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Sample records for peruvian agrarian reform

  1. Agrarian Reform and Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Margaret R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the plight of the world's poor, which was discussed at The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in July, 1979. Urban bias is attributed to the failure of rural development. More participation of rural people is needed. Progress is being made. Examples of literary programs in Iraq and the Sudan are included.…

  2. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  3. UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY AS AN OBJECT OF AGRARIAN REFORMS

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    G. G. Krivchik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The article attempts to analyze the agrarian policy of the modern Ukrainian State in the context of its human factor. It demonstrates the effects of agrarian reforms on social sphere of Ukrainian countryside. Methodology. The author uses the following methods: dialectical – in the depiction of the controversial nature of agrarian reforms; retrospective – in determination of the main stages of agrarian transformations inUkraine; comparative – in revealing common and different features in the agrarian policy of theUSSR and modernUkraine.The scientific novelty is in the substantiation of the natural unity of economic and social policies in agriculture, the use of a variety of historical sources for this purpose. Conclusions. While conducting agrarian reform, started in the early 1990s, and continued up to the present time, only economic factors are taken into consideration. At the same time, human factor, and the interests of the peasantry, in particular, were ignored and not taken into account, despite the declarations and promises of politicians. Peasants were removed from the determination of objectives, directions and methods of the agrarian reform. They acted solely as an object and not the subject of the reform. In this sense, the methods for carrying out agrarian reforms in an independent and democraticUkraine do not differ much from the methods of the Bolshevik leadership. Thus, as it is shown in the article, the consequences of the agrarian reform can be equally dangerous for Ukrainian peasants. The peasants will lose their land forever and become laborers on the land inherited from previous generations. While carrying out a large-scale reform of the agrarian sector, it mustn’t be allowed for oligarchs to take countryside, land and agriculture into their hands. The regulations of sale and purchase of the land must be so that the Ukrainian peasant will remain the main contractor.

  4. The Land and Agrarian Reform and Food Security: Lessons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence the aim of this article is to create a historical review of the land and agrarian issues in developing countries in general, and in Africa in particular, as well as map up a landscape of the political economy of land and agrarian reform in the current millennium, and demonstrate how these relate to the issue of food security ...

  5. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  6. On the position of the Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes on the Agrarian Reform

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    Drakić Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was the process of the agrarian reform. The agrarian reform was a complex state measure with an economic, social and political aspect. All political parties, due to political reasons, spoke in favor of the resolution of the agrarian issue through agrarian reform. Political parties kept in mind the large number of those individuals interested in the agrarian reform, as well as the fact that majority of the voters were farmers, when they formulated their position towards the reform. The Democratic Party was one of the most influential political party in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The paper presents the basic concepts related to the agrarian reform and agricultural policy in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes that represented the Democratic Party.

  7. Another countryside? Policy options for land and agrarian reform in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    The focus on South Africa's land and agrarian policies is relevant at a time ... be coordinated at various policy levels, including macroeconomic policy, trade policy, agricultural policy and local economic development and planning for land.

  8. Education and the Community in the Peruvian Educational Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos

    1980-01-01

    A structural and philosophical reform of Peruvian education was instituted in March 1972, using as its basis a local community education nucleus model. This article presents the reform experience, relates it to its historical antecedents, gives some information on evaluation studies in progress, and traces some projections for educational…

  9. The Place of Pluriactivity in Brazil's Agrarian Reform Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    Livelihood diversification by Brazil's peasantry has intensified as rural areas have become more integrated with the country's urban fabric and as landlessness and poverty have increased. Despite the growing awareness of pluriactivity by rural households, key agrarian institutions have not addressed this key feature of life of the people they…

  10. Agrarian reform, land and territory: evolution in the thinking of La Via Campesina

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    Peter Michael Rosset

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the thinking of the transnational rural social movement La Via Campesina over the past two decades, particularly concerning agrarian reform and the defense of land and territory, is analyzed from a participant-observer perspective. The rural world has changed, and the changes external to the movements, along with their internal dialogs and exchange of experiences, have generated new positions, strategies of struggle, consensuses and dilemmas.  Several issues are highlighted, such as the concept of territory, what to do with the land, relationships among actors who share territories, land occupations, titling, the state, and new rights.

  11. Livelihood strategies in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon: Determining drivers and factors within the Agrarian Reform Program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Kok, K.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in the Brazilian Amazon within the framework of the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP). The rationale behind the program is to enable settlers to earn their living by small-scale farming and producing an agricultural surplus for the

  12. Backlash and Beyond: The Criminalization of Agrarian Reform and Peasant Response in the Philippines

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    Jennifer Franco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 35 years since the end of the dictatorship in the Philippines many rural poor Filipinos have been caught up in a political battle over the pace and direction of agrarian change. This paper focuses on the political-legal dimension of agrarian conflict in one region, exploring how it has fueled and been fueled by criminalization, particularly the indiscriminate filing of criminal charges against share tenants struggling for recognition as legal land rights holders under the 1988 agrarian reform law. Here, criminalization is a form of landlord retribution against tenants who dare to defy the status quo. The case demonstrates how tenants get “bound by law” – e.g., caught up in inconsistencies in state law and ensnared in costly legalist traps set by powerful landowners threatened with redistribution, but then also leading to innovative collective efforts to activate state officials to step in on the side of peasants to make state law authoritative in society. En los 35 años transcurridos desde el final de la dictadura en Filipinas muchos filipinos pobres de zonas rurales se han visto atrapados en una batalla política por el ritmo y la dirección del cambio agrario. Este artículo se centra en la dimensión político-jurídica del conflicto agrario en una región, analizando cómo ha impulsado y ha sido impulsado por la criminalización, especialmente la presentación indiscriminada de cargos penales contra los aparceros que luchan por que se les reconozcan los derechos de tierra legales, bajo la ley de reforma agraria de 1988. En este caso, la criminalización es la forma que tienen los terratenientes de responder contra los aparceros que osan desafiar el status quo. El caso demuestra cómo los arrendadores están "obligados por ley" - por ejemplo, están inmersos en incoherencias en la ley estatal y atrapados en costosas trampas legalistas puestas por los poderosos terratenientes amenazados con la redistribución, pero al mismo

  13. Doing Justice Outside the Courts: From 19th Century Demands to the Reparations of the Agrarian Reform

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    Helga Baitenmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article interprets Mexico’s revolutionary agrarian reform as a rearrangement of the balance of power between the executive and judicial branches of government in which village representatives played a key role. In the nineteenth century, when villagers were unable to resolve their land conflicts in the courts, they often asked the executive to intervene. However, the judiciary successfully defended its authority over contentious land matters. The same dynamic played out during Francisco I. Madero’s government, when pueblo representatives assumed that the Ministry  of development would take over land and settle boundary disputes, but the judiciary continued to defend the constitutional separation of powers. Yet the existing balance of power changed radically when Venustiano  Carranza, in the middle of a civil war during which he shut down the judiciary,  signed an agrarian law that allowed the executive to appropriate court functions. The first two reinstated Supreme Courts subsequently gave up some of the prerogatives that constitutionally belonged to the judiciary. This analysis reevaluates prevailing understandings of Mexican agrarian law and the origins of the federal executive’s extraordinary twentieth-century powers.

  14. The 1921 Agrarian Reform in Transylvania and its Reflection in the Considerations of the Members of the Bucharest School of Sociology

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    TELEGDY, Balázs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1921 agrarian reform aimed to be a significant step towards Romania’s agricultural development. The main motive of this reform – at least on a declarative level – was a socially oriented one: to expropriate a part of the big landowners’ estates, and to distribute in among the poverty-stricken people, with a special concern towards the First World War veterans, or their widows. At the same time, the agrarian reform recognised the differences in development between the different regions of the newly-formed Greater Romania, and as such there were two different laws regulating the reform processes in the Old Kingdom and in the newly annexed territories. The members of the Bucharest School of Sociology, based on the scarce data available to them to the time, approached the economically questionable results of this reform in a critical manner. József Venczel, who had acquired the bases of his professional knowledge at the same school, also proves, with regard to the Transylvanian land reform, that this had a second, national policy oriented goal, and its implementation was also ethnically biased.

  15. Histórico e os limites da reforma agrária na contemporaneidade brasileira History and limits of the agrarian reform in the Brazilian contemporary time

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    Paulo Nakatani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se reconstituir a trajetória da questão fundiária (e agrária na experiência de maior concentração de riqueza e recursos vivenciada no âmbito do sistema capitalista, partindo-se da premissa de que a crescente desigualdade do modelo brasileiro passa necessariamente pela questão agrária. Num segundo momento, procede-se à análise dos limites atualmente colocados a qualquer possibilidade de uma Reforma Agrária ampla e estrutural, dados pelo avanço do agronegócio nos últimos dez anos, pela desmobilização política de parcela significativa da sociedade no que se refere a esta questão e pelos próprios limites estruturais da economia brasileira nos quadros da globalização financeira. O texto será dividido em seis sessões: a colonização e origens do latifúndio; b O modelo agroexportador e a ruptura incompleta; c a questão agrária e a industrialização brasileira; d a questão agrária e o agronegócio; e os limites da reforma agrária na contemporaneidade; f considerações finais.This paper aims at reconstructing the history of the land (agrarian issue considering the greatest concentration of wealth and resources in the capitalist system. The standpoint is that the growing inequality of the Brazilian model is related to the agrarian issue. Secondly, we analyze the limits ­currently placed on any possibility of a comprehensive and structural agrarian reform, due to the advancement of the agribusiness over the last ten years, the political demobilization of a significant portion of society that put this issue aside, and the limits of the Brazilian economy in the context of the financial globalization. The paper is divided into six parts: a colonization and origins of the large landed estates; b the agro-export model and the incomplete rupture; c the agrarian issue and the Brazilian industrialization; d the agrarian issue and the agribusiness; e the limits of the agrarian reform in the contemporary time; f final

  16. Stolypin’s Agrarian Reform in Kyiv Province: Antecedents and Consequences for Peasant Land Tenure

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    L. Ihnatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the state of the Ukrainian peasantry tenure in the province of Kyiv. After the reforms of the Russian government in 1861. The majority of the peasants received small plots of land. The reform was carried out with the intention to preserve the estates of the landlords. Attention is drawn to the fact that in the early twentieth century, the plight of the peasants led to their active participation in the revolutionary events of 1905. Analyzes the attempts of the government and landowners to solve the peasant question of handing over land to rent. But this approach to the Kiev province was ineffective. Therefore, the Russian government is trying to address this issue at the legislative level. November 9, 1906 a law was passed that abolished the peasant community and allowed it to strengthen private property. But in the province of Kyiv, these actions of the Russian government have been ineffective. Land hunger of the peasants remained a major problem, because the allocation of the farm required a certain amount of land. Therefore, most of the peasants were forced to sell their land and migrate.

  17. Agrarian Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul

    A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to…

  18. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T.; Brandt, Lena R.; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods: Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results: Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion: Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a

  19. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services

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    Mauricio Toyama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru

  20. La reforma agraria en Campeche, ¿permanencia de una cultura indí­gena? The Agrarian Reform in Campeche, Continuation of an Indigenous Culture?

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    Mauricio Cantún Caamal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo mostraremos el proceso histórico de la reforma agraria mexicana del siglo XX y cómo se dio en el estado de Campeche. Veremos cómo un intento de los gobiernos posrevolucionarios por restituir y dorar de tierras a las comunidades se convirtió en la oportunidad de rescatar y consolidar la tenencia comunal. También cómo las omisiones e inconsistencias de las leyes durante el proceso dio lugar a errores como no contemplar que las comunidades tuvieran aún tierras y no saber cómo clasificarlas. En la mayoría de las veces estos desaciertos permitieron que los campesinos obtuvieran grandes extensiones de tierra. Finalmente discutiremos cómo la reforma agraria permitió la permanencia de un elemento cultural como lo es posesión en común, el cual ha formado parte de la identidad de los grupos mayas del estado de Campeche.This paper shows the historical process of the Mexican agrarian reform in the 20th century and explains how ¡t took place in the state of Campeche. It demonstrates how an attempt by post-revolutionary governments to return and provide land for communities became an opportunity to restore and consolidate communal ownership. It also reveals how the omissions and inconsistencies of the laws during the process gave rise to errors such as not imagining that communities still had land and not knowing how to classify them. Nevertheless, most of the time, these mistakes enabled peasants to obtain large expanses of land. Lastly, it discusses the way the agrarian reform permitted the continuation of a cultural feature, common ownership, which has formed part of the identity of Maya groups in the state of Campeche.

  1. Uso de imagens orbitais como base de dados para projetos de reforma agrária The use of orbital images as subsidies to agrarian reform projects

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    Marina de Fátima Vilela

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Análises técnica e econômica foram realizadas em imagens dos sensores IKONOS, TM/Landsat 5, ETM+/Landsat 7 e CCD/CBERS, objetivando a verificação da viabilidade destas como base de dados em projetos de reforma agrária. Essas análises efetuadas e a situação de mercado indicaram que a imagem IKONOS apresenta excelente desempenho técnico, mas o custo de aquisição inviabiliza sua utilização como base de dados para a reforma agrária. A imagem do Landsat 7, com baixo custo de aquisição, apresentou grande viabilidade técnica para fins de reforma agrária. No entanto, a perda do contato com a plataforma Landsat 7 inviabilizou a compra de novas imagens do sensor ETM+. A imagem CCD/CBERS apresentou a segunda maior similaridade com a verdade de campo e o menor índice Kappa para a classificação. Apesar do baixo índice de exatidão para a classificação, as análises de custo, o lançamento do CBERS-2 e a possibilidade de correção dos problemas de radiometria podem tornar as imagens da plataforma CBERS-2 concorrentes de peso no mercado e, ainda, preencher a lacuna deixada pela perda do Landsat 7. A imagem do Landsat 5 apresentou o mais baixo desempenho técnico nas análises efetuadas. Entretanto, seu potencial como base de dados é amplamente reconhecido pelo INCRA, que ainda utiliza tais imagens. O declínio da vida útil do Landsat-5 atribui mais importância ao lançamento do CBERS-2.Technical and economical analyses were performed on IKONOS, Landsat TM 5 and Landsat ETM+ 7 and CCD/CBERS data in order to verify their feasibilities to subsidy agrarian reform projects. Results showed that IKONOS data presented excellent technical viability but its high cost prevents its use. Landsat ETM+ 7 data, with low cost, presented good technical viability, however due to the problems occurring in the satellite operation, its use was also prevented . CCD/CBERS data presented the second best similarity with the ground truth data, although it

  2. Decree No. 2.363 of 21 October 1987 abolishing the National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform--INCRA, creating the Legal Institute of Rural Land--INTER, and other measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Decree abolishes the Brazilian National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA) and creates a Legal Institute of Rural Land (INTER) linked to the Ministry of Agrarian Reform (MIRAD) to perform the activities of INCRA. MIRAD will henceforth be responsible for the rights, powers, and obligations of INCRA and will supervise INCRA's property and resources. In this capacity MIRAD will supervise, coordinate, and execute activities related to agrarian reform and agricultural policy. Among these activities are the promotion of social justice and productivity through 1) the just and adequate distribution of ownership of rural land, 2) limitation of the acquisition of rural property by foreigners, and 3) encouragement of the harmonious development of rural life. In developing such activities MIRAD is to make use of legal measures contained in land law, including those relating to the selection of public rural lands, the privatization of rural land through regularization of ownership, colonization, zoning, and taxation. It is also authorized to expropriate and distribute unexploited or improperly exploited land to worker families, with priority going to labor cooperatives. Further provisions establish rules on expropriation. Among these is the requirement that forests must be protected.

  3. Reforma agrária: o impossível diálogo sobre a História possível Agrarian Reform: the impossible dialogue about the possible History

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    José de Souza Martins

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Os desencontros entre o governo, de um lado, e o MST, a Igreja e as oposições, de outro, quanto à política de reforma agrária, só podem ser compreendidos se tivermos em conta o que vem a ser a questão agrária no Brasil. Num país em que o grande capital se tornou proprietário de terras, a concepção clássica da questão agrária, e das reformas que ela pede, fica substancialmente alterada. São essas alterações que propõem as condições e os limites da reforma agrária no país. São elas, também que apontam o desenrolar possível da história brasileira a partir dessa referência estrutural. A reforma agrária se tornou uma reforma cíclica em virtude da, de certo modo, contínua entrada e reentrada em cena de clientes potenciais dessa medida. O fato de que o MST e os sem-terra tenham assumido a iniciativa das ocupações, atuando o governo como suplente para fazer a reforma, não indica a debilidade do Estado democrático para realizá-la. Apenas indica que a sociedade civil, através de organizações e movimentos populares, passou a ter um papel na nova estrutura do Estado brasileiro.The misunderstandings between the government, on one side, and the MST, the Church and the opposition parties on the other side, when the topic is the agrarian reform, can only be understood if we keep in mind what this agrarian matter is in Brazil. In a country which the big capital turned to be the owner of the lands, the classical conception of the agrarian matter, and of the reforms required by it, is substantially altered. These reforms are what really propose the new conditions and limits to the reform in the country. Moreover, they also point to a possible development of the History of Brazil based in this structural reference. The agrarian reform turned to be a cyclical reform due to the continuous entry and reentry of potential clients in this scene. The fact that the MST and the landless have assumed the initiative of the occupations

  4. Os direitos da mulher à terra e os movimentos sociais rurais na reforma agrária brasileira Women's land rights and rural social movements in the Brazilian agrarian reform

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    Carmen Diana Deere

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a evolução da reivindicação dos direitos da mulher à terra na reforma agrária brasileira sob o prisma dos três principais movimentos sociais rurais: o Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST, os sindicatos rurais e o movimento autônomo de mulheres rurais. O mérito maior por levantar a questão dos direitos da mulher à terra é das mulheres dentro dos sindicatos rurais. Os direitos formais das mulheres à terra foram conseguidos na reforma constitucional de 1988, e em grande medida isso foi um subproduto do esforço para acabar com a discriminação contra as mulheres em todos as suas dimensões. A conquista das igualdades formais, contudo, não levou a um aumento na parcela de mulheres beneficiárias da reforma, a qual permaneceu baixa até a metade da década de 1990. Isso aconteceu principalmente porque garantir na prática os direitos da mulher à terra não estava entre as prioridades dos movimentos sociais rurais. Além disso, o principal movimento social a determinar o passo da reforma agrária, o (MST, considerava classe e gênero questões incompatíveis. Próximo ao final da década de 1990, entretanto, havia uma consciência crescente de que deixar de reconhecer os direitos da mulher à terra era prejudicial ao desenvolvimento e à consolidação dos assentamentos da reforma agrária e, portanto, para o movimento. O crescente consenso, entre todos os movimentos sociais rurais, sobre a importância em assegurar o direito da mulher à terra, junto com um lobby efetivo, encorajou o Estado em 2001 a adotar mecanismos específicos para a inclusão de mulheres na reforma agrária.This article examines the evolution of the demand for women's land rights in the Brazilian agrarian reform through the prism of the three main rural social movements: the landless movement, the rural unions and the autonomous rural women's movement. Most of the credit for raising the issue of women's land rights rests with

  5. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, Osinergmin (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  6. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul; Tovar, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  7. An agrarian town?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Kirstine

    This paper will discuss how to understand the early development of Odense seen through the archaeological record. Is it possible to see if, how and when the town transformed from agrarian to urban during the 11th to 16th Century? Untill now the evidence of the earliest history of Odense has mainl...... these features change over time....

  8. Peace through agrarian justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.; Bah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Postwar countries in Africa are among the poorest. In the countries of the Mano River region (Liberia, Sierra Leone) agrarian injustice emerges as a major cause of both poverty and conflict. Serious efforts are needed to improve the labour, land and property rights of rural women and young people if

  9. Peruvians Dispersed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Karsten

    This book presents a comparative study of Peruvian transnational migration to the United States, Spain, Japan and Argentina. It applies a multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork approach to study is the multicultural life-world of Peruvians and the economic, social, political and ritual relations...... that link them together in a diasporic network across national boundaries and tie them to their country of origin.  The book has three aims: 1) to examine how Peruvians create networks and design strategies to cope with the mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion that mediate their incorporation......).  Analytically, the study operates on two levels.  On the one hand, it draws on ethnographic data gathered in particular localities in the United States, Spain, Japan and Argentina to analyze a variety of issues such as livelihoods, family networks, religious institutions, migrant organizations, identity...

  10. Agrarian philosophy and ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul B

    2008-12-01

    Mainstream environmental ethics grew out of an approach to value that was rooted in a particular conception of rationality and rational choice. As weaknesses in this approach have become more evident, environmental philosophers have experimented with both virtue ethics and with pragmatism as alternative starting points for developing a more truly ecological orientation to environmental philosophy. However, it is possible to see both virtue ethics and pragmatism as emerging from older philosophical traditions that are here characterized as "agrarian." Agrarian philosophy stresses the role of nature, soil and climate in the formation of moral character as well as social and political institutions. As such, reaching back to the agrarian tradition may provide a way to move forward with both virtue oriented themes as well as pragmatist themes in developing ecological ethics.

  11. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  12. Planned Change in Agrarian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Arthur H.

    The report provides operationally relevant concepts and guidelines for persons responsible for planning and implementing development projects in agrarian countries. A framework for describing or evaluating the conduct of development projects is proposed, and applied to the results of an analysis of 203 case studies of past projects. Influences,…

  13. Curriculum Reform and the Displacement of Knowledge in Peruvian Rural Secondary Schools: Exploring the Unintended Local Consequences of Global Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarin, Maria; Benavides, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws attention to processes of policy implementation in developing contexts, and to the unintended consequences of education policies that follow international policy scripts without enough consideration of local histories and cultures. Drawing on a study of teaching practices in Peruvian rural secondary schools after a period of…

  14. Peruvian Higher Education: Expansions Amid Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Peruvian university system is described, focusing on periods of rapid expansion. Enrollment declines in 1974-78 are analyzed in the context of the educational reform program of the military government. The 1983 new university law, following return to civilian government, and future prospects for higher education are discussed.…

  15. Rebellion and Agrarian Tensions in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.; Richards, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which customary governance in Sierra Leone can be held responsible for an increasingly unstable two-class agrarian society. A case is made for regarding the civil war (1991–2002) as being an eruption of long-term, entrenched agrarian tensions exacerbated by chiefly

  16. ACCESS REFORM DALAM KERANGKA REFORMA AGRARIA UNTUK MEWUJUDKAN KEADILAN SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Irawan Febriansyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In essence, the purpose of the implementation of agrarian reformis to improve the welfare of the poor peasants. Agrarian reformis not only understood as a policy for there distribution of land, but also as abroader process such as access to natural resources, financial/capital, technology, goods and labor markets, and also the distribution of political power. Equitable distribution of land tenureinrural areas as a result of agrarian reform will result in an increase in the welfare of the villagers who are generally small farmers or farm laborers. Agrarian reform plays an important role in the fight against ruralpoverty. The main target of the agrarian reformis the creation of social justice that is characterized by the presence of agrarian justice.

  17. Nos labirintos da lei: a retórica da reforma agrária no Estado Democrático de Direito - Brasil 1995/2006 In the labyrinths of the law: the rhetoric of agrarian reform in the Democratic State - Brazil 1995/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar de forma condensada, parte das reflexões de pesquisa da autora. Discute alguns vínculos entre direito e história. Procura evidenciar historicamente como o direito é uma prática argumentativa, como são construídos e pensados os argumentos que permitem uma elite política traçar os rumos para o país criando uma legislação que criminalize a atuação dos diversos movimentos sociais, mais concretamente o MST- Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra, transformando o problema "político" da reforma agrária em caso jurídico e de "polícia".This article has objective to present in condensed form, part of the reflections of the author's search. Discusses some links between law and history. Search historical evidence as the law is an argumentative practice, as are built and designed the arguments that allowing an group political outlining the direction for the country by creating a law that criminalizes the actions of various social movements, specifically the MST- Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Landless, making the problem "political" of agrarian reform in legal case the "police."

  18. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  19. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970’s, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration. PMID:26247467

  20. Internationalization of Peruvian cuisine: An analysis of internationalization strategies of Peruvian restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. Rivas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the multinationalization—the decision to establish foreign direct investment (FDI—of Peruvian restaurants. Despite a long exporting tradition, many Peruvian firms have only recently become multinational enterprises (MNEs. The analysis of eighty-two cases of Peruvian restaurants FDI in the Americas, Europe and Asia, reveals several findings. First, it confirms the received view that Multilatinas take a long time to become MNEs, and they become MNEs after changes in the home country that follow structural reform induce them to upgrade their competitiveness to international levels. However, unlike previous studies, we found that Peruvian restaurants expand to countries with proximate as well as with distant psychic distance. These findings are at odds with the gradual internationalization model and the eclectic paradigm. Second, this study found support for the institutional proposition of internationalization, that is, institutional pro-market reforms benefit domestic firms over foreign MNEs, which facilitate domestic firms’ multinationalization. Peru has seen a significant economic recovery during the last decade, which just recently has created opportunities for the emergence of Peruvian Multilatinas. Third, this study found support for the RBV proposition of multinationalization namely, that unique business level strategies have different multinationalization processes.

  1. Migration decisions, agrarian structure, and gender: the case of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-ureta, B E; Quiroga, R E; Brea, J A

    1996-07-01

    This article briefly reviews the literature on migration in Latin America and examines migration decision making in Ecuador. Aggregate data are obtained from the 1974 census of agriculture and population for cantones. Individual level data are obtained from the 1982 census of population. Migration refers to all census persons who recorded differences in their present and previous place of residence during 1974-82. Migration is modeled as dependent upon gender, age, education, marital status, income at origin and at destination, and population pressure or agrarian reform. Logistic model findings indicate that migration decisions are influenced by individual characteristics of migrants and contextual variables. Migration varied by gender. The results confirm Todaro's hypothesis that the probability of migrating is related to income differences between place of destination and origin, but only for males. Findings suggest that females migrate for primary reasons other than economic ones. The probability of migration was greater with increased levels of education. The decision to migrate was affected by quality of life differences, such as literacy rates and levels of urbanization. The probability of migration was reduced by the effects of land reform. Population pressure had a significant effect in increasing migration. The effects of land reform differ from findings in Mexico by William E. Cole and Richard D. Sanders. Land reforms were initiated in 1964 in Ecuador, but by 1974 there was still considerable inequality in land distribution and increased population pressure. Traditional haciendas were modernized, and peasants increased their dependency on non-farm income.

  2. Life-Long Education in the Peruvian Revolution: Meaning, Realizations and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando Pacheco, Edgardo

    Lifelong education is one of the leading principles of Peru's Educational Reform, part of the general post-revolutionary transformation of Peruvian society. The idea that state obligation to the child begins with the school age has been done away with. The three levels of Peruvian education are divided into modalities to allow for special…

  3. PERFECTION OF INFORMATION SUPPORT OF BUSINESS IN THE AGRARIAN SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Tyumerova I. B.

    2014-01-01

    The article defines the functions and information management tools of entrepreneurship in the agrarian sphere, the impact of the algorithm information support for business development in the agrarian sector, identified ways of improving information systems

  4. Alternative Evaluation of the Agrarian Sector in Guatemala 10 Years ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alternative Evaluation of the Agrarian Sector in Guatemala 10 Years after the ... in research and advocacy for agrarian legislation ever since the adoption of the ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  5. Development of innovative activity of agrarian enterprises: regional accent

    OpenAIRE

    VINITCHENKO I.I.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical principles, modern state and prospects of innovative activity of agrarian enterprises, are considered. Going is certain near a management innovative development of agrarian sphere, that can be applied in the process of forming of corresponding soil of forming of the conceptual going near state administration an innovative process in an agrarian sphere.

  6. Organizational and legal support of innovation development in the agrarian sector of the economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Валеріївна Панченко

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a long process of reform, Ukraine is trying to create a competitive, export-oriented agriculture in accordance with international standards of safety and product quality. In Ukraine is no efficient system for the transfer of innovations, the spread of modern technologies for the production and processing of agricultural products, methods and ways to organizing production and economic activity of agricultural enterprises. System analysis of the current legislation on innovation development in the agrarian sector of the Ukrainian economy proved that it is premature to assert a coherent and mutually agreed system of legal acts in this area. The legislation under consideration requires further improvement in order to enhance the appropriate level of organizational and legal support for innovation development by concentrating the state resources on the priority directions of scientific and technical updating of agricultural production, increasing the competitiveness of domestic products in the external and internal markets. To address the issues of proper organizational and legal provision of innovation development in the agrarian sector of the Ukrainian economy in order to increase the competitiveness of agriculture and promote the development of rural areas on a sustainable basis in accordance with EU standards and international standards it is necessary: to define a long-term concept of development of agriculture and rural areas, have a basis for a stable, predictable and transparent legal system aimed at improving the business climate, countering corruption and stimulating investment for the modernization of the agrarian sector, to carry out the institutional reform necessary for effective control. This will balance the approach to strengthening the competitiveness of the agrarian sector and increase exports, will promote the development of rural areas and the conservation of natural resources and the environment.

  7. Rural Women's Experience in the Latin American Agrarian Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Deere, Carmen Diana

    1985-01-01

    A partir d'une analyse comparative de 13 réformes agraires latino-américaines, cette communication indique qu'une condition nécessaire mais non suffisante pour que les femmes rurales ne soient pas lésées par rapport aux hommes consiste à les désigner, à égalité avec les hommes, comme les bénéficiaires de ces politiques. Il convient de donner aux femmes autant qu'aux hommes l'accès à la terre, ou la possibilité de participer aux coopératives agricoles ou aux fermes d'Etat. Mais tel n'a pas été...

  8. Socioeconomic diagnosis of milk production in three agrarian reform settlements in the semiarid of Sergipe State Diagnóstico socioeconômico da produção leiteira em três assentamentos de reforma agrária no semiárido do Estado de Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diomar Cláudio dos Santos Sobrinho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aimed this research was a socioeconomic survey of dairy farms, from November 2007 to January 2008, in agrarian reform settlements Paulo Freire, Cachoeirinha e Cajueiro, located respectively in municipalities Porto da Folha, Gararu e Poço Redondo in the semiarid of Sergipe State. Data were obtained through questionnaires to producers, containing questions that dealt from the social to the economic factor. Was observed a high rate of illiteracy among producers (varying from 28.5 to 49%, which prejudice the production system due to their incapacity to understand and apply new technologies. The herd was characterized by crossbred animals derived from crosses between Holstein and Gir or Guzera and small production daily (5.4 to 6.5 liters/cow, with reduction in profitability and commitment of family lace. It was perceived unfavorable relationship between the amount received per liter of milk - varying from R$ 0.52 to R$ 0.54, between the settlements - and the average cost of producing a liter of milk, varying from R$ 1.19 to R$ 1.44. Moreover, the difficulty of access to technology and technical assistance are problems found in 23.8, 90 and 84.8%, respectively, in the settlements Paulo Freire, Cachoeirinha and Cajueiro. Therefore, is necessary the fomentation of research and development of alternatives to improve the productivity and sustainability of producers with these breeding conditions and the Movement of Landless Rural Workers (MST invests mainly technical assistance and education to the settlers to that be promoted an acceleration and improvement in its development. Foi realizado um levantamento socioeconômico da pecuária leiteira, no período de novembro de 2007 a Janeiro de 2008, nos assentamentos de reforma agrária Paulo Freire, Cachoeirinha e Cajueiro, localizados nos municípios sergipanos de Porto da Folha, Gararu e Poço Redondo. Os dados foram obtidos por meio da aplicação de questionários aos produtores, contendo perguntas

  9. "Trabalhar com os braços e a cabeça para ver o futuro...": representações sobre educação a partir de trabalhadores rurais assentados da reforma agrária "Working with arms and mind to see the future": representations on education among rural workers settled through the agrarian reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Augusto de Azevedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Trabalho que discute a educação como objeto de representação social entre trabalhadores rurais assentados da reforma agrária. Nesse contexto, a inserção desses sujeitos marcados pela exclusão de direitos elementares no processo de luta pela terra disseminou a esperança de se iniciar uma nova trajetória de vida a partir da conquista da terra e de outros direitos que se sucedem à posse e à consolidação do assentamento, como: trabalho, renda, escola, um pedaço de terra ou uma casa para morar. A valorização da educação escolar entre os assentados adultos é uma cantiga atravessada por "ruídos" como as trajetórias pessoais de exclusão da escola; a itinerância sistemática - anterior à condição de assentado - que transforma cada novo lugar de chegada em momento de reordenamento da vida e reinserção social; as experiências de refundação do presente que se instaura quando se é acampado e, posteriormente, assentado; e, também, pelo abandono com que os poderes públicos, ao longo dos anos, têm tratado o conjunto de demandas socioeconômico-culturais das populações assentadas. Os dados da análise do edifício representacional que compõe a leitura de mundo dos sujeitos deram-se a partir da aplicação de um teste de associação livre, no qual foi solicitado aos entrevistados que apresentassem três expressões consideradas mais associadas à palavra indutora Educação.Paper that discusses the subject of education as a social representation among rural workers settled agrarian reform. In this context, the inclusion of these subjects marked by the exclusion of basic rights in the struggle for land spread the hope of starting a new trajectory of life from the conquest of land and other rights that follow the ownership and consolidation of the settlement, as work, income, school, a piece of land or a house to live. The valuation of schooling among adults is a ditty settlers crossed by "noise" as the personal histories of

  10. Peruvian Moche Jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Berniece

    1998-01-01

    Surveys the history of the pre-Columbian, Peruvian Moche art, particularly the ornamental jewelry found in Moche burial sites. Outlines a procedure for creating pins reminiscent of Moche jewelry out of paper and other inexpensive materials. Points to ways that the lesson can be combined with lessons in history and science. (DSK)

  11. REGIONAL FEATURES OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP FUNCTIONING IN THE AGRARIAN SPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    Tyumerova I. B.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the activities of the agrarian sphere in the Chuvash Republic; we have also developed a matrix of opportunities for the development of the agrarian sector in conjunction with the entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial development strategy identified the cluster as the main factor of socio-economic development of the region

  12. The Origins of Agrarianism and the Development of the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Victor Davis

    1998-01-01

    Describes the history of agrarianism and its connection with Western cultural values of private property, civil liberties, constitutional government, separation of power, individualism, and self-reliance. Argues that agrarian history has vast implications beyond just farming, affecting the language, values, and foundations of culture. Discusses…

  13. Agrarianism: An Ideology of the National FFA Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The traditions of the National FFA Organization (FFA) are grounded in agrarianism. This ideology focuses on the ability of farming and nature to develop citizens and integrity within people. Agrarianism has been an important thread of American rhetoric since the founding of country. The ideology has morphed over the last two centuries as the…

  14. Reforming Land and Resource Use in South Africa: Impact on Livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebinck, P.G.M.; Shackleton, C.

    2011-01-01

    This book debates the emergent proprieties of rural and peri-urban South Africa since land and agrarian reforms were initiated after the transition to democracy in 1994. It explores how these reforms have broadened options for the use of land and natural resources. Reform-minded policies in South

  15. Explaining the inefficiency of electrical distribution companies. Peruvian firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, OSINERGMIN (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the extent to which the structural reform of the Peruvian electricity market, implemented in the 1990s, has improved the efficiency of the distribution companies; and it evaluates the influence on efficiency of firm specific explanatory variables. To do this, we rely on data from 14 distribution companies between 1996 and 2006. The results indicate that the incentives generated by the reform process led to the firms becoming more efficient. Moreover, the time trend and private management of the distribution companies are variables that positively affect the levels of efficiency, whereas the lower network densities are then the greater the inefficiency. (author)

  16. Explaining the inefficiency of electrical distribution companies. Peruvian firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul; Tovar, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which the structural reform of the Peruvian electricity market, implemented in the 1990s, has improved the efficiency of the distribution companies; and it evaluates the influence on efficiency of firm specific explanatory variables. To do this, we rely on data from 14 distribution companies between 1996 and 2006. The results indicate that the incentives generated by the reform process led to the firms becoming more efficient. Moreover, the time trend and private management of the distribution companies are variables that positively affect the levels of efficiency, whereas the lower network densities are then the greater the inefficiency. (author)

  17. NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING AND IMPROVING AGRARIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate interdisciplinary New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics and suggest a framework for assessing efficiency of farms and agrarian organizations. Our new approach includes: study of farm and agrarian organizations as governing rather than production structure; assessment of comparative efficiency of alternative market, contract, internal, and hybrid modes of governance; analysis of level of transaction costs and their institutional, behavioral, dimensional, technological and natural factors; determination of criteria of farm efficiency and its effective boundaries; specification of economic role of government and needs for public interventions in agrarian sector; assessment of comparative efficiency of alternative forms of public involvement.

  18. ANALYSIS OF AGRARIAN SECTOR RESOURCE PROVIDING IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Bezpyata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is an analysis of material well-being level in agrarian sector of economy by productive resources (by land, labour, hardware providing with that provides efficiency of economic activity and ground of basic directions of the rational bringing in and use of resource potential of agrarian sector of economy in Ukraine in market conditions. Research methodology consists in the use of statistical and economic research methods for analysis of productive resources using modern state of agriculture for period from 2010 to 2014 years. Research results show that the resource providing agrarian sector development can be defined as totality of certain types of resources (land, technological, labour, financial and sources of their forming, directly participating in the processes of agrarian sector economies development that can be mobilized with the purpose of providing the scale using of their potential possibilities and transition of agriculture to the qualitatively new state. Analysis of the modern state of material well-being of agrarian sector resources of economy in Ukraine is unsatisfactory and with every year gets worse. To overcome this problem agricultural commodity producers are unable only by themselves. For the improvement of the economic state of agrarian sector of economy in whole country and regional state support of home agricultural producer, stimulation of his activity is needed. And first of all the self-weighted investment policy of the state should become such measures in the agrarian sector of economy that will allow bringing in of greater amount of investment resources for the improvement of technical equipment at agricultural enterprises, development of production co-operation and products sale, introduction of personnel management modern methodology, increase in labour activity level in agrarian sector, realization of the permanent updating and increase in products quality control, etc. Practical value. Got

  19. Agrarian Landscape Management in a Modernized World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    ) A historical analysis of social drivers of land use change affecting agrarian landscapes in the Western world in the period 1700-2000 based on a litterature review of modernization theory applied to two local scale historical case studies of changes in landscape structure; (2) A national scale analysis based...... on archival and cartographic sources of the way selected modernization processes affected rural land use patterns in New Zealand in the period from its first Europeancolonial exploration in the 17th century until the present. (3) A global scale analysis of historical patterns of modernization affecting rural...... land use patterns within the Western world based on historical cartographic evidence, (4) A local scale analysis of the decision making practices of landscape managers in four modern case landscapes in Denmark and New Zealand, based on interview surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012. Findings indicate...

  20. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program

  1. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program.

  2. Investigating the impact of agrarian policies on conflict and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... Investigating the impact of agrarian policies on conflict and peacebuilding ... tourism industry, defusing the conflict impact of relative land scarcity. ... the idea — flowing from the increasingly influential "Economic Theory of War" ...

  3. Types of planned agrarian colonization in Brazilian forests: Historical examples

    OpenAIRE

    Gerd Kohlhepp

    2015-01-01

    About 200 years ago state or privately controlled agrarian colonization in South Brazil began with immigrants from Central and Southern Europe. As the Brazilian campos had been occupied by extensive cattle ranching of large landholders, forests were systematically cleared by peasants, the new rural social middle class. Three examples of the most different types of agrarian colonization are presented, colonization of European small farmers in South Brazil in the 19th century; colonization of a...

  4. Agrarian Problems in the New Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Karsky

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Le phénomène des révoltes agraires était bien connu en Amérique coloniale. Cependant, les chercheurs ne s’accordent pas sur la signification qu’il convient de donner à la présence continue de révoltes rurales organisées au cours des années qui suivirent la révolution américaine. Les historiens se sont surtout concentré sur deux mouvements post‑révolutionnaires : les Shays et Whiskey Rebellions. Par leur volonté de resituer ces mouvements, au‑delà des doléances agraires exprimées, dans le contexte politique plus large d’une nation en pleine création, les travaux de David Szatmary et Thomas Slaughter, publiés dans les années 1980, ont joué un rôle important dans la recherche sur les révoltes rurales. Quelle a été, depuis, l’évolution des études sur les Shays et Whiskey Rebellions ? Si les historiens ne s’accordent pas sur les causes et la composition des mouvements agraires, la plupart d’entre eux tendent à réduire la signification politique du petit fermier dans la nouvelle nation en reléguant les mouvements au contexte de l’arrière‑pays ou de la frontière. Une autre question divisant les historiens spécialisés dans l’étude de ces rébellions est celle de la part que les fermiers ont prise dans l’économie de marché. Ces mouvements demandent à être analysés dans un cadre économique et social plus vaste, afin de mieux comprendre leur contribution au développement de la démocratie dans la jeune République.Agrarian protest was a well known phenomenon of colonial North America. Yet the continued presence of organized rural protest in the years following the revolutionary war has divided scholars as to its significance. Historians have focused their attention especially on two postrevolutionary movements, the Shays and the Whiskey Rebellions. In attempting to interpret these movements beyond their immediate agrarian grievances in a larger political framework of nation‑making, the

  5. Trends in Peruvian historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available – Homenaje a Jorge Basadre. El hombre, su obra y su tiempo, edited by Scarlett O’Phelan Godoy, Mónica Ricketts Sánchez-Moreno. Lima: Instituto RivaAgüero, 2005. – Memoria y destino del Perú. Jorge Basadre: Textosesenciales, compiled by Ernesto Yepes del Castillo. Lima: Fondo editorial del Congreso del Perú, 2003. – La historia y los historiadores en el Perú, by Manuel Burga. Lima: Universidad Nacional de San Marcos/Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, 2005. – Más allá de la dominación y la resistencia. Estudios de historia peruana, siglos xvi-xx, edited by Paulo Drinot y Leo Garofalo. Lima: IEP, 2005. – The Plebeian Republic. The Huanta Rebellion and the Making of the Peruvian State, 1820-1850, by Cecilia Méndez. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2005.

  6. Technical and Environmental Change in Spain: Agrarian Underdevelopment or “European Dragon”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Robledo Hernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The belittling view of Spanish agriculture, the main source of employment until 1950, was a constant reference in the socioeconomic analyses carried out until the end of last century. This became one of the clichés that nourished the Hispanic inferiority complex, to which writers like Joaquin Costa contributed. The revision of agrarian history has helped to correct the image of social and economic underdevelopment in two ways. Firstly, the better knowledge of the technical innovation processes. Secondly, the environmental and biological limits the Spanish agricultural activity suffered. The latter statement is also useful to underline the risks of productivism after the destruction and redirection of the innovation systems by the Franco regime, when the opportunities for farming development offered by the Republican agricultural reform disappeared

  7. Agrarian Transitions, Rural Resistance and Peasant Politics in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Drahmoune

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the recent revival of agrarian studies in the scholarship of Southeast Asia, this paper reviews three recent publications that are concerned with specific aspects of what has been framed as “agrarian transition”, “agrarian change” or “agrarian transformation”. It seeks to identify new perspectives and fresh approaches to the analytical challenges that arise from the multi-faceted and intertwined nature of agrarian change in the region. Further, it considers the implications of these processes – specifically in social, political and economic terms – for the rural population and examines their ways of embracing and resisting these changes. By emphasising the explanatory potential that linking approaches, theories and methodologies of different research traditions and disciplines in an integrative fashion has, it will be argued that – in order to enhance our understanding of people’s responses to rural change – it is essential to recognise their agency and perceptions as interconnected across multiple scales within broader structural conditions.

  8. The agrarian innovation in Camajuaní: inequities and contradictions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Martínez Massip

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian innovation in Camajuaní shows a group of social problems, despite of being a leading municipality in the production of different crops, tobacco and livestock farming. The article is aimed at characterizing, from a sociological approach, the agrarian innovation in producers of different crops, industrial crops, livestock farming and poultry in Camajuaní. A survey, a semi-structured interview and an analysis of the content were applied to an intentional simple of 39 innovators. The outcomes resulted in: gender and age inequity, variability in the levels of scholarship and the tenure of the land of the farmers for an insufficient cognitive domain of innovation, and predominance of a medium level of innovation for most agrarian practices with a high efficiency but low novelty in the various cultures. The agrarian innovations are affected by the contradiction of lacking a bond to the social innovations, with economical aims and being absent to a local system of innovation, which not only limits its growing and development, but also reflects the lack of projection of local entities and civil society; what put at risk the agrarian, rural, and local development.

  9. BULLYING IN AN AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF MEXICO

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    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzes bullying in a high school belonging to an agrarian university in the municipal area of Texcoco, State of Mexico. The profile of the students that attend this agrarian high school was analyzed, the impact of bullying on education is explained, along with the risk factors and their consequences, a phenomenon which is very scarcely documented in formative spaces of high school studies, and particularly absent in investigations from agrarian institutions in Mexico. A quantitative investigation was proposed containing a sample of 112 students. In order to collect data, a questionnaire was used, and the information was analyzed using univariate descriptive statistics and Spearman’s correlation analysis. Out of all the interviewees, 99.1% claimed there is bullying in the agrarian high school and mentioned that the main cause is the lack of values among students, who discriminate their classmates; due to gender stereotypes, it is men who are mainly in the triangle of bullying as attackers, victims, or observers. The analysis of bullying in the agrarian high school helped to know the profile of the students who are vulnerable to become victims, attackers, or observers of bullying: they are not friendly or tolerant, they partake in pranks, they are violent, aggressive, jealous, restless, and they feel uncomfortable in the presence of homosexual or transgender people.

  10. From the history of agrarian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil Silagadze

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has long been recognized as the main field of production in Egypt, Babylon, China, India … It is not accidental that we still have the most precious materials on the issues of management of this sphere, which have not lost their sensitivity to the present day. The study analyzes the individual aspects of the problem mainly on the example of ancient countries, particularly Rome. Based on the conclusion: For Platon the main thing is: The existence of natural farmland where everything is made according to demand; The land is the main sign - “mother”, which is the property of the “ideal state”. About the role of farming, Xenophon had a similar view, who first used the term “economics” and Aristotle, whose ownership is the term “economic science”; The issues of Latifundian agrarian farming research gained particular attention to Antiquity in Rome, where the specialists of Roman thinkers clearly outlined that the main field of agriculture, and the income derived from it - is the most sacred; The most effective product is near the selling markets; The importance of livestock, viticulture and gardening took place in the foreground; The objective of the science of farming is to study soil composition, selection of favorable time for land-processing tools and land cultivation; Additional work used in land cultivation ensures receiving of surplus product … Despite the experience of history, unfortunately, in post-Soviet Georgia does not pay much attention to the development of real economy, including agriculture sector. Keywords: Ancient epoch, Economy, Agriculture, Georgia, Real estate, Employment

  11. Sectoral transitions - modeling the development from agrarian to service economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-04-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's GDP, i.e the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations we characterise the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing 4 country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow 3 of 8 characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  12. Fostering a culture of land. Commentary on "Agrarian philosophy and ecological ethics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyfogle, Eric T

    2008-12-01

    Paul Thompson's essay, "Agrarian Philosophy and Ecological Ethics," [1] usefully highlights some of the defects in the now-dominant strands of environmental ethics. It offers an agrarian alternative that solves many of them. Thompson's agrarianism, in turn, has its own limitations, yet it nonetheless merits close attention.

  13. Sexting among Peruvian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Lister, Cameron E; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T; Snow, Paola Rivera; Zvietcovich, Maria Elena; West, Richard P

    2014-08-07

    Sexting (sexual messaging via mobile devices) among adolescents may result in increased risky sexual practices, psychological distress and in some cases, suicide. There is very little research on sexting in developing nations, such as Peru. In particular, little is known about gender differences in the correlates of sexting. The purpose of this study was to determine the sexting prevalence and correlates of sexting among adolescent boys and girls in Cusco, Peru. The study sample comprised 949 high school aged adolescents from Cusco, Peru. Adolescents responded to questions about demographics, sexting behavior, and risk/protective factors. Separate regression models were constructed to compare correlates of sexting for boys and sexting for girls. Twenty percent of the sample reported engaging in at least one instance of sexting. Boys reported higher rates of sexting than girls (35.17% vs. 13.19%, p = 0.000). Significant correlates for girls' sexting included having been cyberbullied and parental factors. For boys, hypertexting, fighting, parental factors, and parental rules about sexting were significant. Peruvian health officials with an interest in reducing the effects of sexting among adolescents may choose to target boys differently than girls. These efforts may include advising parents to set clear rules and expectations about sexting and the appropriate use of mobile devices.

  14. Solving problems of modern land relations on the way of formation of competitive agrarian production in Ukraine

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    Skoruk Olena P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is identification of modern problems of conduct of the land reform and ways of their solution in the context of economic consequences for development of the competitive agrarian production in Ukraine. It identifies that the main task of completion of the land reform is creation of the land market, which would ensure transition of the right of ownership on land lots to an efficient land owner. The basis of this development are farms that combine the owner and master of land in one entity. The article shows that adoption of the Draft Law “On Agricultural Land Turnover” would facilitate development of this form of management. The article identifies main problems of the moratorium on agricultural land sales, namely: land black market activity, withdrawal from market turnover of land of about USD 40 thousand million cost and, as a result, impossibility for agrarians to apply mortgage. The article identifies gaps in the legislation with respect to state control over unclaimed shares and escheats, due to which the state budget does not receive significant amounts of money. It offers ways of solution of these problems through empowering the founded Goszembank, which should become a partner and support for development of small and medium farms after withdrawal of the moratorium on agricultural land sales, with relevant authorities.

  15. Modeling in architectural-planning solutions of agrarian technoparks as elements of the infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrassilova, Gulnara S.

    2017-09-01

    In the context of development of the agriculture as the driver of the economy of Kazakhstan it is imperative to study new types of agrarian constructions (agroparks, agrotourists complexes, "vertical" farms, conservatories, greenhouses) that can be combined into complexes - agrarian technoparks. Creation of agrarian technoparks as elements of the infrastructure of the agglomeration shall ensure the breakthrough in the field of agrarian goods production, storing and recycling. Modeling of architectural-planning solutions of agrarian technoparks supports development of the theory and practice of designing objects based on innovative approaches.

  16. Competitiveness of Agrarian Areas in the Stavropol Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varivoda, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ophem, van J.A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Regional development is determined by possessing specific competitive advantages and their constant improvement. The problem how to increase competitiveness of the areas remains one of the most important for the agrarian sector. Russian economic policy aims at the stable development of the agro

  17. Planning livelihood cohesion for agrarian Tsunami victims | Newport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper highlights the need for adequate livelihood planning for agrarian Tsunami victims in Tamil Nadu are of India. It looks at the reason why the inhabitants of the area were affected by the disaster especially as they are around the coastal plains, which experience periodic monsoon. The recent tsunami devastated the ...

  18. Other Kinds of Violence: Wendell Berry, Industrialism, and Agrarian Pacifism

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    William Major

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the need to understand pacifism and environmentalism as essentially consonant philosophies and practices, just as a proper theorization of ecocide must also include the violence inherent to industrialism and militarism. Few contemporary writers understand the stakes involved in this conflation as well as Wendell Berry, and few have had more occasion to enact the entwined values of pacifism and environmentalism than he has. Berry therefore marries pacifist politics to a land ethic of care, a union from which emerges an environmentalism highly critical of the violence of American corporate capitalism and militarism, the apotheosis of which can be seen in the guise of war (Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the “War on Terror”. Moreover, such violence has its domestic ecocidal analogy, best evidenced by strip mining and mountaintop removal. Berry’s union of peaceableness and agrarian environmentalism does, however, deserve critical examination, for it often rests upon the construction of a sometimes frustrating disconnection between a precious and benign domesticity and a theoretically corrupt public sphere. To be sure, in his reworking of the fluid boundaries between the private and public through which his agrarian ethics is often articulated, Berry simultaneously invokes and disavows a separation he clearly understands to be artificial. In Berry’s peaceful agrarian vision, then, the agrarian pacifist who is also by definition an environmentalist must draw upon enormous internal resources if she is to revolutionize the economies of ruin that characterize modern life.

  19. The politics of biofuels, land and agrarian change: editors' introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras, Saturnino M

    2010-01-01

    This introduction frames key questions on biofuels, land and agrarian change within agrarian political economy, political sociology and political ecology. It identifies and explains big questions that provide the starting point for the contributions to this collection. We lay out some of the emerging themes which define the politics of biofuels, land and agrarian change revolving around global (re)configurations; agro-ecological visions; conflicts, resistances and diverse outcomes; state, capital and society relations; mobilising opposition, creating alternatives; and change and continuity. An engaged agrarian political economy combined with global political economy, international relations and social movement theory provides an important framework for analysis and critique of the conditions, dynamics, contradictions, impacts and possibilities of the emerging global biofuels complex. Our hope is that this collection demonstrates the significance of a political economy of biofuels in capturing the complexity of the "biofuels revolution" and at the same time opening up questions about its sustainability in social and environmental terms that provide pathways towards alternatives.

  20. Political economy of agrarian change: Some key concepts and questions

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    H Bernstein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on lectures given in recent years at the China Agricultural University, on author’s book Class Dynamics of Agrarian Change [1] and on a recent article [3]. The author supplied as few references as possible to very large literature in English on agrarian change both historical and contemporary; there is an ample bibliography in [1], which is expanded in [2-5]. The paper outlines in schematic fashion some key concepts in the political economy of agrarian change with special reference to capitalism historically and today; some key questions posed by the political economy of agrarian change, and how it seeks to investigate and answer them; two sets of more specific questions about agrarian transition to capitalism and agrarian change within capitalism (internal to the countryside, bringing in rural-urban interconnections, pointing towards the place of agriculture within larger ‘national’ economies, and concerning the character and effects of the capitalist world economy. With the aid of the last group of questions, the author discusses three themes, which they are deployed to investigate: the agrarian origins of capitalism, the distinction between farming and agriculture generated by capitalism, and the fate(s of peasant farmers in the modern world of capitalism. The author believes that one cannot conceive the emergence and functioning of agriculture in modern capitalism without the centrality and configurations of new sets of dynamics linking agriculture and industry, and the rural and urban, and the local, national and global. The three themes all feed into the fourth and final theme, that of investigating the fate(s of the peasantry in capitalism today, which resonates longstanding debates of the ‘disappearance’ or ‘persistence’ of the peasantry, albeit now in the conditions of contemporary ‘globalization’. The author does not deny some of the critique of the contemporary globalization, or at least its effects

  1. The failure of agrarian capitalism : agrarian politics in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands and the USA, 1846 - 1919

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative analysis of agrarian policies in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands and the USA from 1846-1919.

    The author examines the evolution of agricultural policy and factors that motivate it. These factors are discussed in the context of the repeal

  2. Education, work and earnings of Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E M

    1996-01-01

    This study describes trends in educational attainment among women in Peru, and examines the determinants of educational attainment, labor force participation and employment, and earnings. Data were obtained from the Peruvian Living Standards Survey among a sample of 5644 women aged 20-59 years. Findings indicate that parents' educational variables had a positive and statistically significant relationship with the educational attainment of their daughters. The impact declined over time from older to younger cohorts. School reforms improved women's access to education. Education became more universal and compulsory over time. Daughters of mothers with white collar occupations had higher levels of schooling than farmers' daughters. The effects of fathers' education was larger. There was a wider gap between farmers and nonfarmers. Textbooks, teachers, and number of grades offered were the only primary school inputs that showed any clear cohort trend in their effect on years of schooling. As primary schools became more available, textbooks had a greater impact on school attainment. The impact of textbooks was larger for women than for men. The number of grades offered had a large positive effect which increased across cohorts from older to younger. Findings suggest weak effects of school reforms on women's likelihood of participating in the paid or unpaid labor force. Years of schooling had a very small and negative effect on total labor force participation. Woman's paid employment was influenced by age, education and training, household characteristics, and family's unearned income. Educational attainment had a small positive effect on participation in paid employment for younger women and no effect for older women. The average rate of return in paid employment to primary education was about 12%. Primary education had the highest rate of return. The return to job tenure was higher for younger women.

  3. Analysis of investment potential for enterprises of economic agrarian sector

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    A.E. Dankevych

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with and determines the peculiarities of the investment potential of lands of Ukrainian economic agrarian sector. The author studies the main positives contributing the development of investment for enterprises of agricultural purpose. The reasons that restrain the investment in agriculture are determined. It is emphasized that when using land resources, one should take into account the current specificity of environment in the economic agrarian sector. The article singles out the factors, which form the specificity of development of lease land relations. It is stressed that the important characteristic of lease land relations is their social and economic direction. It is proved that the obligatory condition of a lease agreement has to become the characteristic of a quality state for a land plot. More than a third part of all national income of the country was formed in economic agrarian sector. In particular, 70 % of total amount of retail goods turnover, a third part of main production facilities, a fourth part of population, employed in the Ukrainian economy, was busy working. According to the data of UNO, the potential of Ukrainian lands allows to provide about 100 mln. individuals with foods. To reach this and to renew the present level under current economic conditions one can due to the implementation of essentially new approaches to the organization of agricultural production.

  4. Estructura agraria y violencia rural en América Latina Agrarian structure and rural violence in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Kay

    2003-01-01

    crucial to analyze the origins of that violence in order to find solutions to the problems that cause it. The purpose of the present essay is to explore relations between the agrarian structure, agrarian reform and rural violence in Latin America. Its interrelations are examined from a historical perspective in which global transformation processes are underscored. Factors such as the political regime, markets, technology, crops (for instance, coca and State actions have an important presence in the several kinds of conflicts and violence in rural areas. Nevertheless, the level of influence of such factors varies a good deal according to the characteristics of existing agrarian structure and social relations. A special examination is made on the influence of agrarian reforms and/or peasants' demands for agrarian reform over rural conflicts and violence. The cases of Chile, Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico and some countries from Central America are considered. Although preliminary, the conclusions present some comparative analyses. However, it is my understanding that those should be further developed, but I hope they might offer reference points for more encompassing comparative analyses. The studies on rural conflicts and violence have so far focused mainly on one country. Comparative studies, in my opinion, can offer a broader analytical scope and comparative context might open new possibilities for a better understanding of causes and consequences of rural violence in Latin American countries.

  5. Venezuelan Agrarian dynamic: reflections for its discussion La dinámica agraria venezolana: reflexiones para su discusión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diosey Ramón Lugo-Morin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Century XX started in Latin America with intense social movements. Most important it was the Mexican revolution that it destroyed many of the oppressive structures under which was the immense majority of the population. The example of the movement invaded all Latin America and the notion of the agrarian reform was adopted by the advanced social sectors more than they tried to take to his own countries to more modern productive models. By the previous thing, the present study proposes to make an analytical reflection of the dynamics of change of the Venezuelan agrarian from an neoinstitutional perspective. It was concluded that the transformations in the Venezuelan agrarian structure sustain to a positive impact in their rural space and an opportunity for a reflective debate is opened on the paper of the institutions in the task of the Venezuelan agrarian question.El siglo XX arrancó en América Latina con intensos movimientos sociales. El más importante fue la revolución mexicana que destruyó muchas de las estructuras opresivas bajo las que se encontraba la inmensa mayoría de la población. El ejemplo del movimiento invadió toda América Latina y la noción de la reforma agraria fue adoptada por los sectores sociales más avanzados que intentaban llevar a sus propios países a modelos productivos más modernos. Por lo anterior, el presente estudio propone hacer una reflexión analítica de la dinámica agraria venezolana desde una perspectiva neoinstitucional. Se concluye que las transformaciones en la estructura agraria venezolana sustentan un impacto positivo en su espacio rural y abre la oportunidad para un debate reflexivo sobre el papel de las instituciones en el quehacer de la cuestión agraria venezolana.

  6. Views on agrarian question in the russian empire early twentieth century public don (on the example of V.I. Denisov

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    Z. V. Svyaschenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the essence of agrarian nobility Don initiatives as an example of marshal of the nobility of the Don area V.I. Denisova, draws attention to the radical changes large landowners understand the nature of the agrarian question. Detailed analysis of vision causes aggravation and solving agricultural problems under conditions of revolution «Union supporters peaceful resolution of the agrarian question», which was organized by Don autumn 1905 Union believed that the government should immediately allow farmers free access to the community with fixing them processed before this allotment in private ownership and the right of selling. The analysis looks marshal of the nobility area of the Don V. Denisov, according to which land reform must be focused on the transition from communal farmers to homestead entities on the basis of peasant private ownership of land, increasing the size of peasant land ownership through the purchase of additional land they or their resettlement intensification individual farm. A general conclusion is that the views of V.I. Denisov and other landowners reflect the general mood and position of large landowners on agricultural issues. Their analysis shows a major fact of evolution beliefs representatives of large estates. As the patriots of their country, they offered very real steps to address not only the agricultural problems and to improve general well-being of the population, increasing the efficiency of the economy and legal equality of different layers Russian imperial society and so on. A large estates in various regions of the country were unanimous that stop the deployment of revolutionary elements in the country is possible only on one condition - the resolution of the agrarian question.

  7. Further thoughts on agrarian capitalism: a reply to Albritton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmolek, M

    2001-01-01

    In response to Albritton [2000], who asserts that the central dynamic of capitalism's genesis was putting-out manufacturing, I provide a sketch of the processes of agrarian capitalism. The elaboration of the common law in the Middle Ages enabled widespread conversion to leaseholds after the plague. An increasingly privatized system of land ownership resulted from the enclosure movement in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and the upheavals of the seventeenth century represented the triumph of the enclosers. The rise of cottage industry in the eighteenth century was supported by a systematic effort at improving agricultural productivity. By the Industrial Revolution, the principle of individual control over production had long been established.

  8. Reframing ‘Crisis’ in Fair Trade Coffee Production: Trajectories of Agrarian Change in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, J.; Fisher, E.; Arce, A.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    A focus on crisis provides a methodological window to understand how agrarian change shapes producer engagement in fair trade. This orientation challenges a separation between the market and development, situating fair trade within global processes that incorporate agrarian histories of social

  9. Agrarian Violence: A Comparative Analysis of Recent Farm Movements in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Ted

    Collective agrarian violence was examined in the U.S. and Canada to determine: (1) if the American historical experience was unique; (2) if the American farm movements evidenced the same characteristics and development as those in Europe; (3) if American collective agrarian violence has manifested the same characteristic shape as that of France…

  10. Internationalization of Peruvian cuisine: An analysis of internationalization strategies of Peruvian restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Ronald M; Mayorga, David

    2011-01-01

    We study the multinationalizationâ€"the decision to establish foreign direct investment (FDI)â€"of Peruvian restaurants. Despite a long exporting tradition, many Peruvian firms have only recently become multinational enterprises (MNEs). The analysis of eighty-two cases of Peruvian restaurants FDI in the Americas, Europe and Asia, reveals several findings. First, it confirms the received view that Multilatinas take a long time to become MNEs, and they become MNEs after changes in the home coun...

  11. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  12. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-17

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  13. Radioactivity surveillance in Peruvian fishmeal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Edith; Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana; Martinez, Jorge; Jara, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Fishmeal is a derived product of fish which is widely used to feed livestock. It is the brown flour obtained after cooking, pressing, drying and milling whole fish and food fish trimmings. Use of whole fish is almost exclusively from small, bony species of pelagic fish (generally living in the surface waters or middle depths of the sea), for which there is little or no demand for human consumption. In many cases, it constitutes the main source of protein in the diet of livestock. Traditionally, Peru has been a producer and exporter country of fish and its derived products. It is considered one of the top producers of fish worldwide. In Peru, anchovy (Engraulis ringens) is by far the most important species for fishmeal production. As part of the Peruvian national program of environmental surveillance, samples of fishmeal taken from different places of sampling (plants of production located in the northern coast of Peru) were measured and analyzed by HpGe gamma spectrometry. This study shows the results of radioactivity surveillance in Peruvian fishmeal, focusing in the contents of 137 Cs, which indicates that the levels of this radionuclide in the samples are below the order of the minimum detectable concentration (Bq/kg). These results are consistent with those obtained by the UK Food Standards Agency in 1999. According to many international regulations, the level of 137 Cs in foodstuff must be below 600 Bq/kg. (author)

  14. RESEARCHING FACTORS OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES OF AGRARIAN BUSINESS OF UKRAINE UNDER GLOBALIZATION OF THE WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Sidorov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern processes of reforming the agroindustrial complex of Ukraine, a large part of which belongs to the agrarian sector, under the globalization of world economic processes in the agricultural market require that domestic agroindustrial enterprises improve and rationally manage innovative activities (IА. The effective solution of problems that arise in this context in the rapidly changing economic and social and political environment requires that analytical methods in the management of the enterprises of the agroindustrial complex (AIC be used on the basis of the tools of economic and mathematical modelling, taking into account characteristics of agrarian production. The main approaches to modelling systems related to IА management are either descriptive or insufficiently formalized, and suggest virtual experimenting with IA management, avoiding the possibility of assessing the impact and consequences of different management options in the long view, minimizing IA risks when making managerial decisions. The subject matter of the article is the tools of economic and mathematical simulation of the development of innovative activities of the domestic agroindustrial complex. The goal is to develop tools for modelling innovative activities of enterprises of the agroindustrial complex of Ukraine in the form of analytical dependencies of impact factors. The objective is to research the dynamics of innovative activities of enterprises of the agroindustrial complex of Ukraine in terms of its components under the globalization of world economic processes in the market of agricultural products. General scientific methods are used, such as system analysis – to determine the peculiarities of development of IА of agroindustrial production in Ukraine, factor analysis – to formalize the cause-and-effect relationships of the investigated factors of AIC enterprises impact on IA. The following results were obtained: on the basis of the analysis of the

  15. Educação para promoção da saúde infantil: relato de experiência em um assentamento de reforma agrária, Vale do Rio Doce (MG Education for child health promotion: the experience with an agrarian reform settlement in Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Maria Gontijo Coelho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho relata uma experiência pedagógica de intervenção para promoção da saúde infantil em um assentamento de reforma agrária no Vale do Rio Doce (MG. No processo, procedimentos pedagógicos grupais e individualizados foram combinados, criando espaços dialógicos de problematização da saúde e nutrição infantil. Foi proposto e planejado um levantamento diagnóstico das condições de saúde das crianças menores de 5 anos; a devolução e a discussão dos dados com a população se deram por meio de reunião coletiva. Foi efetuado atendimento nutricional individualizado às mães das crianças; tratado com as gestantes e nutrizes o tema do aleitamento materno e ministrado um curso de Vigilantes da Saúde das Crianças, com vistas ao monitoramento da saúde infantil no local. Houve grande participação dos assentados nas intervenções, desde o planejamento até a execução das atividades. A estratégia adotada permitiu detectar as intervenções aceitas, as mais efetivas e as que deverão ser reformuladas com a comunidade. Do ponto de vista teórico e metodológico, a experiência permitiu observar os limites e potencialidades de ações que aproximam áreas de saber como sociologia e nutrição em atividades transdisciplinares.This study reports a pedagogical experience of intervention for child health promotion in a land reform settlement in the Vale do Rio Doce, Brazil. Grouped and individualized pedagogical procedures were combined to create spaces for discussion of child health and nutrition issues. Diagnosis on health conditions of children under 5 was proposed; planned and the results were discussed in a community meeting. A second moment consisted of an individualized nutritional counseling offered to the children’s mothers, emphasizing the health problems of high occurrence at this age. The topic of breastfeeding was debated with pregnant and lactating women and a course on Child Health Care was taught to monitor

  16. Adaptive response of Peruvian Hake to overfishing

    OpenAIRE

    Mendo, C.W.; Carrasco, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    Compensatory mechanisms of the Peruvian hake population (Merluccius gayi peruanus) in response to heavy exploitation and changes in species interaction are discussed. Changes in the rate of cannibalism, diet composition, maximization of fecundity and behavioral adaptation are noted.

  17. Competitiveness analysis of Czech agrarian foreign trade in the context of world agrarian market and agrarian trade of EU-27 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Svatoš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the commodity structure of Czech (CR agrarian trade in relation to the EU countries. An emphasis is put on comparative advantages of particular aggregations from the view-point of their application on the EU internal market. This analysis is based on an evaluation of comparative advantages by means of a modified Balassa index. It is studied in two stages, for the internal EU market and the world market. The analysis results are then shown in a graph. Subsequently, the authors implement an idea arising from a BCG matrix on the results of the graphic presentation. The aim is to identify those aggregations (SITC, rev. 3 which are or have a potential to be a pillar of agri-business (ie, the “cash cows” and “stars”, and vice versa to show the aggregation which are non-prospective in the long term or problematic (ie, the “dogs” and “problem children”. As start are identified as those aggregations which are characterised by the highest growth rate of comparative advantage value. From the analysis results, changes are apparent if we compare the CR trade commodity structure in relation to the EU countries. Findings also concern the development of comparative advantages and following CR specialisation on trade with certain aggregations.

  18. Women's land rights and rural social movements in the Brazilian agrarian reform

    OpenAIRE

    Deere, Carmen Diana

    2004-01-01

    Este artigo examina a evolução da reivindicação dos direitos da mulher à terra na reforma agrária brasileira sob o prisma dos três principais movimentos sociais rurais: o Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST), os sindicatos rurais e o movimento autônomo de mulheres rurais. O mérito maior por levantar a questão dos direitos da mulher à terra é das mulheres dentro dos sindicatos rurais. Os direitos formais das mulheres à terra foram conseguidos na reforma constitucional de 1988, e ...

  19. Newspaper Portrayals of Agrarian Reform: The "Jacksboro Rural Citizen" and "The Dallas Morning News."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkerts, Jean Lange

    The Farmers' Alliance was organized in Texas in 1877, and soon spread through the South and Midwest. Farmers formed cooperatives to combat the crop-lien system that bound them to furnishing merchants and to oppose differential railroad rates that hampered the shipment of their crops. As it grew, the alliance began to demand other land,…

  20. The Agrarian Natural Resource Use in the Area of Risky Farming: Principles and Priorities for Rationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golyan Vasyl A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The essence of agrarian natural resource use as an important prerequisite for agricultural production in the area of risky farming (drainage zone, irrigation zone, and mountainous areas has been disclosed. The problem points of rationalizing the agrarian natural resource use in the drainage zone have been identified in relation to the structural deformations of agricultural production. The main sectoral and institutional priorities for agrarian natural resource use in the drainage zone have been determined. The principles of agrarian natural resource use in the area of risky farming have been formulated, consisting in the restoration of traditional agricultural specialization, maintaining the environmental-economic balance, ensuring the adaptability to international environmental conventions, comprehensively countering the rural poverty, overcoming the asymmetry in information, preserving the food orientation of agricultural production, and transforming negative externalities into positive effects.

  1. The debate on food sovereignty theory: agrarian capitalism, dispossession and agroecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution reviews recent critiques of the food sovereignty framework. In particular it engages with the debate between Henry Bernstein and Philip McMichael and analyzes their different conceptualizations of agrarian capitalism. It critically identifies tendencies in food sovereignty

  2. MONITORING AND PROGNOSTICATING PROCESSES OF INVESTMENT IN AGRARIAN-AND-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanova I.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction. At present, Ukraine’s development depends on the agrarian-and-industrial sector as a sphere of priority to ensure the competitive ability of the national economy. The following growth of the agrarian-and-industrial complex demands accessible and considerable financing. The latest legislative changes created a great extent for investing climate in the country and a great probability of the moratorium cancellation to sell agricultural lands give grounds to observe and analyze the...

  3. Mechanism of management of competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryak E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the concept of competitiveness and mechanisms of management of competitiveness of production is considered. Major factors of ensuring competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex are allocated. The main problems of production of wheat in the Republic of Crimea making negative impact on the level of her competitiveness are revealed. The mechanism of management of competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex is developed.

  4. Non formal education in the teaching of peruvian dances among peruvian migrants in Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Benza

    2009-01-01

    The increasing migration of Peruvian citizens to Buenos Aires is a recent phenomenon, and the intensification of the development of organizations and their public presence are correlated with the participation in festivities, civic organizations and the like. This article is a preliminary report on research that focuses on Peruvian dance groups in Buenos Aires and that proposes to describe some of the ways that Peruvian folkdances are transmitted. I show how a process of non formal education ...

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE ACTIVATION OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN AGRARIAN SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Syrtseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is a justification of roles and identifying areas of improving the functioning of innovation infrastructure that will boost innovation in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. Methodology. The methodical basis of the study consists of general scientific cognition methods of economic phenomena and processes. Realization of the work tasks required such methods: theoretical generalization method – during study of scientific papers, legislative and regulatory acts; abstract logical method – to summarize theoretical and methodological provisions, as well as define the research goal; system approach method – identifying areas for improving the functioning of the innovation infrastructure of Ukrainian agrarian sector. Results. Found that in modern development conditions, a network of innovative structures that would provide infrastructure support for innovation development in the agricultural sector should be represented by such institutions as: agricultural innovation clusters, science parks, business incubators, venture funds, advisory services. Taking into account the international experience of the main institutions of infrastructural maintenance of innovative development, suggested areas of improvement and optimization of their formation and functioning to ensure innovation in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. Proved that the formation of agricultural innovation regional clusters should be represented by the following stages: a preliminary analysis and identifying promising areas and productions; selection of the cluster members; the strategic planning stage; setting goals and objectives; work scheduling of the cluster members in order to implement strategies; control over the execution of the approved programs and projects. Taking into account the global model of organization of advisory services, determined that the development of agricultural advisory system should be implemented through extension services

  6. KEY FEATTURES OF THE AGRARIAN TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE FORMER GDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ш Мерль

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the agrarian transformations (primarily privatization and structural adaptation to the domestic and international markets in the former GDR that are often presented as a success story due to the growth in agricultural productivity and competitiveness of new types of agricultural en-terprises. First, the author identifies the main tasks of these transformations: (1 privatization of the “socialist property” and its distribution between (a those who contributed capital and land to the agricultural enter-prise when it was established, and (b its employees at the moment of restructuring; (2 adaptation to new market conditions. Both tasks were extremely difficult and challenging for they required large investments in better breeds and machinery, and a significant reduction of agricultural workforce. Second, the author considers the legislative basis for privatization and the real practices of the reorganization of the former agricultural enterprises (proposals for the distribution of the assets, land restitution as prior to compen-sation, the successor large-scale enterprises forced land leasing contracts, manipulations with the balance sheets to obtain hidden reserves necessary for survival by underestimation of the existing assets, etc.. The author believes that the Kohl government did not foresee that privatization would be so complicated, and made many mistakes while striving to keep agricultural production in the new countries, especially to restrain the growth of unemployment. Therefore, the contemporary research of the agricultural economy is very critical of the regulations and frameworks set by the German government that is blamed for being responsible for many serious development constraints (short-term leasing contracts, paying off old debts, the lack of state subsidies for large enterprises, etc.. The final section of the article reveals the meaning of the land property in the agrarian transformations in the GDR

  7. Small farms, cash crops, agrarian ideals, and international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effland, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This address is an exploration of a lifetime of disparate and often conflicting observations about how different people view what is right and good for agriculture, food, and farmers around the world. The exploration utilizes the concept of wicked problems to focus on the issue of differing historical interpretations of global agricultural development. Sandra Batie defines wicked problems as "dynamically complex, ill-structured, public problems" for which "there can be radically different views and understanding of the problem by different stakeholders, with no unique 'correct' view." The wicked problem construct is applied to four core ideas in the history of agricultural development -- small farms, cash crops, agrarian ideals, and international development -- to demonstrate the potential for using this concept to approach complex problems of historical interpretation and contribute to solutions to the challenges of global agricultural development. The author suggests historians should acknowledge contradictory interpretations adn work toward reconciliation and synthesis, where it is possible and, where not, toward a clear explication of the basis for remaining differences. The author also encourages historians to seek multidisciplinary research opportunities that will help bring insights about historical context to policy deliberations.

  8. Non formal education in the teaching of peruvian dances among peruvian migrants in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Benza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing migration of Peruvian citizens to Buenos Aires is a recent phenomenon, and the intensification of the development of organizations and their public presence are correlated with the participation in festivities, civic organizations and the like. This article is a preliminary report on research that focuses on Peruvian dance groups in Buenos Aires and that proposes to describe some of the ways that Peruvian folkdances are transmitted. I show how a process of non formal education is shaped by the interactions among dance groups and between them and representatives of the Peruvian Government in Buenos Aires; and how it is influenced by the need to «demonstrate through performance,» by ways of participating in the groups and by the previous knowledge of the dances that the performers bring with them. The analysis focuses on the microanalytic dimension of representations and practices of the dancers and directors of the dance groups. The fieldwork was carried out in the period 2005-2008 and focused on four groups of Peruvian folk dancers. The phenomena studied are shown to have great potential as intercultural mediators that transcend cultural manifestations to become mechanisms of consciousness raising that reach out to publics beyond the Peruvians themselves.

  9. Feminist Reflections on the Peruvian University Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    1988-01-01

    An examination of the extent to which Peruvian universities have addressed gender issues finds (1) student politics have been male-dominated and not made women's issues primary concerns, (2) faculty are predominantly male, and (3) the education field has not adopted a feminist agenda despite greater participation by women. (Author/MSE)

  10. Evaluating the Peruvian Rural Communication Services Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the Peruvian Rural Communication Services (PRCS) Project and outlines selected findings. Topics discussed include a brief description of Peru's economic and social conditions; satellite communication systems; audio teleconferencing; telephone service; planning and administration; research design features; data collection; and project…

  11. Bilingual Education: An Experience in Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mildred L., Ed.; Davis, Patricia M., Ed.

    This book reports on an experimental bilingual education program conducted in Peru by Peruvian educators and Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) linguists. Sections of the book discuss: (1) the historical perspective of the program; (2) program aspects such as teacher training, goals, and curriculum; (3) what this program may contribute to the…

  12. Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    Changes in globalised agriculture raise critical questions as rapid agricultural development leads to widespread social and environmental transformation. With increased global demand for vegetable oils and biofuel, in Indonesia the area under oil palm has doubled over the last decade. This paper presents a case study of how micro-processes that are linked to wider dynamics shape oil palm related agrarian change in villages in Sumatra, Indonesia. It pursues related questions regarding the impact of agribusiness-driven agriculture, the fate of smallholders experiencing contemporary agrarian transition, and the impact of increased demand for vegetable oils and biofuels on agrarian structures in Sumatra. It argues that the paths of agrarian change are highly uneven and depend on how changing livelihood strategies are enabled or constrained by economic, social and political relations that vary over time and space. In contrast to simplifying narratives of inclusion/exclusion, it argues that outcomes depend on the terms under which smallholders engage with oil palm. Distinguishing between exogenous processes of agribusiness expansion and endogenous commodity market expansion, it finds each is associated with characteristic processes of change. It concludes that the way successive policy interventions have worked with the specific characteristics of oil palm have cumulatively shaped the space where agrarian change occurs in Sumatra.

  13. Imaging the Rural: Modernity and Agrarianism in Hiroshi Hamaya’s ‘Snow Land’ Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Tunney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Snow Land photographic series by Japanese photographer Hiroshi Hamaya [1915–1999] in relation to issues of modernity, nostalgia and discourses of agrarianism in 1940s and 1950s Japan. Hamaya is one of Japan’s most celebrated and influential documentary photographers at both a national and international level. His Snow Land series presents an idyllic view of life in the small mountain villages of Japan’s Niigata Prefecture, emphasising a sense of community and spiritual meaning that Hamaya perceived to be lacking in modern society. In this sense, Snow Land constituted a critique of modernity. Through engagement with theorists such as Heidegger, Foucault and Barthes, as well as critical writings on agrarian ideology, this article investigates the underlying assumptions that govern Hamaya’s depiction of snow country, demonstrating that the series is shaped by a modern worldview and is tied to ideological discourses of agrarianism.

  14. Fragmented Agrarian Space: Building Blocks and Modernisation Trajectories. The Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavič Irma Potočnik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Production, processing and consumption within Slovenian agrarian space are fragmented due to physical constraints (72.4% of the territory categorised as ANC and socio-geographic factors. Based on available data, five essential building blocks of contemporary Slovenian agrarian space (available land, change management, integrated circular economy, adjustable policies, and flexibility of institutions are discussed. Interrelations among the building blocks shape the modernisation trajectories of approx. 70,000 agricultural holdings in Slovenia. The coexistence of three modernisation trajectories, i.e. practised autarky, various forms of pluri-activity, and small-scale intensive and innovative modernisation, creates a complex mosaic. The governance of multifunctional and multi-structured agrarian space is becoming more demanding.

  15. [In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bot, Y

    1991-01-01

    Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make

  16. [The medical support of resettlement of peasants in Siberia during the Stolypin reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorysheva, I V; Gontcharova, S G

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the organization of medical care of settlers en route and in places of their settlement beyond the Ural during the Stolypin agrarian reform. The role of P.A. Stolypin, the Chairman of Council of ministers is demonstrated concerning the application of urgent measures on improvement of functioning of departments, controlling the resettlement and arrangement of peasants at new places. The development of resettlement medicine patterned after zemstvo medicine enhanced the penetration of scientific medicine into inaccessible regions of country.

  17. The rise of agrarian capitalism and the decline of family farming in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Taylor, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Historians have documented rising farm sizes throughout the period 1450–1850. Existing studies have revealed much about the mechanisms underlying the development of agrarian capitalism. However, we currently lack any consensus as to when the critical developments occurred. This is largely due to the absence of sufficiently large and geographically wide-ranging datasets but is also attributable to conceptual weaknesses in much of the literature. This article develops a new approach to the problem and argues that agrarian capitalism was dominant in southern and eastern England by 1700 but that in northern England the critical developments came later.

  18. A review investigating agrarian female entrepreneurship in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Present research has found the link between economic development, gender equality and rural development of particular areas. Female agrarian entrepreneurship leaning on multifunctional agriculture and agribusiness, can create favorable work climate in the whole region. Comparative analysis of female agrarian entrepreneurship of some populated places in north and south of Serbia gives information that can help in creating independent regional developmental politics. Experiences, attitudes, suggestions and recommendations acquired from polled women entrepreneurs give valuable and hardly attainable data to the other women living in rural areas and planning on starting their own businesses.

  19. Diversification of de-agrarianization? Income diversification, labor, and processes of agrarian change in southern and northern Malawi, mid-1930s to mid-1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the links between market-oriented activities and subsistence production among peasant farmers in the Thyolo and Mzimba districts in Malawi from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s. The two districts were chosen because of their differences in terms of land-labor ratios, quality of soils, and structure of market engagement. Exploring the different paths of agrarian change in these two districts demonstrates that they were dependent on the structure of market engagement and its effects on the supply and flexibility of labor. African agricultural history is best understood when agricultural systems are viewed in connection to the overall economic activities of rural households. More simply put, the dynamics of agrarian change in rural Africa cannot be understood without linking such changes to the wider economy and their impact on local labor processes.

  20. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  1. Planning Model for Peruvian University System

    OpenAIRE

    Chiyon, Isabel; Yague, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    This paper arises from observing the effect that the education policy has had on the European Higher Education Area that promotes the primary objective of this research: the preparation of a planning model that contributes, based on the European experience, the basic elements for the quality of higher education in Peru. To appraise the timeliness and usefulness of the aforementioned model, the scope of the Spanish model is selected and specifically adapted to the Peruvian model, which can be ...

  2. Virtues and defects of peruvians colonial heritage

    OpenAIRE

    León, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This communication reports a study in 691 students (414 women, 277 men, 16-60 years old), who were asked to rate (on a scale of 0 to 4) ten virtues and ten defects of an average Peruvian. The virtues considered were hard-working, honest, enterprising, ambitious, thrifty, sympathetic, creative, tidy, proud, and wel.organized; the defects were lazy, corrupt, conformist, fatalist, spendthrift, individualist, passive, envious, inhibited, talkative. They were asked too to rate the influence of col...

  3. Fatal accidents analysis in Peruvian mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candia, R. C.; Hennies, W. T.; Azevedo, R. c.; Almeida, I.G.; Soto, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Although reductions in the tax of injuries and accidents have been observed in recent years, Mining is still one of the highest risks industries. The basic causes for occurrence of fatalities can be attributed to unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. In this scene is necessary to identify safety problems and to aim the effective solutions. On the other hand, the developing countries dependence on primary industries as mining is evident. In the Peruvian economy, approximately 16% of the GNP and more than 50% of the exportations are due to the mining sector, detaching its competitive position in the worldwide mining. This paper presents fatal accidents analysis in the Peruvian mining industry, having as basis the register of occurred fatal accidents since year 2000 until 2007, identifying the main types of accidents occurred. The source of primary information is the General Mining Direction (DGM) of the Peruvian Mining and Energy Ministry (MEM). The majority of victims belongs to tertiary contractor companies that render services for mine companies. The results of the analysis show also that the majority of accidents happened in the underground mines, and that it is necessary to propose effective solutions to manage risks, aiming at reducing the fatal accidents taxes. (Author)

  4. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  5. Demographic perspectives on agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations': supply-side banalities versus redistributive imperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper frames the discussion of agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations' in the Global South within a political economy and macro-structural consideration of the developmental challenges faced in the context of contemporary rapid population growth. The case is made that the

  6. The Investment Model for the Intensive Development of Ukrainian Enterprises in the Agrarian Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulynych Yurii M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an investment model for the development of Ukrainian enterprises in the agrarian sector, which is one of the «locomotives» of the domestic economy. However, only by creating high value-added can be expected sustainable economic development both as an economic entity and as a whole economy of country. A long-term partnership with the advanced economies of the world is another key prerequisite for sustainable economic development. The article explores a potential Norwegian market in the context of the consumption of agriproducts as fodder for aquaculture, as well as Ukrainian agrarian market. Ukraine’s competitive advantages in the market for food ingredients for fish in Northern Europe have been formulated. The results of the study point to the high potential of soybean protein concentrate (SPC for the Norwegian market and, in turn, the great prospects for Ukraine in this market as a leader in the European soya growing. Measures that will facilitate the establishment of strong economic ties between Ukrainian agrarian enterprises and the markets of the developed countries have been determined. An investment model for the intensive development of Ukrainian enterprises in the agrarian sphere has been formed.

  7. The Effects of Violence and Internal Displacement on Rural-Agrarian Change in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Abdulkerim

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses two interrelated issues that have assumed major political significance in the handling of the Kurdish question in Turkey. The first is the impact of violence and resulting internal displacement in Eastern and Southeastern Turkey on rural-agrarian change. The second concerns the implications of the structural change and social…

  8. Comparative Analysis of Pedagogical Technologies in the Context of Future Agrarians' Multicultural Education in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    In the article the comparative analysis of pedagogical technologies in the USA has been carried out in the context of future agrarians' multicultural education. The essence of traditional and innovative pedagogical technologies and the peculiarities of their realization at higher educational establishments have been viewed. The expediency of…

  9. Social Capital, Organic Agriculture, and Sustainable Livelihood Security: Rethinking Agrarian Change in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of extra local market linkages and local-level social capital to sustainable livelihood outcomes in two agrarian communities on Mexico's Baja Peninsula. Contextualized by the specificity of Mexico's transition from state-directed rural development to neoliberally-guided rural development in the 1990s, findings…

  10. Peasant in transition : agrarian society in Western Sri Lanka under Dutch rule, 1740-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewasiri, Nirmal Ranjith

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the structural changes in the agrarian society in Western parts of Sri Lanka as seen in the mid and late eighteenth century in the context of the encounter with the Dutch United East India Company (VOC) administration. It attempts to understand the developments in the period

  11. Agrarian land use decision making in the light of global change and climate change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available in Limpopo Province to help land beneficiaries to achieve integrated and coordinated agrarian land use decision making. The second project is ongoing and it seeks to build local resilience to climate change by providing people at local government...

  12. Game animals and small terrestrial mammals - Suitable bioindicators for the pollution assessment in agrarian ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávrová, M.; Zlámalová Gargošová, H.; Šucman, E.; Večerek, V.; Kořínek, P.; Zukal, Jan; Zejda, Jan; Sebestiánová, N.; Kubištová, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2003), s. 165-172 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : bioindicator s * agrarian ecosystems * pollution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003 http://www.psp-parlar.de/details_artikel.asp?tabelle=FEBArtikel&artikel_id=234&jahr=2003

  13. The drive for accumulation: environmental contestation and agrarian support to Mexico's oil palm expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Navarrete, A.; Jansen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm expansion has been related to rural dispossession, environmental degradation and rural resistance. This paper explores the politics and impact of farmer-based oil palm expansion in Chiapas, Mexico. In relation to the debate on the greening of the agrarian question, this paper engages with

  14. [Johan Eellend. Cultivating the Rural Citizen : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia] / Kersti Lust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lust, Kersti, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Eellend, Johan. Cultivating the Rural Citizien : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia. Stockholm : Stockholm Universty, 2007. Eesti agraarideoloogia kujunemist ja olemust käsitlevast dissertatsioonist. Tegemist on Eesti ühiskondliku mõtte voolude ja nende mõjuulatuse tavapärasest erineva nägemusega

  15. How Biodiversity Conservation Policy Accelerates Agrarian Differentiation: The Account of an Upland Village in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dressler, W.H.; Xuan To, P.; Mahanty, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how the implementation of Vietnam«SQ»s recent biodiversity conservation policy in Ba Vi National Park has increased the economic value of nature, created sustained conflict, and exacerbated agrarian differentiation in an upland village in northern Vietnam. Increased global and

  16. Radioactive waste management at the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallaupoma, M.

    1986-01-01

    A brief account of current radioactive liquid waste management practices at the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute (IPEN), is presented. The storage and disposal systems and facilities to be provided at the future Peruvian Nuclear Research Centre (CNIP) at Huarangal, 40 km to the North of Lima, are described. (Author) [pt

  17. Geographical proximity on the valuations of unlisted agrarian companies: Does distance from company to company and to strategic points matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Occhino, P.; Maté, M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a first attempt to examine the role played by the geography on agrarian firms’ valuations. The geography was evaluated through the physical proximity from agrarian companies to other companies and to some strategic points which ease their accessibility to external economic agents. To get our purpose, we developed an empirical application on a sample of non-listed agrarian Spanish companies located in the region of Murcia over the period 2010-2015. We applied Discount Cash Flow methodology for non-listed companies to get their valuations. With this information, we used spatial econometric techniques to analyse the spatial distribution of agrarian firms’ valuations and model the behavior of this variable. Our results supported the assertion that agrarian firms’ valuations are conditioned by the geography. We found that firms with similar valuations tend to be grouped together in the territory. In addition, we found significant effects on agrarian firms valuations derived from the geographical proximity among closer agrarian companies and from them to external agents and transport facilities.

  18. Geographical proximity on the valuations of unlisted agrarian companies: Does distance from company to company and to strategic points matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhino, P.; Maté, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a first attempt to examine the role played by the geography on agrarian firms’ valuations. The geography was evaluated through the physical proximity from agrarian companies to other companies and to some strategic points which ease their accessibility to external economic agents. To get our purpose, we developed an empirical application on a sample of non-listed agrarian Spanish companies located in the region of Murcia over the period 2010-2015. We applied Discount Cash Flow methodology for non-listed companies to get their valuations. With this information, we used spatial econometric techniques to analyse the spatial distribution of agrarian firms’ valuations and model the behavior of this variable. Our results supported the assertion that agrarian firms’ valuations are conditioned by the geography. We found that firms with similar valuations tend to be grouped together in the territory. In addition, we found significant effects on agrarian firms valuations derived from the geographical proximity among closer agrarian companies and from them to external agents and transport facilities.

  19. Agrarian diet and diseases of affluence – Do evolutionary novel dietary lectins cause leptin resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jönsson Tommy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global pattern of varying prevalence of diseases of affluence, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, suggests that some environmental factor specific to agrarian societies could initiate these diseases. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that a cereal-based diet could be such an environmental factor. Through previous studies in archaeology and molecular evolution we conclude that humans and the human leptin system are not specifically adapted to a cereal-based diet, and that leptin resistance associated with diseases of affluence could be a sign of insufficient adaptation to such a diet. We further propose lectins as a cereal constituent with sufficient properties to cause leptin resistance, either through effects on metabolism central to the proper functions of the leptin system, and/or directly through binding to human leptin or human leptin receptor, thereby affecting the function. Testing the hypothesis Dietary interventions should compare effects of agrarian and non-agrarian diets on incidence of diseases of affluence, related risk factors and leptin resistance. A non-significant (p = 0.10 increase of cardiovascular mortality was noted in patients advised to eat more whole-grain cereals. Our lab conducted a study on 24 domestic pigs in which a cereal-free hunter-gatherer diet promoted significantly higher insulin sensitivity, lower diastolic blood pressure and lower C-reactive protein as compared to a cereal-based swine feed. Testing should also evaluate the effects of grass lectins on the leptin system in vivo by diet interventions, and in vitro in various leptin and leptin receptor models. Our group currently conducts such studies. Implications of the hypothesis If an agrarian diet initiates diseases of affluence it should be possible to identify the responsible constituents and modify or remove them so as to make an agrarian diet healthier.

  20. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF EDUCATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF KRASNOYARSK STATE AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vladimirovna Antonova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to issues of internationalization of educational process in Federal state budget educational institution of higher education “Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University”. The authors’ aim is to analyze and describe the methodology for this work at Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University. Methods. Theoretical and empirical methods of research, such as analysis and synthesis of the information available in psychological and pedagogical literature, as well as modelling, observation and experiment constitute the basis of the research. Results. In the study, the authors analyze and substantiate the reasonability of the implementation of practical forms of education internationalization at Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, as the basis for fulfillment of the efficiency indicators in the higher education institutions monitoring, including internationalization of curricula and educational programs, mobility of students and teachers, as well as the export of educational services as a separate component of the internationalization. Separately, the linguistic and socio-psychological adaptation of foreign students in Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University as the basis of internationalization is examined. The work on the internationalization of education in the Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University allowed fulfilling the indicator of monitoring. If in 2014 the university had only 0,41% of foreign students in the given contingent, then starting with 2015, the indicator is met. In 2017, it was 4,8%. The indicator of the receipt of funds from foreign students training also increased from 1,8 million rubles in 2016, up to 2,2 million rubles in 2017. Practical implication and results. The results of the study may be of interest for the management of higher educational institutions implementing the provisions of the Bologna Declaration, the staff of the international and educational departments of universities and can be used as

  1. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  2. Moessbauer firing study of Peruvian clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, R.; Wagner, U.; Wagner, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    In connection with work on ancient ceramics Moessbauer studies of the firing behaviour of six Peruvian clays have been performed in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. For two clays, one of them is poor, the other one is rich in oxides, the change of the Moessbauer parameters on firing between 100 and 1350 0 C was measured in detail, both with and without preceding reduction. The minerals present at characteristic temperatures are determined by X-ray diffraction and an attempt is made to discuss the physical and chemical processes occurring in the different temperature ranges. (author)

  3. Formation of the investment mechanism in the agrarian sphere of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Arkad'evna Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews investment activity in the agrarian sector of economy of the Russian Federation during the period after overcoming the sharp phase of world financial crisis. Estimation is given to the factors constraining further improvement and development of branches of agriculture, first of all — investment activity. The question of possibility of the account of the earth as resource of mortgaging maintenance in system of crediting of agriculture is revealed. The urgency of creation of Land bank is proved; preconditions for formation of the third link of banking system are defined: a specialized financially-credit institution (mortgage, investment, ground banks with a regulation and supervision particular treatment. Measures regarding a solution of a financial maintenance problem and agriculture crediting are offered. To raise efficiency of crediting of agrarian sector, means of development of institutes of crediting of bank system taking into account post crisis factors are suggested.

  4. Women and microcredit in rural agrarian households of Uganda: match or mismatch between lender and borrower?

    OpenAIRE

    Namayengo, M.M.F.; Ophem, van, J.A.C.; Antonides, G.

    2016-01-01

    The alignment of microfinance programs with the context and expectations of the recipients is critical for ensuring clients' satisfaction and desired program outcomes. This study sought to investigate the extent to which the objectives and design of the BRAC microfinance program match the expectations, context and characteristics of female borrowers in a rural agrarian setting in Uganda. Quantitative and qualiative methods were used to obtain socio-demographic, personality and microenterprise...

  5. Peasantry and politics in the Athenian society. On the Aristotelian model of agrarian democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Julián GALLEGO

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the peasantry's situation in the Athenian polis under the condition of full citizenship. Athens has recently been recognized as a society whose democratic political organization was based on the presence of citizen agriculturists who controlled most of the land, constituted the majority of the civic body and had a decisive role in the working of the government. Under certain limits, Aristotle's ideas in the Politics with respect to the agrarian democracy are taken as elem...

  6. Problems of software financial resources agrarian sector in the current economic conditions of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grischuk Nadiya Viktorivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of financial science on questions providing of financial resources does not exhaust and needs a further study that acquires new descriptions and vectors of development constantly, what costing illuminations in the conditions of present time. Research of the state of provision of financial resources agrarian to the sector of economy with allocating of main segment – loan and attracted financial resources, today topically. In the article the essence funds are considered sources of agricultural enterprises financial resources and problems associated with the formation and use of financial resources in the modern world. Also the problems arising in improving the process of raising funds agricultural enterprises. Revealed that an effective tool to attract financial resources is the issue of convertible bonds and the introduction of agricultural receipts. It is well-proven that in the conditions of unstable environment forward development of the system of agrarian relations must be carried out on the basis of the government programs, and normatively-legal adjusting that take into account not only the existent state of affairs at the market of agroindustrial products but also economic provision of enterprises national agrarian to the sector.

  7. The Neoindustrial Principles for the Development of Integration Relations in the Agrarian Sector of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutorov Andrii O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at elaborating the neoindustrial principles for the development of integration relations in the agrarian sector of economy. It has been shown that the engine of sectoral development and economic growth in the context of neoliberal globalization are the integration relations formed by the product principle and intrinsically linked to the neoindustrial transformation of the agro-industrial potential. The article explores the lack of options when choosing a national model for the sectoral development of economy: vertical integration of advanced playback, neoindustrialization, and economic security. It has been proven that the mutual relationship between the socio-economic formations and the strategies for integration interaction is organic. The replacement of the functional target setting of economic system at all levels of the hierarchy from the maximum profit to the maximum of the cumulative newly created (added value has been substantiated. A conceptual model for the development of the agrarian sector through integration and neoindustrialization has been accomplished, as well as the principles of strategic management of the system of integration relations have been elaborated. The main forms of implementation of the integration relations with the centralized and decentralized models of neoindustrial development of the agrarian sector have been defined.

  8. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor s...

  9. [Errors in Peruvian medical journals references].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Pacheco-Romero, José

    2009-01-01

    References are fundamental in our studies; an adequate selection is asimportant as an adequate description. To determine the number of errors in a sample of references found in Peruvian medical journals. We reviewed 515 scientific papers references selected by systematic randomized sampling and corroborated reference information with the original document or its citation in Pubmed, LILACS or SciELO-Peru. We found errors in 47,6% (245) of the references, identifying 372 types of errors; the most frequent were errors in presentation style (120), authorship (100) and title (100), mainly due to spelling mistakes (91). References error percentage was high, varied and multiple. We suggest systematic revision of references in the editorial process as well as to extend the discussion on this theme. references, periodicals, research, bibliometrics.

  10. Risk and vulnerability to ENSO flooding in the Peruvian Atacama Desert: paleofloods, floodplain development, and agrarian strategies during the late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Goldstien, P.

    2011-12-01

    River restoration projects with the goal of restoring a wide range of morphologic and ecologic channel processes and functions have become common. The complex interactions between flow and sediment-transport make it challenging to design river channels that are both self-sustaining and improve ecosystem function. The relative immaturity of the field of river restoration and shortcomings in existing methodologies for evaluating channel designs contribute to this problem, often leading to project failures. The call for increased monitoring of constructed channels to evaluate which restoration techniques do and do not work is ubiquitous and may lead to improved channel restoration projects. However, an alternative approach is to detect project flaws before the channels are built by using numerical models to simulate hydraulic and sediment-transport processes and habitat in the proposed channel (Restoration Design Analysis). Multi-dimensional models provide spatially distributed quantities throughout the project domain that may be used to quantitatively evaluate restoration designs for such important metrics as (1) the change in water-surface elevation which can affect the extent and duration of floodplain reconnection, (2) sediment-transport and morphologic change which can affect the channel stability and long-term maintenance of the design; and (3) habitat changes. These models also provide an efficient way to evaluate such quantities over a range of appropriate discharges including low-probability events which often prove the greatest risk to the long-term stability of restored channels. Currently there are many free and open-source modeling frameworks available for such analysis including iRIC, Delft3D, and TELEMAC. In this presentation we give examples of Restoration Design Analysis for each of the metrics above from projects on the Russian River, CA and the Kootenai River, ID. These examples demonstrate how detailed Restoration Design Analysis can be used to guide design elements and how this method can point out potential stability problems or other risks before designs proceed to the construction phase.

  11. Peruvian anchoveta as a telecoupled fisheries system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Carlson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries are coupled human and natural systems (CHANS across distant places, yet fisheries research has generally focused on better understanding either fisheries ecology or human dimensions in a specific place, rather than their interactions over distances. As economic and ideational globalization accelerate, fisheries are becoming more globally connected via movements of fish products and fisheries finances, information, and stakeholders throughout the world. As such, there is a pressing need for systematic approaches to assess these linkages among global fisheries, their effects on ecosystems and food security, and their implications for fisheries science and sustainability. Use of the telecoupling framework is a novel and insightful method to systematically evaluate socioeconomic and environmental interactions among CHANS. We apply the telecoupling framework to the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens fishery, the world's largest single-species commercial fishery and a complex CHANS. The anchoveta fishery has diverse and significant telecouplings, socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances, with the rest of the world, including fishmeal and fish oil trade, monetary flow, knowledge transfer, and movement of people. The use of the telecoupling framework reveals complex fishery dynamics such as feedbacks (e.g., profit maximization causing fishery overcapitalization and surprises (e.g., stock collapse resulting from local and long-distance ecological and socioeconomic interactions. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery illustrates how the telecoupling framework can be used to systematically assess the magnitude and diversity of local and distant fisheries interactions and thereby advance knowledge derived from traditional monothematic research approaches. Insights from the telecoupling framework provide a foundation from which to develop sustainable fisheries policy and management strategies across local, national, and international

  12. A POLICY MIX TO PREVENT A NON-COMMONS TRAGEDY FOR COLLECTIVE FOREST RESERVES IN AGRARIAN SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHWEST MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Davenport

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agrarian reform settlements have recently been identified as a major contributor to ongoing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Collective forest reserves were established in some settlements to thwart forest loss, but settlers usually do not recognize forest commons, opting instead for continued private accumulation through forest clearing, or a "non-commons" tragedy. Pathways toward ensuring the viability of common-pool management in settlements remain unclear. Our case study focused on two similarly sized settlements in neighboring municipalities in Northwest Mato Grosso, Brazil, each with formally designated collective forest areas. In one, deforestation shifted into the collective reserve and intensified; in the other, deforestation stabilized and the collective reserve was protected. In the latter, settlers understood their collective forest reserve as a commonly held asset, with two commercially viable settlement cooperatives involved in Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa extractivism and added value processing. We analyze differences between the two settlements using Elinor Ostrom's framework for analysis of socio-ecological systems, and identify the locally applied policy mix ensuring the viability of a forest commons. The study concludes that "top-down" efforts to institutionalize collective governance over remaining forests will likely fail in most settlements, without a focus on alternative livelihood opportunities synergetic with forest tenure.

  13. ROMANIAN PEASANTRY AND BULGARIAN AGRARIANISM IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD: BENCHMARKS FOR A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel POPESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study that attempts to highlight the similarities and differences between Bulgarian agrarianism and Romanian peasants during the Interwar period, the Second World War and period of transition towards the Leninist-Stalinist totalitarian regimes. The objectives of our approach are integrated within the boundaries of the main research directions and concrete levels, namely: the general context from the two countries, early agrarian/peasants’ movements, the political program, election results, the promotion of certain legislative measures, and the relationship with other political and institutional entities. Without trying to offer an exhaustive view or reveal new aspects in the strict sense of the term, our contribution confronts, in a coherent whole, a series of data and information on the basis of which one could make value judgments. These judgments might help to shape a global, comparative image. Among the main sources of the article we included the monographic works signed by Ioan Scurtu, Pamfil Șeicaru, Apostol Stan, Dimitrina Petrova, John D. Bell, R.J. Crampton, supplemented by data from several other publications (encyclopedias, syntheses etc.. One can identify several distinct stages within the period under review (1918-1947. The broad picture is that the Bulgarian agrarian group was more popular and better organized than its Romanian counterpart, but more inclined towards Leftism and authoritarianism, which led to its political isolation in 1923 and subsequent fragmentation, whilst the Romanian peasants’ movement managed, after 1924, to remain at the forefront of the political scene, showing an interest for dialogue and sometimes for compromise, first with The National Party, then with the authoritarian monarchy, but also with the Antonescu regime and, to a lesser extent, with the communist regime.

  14. Tenure, tourism and timber in Quintana Roo, Mexico: Land tenure changes in forest Ejidos after agrarian reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Barsimantov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present and apply an analytical framework for understanding land tenure change in the wake of radical land policy modifications in Mexico’s communal tenure system. We posit that the changes in land tenure vary as a result of a complex interplay of drivers external and internal to the land tenure unit. Using interview and socio-economic data, we apply this framework to six ejidos in Quintana Roo, Mexico in order to understand the extent to which these ejidos have shifted towards private individual property as promoted in the 1992 amendment of Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution. In our case study ejidos, we conclude that external factors, including community forestry, tourism, and urbanization, have synergized with factors internal to the ejido, such as ethnicity, livelihood strategies, migration, and attitudes, leading to different trajectories in land tenure arrangements.

  15. [Agrarian movements, development alternatives and food security in Central America: scenarios of transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Rojas, R

    1991-01-01

    This article, based on personal experiences with a network of organizations of small and medium agricultural producers in Central America, aims to present the views of peasant organizations concerning agrarian problems in the region. The 3 major sections of work define the place of peasant agriculture in the traditional agrarian structure and the new problems resulting from the structural adjustment programs of the 1980s; separately describe the new peasant movements emerging in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, identifying common themes an efforts at international collaboration; and explore the positions of the peasant organizations on the optimal strategies for agricultural development and agrarian change. Agriculture remains the backbone of the Central American economies. But because the economic model in the region is 1 of accumulation characterized by dependency, concentration of capital, and social marginalization, the agrarian structure is at the basis of social tensions. Efforts to develop peasant agriculture and to give small producers access to marketing and credit services have been weak and sporadic. The new peasant movements are less inclined than those of the past to employ tactics of confrontation in their efforts to secure access to land and better working conditions. The new movement is the expression of small market producers sometimes grouped into associations who are oriented to production of basic foodstuffs for the internal market. A new concern with adaptation and negotiation is evident. The new organizations have in common a belief in their ability to propose new solutions to regional problems. Their views are founded on a positive assessment of the ability of peasant agriculture to produce food and add dynamism to the regional economy after barriers to credit, technological progress, and modernization in general are removed. Signs of increased cooperation are evident between peasant organizations and other groups

  16. The expansion of agrarian societies towards the North – new evidence for agriculture during the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition in Southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse; Karg, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    activities are intertwined at inland sites showing a rapid change to agrarian ideology. ► At coastal and lake shore sites agrarian subsistence was applied gradually showing a slow change towards farming activities. ► Local hunter–gatherers and pioneering farmers gradually assimilated during a complex process....

  17. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  18. Reforms of rural areas and directions of innovational activity in the agroindustrial complex of the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Trofimovich Sabluk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes scientific and practical aspects of innovative re-equipment of agricultural production in Ukraine. A classification of innovation processes in the agricultural sector is given, special attention is paid to theoretical and methodological positions that have been ignored or underestimated during the reform processes in agribusiness. The estimation of results of the full market mechanism introduction in the outdated technological environment with its high costs and low productivity is made, several inconsistencies of «anti-innovational character» that paralyze economic mechanism and minimize its effectiveness, are highlighted. The author proposes ways to solve the problems of the agrarian sector of Ukraine and its transfer to the innovational base. The conclusion is made about the need to focus on solving the problem of increasing profitability of agricultural production as the main condition for the development of post-industrial model of development. According to scientific concepts and doctrine of reforms designed at the Institute of Agricultural Economics (The Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Institute of Economics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and other scientific centers, a comprehensive approach to reforming the agricultural sector, phasing in addressing key issues of agriculture is required.

  19. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2016-07-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites.

  20. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist...

  1. The Land Reform Debate in Brazil Under the Current Rural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Mattei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2016v15nesp1p234 In this article we summarize a discussion about the main thesis about the pertinent of land reform in the beginning of twenty first century in Brazil. The papers starts with general contextualization of the Brazilian rural situation after a decades of structural reforms followings the discussion of thesis against and favorable the land reform. On the one side we observe that exist an expressive number of researchers that are defending the land reform because they are understanding that this policy is very important to combat the poverty and social inequalities, and the other side we saw also another group of researchers that are against the land reform because they believe that the time for the land reform is already gone. We concluded that academic debate about agrarian reform now is less important than it was in the post war period, especially in the 1960s.

  2. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    . In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural......The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  3. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS' INCOME, REMITTANCE AND PRICES IN RURAL NIGERIA AMID POLICY RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis affected almost all aspect of human life. This paper explored effects of the global financial crisis on farmers' income, remittance and prices of food staples and highlighted certain government policy responses. The study was conducted in Nigeria. Secondary data were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, equivalent variation and Shannon index analysis. Results showed the global financial crisis affected the agrarian households/sector in Nigeria. The increase in prices meant more nominal income to farmers but grossly reduced their welfare due to decrease in real income as result of high inflation trend. Recommendations include that government should continue to sustain agrarian programs aimed at helping poor farmers to increase their capacity in production to meet the growing demand and changes. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations types of economic development.

  4. The Ecological Footprint of the Agrarian Sector in Villa Clara. A qualitative approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Reinoso Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the environmental impacts and aspects and their relationship to the ecological footprint of the agrarian sector in Villa Clara. In order to achieve this goal, 23 enterprises were used as study cases, which were clustered according to the main land use: (i succession planting (17 and (ii livestock and animal production (6. The information collected was used to develop the environmental aspects and impacts matrixes associated to the productive processes in each enterprise. The environmental aspects with higher relative frequencies (> 0.60 were water and energy consumption, the existence of invasive plants, the soil use, the greenhouse gas emissions, the use of forest resources, the generation of solid wastes and the use of agro-chemicals. Such aspects are causing negative impacts on the environment, and consequently they are increasing the ecological print of the sector in this province. The use of heavy machineries, the generation of liquid and dangerous residues, the continuous grazing and the use of alien species had a significant impact with a relative frequency below 0.55. However, these environmental aspects should be under control. It is concluded that, in all of the studied cases, the environmental aspects had a negative incidence on the environment. And they contribute in many ways to increase the ecological footprint of the agrarian sector in the territory. The implementation of the Environmental Management System, according to the international standards, is recommended.

  5. Regulatory Powers in Public Procurement Law of Peruvian Administrative Agencies

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    Juan Carlos Morón Urbina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peruvian law has explicitly recognized regulatory powers to administrative agencies, which allows them to have a preponderant role in the production of rules in public procurement. Although these delegations of legislative authority are positively defined, distortions in the system of legal sources arise when agencies exceed delegated powers or when measures issued by administrative entities are mistaken for regulations. This paper aims to identify regulatory powers of Peruvian administrative agencies, as well as the regulatory measures they issue, and their relation with other sources of law.

  6. Distribution of the Peruvian Plantcutter Phytotoma raimondii (Passeriformes: Cotingidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy N. M. Flanagan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Peruvian Plantcutter, Phytotoma raimondii Taczanowski, 1883, is a restricted-range species endemic to coastal northern Peru. Historically its range is given from Tumbes in the extreme north-western Peru, south to the northern part of Lima Department. Although an increasing amount of information on the Peruvian Plantcutter exists, from historical records to new locations, it has remained dispersed, sometimes unverified, not systematized, and largely unpublished. A careful revision of museum collections as well as published and unpublished records results in a total of 53 sites where the species has been recorded and that represent the present knowledge of the distribution of the species.

  7. Reproductive Health Policies in Peru: Social Reforms and Citizenship Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Rousseau

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the case of reproductive health policy-making in Peru in the context of recent social policy reforms. Health-sector reforms have only partially redressed Peruvian women’s unequal access to family planning, reproductive rights and maternal care. The main sources of inequalities are related to the segmented character of the health-care system, with the highest burden placed on the public sector. The majority of women from popular classes, who are not protected by an insurance plan, are dependent upon what and how public services are provided. Simultaneously, the continuing role of conservative sectors in public debates about reproductive health policy has a strong impact on public family planning services and other reproductive rights.

  8. Hydrological Predictability for the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Jamie; Stephens, Elizabeth; Cloke, Hannah; Bazo, Juan; Coughlan, Erin; Zsoter, Ervin

    2017-04-01

    Population growth in the Peruvian Amazon has prompted the expansion of livelihoods further into the floodplain and thus increasing vulnerability to the annual rise and fall of the river. This growth has coincided with a period of increasing hydrological extremes with more frequent severe flood events. The anticipation and forecasting of these events is crucial for mitigating vulnerability. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) an initiative of the German Red Cross implements risk reducing actions based on threshold exceedance within hydrometeorological forecasts using the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). However, the lead times required to complete certain actions can be long (e.g. several weeks to months ahead to purchase materials and reinforce houses) and are beyond the current capabilities of GloFAS. Therefore, further calibration of the model is required in addition to understanding the climatic drivers and associated hydrological response for specific flood events, such as those observed in 2009, 2012 and 2015. This review sets out to determine the current capabilities of the GloFAS model while exploring the limits of predictability for the Amazon basin. More specifically, how the temporal patterns of flow within the main coinciding tributaries correspond to the overall Amazonian flood wave under various climatic and meteorological influences. Linking the source areas of flow to predictability within the seasonal forecasting system will develop the ability to expand the limit of predictability of the flood wave. This presentation will focus on the Iquitos region of Peru, while providing an overview of the new techniques and current challenges faced within seasonal flood prediction.

  9. Through Student Eyes: Perceptions and Aspirations of Students from the Armenian State Agrarian University and Selected European Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Glen C.; Briers, Gary E.; Navarro, Maria; Peake, Jason; Parr, Brian; Ter-Mkrtchyan, Ani; Duncan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This research compared attributes of students enrolled in the Armenian State Agrarian University (ASAU) with university students from 30 European countries (EFMD) about graduate study policy issues. A cross-national comparative design used a survey questionnaire to explore contextual, social and cultural phenomena. Samples included 801 ASAU and…

  10. Place-Based Education in the Architectural Design Studio: Agrarian Landscape as a Resource for Sustainable Urban Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Nikezić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights how “place-based education” can be used to raise awareness about sustainability and potentially influence design process decisions that have environmental and cultural implications. “Place-based education” is a term used to describe an educational worldview based on development of curriculum centered on the local, social, economic, and ecological resources of a community. The study shows results of Masters Students’ research on situating a housing complex in the context of the agrarian landscape of Vojvodina, Serbia, considering it as a resource for a new sustainable urban lifestyle. During the first year of Masters Studies at the Faculty of Architecture, Belgrade University, an architectural design studio with 15 students had the task of exploring the potential of expanding the city of Belgrade across the agrarian landscape, as to affirm the role of place in contemporary everyday life. Students were expected to explore the possibilities and limitations of the relationship between man and agrarian landscape via architecture, re-thinking how various architectural design approaches could balance and harmonize the impact of the built environment on the agrarian landscape. The paper shows that “place-based education” possesses elements necessary for the inclusion of a wider spatial-cultural context in the process of architectural design and prioritization of environmental literacy and responsibility, as one of the main components of sustainable development.

  11. INSTITUTIONAL APPROACHES OF MODERN SOCIO-ECOLOGO-ECONOMIC FORMS OF ECONOMY IN AGRARIAN SECTOR OF ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Main problems of agrarian sector of economy of Ukraine are revealed. Main directions of development of agriculture of Ukraine are determined. The necessity of socio-ecologo-economic agrarian sector is proved. Tendencies of institutionalization of forms of economy in a system of agrarian relationship were investigated. The necessity of creation of effective system of institutions with an aim of functioning effective and rational forms of economy in agrarian sector of Ukraine, which could provide a balancing of economic, social and ecologic spheres, is confirmed. In the paper is proved the necessity of creation and function of social-ecologo-economic model of agriculture development, where a social-ecologo-economic development is characterized like economic development of rural territories, rural employment in agriculture, the efficiency of employment, ecologo-safe production focused on human needs and etc., on the one side and on the other side is a significant role of rural social capital. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, it's confirmed that development socio-ecologo-economical forms of economy are accompanied with modification of the institutional structure of regulation of agriculture. It's proved that the functioning of effective forms of economy promotes the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of the national economy.

  12. Applicability of economic instruments for protecting ecosystem services from cultural agrarian landscapes in Doñana, SW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaitán-Cremaschi, Daniel; Palomo, Ignacio; Baraibar Molina, Sergio; Groot, De Rudolf; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Abandonment and conversion of cultural agrarian landscapes are major drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in Europe. One incentive for land-use conversion is the higher (private) economic return from industrial mono-functional crops relative to traditional multi-functional ones. However,

  13. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RATIONAL DESIGN FORMATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE OF AGRARIAN SECTOR OF UKRAINE

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    Ivan Korchynskyy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Methodological aspects of formation of rational design of infrastructure of agrarian sector of Ukraine on the basis of the institutional approach and laws of architectonics are examined. It is shown that the agrarian sector of Ukraine is a complex socio-economic system, the formation and development of which is in the process of market transformation what is caused by institutional influences. In general the process of relations institutionalization imply their formalization and standardization, in other case the subject of public life could not predict the actions of other entities associated with him and ensure their cooperation. One of the specific characteristic of human society is formed institutional system that regulates behaviour. In the article the factors of influence on the conduct of being in charge subjects are considered in the conditions of development of market economy. The special attention is spared the institutional factors of the economy growing. Methodology. The meaning of “agricultural field” and “infrastructure” and their mutual consistency is classified. As the scientific method, the institutional approach of principles of architectonics has been used, which allowed to justify the creation of a rational approach to the design of infrastructure in agrarian sector as a whole on the basis, relation and interdependence of its elements, based on the fundamental laws of architectonics (law of equilibrium, law of the golden mean structuring. The article demonstrates a necessary of the choice of a theory of institutionalism as the main methodological basis for the study of the process of innovation development of economic system of Ukraine. It is determined that the inefficient activities of institutions in Ukraine are the main cause of the low level of innovation, which has a negative impact on the development of the economy as a whole. Results. Research points on new aspects of infrastructure as a part of the entire

  14. Stress Profile of Peruvian Parents Caring for Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwanji, Yash; Suarez-Sousa, Ximena

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 77 Peruvian parents of children with autism and 77 parents of typical children found that parents of children with autism reported significantly higher stress levels related to the cognitive impairment of their children and life-span care. They also showed significantly higher overall stress levels than controls. (Contains…

  15. Social Stratification, Power, and Educational Organization: The Peruvian Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    This report of a field study, conducted from 1966 to 1968, discusses the functional relationships between the class structure of Peruvian society and the structure and content of the country's educational system. Four educational subsystems are closely tied to each of the four main social groups: Blancos (upper class, comprising 0.1% of the total…

  16. Moral Education and Post-War Societies: The Peruvian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Susana; Reategui, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the unique challenges and needs of moral and citizenship education in post-war Peruvian society. It assumes the explanation of the roots, the facts and the enduring negative consequences of violence as described in the final report of the Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion (CVR) [Truth and Reconciliation Commission]…

  17. Peruvian Food Chain Jenga: Learning Ecosystems with an Interactive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartweg, Beau; Biffi, Daniella; de la Fuente, Yohanis; Malkoc, Ummuhan; Patterson, Melissa E.; Pearce, Erin; Stewart, Morgan A.; Weinburgh, Molly

    2017-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted on a multimodal educational tool, Peruvian Food Chain Jenga (PFCJ), with 5th-grade students (N = 54) at a public charter school. The goal was to compare the effectiveness of the multimodal tool to a more traditional presentation of the same materials (food chain) using an experimental/control design. Data collection…

  18. Agriculture 2008. The critical agrarian report. Main topic 2008: Agriculture as an energy producer; Landwirtschaft 2008. Der kritische Agrarbericht. Schwerpunkt 2008: Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Fink-Kessler, A.; Stodieck, F. (comps.)

    2008-01-15

    The focus of the critical agrarian report in this year is the topic 'agriculture as an energy producer'. In 44 contributions, the agrarian events of the year 2007 are analyzed and the setting the points for the future are discussed. The topics of this report are: Agricultural policy and social situation, world trade and nutrition, ecological agriculture, production and market, regional market, regional development, nature and environment, forest, animal protection and animal husbandry, genetic engineering, agrarian culture, consumer and nourishing culture.

  19. The Interaction between Environmental Preservation throuout Sustainability as an Agrarian Law Principle: Hermeneutics Transcending Borders in Order to Obtain a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ramos Jordão

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses environmental preservation as a principle of Agrarian Law and hermeneutics. It aims to comprehend connection between both concepts from refounding Agroecology and Sustainability as a major precept in order to obtain agrarian development and environmental preservation. By using the deductive method, it analyses the fact that environment (and studying Law cannot be seen in separate ways, otherwise, it would risk having high complexity environmental and agrarian damage. Therefore, consciousness of how dependent human is from environment as an issue of fundamentality and materiality of mere formal rights nowadays.

  20. [Public health and agrarian liberal politics in Spain: the Rural Health Bureau (1910-1918).].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ocaña, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the meaning of the Rural Health Bureau (1910-1918) for the history of Spanish public health, thanks to a wealth of previously unknown sources found through a systematic search through medical journals of the time and the Bulletin of the national department of Agriculture. The Bureau was dependent of the Ministry of Development, in the same way as the competences on animal health. It aimed to provide a public health rationale for a plan of agrarian infrastructures, a goal resolved into a huge task of surveillance on hookworm disease, malaria, water supplies, and diet. Thus it becomes a perfect paradigm of the Spanish Liberal tradition of promoting information instead than actual changes into society, as well as a needed complement to the hydraulic policy sponsored by Rafael Gasset.

  1. Viability study of cold generation from biomass in an agrarian exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan Gomez, J.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Roman, S. [Departamento Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, E II, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda, Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Miranda, A. [Departamento Eng, Electromecanica, Universidade da Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Turegano, J.P. [Esc. Sup. de Tecnologia e Gestao, Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, 7300 Portalegre (Portugal)

    2006-01-15

    In this work the performance of a cold production plant using biomass residuals from an agrarian exploitation as the primary energy source is analyzed. These residuals are generated in the pruning and renovation of fruit trees and are used in a boiler to convey heat to an absorption refrigeration engine. At first the study carries out the characterization and quantification of the energy produced by the residuals. Furthermore, it ponders on the viability analysis of converting that energy in cold by means of an absorption machine. The estimated thermal power sourced from the biomass generated in the exploitation (approx. 4216 ton) is of approximately 56.92x10{sup 6} MJ/year. This energy was shown to be greater than that required to keep the fruits at a suitable low temperature, thus obviating the use of conventional refrigeration and avoiding their associated high energy consumption. (author)

  2. The Modern Elements of the Management System of the Agrarian Business Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fostolovych Valentyna A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an operation mechanism for the integrated management system that is recommended for the introduction at the enterprises of the agrarian business by means of principles, methods and tools of management system. An example of the modern element of the management system of the agricultural enterprises is the software product Soft.Farm. The article considers improving of the organizational structure of enterprises in the direction of formation of clusters of different forms and active implementing of an integrated management system with wide application of its principles (Deming principles, principle of continuous improvement of processes, zero defects principle, principle of collaboration, methods (teamwork method, quality function deployment (QFD, value analysis, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA, SKO, SPC and structural elements (flowchart, Ishikawa diagram, Pareto chart, column chart, checklists, and control maps.

  3. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. Materials and Methods: All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14, following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Results: Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Conclusion: Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra.

  4. Land Use and the Agrarian Economy in the Roman Dutch River Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Groot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reconstruct agrarian land use for a rural community in the Roman frontier zone in the Netherlands. The Dutch River Area was characterised by a dynamic landscape. Rivers regularly flooded the surrounding low-lying land. Only the higher streamridges provided suitable places for habitation and arable agriculture. The limitations of the landscape dictated to a large extent both the types and quantities of crops and animals that could be produced. An interactive map of the micro-region of Tiel-Passewaaij shows how the land was used for agrarian production and sourced for other products. These symbols link to short texts that discuss the archaeological evidence for aspects such as growing cereals, raising livestock and the exploitation of wood and wild animals. The complex and dynamic geological situation of the Dutch River Area is also explained, and the consequences for agriculture discussed. We address three main research questions. How were the different elements of the riverine landscape used by rural inhabitants? How were arable agriculture and animal husbandry organised spatially, both within the settlement and in its immediate surroundings? Which natural resources were used and managed? Our research is mainly based on one large and well-excavated settlement complex (Tiel-Passewaaij, but we will use complementary data from several other settlements in the region. Our results show that the river landscape offered plenty of opportunities for agriculture. The interaction between arable and pastoral farming was essential, with livestock providing manure and agricultural labour, and the fields offering fodder and additional grazing (after harvest or during fallow years. The location of large enclosure ditches suggest that even minor differences in height, caused by older streamridges, may have made arable farming possible in the flood basin.

  5. Integração entre assentados agrários e comunidades vizinhas Integration between agrarian settlers and neighbor communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Batista de Albuquerque

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o processo de integração entre pequenos agricultores e assentados da reforma agrária de uma cidade da Zona da Mata paraibana, através de um levantamento de crenças destes grupos. Utilizou-se um roteiro de entrevista semi-estruturado Participaram 232 pessoas, com idade entre 14 e 78 anos (M=28,31; DP=14,45, sendo 116 homens e 116 mulheres. Dos participantes, 56,0% eram assentados e 44,0% eram moradores da comunidade. Verificou-se que as variáveis sociodemográficas (sexo, estado civil e origem dos assentados não exercem influência sobre o processo de integração entre os grupos. O fator determinante para esta integração reside no modo como o governo central financia a produção, posto que, antes do Pronaf, era mais forte a presença de discursos conflituosos entre assentados e seus vizinhos pequenos agricultores.It is the purpose of the present study to evaluate the integration process between small farmers and the agrarian reformer settlers in a city that is located in the region known as zona da mata (bushy zone in the state of Paraiba. This evaluation was accomplished by surveying the popular beliefs among the groups. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with 232 individuals from 14 to 78 years of age, (M=28.31; DP=14.45, being 116 male and 116 female. It was verified that the socio-demographic variables (gender, marital status, and the origin of settlers have not exerted any influence on the group's integration process. The leading factor towards integration lays on the way the central government finances farming production, for, before the Pronaf, conflicting dialogues were seen to have occurred between settlers and their neighbors - the small farmers.

  6. Constitutional reform as process

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)

  7. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls “Black”, “Red” and “Yellow” (termed “Maca phenotypes”), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the hi...

  8. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACROSS AN ETHNIC DIVIDE: PERUVIAN PARENTS AND A JAPANESE SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Moorehead, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case study of relations between Japanese teachers and Peruvian parents at a public elementary school in central Japan. Using interviews and participant observation, this critical account reveals how some teachers, frustrated by the challenges of teaching an increasingly foreign student body, blame problems at the school on Peruvian parents’ limited language skills and cultural differences. Amid these complaints, various structural factors hinder the efforts of Peruvian...

  9. Reforming Organizational Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...

  10. Impact of Market Reforms on the Agricultural Sector Development and Food Self-Sufficiency in the Northern Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Aleksandrovich Ivanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of Northern and Arctic areas depends on sustainable functioning of the agricultural sector. Agriculture and fishing agriculture is a way of life of the indigenous population. The article discusses the state of agriculture and food self-sufficiency in the Komi Republic in the years of relatively stable development (1960–1980 and in the conditions of market reforms. It analyzes production and consumption of food and shows a positive effect of modernization processes on the agricultural sector in the pre-reform period. It studies market transformation of the agrarian economy, accompanied in the 1990s by the sharp decline in agricultural production, degradation of productive capacity, rural demography, rural infrastructure, decrease in living standard of farmers, and disparity of prices on agricultural and industrial products. The paper discloses trends in food self-sufficiency of the northern region in 1980–2013 and reveals reasons for the decrease in its level in the period of market reforms. It considers possible scenarios to develop the agrarian sector and food self-sufficiency. To predict the agriculture development the author identifies strong and weak sides, opportunities and threats by means of SWOT-analysis. The article proposes 3 scenarios: inertial (pessimistic, baseline and optimistic. It finds out the most reasonable optimistic development scenario based on innovative modernization for the Komi Republic. The study results can be used to adjust the current State program of agricultural development and elaborate the strategy of the agro-food sector of the region

  11. Health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolon, Ken

    2009-06-01

    A vote on reforming the nation's health care system seems likely this summer as President Obama makes good on a campaign pledge. Although the Democratic leadership in Congress appears ready to push through reform legislation before the next election, TMA and AMA leaders say very little is known about what that "reform" likely will look like.

  12. Radioactivity levels in peruvian hake Merluccius gayi peruanus (Guitchenot)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine background levels of natural and artificial radionuclides in Peruvian hakes, collected in the Pacific coast of Peru, as a mechanism to establish a biomonitoring model for human radiation exposure resulting from the ingestion of this species. The concentration range overall dry weight of beta activity was between 39 and 79 Bq/kg; for K-40, the range was between 66 and 116 Bq/kg and for Cs-137, the range was between 0.0 and 0.4 Bq/kg. No detectable levels of Co-60, Cs-134 and Ra-226 were found. The dose derived from K-40 was negligible. Data show that Peruvian hakes do not represent a public health risk because of their intake as food. (author).

  13. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  14. Peruvian cinema, national identity and political violence 1988-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The role of national cinema in shaping, reflecting and contesting a complex national identity that is the site of conflict and struggle is the central interest of this study of contemporary Peruvian cinema, 1988-2004. This project examines the relationship between cinema, state and identity in Peru, with a specific focus on the representation of the political violence between the state and Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) that began in 1980. It looks in particular at portrayals of important ev...

  15. [Development of pneumoconiosis and outsourcing work in peruvian miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Mejía, Brenda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Collantes, Héctor; Cáceres-Leturia, Walter

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the time of outsourced work and the development of pneumoconiosis in Peruvian miners who attended the "Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección al Ambiente para la Salud" between 2008 and 2011. Retrospective case-control study. Cases were defined as workers diagnosed of pneumoconiosis under standardized criteria. Outsourced work was defined as the time (in months) of work in a company that does not own the primary mining project. The project owner company was registered in the Mining Companies Directory (Ministerio de Energía y Minas). We used multiple logistic regression with crude and adjusted ORs. The study comprised 391 cases and 1519 controls. In both groups, most of the study subjects had a level of education lower than complete high school and were born and currently lived in the Peruvian highlands. There was statistically significant association between more frequency of pneumoconiosis and working 10 or more years in an outsourced company (OR: 1.50; 95%CI: 1.05-1.14; p=0.026). Miners with pneumoconiosis were more likely not to have education (OR: 3.07; 95%CI: 1.55-6.08; p=0.001), be currently living at the Peruvian highlands (OR: 1.40; 95%CI: 1.10-1.78; p=0.007) and to have more than 20 years of underground work history (OR: 8.92; 95%CI: 4.53-18.25; p<0.001). A statistically significant association was found between pneumoconiosis and the time of outsourced work. Not having education, residing in the Peruvian highlands and the time of underground work were associated risk factors.

  16. Meteorological constraints on oceanic halocarbons above the Peruvian upwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Quack, Birgit; Atlas, Elliot; Fiehn, Alina; Hepach, Helmke; Krüger, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian upwelling. This study presents novel observations of the three very short lived substances (VSLSs) – bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide – together with high-resolution meteorological measurements, Lagrangian transport and source–loss calculations. ...

  17. South latitude and household economic control by Peruvian women

    OpenAIRE

    León, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Southern women’s greater autonomy versus northern women’s more traditional submission to the husband were hypothesized in 1984 to explain variations in Peruvian women’s fertility desires. An analysis of data from Peru 2004-2008 Continuous Demographic and Family Health Survey supports this hypothesis by showing a significant north-to-south growth of women’s control upon husband’s income and, less consistently, household purchasing decisions. These relationships are not explained by variables a...

  18. Targeting Inflation in a Dollarized Economy: The Peruvian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Armas; Francisco Grippa

    2005-01-01

    This discusses the unique experience of Peru`s Central Bank with inflation targeting in an economy characterized by a high degree of financial dollarization. The paper outlines how Peru has taken financial dollarization into consideration in the design of monetary policy, then deals with monetary policy implementation and the Central Bank`s strategy for controlling financial dollarization risks. The paper concludes with analysis and lessons drawn from the Peruvian case.

  19. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US?Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3%...

  20. El problema agrario: una crisis epistemológica Tha agrarian problem: an epistemological crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Carlos Fernando

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas agrícolas de los últimos veinte años en Colombia presentan evidentes incoherencias, falta de claridad, avances y retrocesos sin sentido. El autor sostiene que ese caos obedece a la carencia de una visión de largo p.lazo del sector rural y, en los medios académicos, a la carencia de una teoría agraria que abarque la complejidad de 10 rural, que aclare -con rigor, un método definodo e instrumentos adecuados- en qué consiste el problema agrario que las politicas deben contribuir a resolver. Luego de recordar algunos fundamentos teóricos se pregunta cómo se llegó a la confusión que hoy existe y, para responderla, hace un seguimiento, en la obra de Jesus Bejarano, de la evolución de la visión del problema agrario, hasta desaparecer de las preocupaciones académicas actuales. Conc 1uyc presentando algunas opciones epistemológicas que tienen la academia y la sociedad para revisar sus fundamentos, partiendo de la necesidad de volver a pensarse como sociedad.Agricultural policy in Colombia during the last two decades has been characterized by incoherence, lack of clarity and a senseless pattern of advances and U-turns. The author sustains that this chaos is due to the lack of a long term vision of the rural sector and, in academic circles, the lack of of an adequate theory capable of encompassing its complexity. Such a theory should clearly establish -with rigor, a definite method and appropiate instruments- what precisely in the
    agrarian problem to whose solution policies are addressed. After reviewing some basic theoretical concepts, this essay explores the causes of the current confusion. In order to formulate an answer, it follows the evolution, in the work of Bejarano, of the vision of the agrarian problem until it disappeared below the horizon of current academic concerns. It concludes with a discussion some epistemological
    options available to society and academia to return to the basics. One of these is the

  1. The Agrarian Question and the Neoliberal Rural Transformation in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Kay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the neoliberal turn in Latin America the rural economy and society has experienced a great transformation. Corporate capital and transnational agro-industries have taken hold of agriculture radically transforming the economic and social relations of production leading to the precarization and feminisation of rural labour as well as the intensification of work. Peasant farmers were further squeezed having to increasingly find off-farm incomes, largely through precarious wage labour activities, so as to make a living thereby furthering the process of proletarianization. The ‘new rurality’ and ‘territorial’ approaches tried to take account of these transformations but they are found wanting. Instead, a political economy view to the agrarian question is found more promising. A counter-movement to neoliberalism has emerged spearheaded by indigenous peoples and the rural poor, sometimes linked to the transnational peasant movement ‘Via Campesina’. Their main aim is to construct an alternative agrarian system based on ‘food sovereignty’ which is promising but also controversial. Resumen: La Cuestión Agraria y la Transformación Rural Neoliberal en Latinoamérica  Desde el giro neoliberal en América Latina la economía y sociedad rural han experimentado una gran transformación. El capital corporativo y las agroindustrias transnacionales se han apoderado de la agricultura transformando radicalmente las relaciones económicas y sociales de producción que llevan a la precarización y feminización de la mano de obra rural, así como a la intensificación del trabajo. Los campesinos enfrentan condiciones cada vez más difíciles teniendo que buscar con mayor frecuencia ingresos fuera de la finca, principalmente a través de actividades salariales precarias, con el fin de ganarse la vida impulsando con ello el proceso de proletarización. Los enfoques de la ‘nueva ruralidad’ y ‘territoriales’ trataron de explicar estas

  2. Wealth geography, environment and hunger: small critic contribution to the current agrarian/agricultural model of the natural resources usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Walter Porto Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The text questions the geopolitical issue implied in the argument about hunger and the environment. It criticizes the current agrarian / agricultural model of the natural resources usage, stating it is a model of economic development of mild regions that has been imposed all over the world at a very high ecological, cultural and political cost. This model has faced the patrimonial, collective and community knowledge, characteristic of populations with distinct rationality from the occidental atomistic-individualistic one, with severe risks to the feeding safety. It analyzes the social-environmental consequences of the current agrarian / agricultural model, the contradictory results of the increase of the world capacity of food production, hunger in the world, the meanings of the Green Revolution from the seventies on, the social-environmental impacts of the agrarian business in the Brazilian cerrado and the complexity of the use of transgenic products. It criticizes the restricted ecological sustentation based on a political realism, and proposes a reflection upon a new rationality for the environmental challenge. It concludes that hunger is not a technical problem, for it does not happen because of the lack of food, but because of the way the food is produced and distributed. Today hunger lives with the provisions necessary to overcome itself.

  3. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...

  4. Oil frontiers and indigenous resistance in the Peruvian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orta-Martinez, Marti [ICTA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, 4 Library Court. NW, Washington DC 20003 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The Peruvian Amazon is culturally and biologically one of the most diverse regions on Earth. Since the 1920s oil exploration and extraction in the region have threatened both biodiversity and indigenous peoples, particularly those living in voluntary isolation. We argue that the phenomenon of peak oil, combined with rising demand and consumption, is now pushing oil extraction into the most remote corners of the world. Modern patterns of production and consumption and high oil prices are forcing a new oil exploratory boom in the Peruvian Amazon. While conflicts spread on indigenous territories, new forms of resistance appear and indigenous political organizations are born and become more powerful. The impacts of oil exploration and exploitation and indigenous resistance throughout the oil history of the Peruvian Amazon are reviewed here, focusing on the Achuar people in Rio Corrientes. The driving forces, impacts, and responses to the current oil exploration boom are analyzed from an environmental justice perspective. We conclude that, in a context of peak oil and growing global demand for oil, such devastating effects for minor quantities of oil are likely to increase and impact other remote parts of the world. (author)

  5. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in agrarian, trading, and fishing communities in Rakai, Uganda: an observational epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Larry W; Grabowski, Mary K; Ssekubugu, Robert; Nalugoda, Fred; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nantume, Betty; Lessler, Justin; Moore, Sean M; Quinn, Thomas C; Reynolds, Steven J; Gray, Ronald H; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the extent to which HIV burden differs across communities and the drivers of local disparities is crucial for an effective and targeted HIV response. We assessed community-level variations in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and treatment and prevention service uptake in Rakai, Uganda. The Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) is an open, population-based cohort of people aged 15-49 years in 40 communities. Participants are HIV tested and interviewed to obtain sociodemographic, behavioural, and health information. RCCS data from Aug 10, 2011, to May 30, 2013, were used to classify communities as agrarian (n=27), trading (n=9), or lakeside fishing sites (n=4). We mapped HIV prevalence with Bayesian methods, and characterised variability across and within community classifications. We also assessed differences in HIV risk factors and uptake of antiretroviral therapy and male circumcision between community types. 17 119 individuals were included, 9215 (54%) of whom were female. 9931 participants resided in agrarian, 3318 in trading, and 3870 in fishing communities. Median HIV prevalence was higher in fishing communities (42%, range 38-43) than in trading (17%, 11-21) and agrarian communities (14%, 9-26). Antiretroviral therapy use was significantly lower in both men and women in fishing communities than in trading (age-adjusted prevalence risk ratio in men 0·64, 95% CI 0·44-0·97; women 0·53, 0·42-0·66) and agrarian communities (men 0·55, 0·42-0·72; women 0·65, 0·54-0·79), as was circumcision coverage among men (vs trading 0·48, 0·42-0·55; vs agrarian 0·64, 0·56-0·72). Self-reported risk behaviours were significantly higher in men than in women and in fishing communities than in other community types. Substantial heterogeneity in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and service uptake in Rakai, Uganda, emphasises the need for local surveillance and the design of targeted HIV responses. High HIV burden, risk behaviours, and low use of combination

  6. The Conceptual Approaches to Strategic Management of Region Using the Spatially Localized Agrarian Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Natalia О.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at improving the theoretical and methodical provisions of the cluster approach to development of the spatially localized systems of the agricultural sector of Ukrainian economy at the regional level. Based on generalizing the relevant theoretical provisions, the identified characteristics of formation and development of the spatially localized systems, it has been found that, originating in the form of economic growth zones, they have been transformed into clustered and subclustered forms. It has been indicated that a prospective form of further development of the spatially localized systems is formation of subclustered structures that take account of the established specialization of localities, appropriate infrastructure, resource availability. The possibility of creating a project of developing a cluster formation was discussed on the example of the Central Economic Area. A complex of basic requirements for the intended localization of the cluster has been formulated. Proceeding from the results of the study, practical proposals for strategic management of region have been developed on the basis of development of cluster formations, using the spatially localized agrarian economic systems.

  7. Significance of monitoring of the phytoradiobiological researches for development of agrarian radiology in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogebashvili, M.E.; Ivanishvili, N.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : Monitoring of development of concrete scientific discipline-multifactorial process and at studying of its efficiency is necessary selection of adequate ways of the analysis. Especially it is important under conditions cardinal changes of schemes of management of a science, level of financing and serious redistribution of personnel structure. It has occurred last years in many Post-Soviet countries. Thus, the question of the control and regulation of development of scientific directions to become rather actual. It is known, that selection of adequate criteria of the estimation is necessary for monitoring of a condition of various scientific directions. It is natural, if we consider a science as reception innovation process knowledge it is necessary to track distribution and growth of number of thematic scientific publications. For the task in view decision namely to carry out monitoring of development of radio plant biology in Georgia within the limits of an agrarian science the known method of an estimation of scientific publications on Key Word has been used. It demands creation of new mechanisms of management by development of a science with the assistance of regulating academic and state structures

  8. Popular Demobilization, Agribusiness Mobilization, and the Agrarian Boom in Post-Neoliberal Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lapegna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on ethnographic research, archival data, and a catalog of protest events, this article analyzes the relationship between popular social movements, business mobilization, and institutional politics in Argentina during the post-neoliberal phase, which arguably began circa 2003. How did waves of popular mobilization in the 1990s shape business mobilization in the 2000s? How did contentious politics influence institutional politics in the post-neoliberal period? What are the changes and continuities of the agrarian boom that cut across the neoliberal and post-neoliberal periods? While I zoom in on Argentina, the article goes beyond this case by contributing to three discussions. First, rather than limiting the analysis to the customary focus on the mobilization of subordinated actors, it examines the demobilization of popular social movements, the mobilization of business sectors, and the connections between the two. Second, it shows the ways in which the state can simultaneously challenge neoliberal principles while also favoring the global corporations that dominate the contemporary neoliberal food regime. Finally, the case of Argentina sheds light on the political economy of the "Left turn" in Latin America, particularly the negative socio-environmental impacts of commodity booms. The article concludes that researchers need to pay closer attention to the connections between contentious and institutional politics, and to the protean possibilities of neoliberalism to inspire collective actions.

  9. Analysis and Diagnosis of the Agrarian System in the Niayes Region, Northwest Senegal (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Fare

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian system Analysis and Diagnosis is used for this study, the goal of which was to provide a corpus of basic knowledge and elements of reflection necessary for the understanding the Niayes farming systems dynamics in Senegal, West Africa. Such holistic work has never been done before for this small region that provides the majority of vegetables in the area, thanks to its microclimate and access to fresh water in an arid country. Reading of the landscape and historical interviews coupled with fine-tuned household surveys were used to build a typology of agricultural production units (each type being represented by a production system. The main phases within the region’s history were distinguished. Before colonization, agriculture was based on gathering and shifting agriculture (millet and peanut in the southern region and transhumant stockbreeding in the North. During colonization, market gardening became a source of income as a response to cities’ increasing demand. Two major droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s have accelerated this movement. Extension of market gardening areas and intensification of activities were made possible by Sahelian migrants’ influx and the creation of mbeye seddo, a contract that allows for sharing added value between the employer and seasonal workers, named sourghas. Over the past 20 years, the “race for motorization” has created important social gaps (added value sharing deserves review and a risk of overexploitation of groundwater.

  10. Climate change vulnerability to agrarian ecosystem of small Island: evidence from Sagar Island, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Satpati, L. N.; Choudhury, B. U.; Sadhu, S.

    2018-04-01

    The present study assessed climate change vulnerability in agricultural sector of low-lying Sagar Island of Bay of Bengal. Vulnerability indices were estimated using spatially aggregated biophysical and socio-economic parameters by applying principal component analysis and equal weight method. The similarities and differences of outputs of these two methods were analysed across the island. From the integration of outputs and based on the severity of vulnerability, explicit vulnerable zones were demarcated spatially. Results revealed that life subsistence agriculture in 11.8% geographical area (2829 ha) of the island along the western coast falls under very high vulnerable zone (VHVZ VI of 84-99%) to climate change. Comparatively higher values of exposure (0.53 ± 0.26) and sensitivity (0.78 ± 0.14) subindices affirmed that the VHV zone is highly exposed to climate stressor with very low adaptive capacity (ADI= 0.24 ± 0.16) to combat vulnerability to climate change. Hence, food security for a population of >22 thousands comprising >3.7 thousand agrarian households are highly exposed to climate change. Another 17% area comprising 17.5% population covering 20% villages in north-western and eastern parts of the island also falls under high vulnerable (VI= 61%-77%) zone. Findings revealed large spatial heterogeneity in the degree of vulnerability across the island and thus, demands devising area specific planning (adaptation and mitigation strategies) to address the climate change impact implications both at macro and micro levels.

  11. Peasantry and politics in the Athenian society. On the Aristotelian model of agrarian democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián GALLEGO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the peasantry's situation in the Athenian polis under the condition of full citizenship. Athens has recently been recognized as a society whose democratic political organization was based on the presence of citizen agriculturists who controlled most of the land, constituted the majority of the civic body and had a decisive role in the working of the government. Under certain limits, Aristotle's ideas in the Politics with respect to the agrarian democracy are taken as elements valid to the Athenian political context in some periods. According to this model, it is analyzed the ways of incorporation of the rural villages to the State structure, the relation of hoplite farmers both with landed aristocrats and other candidates to leadership and with the social classes located below the farmers, and the actual political participation that the latter could develop in different stages of the Athenian history. The conclusion aims to maintain, beyond certain schematizations, the possibility of a long term vision of the Athenian history starting from Aristotle's characterizations.

  12. La cuestión agraria y el desarrollo agropecuario The agrarian question and agricultural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado C. Absalón

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo presenta los principales trabajos de Jesús A. Bejarano sobre historia agraria y economía agrícola y destaca los temas que más le preocuparon desde el punto de vista académico. Esos temas mUestran su esfuerzo por interpretar la compleja realidad colombiana a partir de la teoría clásica y la Literatura económica contemporánea, adaptándolas al país sin caer en dogmatismos y, más bien, combatiéndolos. Sus trabajos constituyen un referente importante para quienes estudian la evolución del sector rural colombiano y se aventuran en el dificil camino de la formulación de políticas.This essay discusses the main contributions of Jesus A. Bejarano in the fields of agrarian history and agricultural economics and emphasizes the issues which most interested him from an academic standpoint. His work shows a concern with the interpretation of the complex Colombian reality using classical theory and contemporary economic li terature as a starting point. Bejarano adapted these to the situation of the country, without incurring in dogmatismo On the contrary, he struggled against it. His work is a necessary reference for students of the evolution of Colombia 's rural sector and for those who adventure in the difficult path of policy formulation.

  13. Book review of Prof.Ph.D. Božidar Petrač: AGRARIAN ECONOMICS, Faculty of Economics in Osijek, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zmaić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Author of the book AGRARIAN ECONOMICS is Božidar Petrač, an assocciate professor of the Faculty of Economics in Osijek. The book is composed of 265 pages. This is the first book from agrarian economics field appeared in the Republic of Croatia. Research results obtained by Ph.D. B. Petrač, other domestic and foreign scientists as well as modern aspect of agriculture and agricultural economics development are included in the book. The main parts of the book are as follows: I. Introduction into agrarian economics, II. Conditions of agricultural production, III. Analysis of agricultural production trends in the Republic of Croatia, IV. Agrarian policy. The introductory considerations are characterized by the author’s bases creating for further researches, demarcating and defining main ideas being applied in further analysis. All vital agriculture functions and their contribution to economic development of the Republic of Croatia are analysed completely and in detail. Also Ph.D. B. Petrač has quantified indicators of agriculture development and status in the total economy structure as well as other relevant indicators important for determination of agriculture significance in an economic development. In the second and largest chapter the author explained how volume, structure, intensity and other traits of agricultural production depended on quantitative and qualitative condition characteristics of agricultural production and rationality degree by which these conditions are utilized. Natural conditions, agricultural population, labour force, possessive structure, technical equipment, agricultural production organization, consumption of agricultural products, socio-economic system and other conditions of agricultural activities are discussed in detail. In this way Ph.D. B. Petrač pointed out that aforesaid specificities of agricultural production should be taken into consideration and have a special place in economic policy field. Namely

  14. Through a Glass Darkly? Indigeneity, Information, and the Image of the Peruvian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    1994-01-01

    Drawing on surveys of Peruvians, a discussion of Peruvian university education looks at how realistic students' expectations of the economic benefits of university attendance are. Differences in perceptions among ethnic groups (Spanish-speaking and Quechua-speaking) were examined, and implications for social integration in such a society are…

  15. Interculturality for Afro-Peruvians: Towards a Racially Inclusive Education in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Intercultural education policy and programs in Peru emerged as a response to the right of education for marginalised indigenous populations. Under the influence of international dialogue regarding education for all, Peruvian policy has recently proposed interculturality as a guiding principle of education for all Peruvians. In this context,…

  16. REFORMING OF LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM UNDER AUTHORITY OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh O.S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems related to the reform of land management from the beginning of the land reform ill the presentine. This need has arisen due to making another attempt to reorganize the structure of the land structures. With the launch of the land reform established the State Committee of Ukraine for Land Resources in 1992. To speed up land reform and land privatization in 2001 formed the administrative bodies of the State Committee for Land Resources of Ukraine. In order to improve the system of state land management in 2011 created the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine, which was reorganized in 2014 into the State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre. Over the years, in order to "optimize" the system of central executive body, content of this body has not been changed and constantly was changing its name and subordination, namely: the State Committee for Land Resources - Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine - Ministry of Agrarian policy and Food of Ukraine, State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre - Ministry of regional development, construction and housing. On the basis of analysis concerning the powers of the central executive authorities, local authorities found that the newly farmed Service State Land Cadastre das not contribute to the effectiveness of the administration, especially at the national level, as these features ave not provided by "Regulations on State Land Cadastre " and other regulations. In addition, the local level detected removal of local government in matters of land relations. In conclusion, proposed system based redistribution of powers on the level of central executive bodies and local authorities to reform the system of land management with regard to decentralized processes in Ukraine. It is advisable to restore central authority for land reform and regulation of land relations to the

  17.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  18. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  19. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  20. Diseño organizacional de la unidad de desarrollo agroempresarial del Banco Agrario de Colombia s.a. Organizational design for an agrarian business development unit of the agrarian bank of colombia s.a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales C. José Rubén

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La temática sobre desarrollo agroempresarial se ha venido convirtiendo en epicentro importante de discusión en el contexto de la situación por la cual atraviesa el sector
    agropecuario. Es importante destacar que para plantear
    una estrategia sobre desarrollo agroempresarial que acoja
    como beneficiarios a pequeños y medianos productores rurales mediante su asociación con el propósito de hacerlos más competitivos y aprovechen mejor el uso del crédito, se hace necesario que una entidad con cobertura nacional como el Banco Agrario de Colombia, oriente y encause su misión a través del rediseño de su estructura organizacional. Este argumento se constituyó en el elemento por el cual se adelantó este estudio, cuyo objetivo de investigación fue la cultura organizacional del sistema de crédito del Banco Agrario. Como resultados destacables de este trabajo de investigación vale la pena mencionar la valoración en muy alto grado de la cultura organizacional en razón a que los dominios liderazgo, clima y contexto organizacional y sus correspondientes índices tuvieron excelente percepción en el grupo de funcionarios encuestados. Así mismo la respuesta sobre viabilidad de la unidad de desarrollo agro empresarial
    son contundentes por la apreciación que los funcionarios
    tienen sobre la necesidad que el Banco ofrece para adelantar esta estrategia de manera directa a través de una estructura matricial por proyectos, que promueva el desarrollo agroempresarial mediante las etapas de iniciación, desarrollo y consolidación para hacer viable el cumplimiento de sus objetivos estratégicos.
    The thematic related to agrarian entrepreneurship and business development has been transforming into important epicentre of discussion in the context of the situation for which crosses the agricultural sector. It is important to highlight that to outline a strategy oriented to agrarian business development, which concems as

  1. Breaking the Logic of Groundwater-Led Agrarian Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, T.

    2007-12-01

    It is well known that the past groundwater led agrarian change in India is not sustainable and the major productivity growth in the agricultural sector over the last 50 years threatened. The groundwater economy in South Asia is characterized by the multitude (20 million in India alone) of individual private well owners who make independent extraction choices in an imperfect market environment. As a result and all over the subcontinent, dramatic regional aquifer depletion (100 to 150 m drops of groundwater levels in some regions) and soil salinization (20'000 to 30'000 ha lost to water logging and soil salinization annually) is observed. Considering that agriculture accounts for approximately 25% of India's GDP and employs nearly 62% of the population these observations are all the more worrisome. Consequently, India might turn from a major crop exporter (35 cubic km / a of freshwater equivalent presently or 50% of the annual average runoff of the Nile river) to a large volume staple food importer in the future so as to be able to feed its estimated population of 1.5 billion (2 billion) people by 2030 (2050). Apart from constantly worsening local employment opportunities, this development will most likely have repercussions on global food markets by causing substantial food commodity price increases on a world-wide level. In order for policies to effectively address the problems related to groundwater irrigated agriculture in India, the micro foundations of the above mentioned macro level outcomes have to be properly understood. This is far from simple, given the complex fragmentation of the social, political and economic spaces in India and their intricate interplay. Examples of the latter are the targeted public food distribution systems. It will be argued that the outcomes to freshwater allocation, i.e. the absence or presence of certain institutional forms, are critically shaped by the place-dependent dialectic between nature and society. Thus, a prerequisite

  2. Scaling and contextualizing climate-conflict nexus in historical agrarian China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harry F.

    2017-04-01

    This study examines climate-conflict nexus in historical agrarian China in multi-scalar and contextualized approach, illustrating what and how socio-political factors could significantly mediate the climate-violent link in pre-industrial society. Previous empirical large-N studies show that violent conflict in historical agrarian society was triggered by climate-induced food scarcity. The relationship was valid in China, Europe, and various geographic regions in the Northern Hemisphere in pre-industrial era. Nevertheless, the observed relationship has only been verified at a macro level (long-term variability of the nexus is emphasized and data over large area are aggregated), and somewhat generalized in nature (only physical environmental factors are controlled). Three inter-related issues remain unresolved: First, the key explanatory variable of violent conflicts may change substantially at different spatio-temporal scales. It is necessary to check whether the climate-conflict nexus is valid at a micro level (about short-term variability of the nexus and data in finer spatial resolution), and explore how the nexus changes along various spatio-temporal dimensions. Second, as the climate-conflict nexus has only been demonstrated in a broad sense, it is necessary to check whether and how the nexus is mediated by local socio-political context. More non-climatic factors pertinent to the cause and distribution of conflicts (e.g., governance, adaptive mechanisms, etc.) should be considered. Third, the methodology applied in the previous studies assumes spatially-independent observations and linear relationship, which may simplify the climate-conflict link. Moreover, the solitary reliance on quantitative methods may neglect those non-quantifiable socio-political dynamics which mediates the climate-conflict nexus. I plan to address the above issues by using disaggregated spatial analysis and in-depth case studies, with close attention to local and temporal differences and

  3. FACTORS OF LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN AGRICULTURE OF THE AGRARIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Babenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the conceptual provisions of the essence of labour productivity in agriculture in order to determine the factors and conditions for its growth at the present stage of economic development. Methods. The theoretical and methodological bases of research are the works of classical and modern economic science concerning labour productivity and human capital. With the aim of concretizing the conceptual and categorical apparatus, the dialectical and abstract-logical methods were used; a monographic method was used during covering the views of scientists on the investigated problem; for the analysis of labour productivity trends, the method of comparative analysis and the graphical method were used. Results. The conditions of agricultural production management in an agrarian region are characterized. Factors of labour productivity growth in agriculture are determined. It is established that the main reserves of increasing labour productivity consist of reducing labour costs for the production of agricultural products. In turn, the reduction of labour costs is caused by the use of new equipment and new technologies, progressive forms of labour organization, improvement of the system of material incentives for labour. Practical significance. The realization of proposals and recommendations concerning the formation and development of human capital for agricultural production, optimization of production resources, strengthening of labour motivation will provide an opportunity to increase the labour activity of personnel, the volume of agricultural production. Relevance/originality. Further development of research results allows us to collect an empirical, multifactorial model of labour productivity growth in agricultural production.

  4. Public health and agrarian liberal politics in Spain: the Rural Health Bureau (1910-1918

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    Rodríguez-Ocaña, Esteban

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the meaning of the Rural Health Bureau (1910-1918 for the history of Spanish public health, thanks to a wealth of previously unknown sources found through a systematic search through medical journals of the time and the Bulletin of the national department of Agriculture. The Bureau was dependent of the Ministry of Development, in the same way as the competences on animal health. It aimed to provide a public health rationale for a plan of agrarian infrastructures, a goal resolved into a huge task of surveillance on hookworm disease, malaria, water supplies and diet. Thus it becomes a perfect paradigm of the Spanish Liberal tradition of promoting information instead than actual changes into society, as well as a needed complement to the hydraulic policy sponsored by Rafael Gasset.

    Abordo el significado en la historia de la Salud pública española de la Inspección de Sanidad del Campo (1910-1918 partiendo de fuentes escasamente conocidas producto de una búsqueda sistemática en las revistas médicas de la época y en el Boletín de Agricultura técnica y económica, órgano de la Dirección general de Agricultura. La Inspección dependió del Ministerio de Fomento, al igual que la higiene veterinaria, y su objetivo era proporcionar bases higiénicas para un plan de infraestructuras agrarias, lo que se tradujo en una ingente tarea de vigilancia epidemiológica sobre anquilostomiasis, paludismo, aguas y alimentación. En este sentido resulta un perfecto epítome de la tradición informativa liberal, así como un complemento de la política hidráulica impulsada por Rafael Gasset.

  5. Reforming Organizational Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with

  6. Reforming science: methodological and cultural reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture.

  7. An outbreak of leptospirosis among Peruvian military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kevin L; Montiel Gonzalez, Marco A; Watts, Douglas M; Lagos-Figueroa, Roberto C; Chauca, Gloria; Ore, Marianela; Gonzalez, Jose E; Moron, Cecilia; Tesh, Robert B; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2003-07-01

    Acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses are common in tropical developing countries but are difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds alone. Leptospirosis is rarely diagnosed, despite evidence that sporadic cases and epidemics continue to occur worldwide. The purpose of this study was to diagnose an outbreak of acute undifferentiated febrile illness among Peruvian military recruits that developed after a training exercise in the high jungle rainforest of Peru. Of 193 military recruits, 78 developed an acute febrile illness with varied manifestations. Of these, 72 were found to have acute leptospirosis by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Leptospira biflexa antigen was insensitive for the detection of anti-leptospiral IgM antibodies compared with the MAT (20 of 72, 28%). This outbreak of acute undifferentiated febrile illness among Peruvian military recruits was due to leptospirosis. High clinical suspicion, initiation of preventative measures, and performance of appropriate diagnostic testing is warranted in similar settings to identify, treat, and prevent leptospirosis.

  8. Floristic composition of Peruvian plantcutter (Phytotoma raimondii habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Romo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Through of the analysis of the floristic composition of 16 plots of half an hectare in 12 sites where the Phyto-toma raimondii, Peruvian plantcutter exists, we found that richness and diversity of plants are not related to the abundance of the bird, neither the abundance of any of the 7 species used as food or for nestting, except the algarrobo (Prosopis pallida. The most frequent species in the 12 sites were algarroboProsopis pallida(92% of the sites, vichayoCapparis ovalifolia(67%, canutilloGrabowskia boerhaviifolia(58%, sapoteCapparis scabrida(58% and realengoMaytenus octogona(25%. Besides algarrobo, canutillo seem to be a key species because in the plots where only three species occurred, those two were present. In the plots where canutillo was present, realengo did not more than expected statistically. It is alarming the decrease and few places or habitats for the occurrence and reproduction of the Peruvian plantcutter, a species considered in danger of extinction.

  9. Organic carbon production, mineralisation and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Liebetrau, V.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2015-03-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11 and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations, from 74 m water depth on the middle shelf down to 1024 m, using a combination of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modelling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates decreased sharply seaward of the middle shelf and subsequently increased at the deep stations. The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unusually low on the middle shelf (60%) at the deep oxygenated sites. In line with other studies, CBE was elevated under oxygen-deficient waters in the mid-water oxygen minimum zone. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to efficient mineralisation of organic matter in the water column compared to other oxygen-deficient environments. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not greatly affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in sediments.

  10. The Peruvian Congress: Public Policies and Informal Influence over the Bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Patriau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Peruvian Constitution grants presidents the power to participate in the policy making process. At the same time, the Peruvian Congress is considered to lack the technical and professional ability to fully participate in such a process. However, such analysis neglects the influence that the Congress can exert through informal politics. Based on 31 interviews with legislators, political authorities, officials and experts in public administration this paper shows that the Peruvian legislature participates in the policy making process albeit through informal channels of influence over the bureaucracy.

  11. Book review of Prof.Ph.D. Božidar Petrač: AGRARIAN ECONOMICS, Faculty of Economics in Osijek, 2002

    OpenAIRE

    K. Zmaić

    2002-01-01

    Author of the book AGRARIAN ECONOMICS is Božidar Petrač, an assocciate professor of the Faculty of Economics in Osijek. The book is composed of 265 pages. This is the first book from agrarian economics field appeared in the Republic of Croatia. Research results obtained by Ph.D. B. Petrač, other domestic and foreign scientists as well as modern aspect of agriculture and agricultural economics development are included in the book. The main parts of the book are as follows: I. Introduction into...

  12. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. The impact of global trends on Czech trade in agrarian and foodstuff products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rosochatecká

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech retail market has changed its structure and form during the last twenty years. The influence of two factors is especially significant. The first one is the growth of internationalization and the second one is market concentration growth. The significant opening process of the Czech economy, accompanied by the liberalization of the Czech market process, enabled the international retail companies to penetrate the national retail market. The most powerful European retail companies are now present in the Czech market. The available shopping area/cap is also one of the largest in Europe. Retail chains have taken a dominant position in the market, and because of their market power they are able to determine trade/contract conditions for domestic suppliers. Retail chains’ sales have been constantly growing. While in 2006 the value of sales was about 258.5 billion CZK, in 2008 it was about 312.2 billion CZK. The impact of the economic crisis on the Czech retail market has not been as stressful as it was abroad. In 2009, a slowdown of the Czech retail market was recorded, but the value of sales decreased by only 3 billion CZK (in comparison with 2008. The highest sales (59 billion CZK were recorded by the Lidl & Schwarz-Gruppe, which is the owner of two dominant retail chains in the Czech retail market (Kaufland and Lidl. The main aim of the paper is to evaluate the selected aspects, which have been influencing the relationship between multinational companies (retail companies – supermarkets and hypermarkets and local (Czech suppliers of agrarian and foodstuff products (farmers and foodstuff companies. The paper analyses the problem of abuse of multinational companies’ significant market power in relation to their suppliers. Based on a pilot project, the efficiency of market force law, and its use in practice, are analysed. The main idea is to analyse the following problems: the impact of 30 days payment period for goods delivered, under

  14. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  15. Monotony, Isolation and Backward Agriculture. Travel Accounts of 19th Century and Agrarian History of Bogota Plateau (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinne Giselle Mora Pacheco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Different works of Agrarian History reproduce a similar description of Bogota Plateau (Colombia throughout the nineteenth century: agricultural use since colonial times; vast fields of wheat and barley; abrupt replacement of crops by cattle; agricultural crisis linked to the agro-export booms and the demand for tropical products that could not be obtained above 2000 meters. This paper discusses how this approach has perpetuated descriptions of travelers who visited the region during the nineteenth century and wrote up their notebooks based on their origins, objectives, political and economic interests, or from affirmations of their guides and informants. This article rebuilds a profile of travelers that are most often quoted by historians, their views about the Plateau landscape and its farming and ranching, and their influence on today reconstructions of the agrarian history of Bogota Plateau along nineteenth century. This text invites to contrast the travel accounts among themselves and with another sources, and also to incorporate the results of the research about the Colonial period and the biophysical conditions of the regions under study in the analysis.

  16. The System of Indicators for Monitoring the Achievement of the Goals of Sustainable Development in the Agrarian Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chala Tеtyana G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of statistical evaluation of the system of indicators for monitoring the achievement of the goals of sustainable development (GSD in the agrarian sector. It has been determined that, in order to achieve sustainable development, the following three pillars need to be reconciled: economic growth, social integration, and environmental protection. The objectives and indicators of the GSD 2 «Overcoming hunger, achieving food security, improving nutrition, and facilitating sustainable development of agriculture» were considered in detail. It has been determined that the indicator, which illustrates vividly the status and perspective of development of the agrarian sector, is the indicator 2.a.1 «Index of orientation towards agriculture, defined by the public expenditure structure». Methods for calculation of the Agriculture Orientation Index (AOI were considered. The dynamics of the AOI for Ukraine and world-wide for 2004-2013 were analyzed. The values of the AOI index for Ukraine, the neighboring countries, and the EU Member States in 2013 have been provided. It has been determined that Ukraine has a low AOI among the EU countries and among the neighboring countries, which indicates a poor orientation towards agriculture.

  17. INCOME AND ENERGY SOURCES AMONG AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW CARBON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mkpado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon power comes from sources that produce fewer greenhouse gases than do traditional means of power generation. It includes zero carbon power generation sources, such as wind power, solar power, geothermal power and (except for fuel preparation nuclear power, as well as sources with lower-level emissions such as natural and petroleum gas, and also technologies that prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon capture and storage. This article correlated value of income from different sources to energy sources used by agrarian households in Nigeria and drew implications for low carbon development in Africa. It analysis included use of wind power for irrigation purposes, harnessing solar energy for lightening and possible cost implications. Secondary data were collected from Community Based Monitoring System Nigeria Project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and qualitative analysis were employed. The average annual income of agrarian households from different sources such as crop farming, livestock farming, petty trading, forest exploitation, remittance and labour per day was below the poverty line of $1 per day. The source of energy that had the highest number of significant correlation was electrical energy (low carbon electrical energy. It showed the possibility of pooling resources as farmers group to attract grants or equity financing to build wind mills for irrigation. The study recommended use of energy efficient bulbs to reduce CO2 emissions. This requires creating awareness among rural dwellers of the need to make such change.

  18. The Institutions of «Green Economy» for Sustainable Development of Agrarian Sector: Theoretical Dimension

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    Khodakivska Olga V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the conceptual foundations and theoretical positions of the place and role of institutions in formation of the «green economy» in the context of implementation of the principles for sustainable development of agrarian sector. The article reflects the main scientific concepts that are directed to address the problems of environmentally oriented development, in particular the concepts of ecotopia, anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, biocentrism, and the concept of sustainable development. It has been found that the conceptual foundations for sustainable development include ecologization of economy, humanization of production, introducing a system of principled approaches to public affairs. The general provisions of formation of «green economy» have been characterized and its key principles have been provided. The role and value of institutions in the organizational provision of the sustainable development of agrarian sector, which, in the organizational-economic, coordinating and enabling aspects are the key driver for harmonization of the interaction of all participants in economic relations, have been substantiated.

  19. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  20. Social Security Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuschler, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  1. Language, Culture, and Power: Intercultural Bilingual Education among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bartholomew

    1999-01-01

    The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…

  2. A new species of Trechisibus from Peruvian Andes (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Delgado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the new species Trechisibus (s. str. delestali sp. n., is described from the southern Peruvian Andes. The morphological differences with the geographically closest species of the subgenus are also presented and discussed.

  3. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  4. New ICT in the Peruvian Andes: Theoretical Foundation and Bibliographical Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sánchez-Dávila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, this paper explains the theoretical foundations on which this proposal for digital anthropology in the Peruvian Andes is based (on the origins of digital anthropology, discussions on oral and written technology, and theories of digital technology as social practice. And, on the other hand, this paper presents a bibliographical balance of the studies on the new ICT in the Peruvian Andes (on identity expression, productive development and formal education in the Andean world.

  5. Reframing transitions and contesting memories: The archive and the archival object in Peruvian cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the stories behind the production and screening of two very different Peruvian films that both reveal much about the way the archive, the archival object and archival fragment have worked to disrupt and force a reconsideration of key moments in Peruvian political history of the twentieth century. One, a feature film by Francisco Lombardi, Ojos que no ven/Eyes that don’t see (2003), provides a provocative perspective on the impact of the televisual revelations of the corru...

  6. Max Uhle - Julio Tello: A political-academic controversy in the conformation of Peruvian archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Max Uhle (1856-1944) and Julio Tello (1880-1947) made prominent contributions to the development of Peruvian archaeology in the first half of the 20th century, coinciding at some points and differing in others. Their contrasting academic proposals were linked to political positions, which in turn impacted the way of imagining the development of Peruvian archaeology. The article analyzes how the interdependence in the characterizations of Uhle and Tello led to the formation of a mirrored logic...

  7. Pioneiros da ecologia política agrária contemporânea The pioneers of the contemporary agrarian political ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Miranda Nascimento

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar os pioneiros dos estudos materialistas sobre ecologia política agrária contemporânea. É feita uma análise das contribuições da Escola Russa de Estudos do Solo e de referências mais recentes aos escritos de Marx e Liebig. Nas considerações finais, enfatiza-se a necessidade de desenvolver a abordagem da Ecologia Política Agrária como maneira mais apropriada de entender a relação entre sistemas agrários, formações sociais e ecossistemas específicos em áreas rurais.The pioneering studies on the relationship between society and nature are important for the analysis of agricultural and ecological changes in rural areas. The goal of the present article is to introduce the contemporary pioneers of the agrarian ecology studies with a Marxist Materialism approach. The agrarian ecology describes the relations among agrarian systems, social formations and specific ecosystems in rural territories. Thence, the concept has a double function: turn the agrarian problem into an ecological theme and redefine its importance for the current studies on rural territory.

  8. A Comparative Leadership Development Study within Student Collegiate Clubs and Organizations at an Agrarian University in Ukraine and a University within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Erik; Hoover, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore leadership development within student collegiate clubs and organizations at an agrarian university in Ukraine. The data were then compared to a College of Agricultural Sciences at a university within the United States. The information collected in the study will serve as a basis for understanding leadership…

  9. Personality and Coping in Peruvian volunteers for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.

  10. The Peruvian diaspora: portrait of a migratory process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s and especially the 1990s, Peru has become a nation of emigrants. Emigration has become massive over the past two decades, and the Peruvian populations of the United States, Japan, and Spain have tripled in less than a decade. A survey of households in five localities, three urban and two rural, in and around Lima helps to reveal the special character of this emigration. It tends to involve older and better-educated individuals than are typical of international migration and to target a wider variety of destinations. Moreover, it is a multiclass phenomenon. The economic, political, and social crisis brought about by a change in the economic model, two decades of terrorism, and a succession of failed democratic administrations has affected the society as a whole, and international migration seems to operate as an escape valve.

  11. Living (and work of Peruvian immigrants in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pérez Pérez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on the analysis of the information obtained by means of a statistical analysis of a survey conduct among 110 Peruvian immigrants in Madrid. The living conditions of these workers are presented under a series of headings which include the job sectors in which they settle, various aspects of their working conditions and salaries, dwellings, leisure time activities, contact with their country of origin and the strength of their associationism. Previously, a sociodemographic description of the sample in set out based on an analysis of their distribution by age, sex, level of education and other variables of interest such as when and how they came to Spain or their legal situation.

  12. Transmission investment in the Peruvian electricity market: Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Erix; Rosellón, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This research presents an application of the mechanism in (HRV) to promote electricity transmission network expansion in the Peruvian electricity transmission system known as SEIN (Sistema Eléctrico Interconectado Nacional). The HRV mechanism combines the merchant and regulatory approaches to promote investment into transmission grids. This mechanism gives incentives for efficient investment in expansion of the network by rebalancing over time the fixed and variable charges of a two-part tariff in the framework of a wholesale electricity market with locational pricing. The expansion of the network is carried out through the sale of Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) for the congested lines. The mechanism is applied for 103 nodes of the SEIN using detailed characteristics of generators, nodes and transmission lines. Under Laspeyres weights and linear cost of expansion of transmission capacity, it is shown that prices converge to lower price levels as a result of increased transmission capacity.

  13. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found.

  14. Organic carbon production, mineralization and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11° S and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations from 74 m on the inner shelf down to 1024 m water depth by means of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modeling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates and benthic dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes decreased rapidly with water depth. Particulate organic carbon (POC) content was lowest on the inner shelf and at the deep oxygenated stations (< 5%) and highest between 200 and 400 m in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, 15-20%). The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unexpectedly low on the inner shelf (< 20%) when compared to a global database, for reasons which may be linked to the frequent ventilation of the shelf by oceanographic anomalies. CBE at the deeper oxygenated sites was much higher than expected (max. 81%). Elsewhere, CBEs were mostly above the range expected for sediments underlying normal oxic bottom waters, with an average of 51 and 58% for the 11° S and 12° S transects, respectively. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to a very efficient mineralization of organic matter in the water column, with a Martin curve exponent typical of normal oxic waters (0.88 ± 0.09). Yet, mean POC burial rates were 2-5 times higher than the global average for continental margins. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in marine sediments.

  15. Developmental Effects Determine Submaximal Arterial Oxygen Saturation in Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyamu, Melisa; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, María; Elías, Gianpietro; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-06-01

    Kiyamu, Melisa, Fabiola León-Velarde, María Rivera-Chira, Gianpietro Elías, and Tom D. Brutsaert. Developmental effects determine submaximal arterial oxygen saturation in Peruvian Quechua. High Alt Med Biol 16, 138-146, 2015.--Andean high altitude natives show higher arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)) during exercise in hypoxia, compared to acclimatized sojourners. In order to evaluate the effects of life-long exposure to high altitude on Sao(2), we studied two groups of well-matched, self-identified Peruvian Quechua natives who differed in their developmental exposure to hypoxia before and after a 2-month training period. Male and female volunteers (18-35 years) were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m). The two groups were: a) Individuals who were born and raised at sea-level (BSL, n=34) and b) Individuals who were born and raised at high altitude (BHA, n=32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16 years old). Exercise testing was conducted using a submaximal exercise protocol in normobaric hypoxia in Lima (BP=750 mmHg, Fio(2)=0.12), in order to measure Sao(2) (%), ventilation (VE L/min) and oxygen consumption (Vo(2), L/min). Repeated-measures ANOVA, controlling for VE/VO(2) (L/min) and sex during the submaximal protocol showed that BHA maintained higher Sao(2) (%) compared to BSL at all workloads before (p=0.005) and after training (p=0.017). As expected, both groups showed a decrease in Sao(2) (%) (p<0.001), as workload increased. Resting Sao(2) levels were not found to be different between groups. The results suggest that developmental exposure to altitude contributes to the maintenance of higher Sao(2) levels during submaximal exercise at hypoxia.

  16. El Parque Agrario: Preservación de la actividad agraria en espacios periurbanos (El caso del Bajo Llobregat / The agrarian Park: Agrarian activity preservation in periurban areas (The case of the Baix Llobregat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zazo Moratalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl interés por la problemática contemporánea de los espacios agrarios periurbanos ha despertado una nueva conciencia urbana que afianza la importancia de la preservación de estos espacios agrarios por sus valores ambientales, culturales y productivos, y que comienza a reaprender las posibles ventajas de su proximidad urbana. Entre ellas, la calidad alimentaria. En el análisis de las respuestas a esta problemática, aparece un uso recurrente del término ‘Parque Agrario’ materializado en diversas propuestas con dispares objetivos, escalas y dimensiones. Para aclarar la confusión del término, se estudia el Parque Agrario del Bajo Llobregat. De este caso se induce la estructura organizativa básica de su figura, analizándola de manera poliédrica y multiescalar. El objeto último del trabajo es valorar la sostenibilidad de la figura en función del resultado de su aplicación a un espacio agrario periurbano, tipológico y predispuesto. Su aplicación y fusión con el espacio agrario periurbano dará lugar a otro ‘concepto aplicado’ de parque, que creará y fortalecerá sus propias redes productivas para introducirse en el ciclo alimentario de la ciudad próxima, bloqueando la base territorial frente al proceso urbano.Palabras clavePreservación, gobernanza, proteccionismo, dinamización agraria, multifuncionalidad, multidimensionalidad territorial.AbstractThe interest in contemporary issues of suburban farmland has awakened a new urban consciousness that reinforces the importance of preserving these agrarian areas because of their environmental, cultural and productive values, and starts to re-learn the potential benefits of its proximity to urban areas. Among this potentials, food quality can be found. In the analysis of responses to this problem has found a widespread use of the term 'Agrarian Park' embodied in proposals for different purposes, scales and dimensions. To clarify the confusion of the term, the

  17. Inclusive Businesses and Land Reform: Corporatization or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wytske O. Chamberlain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive businesses (IBs, embodying partnerships between commercial agribusinesses and smallholder farmers/low-income communities, are considered to contribute towards rural development and agricultural sector transformation. Structured as complex organizational set-ups consisting of, and overcoming the limitations of, standard inclusive instruments (collective organization, mentorship, supply contract, lease/management contract and equity, they allow for the inclusion of smallholders and low-income communities into commercial agricultural value chains. IBs are a way for governments to engage private agribusinesses in agricultural and rural policies. However, will the commercial sector, through IB partnerships, contribute towards the government’s transformation and developmental objectives? Based on case studies in South Africa—a country engaged in land and agrarian reforms—the effects of IBs at the project level appear positive, illustrated by an increase in production and growth in agricultural assets. However, individual beneficiaries experience only a marginal change in income and livelihoods. Whereas land reform, project development and market integration are generally achieved, the transformation and beneficiary development objectives are compromised. Although commercial agribusinesses contribute to investment needs in the sector and smallholder exposure to commercial markets, IB partnerships allow commercial entities control over the smallholders’ assets. Ownership and secure rights, especially of land, and support of external parties to capacitate beneficiaries and adjust power asymmetries, are essential starting points. Without these aspects, IBs will not lead to effective transformation and development.

  18. The agropecuarian sector in Los Lagos region, and the paradigm "Chile power food": challenges for a national agrarian policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos Núñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The restructuring of the economic model in Chile in the mid- seventies hit all productive fields and the agropecuarian sector was no exception. Thus started the beginning of the "Agricultural export Age" that fostered productive guidelines with clear competitive advantages in international markets. The Chilean agricultural paradigm has been characterized by functioning on the basis of low wages, availability of labor and favorable exchange rate. In 2006, under this scenario, the public policy called "Chile Power Food 2020" was implemented, which seeks to reinforce the above formula. This initiative considers growth strategies which make bimodal agrarian structure, present in the country, invisible. To the above an added aggravating factor is that territories (such as Los Lagos Region in southern Chile with traditional productive orientations (specifically cattle have clearly vulnerable positions, especially in those producer groups which are characterized by different rationales to run business

  19. Health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  20. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  1. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  2. AGRICULTURA Y DESARROLLO RURAL; REFERENCIA ESPECIAL AL ASOCIACIONISNO AGRARIO/AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT; SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE AGRARIAN AFFILIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín GARCÍA SANZ

    2007-05-01

    de los productos alimenticios y la trazabilidad, retos para los que sin duda están muy concienciadas las cooperativas./The agriculture is an activity trasversal that concerns the rural world but also to villages that are not rural. It is an activity that is present in very big villages of the South named agro cities. Regardless there is a very direct entail between agriculture and ruralidad, not so much because the agriculture is already the base of the work of the rural world, but because being his counterfoil. To analyze the agrarian work in the rural world there are several sources, one is the Survey of the Active Population (EPA who realizes of the persons who are employed at this sector and other one is the Agrarian Census or the Survey of Agrarian Structures that he gathers all the persons who have some labour entail with the agrarian activity. The contrast between these two sources reveals the existence of new figures that appear in the Censuses and not in the EPA as the holders of agrarian developments who have another activity, the holders who cover less half a day in the exploitation, the spouses of the holders or the relatives. This leads us to affirming the importance that has the activity in the rural world as the entail o the works of the agriculture not only of the farmers but also of those that are retired, they have another principal occupation or are simply temporary collaborators of the agrarian work. Raising the future of the agriculture a commentary has interfered on the importance of the asociacionismo, not so much that of production, but that of marketing. Though the levels reached as for members and implied sectors it is high, still there stays a great span that to cross, especially regarding cooperatives of the second degree and control of the markets. This one is a challenge to that it is necessary to add a new bet that consists of penetrating in the circuits of the transformation for taking part of the distribution of benefits, which

  3. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-09-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls "Black", "Red" and "Yellow" (termed "Maca phenotypes"), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and "Fingerprints" identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing.

  4. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, 4 Library Court NW, Washington, DC 20003 (United States); Orta-Martinez, Marti, E-mail: matt@saveamericasforests.or, E-mail: martiorta@gmail.co [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region-over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells-highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  5. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finer, Matt; Orta-Martinez, Marti

    2010-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region-over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells-highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  6. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  7. Availability and use of woody plants in a agrarian reform settlement in the cerrado of the state of Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pessanha Tunholi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are important sources providing plant resources for human populations, and contributing to the livelihood and income of families. To test the ecological apparency hypothesis, that there is positive relationship between the visibility of a species and its use, we conducted an ethnobotanical survey in the protected area of the Itaúna rural settlement in the municipality of Planaltina, in the state of Goiás, in central Brazil. The phytosociological parameters were obtained in 5.6 ha area of the Brazilian cerrado (savanna, and the ethnobotanical survey conducted with semi-structured interviews with 75 people. There was a weak positive correlation between the use value and the phytosociological parameters. A principal component analysis showed that seven species (Pterodon pubescens, Hancornia speciosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Eugenia dysenterica, Annona crassiflora, Stryphnodendron adstringens and Solanum lycocarpum have high use value, despite having low density, dominance and frequency. Nineteen species showed a positive relationship between their use value and their phytosociological parameters. The relationship between vegetation structure and use value differed among species in the protected area, indicating that more attention should be paid to those under more pressure, with low abundance. Further studies of these seven species should be conducted to determine whether human pressure is affecting populations structures and to define management strategies.

  8. Introduction of renewable energies in a settling down of agrarian reform of the West Amazon; Introducao de energias renovaveis em um assentamento da reforma agraria da Amazonia ocidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Francisco Eulalio Alves dos; Duarte, Alejandro Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC), Rio Branco, AC (Brazil). Climatologia e Energia

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the social evolution of a rural community directly connected to the actions of a research project and extension, which promoted the access to the renewable energies, and the exploration before and after the transit for the use of electric power distribution conventional networks at the Limoeiro community, state of Acre, Brazil.

  9. Reforming Technical and Technological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)

  10. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  11. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  12. Comments on regulatory reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

  13. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  14. Welfare Reform and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  15. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  16. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  17. Prolonged extension and subsidence of the Peruvian forearc during the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveen, Willem; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2018-04-01

    Ocean-continental subduction zones are commonly associated with compressional stress fields, which ultimately result in regional uplift of the overriding plate. This has particularly been inferred by most studies for the western margin of the Peruvian Andes. However, local geological observations have contested this idea. Here, we present a review of existing local and international literature supplemented by new structural and geomorphic observations that suggest that nearly the entire central (15° to 11° S latitude) and northern Peruvian forearc (11° to 6° S latitude) are under extension with a slight tendency to transtension instead of compression, and that this region has experienced a prolonged period of subsidence since the middle-late Eocene, interrupted by short pulses of uplift. In contrast, the southern Peruvian forearc (15° to 18° S latitude) has experienced (trans)tension from the middle-late Eocene until recent in combination with uplift. The central and southern Peruvian forearc that was influenced by the passage of the Nazca ridge experienced transtension and subsidence until the middle-late Miocene and alternating phases of compressional and transtensional tectonics afterwards. These new findings on the geodynamic development of the Peruvian forearc need to be considered in future reconstructions of the mechanisms at work within this subduction zone.

  18. Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Peruvian Amazon using microsatllite DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America. The Peruvian Amazon harbors a large number of diverse cacao populations. Since the 1930s, several numbers of populations have been collected from the Peruvian Amazon and maintained as ex situ germplasm repositories in ...

  19. The 'reformation' of counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Lotter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.

  20. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  1. Subsistence economy of el paraiso, an early peruvian site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilter, J; E, B O; Pearsall, D M; Sandweiss, D H; Jones, J G; Wing, E S

    1991-01-18

    Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of E1 Paraíso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods consisted of a mixture of cultivated resources (squashes, beans, peppers, and jicama) with an additional reliance on fruits (guava, lucuma, and pacae). Wild plants, especially the roots of sedges and cat-tail, also may have accounted for a substantial part of the diet. Cotton was a chief crop, used in making fishing tackle and the textiles that served as clothing and items of high value and status. As an example of the beginnings of civilization, El Paraíso is a case in which impressive architecture was built on a relatively simple subsistence economy and energy was expended in the production of resources useful in local and regional exchange systems.

  2. Research training needs in Peruvian national TB/HIV programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Elsa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few published reports of research training needs assessments and research training programs. In an effort to expand this nascent field of study and to bridge the gap between research and practice, we sought to systematically assess the research training needs of health care professionals working at Peruvian governmental institutions leading HIV and tuberculosis (TB control and among senior stakeholders in the field. Methods Six institutional workshops were conducted with the participation of 161 mid-level health professionals from agencies involved in national HIV and TB control. At each workshop informants completed a structured questionnaire and participated in small and large group discussions. Additional data and institutional commitment was obtained through in-depth interviews from 32 senior managers and researchers from the Ministry of Health, academia and NGOs. Results Participants exhibited an overwhelming receptivity for additional research training, observing a gap between current levels of research training and their perceived importance. Specialized skills in obtaining funding, developing research protocols, particularly in operational, behavioral and prevention research were considered in greatest need. Beyond research training, participants identified broader social, economic and political factors as influential in infectious disease control. Conclusions The needs assessment suggests that future training should focus on operational research techniques, rather than on clinical skill building or program implementation only. Strengthening health systems not only requires additional research training, but also adequate financial resources to implement research findings.

  3. Research training needs in Peruvian national TB/HIV programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patricia J; Cotrina, Armando; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Elsa; Buffardi, Anne L

    2010-09-28

    There are few published reports of research training needs assessments and research training programs. In an effort to expand this nascent field of study and to bridge the gap between research and practice, we sought to systematically assess the research training needs of health care professionals working at Peruvian governmental institutions leading HIV and tuberculosis (TB) control and among senior stakeholders in the field. Six institutional workshops were conducted with the participation of 161 mid-level health professionals from agencies involved in national HIV and TB control. At each workshop informants completed a structured questionnaire and participated in small and large group discussions. Additional data and institutional commitment was obtained through in-depth interviews from 32 senior managers and researchers from the Ministry of Health, academia and NGOs. Participants exhibited an overwhelming receptivity for additional research training, observing a gap between current levels of research training and their perceived importance. Specialized skills in obtaining funding, developing research protocols, particularly in operational, behavioral and prevention research were considered in greatest need. Beyond research training, participants identified broader social, economic and political factors as influential in infectious disease control. The needs assessment suggests that future training should focus on operational research techniques, rather than on clinical skill building or program implementation only. Strengthening health systems not only requires additional research training, but also adequate financial resources to implement research findings.

  4. The association between socioeconomic status and obesity in Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterico, Julio A; Stanojevic, Sanja; Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2012-11-01

    Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country's development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008), we investigated this relationship in women aged 15-49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multistage nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.3-14.8); 8.4% (95% CI: 7.5-9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95% CI: 15.2-17.2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru.

  5. Parity and Overweight/Obesity in Peruvian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Quispe, Renato; Poterico, Julio A; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-10-19

    The rise in noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in developing countries may have changed or intensified the effect of parity on obesity. We aimed to assess this association in Peruvian women using data from a nationally representative survey. We used data from Peru's Demographic and Health Survey, 2012. Parity was defined as the number of children ever born to a woman. We defined overweight as having a body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) of 25.0 to 29.9 and obesity as a BMI ≥30.0. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the association between parity and BMI and BMI categories, by area of residence and age, adjusting for confounders. Data from 16,082 women were analyzed. Mean parity was 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.33) among rural women and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36-1.43) among urban women. Mean BMI was 26.0 (standard deviation, 4.6). We found evidence of an association between parity and BMI, particularly in younger women; BMI was up to 4 units higher in rural areas and 2 units higher in urban areas. An association between parity and BMI categories was observed in rural areas as a gradient, being highest in younger women. We found a positive association between parity and overweight/obesity. This relationship was stronger in rural areas and among younger mothers.

  6. Epidemiology of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in a Peruvian Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, F.; Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R. H.; Gonzales, A. E.; Castro, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Vasquez, L. E.; Lescano, M.; Carcamo, C.; Madico, G.; Miranda, E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cysticercosis in a rural area where the disease is endemic, the authors studied the seroepidemiology of human and porcine cysticercosis in a Peruvian jungle community (Maceda, Peru) in 1988 using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Of the 371 sampled inhabitants, 30 (8%) were seropositive, most of whom were asymptomatic. After niclosamide therapy, four Taenia species worms were identified in the seropositive group, compared with one in the control group (p = 0.06). Pigs were frequently infected: 44 of 133 (33%) were found positive for Taenia by tongue examination and 57 of 133 (43%) were positive by EITB. In 69% of the sampled households that had pigs, there was at least one seropositive pig. The number of pigs diagnosed positive by the tongue examination was significantly greater in households that had latrines than in those that did not. Cysticercosis is a common but usually asymptomatic infection that affects both humans and pigs in the high jungle areas of Peru. PMID:1585900

  7. Analysis of Mycotoxins in Peruvian Evaporated Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Evelyn Flores-Flores

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins—toxic secondary fungi metabolites—reach humans through food, producing several effects on their health and economic losses. Mycotoxin co-occurrence is common in food due to the co-presence of different fungi species, each of which may produce different toxins. A survey regarding the presence of 22 mycotoxins (aflatoxins M1, B1, B2, G1, G2; ochratoxins A and B; fumonisins B1, B2 and B3; HT-2 and T-2 toxins; nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; deepoxy-deoxynivalenol; 3 and 15 acetyl-deoxynivalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol; fusarenon X; neosolaniol; sterigmatocystin; and zearalenone in 30 Peruvian evaporated cow milk samples is presented for the first time. Analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which was based on two previously validated methods for quantification of these toxic compounds in liquid cow milk, and further validated for the new matrix. The only detected mycotoxin was ochratoxin A, which was found in four samples, although at levels below its limit of quantification (0.2 ng/mL. This initial study indicates that the presence of mycotoxins in evaporated milk is low in Peru. However, we recommend the analysis of more samples and more milk types obtained from urban and rural areas, in order to obtain more data that will allow further risk assessments to be carried out.

  8. Peatlands of the Peruvian Puna ecoregion: types, characteristics and disturbance

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    F. Salvador

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands represent one of the most important water resources in the Puna grassland ecoregion, but this fact is not yet widely recognised. Puna peatlands also provide key environmental services such as increasing the regional biodiversity of the Andean Altiplano plateau and contributing to the wellbeing of high-altitude human populations by providing grazing land and cooking fuel. We conducted a study in the Peruvian Puna ecoregion to describe the current condition of peatlands in terms of their vegetation, physical and chemical characteristics and disturbance status. Our results suggest that peat thickness, organic matter and degree of humification are good indicators for identifying peatlands in the Puna ecoregion. In general, the peatland sites that we sampled were dominated by mixtures of cushion and acaulescent rosette forming plants such as Distichia muscoides Nees & Meyen and Plantago tubulosa Decne. These Distichia and Plantago peatland sites were characterised by a mean surface water pH of 6.3, corrected electrical conductivity (K corr. in the range 300–1814 μS cm-1 and presented the following mean exchangeable cation values: Ca2+ 48 mg L-1, Mg2+ 9.6 mg L-1, Na+ 8.2 mg L-1 and K+ 2.1 mg L-1. The most common causes of disturbance we encountered were grazing, peat extraction and roads. Disturbance was most severe in mining sites, where peatlands are especially vulnerable because they are not under legal protection.

  9. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  10. Absence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus in Peruvian prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenbock, D T; Guerra, J; Pfister, J; Golubjatnikov, R; Tejada, A; Abugattas, J; Kemper, R; Maki, D G

    1988-12-01

    We serologically tested 140 female prostitutes (mean age, 30 years) from the port city of Callao, Peru, for evidence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses (HSV) I and II, and hepatitis B virus. The women had worked as prostitutes for an average of 5 years; one-fourth serviced foreign visitors exclusively, mainly sailors. Only 4 women used condoms, and only 1 woman gave a history of parenteral narcotic abuse, although 53% were regularly exposed to unsterile needles outside the medical setting for injections of vitamins, antibiotics, or steroids; another 29% are thought to probably use unsterile needles. None of the 140 prostitutes screened was seropositive for HIV, despite a very high prevalence of antibody to T. pallidum (24%), C. trachomatis (97%), HSV I and II (100%), and hepatitis B (51%); 5% were HbsAg positive. These data indicate that HIV has not yet been introduced into female prostitutes in the Peruvian port city. We believe that widespread use of unsterile needles in developing countries, such as Peru, represents a serious health threat and will amplify the spread of HIV, once introduced.

  11. The Association between Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in Peruvian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterico, J.A.; Stanojevic, S.; Ruiz, P.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A.; Miranda, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country’s development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008) we investigated this relationship in women aged 15 to 49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multi-staged nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95%CI: 13.3–14.8); 8.4% (95%CI: 7.5–9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95%CI: 15.2–17-2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru. PMID:21959344

  12. Research training needs in Peruvian national TB/HIV programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few published reports of research training needs assessments and research training programs. In an effort to expand this nascent field of study and to bridge the gap between research and practice, we sought to systematically assess the research training needs of health care professionals working at Peruvian governmental institutions leading HIV and tuberculosis (TB) control and among senior stakeholders in the field. Methods Six institutional workshops were conducted with the participation of 161 mid-level health professionals from agencies involved in national HIV and TB control. At each workshop informants completed a structured questionnaire and participated in small and large group discussions. Additional data and institutional commitment was obtained through in-depth interviews from 32 senior managers and researchers from the Ministry of Health, academia and NGOs. Results Participants exhibited an overwhelming receptivity for additional research training, observing a gap between current levels of research training and their perceived importance. Specialized skills in obtaining funding, developing research protocols, particularly in operational, behavioral and prevention research were considered in greatest need. Beyond research training, participants identified broader social, economic and political factors as influential in infectious disease control. Conclusions The needs assessment suggests that future training should focus on operational research techniques, rather than on clinical skill building or program implementation only. Strengthening health systems not only requires additional research training, but also adequate financial resources to implement research findings. PMID:20875140

  13. Lóxoro, traces of a contemporary Peruvian genderlect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Rojas-Berscia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Not long after the premiere of Loxoro in 2011, a short-film by Claudia Llosa which presents the problems the transgender community faces in the capital of Peru, a new language variety became visible for the first time to the Lima society. Lóxoro [‘lok.so.ɾo] or Húngaro [‘uŋ.ga.ɾo], as its speakers call it, is a language spoken by transsexuals and the gay community of Peru. The first clues about its existence were given by a comedian, Fernando Armas, in the mid 90’s, however it is said to have appeared not before the 60’s. Following some previous work on gay languages by Baker (2002 and languages and society (cf. Halliday 1978, the main aim of the present article is to provide a primary sketch of this language in its phonological, morphological, lexical and sociological aspects, based on a small corpus extracted from the film of Llosa and natural dialogues from Peruvian TV-journals, in order to classify this variety within modern sociolinguistic models (cf. Muysken 2010 and argue for the “anti-language” (cf. Halliday 1978 nature of it.

  14. Role of Global Food Security in the Common Agrarian Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor N. Shcherbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author devoted his research to the role of the global food security in the priorities of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (CAP. The research sheds light on the parameters of the Common Agricultural Policy and the basic steps on the path of its reform. The research demonstrates that the priorities of the EC are mainly concentrated on achieving food security for the member-states of the EC, its population and the interests of the agricultural sector. The modern challenges to the Global Food Security (global food crises of 2007-2009, acute food shortages and hunger in crises regions of Africa and chronic malnutrition are placed high on the agenda of the CAP. In this situation, the EU is trying in the interests of stabilization of the world agricultural market to solve simultaneously the tasks of providing assistance for development and mitigation of the threats to the Global Food security. The deepening rift between the strategy of the CAP oriented towards promotion of agricultural export and real contribution of the EC to the Global Food Security and assistance for development is becoming more and more the most «vulnerable» place of the CAP.

  15. Impact of Euro-Canadian agrarian practices: in search of sustainable import-substitution strategies to enhance food security in subarctic Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelaar, Nicole F; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, food insecurity exists among Aboriginal (Inuit, Metis and First Nations) people living in remote northern communities, in part, because of their reliance on the industrialized, import-based food system. Local food production as a substitute to imports would be an adaptive response, but enhancement of food security via food localization requires reflection on previous failings of conventional agricultural strategies so that informed decisions can be made. In light of potential reintroduction of local food production in remote First Nations communities, we investigated the cultural, social and ecological effects of a 20th century, Euro-Canadian agrarian settlement on the food system of a subarctic First Nation; this will act as the first step in developing a more sustainable local food program and enhancing food security in this community. To investigate the socio-cultural impacts of the Euro-Canadian agrarian initiative on the food system of Fort Albany First Nation, purposive, semi-directive interviews were conducted with elders and other knowledgeable community members. Interview data were placed into themes using inductive analyses. To determine the biophysical impact of the agrarian initiative, soil samples were taken from one site within the cultivated area and from one site in an undisturbed forest area. Soil properties associated with agricultural use and productivity were assessed. To compare the means of a given soil property between the sites, one-tailed t-tests were employed. Vegetative analysis was conducted in both sites to assess disturbance. According to the interviewees, prior to the agrarian initiative, First Nation families harvested wild game and fish, and gathered berries as well as other forms of vegetation for sustenance. With the introduction of the residential school and agrarian initiative, traditional food practices were deemed inadequate, families were forced to work and live in the settlement (becoming less reliant on

  16. The Tendencies and Prospects of Teaching the Discipline of «Managerial Consulting» in the Agrarian Institutions for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk Iryna I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching the discipline of «Managerial consulting» in the higher education institutions of Ukraine is characterized by a wide range of thematic issues and depends on the structure of the educational programs of specializations. The article is aimed at substantiating the prospects for contents of the discipline of «Managerial consulting» and proposing innovative approaches to its teaching in the agrarian higher education institutions. The article substantiates the algorithm of the content formation of the discipline of «Managerial consulting» in the agrarian higher education institutions, based on the object-subject approach and using the principle of sectoral differentiation in the process of its teaching. As innovative approaches in the course of teaching the discipline of «Managerial consulting» should be considered the interchangeability of contents, the possibility to group topics, the concentration of information as to institutional regulation, the information support of the agrarian consulting, the development of the system of agricultural consulting, the implementation of mechanisms of educative consulting.

  17. Reforming process. Reformierungsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, C.S.

    1982-05-19

    A naphta fraction is subjected to a catalytic reforming process in several series-connected reactors. The first reactor is equipped with a moving catalyst bed containing not more the 30% of volume of the total catalyst amount. The other reactors are designed as packed-bed systems. The content of coke deposited on the catalyst of the first reactor owing to the reforming process is maintained at below 1% of weight. This is effected by periodic removal of a proportion of the contaminated catalyst from the bottom part of the bed, by its regeneration and re-feeding to the top part of the bed. This results in prolonged service life of the catalyst and simultaneous improvement of the anti-knock value of the product.

  18. Demographic knowledge and nation-building: the Peruvian census of 1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Raúl Necochea

    2010-09-01

    The demographers who organized the 1940 census of Peru portrayed the increasingly mixed-race Peruvian population as indicative of the breaking down of cultural barriers to the emergence of a robust Peruvian identity, a process that, they claimed, would lead to greater national development. This paper analyzes the ways in which demographers constructed cultural heterogeneity as a potential national asset. This reveals how scientific knowledge of miscegenation affected the formation of a nationalist project in the second half of the twentieth century, and also how demographers' ideological commitments to socialism shaped scientific practice.

  19. Environmental fiscal reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Chaturvedi; Manjeet S. Saluja; Abhijit Banerjee; Rachna Arora

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR) and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of imp...

  20. Implementing Security Sector Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-04

    ownership and genuine reform. His experience in Diyala Province indicated that the most effective means of pursuing transition and transformation among...that I have no solution to the security situation in Afghanistan, or to the questions of violence, crime, insurrection, or militias vs . army vs ...than to merge those interests into a greater whole. Franchising of problems or solutions is often the result. In Afghanistan, problems and

  1. Climate change and potato cropping in the Peruvian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, J.; Lhomme, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on potatoes cropping in the Peruvian highlands (Altiplano) is assessed using climate projections for 2071-2100, obtained from the HadRM3P regional atmospheric model of the Hadley Centre. The atmospheric model is run under two different special report on emission scenarios: high CO2 concentration (A2) and moderate CO2 concentration (B2) for four locations situated in the surroundings of Lake Titicaca. The two main varieties of potato cultivated in the area are studied: the Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum) and the bitter potato ( Solanum juzepczukii). A simple process-oriented model is used to quantify the climatic impacts on crops cycles and yields by combining the effects of temperature on phenology, of radiation and CO2 on maximum yield and of water balance on yield deficit. In future climates, air temperature systematically increases, precipitation tends to increase at the beginning of the rainy season and slightly decreases during the rest of the season. The direct effects of these climatic changes are earlier planting dates, less planting failures and shorter crop cycles in all the four locations and for both scenarios. Consequently, the harvesting dates occur systematically earlier: roughly in January for the Andean potato instead of March in the current situation and in February for the bitter potato instead of April. Overall, yield deficits will be higher under climate change than in the current climate. There will be a strong negative impact on yields for S. tuberosum (stronger under A2 scenario than under B2); the impact on S. juzepczukii yields, however, appears to be relatively mixed and not so negative.

  2. Land Use Change Driven by Gold Mining; Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, J. J.; Carter, C. E.; domec, J.; Delgado, C. I.

    2011-12-01

    Many factors such as poverty, ineffective institutions and environmental regulations may prevent developing countries from managing how natural resources are extracted to meet a strong market demand. Extraction for some resources has reached such proportions that evidence is measurable from space. We present recent evidence of the global demand for a single commodity and the ecosystem destruction resulting from commodity extraction, recorded by satellites for one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. We find that since 2003, recent mining deforestation in Madre de Dios, Peru is increasing nonlinearly alongside a constant annual rate of increase in international gold price (~18%/yr). We detect that the new pattern of mining deforestation (1915 ha/year, 2006-2009) is outpacing that of nearby settlement deforestation. We show that gold price is linked with exponential increases in Peruvian national mercury imports over time (R2 = 0.93, p = 0.04, 2003- 2009). Given the past rates of increase we predict that mercury imports may more than double for 2011 (~500 t/year). Virtually all of Peru's mercury imports are used in artisanal gold mining. Much of the mining increase is unregulated/ artisanal in nature, lacking environmental impact analysis or miner education. As a result, large quantities of mercury are being released into the atmosphere, sediments and waterways. Other developing countries endowed with gold deposits are likely experiencing similar environmental destruction in response to recent record high gold prices. The increasing availability of satellite imagery ought to evoke further studies linking economic variables with land use and cover changes on the ground.

  3. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Peruvian primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Añazco, Percy; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Lazo-Porras, María; Alberto Quintanilla, E; Ortiz-Soriano, Victor Manuel; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2017-07-19

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. There are few studies in Latin America, especially in primary care settings. Our objective was to determine the prevalence, stages, and associated factors of CKD in primary care setting. We did a retrospective secondary analysis of a database from the Diabetes and Hypertension Primary Care Center of the Peruvian Social Security System (EsSalud) in Lima, Peru. We defined CKD as the presence of eGFR 30 mg/day in 24 h, according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Factors associated with CKD were evaluated with Poisson Regression models; these factors included age, gender, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), hypertension (HTN), body mass index (BMI), and uric acid. Associations were described as crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We evaluated 1211 patients (women [59%], mean age 65.8 years [SD: 12.7]). Prevalence of CKD was 18%. Using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the prevalence was 9.3% (95% CI 5.3 - 13.3) in patients without HTN or DM2; 20.2% (95% CI 17.6 - 22.8) in patients with HTN, and 23.9% (95% CI 19.4 - 28.4) in patients with DM2. The most common stages were 1 and 2 with 41.5% and 48%, respectively. Factors associated with CKD in the adjusted analysis were: age in years (PR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.04), DM2 (PR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.09 - 10.39), HTN plus DM2 (PR = 3.90, 95% CI 1.54 - 9.88), and uric acid from 5 to DM2, older age and hyperuricemia have higher prevalence of CKD.

  4. De-demonizing the VRAEM: A Peruvian-Cocalero Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Francisco

    2016-01-02

    The valley of the rivers Apurímac, Ene, and Mantaro (VRAEM) is the main center of coca production in Peru. This is a jungle area located between southern highland regions, and is notorious for the presence of drug-trafficking and the last remnants of Shining Path guerrillas. As a result, it occupies a central place in security policies in Peru, and has been "demonized" in the national imaginary. This article explores the current situation, recent history, and most important collectives of the VRAEM, challenging stereotypes about it. The article is based on short-term fieldwork undertaken in the VRAEM in March 2008, and long-term research conducted in Ayacucho in 2008-2009; and it is contextualized in relation to the literature on coca producing areas and drug policies. The negative image of the VRAEM started in the context of the 1980s-1990s coca boom and Peruvian armed conflict. State policies in the area since then have been mainly based on militarization and repression, contributing to maintain that negative image, which differs of a complex and nuanced local reality. A coca eradication campaign started in 2014, bringing major changes. The negative image of the VRAEM is largely unfair, and has been mainly based on stereotypes and prejudices. This negative stereotyping contributes to justify and maintain inefficient and pernicious state policies in the area, and to criminalize local people. There is an urgent need for fieldwork-based studies in the area to counteract those negative stereotypes and monitor current events.

  5. Meteorological constraints on oceanic halocarbons above the Peruvian upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhlbrügge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL were investigated above the Peruvian upwelling. This study presents novel observations of the three very short lived substances (VSLSs – bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide – together with high-resolution meteorological measurements, Lagrangian transport and source–loss calculations. Oceanic emissions of bromoform and dibromomethane were relatively low compared to other upwelling regions, while those for methyl iodide were very high. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting as strong barriers for convection and vertical transport of trace gases in this region. Observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height correlated well during the cruise. We used a simple source–loss estimate to quantify the contribution of oceanic emissions along the cruise track to the observed atmospheric concentrations. This analysis showed that averaged, instantaneous emissions could not support the observed atmospheric mixing ratios of VSLSs and that the marine background abundances below the trade inversion were significantly influenced by advection of regional sources. Adding to this background, the observed maximum emissions of halocarbons in the coastal upwelling could explain the high atmospheric VSLS concentrations in combination with their accumulation under the distinct MABL and trade inversions. Stronger emissions along the nearshore coastline likely added to the elevated abundances under the steady atmospheric conditions. This study underscores the importance of oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on the atmospheric distribution of marine VSLS emissions.

  6. Meteorological constraints on oceanic halocarbons above the Peruvian upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Quack, Birgit; Atlas, Elliot; Fiehn, Alina; Hepach, Helmke; Krüger, Kirstin

    2016-09-01

    During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian upwelling. This study presents novel observations of the three very short lived substances (VSLSs) - bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide - together with high-resolution meteorological measurements, Lagrangian transport and source-loss calculations. Oceanic emissions of bromoform and dibromomethane were relatively low compared to other upwelling regions, while those for methyl iodide were very high. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting as strong barriers for convection and vertical transport of trace gases in this region. Observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height correlated well during the cruise. We used a simple source-loss estimate to quantify the contribution of oceanic emissions along the cruise track to the observed atmospheric concentrations. This analysis showed that averaged, instantaneous emissions could not support the observed atmospheric mixing ratios of VSLSs and that the marine background abundances below the trade inversion were significantly influenced by advection of regional sources. Adding to this background, the observed maximum emissions of halocarbons in the coastal upwelling could explain the high atmospheric VSLS concentrations in combination with their accumulation under the distinct MABL and trade inversions. Stronger emissions along the nearshore coastline likely added to the elevated abundances under the steady atmospheric conditions. This study underscores the importance of oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on the atmospheric distribution of marine VSLS emissions.

  7. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high

  8. Landscape Transformation under Global Environmental Change in Mediterranean Mountains: Agrarian Lands as a Guarantee for Maintaining Their Multifunctionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Varga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of past and present patterns of agrarian mountain areas allows researchers to characterize the influence of landscape heterogeneity on biodiversity, cultural heritage, and forest fire hazard. This process was mapped, quantified, and described through the use of digital mapping (GIS and landscape indexes in a protected area in Alta Garrotxa (Catalonia, Spain. These areas require urgent management and modelling to provide alternative management scenarios, in order to maintain and recover habitats. A set of different scenarios have been designed using a multi-criteria evaluation and geospatial information available for the study area to identify the key areas for management action and to predict the potential effects on agricultural lands by prioritizing one or another management objective: biodiversity, landscape structure and perception, cultural heritage, fire hazard, and management cost. The observed progressive land abandonment of open areas with a small size and greater isolation will have a large impact on biodiversity and cultural heritage, and increase fire risk. Sustainable development will require planning objectives compatible with the conservation of biodiversity and the preservation of Mediterranean features with support for agricultural activities. This methodology can contribute to and be easily implemented by land managers, which could help to strengthen the link between managers and stakeholders.

  9. Operational Efficiency as a Factor of Formation of Strategies of Positioning of Products of Agrarian Enterprises in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozak Lyudmyla V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses operational efficiency as a factor of formation of strategies of positioning of products of agrarian enterprises in Ukraine on the basis of competitive analysis of crop yield, livestock yield and cost of products by aggregate and variable expenditures. The author analyses the level of intensity of production by the criterion of aggregate and variable expenditures per one hectare of crop (one head of livestock in Ukraine and in its main competitors in the world markets of agricultural products – USA and Germany. On the basis of the conducted analysis the article draws a conclusion that the applied technologies of production in Ukraine have less intensity in the context of crop and livestock yield, but namely the limited use of resources allows domestic producers keeping the production cost at a lower level than that of the competitors. It pays big attention to comparative analysis of competitiveness of supply of agricultural producers in the said countries by the criterion of payout of expenditures without state payments.

  10. Kettle Holes in the Agrarian Landscape: Isolated and Ecological Unique Habitats for Carabid Beetles (Col.: Carabidae and Spiders (Arach.: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platen Ralph

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kettle holes are small depressional wetlands and because of the high variability of site factors they are potential hotspots of biodiversity in the monotone arable land. We investigated eight kettle holes and two agrarian reference biotopes for carabid beetles and spiders. The animals were captured with pitfall traps from May to August 2005, along with surveys of the soil and vegetation. We asked whether each kettle hole has specific ecological properties which match with characteristic carabid beetle and spider coenoses and whether they represent isolated biotopes. Differences in the composition of ecological and functional groups of carabid beetles and spiders between the plots were tested with an ANOVA. The impact of the soil variables and vegetation structure on the distribution of species was analyzed with a Redundancy Analysis. The assemblage similarities between the kettle hole plots were calculated by the Wainstein-Index. Ecological groups and habitat preferences of carabid beetles had maximal expressions in seven different kettle holes whereas most of the ecological characteristics of the spiders had maximal expression in only two kettle holes. High assemblage similarity values of carabid beetle coenoses were observed only in a few cases whereas very similar spider coenoses were found between nearly all of the kettle holes. For carabid beetles, kettle holes represent much more isolated habitats than that for spiders. We concluded that kettle holes have specific ecological qualities which match with different ecological properties of carabid beetles and spiders and that isolation effects affect carabid beetles more than spiders.

  11. Agrarian foreign trade of the Czech Republic in the period of 2004–2008, competitiveness of commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Burianová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with agrarian foreign trade (AFT of the Czech Republic during the period of 2004–2008. Distinct changes in the trade volume, but also changes in the net export structure were observed. The export is being assisted with a much larger trading area without customs restrictions but it is also exposed to a much tougher competition. A methodology that makes it possible to evaluate the competitiveness of individual commodities is described in the first part. A sequence of individual items from a total list of basic food goods was analyzed using chosen indicators – Balass indicator RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage as well as the Michaely index MI that shows a specific degree of specialization for export. In the Results section, attention is firstly focused on the year 2004. The values of export and import for 24 items of basic food commodities are summarised, and the most important items in respect of the share in total export are selected. Analogical output was acquired for the year 2008. The values of RCA and MI indicators are then itemised, and a sequence is determined for the highest values for the commodities able to compete that shows the specific degree of specialization for export.

  12. Structural Sexual Violence in the Peruvian Military : An Empirical Study of Discrimination against Women and its consequences in the Peruvian Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo, Leiry

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the better understanding of structural sexual violence against women. Through a human rights approach, the author examines the link between the gendered discriminatory policies against women and the occurrences of sexual violence against female soldiers within the Peruvian Armed Forces. This empirical study demonstrates that whereas civil and political rights must be respected and enforced, the satisfaction of socio-economic rights is also a key element for the preve...

  13. Economic Reforms and Constitutional Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...

  14. Security Sector Reform in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...

  15. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  16. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  17. Interspecies Respect and Potato Conservation in the Peruvian Cradle of Domestication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angé, Olivia; Chipa, Adrian; Condori, Pedro; Ccoyo, Aniceto Ccoyo; Mamani, Lino; Pacco, Ricardo; Quispe, Nazario; Quispe, Walter; Sutta, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores people and tuber affective encounters, as they unfold in a biodiversity conservation programme in the Peruvian Andes. It draws on ethnographic data from the Potato Park, renowned worldwide as one of the most successful in-situ initiatives for the conservation of biocultural

  18. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Peruvian copper smelters detected by the ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carn, S.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Krotkov, N.A.; Yang, Kai; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first daily observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from copper smelters by a satellite-borne sensor - the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's EOS/Aura spacecraft. Emissions from two Peruvian smelters (La Oroya and Ilo) were detected in up to 80% of OMI overpasses

  19. LEXICAL CREATION PROCESSES IN PERUVIAN ARGOT: THE CASE OF VERBAL 'FLOREO'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayssa Taranto Ramírez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to conceptualize and define the so-called verbal Floreo, phenomenon of argot (ie, related to the argot, used by jeringa speakers, Peruvian youth argot. It is discussed the validity of the remaining existing nomenclatures, why speakers resort to such process of lexical creation and, based on the corpus, it is demonstrated how the phenomenon works in Spanish.

  20. Icon and Idea: A Symbolic Reading of Pictures in a Peruvian Indian Chronicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Rolena

    1979-01-01

    An examination and categorization of over 400 full-page drawings in the 1615 "Nueva coronica y bien gobierno" of Felipe Guaman Poma de Alaya, which details life in the Peruvian Viceroyalty. Explains the function of the illustrations in the text and that of five "signifying attributes" of spatial configuration. (SB)

  1. Short Report: High Incidence of Shigellosis Among Peruvian Soldiers Deployed in the Amazon River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Franca R; Sanchez, Jose L; Meza, Rina; Batsel, Tanis M; Burga, Rosa; Canal, Enrique; Block, Karla; Perez, Juan; Bautista, Christian T; Escobedo, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    ...). Most (83 of 90; 92%) of the Shigella isolates were S. flexneri, of which 57 (69%) were serotype 2a. Seventy-six percent of Shigella isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim and all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Peruvian soldiers may be an excellent population in which to test the efficacy of S. flexneri vaccines in advanced development.

  2. Prevalence of Mycoplasma haemolamae infection in Peruvian and Chilean llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, Susan J; Boeder, Lisa; Rios-Phillips, Carolina; Alarcon, Virgilio

    2010-09-01

    Mycoplasma haemolamae is a hemotropic mycoplasma that affects red blood cells of llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). It is variably associated with anemia, and most infections are subclinical. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay has facilitated detection of this infection in llamas and alpacas in the United States and other countries. Whether the infection occurs in camelids in South America has previously been unknown. The current study documents a 15.8% infection rate among 76 Peruvian llamas, a 19.3% infection rate among Peruvian alpacas at one site, and a 9.26% infection rate in 108 Chilean alpacas from selected herds. All of the camelids tested appeared to be clinically healthy. No gender or species predilection was found. Only 1 positive camelid younger than 18 months was found. Infection is not associated with anemia, and the mean packed cell volume (PCV) in positive Peruvian camelids was slightly higher than the mean PCV in negative Peruvian camelids. In the Chilean alpacas, the positive alpacas had a slightly lower PCV than the negative alpacas, although the mean PCV was not in the anemic range in any of the groups.

  3. Bilingual Education and Language Use among the Shipibo of the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacelosky, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how language choice for education contributes to changes in the way a society views and uses language in the context of the Peruvian Amazon. Oral surveys were administered to Shipibo people in 13 communities along the Ucayali River of eastern Peru where a transition type bilingual education program was introduced several decades ago.…

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions along a peat swamp forest degradation gradient in the Peruvian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, van Jeffrey; Hergoualc’h, Kristell; Verchot, Louis; Oenema, Oene; Groenigen, van Jan Willem

    2018-01-01

    Tropical peatlands in the Peruvian Amazon exhibit high densities of Mauritia flexuosa palms, which are often cut instead of being climbed for collecting their fruits. This is an important type of forest degradation in the region that could lead to changes in the structure and composition of the

  5. Potential Improvements to VLBA UV-Coverages by the Addition of a 32-m Peruvian Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, S.; Murphy, D. W.; Ishitsuka, J. K.; Ishitsuka, M.

    2005-12-01

    A plan is being currently developed to convert a 32-m telecomunications antenna in the Peruvian Andes into a radio astronomy facility. Significant improvements to stand-alone VLBA UV-coverages can be obtained with the addition of this southern hemisphere telescope to VLBA observations.

  6. "Una Nacion Acorralada": Southern Peruvian Quechua Language Planning and Politics in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Outlines history of Spanish colonial policies toward Southern Peruvian Quechua and points out those issues under debate concerning the indigenous languages. The central issue of the "Andean language debate" continues to be whether or not the Quechua have a right to exist as a separate community. (SL)

  7. Drunken Speech and the Construction of Meaning: Bilingual Competence in the Southern Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Penelope M.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of the language use of drunken speakers in a bilingual Southern Peruvian Andes community found that drunken speakers were less constrained in their linguistic choices by individual linguistic competence and of differential status between speaker and addressee, and they exploited the ambiguities in implicit social meanings that normally…

  8. Contribution of isotope techniques to evaluate water resources in the Peruvian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araguas, L.; Arroyo, C.; Palza, G.; Rojas, R.; Romero, J.; Silar, J.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental isotopes H , 18 O, 13 C, 3 H, and 14 C were regularly measured in precipitation, surface, and ground water to investigate a series of problems linked with the management of water resources in the Peruvian Altiplano, a plateau located in Southern Peru

  9. Regeneration in canopy gaps of tierra-firme forest in the Peruvian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Jovanovic, Milos; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    the regeneration dynamics of logging gaps with naturally occuring canopy gaps. In the concession of Consorcio Forestal Amazonico in the region of Ucayali in the Peruvian Amazon, a total of 210 circular sample plots were established in 35 gaps in unmanaged natural forest and 35 canopy gaps in forest managed...

  10. East of the Andes: The genetic profile of the Peruvian Amazon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corcia, T; Sanchez Mellado, C; Davila Francia, T J; Ferri, G; Sarno, S; Luiselli, D; Rickards, O

    2017-06-01

    Assuming that the differences between the Andes and the Amazon rainforest at environmental and historical levels have influenced the distribution patterns of genes, languages, and cultures, the maternal and paternal genetic reconstruction of the Peruvian Amazon populations was used to test the relationships within and between these two extreme environments. We analyzed four Peruvian Amazon communities (Ashaninka, Huambisa, Cashibo, and Shipibo) for both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 8 SNPs) and mtDNA data (control region sequences, two diagnostic sites of the coding region, and one INDEL), and we studied their variability against the rest of South America. We detected a high degree of genetic diversity in the Peruvian Amazon people, both for mtDNA than for Y chromosome, excepting for Cashibo people, who seem to have had no exchanges with their neighbors, in contrast with the others communities. The genetic structure follows the divide between the Andes and the Amazon, but we found a certain degree of gene flow between these two environments, as particularly emerged with the Y chromosome descent cluster's (DCs) analysis. The Peruvian Amazon is home to an array of populations with differential rates of genetic exchanges with their neighbors and with the Andean people, depending on their peculiar demographic histories. We highlighted some successful Y chromosome lineages expansions originated in Peru during the pre-Columbian history which involved both Andeans and Amazon Arawak people, showing that at least a part of the Amazon rainforest did not remain isolated from those exchanges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Peruvian grassroots organizations in times of violence and peace. Between economic solidarity, participatory democracy, and feminism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waardt, M.F.; Ypeij, A.

    2017-01-01

    The new millennium has meant a new start for Peruvian society. After decades of political violence, economic crisis, and an internal war, democracy was restored, and economic growth resumed. The many grassroots organizations that had been established to address the economic and political crisis seem

  12. Reform Drivers and Reform Obstacles in Natural Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The ability to transform historical learning into institutional reform is a key to success in the management of common pool natural resources. Based on a model of institutional inertia and a comparative analysis of Northeast Atlantic fisheries management from 1945 to the present....... Institutional inertia entails that large-scale management reform tends to be crisis driven....

  13. Turkish electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin [Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Odyakmaz, Necmi [E.ON Holding, Armada Business Centre, 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Turkish electricity reform has progressed slowly due to internal resistance against privatisation, and gained momentum after Electricity Market Law of 2001, prepared in line with EU Energy Acquis and established required institutional and legal framework. Although the eligibility threshold has reached 39% market opening rate, the dominant position of public both as owner and decision-maker is still the major problem in the sector. Currently Turkey is self-sufficient in electricity, but likely to face shortages in 10 years if the growing demand is not met by either speeding the liberalisation process, or joining the South East Europe Electricity Market. (author)

  14. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  15. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  16. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy presents an overview of social policy reforms currently ... It shows how some experimental approaches to reform have worked in different ... and students in development studies and social sciences; policymakers and ...

  17. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  18. Eocene Unification of Peruvian and Bolivian Altiplano Basin Depocenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, J.; Sundell, K. E.; Perez, N.; Karsky, N.; Lapen, T. J.; Cárdenas, J.

    2017-12-01

    Paleogene evolution of the Altiplano basin has been characterized as a flexural foreland basin which developed in response to magmatic and thrust loading along its western margin. Research focused in southern Peru and Bolivia points to broadly synchronous foredeep deposition in a basin assumed to be have been contiguous from at least 14°-23°S. We investigated Paleogene strata exposed on the southwestern margin of Lake Titicaca near the Peru/Bolivia border in order to establish sediment dispersal systems, sediment sources, and the chronology of deposition. A data set of >1,000 paleocurrent measurements throughout the section consistently indicates a western sediment source. The results of detrital zircon mixture modeling are consistent with derivation from Cretaceous volcanic sources, and Cretaceous and Ordovician sedimentary strata exposed in the Western Cordillera. These results confirm previous models in which sedimentary sources for the Altiplano basin are dominated by the Western Cordillera throughout the Paleogene. The detrital zircon signatures from strata in this stratigraphic section where paleocurrent orientation is well constrained provide a benchmark for future research seeking to determine sediment sources for the Altiplano basin. However, refined chronologies based on detrital zircon U-Pb maximum depositional ages (MDAs) point to development of at least two Paleocene depocenters in Peru and Bolivia separated by a zone of nondeposition or erosion in southern Peru. The basal Muñani Formation in southern Peru yields MDAs of 36.9-40.2 Ma, which requires revision of the previously determined middle Paleocene onset of deposition. The Muñani Formation overlies the Vilquechico Group which has been biostratigraphically determined to range from Campanian-Maastrichtian (or possibly Paleocene, 60 Ma). The revised chronology for the Muñani Formation requires a disconformity of at least 20 Myr during which deposition continued in both the Peruvian and Bolivian

  19. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Ulrike; Sommer, Stefan; Dale, Andrew W.; Löscher, Carolin R.; Noffke, Anna; Wallmann, Klaus; Hensen, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P at six stations, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments, and pore fluids, as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid-phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15). This suggests that the relative burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under low-oxygen conditions and that the sediments underlying the anoxic waters on the Peru margin are not depleted in P compared to Redfield. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1), however, showing that a lack of oxygen promotes the intensified release of dissolved P from sediments, whilst preserving the POC / TPP burial ratio. Benthic dissolved P fluxes were always higher than the TPP rain rate to the seabed, which is proposed to be caused by transient P release by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments, indicating ongoing phosphorite formation. This is further supported by decreasing porewater phosphate concentrations with sediment depth, whereas solid-phase P concentrations were comparatively

  20. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  1. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  2. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  3. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  4. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  5. Common morality and moral reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  6. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  7. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  8. Utilization of agrarian potentials'. Challenges for agriculturists and society; Agrar-Potenziale nutzen.. Herausforderung fuer Landwirte und Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the scope of the meeting 'Utilization of agrarian potentials' held by Deutsche Landwirtschaftliche Gesellschaft e.V. at 8th to 10th January, 2008, in Muenster (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) The world markets move - challenges for production (Joachim von Braun); (b) Global markets - future terms of references for the agriculture: guidelines for future strategies under new objectives (Juergen Zeddies); (c) Structural change and globalization - challenges for cooperative societies as market partners of the agriculture (Andreas Schueren, Dieter Hake); (d) More efficient utilization of scarce resources - we need changed thought patterns and decision patterns (Carl-Albrecht Bartmer); (e) Optimal intensities in the agriculture - the requirement of the hour: Adjustment of production at optimal intensity (Theo Jachmann); (f) Growth potentials of selected locations for the agriculture - area productivity in the international comparison (Klaus Nehring); (g) Optimization of the intensities in the crop farming - new challenges, possible adjustments (Hubertus Paetow); (h) Considering inventory management? The fertilization of tomorrow (Klaus Muenchhoff); (i) Value added chain of grain - quality requirements from the view of the traceability: The test system grain (Petra Melisch); (j) Young farmers full of optimism - current results of interview for the estimation of the situation and future and to efficiency potentials (Marika Prasser-Strith); (k) The responsibility for the soil - challenges at technology for cultivation and tillage (Franz-Georg von Busse); (l) The sustainable use of the plough land is an obligation - plough land is precious. (Lothar Hoevelmann); (m) Development of milk cattle companies till 2015 - strategic future planning now necessarily (Johannes Thomsen); (n) The ethical responsibility for a sustainable and global development - agriculture and nutrition (Beatrice van Saan-Klein, Markus Vogt); (o) Ethical

  9. Typical patterns of smallholder vulnerability to weather extremes with regard to food security in the Peruvian Altiplano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietz, D.; Mamani Choque, S.E.; Lûdeke, M.K.B.

    2012-01-01

    Smallholder livelihoods in the Peruvian Altiplano are frequently threatened by weather extremes, including droughts, frosts and heavy rainfall. Given the persistence of significant undernourishment despite regional development efforts, we propose a cluster approach to evaluate smallholders’

  10. Public Administration reforms and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on administrative reforms during the past thirty years indicates that reform efforts of countries differ. The Anglo Saxon states were at the forefront of the New Public Management movement while countries on mainland Europe were more hesitant and moved further towards the Neo-Weberian state. Academics have tried to explain different reform efforts within countries by looking at political, historical and cultural issues, values and economic factors to name just a few. Three hypotheses are put forward to explain reform efforts in different states. This research involves analysing the implementation of two different reform trends, New Public Management and the Neo-Weberian tradition. The analysis indicates that countries vary in their commitment to reform rather than in the emphasis on either New Public Management or the Neo-Weberian State. Decentralization, clear objectives and consultation with communities and experts are closely related to national reform efforts. However, Iceland does distinguish itself from Europe and the Nordic countries. The analysis reveals that although decentralization is high in the Icelandic system, autonomy of agencies does not have a strong relation to a varied use of administrative instruments. The second part of the article focuses on the results and achievements of reform programmes. The achievement of reform programmes are examined in relation to theories of bounded rationality, street level bureaucracy (bottom up and consensus decision making. Three hypotheses are presented and tested to explain what causes reforms programmes to be successful in some countries and not in others. The analysis reveals that countries are more likely to succeed if bounded rationality is applied with careful preparation and when stakeholders are consulted.

  11. Lead exposure in indigenous children of the Peruvian Amazon : seeking the hidden source,venturing into participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Anticona Huaynate, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In 2006, a Peruvian environmental agency reported the presence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in indigenous communities of the Corrientes river basin. This is a territory in the Peruvian Amazon where oil activity has been associated with serious environmental effects, with impact on an ongoing social conflict. This PhD project aimed to determine the lead sources, risk factors and pathways in children of these communities and to suggest control and prevention strategies. Gi...

  12. Novel and known MYOC exon 3 mutations in an admixed Peruvian primary open-angle glaucoma population

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Reinoso, Veronica; Patil, Teja S.; Guevara Fujita, María Luisa; Fernández, Silvia; Vargas, Enrique; Castillo Herrera, Wilder; Perez Grossmann, Rodolfo; Lizaraso Caparó, Frank; Richards, Julia E.; Fujita, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize a representative sample of the Peruvian population suffering openangle glaucoma (OAG) with respect to the myocilin gene (MYOC) mutations, glaucoma phenotype, and ancestry for future glaucoma risk assessment. Methods: DNA samples from 414 unrelated Peruvian subjects, including 205 open-angle glaucoma cases (10 juvenile glaucoma [JOAG], 19 normal-tension glaucoma [NTG], and 176 POAG) and 209 randomly sampled controls, were screen...

  13. Analysis of the differences between the accounting and tax treatment for items of property, plant and equipment: The Peruvian case

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Alfredo Díaz Becerra; Luis Alberto Durán Rojo; Amalia Valencia Medina

    2012-01-01

    This research work aims principally to make an analysis showing differences between the measurement and the recognition of items of property, plant and equipment. It focuses on the differences caused by existing differences between the treatment settled in the accounting standards and the one settled in the tax regulations related to Corporate Income Tax, for Peruvian case.A review of the related accounting standards and the standards established in the Peruvian Income Tax Law and its regulat...

  14. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  15. On being African and Reformed? Towards an African Reformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-17

    Jun 17, 2014 ... It is furthermore our contention that the notion of culture and African worldviews was always perceived negatively ..... dean of the South East Asia Graduate School of Theology. He later .... Another Reformed church for Indian.

  16. on the accra document, reformed theology and reformed ecclesiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-14

    Dec 14, 2009 ... Many churches and ecumenical bodies have already responded, in diverse ways ..... and contains a number of practical commitments and appeals. (par. ..... rhetorical power and emotion that it seemingly has for Reformed.

  17. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.

    2017-10-31

    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  18. Estimate and prospective studies on Peruvian environmental legal system after Río + 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foy Valencia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to explain core ideas resulting from processes of which Peruvian environmental legal system is derived; it is morean overview rather than a system characterization, as well as a perspective or sampling foresight representing Río +20 process meaning. In that sense, it examines the modern environmental regulations rising context and provides a brief retrospective of Peruvian environmental legal system development and prospective studies within the frame of green economy paradigms and the environmental governance, presenting only three prospective references aschallenges and trends on: Climate and Energy Law, a new legal Framework for a Green Economy and Sustainable Enterprise, and finally, stressing emphatically on mega-cities, Conurbation and Land use Planning issues given little attention usually law renders to this matters.

  19. Diversity of the genus Polylepis (Rosaceae, Sanguisorbeae in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Mendoza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the diversity of Peruvian species of Polylepis. Nineteen (19 species are reported here (more than 70% of the 27 species registered for the whole Andean region. As a result, Peru could be considered as the country with the largest diversity of Polylepis species, in comparison with Bolivia (13, Ecuador (7, Argentina (4, Colombia (3, Chile (2, and Venezuela (1. The species occur in 19 departments of Peru, with the majority of them in Cusco (10 and Ayacucho (8. Species diversity is mostly concentrated in the Peruvian southern Andes (15 species, with the region becoming the potential center of diversification of the genus Polylepis. Regarding their altitudinal distribution, the greatest diversity (18 is found between 3000 and 4000 m.

  20. Parenting, socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in Peruvian families and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisse L. Manrique Millones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation. Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Native Microalgae from the Peruvian Amazon with Potential for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Cobos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from microalgae triacylglycerols is growing, because this feedstock is a more sustainable and advantageous alternative. In this study, we isolated and identified fourteen strains of native microalgae from the Peruvian Amazon. These strains showed great heterogeneity in biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content, and thus, three of them (Acutodesmus obliquus, Ankistrodesmus sp. and Chlorella lewinii were selected for further evaluation under culture of nitrogen-sufficient (+N and nitrogen-deficient (−N Chu medium No. 10. These microalgae species showed modifications in biomolecule content (protein, lipid and carbohydrate with a pronounced increase of lipids and carbohydrate and a decrease of protein content under stress culture. Furthermore, the fatty acid profile was peculiar for each species, and these patterns showed evident changes, particularly in the proportion of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The results of this research suggest that the isolated native microalgae, from the Peruvian Amazon, could be suitable candidates for biodiesel production

  2. High prevalence of clustered tuberculosis cases in Peruvian migrants in Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zammarchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a leading cause of morbidity for Peruvian migrants in Florence, Italy, where they account for about 20% of yearly diagnosed cases. A retrospective study on cases notified in Peruvian residents in Florence in the period 2001-2010 was carried out and available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were genotyped (MIRU-VNTR-24 and Spoligotyping. One hundred thirty eight cases were retrieved. Genotyping performed in 87 strains revealed that 39 (44.8% belonged to 12 clusters. Assuming that in each cluster the transmission of tuberculosis from the index case took place in Florence, a large proportion of cases could be preventable by improving early diagnosis of contagious cases and contact tracing.

  3. The adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles to a Peruvian population of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Sánchez López

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was the adaptation of the MIPS (1994 toa population of 390 university students of Lima ( 188 men and 202 women. The inventory was adapted to the Spanishs poken in Peru. The psychometrical analysis revealed a reliability index of .70 as well as astructural internal validity. Most of the scales presented acceptable levels of internal consistency.The comparison with the studies carried out in Spain and USA showed that the levels of internal-consistency were similar to those found in the Spanish population and slightly below tothose found in the North American population. The analysis of the differences between the averages in each one of the se al es indicated greater discrepancies between the Peruvian populationand the Spanish, than between the Peruvian popular ion and the Nonh American.

  4. Max Uhle - Julio Tello: A political-academic controversy in the conformation of Peruvian archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Max Uhle (1856-1944 and Julio Tello (1880-1947 made prominent contributions to the development of Peruvian archaeology in the first half of the 20th century, coinciding at some points and differing in others. Their contrasting academic proposals were linked to political positions, which in turn impacted the way of imagining the development of Peruvian archaeology. The article analyzes how the interdependence in the characterizations of Uhle and Tello led to the formation of a mirrored logic, placing them in two poles that condense positive and negative assessments, respectively. Finally, we explore the passage from the opposition of both figures to the construction of exclusive and nationality-dependent ways of doing research.

  5. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  7. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  8. Analysis of major risk factors affecting those working in the agrarian sector (based on a sociological survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekoten, Olena M; Dereziuk, Anatolii V; Ihnaschuk, Olena V; Holovchanska, Svitlana E

    Issues related to labour potential, its state and problems have consistently been a focus of attention for the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Its respective analysis shows that labour potential problems remain unresolved in many countries of the world. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), adverse working conditions are among major factors of occupational disease development in Europe and the reason for disabilities of economically active population during 2.5% of their lifetime. The aim of the present study is to identify and analyse major risk factors, which have a bearing on people working in agriculture in the course of exercising their occupation, with account of forms of ownership of agricultural enterprises. Carried out was a cross-sectional study involving a sociological survey of 412 respondents - those working in agriculture - who made up the primary group and the control group. The study revealed 21 risk factors, 9 of which were work-related. A modified elementary cybernetic model of studying impact efficiency was developed with the view of carrying out a structural analysis of the sample group and choosing relevant methodological approaches. It has been established that harmful factors related to working environment and one's lifestyle are decisive in the agrarian sector, particularly for workers of privately owned businesses. For one out of three respondents harmful working conditions manifested themselves as industrial noise (31.7±3.4), vibration (29.0±2.1) trunk bending and constrained working posture (36.6±3.4). The vast majority of agricultural workers (91.6±2.5) admitted they could not afford proper rest during their annual leave; male respondents abused alcohol (70.6±3.0) and smoking (41.4±2.0 per 100 workers). The research established the structure of risk factors, which is sequentially represented by the following groups: behavioral (smoking, drinking of alcohol, rest during annual leave, physical culture), working

  9. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF COPING WITH PRE-EXAMS ANXIETY AND UNCERTAINTY (COPEAU) IN PERUVIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Lara, Sergio Alexis; Merino Soto, César A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was analyze the internal structure of Coping with Pre-Exam Anxiety and Uncertainty (COPEAU) in Peruvian college students from a private institution. Participated 312 psychology students (227 women) from from the first to sixth term, with age between 16 and 49 (M = 20.54; SD = 4.29). Using the structural equation modeling, five models were assessed, among which the four oblique factor model shows greater theoretical and empirical coherence.. Also, the reliability...

  10. Out of the shadows: ‘new’ Peruvian cinema, national identity and political violence

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In May 1980, just as the Peruvian nation returned officially to democracy after twelve years of military rule, a splinter group of the national pro-Chinese Communist Party, Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path), broke into a polling station in the region of Ayacucho and destroyed the ballot boxes there. This subversive act marked the onset of two decades of violent struggle, a ‘dirty war’ that persisted through three presidencies (Belaúnde, García, Fujimori), including the capture...

  11. Comparative evaluation of oxycort ointment and Peruvian balm in the treatment of radiation skin injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.A.; Krylova, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison of regeneration effect of Peruvian balm and oxycort ointment is made in experiments on 192 white rats on the model of radiation skin ulcers. Found is a pronounced regenerating and bactericidal action of balm, i.e. the curing time has been reduced greatly (up to 26-30 days against 60 day in control), and tissue respiration increased several times in comparison with the oxycort ointment treatment

  12. Size increment of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas mature females in Peruvian waters, 1989-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Juan; Tafur, Ricardo; Taipe, Anatolio; Villegas, Piero; Keyl, Friedeman; Dominguez, Noel; Salazar, Martín

    2008-10-01

    Changes in population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters were studied based on size-at-maturity from 1989 to 2004. From 1989 to 1999, mature squid belonging to the medium-sized group prevailed, but from 2001 on, mature squids were larger. This change is not related to the changes in sea surface temperature and we hypothesized that it was caused by the population increase of mesopelagic fishes as prey.

  13. Feeding behaviour and growth of the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) under daily cyclic hypoxia conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Velarde, Arturo; Jean, Fred; Thouzeau, Gérard; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    As a secondary consequence of the high productivity of the upwelling system, organisms inhabiting Peruvian coastal bays are frequently exposed to hypoxic conditions. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effects of daily-cyclic-severe hypoxia on energetics of a species presenting little escape ability when facing hypoxia. For this purpose, juvenile Peruvian scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) were exposed to four experimental conditions: fed and starved, combined or not to nightly severe hypoxia (5% oxygen saturation) for ≈ 12 h over a 21-day experiment. In both fed conditions, clearance rate was measured by the mean of an open-flow system. Our results indicate that the Peruvian scallop is able to maintain an active filtration even at low oxygen saturation, at least during expositions up to 12 h. During the first phase of exposure to hypoxia, clearance rate decreased abruptly when oxygen saturation dropped below 10%, but rapidly recovered to values close to those found under normoxia. As a consequence of this ability to feed during hypoxia, no difference in soft tissue dry weight (digestive gland not included) was observed at the end of the experimental period between oxic conditions among fed scallops. However, shell growth was negatively affected by hypoxic condition. Starved individuals exhibited similar weight loss between hypoxic and normoxic conditions indicating no or little effect of oxic condition on maintenance costs. Considering the observed responses for feeding, growth and maintenance, we can hypothesize that this species presents metabolic/bioenergetic efficient adaptations to deal with hypoxic conditions that are recurrent in Peruvian coastal bays. We hypothesize that the small observed effects might be modelled in the context of the Dynamic Energy Budget theory as a restriction of reserve mobilization under hypoxic conditions.

  14. Publication of research projects for certification as medical specialists at a peruvian university, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ticse, Ray; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico internista endocrinólogo; magíster en Epidemiología Clínica.; Ygreda, Patricia; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico cirujano.; Samalvides, Frine; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo.

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the frequency of publication in a scientific journal of the research projects done for medical specialty certification, a search was conducted in Google Scholar, Pubmed, biomedical databases and Peruvian medical society journals. These publications were research projects carried out by medical residents graduated from the Faculty of Medicine at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, to obtain the certification of medical specialist. Of 351 medical residents graduated ...

  15. Fasciola hepatica Infection in an Indigenous Community of the Peruvian Jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lopez, Martha; Caravedo, María Alejandra; Arque, Eulogia; White, Arthur Clinton

    2016-06-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution. Autochthonous cases have not been reported in the Amazon region of Peru. Operculated eggs resembling F. hepatica were identified in the stools of five out of 215 subjects in a remote indigenous community of the Peruvian jungle. Polymerase chain reaction targeting Fasciola hepatica cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and sequencing of the products confirmed Fasciola infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Fasciola hepatica Infection in an Indigenous Community of the Peruvian Jungle

    OpenAIRE

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lopez, Martha; Caravedo, Mar��a Alejandra; Arque, Eulogia; White, Arthur Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution. Autochthonous cases have not been reported in the Amazon region of Peru. Operculated eggs resembling F. hepatica were identified in the stools of five out of 215 subjects in a remote indigenous community of the Peruvian jungle. Polymerase chain reaction targeting Fasciola hepatica cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and sequencing of the products confirmed Fasciola infection.

  17. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    OpenAIRE

    Prialé, María Angela; Fuchs, Rosa María; Sáenz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed compani...

  18. GIS as a tool in participatory natural resource management: Examples from the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Bussink, C.

    2003-01-01

    Metadata only record Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are often seen as incompatible with participatory processes. However, since the late 1990s, attempts have been made in numerous projects around the world to define 'best practices' for improved natural resource management projects that integrate participation and accurate spatial information, using GIS (for example, see www.iapad.org/participatory_gis.htm). This article describes a project in the Peruvian Andes where spatial informa...

  19. Ultra-low level plutonium isotopes in the NIST SRM 4355A (Peruvian Soil-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, Kenneth G.W.; LaRosa, Jerome; Nour, Svetlana; Brooks, George; LaMont, Steve; Steiner, Rob; Williams, Ross; Patton, Brad; Bostick, Debbie; Eiden, Gregory; Petersen, Steve; Douglas, Matthew; Beals, Donna; Cadieux, James; Hall, Greg; Goldberg, Steve; Vogt, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    For more than 20 years, countries and their agencies which monitor radionuclide discharge sites and storage facilities have relied on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 4355 Peruvian Soil. Its low fallout contamination makes it an ideal soil blank for measurements associated with terrestrial-pathway-to-man studies. Presently, SRM 4355 is out of stock, and a new batch of the Peruvian soil is currently under development as future NIST SRM 4355A. Both environmental radioanalytical laboratories and mass spectrometry communities will benefit from the use of this SRM. The former must assess their laboratory procedural contamination and measurement detection limits by measurement of blank sample material. The Peruvian Soil is so low in anthropogenic radionuclide content that it is a suitable virtual blank. On the other hand, mass spectrometric laboratories have high sensitivity instruments that are capable of quantitative isotopic measurements at low plutonium levels in the SRM 4355 (first Peruvian Soil SRM) that provided the mass spectrometric community with the calibration, quality control, and testing material needed for methods development and legal defensibility. The quantification of the ultra-low plutonium content in the SRM 4355A was a considerable challenge for the mass spectrometric laboratories. Careful blank control and correction, isobaric interferences, instrument stability, peak assessment, and detection assessment were necessary. Furthermore, a systematic statistical evaluation of the measurement results and considerable discussions with the mass spectroscopy metrologists were needed to derive the certified values and uncertainties. The one sided upper limit of the 95% tolerance with 95% confidence for the massic 239 Pu content in SRM 4355A is estimated to be 54,000 atoms/g.

  20. First record of depth octopus Muusoctopus longibrachus (Cephalopoda: Octopoda for Peruvian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Cardoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The octopus deep-sea Muusoctopus longibrachus (Ibañez et al. 2006 is recorded for the first time in the Peruvian sea. Two male specimens were caught at 852 – 875 m depth between 05°08'S and 09°18'S. This species was known only from Chile, in the present study extends its distribution north to Peru.

  1. Distribution of dissolved manganese in the Peruvian Upwelling and Oxygen Minimum Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamati, Jagruti; Chan, Catherine; Moffett, James W.

    2015-05-01

    The geochemistry of manganese (Mn) in seawater is dominated by its redox chemistry, as Mn(II) is soluble and Mn(IV) forms insoluble oxides, and redox transformations are mediated by a variety of processes in the oceans. Dissolved Mn (DMn) accumulates under reducing conditions and is depleted under oxidizing conditions. Thus the Peruvian upwelling region, characterized by highly reducing conditions over a broad continental shelf and a major oxygen minimum zone extending far offshore, is potentially a large source of Mn to the eastern Tropical South Pacific. In this study, DMn was determined on cruises in October 2005 and February 2010 in the Peruvian Upwelling and Oxygen Minimum Zone, to evaluate the relationship between Mn, oxygen and nitrogen cycle processes. DMn concentrations were determined using simple dilution and matrix-matched external standardization inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, DMn was depleted under the most reducing conditions along the Peruvian shelf. Concentrations of dissolved Mn in surface waters increased offshore, indicating that advection of Mn offshore from the Peruvian shelf is a minor source. Subsurface Mn maxima were observed within the oxycline rather than within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), indicating they arise from remineralization of organic matter rather than reduction of Mn oxides. The distribution of DMn appears to be dominated by non-redox processes and inputs from the atmosphere and from other regions associated with specific water masses. Lower than expected DMn concentrations on the shelf probably reflect limited fluvial inputs from the continent and efficient offshore transport. This behavior is in stark contrast to Fe, reported in a companion study which is very high on the shelf and undergoes dynamic redox cycling.

  2. Periodic life history strategy of Psectrogaster rutiloides, Kner 1858, in the Iquitos region, Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Vasquez, A.; Vargas, G.; Sanchez, H.; Tello, S.; Duponchelle, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The present study objective was to determine some of the main life history characteristics of the chiochio, Psectrogaster rutiloides, a heavily fished, yet poorly studied species of the Peruvian Amazon. Over an annual cycle between 2006 and 2007 a monthly sampling of P. rutiloides on the Iquitos market provided a total of 2973 individuals. The species reproduces during the rainy season, during the first part of the flooding period. First sexual maturity is reached at about 2years of age and 9...

  3. Identification of Blood Meals from Potential Arbovirus Mosquito Vectors in the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Palermo, Pedro M.; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Zorrilla, Víctor; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Huayanay, Anibal; Guevara, Carolina; Lescano, Andrés G.; Halsey, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The transmission dynamics of many arboviruses in the Amazon Basin region have not been fully elucidated, including the vectors and natural reservoir hosts. Identification of blood meal sources in field-caught mosquitoes could yield information for identifying potential arbovirus vertebrate hosts. We identified blood meal sources in 131 mosquitoes collected from areas endemic for arboviruses in the Peruvian Department of Loreto by sequencing polymerase chain reaction amplicons of the cytochrom...

  4. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (rio Mamore virus) in the peruvian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani, Enrique; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. biólogo.; García, María P.; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. tecnólogo médico.; Miraval, María L.; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico anátomo-patólogo.; Valencia, Pedro; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo.; Quino, Alberto H.; Hospital Regional de Loreto, Gobierno Regional de Loreto. Loreto, Perú. médico intensivista.; Álvarez, Carlos; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico anátomo-patólogo.; Donaires, Luis F.; Dirección Regional de Salud de Loreto, Gobierno Regional de Loreto. Loreto, Perú. médico epidemiólogo.

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analy...

  5. Higher Education for Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon Region: Balance and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, an important discussion has been developed in Latin America about the access of indigenous students to higher-education institutions and about the creation of intercultural universities. This article specifically revises the different types of experiences of higher-education offered to the indigenous youth of the Peruvian Amazon region, and it builds on information gathered throughout the last decade of following and studying these experiences. The article begins with a d...

  6. Financial reform lessons and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio Jr, Gerard; Atiyas, Izak; Hanson, James

    1993-01-01

    The argument in favor of gradual - but sustained - financial reform is based on two factors. First, the development of borrower net worth will determine the health of the real and, ultimately, the financial sector. Thus, speeding up reforms when borrower net worth is subject to positive shocks - or slowing them when it is subject to negative shocks - appears sensible and appears to have worked better in practice. Second, the initial conditions of the banking sector - not just its net worth bu...

  7. Misrecognition and science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-09-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  8. Reforming health care in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Császi, L; Kullberg, P

    1985-01-01

    Over the past two decades Hungary has initiated a series of social and economic reforms which have emphasized decentralization of control and the reintroduction of market mechanisms into the socialized economy. These reforms both reflect and reinforce a changing social structure, in particular the growing influence of upper class special interest groups. Market reforms are an expression of concurrent ideological shifts in Hungarian society. We examined the political significance of three recent proposals to reform health services against the backdrop of broader social and economic changes taking place. The first proposes a bureaucratic reorganization, the second, patient co-payments, and the third, a voucher system. The problems each proposal identifies, as well as the constituency each represents, reveal a trend toward consolidation of class structure in Hungary. Only one of these proposals has any potential to democratize the control and management of the heath care system. Moreover, despite a governmental push toward decentralization, two of these proposals would actually increase centralized bureaucratic control. Two of the reforms incorporate market logic into their arguments, an indication that the philosophical premises of capitalism are re-emerging as an important component of the Hungarian world-view. In Hungary, as well as in other countries, social analysis of proposed health care reforms can effectively illuminate the social and political dynamics of the larger society.

  9. Tracing the genomic ancestry of Peruvians reveals a major legacy of pre-Columbian ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Jose R; Salazar-Granara, Alberto; Acosta, Oscar; Castillo-Herrera, Wilder; Fujita, Ricardo; Pena, Sergio D J; Santos, Fabricio R

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate the underlying genetic structure and genomic ancestry proportions of Peruvian subpopulations, we analyzed 551 human samples of 25 localities from the Andean, Amazonian, and Coastal regions of Peru with a set of 40 ancestry informative insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Using genotypes of reference populations from different continents for comparison, our analysis indicated that populations from all 25 Peruvian locations had predominantly Amerindian genetic ancestry. Among populations from the Titicaca Lake islands of Taquile, Amantani, Anapia, and Uros, and the Yanque locality from the southern Peruvian Andes, there was no significant proportion of non-autochthonous genomes, indicating that their genetic background is effectively derived from the first settlers of South America. However, the Andean populations from San Marcos, Cajamarca, Characato and Chogo, and coastal populations from Lambayeque and Lima displayed a low but significant European ancestry proportion. Furthermore, Amazonian localities of Pucallpa, Lamas, Chachapoyas, and Andean localities of Ayacucho and Huancayo displayed intermediate levels of non-autochthonous ancestry, mostly from Europe. These results are in close agreement with the documented history of post-Columbian immigrations in Peru and with several reports suggesting a larger effective size of indigenous inhabitants during the formation of the current country's population.

  10. Growth and body composition of Peruvian infants in a periurban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Zavaleta, Nelly; León, Zulema; Caulfield, Laura E

    2009-09-01

    Previous growth studies of Peruvian children have featured high stunting rates and limited information about body composition. We aimed to characterize anthropometric measures of Peruvian infants 0 to 12 months of age in relation to the international growth references and biological, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. Infants (n = 232) were followed longitudinally from birth through 12 months of age from a prenatal zinc supplementation trial conducted in Lima, Peru, between 1995 and 1997. Anthropometric measures of growth and body composition were obtained at enrollment from mothers and monthly through 1 year of age from infants. Weekly morbidity and dietary intake surveillance was carried out during the second half of infancy. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting did not exceed 4% based on the World Health Organization growth references. Infants of mothers from high-altitude regions had larger chest circumference (p = .006) and greater length (p = .06) by 12 months. Significant predictors of growth and body composition throughout infancy were age, sex, anthropometric measurements at birth, breastfeeding, maternal anthropometric measurements, primiparity, prevalence of diarrhea among children, and the altitude of the region of maternal origin. No associations were found for maternal education, asset ownership, or sanitation and hygiene factors. Peruvian infants in this urban setting had lower rates of stunting than expected. Proximal and familial conditions influenced growth throughout infancy.

  11. [Evaluation of peruvian money test in screening of cognitive impairment among older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscanoa, Teodoro J; Cieza, Edwin; Parodi, José F; Paredes, Napoleón

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To evaluate the Peruvian adaptation of the money test (Eurotest) for identifying cognitive impairment among >60-year-old adults. Materials and methods This is a phase I study of diagnostic test, with a convenience sampling and calculation of the test´s sensitivity and specificity, based on a pretest prevalence of 50%. The criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) were used for the operational definition of patients with cognitive impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the optimal cut-off value. Results The study evaluated 42 cases and 42 controls; there was no significant difference between age (77.88 ± 6.01 years vs. 6.49 76.14 ± years) and years of education (13.69 ± 3.70 years vs. 8.17 ± 4.71 years). The Peruvian version of the Eurotest has a sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 83.3% with cut-off value of 24. Conclusions The Peruvian adapted version of the Eurotest, called prueba de la moneda peruana could be useful in screening for cognitive impairment among older adults.

  12. Growth and body composition of Peruvian infants in a periurban setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Zavaleta, Nelly; León, Zulema; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous growth studies of Peruvian children have featured high stunting rates and limited information about body composition. Objective We aimed to characterize anthropometric measures of Peruvian infants 0 to 12 months of age in relation to the international growth references and biological, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. Methods Infants (n = 232) were followed longitudinally from birth through 12 months of age from a prenatal zinc supplementation trial conducted in Lima, Peru, between 1995 and 1997. Anthropometric measures of growth and body composition were obtained at enrollment from mothers and monthly through 1 year of age from infants. Weekly morbidity and dietary intake surveillance was carried out during the second half of infancy. Results The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting did not exceed 4% based on the World Health Organization growth references. Infants of mothers from high-altitude regions had larger chest circumference (p = .006) and greater length (p = .06) by 12 months. Significant predictors of growth and body composition throughout infancy were age, sex, anthropometric measurements at birth, breastfeeding, maternal anthropometric measurements, primiparity, prevalence of diarrhea among children, and the altitude of the region of maternal origin. No associations were found for maternal education, asset ownership, or sanitation and hygiene factors. Conclusions Peruvian infants in this urban setting had lower rates of stunting than expected. Proximal and familial conditions influenced growth throughout infancy. PMID:19927604

  13. Distances between mandibular posterior teeth and the WALA ridge in Peruvians with normal occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Y. Kong-Zárate

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purposes of this investigation were to determine the horizontal distances between the mandibular posterior teeth and the WALA ridge in a sample of Peruvians with normal occlusion and to compare them by tooth type, sex, arch side, and age groups. Methods: 65 dental casts of subjects with normal occlusion were collected. Posterior teeth, except for third molars, were evaluated. The horizontal distances between the occluso-gingival midpoints of the buccal surfaces (FA points of each tooth and the WALA ridge were measured using a modified digital caliper. The values between each different tooth type within the sample were compared using the ANOVA and Scheffe tests, while comparisons by sex, arch side and age groups, using the Student’s t-test. Results: The mean distances in the sample was 0.96 mm for first premolars, 1.45 mm for second premolars, 2.12 mm for first molars and 2.55 mm for second molars. Statistically significant differences between each of the four tooth types were found. There were no significant differences found between sex, arch side and age groups. Conclusion: The horizontal distances between the mandibular posterior teeth and the WALA ridge increased progressively from the first premolars to the second molars in Peruvians with normal occlusion. The WALA ridge was a good landmark to evaluate the positions of posterior teeth in Peruvians with normal occlusion.

  14. Water contamination from oil extraction activities in Northern Peruvian Amazonian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusta-García, Raúl; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Mayor, Pedro; González-Crespo, Carlos; Rosell-Melé, Antoni

    2017-06-01

    Oil extraction activities in the Northern Peruvian Amazon have generated a long-standing socio-environmental conflict between oil companies, governmental authorities and indigenous communities, partly derived from the discharge of produced waters containing high amounts of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. To assess the impact of produced waters discharges we conducted a meta-analysis of 2951 river water and 652 produced water chemical analyses from governmental institutions and oil companies reports, collected in four Amazonian river basins (Marañon, Tigre, Corrientes and Pastaza) and their tributaries. Produced water discharges had much higher concentrations of chloride, barium, cadmium and lead than are typically found in fresh waters, resulting in the widespread contamination of the natural water courses. A significant number of water samples had levels of cadmium, barium, hexavalent chromium and lead that did not meet Peruvian and international water standards. Our study shows that spillage of produced water in Peruvian Amazon rivers placed at risk indigenous population and wildlife during several decades. Furthermore, the impact of such activities in the headwaters of the Amazon extended well beyond the boundaries of oil concessions and national borders, which should be taken into consideration when evaluating large scale anthropogenic impacts in the Amazon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L

    2007-05-15

    To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia.

  16. Substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Nianogo, Roch A; Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Lucho; Galea, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Peru is experiencing a concentrated HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Substance use (alcohol and drug use) has been found to be associated with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A recent surge in the number of social media users in Peru has enabled these technologies to be potential tools for reaching HIV at-risk individuals. This study sought to assess the relationship between substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM who use social media. A total of 556 Peruvian MSM Facebook users (ages 18-59) were recruited to complete a 92-item survey on demographics, sexual risk behaviors, and substance use. We performed a logistic regression of various sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, casual sex) on substance abuse, including alcohol, adjusting for potential covariates. Drinking more than five alcoholic drinks a day in the past three months was associated with an increased odds of having unprotected sex (vaginal and anal) (aOR: 1.52; 95% CL: 1.01, 2.28), casual sex (1.75; 1.17, 2.62), and sex with unknown persons (1.82; 1.23, 2.71). Drug use was not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Among Peruvian MSM social media users, findings suggest that alcohol use was associated with increased HIV-related sexual risk behaviors.

  17. Social Well-Being Among Colombian and Peruvian Immigrants in Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa Morales, Alfonso; Delgado-Valencia, Eric; Rojas-Ballesteros, Mariela; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, northern Chile has received a large number of immigrants attracted mainly by mining and related services. The last population census revealed that 70.5 % of foreigners in Chile came from South America, and were mainly Peruvians (30.5 %), Argentines (16.8 %), and Colombians (8.1 %). The aim of this cross-sectional study is to describe the social well-being levels reported by Colombian and Peruvian immigrants in northern Chile, as well as their connection to socio-demographic and relational factors. The Spanish version of the Scale of Social Well-being (Keyes in Soc Psychol Q 61:121-140, 1998) was administered to 431 men and women over 18 years old, with a minimum residence of 6 months in the city of Antofagasta. The highest-rated aspect was Social Contribution, and the lowest-rated aspect was Social Acceptance. The relational variables that show statistically significant differences in both populations relate to who the subject lives with, the degree of contact that the subject has with people from Chile, and the subject's relationship status. There are no differences that indicate a higher level of social well-being in one population more than the other; however, it appears that the Peruvian population has a greater perception of Social Coherence, while Colombians show a greater perception of Social Contribution.

  18. Reforming the European Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ezra Bigio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An unbridled globalization based on a simple premise about earnings and profit may be detrimental to the livelihood of many thousands of individuals. The greed and utter selfishness that result from the adherence to this sort of business practice are the two things that generate more unemployment, misery and degradation than most other characteristics of the human species. These considerations present the challenge for Western societies and call for the implementation of other principles, standards and procedures, such as cooperation, cohesion, development objectives and social responsibility. In the first part of the paper this approach is tested in the case of the EU-US foreign exchange relationships. The second part of the paper raises more general and fundamental issues. While adhering to the Schumpeter-type innovation environment, it aims to introduce the social dimension ahead of the immediate competitiveness and, therefore, argues for the fundamental reform of the catechism of the capitalist manager. The EU, due to its advanced integration, is relatively well-equipped to move towards the new economic system.  

  19. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  1. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  2. Some Key Issues in Intercultural Bilingual Education Teacher Training Programmes--as Seen from a Teacher Training Programme in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapnell, Lucy A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a critical reflection of the author's 14-year experience in the Teacher Training Program for Intercultural Bilingual Education in the Peruvian Amazon Basin, developed by a national Peruvian indigenous confederation and the Loreto state teacher training college. Focuses on ethical, political, and pedagogical challenges that intercultural…

  3. A importância do desenvolvimento de revistas científicas em mídia digital: O caso da Revista Agrarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Campos Burin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos e pesquisas são ações fundamentais em qualquer área do conhecimento e funcionam como alicerces no processo de evolução e desenvolvimento. Tão importante quanto a geração do conhecimento é a disseminação e difusão destas informações, utilizando meios de comunicação abrangentes e eficientes. O objetivo dos autores foi apresentar o caso da Revista Científica Agrarian: sua criação, desenvolvimento e consolidação, enfatizando os resultados e ações obtidos durante seus 6 anos em atividade. A revista científica foi criada em 2008, sendo a primeira revista científica de Mato Grosso do Sul de acesso aberto e totalmente digital que publica trabalhos nas áreas de Ciências Agrárias, Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Economia e Administração do Agronegócio. A Agrarian recebe submissões de todas as regiões do país, o que possibilita disponibilizar conhecimentos de grande importância ao público, entre técnicos, pesquisadores e estudantes. Foram publicadas vinte e uma edições entre os anos 2008-2013, todas disponibilizadas no Sistema Eletrônico de Editoração de Revistas (SEER. Com um número de 615 submissões e 285 artigos publicados, é possível concluir que a Revista Agrarian está se tornando um veículo de informação confiável e consolidado. Estes dados também confirmam as hipóteses relacionadas à importância de veículos práticos e econômicos para a difusão do conhecimento científico agrário no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, importante centro do agronegócio no País.

  4. EL PARADIGMA CIENTÍFICO DE LAS CIENCIAS AGRARIAS: UNA REFLEXION THE SCIENTIFIC PARADIGM OF AGRARIAN SCIENCES: A REFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Darío Vélez Vargas

    2004-06-01

    . The empirical evidence surpasses the theoretical and assumed limits from which these challenges are analyzed and their solutions proposed. To successfully confront the new challenges and contexts, new paradigms will be required that define a core group of scientific and engineering bases and a minimum unit of study and work. This minimum unit should permit, from a systemic and harmonic perspective, the identification and analysis of the factors that influence the productive processes and their contexts, the work in these disciplines and the formulation of questions and needs. In the agrarian sciences, this change in paradigm could be represented by the agroecosystemic viewpoint, which permits a the hierarchical organization of the work and research unit and its levels of interaction; b the presentation of the productive process as a result of the integrated effect of socioeconomic, ecological, cultural, scientific, and technological factors; c the integral identification of the problems and solutions; d the breaking of disciplinary limits; e the responding to demands for an agriculture that is sustainable, competitive, multifunctional, and equitable.

  5. Arktisk Reform i Ukraines Skygge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    USA overtager formandskabet for Arktisk Råd ved udenrigsministermødet d. 24.-25. april 2015. Der er behov for nødvendige reformer af Rådets struktur, men Ukraine-konflikten gør det vanskeligt at nå de ambitiøse mål.......USA overtager formandskabet for Arktisk Råd ved udenrigsministermødet d. 24.-25. april 2015. Der er behov for nødvendige reformer af Rådets struktur, men Ukraine-konflikten gør det vanskeligt at nå de ambitiøse mål....

  6. Florence Nightingale and healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudzma, Elizabeth Connelly

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the work of Florence Nightingale in light of her collaboration with William Farr, the eminent medical statistician. Nightingale's epidemiological investigations supported by Farr illustrated that attention to environmental cleanliness was an important factor in preventing spread of disease. Nightingale channeled her investigations to support hospital reforms and the need for an educated nurse who could provide better management of the hospital environment. Statistical support and solicited criticism allowed Nightingale to argue more forcefully for her reforms.

  7. The Economic Effects of Comprehensive Tax Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study analyzes the major economic effects of several tax reform plans and finds that much uncertainty surrounds the likelihood and magnitude of the economic gains from tax reform...

  8. TAX-REFORM - DREAMING ABOUT TOUGH REALITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKAM, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses four papers concerned with tax reform. It is concluded that tax reform has had a rather limited impact on behaviour so far but that governments should press ahead with gradual improvement and not expect dramatic results.

  9. INSTITUTIONAL THEORY OF ECONOMIC REFORMS: BASIC IMPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeevich SUKHAREV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of institutional economic theory to explain various kinds of economic reforms (changes on the basis of theoretical ideas about the dysfunction of institutions and systems are investigated. A number of classifications of reforms and dysfunctions is introduced and kinds of institutional efficiency of economic systems are defined. Qualitative regularities of various reforms of the twentieth century in different countries are generalized. A number of criteria of effective institutional reforms, capable to lower the depth and the scale of dysfunctions of the functioning economic subsystems is formed. System approach to the analysis of economic systems reforming with underlining the importance of reform “management” factor which defines productivity of economic development is elaborated. Life cycle of institution and economic system in the process of its reforming is presented and correction of J. Hellmann’s model, describing the reforming logic of economy is made.

  10. On being African and Reformed? Towards an African Reformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, the notions of being African and Reformed are interrogated. The research notes that these notions are rarely used in the same vein. It is admitted that notions tend to pick up different meanings as they evolve, so these notions are especially seen in that light. The theological hegemony, which in the South African ...

  11. The effect of pre-Hispanic agriculture practices on soils in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes (region Laramate, 14.5°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leceta, Fernando; Mächtle, Bertil; Schukraft, Gerd; Eitel, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    An integrated geoarchaeological study focuses on a group of three archaeological sites. This study comprises soils on pre-Columbian artificial terraces against their nondisturbed pedological context. Six terraces and three soils lacking of archaeological evidence and actual use, are examined to identify morphological and geochemical features generated by the sustained agrarian use. Aim is to understand the land-use and pedological history of the Laramate region, as an agricultural center in pre-Columbian times. Preliminary results show recurrent sequences within the terraces, characterized by two edaphic cycles; a poorly developed Ap modern topsoil is underlaid by one well-preserved 2Ah paleosol. Analytical data shows prehispanic terraces as a sustained agricultural system. Marked by its use and position, higher availability of nutrients and deeper soils, are found at agricultural terraces, located over a debris cone. Significant charcoal fragments for radiocarbon dating at Ayllapampa and Sihulca archeological sites, with a minimum age for terrace construction of Cal 1 sigma AD 675-766 and 782-893 respectively; it remains unclear if another stage of construction. There is no evidence that the terraces have alternated between periods of cultural decline and boom. Rather, reconstructions or modifications to the original structure and the absence of paleosols, address to a continuous use until its abandonment. Today, they produce only under fallow-system. There are no archeological signs of massive irrigation systems (Reindel 2011, pers. comm.). Its installation could only be linked to more favorable climatic conditions, like those described for The Early Horizon (800-200 BC), The Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD), and The Late Intermediate (Period 1000-1438 AD) (Eitel et al. 2005, Mächtle 2007). As reported on other archeological sites in southern Peru (Branch et al. 2007), an extensive terrace agricultural system during the Middle Horizon (500-1000 AD

  12. Political Parties, Clientelism, and Bureaucratic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cesi; Keefer, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of public administration reform is well-known: politicians often have little interest in the efficient implementation of government policy. Using new data from 439 World Bank public sector reform loans in 109 countries, we demonstrate that such reforms are significantly less likely to succeed in the presence of non-programmatic political parties. Earlier research uses evidence from a small group of countries to conclude that clientelistic politicians resist reforms that restrict...

  13. The agrarian social structure of Pehuajoïs party (2010 La estructura social agraria en el partido de Pehuajó (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a product of the ongoing transformations in the Agricultural sector in Argentina, recent debates in the social sciences have compared the new characteristics of development with older forms. Inside this field of debates, the question of the agrarian actors at present has been particularly relevant. Though their exists a great quantity of works that approach the problems of the actors, few analyses make reference to their productive roles. The present article presents a case study of Pehuajó's party. It provides a description of the social agrarian structure, focusing on the forms in which production develops as a result of the links between different actors, and establishing "rupture" points that caracterize the older forms of development.Producto de las transformaciones recientes en el sector agropecuario argentino, en las ciencias sociales se han ampliado los debates en torno a las nuevas características que asume en comparación con las formas de desarrollo del pasado. Dentro de este campo de debates, la cuestión de los sujetos agrarios en la actualidad ha cobrado una especial relevancia. Si bien existen una gran cantidad de trabajos que abordan la problemática de los sujetos, pocos análisis refieren a las vinculaciones que entre estos se establecen para llevar a cabo la producción. En el presente artículo, a partir de un estudio de caso en el partido de Pehuajó, se describirá la estructura social agraria focalizando en las formas en que se desarrolla la producción a partir de la combinación de vínculos entre distintos sujetos y estableciendo los puntos de "ruptura" con respecto a las formas de desenvolvimiento del pasado.

  14. L’impossibile fuga. Soggetto migrante e dinamiche identitarie in The Peruvian notebooks di Braulio Muñoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodja Bernardoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to examine the novel The peruvian notebooks, by the peruvian writer Braulio Muñoz. We will proceed by analyzing it through the ideas of migrant subject and migrant discourse developed by the critic Antonio Cornejo Polar. Starting from the instability and the fragmentation of these symbolic and discursive realities, we will try to point out how the text intends to investigate and to represent the alienating dynamics that, in the migration experience, mark the process of social and identitarian redefinition.

  15. Efforts regarding acoustical education for architectural students at the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (Peruvian University of Applied Sciences), UPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Jorge

    2002-11-01

    The lack of knowledge in acoustics among the vast majority of Peruvian architects results in acoustical problems in buildings from a lack of such considerations in the design stage. This paucity of knowledge on the part of the architects may be attributed to the lack of emphasis on the role of acoustics in most architectural curricula in Peruvian universities. A purpose in this paper is to present a brief report on last year's efforts to implement courses in Architectural Acoustics and Noise Control for architecture students at UPC.

  16. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  17. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  18. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriations, direct payment of a Credit Risk Premium by the Applicant or a non-Federal infrastructure partner... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act...

  19. Anatomic variations of the branches of the aortic arch in a Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huapaya, Julio Arturo; Chávez-Trujillo, Kristhy; Trelles, Miguel; Dueñas Carbajal, Roy; Ferrandiz Espadin, Renato

    2015-07-31

    Previous publications from two countries in South America found one anatomical variation not previously reported in the rest of the world, which in turn give some clues with regard to a racial difference. The objective of the present study is to describe variations in the anatomical distribution of the branches of the aortic arch in a Peruvian population. To describe variations in the anatomical distribution of the branches of the aortic arch in a Peruvian population. A descriptive study of patients who underwent a tomography angiography of the aorta was performed. We analyzed the reports that showed the description of the variations of the branches of the aortic arch based on the eight types currently described in the literature. From 361 analyzed reports, 282 patients (78.12%) had a normal aortic arch configuration (type I; aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid and left subclavian arteries); followed by type II (left common carotid artery as a branch of the aorta) with 41 patients (11.36%); and type IX (common ostium for the brachiocephalic trunk and the left common carotid artery) with 25 patients (6.93%). The latter and two other types are new variations. Aortic Arch Type I, Type II and Type IX were the most frequent variations in this Peruvian study. Additionally, we also found two more new types that have not been previously described in the literature. Further investigation regarding these variations is needed in order to assess a racial factor in South America and possible relationships with clinical or surgical events.

  20. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J

    2016-05-01

    Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007-2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product.

  1. Patterns in the spatial distribution of Peruvian anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) revealed by spatially explicit fishing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sophie; Díaz, Erich; Lengaigne, Matthieu

    2008-10-01

    Peruvian anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) stock abundance is tightly driven by the high and unpredictable variability of the Humboldt Current Ecosystem. Management of the fishery therefore cannot rely on mid- or long-term management policy alone but needs to be adaptive at relatively short time scales. Regular acoustic surveys are performed on the stock at intervals of 2 to 4 times a year, but there is a need for more time continuous monitoring indicators to ensure that management can respond at suitable time scales. Existing literature suggests that spatially explicit data on the location of fishing activities could be used as a proxy for target stock distribution. Spatially explicit commercial fishing data could therefore guide adaptive management decisions at shorter time scales than is possible through scientific stock surveys. In this study we therefore aim to (1) estimate the position of fishing operations for the entire fleet of Peruvian anchovy purse-seiners using the Peruvian satellite vessel monitoring system (VMS), and (2) quantify the extent to which the distribution of purse-seine sets describes anchovy distribution. To estimate fishing set positions from vessel tracks derived from VMS data we developed a methodology based on artificial neural networks (ANN) trained on a sample of fishing trips with known fishing set positions (exact fishing positions are known for approximately 1.5% of the fleet from an at-sea observer program). The ANN correctly identified 83% of the real fishing sets and largely outperformed comparative linear models. This network is then used to forecast fishing operations for those trips where no observers were onboard. To quantify the extent to which fishing set distribution was correlated to stock distribution we compared three metrics describing features of the distributions (the mean distance to the coast, the total area of distribution, and a clustering index) for concomitant acoustic survey observations and fishing set positions

  2. Environmental pollution, climate variability and climate change: a review of health impacts on the peruvian population

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Academia Nacional de Ciencias. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Ciencias y doctor en Medicina; Zevallos, Alisson; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. estudiante de Biología; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Philosophal Doctor; Nuñez, Denisse; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. estudiante de Biología; Gastañaga, Carmen; Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano; Cabezas, César; Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico infectólogo; Naeher, Luke; University of Georgia. Georgia, EE. UU. Philosophal Doctor; Levy, Karen; University of Emory. Georgia. EE. UU. Philosophal Doctor; Steenlan, Kyle; University of Emory. Georgia. EE. UU. Philosophal Doctor

    2014-01-01

    This article is a review of the pollution of water, air and the effect of climate change on the health of the Peruvian population. A major air pollutant is particulate matter less than 2.5 μ (PM 2.5). In Lima, 2,300 premature deaths annually are attributable to this pollutant. Another problem is household air pollution by using stoves burning biomass fuels, where excessive indoor exposure to PM 2.5 inside the household is responsible for approximately 3,000 annual premature deaths among adult...

  3. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angela Prialé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed companies address the human dimensions of sustainability, although not all dimensions are considered equally or similar depth.

  4. First record of potentially toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum Halim 1960, from Peruvian coastal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Baylón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the first record of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim 1960 from the Peruvian littoral. Alexandrium minutum produced the algae bloom in March 2006 and February 2009, in the Callao bay. Its identification was carried out by a morpho-taxonomic examination, detailing their plates with light and epifluorescence microscopy, moreover its quantification was realized in sedimentation chambers. This is the first report of A. minutum for Southeast Pacific. The characteristics in size, shape and thecal morphology were similarly to original descriptions of this species.

  5. Paracas geoglyphs of the peruvian south coast: Cerro Lechuza and Cerro Pico

    OpenAIRE

    García Soto, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the manufacture of large found drawings on desert plains and hill slopes of the Peruvian south coast was at-tributed to the Nasca society. However, since the 1980s, it is known that this cultural manifestation is a tradition that wouldhave begun towards the 750 BC during the early part of the development of the Paracas culture. Paracas geoglyphs have beenreported from Pisco to the Rio Grande Basin of Nasca, particularly in the area of Palpa where the where they have identifiedm...

  6. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore virus) in the Peruvian Amazon region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Alvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later.

  7. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  8. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.F.; Dahl, C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  9. Free-Market School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1997-01-01

    In Uxbridge, Massachusetts, a small working-class mill town, free-market reform rhetoric has become reality. The tiny district has adopted controversial changes, such as giving vouchers to parents of Title I students, reimbursing home-schooling parents, lengthening the school day and year, adopting flexible scheduling, allowing credit for Internet…

  10. Law Reform and Child Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Cormacain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this Editorial Ronan Cormacain (Editor-in-Chief, ISLRev, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies welcomes you to the third issue of the IALS Student Law Review. He explains the background to this special edition focusing on Law Reform and Child Protection and introduces the articles featured in this issue of the journal.

  11. Education Reform: A Managerial Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; Conley, Sharon C.

    1986-01-01

    Education reform has wrongly focused on teacher motivation and rewards, when the organizational system itself is at fault. Research shows that effective school management hinges on increased individual discretion and decision-making opportunities for teachers and less controlling behavior by administrators. Ten characteristics of effective…

  12. EIA: Educational Reform or Repression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Dianne S.

    A recent study (Cook, 1989) involving 58 randomly selected South Carolina elementary schools indicated that none of these schools could be characterized as having an "open climate." This paper suggests that this situation may have its origins in the educational reform movement of the 1980s, first ignited by the publication of "A…

  13. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  14. Reforming the Russian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, Mayra Rodriguez

    1999-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview; Russian energy markets; Evolution of the power sector; The electricity market; Regulation and proposed reforms; Politics in the power sector; Economics of the power sector; Regional differences; Foreign involvement; Valuation and company management; Conclusions. (Author)

  15. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  16. Reforming technology for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    1997-01-01

    Methane forming reactions using either steam or CO 2 have been known to industry for a long time. These endothermic reactions require the investment of a relatively large amount of energy. German researchers, in the 1970's, conceived and developed the idea to use this reaction and the reverse methanation reaction in a closed loop for the transportation and distribution of nuclear heat. The idea was also adopted for use with solar energy as a heat source. Utilizing solar energy as the heat source, the Weismann Institute of Science has fabricated, installed and operated a complete loop capable of the conversion and transportation of over 400 kW of heat. This system can be operated with a wide range of CO 2 /H 2 O/CH 4 feed mixtures. Steam reforming is the common reforming reaction in the ''open loop'' mode for the purpose of synthesis gas production. This is accomplished with a large excess of steam on a nickel catalyst. However, it has only recently been recognized that there is also a substantial market for CO 2 reforming. The CO 2 /CH 4 mixture in various proportions exists in many places and has, so far, not been used efficiently. The sources for this mixture are biogas produced in anaerobic digestion processes and gas resources such as the NATUNA gas field in Indonesia, and many others. Therefore, the system of CO 2 /CH 4 deserves more attention. Commercial catalysts used for steam reforming based on nickel are not suitable for this system. Therefore, other catalysts based on Rhodium and Ruthenium have been developed and some performance data is presented in this paper. Also presented is a conceptual schematic layout of a CO 2 reforming plant and matching methanator. A computer code for a detailed design of the entire loop in a commercial size system has been prepared where optimized operational conditions as well as equipment parameters can be determined. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Reforming the reform: the Greek National Health System in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis; Karnaki, Panagiota; Pavi, Elpida

    2002-10-01

    The National Health System (ESY) in Greece, which was established in 1983, is in a state of continuous crisis. This situation is caused mainly by the system's problematic administration, low productivity and inadequate Primary Health Care. These have led the re-elected PASOK government to introduce by the end of 2000 a radical reform of the health system. The 200 reform measures announced by the new Minister of Health and Welfare include changes aiming at: the decentralization of the ESY, the creation of a unified financing system for the social insurance funds, a new management structure in public hospitals, the organization of a Primary Health System in urban areas, and the strengthening of Public Health and Health Promotion. These changes are presented and discussed in this paper.

  18. Normal human gait patterns in Peruvian individuals: an exploratory assessment using VICON motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, R.; Moscoso, M.; Callupe, R.; Pajaya, J.; Elías, D.

    2017-11-01

    Gait analysis is of clinical relevance for clinicians. However, normal gait patterns used in foreign literature could be different from local individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the normal gait patterns and parameters of Peruvian individuals in order to have a local referent for clinical assessments and making diagnosis and treatment Peruvian people with lower motor neuron injuries. A descriptive study with 34 subjects was conducted to assess their gait cycle. VICON® cameras were used to capture body movements. For the analyses, we calculated spatiotemporal gait parameters and average angles of displacement of the hip, knee, and ankle joints with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The results showed gait speed was 0.58m/s, cadence was 102.1steps/min, and the angular displacement of the hip, knee and ankle joints were all lower than those described in the literature. In the graphs, gait cycles were close to those reported in previous studies, but the parameters of speed, cadence and angles of displacements are lower than the ones shown in the literature. These results could be used as a better reference pattern in the clinical setting.

  19. Association between insulin resistance and c-reactive protein among Peruvian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelaye Bizu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Insulin resistance (IR, a reduced physiological response of peripheral tissues to the action of insulin, is one of the major causes of type 2 diabetes. We sought to evaluate the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation, and prevalence of IR among Peruvian adults. Methods This population based study of 1,525 individuals (569 men and 956 women; mean age 39 years old was conducted among residents in Lima and Callao, Peru. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and CRP concentrations were measured using standard approaches. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model (HOMA-IR. Categories of CRP were defined by the following tertiles: 2.53 mg/l. Logistic regression procedures were employed to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Elevated CRP were significantly associated with increased mean fasting insulin and mean HOMA-IR concentrations (p 2.53 mg/l (upper tertile had a 2.18-fold increased risk of IR (OR = 2.18 95% CI 1.51-3.16 as compared with those in the lowest tertile ( Conclusion Our observations among Peruvians suggest that chronic systemic inflammation, as evidenced by elevated CRP, may be of etiologic importance in insulin resistance and diabetes.

  20. A phytosociological analysis and synopsis of the dry woodlands and succulent vegetation of the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO GALÁN-DE-MERA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A phytosociological approach to dry forest and cactus communities on the occidental slopes of the Peruvian Andes is presented in base of 164 plots carried out following the Braun-Blanquet method. From them, 52 have been made recently, and the other 112 were taken from the literature. After a multivariate analysis, using a hierarchical clustering and a detendred correspondence analysis, the Acacio-Prosopidetea class (dry forest and cactus communities, developed on soils with some edaphic humidity or precipitations derived from El Niño Current, the Opuntietea sphaericae class (cactus communities of central and southern Peru, on few stabilized rocky or sandy soils and the Carico-Caesalpinietea class (dry forests of the Peruvian coastal desert, influenced by the maritime humidity of the cold Humboldt Current, are differentiated. Within the Acacio-Prosopidetea class, two alliances are commented: the Bursero-Prosopidion pallidae (with two new associations Loxopterygio huasanginis-Neoraimondietum arequipensis and Crotono ruiziani-Acacietum macracanthae, and the new alliance Baccharido-Jacarandion acutifoliae (with the new associations Armatocereo balsasensis-Cercidietum praecocis and Diplopterydo leiocarpae-Acacietum macracanthae. For the Opuntietea sphaericae class, the association Haageocereo versicoloris-Armatocereetum proceri (Espostoo-Neoraimondion is described on the basis of plots from hyperarid localities of central Peru. Finally, a typological classification of the studied plant communities is given.

  1. Impact of a Video Intervention for Rural Peruvian Women With Cervical Neoplasia Before Loop Excisional Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Condorhuaman, Wendy Shulay Guevara; Waller, Jennifer; Lilienthal, Anneliese

    2015-07-01

    Indigenous Peruvian women have very high rates of cervical cancer. This study assessed the impact of an educational video on impoverished rural Peruvian women seeking loop excision surgery. Women completed baseline, postvideo and postsurgery questionnaires that assessed knowledge and attitudes about the procedure. Differences between groups were examined using repeated measures analysis of variance. Women who watched the video were significantly more calm (2.6, 2.6, and 2.3, respectively; P = 0.04), relaxed (2.5, 2.5, and 2.1, respectively; P = 0.02), and content (3.4, 3.4, and 2.4, respectively, P < 0.01) at postvideo and postsurgery assessments compared with mean results at the baseline assessment. The same women were also significantly more tense (2.5, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively; P = 0.01), upset (1.6, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively; P = 0.01), and worried (3.0, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively; P = 0.01) at baseline compared with postvideo and postsurgery results. Approximately 93% of women believed that other women scheduled to have loop excision surgery should also watch the video. Dissemination of culturally sensitive video information minimizes adverse emotional responses associated with loop excision procedures before surgery. Such an intervention quickly improves the psychological well-being of women eventually subjected to surgical management of cervical neoplasia.

  2. [Calf circumference and its association with gait speed in elderly participants at Peruvian Naval Medical Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Villegas, Gregory Mishell; Runzer Colmenares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calf circumference and gait speed in elderly patients 65 years or older at Geriatric day clinic at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. We assessed 139 participants, 65 years or older at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval including calf circumference, gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery. With bivariate analyses and logistic regression model we search for association between variables. The age mean was 79.37 years old (SD: 8.71). 59.71% were male, the 30.97% had a slow walking speed and the mean calf circumference was 33.42cm (SD: 5.61). After a bivariate analysis, we found a calf circumference mean of 30.35cm (SD: 3.74) in the slow speed group and, in normal gait group, a mean of 33.51cm (SD: 3.26) with significantly differences. We used logistic regression to analyze association with slow gait speed, founding statistically significant results adjusting model by disability and age. Low calf circumference is associated with slow speed walk in population over 65 years old. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  3. [Prevalence of anemia and associated factors in elderly residing in peruvian households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina; Sanchez-Abanto, José; Alvarez-Dongo, Doris; Espinoza-Oriundo, Paula; Jordan-Lechuga, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in elderly residing in Peruvian households. the study deals with a cross-sectional design and was conducted in 2011. The sample was probabilistic, stratified and multistage independent in department of Peru. The required sample housing was 5792, we included 2172 elderly. We asked informed consent of all elderly. The anemia was defined as hemoglobin 23 to anemia was 23,3% (mild anemia 17.1%, moderate: severe 5,7% and 0,5%). The age 70 to 79 years (OR 1.5; CI 95%:1.1; 2.0),> 80 years (OR 2.1; CI 95%: 1.4; 3.0) and thinness (OR 1.7; CI 95%: 1.2, 2.3) associated with anemia. Ayacucho, Ancash, Lambayeque and Apurimac were the departments with the highest prevalence of anemia. Approximately one quarter of elderly were anemic, being more prevalent in the illiterate, rural and poor. Older age and thinness are associated with anemia in elderly Peruvians.

  4. A phytosociological analysis and synopsis of the dry woodlands and succulent vegetation of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-DE-Mera, Antonio; Sánchez-Vega, Isidoro; Linares-Perea, Eliana; Campos, José; Montoya, Juan; Vicente-Orellana, José A

    2016-01-01

    A phytosociological approach to dry forest and cactus communities on the occidental slopes of the Peruvian Andes is presented in base of 164 plots carried out following the Braun-Blanquet method. From them, 52 have been made recently, and the other 112 were taken from the literature. After a multivariate analysis, using a hierarchical clustering and a detendred correspondence analysis, the Acacio-Prosopidetea class (dry forest and cactus communities, developed on soils with some edaphic humidity or precipitations derived from El Niño Current), the Opuntietea sphaericae class (cactus communities of central and southern Peru, on few stabilized rocky or sandy soils) and the Carico-Caesalpinietea class (dry forests of the Peruvian coastal desert, influenced by the maritime humidity of the cold Humboldt Current), are differentiated. Within the Acacio-Prosopidetea class, two alliances are commented: the Bursero-Prosopidion pallidae (with two new associations Loxopterygio huasanginis-Neoraimondietum arequipensis and Crotono ruiziani-Acacietum macracanthae), and the new alliance Baccharido-Jacarandion acutifoliae (with the new associations Armatocereo balsasensis-Cercidietum praecocis and Diplopterydo leiocarpae-Acacietum macracanthae). For the Opuntietea sphaericae class, the association Haageocereo versicoloris-Armatocereetum proceri (Espostoo-Neoraimondion) is described on the basis of plots from hyperarid localities of central Peru. Finally, a typological classification of the studied plant communities is given.

  5. Thermo-hydraulics of the Peruvian accretionary complex at 12°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, Nina; Pecher, Ingo

    1999-01-01

    Coupled heat and fluid transport at the Peruvian convergent margin at 12°S wasstudied with finite element modelling. Structural information was available from two seismicreflection lines. Heat production in the oceanic plate, the metamorphic basement, and sedimentswas estimated from literature. Porosity, permeability, and thermal conductivity for the modelswere partly available from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 112; otherwise we used empiricalrelations. Our models accounted for a possible permeability anisotropy. The decollement was bestmodelled as a highly permeable zone (10−13 m2). Permeabilities of thePeruvian accretionary wedge adopted from the model calculations fall within the range of 2 to7×10−16 m2 at the ocean bottom to a few 10−18 m2 at the base and need to be anisotropic. Fluid expulsion at the sea floor decreases graduallywith distance from the deformation front and is structure controlled. Small scale variations of heatflux reflected by fluctuations of BSR depths across major faults could be modelled assuming highpermeability in the faults which allow for efficient advective transport along those faults.

  6. Glacier loss and hydro-social risks in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Bryan G.; French, Adam; Baraer, Michel; Carey, Mark; Bury, Jeffrey; Young, Kenneth R.; Polk, Molly H.; Wigmore, Oliver; Lagos, Pablo; Crumley, Ryan; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Lautz, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Accelerating glacier recession in tropical highlands and in the Peruvian Andes specifically is a manifestation of global climate change that is influencing the hydrologic cycle and impacting water resources across a range of socio-environmental systems. Despite predictions regarding the negative effects of long-term glacier decline on water availability, many uncertainties remain regarding the timing and variability of hydrologic changes and their impacts. To improve context-specific understandings of the effects of climate change and glacial melt on water resources in the tropical Andes, this article synthesizes results from long-term transdisciplinary research with new findings from two glacierized Peruvian watersheds to develop and apply a multi-level conceptual framework focused on the coupled biophysical and social determinants of water access and hydro-social risks in these settings. The framework identifies several interacting variables-hydrologic transformation, land cover change, perceptions of water availability, water use and infrastructure in local and regional economies, and water rights and governance-to broadly assess how glacier change is embedded with social risks and vulnerability across diverse water uses and sectors. The primary focus is on the Santa River watershed draining the Cordillera Blanca to the Pacific. Additional analysis of hydrologic change and water access in the geographically distinct Shullcas River watershed draining the Huaytapallana massif towards the city of Huancayo further illuminates the heterogeneous character of hydrologic risk and vulnerability in the Andes.

  7. Scientific production of Vice Chancellors for Research in Peruvian universities with a medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Añazco, Percy; Valenzuela-Rodríguez, Germán; Pacheco-Mendoza, Josmel; Málaga, Germán

    2017-10-19

    To determine the scientific production of Research Vice-chancellors at Peruvian universities that have medical schools, as well as their academic degrees as an indirect way to evaluate their suitability for the position they hold. We searched all Peruvian universities that register medical schools. Of these, the scientific production of the universities registered in SCOPUS was identified in September of the 2016. The scientific production of the vice chancellors of investigation of these faculties of medicine was determined through the search of its scientific publications registered in SCOPUS and those reported in the National Registry of Researchers in Science and Technology. Academic degrees were obtained from the database of the National Superintendence of Higher University Education. The sample included 28 research vice chancellors. Only 4/28 had any publications. The average number of articles published by the vice chancellors of research was 1.71, the number of citations 23.1 on average and the H index 0.64. Besides, 22 Vice-chancellors of research had the degree of doctor, four had the degree of bachelor and two the degree of master. The scientific production of research vice chancellors is poor. The required academic grade requirement for the position is not met in all cases. It is likely that, having no research experience, his leadership in directing a university's research policies may be questioned.

  8. Diversity and Antimicrobial Potential of Predatory Bacteria from the Peruvian Coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Otoya, Luis; Linares-Otoya, Virginia; Armas-Mantilla, Lizbeth; Blanco-Olano, Cyntia; Crüsemann, Max; Ganoza-Yupanqui, Mayar L; Campos-Florian, Julio; König, Gabriele M; Schäberle, Till F

    2017-10-12

    The microbiome of three different sites at the Peruvian Pacific coast was analyzed, revealing a lower bacterial biodiversity at Isla Foca than at Paracas and Manglares, with 89 bacterial genera identified, as compared to 195 and 173 genera, respectively. Only 47 of the bacterial genera identified were common to all three sites. In order to obtain promising strains for the putative production of novel antimicrobials, predatory bacteria were isolated from these sampling sites, using two different bait organisms. Even though the proportion of predatory bacteria was only around 0.5% in the here investigated environmental microbiomes, by this approach in total 138 bacterial strains were isolated as axenic culture. 25% of strains showed antibacterial activity, thereby nine revealed activity against clinically relevant methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and three against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains. Phylogeny and physiological characteristics of the active strains were investigated. First insights into the chemical basis of the antibacterial activity indicated the biosynthetic production of the known compounds ariakemicin, kocurin, naphthyridinomycin, pumilacidins, resistomycin, and surfactin. However, most compounds remained elusive until now. Hence, the obtained results implicate that the microbiome present at the various habitats at the Peruvian coastline is a promising source for heterotrophic bacterial strains showing high potential for the biotechnological production of antibiotics.

  9. Forecast of sea surface temperature off the Peruvian coast using an autoregressive integrated moving average model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Quispe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El Niño connects globally climate, ecosystems and socio-economic activities. Since 1980 this event has been tried to be predicted, but until now the statistical and dynamical models are insuffi cient. Thus, the objective of the present work was to explore using an autoregressive moving average model the effect of El Niño over the sea surface temperature (TSM off the Peruvian coast. The work involved 5 stages: identifi cation, estimation, diagnostic checking, forecasting and validation. Simple and partial autocorrelation functions (FAC and FACP were used to identify and reformulate the orders of the model parameters, as well as Akaike information criterium (AIC and Schwarz criterium (SC for the selection of the best models during the diagnostic checking. Among the main results the models ARIMA(12,0,11 were proposed, which simulated monthly conditions in agreement with the observed conditions off the Peruvian coast: cold conditions at the end of 2004, and neutral conditions at the beginning of 2005.

  10. Diversity and Antimicrobial Potential of Predatory Bacteria from the Peruvian Coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Linares-Otoya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The microbiome of three different sites at the Peruvian Pacific coast was analyzed, revealing a lower bacterial biodiversity at Isla Foca than at Paracas and Manglares, with 89 bacterial genera identified, as compared to 195 and 173 genera, respectively. Only 47 of the bacterial genera identified were common to all three sites. In order to obtain promising strains for the putative production of novel antimicrobials, predatory bacteria were isolated from these sampling sites, using two different bait organisms. Even though the proportion of predatory bacteria was only around 0.5% in the here investigated environmental microbiomes, by this approach in total 138 bacterial strains were isolated as axenic culture. 25% of strains showed antibacterial activity, thereby nine revealed activity against clinically relevant methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and three against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC strains. Phylogeny and physiological characteristics of the active strains were investigated. First insights into the chemical basis of the antibacterial activity indicated the biosynthetic production of the known compounds ariakemicin, kocurin, naphthyridinomycin, pumilacidins, resistomycin, and surfactin. However, most compounds remained elusive until now. Hence, the obtained results implicate that the microbiome present at the various habitats at the Peruvian coastline is a promising source for heterotrophic bacterial strains showing high potential for the biotechnological production of antibiotics.

  11. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies.

  12. Phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activity in plants with nutritional and/or medicinal properties form the Peruvian Andean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Rogez, H.

    2013-01-01

    Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activities using different assays (DPPH, ABTS and ORAC) in fruits, grains, leaves, seeds, roots and tubers from 27 different Peruvian Andean plants used in folk medicine or/and as food by the native population were evaluated in order to use these as

  13. Peruvian Education at a Crossroads: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kin Bing

    Peruvian education achieved notable successes in the late 20th century, with primary education reaching almost all children and secondary institutions enrolling about 80 percent of 12- to 16-year-olds. Public expenditure on education increased steadily in the 1990s but was still significantly less than the Latin American average. This report…

  14. Do School Facilities Matter? The Case of the Peruvian Social Fund (FONCODES). Policy Research Working Papers No. 2229.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert R.

    Since its creation in 1991, the Peruvian Social Fund (FONCODES) has spent about $570 million funding micro-projects throughout the country. Many of these projects have involved the construction and renovation of school facilities, mainly primary schools in rural areas. FONCODES projects are driven by community demand and targeted using an index of…

  15. Knowledge and Beliefs about Developmental Dyslexia: A Comparison between Pre-Service and In-Service Peruvian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegaray-Bengoa, Joyce; Soriano-Ferrer, Manuel; Joshi, R. Malatesha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, misconceptions, and knowledge gaps of Peruvian pre-service teachers (PSTs) and in-service teachers (ISTs). To do so, 112 PSTs and 113 ISTs completed the Knowledge and Beliefs About Developmental Dyslexia Scale (KBDDS). Results show that ISTs scored significantly higher than PSTs.…

  16. Development of Teleological Explanations in Peruvian Quechua-Speaking and U.S. English-Speaking Preschoolers and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Tapia, Ingrid; Gelman, Susan A.; Hollander, Michelle A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Mannheim, Bruce; Escalante, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Teleological reasoning involves the assumption that entities exist for a purpose (giraffes have long necks for reaching leaves). This study examines how teleological reasoning relates to cultural context, by studying teleological reasoning in 61 Quechua-speaking Peruvian preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.3 years) and adults in an indigenous…

  17. An Ancestral Language to Speak with the "Other": Closing down Ideological Spaces of a Language Policy in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Using a multilayered, ethnographic and critical approach to language policy and planning, this article examines a language policy favoring Quechua in Apurímac in the Southern Peruvian Andes, which is being imagined as an integrated community unified by the local language. This study presents a case in which top-down policies open up ideological…

  18. The Quechua Manta Pouch: A Caretaking Practice for Buffering the Peruvian Infant against the Multiple Stressors of High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronick, E. Z.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the caretaking practices employed by the Peruvian Quechua mountain people, who swaddle infants in cloths and blankets (known as a manta pouch) to protect them from the harsh and frigid environment. The practices of 14 mother-infants pairs are examined in detail, and the benefits and drawbacks of the manta pouch are examined. (MDM)

  19. THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE DEFORESTATION: THE CASE OF IMPROVED FALLOWS IN THE PERUVIAN AMAZON

    OpenAIRE

    Yanggen, David; Reardon, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a profit function theoretical approach and three stage least squares regression analysis for examining the relationship between land-intensifying technologies and deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon. This modeling approach permits analysis of the determinants of input technology adoption and how input technology choice effects deforestation rates.

  20. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  1. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  2. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  3. The Consequences of Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenthal, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the effects of tax reforms for an economy in a welfare state. I do this by a macroeconomic model, which includes not only households, firms and a government but also a monopoly labour union. The households are of two types, workers and entrepreneurs. The workers are employed by the firms, which are owned by the entrepreneurs. This paper shows that decreasing labour taxation and increasing consumption taxation would have a number of positive effects. These include incr...

  4. The california electricity reform debacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccard, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, California launched a dramatic reform of its electricity sector, vertically de-integrating its major utilities and establishing a competitive generation market, with separate entities responsible for grid control and power exchange. After two uneventful years, wholesale prices rose dramatically in the summer of 2000 and have remained high into 2001. An imbalance between the high wholesale prices and frozen retail rates caused a financial crisis for the electric utilities and power shortages have been a chronic threat. Several factors contributed to this crisis: capacity has not expanded in step with demand either in California or its larger trading region; extreme weather and poorly timed plant outages further increased demand and decreased supply; market design flaws allowed significant suppliers to influence the market while frozen retail rates limited the demand response that would have mitigated the supply-demand imbalance. State and federal agencies have taken corrective action but the situation may remain critical for some time. Longer term solutions involve recognizing the special characteristics of electricity in designing marking reform. Because electricity supply and demand must be instantaneously balanced at all times, market reform must ensure that someone has the responsibility and effective tools to ensure that this occurs, in spite of unforeseen circumstances, and to prevent the exercise of market power. Because a competitive commodity market must work in concert with a monopoly delivery system, someone must be responsible and have the means to develop and operate the grid in ways that are amenable to effective competition. Finally, reform design must ensure that the cyclical investment and price patterns of normal commodity markets are minimized in the electricity market and that when they do occur, market volatility does not compromise reliability and price stability for those who value these highly and would pay a premium for them

  5. The role of the State in land reform processes: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Botella Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es estudiar el proceso de reforma agrarian en Latinoamérica y caracterizar el caso de Brasil, por esta razón voy a exponer una visión general del proceso y el rol de los gobiernos durante el siglo XX acorde al punto de vista de organizaciones internacionales como el Banco Mundial o el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Como punto a añadir al objetivo de mi investigación está el explicar en términos generales y únicamente con un análisis teórico el proceso de reforma agraria y, por esta razón, me gustaría mostrar las mejores normas a fin de poner en práctica esta clase de política de acuerdo a la difícil situación del punto de salida. Finalmente, la presencia de Brasil será tomada para demostrar las importantes implicaciones de los movimientos sociales para llevar a cabo los procesos de reforma agraria.____________________ABSTRACT:The purpose of my article is to study land reform processes in Latin America and characterise the case of Brazil, for this reason I am going to expound a general vision of the process and the role of Governments during the 20th century according to the point of view of International Organizations like The World Bank or The Inter-American Development Bank. In addition the objective of my research is explaining in general terms and only with a theoretical analysis land reform processes and, for this reason, I would like to show the best norms in order to put in practise this kind of policy according to the difficult situation of the starting point. Finally the instance of Brazil will be undertaken to demonstrate the main implications of social movements in order to make land reform processes.

  6. [Peruvian scientific production in medicine and collaboration networks, analysis of the Science Citation Index 2000-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2010-09-01

    To describe the Peruvian scientific production in indexed journals in the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and the characteristics of the institutional collaborative networks. All papers published in the ISI database (Clinical Medicine collection) were included during 2000 to 2009 with at least one author with a Peruvian affiliation. The publication trend, address of corresponding author, type of article, institution, city (only for Peru), and country were evaluated. The collaborative networks were analized using the Pajek® software. 1210 papers were found, increasing from 61 in 2000 to 200 in 2009 (average of 121 articles/year). 30.4% articles included a corresponding author from a Peruvian institution. The average of authors per article was 8.3. Original articles represented 82.1% of total articles. Infectious diseases-related journals concentrated most of the articles. The main countries that collaborate with Peru are: USA (60.4%), England (12.9%), and Brazil (8.0%). Lima concentrated 94.7% of the publications and three regions (Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna) did not register any publication. Only two universities published more than one article/year and four institutions published more than 10 articles/year. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia published 45% of the total number of articles, being the most productive institution and which concentrated the most number of collaborations with foreign institutions. The ministry of Health--including all dependencies--published 37.3% of the total number of publications. There is a higher level of collaboration with foreign institutions rather than local institutions. The Peruvian scientific production in medicine represented in the ISI database is very low but growing, and is concentrated in Lima and in a few institutions. The most productive Peruvian institutions collaborate more intensively with foreign journals rather than local institutions.

  7. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  8. YIELD CAPACITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GREEN BEANS IN CULTIVARS OF KIDNEY BEAN BRED AT OMSK AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY IN THE SOUTH FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kazydub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In  2014-2016  the  assessment of  kidney bean  cultivars bred at Omsk State Agrarian University on yield capacity, quality, and biochemical  chemical compounds  in green beans, such as proteins, zinc, iodine, iron and sucrose was carried  out  in  the  south  forest-steppe  of  Western Siberia. The technological  parameters of  green  beans: the  shape  of  cross-section  area; pulpiness,  fibrous  or non-fibrous,  and bean thickness were estimated. Threeyear study showed that all tested cultivars bred at Omsk State  Agrarian  University  surpassed  control  cultivar  in yield capacity,  chemical composition  and technological parameters of green beans. The cultivar ‘Pamiyaty Rizhovoy’ gave a highest yield: 563.4 g/m2  in 2014; 622.8 g/m2 in 2015; and 620.4 g/m2  in 2016. It is worth noticing that this cultivar is also distinguished by contents of micro and macroelements: 21.20-28.68  mg/kg  of zinc; 0.012-0.018 mg/kg of iodine; and 1.8-3.2 mg/kg of iron. In the course of the study, it was noticed the dependence of  yield  capacity  on  hydrothermal  coefficient  (HC. In 2014-2015 the yield capacity was a lowest when the moisturization was insufficient at 0.7 HC. With increase of HC the yield was higher. With sufficient moisturization at 1.0 HC the highest yield of green beans was observed in 2016.  The estimation  of  kidney  bean  cultivars  bred  at Omsk State  Agrarian University showed  that  all beans were  distinguished  by  high  quality  parameters  in  the phase  of  technical  maturity,  such  as  pulpiness,  nonfibrous, thickness 0.5 to  1.0 cm, and green and yellow colors.  The  highest  protein  content  comparing  to  the control  cultivar  ‘Zolushka’  was  detected  in  ‘Marusya’ 23.60%  in  2014,  20.94%  in  2015;  and  ‘Zoloto  Sibiry’ 19.79%  in  2016.  The  observed  results  confirmed  that contents  change of

  9. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  10. EJERCICIO DE LAS FUNCIONES EMPRESARIALES POR PARTE DE LOS SOCIOS EN LAS COOPERATIVAS AGRARIAS / THE EXECUTION OF MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS BY THE MEMBERS OF AGRARIAN COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen GALVE GÓRRIZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo es efectuada por parte de los socios la coordinación de la empresa cooperativa agraria. Dicha coordinación ha sido analizada a través del análisis de las funciones que deben desarrollar los socios como empresarios. Estas funciones son enumeradas, descritas teóricamente y analizadas a partir de una muestra de cooperativas agrarias pertenecientes a la Denominación de Origen Calificada Rioja. Entre los principales resultados obtenidos cabe destacar que, en la mayoría de los casos analizados, la función de inversor es realizada sin que exista separación con la desempeñada como proveedor; el control formal es ejercido bajo el principio democrático de un hombre un voto; existe poca delegación de las actividades de gestión en una gerencia profesionalizada y cuando esta delegación se produce, no se obtiene niveles de eficiencia significativamente superiores; la organización de actividades muestra una clara especialización en las primeras fases del ciclo productivo y una alta concentración de ventas; por último, la selección de personal es realizada exigiendo unos niveles de cualificación adecuados en cada departamento. / The aim of this work is to analyse how the coordination of the agrarian cooperative firm is brought about by the members. Said coordination has been analysed by means of a study of the functions which members have to develop in their role as managers. These functions have been numbered; theoretically described, and analysed by using a sample of agrarian cooperatives belonging to the Domination of Origin Qualified Rioja. From the principal results obtained, we can highlight the fact that, in most cases analysed, formal control is exercised under the democratic principle, “one-man-one-vote”; where little delegation of management activities exists in professional management and when this delegation occurs, the cooperative does not obtain higher efficiency levels. The

  11. Discursos y políticas agrarias en Argentina, 1920-1955 Discourse and Agrarian Policies in Argentina, 1920-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Balsa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza cómo el discurso agrarista crítico del latifundio fue consolidándose en la opinión pública argentina y se tradujo en medidas que fueron teniendo cada vez más impacto sobre la realidad agraria. En 1921 la lucha de los chacareros logró una primera ley que reguló los contratos de arrendamiento. En las décadas siguientes, incluso algunas figuras políticas del conservadurismo fueron incorporando la discursividad agrarista crítica e implementaron políticas acordes, aunque de carácter limitado que, de todos modos, contribuyeron a la legitimación de las demandas chacareras. Con el golpe militar de 1943 y el ascenso de Perón, el agrarismo crítico se convirtió en una real estrategia política, hasta que a partir de 1948 asistimos a un giro discursivo y político por parte de Perón, frenándose el proceso colonizador oficial y reduciéndose las medidas agraristas.This article analyzes the consolidation of an agrarist discourse critique of the latifundio in the Argentine public opinion and how this had impact on the agrarian reality. In 1921, the chacareros' fight achieved the first law that regulated tenure contracts. In the next decades, even some political figures of the Argentine conservatism begun to assimilate the critique agrarist discursivity and they took some appropriate, but limited measures that, anyway, contributed to the legitimation of the chacareros' demands. With the military coup of 1943 and the promotion of the political figure of Perón, critique agrarism became a real political strategy, until from 1948 when we attend to a political and discursive turn of Peron's policies, that stopped the official colonization process and reduced the amount of agrarian measures.

  12. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  13. Development of ATSR (Auto Thermal Steam Reformer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, J.; Yoshino, Y.; Kuwabara, T.; Fujisima, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Maruko, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Auto-thermal reformers are used popularly for fuel cell vehicle because they are compact and can start up quickly. On the other hand, steam reformers are used for stationary fuel cell power plant because they are good thermal efficiency. While, there are many cases using the auto- thermal reformer for stationary use with expectation of cost reduction in USA, as well. However, they are still insufficient for its durability, compactness and cost. We have been developing the new type of fuel processing system that is auto-thermal steam reformer (ATSR), which is hybrid of a conventional steam reformer (STR) and a conventional auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In this study, some proto-type of ATSR for field test were designed, tried manufacturing and tested performance and durability. And we have tried to operate with fuel cell stack to evaluate the system interface performance, that is, operability and controllability. (author)

  14. High temperature ceramic-tubed reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph J.; Rosenberg, Robert A.; McDonough, Lane J.

    1990-03-01

    The overall objective of the HiPHES project is to develop an advanced high-pressure heat exchanger for a convective steam/methane reformer. The HiPHES steam/methane reformer is a convective, shell and tube type, catalytic reactor. The use of ceramic tubes will allow reaction temperature higher than the current state-of-the-art outlet temperatures of about 1600 F using metal tubes. Higher reaction temperatures increase feedstock conversion to synthesis gas and reduce energy requirements compared to currently available radiant-box type reformers using metal tubes. Reforming of natural gas is the principal method used to produce synthesis gas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, H2 and CO) which is used to produce hydrogen (for refinery upgrading), methanol, as well as several other important materials. The HiPHES reformer development is an extension of Stone and Webster's efforts to develop a metal-tubed convective reformer integrated with a gas turbine cycle.

  15. Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A Vouilloud

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyceae. The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 45-62. Epub 2010 March 01.La flora diatomológica de la Amazonia Colombiana y Peruana está mucho menos estudiada que la flora del sector brasilero. Se presentan los resultados de los géneros Encyonema, Encyonopsis y Gomphonema. Muestras de plancton y perifiton fueron colectadas en ambientes lóticos y lénticos de la región amazónica-andina, en los ríos Amazonas, Japurá y Porvenir durante 1993, 1994, 2001 y 2003. En cada estación de muestreo se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, transparencia del agua y conductividad. Las muestras fueron analizadas con microscopio óptico con contraste de fases y microscopio electr

  16. Present coupling along the Peruvian subduction asperity that devastated Lima while breaking during the 1746 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalié, O.; Chlieh, M.; Villegas Lanza, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction zone are particularly prone to generating large earthquakes due to its wide lateral extension. In order to understand where, and possibly when, large earthquakes will occur, interseismic deformation observation is a key information because it allows to map asperities that accumulate stress on the plate interface. South American subduction is one of the longest worldwide, running all along the west coast of the continent. Combined with the relatively fast convergence rate between the Nazca plate and the South American continent, Chile and Peru experience regularly M>7.5 earthquakes. In this study, we focused on the Peruvian subduction margin and more precisely on the Central segment containing Lima where the seismic risk is the highest in the country due the large population that lives in the Peruvian capital. On the Central segment (10°S and 15°S), we used over 50 GPS interseismic measurements from campaign and continuous sites, as well as InSAR data to map coupling along the subduction interface. GPS data come from the Peruvian GPS network and InSAR data are from the Envisat satellite. We selected two tracks covering the central segment (including Lima) and with enough SAR image acquisitions between 2003 and 2010 to get a robust deformation estimation. GPS and InSAR data show a consistent tectonic signal with a maximum of surface displacement by the coast: the maximum horizontal velocities from GPS is about 20 mm and InSAR finds 12-13 mm in the LOS component. In addition, InSAR reveals lateral variations along the coast: the maximum motion is measured around Lima (11°S) and fades on either side. By inverting the geodetic data, we were able to map the coupling along the segment. It results in a main asperity where interseismic stress is loading. However, compared the previous published models based on GPS only, the coupling in the central segment seems more heterogeneous. Finally, we compared the deficit of seismic moment accumulating in the

  17. Peruvian sediments as recorders of an evolving hiatus for the last 22 thousand years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Zeynep; Schönfeld, Joachim; Glock, Nicolaas; Dengler, Marcus; Mosch, Thomas; Sommer, Stefan; Elger, Judith; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2016-04-01

    The Peruvian continental margin is characterized by the presence of one of the strongest and most distinct Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs) in today's oceans. Therefore, it has long been in the focus of oceanographic and geological investigations. Observations indicate that OMZs are expanding in relation with currently changing climate. To advance understanding of the temporal evolution of OMZs and climate change, complete paleoceanographic and palaeoclimatological reconstructions are needed. However, the development of paleoenvironmental scenarios for the period since the Last Glacial Maximum at this region was hampered by a ubiquitous hiatus and short-term interruptions of the stratigraphical record. In the present study, we combined the stratigraphical information from 31 sediment cores from the Peruvian margin located between 3 and 18°S and water depths of 90 to 1300 m within and below today's OMZ, in order to determine the extent of the hiatus and assess the responsible mechanisms. A widespread unconformity and related erosional features, omission surfaces and phosphorites, were observed in sediment cores from the area south of 7°S, depicting a prograding feature on the continental slope from south to north during the deglaciation. Combining recent oceanographic and sedimentological observations, it is inferred that, tide-topography interaction and resulting non-linear internal waves (NLIWs) shape the slope by erosion, carry sediments upslope or downslope and leave widespread phosphoritic lag sediments, while the Peru Chile Undercurrent (PCUC) transports the resuspended sediments southward causing non-deposition. This exceptional sedimentary regime makes the Peruvian margin a modern analogue for such environments. Overall, our compilation of downcore records showed that enhanced bottom currents due to tide-topography interaction were progressively evolving and affected a wider area with the onset of the last deglaciation. Elevated tidal amplitudes and variability

  18. Review of Judicial Reforms in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Dubgyur, Lungten

    2004-01-01

    This essay highlights the anomalies of judicial reforms in Bhutan. It presents a historical perspective of Bhutanese judicial reforms and addresses recent developments. It discusses court performance and experiences and approaches adopted in making the courts efficient. Much of the reform initiatives emanate from the throne. His Majesty the King has always advocated an efficient judicial system for the Kingdom. In obedience to the Royal Commands, the judicial system and judicial process in Bh...

  19. The English and Swedish health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, H; Matsaganis, M

    1994-01-01

    England and Sweden have two of the most advanced systems of universal access to health care in the world. Both have begun major reforms based on similar principles. Universal access and finance from taxation are retained, but a measure of competition between providers of health care is introduced. The reforms therefore show a movement toward the kind of approach advocated by some in the United States. This article traces the origins and early results of the two countries' reform efforts.

  20. Improving the Business Trade Licensing Reform Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gamser, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This case study of Kenyan business trade licensing shows that red-tape costs can be cut if reform is championed strongly and there is a strong case in terms of costs and benefits. The reform of business registration, trade licensing and other business entry procedures is a cost effective and progressive way to promote indigenous private sector development. But, reform needs more than good cost-benefit analysis and legal drafting; it also requires building constituencies and continuous advocacy.

  1. Interest Groups and Trade Reform in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Sanchez-Mier

    2005-01-01

    Mexico experienced widespread economic reform in the last two decades. From being a protectionist economy with a policy of import substitution, it has turned into an export-oriented open economy. Why was protectionism a stable policy, and how was it overturned by a reform that went against entrenched interests? I apply a game theoretic model of political influence and economic reform to answer these questions using data to calculate the payoffs for the relevant interest groups. In the underly...

  2. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  3. Plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol: influence of air activation rate and reforming temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya.; Fedirchuk, I.I.; Demchina, V.P.; Bortyshevsky, V.A.; Korzh, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study of the influence that air activation rate and reforming temperature have on the gaseous products composition and conversion efficiency during the plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol. The analysis of product composition showed that the conversion efficiency of ethanol has a maximum in the studied range of reforming temperatures. Researched system provided high reforming efficiency and high hydrogen energy yield at the lower temperatures than traditional conversion technologies

  4. Pension reform in the European periphery: the role of EU reform advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepan, M.; Anderson, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: This paper analyzes the impact of international reform advocacy on national pension reforms. We analyze European Union (EU) reform advocacy in two EU member states: Greece and Hungary. Although the EU has articulated a fairly coherent template for sustainable pensions, its use of soft

  5. Influence of irrigation on the occurrence of organic and inorganic pollutants in soil, water and sediments of a Spanish agrarian basin (Lerma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahao, R.; Sarasa, J.; Causape, J.; Garcia-Garizabal, I.; Ovelleiro, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the several possible environmental impacts caused by irrigation, the existence of a study area under transition from unirrigated to irrigated land is a great advantage. This work investigates the presence of 44 pesticides and metabolites, 11 organo chlorinated compounds, 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 13 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several metals and metalloids such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Se and Hg, in the soil, water and sediments of an agrarian basin in Northeast Spain. The study area was unirrigated until 2006, when irrigation began. The objective of this work was to verify if the first irrigation years influenced the concentrations of the substances and elements analyzed. The main contaminants detected were organo chlorinated compounds, Paths and metals in the soil; atrazine, desethyl atrazine, terbuthylazine, dicofol and pp'-DDT in the water; and PAHs, 1,2,4 trichlorobenzene and metals in the sediments. Until the conclusion of this study, no serious contamination issues existed related to the analyzed substances, and for the moment, irrigation has not significantly influenced the concentrations of such substances in the basin. Nevertheless, slightly elevated punctual values were observed for endrin in the soil, pp'-DDT in the water, and Ni and Zn in the sediments. (Author) 45 refs.

  6. More Energy and Less Work, but New Crises: How the Societal Metabolism-Labour Nexus Changes from Agrarian to Industrial Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Haas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific finding that humanity is overburdening nature and thus risks further ecological crises is almost uncontroversial. Main reason for the crises is the drastic increase in the societal metabolism, which is accomplished through labour. In this article, we examine the societal metabolism-labour nexus in two energy regimes: a valley in the Ethiopian highlands, typical of an agrarian society, and a village in Austria, typical of an industrial society. In the Ethiopian village, the supply of food demands almost the entire labour force, thus limiting the capacity to facilitate material flows beyond food provision. In the Austrian village, fewer working hours, lower workloads but 50 times higher useful energy allow to accumulate stocks like buildings 70 times higher than the Ethiopian case. With fossil energy, industrial societies decisively expand their energy supply and reduce labour hours at the cost of high carbon emissions, which are almost non-existent in the Ethiopian case. To overcome the resulting ecological crises, there is a call to drastically reduce fossil fuel consumption. Such an abandonment of fossil fuels might have as far reaching consequences for the societal metabolism-labour nexus and consequently human labour as the introduction of fossil fuels has had.

  7. Factors associated with delayed tuberculosis test-seeking behavior in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carolyn M; Bayer, Angela M; Gilman, Robert H; Onifade, Dami; Acosta, Colleen; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Carlos; Evans, Carlton A

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the psychosocial factors associated with delayed test-seeking among tuberculosis patients. The duration of symptoms before seeking medical care was assessed by interview for 108 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the city of Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon, which has high tuberculosis incidence. Beliefs associated with test-seeking behavior and delay was assessed in these patients. The median delay from symptom onset to seeking diagnostic testing was 61 days (inter-quartile range 30-91 days). The belief that tuberculosis is curable was associated with a 100% longer test-seeking delay; the perception that tuberculosis was common was associated with a 57% longer delay; male gender was associated with a 48% longer delay; and education less than complete secondary schooling was associated with a 44% longer delay. In conclusion, current health promotion activities that emphasize tuberculosis curability and high prevalence may paradoxically increase test-seeking delay and therefore require prospective evaluation.

  8. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in a cohort of primiparous periurban peruvian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Susana L; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2012-02-01

    The authors aimed to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among 117 Peruvian mothers planning to breastfeed exclusively. Data were collected on days 0 and 3, and months 1, 3, and 6. Exclusive breastfeeding status was evaluated with a 24-hour recall of infant diet. Exclusive breastfeeding rates were 74%, 72%, and 35% at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. At 3 months, lower maternal education, greater breastfeeding frequency (day 3), greater breast pain (day 3), and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use (3 months) were associated with EBF, after adjusting for EBF intentions. At 6 months, greater infant birth weight and mother-not employed were associated with EBF, after controlling for EBF intentions. More educated and working mothers, and infants with lower birth weight should be targeted in interventions to promote EBF in urban Peru. Research is also warranted to explore the factors linking depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use and breast pain with EBF duration.

  9. The microeconomics of sexual exploitation of girls and young women in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Jaris

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sexual exploitation of girls and young women as an increasing phenomenon within the extractive industries of wood, oil, minerals and gas in Peruvian Amazonia. The analysis focuses on the city of Pucallpa and the northern part of the Ucayali River and aims to identify the social and economic dynamics underpinning the commercial sexual exploitation of female children and teenagers around the main river port. The study describes the local operating mechanisms of bars and restaurants in the port, the demand for and perceptions of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, and the economic logic that it entails. Using a discourse analytic approach, it is argued that this is a business whose profitability is tied to the trade in alcoholic beverages and foods and which responds to a set of family connections and networks.

  10. Accelerating to Zero: Strategies to Eliminate Malaria in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Antonio M.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Clendenes, Martin; Cabezas, Cesar; Leon, Luis M.; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Moreno, Marta; Kaslow, David C.; Grogl, Max; Herrera, Sócrates; Magill, Alan J.; Kosek, Margaret; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Lescano, Andres G.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014, the Malaria Elimination Working Group, in partnership with the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MoH), hosted its first international conference on malaria elimination in Iquitos, Peru. The 2-day meeting gathered 85 malaria experts, including 18 international panelists, 23 stakeholders from different malaria-endemic regions of Peru, and 11 MoH authorities. The main outcome was consensus that implementing a malaria elimination project in the Amazon region is achievable, but would require: 1) a comprehensive strategic plan, 2) the altering of current programmatic guidelines from control toward elimination by including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic individuals for antimalarial therapy and transmission-blocking interventions, and 3) the prioritization of community-based active case detection with proper rapid diagnostic tests to interrupt transmission. Elimination efforts must involve key stakeholders and experts at every level of government and include integrated research activities to evaluate, implement, and tailor sustainable interventions appropriate to the region.

  11. Foreign Direct Investment and export performance: The Peruvian experience in the framework of APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Carhuaricra Ubillus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research measures the impact of APEC economies FDI on Peru's total exports. Solving this question will help us understand the effect that this FDI has on the Peruvian economy through its export capacity, as well as determine whether or not this FDI stimulates an export-oriented industrialization. Using data from  Proinversion, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism (MINCETUR, Central Reserve Bank, SUNAT, the World Bank and StatsAPEC we developed an ordinary least squares (OLS model  and observed that APEC economies FDI has a positive effect on exports. Specifically, an increase in 1 million soles of APEC FDI generates an increase of 44.37 million soles in exports. However, this positive effect has a decreasing marginal returrn as the investment stock rises.

  12. Evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity of plants used by Peruvian Chayahuita ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Y; Castillo, D; Pisango, M Tangoa; Arevalo, J; Rojas, R; Alban, J; Deharo, E; Bourdy, G; Sauvain, M

    2007-11-01

    A total of 27 ethanolic plant extracts from 27 species were screened for leishmanicidal activity in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis. Most of the selected species (19) are traditionally used by the Chayahuitas, an Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group, to treat skin affections and/or leishmaniasis. A colorimetric method based on the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT) was used to measure the viability of Leishmania amazonensis promastigote and amastigote stages. Only the leaves of two species of the Piperaceae family (Piper hispidum Sw., and Piper strigosum Trel.) showed good leishmanicidal activities (IC(50)Cycadaceae) showed low activity against amastigote stage (IC(50) around 50 microg/ml). Of those only Tabernaemontana sananho displayed also good activity on promastigotes (IC(50)<10 microg/ml). Results are discussed herein, in relation with the traditional use of the plants and compared with other data from the relevant literature.

  13. Uranium-series growth history of a Quaternary phosphatic crust from the Peruvian continental margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kee Hyun; Burnett, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    A 20-mm-thick oriented phosphatic crust recovered together with its overlying (14 cm) and underlying (4 cm) associated sediment from the Peruvian sea floor has been analyzed in detail for uranium-series radionuclides in an attempt to determine its rate and direction of growth. Growth curves based upon 226 Ra and 230 Th ages show that this crust grew upward toward the sediment-water interface. Calculated growth rates in the range of 12-13 mm ka -1 are slightly higher but comparable to values previously reported. Crystallographical analyses of this phosphatic crust show a trend of decreasing unit-cell dimension a with sample age. The upward growth of a buried crust toward the sediment-water interface is consistent with results from recent pore-water studies of fluoride and phosphate in Peru shelf sediments. (orig.)

  14. Preferences for intervention among Peruvian women in intimate partner violence relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripe, Swee May; Espinoza, Damarys; Rondon, Marta B; Jimenez, Maria Luisa; Sanchez, Elena; Ojeda, Nely; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify what abused Peruvian women want or need as intervention strategies. We conducted five focus groups with 30 women with prior or current experience with intimate partner violence. Participants noted that abused women need compassionate support, professional counseling, and informational and practical (e.g., work skills training, employment, shelter, financial support) interventions. We propose a 2-tiered intervention strategy that includes community support groups and individual professional counseling. This strategy is intended to offer broad coverage, meeting the needs of large groups of women who experience abuse, whereas providing specialized counseling for those requiring intensive support. Respect for each woman's autonomy in the decision-making process is a priority. Interventions targeted toward women and men should address structural factors that contribute to violence against women.

  15. Demirjian's stages and Cameriere's third molar maturity index to estimate legal adult age in Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Lizarbe, Roselhy Juliana; Solís Adrianzén, Christian; Quezada-Márquez, Milushka Miroslava; Galić, Ivan; Cameriere, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    To compare the accuracy of Demirjian's stages (DS) and Cameriere's third molar maturity index cut-off value (I 3M age of majority on panoramic radiographs (OPTs) from the dental clinic of the Scientific University of the South (UCSUR), Lima, Peru. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted on the sample of 208 digital panoramic radiographs of patients aged 14-22years examined during 2015 in UCSUR. The left lower third molars were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop® CS6. An effectiveness of specific DS and I 3M third molar maturity index (I 3M <0.08) showed to be more accurate in discriminating adults and minors in Peruvian sample when a test with high sensitivity and specificity is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Distinct sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from in Salvadoran and Peruvian Celastraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Oliver; Núñez, Marvin J; Perestelo, Nayra R; Reyes, Carolina P; Torres-Romero, David; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2017-10-01

    As part of a bioprospecting program aimed at the discovery of undescribed natural products from Salvadoran and Peruvian flora, the phytochemical investigations of four Celastraceae species, Celastrus vulcanicola, Maytenus segoviarum, Maytenus jeslkii, and Maytenus cuzcoina, were performed. The current study reports the isolation and structural characterization of five previously undescribed macrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, named vulcanicoline-A, cuzcoinine, vulcanicoline-B, jelskiine, and vulcanicoline-C, along with sixteen known alkaloids. The structures of the alkaloids were established by spectrometric and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, including COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY experiments. The absolute configurations of alkaloids were proposed based on optical rotation sign, and biogenetic considerations. This study represents the first phytochemical analysis of Maytenus segoviarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Blood Meals from Potential Arbovirus Mosquito Vectors in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Pedro M; Aguilar, Patricia V; Sanchez, Juan F; Zorrilla, Víctor; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Huayanay, Anibal; Guevara, Carolina; Lescano, Andrés G; Halsey, Eric S

    2016-11-02

    The transmission dynamics of many arboviruses in the Amazon Basin region have not been fully elucidated, including the vectors and natural reservoir hosts. Identification of blood meal sources in field-caught mosquitoes could yield information for identifying potential arbovirus vertebrate hosts. We identified blood meal sources in 131 mosquitoes collected from areas endemic for arboviruses in the Peruvian Department of Loreto by sequencing polymerase chain reaction amplicons of the cytochrome b gene. Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu, Psorophora (Grabhamia) cingulata, Mansonia humeralis, Anopheles oswaldoi s.l., and Anopheles benarrochi s.l. had mainly anthropophilic feeding preferences; Aedes (Ochlerotatus) serratus, and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus had feeding preferences for peridomestic animals; and Culex (Melanoconion) spp. fed on a variety of vertebrates, mainly rodents (spiny rats), birds, and amphibians. On the basis of these feeding preferences, many mosquitoes could be considered as potential enzootic and bridge arbovirus vectors in the Amazon Basin of Peru. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  19. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  20. [Coinfection of dengue and leptospirosis in a girl from the peruvian amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Garbín, Alexandra; Espinoza-Figueroa, Jossué; Sihuincha-Maldonado, Moisés; Suarez-Ognio, Luis

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 10 year old girl, born and raised in the city of Iquitos in Peru who presented with headache, fever, chills, musculoskeletal pain, mild epigastric pain, epistaxis and hematemesis. On physical examination, the patient was afebrile and in good general condition. Serological tests confirmed infection of dengue and leptospirosis. The patient received intravenous hydration with sodium chloride 0.9% and penicillin G sodium, achieving a favorable clinical course such that she was discharged a few days after admission to the hospital. Although these diseases are common in the Peruvian Amazon, the simultaneous presence of both in the pediatric population is little documented; therefore, a good clinical history and laboratory tests are important for diagnosis and treatment.