologically similar; based on this similarity the first three species were therefore grouped in the complex B. straminea. The morphological identification of these species is based on characters such as vaginal wrinkling, relation between prepuce: penial sheath:deferens vas and number of muscle layers in the penis wall. In this study the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used for molecular identification of these molluscs. This technique is based on the amplification of the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 e ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA gene and subsequent digestion of these fragments by restriction enzymes. Six enzymes were tested: Dde I, Mnl I, Hae III, Rsa I, Hpa II e Alu I. The restriction patterns obtained with DdeI presented the best profile for separation of the four species of Biomphalaria. The profiles obtained with all the enzymes were used to estimate the genetic distances among the species through analysis of common banding patterns.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the land snail Cornu aspersum (Helicidae: Mollusca: intra-specific divergence of protein-coding genes and phylogenetic considerations within Euthyneura.

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    Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia

    Full Text Available The complete sequences of three mitochondrial genomes from the land snail Cornu aspersum were determined. The mitogenome has a length of 14050 bp, and it encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes. It also includes nine small intergene spacers, and a large AT-rich intergenic spacer. The intra-specific divergence analysis revealed that COX1 has the lower genetic differentiation, while the most divergent genes were NADH1, NADH3 and NADH4. With the exception of Euhadra herklotsi, the structural comparisons showed the same gene order within the family Helicidae, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in order Pulmonata. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered Basommatophora as polyphyletic group, whereas Eupulmonata and Pulmonata as paraphyletic groups. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed that C. aspersum is a close relative of Cepaea nemoralis, and with the other Helicidae species form a sister group of Albinaria caerulea, supporting the monophyly of the Stylommatophora clade.

  15. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part I: Bisphenol A and octylphenol as xeno-estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, J; Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Tillmann, M; Markert, B

    2000-12-01

    The effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed in laboratory experiments. In this first publication, the responses of the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis and of the marine prosobranch Nucella lapillus to the xeno-estrogenic model compounds bisphenol A (BPA) and octylphenol (OP) are presented at nominal concentration ranges between 1 and 100 micrograms/L. Marisa was exposed during 5 months using adult specimens and in a complete life-cycle test for 12 months. In both experiments, the xeno-estrogens induced a complex syndrome of alterations in female Marisa referred to as "superfemales" at the lowest concentrations. Affected specimens were characterised by the formation of additional female organs, an enlargement of the accessory pallial sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct section resulting in an increased female mortality, and a massive stimulation of oocyte and spawning mass production. The effects of BPA and OP were comparable at the same nominal concentrations. An exposure to OP resulted in inverted U-type concentration response relationships for egg and spawning mass production. Adult Nucella from the field were tested for three months in the laboratory. As in Marisa, superfemales with enlarged accessory pallial sex glands and an enhancement of oocyte production were observed. No oviduct malformations were found probably due to species differences in the gross anatomical structure of the pallial oviduct. A lower percentage of exposed specimens had ripe sperm stored in their vesicula seminalis and additionally male Nucella exhibited a reduced length of penis and prostate gland when compared to the control. Because statistically significant effects were observed at the lowest nominal test concentrations (1 microgram BPA or OP/L), it can be assumed that even lower concentrations may have a negative impact on the snails. The results show that prosobranchs are sensitive to endocrine disruption at environmentally relevant concentrations and that especially M. cornuarietis is a promising candidate for a future organismic invertebrate model to identify endocrine-mimetic test compounds.

  16. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca : Gastropoda by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica

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    Bargues M.D.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission have, however, played a very important role in the geographic expansion of this disease. Many of them belong to the so-called "stagnicoline" type group. Stagnicolines have, therefore, a very important applied interest in the Holarctic region, to which they are geographically restricted. The present knowledge on the genetics of stagnicolines and on their parasite-host interrelationships is, however, far from being sufficient. The present paper analyses the relationships between Palaearctic and Nearctic stagnicoline species on the base of the new light furnished by the results obtained in nuclear rD