WorldWideScience

Sample records for persons including children

  1. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in

  2. Fathers' personality and its interaction with children's personality as predictors of perceived parenting behavior six years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn

    We investigated fathers' personality and its interaction with children's personality as predictors of adolescent perceived parenting behavior. Data were used from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality and Development including 353 children. At Time 1 fathers rated their personality whereas

  3. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  4. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)-A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7-10 years).

  5. Attachment security, personality, and adjustment of elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri

    2013-01-01

    Children's development is assumed to be closely related to their attachment security and their personality. The authors' aim was to examine the joint contribution of attachment security and personality traits to children's adjustment by examining diverse children's outcomes (emotional symptoms, social functioning, and behavioral problems) and using various perspectives (children, parents, and teachers). The sample comprised 247 8-12-year-old children from low socioeconomic status neighborhoods. Personality and attachment contribute to the different domains of adjustment. In cases of moderation, attachment security moderates the implications of personality traits on children's adjustment. The findings highlight the contribution of positive personality tendencies in playing down the difficulties of insecurely attached children.

  6. Social Adjustment and Personality Development in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Merrill; And Others

    This book describes a series of studies included in a 5-year program of research on the social adjustment of school children in the third through sixth grades. The sample consists of a total of 40,000 children from Texas and Minnesota, including a small subsample of 5,000 used in a 4-year longitudinal study. Peer acceptance-rejection scores…

  7. Ergonomics, education and children: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, A

    2007-10-01

    Educational ergonomics - the teaching of ergonomics and the design of environments where ergonomics teaching and learning might occur - has received little attention from ergonomists. This paper first describes the roots of the author's interest and research in educational ergonomics; second it provides a personal view of the opportunities and challenges posed by the two streams of educational ergonomics; and lastly it considers the implications of teaching ergonomics to children in terms of their personal development, the design of schools and the impact such initiatives might have on wider societal problems.

  8. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  9. Reading Personalized Books with Preschool Children Enhances Their Word Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Messer, David; Sheehy, Kieron

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether books that contain personalized content are better facilitators of young children's word acquisition than books which are not personalized for a child. In a repeated-measures experimental design, 18 children (mean age 3;10) were read a picture book which contained both personalized and non-personalized sections, with…

  10. PP-2 ABNORMAL PERSONALITY TRAITS IN CHILDREN WITH AEROPHAGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Jayawickrama, Nirodha; Gulegoda, Ishani Chathurika; Rajindrajith, Shaman

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to study the personality types in children with aerophagia. A cross sectional survey was conducted in 8 randomly selected schools in 4 randomly selected provinces Sri Lanka. From each school, all cchildren aged 13-18 years were selected after obtaining written consent from parents, school administration and provincial education office. Assent was obtained from all children recruited. Date were collected using a self-administered questionnaire administered under examination setting to ensure confidentiality and privacy. Questionnaire contained previously translated and validated Rome III questionnaire for functional gastrointestinal diseases (self-administered form for children above 10 years) and childhood personality assessment questionnaire. Trained research assistants were present during filling the questionnaire to provide assistance and to verify doubts. Aerophagia was defined using the Rome III criteria. Severities of individual symptoms were recorded in 100 mm visual analogue scale. A total of 1069 questionnaires were distributed and all of them were returned and included in analysis [males 508 (47.5%), mean age 15.3 years, SD 1.8 years years]. One hundred and thirty six (12.7%) fulfilled Rome III criteria for aerophagia and 933 children without aerophagia were considered as controls. Nineteen (13.8%) children with aerophagia and 71 (7.6%) controls had personality scores above the international cut-off value (105) for abnormal personality (p = 0.01). Children with aerophagia had significantly higher scores for different personality traits than controls; including hostility and aggression (13.2 vs. 12.2 in controls, p = 0.006), negative self-esteem (11.0 vs. 9.9, p personality score (92.1 vs. 87.7, p = 001). In children with aerophagia, scores obtained for severity of bloating correlated with scores obtained for hostility and aggression (r = 0.22, p = 0.02). Children with aerophagia has abnormal

  11. Personal Hygiene and Vulvovaginitis in Prepubertal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemek, Fatıma; Odabaş, Dursun; Şenel, Ünal; Kocaman, Ayşe Tuba

    2016-06-01

    To determine and compare clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls. Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecological problem of childhood. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study involved 45 girls from 2-12 (5.38 ± 2.9) years old; and 26 girls from 3-12 (5.72 ± 3.1) years old as a control group. Anamnesis and physical examination were followed by vaginal smear, urine culture, and stool analyses from both groups, and the personal hygiene status and education level of the mother were determined. The most common symptoms among the patients were vaginal discharge (44.4%, vulvar erythema (37.8%), and vaginal itch (24.4%). Microorganisms, isolated from vaginal smears, were detected in 48.9% of the patients. Escherichia coli was shown in the urine culture of 3 patients with vulvovaginitis (6.70%). In microscopic stool analysis parasites were detected (45.9%). We found some relevant personal hygiene factors, such as wiping back to front (42.9%), cleaning by herself after defecation (89.3%), using toilet paper (60.7%) and wet wipes (21.4%), and bathing standing (14.3%) and sitting (46.4%) among patients. The questionnaire also showed that the children wore tight clothing (35.7%). Our findings suggest that vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls is related not only to microorganisms but also poor personal hygiene, the educational status of mothers, and specific irritants. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  13. Children's Family Drawings: A Study of Attachment, Personality, and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's attachment security, as manifested in their family drawings, and their personality and adjustment. Family drawings were collected from 222 Israeli children, as well as data regarding their personality and adjustment. Each drawing was coded and classified into 1 of 4 attachment categories…

  14. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Children's Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…

  15. The Role of the External Personal Assistants for Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities Working in the Children's Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities need support to function in an optimal way. However, there is a limited knowledge about the role of external personal assistants working in the children's home. Materials and Methods: A mixed method study was performed including qualitative data from interviews with 11…

  16. Supporting and including children from low income families

    OpenAIRE

    Benoist, FD

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores: • What we mean by low income and poverty and how poverty is defined • The families living on low income in the UK today and the impact of low income and poverty on children’s well-being, development and learning • Supporting children from low income families • The attainment gap between children from low income backgrounds and their peers • The pupil premium and how schools have used the extra funding to raise attainment • Key aspects of good practice and what schools c...

  17. The causal effect of paternal unemployment on children's personality

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Viola; Bertoni, Marco; Corazzini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we show that paternal unemployment has a surprisingly positive causal effect on the "Big 5" personality traits of children aged 17 to 25. In particular, our results from longitudinal value-added models for personality suggest that paternal unemployment makes children significantly more conscientious and less neurotic. Our results are robust to different estimation methods and to selection on unobservables. Furthermore, these...

  18. Mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkiewicz, Kamila; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryńska, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Until the end of the nineties last century personality disorders could not be diagnosed before the age of eighteen. Nevertheless, the results of studies published in the last decade have revealed that personality disorders can be observed in children and adolescents and that personality disorders diagnosed in adult patients had been present as early as in childhood. The knowledge of possible mechanisms shaping personality disorders in childhood is unsatisfactory and needs to be expanded. Developmental psychology explains the development of abnormal personality through inappropriate attachment patterns and abnormal transitions between developmental phases. Genetic and temperamental factors are also important in the aetiology of personality disorders as well as early maladaptive schemas resulting from personal experiences and interactions with others. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge on the mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in childhood and adolescence.

  19. Parents' Education, Personality, and Their Children's Disruptive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to understand the effects of parents' education and personality aspects on child disruptive behavior, (2) to know the correlation between the parents' personality aspects (N-Deference, N-Succorance, N-Dominance and N-Aggression) and the children' disruptive behavior. A quantitative approach to the correlational…

  20. Person Perception in Young Children across Two Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eva E.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    To adult humans, the task of forming an impression of another social being seems effortless and even obligatory. In 2 experiments, we offer the first systematic cross-cultural examination of impression formation in European American and East Asian preschool children. Children across both cultures easily inferred basic personality traits, such as…

  1. Personality assessment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, D; Parish-Plass, J

    1995-01-01

    The present research was designed to assess several potentially important factors in the personality structure of a sample of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) as compared to normal control children. Three questionnaires were administered to a group of 28 ADHD boys and to a control group of 83 boys: (1) The Locus of Control Scale for Children; (2) The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; and (3) The Persistence Scale for Children. Results showed that the ADHD children had significantly higher external locus of control, were significantly less persistent, and reported an elevated level of "concentration/social worry" (an anxiety subscale). Such findings can help to clarify both the personality structure and the coping styles of the ADHD child.

  2. The Effect of Family Disruption on Children's Personality Development: Evidence from British Longitudinal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Prevoo, Tyas; ter Weel, Bas

    2014-01-01

    This research documents the effects of different forms of family disruptions - measured by separation, divorce and death - on personality development of British children included in the 1970 British Cohort Study. There are statistically significant correlations between family disruptions prior to the age of 16 and personality development in early childhood. Parental divorce has the largest negative effect on a child's personality development. Family disruptions have smaller effects on persona...

  3. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  4. Personality and Creativity: A Study in Spanish-Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Krumm

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at studying the relationship between personality from the Big Five Personality model and creativity through different techniques (i.e., a paper and pencil task, and scales and informants (i.e., the child and parents. We evaluated a sample of 359 Spanish-speaking school children of both genders, aged 9 to 13 years. Personality was assessed with the Argentine Questionnaire of children’s Personality (CAPI. Creativity was evaluated using the following instruments: The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking-Figural Form B; and the Creative Personality Scale (EPC. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions consistently showed that Neuroticism related negatively to creativity while competence has a positive relation. The results suggested that more creative children presented less vulnerability, irritability and psychological distress, eventually becoming more independent, competent and emotionally self-regulated in coping with environmental demands.

  5. Food Insecurity in U.S. Households That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan; Parish, Susan L.; Ghosh, Subharati; Igdalsky, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined food insecurity in households including children with disabilities, analyzing data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which included 24,729 households with children, 3,948 of which had children with disabilities. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of…

  6. Personal and Familial Properties of Street Children--"Street Children: The Forgotten or Not Remembered Ones"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    With this research it is aimed to determine the personal traits of Street Children depending on them and also the socio-economic variables of Street Children resulting from their families. For this main aim in the research process, it is provided to have communication directly with the parents of Street Children using one-to-one and face-to-face…

  7. Psychometric properties of the personal wellbeing index in Brazilian and Chilean adolescents including spirituality and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047 and Chilean (n = 1.053 adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08, whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the differential contribution of each domain to the notion of global satisfaction, a regression on the item Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS was applied using structural equations. It is recommended the inclusion of the item spirituality in the original scale, considering the importance of such domain in both cultures.

  8. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Young Children's Personal Accounts of Their Sibling Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anne E.; Smith, Melissa D.; Ross, Hildy S.; Ross, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We investigated children's personal representations of significant sibling conflicts. Forty pairs of siblings were interviewed separately about the same disputes. Although they described the same episodes, both older (M age = 7.0) and younger (M age = 4.4) siblings ascribed more serious transgressions to their opponents than to themselves. They…

  10. The acquisition of personal pronouns in cochlear-implanted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbist, Annemie Josee Jozef

    2010-01-01

    Today, many deaf children can be given access to oral language thanks to a cochlear implant, a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound thanks to electric stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this study, the acquisition of personal pronouns is considered to be a measure

  11. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  12. Fear of dental pain in Italian children: child personality traits and parental dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Giovanni; Alkhamis, Nadia; Mattarozzi, Katia; Mazzetti, Michela; Piana, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Dental anxiety could impede dental treatment in children. Evidence shows that parents' fear of dentists contributes to children's anxiety towards dentists. The aim of the present study was to determine whether and to what extent: a) parents' anxiety and depression personality traits, b) parent's dental fear, and c) child personality traits can predict children's dental anxiety in an Italian population. One hundred and four children (5-14 years old) and one of their parents participated in the study. Well-known and validated questionnaires were administered to children (MCDASf, CFSS-DS, TAD) and parents (FDPQ, STAI Y1, Y2, and BDI-II). Dental anxiety is significantly associated with the anxiety personality trait and depression of the child and with parental fear of dental pain. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that, regardless of age and gender, the best predictor of child dental anxiety is parent's fear of dental pain, rather than relatively stable temperaments of the child. In line with the literature concerning adults, these findings highlight the children dental anxiety as a complex phenomena consisting of different components, including the child's personality traits (anxiety trait and depression) and parents' dental fear. Clinical implications of this evidence are discussed. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. 13 CFR 120.102 - Funds not available from alternative sources, including personal resources of principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... source) when that owner's liquid assets exceed the amounts specified in paragraphs (a) (1) through (3) of... applicant must inject any personal liquid assets which are in excess of two times the total financing... the applicant must inject any personal liquid assets which are in excess of one and one-half times the...

  14. Personality traits predicting children's social behaviour in the first grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Horvat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concurrent predictive relations of personality traits with social behaviour of children at the transition from early to middle childhood. Personality ratings of firstgraders (N = 316 were collected using the Inventory of Child and Adolescent Individual Differences (Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and the Social Competence and Behaviour Evaluation Scale (La Freniere et al., 2001 was employed to obtain assessments on the children's social competence, internalizing behaviour, and externalizing behaviour. To account for the same rater bias, the children's personality and social behaviour were rated by both teachers and assisstent teachers in the first grade of a nine-year compulsory school; the predictions were based on two sets of their cross-ratings. The firstgraders' social competentnce was consistently (over the cross-ratings predicted by high conscientiousness, mainly due to ratings of child compliance, whereas low conscientiousness was predictive of internalizing behaviour, especially due to low ratings of subjectively perceived child intelligence. Disagreeableness (both antagonism and strong will and low neuroticism contributed to assessments of the observed children's externalizing behaviour. In regard to neuroticism, ratings of child fear/insecurity were positively related to externalizing and ratings of child shyness were negatively associated with the observed incidence of externalizing behaviour.

  15. The trachea in children with respiratory diseases including children presenting as cot deaths.

    OpenAIRE

    Wailoo, M; Emery, J L

    1980-01-01

    The tracheas of 74 children with respiratory disorders were analysed and compared with the tracheas of children with no respiratory symptoms. The test tracheas showed an increase in the size of the lumen and the length of the cartilage and membrane, the increase in the length of membrane being particularly striking. The relation between age at onset and duration of symptoms was uncertain.

  16. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and children's personality on externalizing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    2003-01-01

    Parenting practices have been previously linked to childhood externalizing behaviour However little attention has been given to the potential effect of individual personality differences among children on this relation. The current study assesses the additive effects of children's personality

  17. Maternal personality profile of children affected by migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Michele Roccella,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Lucia Parisi,2 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Rosa Marotta,4 Marco Carotenuto1 1Center for Childhood Headache, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy Background: Empirical evidence of the important role of the family in primary pediatric headache has grown significantly in the last few years, although the interconnections between the dysfunctional process and the family interaction are still unclear. Even though the role of parenting in childhood migraine is well known, no studies about the personality of parents of migraine children have been conducted. The aim of the present study was to assess, using an objective measure, the personality profile of mothers of children affected by migraine without aura (MoA. Materials and methods: A total of 269 mothers of MoA children (153 male, 116 female, aged between 6 and 12 years; mean 8.93 ± 3.57 years were compared with the findings obtained from a sample of mothers of 587 healthy children (316 male, 271 female, mean age 8.74 ± 3.57 years randomly selected from schools in the Campania, Umbria, Calabria, and Sicily regions. Each mother filled out the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – second edition (MMPI-2, widely used to diagnose personality and psychological disorders. The t-test was used to compare age and MMPI-2 clinical basic and content scales between mothers of MoA and typical developing children, and Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the relation between MMPI-2 scores of mothers of MoA children and frequency, intensity, and duration of migraine attacks of their children. Results: Mothers of MoA children showed significantly higher scores in the paranoia and social introversion

  18. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  19. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  20. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What...

  1. A NORMATIVE STUDY OF CHILDREN'S HOUSE-TREE-PERSON DRAWINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAPPAPORT, SHELDON R.

    THIS STUDY WAS THE FIRST PHASE OF A THREE-PART PROJECT WHOSE GOAL IS TO ESTABLISH VALID CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFYING THE HOUSE-TREE-PERSON (H-T-P) DRAWINGS OF NORMAL CHILDREN THROUGHOUT THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL YEARS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE (1) TO IDENTIFY WHICH ITEMS OF THE H-T-P TEST CHARACTERIZE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GRADES 2,…

  2. Young Children's Self-Concepts Include Representations of Abstract Traits and the Global Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Andrei; Hammond, Matthew D; Mazza, Giulia; Corry, Grace

    2017-11-01

    There is debate about the abstractness of young children's self-concepts-specifically, whether they include representations of (a) general traits and abilities and (b) the global self. Four studies (N = 176 children aged 4-7) suggested these representations are indeed part of early self-concepts. Studies 1 and 2 reexamined prior evidence that young children cannot represent traits and abilities. The results suggested that children's seemingly immature judgments in previous studies were due to peculiarities of the task context not the inadequacy of children's self-concepts. Similarly, Studies 3 and 4 revealed that, contrary to claims of immaturity in reasoning about the global self, young children update their global self-evaluations in flexible, context-sensitive ways. This evidence suggests continuity in the structure of self-concepts across childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12 year old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belsky, D.; Caspi, A.; Arseneault, L.; Bleidorn, W.; Fonagy, P.; Goodman, M.; Houts, R.; Moffitt, T.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in

  4. Dose estimate for personal music players including earphone sensitivity and characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    2016-01-01

    Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user. In the pres......Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user...... earphone measurements published in the past. The work is on-going....

  5. Belgrade adolescent personality inventory: Bridging the gap between personality assessment in children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamonja-Ignjatović Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality inventories for assessment and study temperament and character of adolescents, an age critical for the finalisation of both normal and pathological mental development, have not been specifically developed. In this paper, we introduce a new personality inventory based on Cloninger's Psychobiological model of personality to assess adolescents from 14 to 18 years of age (the Belgrade Adolescent Personality Inventory - BAPI, which bridges the gap between personality assessment in children and adults. The BAPI is a 46-item Likert scale inventory derived from previous studies using the TCI and JTCI on the Serbian sample. The psychometric properties of the BAPI were tested on the sample of 535 secondary school students in Serbia, aged 15 to 16. In order to assess the fit of the model, the Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed. The differences between sexes were analysed by MANOVA, while the Latent class analysis (LCA was applied in order to identify different adaptation profiles among adolescents. The BAPI scales had a satisfactory internal consistency (.66 - .80. considering the small number of items (5-6 in each scale. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA generally supported the main dimensions of temperament and character, as postulated by Cloninger. The only exception was Novelty Seeking, which best fitted a two-factor solution, Explorative curiosity and Impulsivity, separating the 'good' (curious, inquisitive, creative and 'bad' (impulsive, impatient, disorderly facets of this trait. Such polarity of Novelty Seeking could be specific for personality development and behaviour disorders in adolescence. The LCA differentiated the personality profiles of well-adapted adolescents from those at risk for maladaptation that manifested low character traits, lack of Persistence and high Novelty seeking Impulsivity subscale. The results support the construct validity of the BAPI and thus provide the basis for its practical application

  6. Hybridising Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility to Include Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…

  7. Interviews with children of persons with a severe mental illness: investigating their everyday situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Research on children of persons with a severe mental illness focuses predominantly on parents' and others' perceptions. Children of mentally ill parents form a vulnerable group that has not been adequately paid attention to in psychiatric care institutions. Comparatively little is known about the children's recognition of their parents and the everyday situation of these families. The aim of the study was to investigate experiences of their life situation in children 10-18 years of age in a family with a parent with a severe mental illness. Eight children were interviewed concerning their everyday life situation. The interviews were analysed inspired from using thematic analysis. From the analysis of the material emerged aspects concerning the following themes: need for conversation, love for their family, maturity, experience of fear and blame, feelings of loneliness, responsibility and associated stigma. This study highlights the situation experienced by children of severely mentally ill persons who also are parents. The study may be found to be a basis for inspiring structured interventions and treatments programmes including children of the adult patients seeking psychiatric treatment.

  8. Psychological Factors Including Demographic Features, Mental Illnesses, and Personality Disorders as Predictors in Internet Addiction Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farahani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Problematic internet use is an important social problem among adolescents and has become a global health issue. This study identified predictors and patterns of problematic internet use among adult students.Method: In this study, 400 students were recruited using stratified sampling technique. Participants were selected among students from 4 universities in Tehran and Karaj, Iran, during 2016 and 2017. Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - Third Edition (MCMI-III, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I, and semi-structured interview were used to diagnose internet addiction. Then, the association between main psychiatric disorders and internet addiction was surveyed. Data were analyzed using SPSS18 software by performing descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P- Values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: After controlling the demographic variables, it was found that narcissistic personality disorder, obsessive- compulsive personality disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorders, depression, and phobia could increase the odds ratio (OR of internet addiction by 2.1, 1.1, 2.6, 1.1, 2.2 and 2.5-folds, respectively (p-value<0.05, however, other psychiatric or personality disorders did not have a significant effect on the equation.Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that some mental disorders affect internet addiction. Considering the sensitivity and importance of the cyberspace, it is necessary to evaluate mental disorders that correlate with internet addiction.

  9. Association among stress, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, Junia M; Paiva, Saul M; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen E; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association among stress levels, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in children. A population-based case control study (proportion=1:2) was conducted involving 120 7- to 11-year-olds with sleep bruxism and 240 children without sleep bruxism. The sample was randomly selected from schools in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following instruments were used for data collection: questionnaire administered to parents; child stress scale; and neuroticism and responsibility scales of the big five questionnaire for children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. Sleep bruxism was diagnosed from parents' reports. The chi-square test, as well as binary and multivariate logistic regression, was applied for statistical analysis. In the adjusted logistic model, children with a high level of stress, due to psychological reactions (odds ratio=1.8; confidence interval=1.1-2.9) and a high sense of responsibility (OR=1.6; CI=1.0-2.5) vs those with low levels of these psychological traits, presented a nearly 2-fold greater chance of exhibiting the habit of sleep bruxism. High levels of stress and responsibility are key factors in the development of sleep bruxism among children.

  10. CT features of lymphobronchial tuberculosis in children, including complications and associated abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Susan; Andronikou, Savvas [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Johannesburg (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [Stellenbosch University, Department Paediatrics, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-08-15

    Lymphobronchial tuberculosis (TB) is tuberculous lymphadenopathy involving the airways, which is particularly common in children. To describe CT findings of lymphobronchial TB in children, the parenchymal complications and associated abnormalities. CT scans of children with lymphobronchial TB were reviewed retrospectively. Lymphadenopathy, bronchial narrowing, parenchymal complications and associations were documented. Infants comprised 51% of patients. The commonest site of lymphadenopathy was the subcarinal mediastinum (97% of patients). Bronchial compression was seen in all children (259 bronchi, of these 28% the bronchus intermedius) with severe or complete stenosis in 23% of affected bronchi. Parenchymal complications were present in 94% of patients, including consolidation (88%), breakdown (42%), air trapping (38%), expansile pneumonia (28%), collapse (17%) and bronchiectasis (9%), all predominantly on the right side (63%). Associated abnormalities included ovoid lesions, miliary nodules, pleural disease and intracavitary bodies. Airway compression was more severe in infants and most commonly involved the bronchus intermedius. Numerous parenchymal complications were documented, all showing right-side predominance. (orig.)

  11. Personal features of children in client families who receive psychological advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes results of the research, where influence of main parenting styles on developing children’s personality and appearing child-parent problems were considered. It covers client families of psychological advice (with overprotection and over exactingness. It is indicated that the key factor emerging child-parent problems in this families is the abnormality of the parent personality identified through so-called existential criterion, which is displayed in their parenting styles. The parenting styles contribute to shaping child abnormal personality types, also identified through existential criteria are designated as “directed at external assistance”, “directed at complying with the requirements of other people” and “directed at protesting against compliance with the requirements of other people”. Children of such personality types have problems communicating with others as communication is addressed to children with normal personal development and is not relevant for abnormal personal abilities. As the problems mentioned above are connected with maladjustment to social environment requirements they can be classified as problems of social adaptation. There is a connection of a personality type “directed at complying with the requirements of other people” with abnormal personality predisposed to various life problems and mental disorders mentioned in the works of E. Fromm, S. Freud, A. Adler, С. Jung, C. Rogers, and V. Frankl. It suggests the understanding of the personality of this type to be regarded as a classical type of personality which the authors mentioned above were dealing with in their psychotherapeutic practice at different times.

  12. Mansonella, including a Potential New Species, as Common Parasites in Children in Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël Mourembou

    Full Text Available Like other tropical African countries, Gabon is afflicted by many parasitic diseases, including filariases such as loiasis and mansonellosis. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these two filarial diseases in febrile and afebrile children using quantitative real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled with sequencing.DNA from blood specimens of 1,418 Gabonese children (1,258 febrile and 160 afebrile were analyzed. Overall, filarial DNA was detected in 95 (6.7% children, including 67 positive for M. perstans (4.7%, which was the most common. M. perstans was detected in 61/1,258 febrile children (4.8% and 6/160 afebrile children (3.8%, P = 0.6. Its prevalence increased statistically with age: 3.5%, 7.7% and 10.6% in children aged ≤ 5, 6-10 and 11-15 years, respectively. M. perstans prevalence was significantly higher in Koulamoutou and Lastourville (12% and 10.5%, respectively than in Franceville and Fougamou (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively. Loa loa was detected in seven febrile children including one co-infection with M. perstans. Finally, 21 filarial DNA positive were negative for M. perstans and Loa loa, but ITS sequencing could be performed for 12 and allowed the identification of a potential new species of Mansonella provisionally called "DEUX". Mansonella sp. "DEUX" was detected only in febrile children.Further study should be performed to characterize Mansonella sp. "DEUX" and evaluate the clinical significance of mansonellosis in humans.

  13. Personality traits of children before and after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Olga; Schappin, Renske; Meekes, Joost; van Rijen, Peter C; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Braun, Kees P; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2017-07-01

    We studied how children with epilepsy (CWE) who are candidates for epilepsy surgery, perceive themselves with respect to overarching personality traits and whether the traits change after surgery. We explored influences of demographic and illness variables. A total of 23 CWE [mean age at inclusion 12.8 (sd 2.3); 12 girls] participated. Using the Dutch Personality Questionnaire Juniors (DPQ-J), we assessed 20 of the CWE shortly before epilepsy surgery and compared the results to those of 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, we obtained follow-up scores 6, 12 and 24 months after epilepsy surgery from the clinical group. CWE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery scored above average in inadequacy, perseverance, social inadequacy and recalcitrance, whereas healthy peers scored average. Over the two years' period after epilepsy surgery we found no changes, apart from a decrease of social inadequacy. Sporadic illness and demographic variables were related to some personality traits. However, neither post-surgical seizure freedom nor cessation of AEDs did noticeably change the self-evaluations of CWE. Asking CWE to evaluate their personality themselves may offer a shared basis for individually tailored behavior intervention in order to help them adapting to their ameliorated circumstances after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of personality in children aged 8-12 years: Comparing self- and partents' ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Quartier, V.; Rossier, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate personality development with children aged 8 to 12. For this purpose, Children's self-perceptions were compared to parent's ratings. 506 children and their parents completed a selection of 38 questions from the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC). Results showed an age-related increase in the structural congruence of children's ratings compared to parents' ratings and a highly significant increase in the reliabilities of both parents'...

  15. Quality of life in children surviving cancer: a personality and multi-informant perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip; Koot, Hans M; Benoit, Yves

    2004-12-01

    To describe quality of life (QoL) of children surviving cancer in relation to their personality, using self- and maternal reports and examining differences with healthy referents. Sixty-seven children who survived childhood cancer were compared with eighty-one healthy children on QoL and personality characteristics. Children who survived cancer reported higher QoL than healthy children, whereas there were no differences for personality. Two main effects emerged for informant with children rating themselves as less neurotic and more conscientious than their mothers. The correspondence between mothers and children was substantially higher for survivors for QoL and personality ratings. QoL and trait measures share substantial variance, and personality traits significantly predict QoL. Parental personality ratings explained child QoL beyond children's personality ratings. Personality traits contribute to quality of life, indicating that personality significantly influences child's quality of life beyond the experience of a negative life event such as surviving cancer and its treatment. From a diagnostic perspective, parental trait ratings are informative in addition to children's ratings of personality to understand children's QoL.

  16. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C) – a new measure of children’s personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Marta eMaćkiewicz; Jan eCieciuch

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children’s developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model. Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children’s self-assessment scores f...

  17. Personal Names in Children's Speech: The Process of Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina R. Dobrova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of children’s understanding of the differences between proper and common names. The author emphasizes the role of the anthropocentric approach to personal names, especially when it is based on the study of the ontogenetic development of linguistic capacity focusing on the mechanisms of the formation of mental patterns of proper names, in particular — of personal names, and of their special linguistic status as (relatively “strict” designators. Analyzing recordings of children’s spontaneous speech and experimental data, the author argues that the study of the early stages of personal names acquisition, in comparison with the acquisition of common nouns, highlights such significant features of a child’s developing mind as the ability to distinguish between identifying and generalizing linguistic signs, to construct hyponym/hyperonym relations going from individual to the most generalized designations (from personal name to common nouns of different kinds, including relative, completely depending on the reference point, and reciprocal ones, e. g. kinship terms. Additionally, the author shows that the anthropocentric approach emphasizes such properties of personal names as their coreferentiality, relativity and their capacity to act as semiotic shifters as far as the choice of the form of a name depends on the social relations between the speaker and his addressee and their respective positions in the social hierarchy.

  18. Child behavior check list and Korean personality inventory for children with functional visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Sung Eun; Lee, Sang Mi; Lim, Myung Ho

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the clinical psychiatric characteristics of children with the main complaint of functional visual loss, their behavior and personality were evaluated by the means of the Korean child behavior check list (K-CBCL), and the Korean personality inventory for children (KPI-C). The evaluation was carried out by the K-CBCL and the KPI-C, the domestically standardized tools, with 20 child subjects suspected of functional visual loss, among the patients who visited our hospital, between August, 2005 and December, 2012. The control group included 160 children in general schools of the same region. The 20 patients whose main complaint was functional visual loss were diagnosed as having a functional visual disorder. The child patient group showed a higher score for the K-CBCL and KPI-C sub-scales of somatic complaints, social problems, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, total behavioral problems, somatization and hyperactivity, than that of the control group. The results of the K-CBCL and KPI-C tests among children with functional visual loss, were significantly different from those of the normal control group. This result suggested that psychological factors may influence children with a main complaint of functional visual loss.

  19. Subjective-personal readiness of correctional teachers to education of ASD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Ostrovska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ASD teachers require skills that go beyond the realm of most educators including professional competences and high moral qualities. In the work theoretical approaches and experimental research on the problem of subjective personality readiness of correctional teachers in the education of ASD children are carried out. The psychological investigation has been conducted including measurement of psychological indices of 40 teachers of ASD children from the boarding school "Trust" and 40 teachers from mainstream schools of Lviv city aged from 28 to 59 years. The following methods are used: "Questionnaire for the measurement of tolerance" (Magun, Zhamkochyan, Magura, 2000; "Shein’s Career Anchors" method aimed at studying the career orientations of the teachers (Shein, 2010; “Diagnostics of empathy level” (Viktor Boiko, 2001; method of study “Motivation professional activities” by Catelin Zamfir in a modification of Artur Rean (Bordovskaya, & Rean, 2001. Based on the provided studies a program for development of subject-personality readiness of the correctional teacher to work with ASD children is proposed. The program consists of the following components: motivational component (professional competence, self-development, self-determination, self-control; cognitive component (intellectual personality autonomy, self-identification, stability, challenge, integration of lifestyles; emotionally-volitional component (empathy, positive attitude toward a child, intellectual analysis of emotions, self-regulation.

  20. Personal hygiene among primary school children living in a slum of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M

    2013-09-01

    For children, maintenance of personal hygiene helps to improve the quality of life and longevity. This is of particular importance in a slum community with compromised living situation. This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge and practice of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in a slum area, to identify any misconception among them regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene, to find out their morbidity pattern, and also to elicit the relationship between practice of personal hygiene among the children and the literacy status of their mother. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 104 primary school children of a primary school situated in the slum area of Chetla, Kolkata, India with the help of a predesigned, pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance. It was found that the female students were more knowledgeable than the male students regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene. There was a wide gap between practice and knowledge of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in the slum area. Even, misconceptions do exist on certain indicators of personal hygiene among the students. Statistically significant association was observed between practices of personal hygiene among the primary school children and the literacy status of their mother. Future of a society depends considerably on the health of its children. The parents and the school teachers, as constructive shapers of children's health behaviors, should play a responsible role in early education of children on personal hygiene.

  1. [Relationship between assertiveness including consideration for others and adjustment in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Megumi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2012-06-01

    The relationship between assertiveness and internal and external adjustment was investigated. Elementary school children in grades four to six (n=207) and their classroom teachers (n=8) participated in the study. Internal and external adjustments were measured by using self-ratings, and self- and other- ratings respectively. The children responded to a questionnaires inquiring about assertiveness that included two components of assessment: "self expression" and "consideration for others". Then, the children were divided into 4 groups according to their scores on these two components of assertiveness. The results indicated that children scoring high on both components of assertiveness had higher self-rating scores than those scoring low on both components. Moreover, children that scored high on "consideration for others" tended to have high external adjustment. Also, boys that scored low on "self expression" had lower external adjustment as indicated by the negative ratings of teachers. Furthermore, girls that scored high on "consideration for others" had high external adjustment as indicated by positive ratings of teachers and same-sexed classmates.

  2. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  3. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C – a new measure of children’s personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMaćkiewicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to adjust personality measurements to children’s developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C. To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model. Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children’s self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged approximately 7 to 10 years.

  4. Childhood maltreatment and its link to borderline personality disorder features in children: A systematic review approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jeyda; Cosgrave, Nicola; Woolgar, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder has repeatedly been associated with a history of maltreatment in childhood; however, research on maltreatment and its link to borderline features in children is limited. The aim of this review is to synthesise the existing data on the association between maltreatment and borderline features in childhood. In total, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. Studies indicated that children with borderline features were more likely to have a history of maltreatment, and that children who had been maltreated were more likely to present with borderline features. Other risk factors such as cognitive and executive functioning deficits, parental dysfunction and genetic vulnerability were also identified across studies. This review adds to the literature by highlighting maltreatment as a risk factor for borderline features in childhood. Longitudinal research is required to establish the link between childhood borderline features and adult borderline features. Implications for early identification, prevention and intervention services are discussed.

  5. [Empowerment of children and adolescents--the role of personal and social resources and personal autonomy for subjective health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, M; Wille, N; Ravens-Sieberer, U

    2008-12-01

    Scientific research on empowerment so far is nearly exclusively focused on the adult population. Nevertheless, it is possible to show a link between empowerment and a) the developmental psychology concepts of resilience, b) autogenetic concepts and c) concepts of risks and resources. This paper aims to study the role of personal, familial and other social resources as well as personal autonomy for subjective health-ratings. A secondary analysis of the health data of 7,000 children and adolescents aged 10-17 years of the German health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study as well as 1,700 children aged 11-17 years of the mental health module (BELLA Study) within the German health interview and examination survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS) was performed. Statistical analyses encompassed analyses of variance and linear regression. Analyses of the HBSC study showed a protective effect for school-class climate as well as parental support, whereby school was associated with fewer self-reported health complaints. Analyses of the BELLA/KiGGS study showed personal, familial and other social resources as well as personal autonomy as unique predictors for a better health-related quality of life (KINDL-R). This was true even if psychological problems were observed. The results confirm the importance of strengthening personal, familial and other social resources as well as the principal importance of personal autonomy for coping with health risks and health impairments. Future research explicitly focussed on empowerment could relate to the role of personal resources within children's and adolescents' contact with the medical and health care system. It can be expected that strengthening personal resources benefits and improves the communication and active participation of children and adolescents within treatment-decision and -evaluation.

  6. Environmental and personal hygiene practices: risk factors for diarrhoea among children of Nigerian market women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyemade, A; Omokhodion, F O; Olawuyi, J F; Sridhar, M K; Olaseha, I O

    1998-12-01

    A Cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the environmental and personal hygiene practices of mothers of children aged less than five years in two markets in Ibadan--one with poor sanitary conditions (Bodija) and the other one with better sanitation facilities (Gbagi). The study sought to identify the risk factors for diarrhoea among these children. Two hundred and sixty-six mothers in Bodija and 260 in Gbagi were interviewed. A questionnaire was used for collecting information on social and demographic characteristics, personal and environmental hygiene practices, including sources of food and water for their children, waste-disposal practices and occurrence of diarrhoea among their children aged less than five years. The educational status of the women in Bodija was lower than that of the women in Gbagi (p homes, and 45 (17%) bought it from vendors in the market. The corresponding figures for women of the Gbagi market were 41 (16%), 98 (38%) and 19 (7%). Two hundred and thirty-four (90%) women in Gbagi prepared breakfast at home for their children compared to 216 (81%) women in Bodija. This difference was statistically significant (p Waste disposal and personal hygiene practices were poorer among the women in Bodija. Yet the occurrence of diarrhoea was not significantly different in both the markets. Risk factors for diarrhoea identified in this study were water and food bought from vendors, child defaecation practices, mothers' cleaning up practices after child's defaecation, and refuse-disposal practices. The inherent risk of sale of unwholesome food and water by vendors is a great concern for public health authorities in Nigeria. Efforts to control diarrhoea must not only be focused on improving mothers' knowledge about food hygiene but also on environmental hygiene practices within the community.

  7. An exploration of person perception abilities in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This explorative study investigates differences in person perception abilities between a group of children diagnosed as having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) and a group of normal children of the same age and sex. Person perception, a social-cognitive skill,

  8. Parental Personality and Its Relationship to Socialization of Sadness in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Eleanor; Brand, Ann E.

    The relationship between parental personality traits and how parents socialize their children's emotions is largely unexplored. This study examined the association of personality traits such as Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and emotion traits such as Anxiety and Trait Depression to the strategies parents use to socialize their children's sadness,…

  9. The Effects of Personal Divorce Experience on Teacher Perceptions of Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Virginia P.; Schaefer, Lyn

    1984-01-01

    Determined whether teachers with personal divorce experience differed from other teachers in their opinions on divorce, knowledge about divorce, and feelings about schools' role and responsibility to children of divorce. Those with personal divorce experience were more likely to encourage teacher and school involvement with children of divorce.…

  10. Quality of Life of siblings of children included in the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camila Bolivar Martins; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2013-01-01

    To assess the Quality of Life in siblings of children of the autism spectrum through self-response to the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire. Social-demographic data of 77 children included in the autism spectrum, aged 3 to 16 years, were collected. From these information, 21 older siblings, aged 16 to 30 years, were selected to answer said questionnaire, proposed by the World Health Organization Mental Health Program for quality of life evaluation. The data have shown a difference between the Environmental domain and the Physical and Psychological domains. The aspects related to the environment have an important role to the perception of quality of life self-declared by the subjects. However, family individuality, coping behaviors, social support, and assistance received directly interfere on this perception.

  11. Role of biomarkers in understanding and treating children with asthma: towards personalized care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang JE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jason E Lang,1 Kathryn V Blake21Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Nemours Children's Hospital, Orlando, FL, USA; 2Center for Pharmacogenomics and Translational Research, Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting children. Despite publicized expert panels on asthma management and the availability of high-potency inhaled corticosteroids, asthma continues to pose an enormous burden on quality of life for children. Research into the genetic and molecular origins of asthma are starting to show how distinct disease entities exist within the syndrome of "asthma". Biomarkers can be used to diagnose underlying molecular mechanisms that can predict the natural course of disease or likely response to drug treatment. The progress of personalized medicine in the care of children with asthma is still in its infancy. We are not yet able to apply stratified asthma treatments based on molecular phenotypes, although that time may be fast approaching. This review discusses some of the recent advances in asthma genetics and the use of current biomarkers that can help guide improved treatment. For example, the fraction of expired nitric oxide and serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE (including allergen-specific IgE, when evaluated in the context of recurrent asthma symptoms, are general predictors of allergic airway inflammation. Biomarker assays for secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and cysteinyl leukotrienes are both promising areas of study that can help personalize management, not just for pharmacologic management, but also education and prevention efforts.Keywords: asthma, biomarkers, children, management

  12. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  13. What determines the fruit and vegetables intake of primary school children? - An analysis of personal and social determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haß, Julia; Hartmann, Monika

    2018-01-01

    The high prevalence of childhood obesity is a major concern in developed and developing countries. An increase in fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is perceived as one of the numerous strategies to prevent and reduce the risk of adiposity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance of personal and social determinants in explaining children's F&V intake. Written questionnaire data were collected from 702 parent-child pairs that included 3rd and 4th graders (aged 7 to 10) and their parents. Children's F&V intake was recorded over three food records. Hierarchical linear regression models were applied to assess the impact of personal and social determinants on children's F&V intake. Regression models focusing on personal and social determinants revealed that the most promising personal determinants pertained to the knowledge of different types of F&V and preferences for F&V. Moreover, an exclusive focus on social determinants indicated that parental modeling and peer influence had significant and positive relationships with children's F&V intake, whereas verbal directives to eat F&V exhibited a significant and negative relationship. In combination, the following four personal and social determinants were demonstrated to be significant: knowledge of different types of F&V, preferences for F&V and parental modeling, all of which had positive relationships, and verbal directives to eat F&V, which had a negative impact. The results identify important associative determinants of children's F&V intake. These are in part personal and in part social and are shown by our analysis to be of equal and perhaps mutual importance. Therefore, we suggest that interventions aimed at improving children's F&V intake should address children's preferences for F&V, impart knowledge concerning the variety of F&V and encourage parents to act as role models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "What I Want and What You Want": Children's Thinking about Competing Personal Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolova, Masha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how children reason about competing personal preferences. Seventy-two participants (mean ages 5 years 5 months, 10 years 4 months, and 17 years 7 months) considered three hypothetical scenarios in which a protagonist's personal preference was in conflict with her or his friend's personal preference. Scenarios varied in the…

  15. Comparing the results of DAADD and ABC of children included in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    To verify if there are characteristic behaviors of the different diagnosis included in the autism spectrum according to the Differential Assessment of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders (DAADD) and to the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Participants were 45 individuals and their respective speech-language therapists. All therapists are graduate students working with the children for at least 1 year. This time was considered sufficient to the therapists to have the information required by the DAADD questionnaire. It is comprised by 3 protocols specifically designed to children with 2 to 4 years, 4 to 6 years and 6 to 8 years, the same criteria used to separate the research groups, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Data referring to the ABC were retrieved from the subject's files at the Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica nos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo (Research Laboratory on Language Disorders in the Autism Spectrum) of the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, where it is routinely applied during the annual assessment. Answers to the different areas of DAADD are similar to the different areas of ABC. These data show data the diagnosis by DAADD is easier in older children. Although there is no significant difference, the large occurrence of Rett's syndrome diagnosis according to the DAADD was associated to higher risk for autism according to the ABC in G1. With increasing age this tendency decreases and either in G2 and G3 Autism is the most frequent diagnosis. Although the results of both questionnaires tend to agree more with increasing age, the DAADD is more sensitive in the different ages while the ABC if more specific only to older children.

  16. Personality Characteristics of the Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to biological mothers of children aged 6-13 (N=100). Found conduct disordered (CD) children (N=13) had mothers with higher MMPI antisocial, histrionic, and disturbed adjustment scores; attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H) children (N=22) had no significant association…

  17. Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni

    1990-01-01

    Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

  18. The Smart Residential Complex Effect on Personality Formation of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kasra Mirpadyab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between human beings and the environment has been a question of all times; however, the Industrial Revolution has begun to change its way. It can be seen that the human beings were a part of their environment in the past, but now with the advancement of knowledge and technology, the man can dominate in their environment. But today, the man’s needs should be well known about the interaction with the natural environment and with respect to the position of the residential complexes in the modern society, these buildings are designed to create the psychological comfort and the formation of the personality. The authors of this paper believe the mentioned event will be happening in the future generation of the buildings. These buildings will be equipped with smart automation system for all their activities. This research conducted by grounded theories about the explanation of the smart residential complexes equipped with the BMS, which can be effective for shaping the managerial character of the children in their future.

  19. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits and personality dimensions in parents of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Rosa; Lázaro, Luisa; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Font, Elena; Moreno, Elena; Toro, J

    2009-04-01

    To compare patterns of temperament and character and the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) and OCPD traits in parents of children with OCD and parents of healthy controls. TCI and SCID-II were administered to 63 parents of 32 children with OCD and 63 parents of age- and sex-matched controls with no psychiatric diagnosis. Interviewers were not blind to proband status. Personality dimension scores and frequencies of OCPD criteria in both groups were compared after excluding parents with a diagnosis of OCD. Relationships between TCI dimensions and OCPD symptoms in parents and the clinical characteristics of OCD children were also studied. Parents of OCD children presented significantly higher scores in harm avoidance and lower scores in self-directedness, cooperativeness and reward dependence than parents of healthy children. A higher incidence of OCPD was found in parents of probands (pOCPD criteria in these parents in comparison to parents of healthy children highlight the importance of the role of personality factors in familial OCD.

  20. Relationship of personal hygiene with nutrition and morbidity profile: A study among primary school children in South Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Soumya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of the health problems affecting school children are preventable by promotion of hygienic practices through proper health education by the teachers, who are the first contacts. Objectives: The study was undertaken to find out the status of nutrition and personal hygiene among primary school children and their association with their varied morbidity profiles. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a primary school situated in the largest slum of Kolkata. Results: The participants included 103 boys and 81 girls, with a mean age of 6.2 years. The mean personal hygiene score of the girls (4.15 ± 0.98 was significantly higher than that of boys (3.2 ± 1.4 [P<0.05]. Most of the boys (54.37% and girls (74.07% were normally nourished as per the CDC growth chart. Over 70% of the children were suffering from one or more morbidities, the most common morbidity in both the sexes being pallor, followed by worm infestation. Personal hygiene scores were significantly higher (P<0.05 among those children who were normally nourished as well as those who did not suffer from any morbidity in the last 15 days. Conclusions: Care should be taken to improve the pitiable state of personal hygiene and poor sanitary practices of these school children through coordinated and concerted health education measures by teachers as well as parents.

  1. Mothers' daily person and process praise: implications for children's theory of intelligence and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Eva M; Kempner, Sara G

    2013-11-01

    This research examined if mothers' day-to-day praise of children's success in school plays a role in children's theory of intelligence and motivation. Participants were 120 children (mean age = 10.23 years) and their mothers who took part in a 2-wave study spanning 6 months. During the first wave, mothers completed a 10-day daily interview in which they reported on their use of person (e.g., "You are smart") and process (e.g., "You tried hard") praise. Children's entity theory of intelligence and preference for challenge in school were assessed with surveys at both waves. Mothers' person, but not process, praise was predictive of children's theory of intelligence and motivation: The more person praise mothers used, the more children subsequently held an entity theory of intelligence and avoided challenge over and above their earlier functioning on these dimensions.

  2. Including Children with Selective Mutism in Mainstream Schools and Kindergartens: Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omdal, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    There is little research on inclusion of children with selective mutism in school/kindergarten. Moreover, few studies have tried to understand selectively mute children's interactions in the natural surroundings of their home and school/kindergarten. Five children meeting the DSM-IV criteria for selective mutism were video-observed in social…

  3. Personal Hearing Protection including Active Noise Reduction (Les dispositifs de protection de l'ouie, y compris l'attenuation du bruit actif) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steeneken, H. J; Dancer, A; McKinley, R; Buck, K; James, S

    2005-01-01

    .... SYSTEMS DETAIL NOTE: Adobe Acrobat Reader is included on disc. ABSTRACT: Personal hearing protection and speech communication facilities are essential for optimal performance in military operations...

  4. Shift, Interrupted: Strategies for Managing Difficult Patients Including Those with Personality Disorders and Somatic Symptoms in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukaddam, Nidal; AufderHeide, Erin; Flores, Araceli; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-11-01

    Difficult patients are often those who present with a mix of physical and psychiatric symptoms, and seem refractory to usual treatments or reassurance. such patients can include those with personality disorders, those with somatization symptoms; they can come across as entitled, drug-seeking, manipulative, or simply draining to the provider. Such patients are often frequent visitors to Emergency Departments. Other reasons for difficult encounters could be rooted in provider bias or countertransference, rather than sole patient factors. Emergency providers need to have high awareness of these possibilities, and be prepared to manage such situations, otherwise workup can be sub-standard and dangerous medical mistakes can be made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Personality profile of the children of long-lived parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Evangelia E; Dutta, Ambarish; Langa, Kenneth M; Melzer, David; Llewellyn, David

    2013-09-01

    Past research has shown that parental longevity is related to offspring physical health and longevity. Preliminary studies suggest that parental longevity may be linked to the offspring's personality traits. A comprehensive 5-factor personality model has been related to physical health, but the association with parental longevity has not yet been investigated. We used a 5-factor personality model to investigate the relationship between parental longevity and offspring personality. Data from the longitudinal Health and Retirement Study (HRS) was used in the analyses. Using the Midlife Development Inventory and the Life Orientation test, the relationship between parental attained age and offspring personality was assessed using regression models for both men and women. Male offspring of long-lived fathers and mothers were more likely to be open to new experiences (p personality traits. Personality is an important phenotype to consider when investigating genetic and environmental determinants of longevity. Further research is needed to investigate the potential of gender-specific mechanisms.

  6. Personality Profile of Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dadashzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study was carried out aiming to identify the personality profile of parents of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Methods. This study is of a descriptive, analytic, cross-sectional type in which parents of 6–12-year-old children with ADHD who were referred to the Bozorgmehr Psychiatric Clinic, affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, were enrolled. ADHD was diagnosed according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR and a quasi-structured diagnostic interview (K-SADS-PL. The personality profile of the parents was assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III. Results. According to the findings of this study, the most common personality problems based on the assessment scales in the MCMI-III belonged to the clinical patterns of depressive personality in 43 persons (25.3%, histrionic personality in 34 persons (20%, and compulsive personality in 29 persons (17.1%. According to discriminant analysis, four scales of somatoform, sadistic, dependence, and though disorder were direct and antisocial scale was reverse significant predictors of membership in the women group. Conclusion. According to the findings of this pilot study, personality disorders are prevalent in parents of ADHD children and mothers suffer from personality disorders more than fathers.

  7. Personality profile of parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashzadeh, Hossein; Amiri, Shahrokh; Atapour, Ahmad; Abdi, Salman; Asadian, Mahan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out aiming to identify the personality profile of parents of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study is of a descriptive, analytic, cross-sectional type in which parents of 6-12-year-old children with ADHD who were referred to the Bozorgmehr Psychiatric Clinic, affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, were enrolled. ADHD was diagnosed according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR and a quasi-structured diagnostic interview (K-SADS-PL). The personality profile of the parents was assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). According to the findings of this study, the most common personality problems based on the assessment scales in the MCMI-III belonged to the clinical patterns of depressive personality in 43 persons (25.3%), histrionic personality in 34 persons (20%), and compulsive personality in 29 persons (17.1%). According to discriminant analysis, four scales of somatoform, sadistic, dependence, and though disorder were direct and antisocial scale was reverse significant predictors of membership in the women group. According to the findings of this pilot study, personality disorders are prevalent in parents of ADHD children and mothers suffer from personality disorders more than fathers.

  8. Mothers' Temperament and Personality: Their Relationship to Parenting Behaviors, Locus of Control, and Young Children's Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.

  9. Personal exposures of preschool children to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The role of gas stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Jantunen, M.J.; Mukala, K.; Tuomisto, J. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Pasanen, P. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    1993-12-31

    Personal 1-h mean CO exposures of preschool children in two day care centers of Helsinki were measured with continuously recording personal exposure monitors, and their personal 1-wk NO{sub 2} exposures with Palmes tubes. The results were compared to fixed site ambient air monitoring results and related to the presence of high CO, low heat value town gas fired stoves in the homes of the children. Results show that fixed site ambient air monitors are of little value in predicting personal exposures of children or even their relative differences between areas, and also that town gas fired stoves have a profound effect on the CO exposures, and little or no effect on the NO{sub 2} exposures of the children. (author)

  10. What do children need to know about dementia? The perspectives of children and people with personal experience of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jess R; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Goodenough, Belinda; Low, Lee-Fay; Bryden, Christine; Hutchinson, Karen; Richards, Laura

    2017-10-02

    The vision for dementia-friendly communities is challenged by limited public awareness and stigma about dementia. The study aim was to elicit stakeholder priorities for the message content of an education program to improve dementia awareness among youth; specifically, what do children need to know about dementia? A qualitative inquiry using interviews and focus groups was used. Purposive sampling achieved maximum variation in dementia experience and participant characteristics. Focus groups with Scouts in the community aged 9-12 years old (n = 22) used innovative techniques to explore children's attitudes towards people with dementia. Participants with personal experience of dementia were five people with early-stage dementia; 12 adult primary carers; four non-primary carers; and six grandchildren of a person with dementia. They were asked what is important for children to understand about dementia and what attitudes they may like an education program to confer. Content analysis was performed using NVivo10. Strong themes to emerge were that children need to know the whole truth about dementia; that individuals with dementia are "still people," that it is "not the fault" of the person with dementia; and that dementia is different and typically unpredictable for everyone. Discussions also indicated a need to educate children about ways to relate to a person with dementia, and to appreciate "positives" within a relationship. Children are our future citizens. Developing an education program for children with this message content may be fundamental to de-stigmatizing dementia and laying the foundation to dementia-friendly communities.

  11. Spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, among children in Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Knopp

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2% was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0% in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6% and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%. A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.

  12. Relationship of personal hygiene with nutrition and morbidity profile: a study among primary school children in South kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Soumya; Dutta, Sinjita; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Misra, Raghunath

    2010-04-01

    Majority of the health problems affecting school children are preventable by promotion of hygienic practices through proper health education by the teachers, who are the first contacts. The study was undertaken to find out the status of nutrition and personal hygiene among primary school children and their association with their varied morbidity profiles. A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a primary school situated in the largest slum of Kolkata. The participants included 103 boys and 81 girls, with a mean age of 6.2 years. The mean personal hygiene score of the girls (4.15 ± 0.98) was significantly higher than that of boys (3.2 ± 1.4) [PPersonal hygiene scores were significantly higher (Ppersonal hygiene and poor sanitary practices of these school children through coordinated and concerted health education measures by teachers as well as parents.

  13. On feeding those hungry for praise: person praise backfires in children with low self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Overbeek, Geertjan; Orobio de Castro, Bram; van den Hout, Marcel A; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-02-01

    Child-rearing experts have long believed that praise is an effective means to help children with low self-esteem feel better about themselves. But should one praise these children for who they are, or for how they behave? Study 1 (N = 357) showed that adults are inclined to give children with low self-esteem more person praise (i.e., praise for personal qualities) but less process praise (i.e., praise for behavior) than they give children with high self-esteem. This inclination may backfire, however. Study 2 (N = 313; M(age) = 10.4 years) showed that person praise, but not process praise, predisposes children, especially those with low self-esteem, to feel ashamed following failure. Consistent with attribution theory, person praise seems to make children attribute failure to the self. Together, these findings suggest that adults, by giving person praise, may foster in children with low self-esteem the very emotional vulnerability they are trying to prevent.

  14. African-American Children's Representation of Personal and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowling, Claire M.; Brock, Sheri J.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 12 grade five elementary school students' attitudes and beliefs concerning personal and social responsibility in physical education. Factors used to identify students' attitudes and beliefs were initially divided into the six levels of Hellison's Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR), namely: irresponsibility,…

  15. Personality profiles of children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; Descheemaeker, M.J.; Vogels, A.; Cleymans, T.; Haselager, G.J.T.; Curfs, L.M.G.; Hellinckx, W.; Onghena, P.; Legius, E.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Fryns, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The personality profile of 44 youngsters (24 males, 20 females; mean age 11 years, 3 months) with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was compared with a group of 220 non-NF1 control youngsters (matched on age and gender). Personality characteristics of each youngster were rated by both parents, using

  16. Correlations of hopelessness with motivation and personality traits among Japanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, K

    1995-06-01

    Correlations for 628 children in Grades 2, 4, 5, and 6 of scores on hopelessness with measures of motivation for learning and personality traits were investigated. Hopelessness scores significantly correlated with lower scores on motivation. Also, hopelessness scores were significantly correlated with scores on personality traits of schizothymia, nervousness, and self-uncertainty.

  17. Benzoate Allergy in Children--From Foods to Personal Hygiene Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hill, Hannah; Lucero, Hanna; Nedorost, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Benzoate allergy may be an overlooked allergen in children and one that may be of increasing importance with its increasing role as a preservative in pediatric personal hygiene formulations. The cases herein report an association with cola and benzoate allergy and discusses the implications of replacement of formaldehyde by benzoates in personal hygiene products. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exploring New Potentials of Blogs for Learning: Can Children Use Blogs for Personal Information Management (PIM)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hwan-Ik; Lee, Yekyung Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of blogs for personal information management (PIM) as a learning tool that could bring increased efficiency and academic self-efficacy for carrying out learning tasks. In order to identify the uses and effects of using blogs for PIM by children, a control group that used personal spaces within the class website and an…

  19. Perceptions of Personal and Familial Adjustment by Children from Intact, Single-Parent, and Reconstituted Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Gerald D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated children's (N=566) personal and familial adjustment as a function of familial configuration and gender. The results revealed less positive adjustment among children from divorced families. Males appeared to be favorably affected within the single-parent configuration, while females were more favorably adjusted within the reconstituted…

  20. The Academic, Personality, and Physical Outcomes of Only Children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni; Poston, Dudley L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 4,000 third and sixth graders and their parents and teachers, from 4 Chinese provinces. Found that, although only children scored higher on tests of verbal ability, were taller, and weighed more than firstborn and later born children, other measures of academic and personality development were similar between the groups. (MDM)

  1. 16 CFR 312.8 - Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality, security, and integrity of... COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.8 Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children. The operator must...

  2. Parent and child personality characteristics as predictors of negative discipline and externalizing problem behaviour in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    Negative discipline has been linked to childhood externalizing behaviour However, relatively little attention has been given to the potential effect of individual personality characteristics of children and parents. Using the Five Factor Model, we examined the extent to which parents' and children's

  3. Socially anxious children at risk for victimization : The role of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Saskia F.; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether Big Five personality traits affect the extent to which a socially anxious child will be victimized. A total of 1814 children participated in the study (mean age = 11.99 years). Children completed self-reports and peer reports of victimization, which were aggregated, and

  4. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  5. Coercive and Prosocial Fathering, Antisocial Personality, and Growth in Children's Postdivorce Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, David Scott

    2010-01-01

    To better understand quantity and quality of divorced father contact, a weighted county sample of 230 divorced fathers with a child aged 4-11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance. Eighteen-month latent growth…

  6. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  7. Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Physical Education: Has Entitlement and Accessibility Been Realised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…

  8. Determinants of Personality Traits of School-Age Children : Evidence from Japanese Students at Age 12

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely recognized among economists that non-cognitive ability, such as self-control, self-esteem, and personality traits, has a great power in predicting social and economic success. Using survey data from students at age 12 and their parents living in Japan, this paper explores the determinants of personality traits of school-age children. Personality traits are measured by students’ answers for questions concerning daily and school life, and we constructed five measures of perso...

  9. Children and young people who are refugees, internally displaced persons or survivors or perpetrators of war, mass violence and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John; Williams, Richard

    2012-07-01

    This article draws upon articles published since 2009 to identify research evidence about the psychosocial aspects of children and young people's responses to their exposure to war, collective violence and terrorism. Recent research describes children's distress and the disorders they may develop consequent on their direct and indirect exposure to war. This article covers general responses as well as those that affect refugees, displaced children, and child soldiers. Dose of exposure is the main predictor of their degree of distress. Often, loss of parental support predicts distress or disorder. Research on children who are refugees and internally displaced persons has found that they cope better with the distressing events surrounding their flight if their parents accompany them. Studies of child soldiers show that they suffer from guilt as well as experiencing many violent distressing events. Research has identified the factors that contribute to their resilience, which include their acceptance by the communities to which they return. There are personal and social sources of resilience, including emotion regulation, parenting, and social support, for children who are exposed to war. Much of the recent research confirms earlier findings, which demonstrate that their exposure to war and collective violence leads to distress for many children and/or mental disorders for a smaller but substantial minority of them. The literature shows interest in identifying and measuring protective factors. The emphasis in the articles we reviewed on social as well as personal factors that confer psychosocial resilience reflects the broad interest in the two canons of literature on children's development and disasters. The findings point powerfully to people's needs for holistic and community-level interventions.

  10. Biomonitoring of Danish school children and mothers including biomarkers of PBDE and glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Hansen, Pernille Winton; Mizrak, Seher

    2017-01-01

    Danish school children aged 6–11 years and their mothers from rural and urban areas in autumn 2011. Some – but not all – results were published; however, the concurrence of the chemicals has not been assessed. Methods: The measured concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and glyphosate...... is assessed to complete the investigation of all 66 chemicals in DEMOCOPHES. The concentrations of PBDEs were measured in plasma samples of 143 mothers and 116 children. Glyphosate was measured in a subsample of 27 urine samples. Previously assessed chemicals were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...... the concentrations of the different environmental chemicals. investigated by correlation analysis. Results: PBDE47 was found in relatively high levels compared with previous Danish results in both mothers and children, with a significantly higher level in the children compared to their mothers. Glyphosate...

  11. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-10-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.

  12. Personal endotoxin exposure in a panel study of school children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjoa Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endotoxin exposure has been associated with asthma exacerbations and increased asthma prevalence. However, there is little data regarding personal exposure to endotoxin in children at risk, or the relation of personal endotoxin exposure to residential or ambient airborne endotoxin. The relation between personal endotoxin and personal air pollution exposures is also unknown. Methods We characterized personal endotoxin exposures in 45 school children with asthma ages 9-18 years using 376 repeated measurements from a PM2.5 active personal exposure monitor. We also assayed endotoxin in PM2.5 samples collected from ambient regional sites (N = 97 days and from a subset of 12 indoor and outdoor subject home sites (N = 109 and 111 days, respectively in Riverside and Whittier, California. Endotoxin was measured using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate kinetic chromogenic assay. At the same time, we measured personal, home and ambient exposure to PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC, and organic carbon (OC. To assess exposure relations we used both rank correlations and mixed linear regression models, adjusted for personal temperature and relative humidity. Results We found small positive correlations of personal endotoxin with personal PM2.5 EC and OC, but not personal PM2.5 mass or stationary site air pollutant measurements. Outdoor home, indoor home and ambient endotoxin were moderately to strongly correlated with each other. However, in mixed models, personal endotoxin was not associated with indoor home or outdoor home endotoxin, but was associated with ambient endotoxin. Dog and cat ownership were significantly associated with increased personal but not indoor endotoxin. Conclusions Daily fixed site measurements of endotoxin in the home environment may not predict daily personal exposure, although a larger sample size may be needed to assess this. This conclusion is relevant to short-term exposures involved in the acute exacerbation of

  13. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  14. Correlation Analysis of Personality Characteristics of Children with TIC Disorder with Family Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; WANG Liqun; MA Chunxia; MA Lixian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of children with tic disorders and their relationship with family factors.Methods Sixty cases of children with tic disorders diagnosed in our hospital were selected as the case group and 65 cases of normal children were selected as the control group.The children of two groups were assessed using Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ),Family Environment Scale (FES-CV) and general situation questionnaire of family (GSQ),respectively.The scores of EPQ personality characteristics,FES-CV and GSQ scores were compared for the children in the two groups.The Person correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between personality scores of children in case group and family environment factors.Results The general situation questionnaire results showed that there was significant statistically difference in parenting style,parental education level and family types of the children between case group and control group (P < 0.05);EPQ results showed that the neuroticism and psychoticism scores of children in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P< 0.05) and the lying degree scores in the control group were significantly higher than those in the case group (P< 0.05);FES-CV results showed that the family cohesion scores of the case group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05),and the family conflict scores in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05).The Person correlation analysis results indicated that the psychoticism score was negatively correlated with the score of family cohesion (P<0.05),and positively correlated with family conflict (P<0.05),while the neuroticism score was positively correlated with family conflict score (P<0.05).Conclusion The children with tic disorders have significant personality deviation compared to the normal children,and the personality deviation degree is

  15. Mortality among children and young persons in Sweden in relation to childhood socioeconomic group.

    OpenAIRE

    Vågerö, D; Ostberg, V

    1989-01-01

    More than 1.5 million children in Sweden were followed up for the period 1961-1979 with respect to mortality. Mortality differences by socioeconomic group were studied for the age groups 1-19 years. Children in families of non-manual workers, both boys and girls, had a significantly lower mortality than children of manual workers and children of self employed persons. The socioeconomic differences in risk of dying were greater among boys than among girls. For boys, the socioeconomic differenc...

  16. The value of serial personal photographs in timing the onset of unilateral cataracts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Gagan K; Hutchinson, Amy K; Lambert, Scott R

    2009-10-01

    To determine the value of serial personal photographs in timing the onset of unilateral cataracts in children over 6 months of age. Personal photographs from children with unilateral cataracts who underwent cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation when > or =6 months of age were reviewed. Photographs were evaluated for changes in the red reflex, which might indicate the presence of a cataract. Twelve children underwent cataract surgery at a mean age of 37 months. They were followed for a mean of 32 months. Ten children were diagnosed as having an acquired cataract by photographic review documenting a previously normal red reflex. The visual acuity in the affected eye of 4 of these children improved to > or =20/60. Cataracts were visible on photographs prior to clinical diagnosis in 6 patients, from 0.5 to 22 months prior to clinical diagnosis. Visual outcomes did not relate closely to the photographically documented duration of the cataract prior to treatment. Photographs were not helpful in timing the onset of cataract in 2 children due to the poor quality of the images. Serial personal photographs are sometimes helpful in determining whether cataracts are acquired. However, the usefulness of personal photographs alone in predicting the visual outcome after cataract surgery was limited in this small, retrospective study.

  17. Fear of blushing : Relations with personality among children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Buwalda, Femke

    Despite the common nature of blushing and the feelings of discomfort that often accompany it, to date. no studies have yet examined the relationship between personality characteristics and the fear of blushing. The present study fills this gap in the literature, by examining, in a sample of adults

  18. Towards personalized feedback in educational computer games for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasilyeva, E.; Uskov, V.

    2007-01-01

    Educational games as well as other computer games become an important part of children’s life and modern education. Feedback that is provided during a game to a child plays a significant role in computer games in general. In the context of educational computer games being developed for children game

  19. Second-Person Address Forms in Contemporary Uruguayan Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Lagos, María José; Moyna, María Irene

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the representations of singular address ("voseo," "tuteo," and "ustedeo") in contemporary Uruguayan children's literature from 1997 to 2011 as part of a broader analysis of variation and change in Uruguayan Spanish (Behares 1981; Bertolotti 2011; Bertolotti and Coll 2003; Elizaincín and Díaz…

  20. Primary spondylolysis of the axis vertebra (C2) in the children, including one with pyknodysostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Texas Univ., Dallas, TX

    1989-01-01

    This report describes 3 children with a cleft in the pedicles of the second cervical vertebra of uncertain cause. One of these patients had pyknodysostosis. Previous instances of such defects in the literature are reviewed with some considerations on the possible nature of the lesion. (orig.)

  1. Multimodal treatment, including interferon beta, of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehrlen, Martina; Zwaan, Christian Michel; Granzen, Bernd; Lassay, Lisa; Deutz, Peter; Vorwerk, Peter; Staatz, Gundula; Gademann, Günther; Christiansen, Hans; Oldenburger, Foppe; Tamm, Miriam; Mertens, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors report preliminary results from a prospective multicenter study (Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma [NPC] 2003 German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology/German Children's Oncology Group [NPC-2003-GPOH/DCOG]). METHODS: From 2003 to 2010, 45 patients (ages 8-20 years),

  2. State of personal hygiene among primary school children: A community based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Rimamchika, Musa; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Nnanubumom, Andy Angela; Godiya, Andrew; Emmanuel, Pembi

    2013-01-01

    Good personal hygiene in primary school children could be effective towards preventing infectious diseases. This work examined personal cleanliness of primary school children in Banki based on the following variables: bathing, state of uniforms, hair, nails and oral hygiene. One hundred and fifty primary school children in Banki community were selected using the cluster random sampling method. Analysis of variance was used to compare means and to test for significance of data, and coefficient of correlation to investigate the relationship between cleanliness and age of subjects. There were 87 (58 %) boys and 63 (42 %) girls in a ratio of 1.4:1. Ninety six (64 %) pupils belong to low socioeconomic class. Whereas, 53 (35.3 %) were found within 11-13 years age group, the overall mean age was 9 years (Standard deviation [SD] was 2.2), 95 CI (7.0 - 11.0) years. Comparing means for the different categories of personal hygiene, there was significant difference (F= 61.47, p personal cleanliness in our participants improved with age, and a positive significant correlation was observed between age and personal cleanliness in (r = 0.971, p = 0.026). In conclusion, significant number of primary school pupils in Banki community had good personal hygiene, which was observed to be directly proportional with age. Therefore, all efforts towards quality health education on personal hygiene as a means of primary prevention of illnesses in primary school pupils should be sustained.

  3. Personal carbon monoxide exposures of preschool children in Helsinki, Finland - comparison to ambient air concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Mukala, K.; Tittanen, P.; Jantunen, M.J. [KTL National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Health

    2001-07-01

    The associations of personal carbon monoxide (CO) exposures with ambient air CO concentrations measured at fixed monitoring sites, were studied among 194 children aged 3-6yr in four downtown and four suburban day-care centers in Helsinki, Finland. Each child carried a personal CO exposure monitor between 1 and 4 times for a time period of between 20 and 24h. CO concentrations at two fixed monitoring sites were measured simultaneously. The CO concentrations measured at the fixed monitoring sites were usually lower (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 0.9 and 2.6mgm{sup -3}) than the personal CO exposure concentrations (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 3.3mgm{sup -3}).The fixed site CO concentrations were poor predictors of the personal CO exposure concentrations. However, the correlations between the personal CO exposure and the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations increased (-0.03 -- -0.12 to 0.13-0.16) with increasing averaging times from 1 to 8h. Also, the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations explained the mean daily or weekly personal CO exposures of a group of simultaneously measured children better than individual exposure CO concentrations. This study suggests that the short-term CO personal exposure of children cannot be meaningfully assessed using fixed monitoring sites. (author)

  4. Comparison of behavioral profiles for anxiety-related comorbidities including ADHD and selective mutism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-09-01

    Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46, and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups, respectively). Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (P < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problems with social behaviors than with the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (P < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA, and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 76 FR 81004 - Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures Against Foreign Persons, Including a Ban on U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7741] Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures Against Foreign... Nonproliferation, Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: A determination has been made that a number of foreign entities and one foreign person have engaged in activities that warrant the imposition of measures...

  6. Personal encounters with children in an informal settlement: Exploring spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retha Kruidenier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the factors that contribute to the children living in Zama Zama informal settlement�s spiritual development. Postfoundational practical theology and the narrative approach function as paradigm and methodology. Themes and/or discourses like power, poverty, nutrition, health and school enrolment were identified. The faith development theory is discussed, as well as a reflection on children�s spirituality. The research shows that the faith community, cr�che and other partners play a crucial role in the spiritual development of the children.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This study was performed in the field of practical theology. The article is interdisciplinary, covering the fields of religion, psychology, social work, sociology and health studies.

  7. Kundalini yoga as mutual recovery: a feasibility study including children in care and their carers

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Elvira; Ball, Mark; Brown, Poppy; Crepaz-Keay, David; Haslam-Jones, Emily; Crawford, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed-methods feasibility study to test whether incorporating a 20-week Kundalini yoga program into a children’s home community improves wellbeing outcomes. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and retention rates as well as participants’ self-report perceptions on social inclusion, mental health, wellbeing and semi-structured interviews on the benefits of the study. Mutual recovery entailed that children in care (CiC), youth practitioners, and management participated togeth...

  8. Personalized Approach to Nutrition of Children Athletes: Practical Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition is the most important factor of children’s health, affecting not only his/her state of health, but also physical activity indicators. Children athletes, for compensating the energy cost, anabolic processes activation, and operability recovery, need an optimum diet with adequate protein, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins to cover the development and growth needs, as well as to recover from the physical and neuro-psychological stress. There are also certain requirements to food and drinking regime, especially during periods of intense training and competitions. Recommendations for the composition of diets for children athletes are developed and presented in a number of guidelines; however, studies show that the actual nutrition of almost half of the specialized children and youth Olympic reserve schools’ students does not meet the recommended standards. The article presents an overview of modern approaches to young athletes’ nutrition organization, and gives recommendations for personified diet correction and nutritive support depending on sports specialization, nature of physical activity, stage of training process, and individual features of a child.

  9. Association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children in rural Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kalyan Kumar; Panigrahi, Sandeep Kumar; Soodi Reddy, Arun Kiran; Sahu, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    In India, children of upper primary school receive less attention from health-care providers. The majority of their health problems are preventable through hygienic practices. The aim of this study was to find out the association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children. A cross-sectional study conducted in a rural upper primary school of Odisha. A semi-structured schedule based on the Global School Health Survey Questionnaire and necessary instruments for clinical examination were used. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Of 90 participants, 58 (64.4%) were girls. The mean age was 11.8 (±1.01) years. The mean body mass index of females was significantly higher than males (16.95 vs. 14.72; P = 0.001). More than 90% of children maintained good personal hygiene such as clean tongue, clean hair, handwashing, and using footwear. The most common morbidities found were dental caries (38.9%), history of worms in stool and lethargy (20%). A mean score of 6.14 ± 0.11 (out of 8) was seen for personal hygiene and not associated with any particular morbidity or gender. Brushing daily was significantly associated with reduced dental caries (χ 2 = 8.7; P personal hygiene. School health services should also focus on upper primary school children for improvement of personal hygiene.

  10. Children's exposure assessment of radiofrequency fields: Comparison between spot and personal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegi, Mara; Huss, Anke; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Guxens, Mònica; Birks, Laura Ellen; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; Röösli, Martin; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana

    2018-05-24

    Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work. The aims of this study were to assess RF exposure in the Spanish INMA birth cohort by spot measurements and by personal measurements in the settings where children tend to spend most of their time, i.e., homes, schools and parks; to identify the settings and sources that contribute most to that exposure; and to explore if exposure assessment based on spot measurements is a valid proxy for personal exposure. When children were 8 years old, spot measurements were conducted in the principal settings of 104 participants: homes (104), schools and their playgrounds (26) and parks (79). At the same time, personal measurements were taken for a subsample of 50 children during 3 days. Exposure assessment based on personal and on spot measurements were compared both in terms of mean exposures and in exposure-dependent categories by means of Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's kappa and McNemar test. Median exposure levels ranged from 29.73 (in children's bedrooms) to 200.10 μW/m 2 (in school playgrounds) for spot measurements and were higher outdoors than indoors. Median personal exposure was 52.13 μW/m 2 and median levels of assessments based on spot measurements ranged from 25.46 to 123.21 μW/m 2 . Based on spot measurements, the sources that contributed most to the exposure were FM radio, mobile phone downlink and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, while indoor and personal sources contributed very little (altogether spot measurements, with the latter

  11. Individualizing and Personalizing communication and Literacy instruction for Children who are Deafblind

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Susan M.; Janssen, Marleen J.; Bashinski, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Interviews, field notes and 66 communication and literacy lessons, shared between 23 teachers and speech-language pathologists and 22 children who are deafblind (in the United States and the Netherlands) , were analyzed to identify professional views and intstructional strategies related to individualizing and personalizing instruction. All 66 lessons features extensive individualization strategies: six were also personalized (e.g. they were about the child's experiences). Knowing the student...

  12. Violent behavior among middle school children: The role of gender and personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Milan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of personality traits and gender in violent interaction among middle school children (11-15 age range. The aim of the research presented here was to determine the contribution of personality traits and gender to various aspects of violent interaction, i.e. predisposition towards and exposure to peer violence. The sample consisted of 344 students from 5th to 8th grade, the majority of whom were girls (60.8%. The instruments used in the research were a questionnaire designed to assess violent behavior in primary school children (PRONA and the Big Five Plus Two inventory (the BF + 2 for children, designed to assess seven basic personality traits in primary school children. The results of a multivariate analysis of covariance suggest that boys tend to perpetrate and be exposed to violent behaviour more than girls, and also that certain personality traits contribute to the manifestation of these constructs. Exposure to violence is determined by low Extraversion, as well as higher levels of Neuroticism and Negative Valence. The traits that contribute most significantly to the tendency towards abusive behaviour are high levels of Aggression and Negative Valence as well as lower levels of Positive Valence. The most effective means of abuse prevention among middle school children is the setting up of prevention programs along with the detection of specific vulnerable groups of students, and the adjustment of these programs to students' personological traits.

  13. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-09-04

    (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ

  14. Neonatal health including congenital malformation risk of 1072 children born after vitrified embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, F; Bonduelle, M; Roelants, M; Verheyen, G; Van Landuyt, L

    2016-07-01

    Does vitrification of Day 3 and Day 5 embryos adversely affect birth outcomes of singletons and twins in comparison with peers born after fresh embryo transfer? Neonatal health parameters, including the prevalence of congenital malformations, in singletons and twins born after embryo vitrification are similar to or slightly better than after fresh embryo transfer. Although vitrification, rather than slow-freezing, of embryos is routine practice nowadays, convincing evidence regarding the safety for the offspring is sparse. Literature data comprise results from mostly small-sized studies or studies including only Day 3 or only Day 5 vitrified embryo transfers. Overall, better or comparable perinatal outcomes, in terms of higher birthweight and lower risk for small-for-gestational age or for low birthweight, have been reported for singletons born after vitrified embryo transfer compared with fresh embryo transfer. According to the single available study with sufficient sample size, the congenital malformation rate was found to be comparable after vitrified and fresh embryo transfers. Data were collected from 960 cycles after transfer of embryos vitrified on Day 3 (n = 457) or Day 5 (n = 503) and from 1644 cycles after fresh embryo transfer on Day 3 (n = 853) or Day 5 (n = 791), performed between 2008 and 2013 at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the university hospital UZ Brussel. Outcome measures were neonatal health in terms of birthweight, small-for-gestational age, prematurity rate, perinatal death and major/minor/total malformation rate. Perinatal health parameters of 11 stillborns and 1061 live borns (827 singletons and 234 twins) in the vitrified group and of 28 stillborns and 1838 live borns (1374 singletons and 464 twins) in the fresh embryo group are reported. Within 3 months after birth, children in the two study groups were assessed clinically with special attention to congenital malformations by a paediatrician blinded to the type of embryo

  15. Determinants of personal exposure to ozone in school children. Results from a panel study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Grivas, Georgios; Samoli, Evangelia; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Spyratos, Dionisis; Papakosta, Despoina; Karakatsani, Anna; Chaloulakou, Archontoula; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2017-04-01

    In the wider framework of the RESPOZE (ReSPiratory effects of OZone Exposure in Greek children) panel study, we investigated possible determinants of O 3 exposure of school children, measured with personal passive samplers, in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece. Personal exposure to O 3 was measured for five weeks spread along the academic year 2013-14, in 186 school children in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece. At the same time, at-school outdoor measurements were performed and ambient levels of 8-h daily maximum O 3 from fixed sites were collected. We also collected information on lifestyle and housing characteristics through an extended general questionnaire (GQ) and each participant completed daily time activity diaries (TADs) during the study period. Mean outdoor concentrations were higher during the warmer months, in the suburbs of the cities and in Athens. Personal exposure concentrations were significantly lower compared to outdoor. Daily levels of at-school outdoor and ambient levels of O 3 from fixed sites were significant determinants of personal exposure to O 3 . For a 10μg/m 3 increase in at-school outdoor O 3 concentrations and PM 10 measurements a 20.9% (95% CI: 13%, 28%) increase in personal exposure to O 3 was found. For a half an hour more spent in transportation an average increase of 7% (95% CI: 0.3%, 14.6%) in personal exposure to O 3 was observed. Among other possible determinants, time spent in transportation (TAD variable) and duration of open windows were the ones associated with personal O 3 exposure levels. Our results support the use of outdoor and ambient measurements from fixed sites in epidemiological studies as a proxy of personal exposure to O 3 , but this has to be calibrated taking into account personal measurements and time-activity patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recognition of Disorders and Emotional Problems of Deaf Children Using House-Tree-Person and Draw-A-Person Tests in Comparison with Normal Children of Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Deaf children have special emotional reactions, Understanding these characteristics and problems can help medical and paramedical professionals, parents and teachers to reach the purpose of behavioral adaptability.The present study was performed in order to recognize disorders, emotional problems and functions of deaf children compared with normal children in emotional components of anxiety, depression, aggression, impulsiv-ity and lack of compromise. Materials & Methods: In order to recognize emotional disorders and problems of deaf children, sample groups of 120 male and female patients (60 deaf children and 60 children with nor-mal hearing with equal number of male and female enrolled in primary schools of Hamadan province were selected by multi stage randomly sampling in this casual_comparative study. House-Tree-Person (HTP and Draw-A-Person tests (DAP were used to determine their emotional problems. Results:Our results indicate that in terms of parameters related to the two tests (distance of three components of each other ,anxiety, aggression, depression and impulsivity and lack of compromise, participants' overall scores in two tests by major scales such as anxiety (?=0.01, P< 0.05; 3.48, 3.13 aggression (?= 0.05 , 0.01, P< 0.05; 6.12 ,3.97 depression (?=0.05 P<0.05 ; 3.75,3.81 , impulsivity (?=0.05, 0.01, P<0.05 ; 3.47, 3.01 and lack of compromise (?=0.05, 0.01, P<0.05; 4.89, 4.95 are significantly different from each other. Conclusion:The deaf children in terms of denotative parameters related to the two tests are sig-nificantly different from normal children; and the overall scores obtained on each of the scales generally show a significant difference with normal children,In the deaf group with regard to gender variable (male and female significant differences in some of the scales such as distance of three components of each other ,anxiety, aggression, depression and lack of compromise iare observed between

  17. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising a ra...... with healthy eating. The dietary habits reported were strongly influenced by personal intentions. Thus, the biggest challenge for public health nutritionists will be to reach non-compliers who seldom have intentions to eat healthily.......Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising...... a random sample of 3151 Danish adults aged 18-75 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a 7 d pre-coded food diary. information on social background, leisure-time physical activity, height, body weight and intention to eat healthily was Obtained by in-person interviews. Logistic regression models Were...

  18. Rectal benzodiazepines for premedication in children. Review and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, M J; Capouet, V

    1987-01-01

    Modern anesthetic techniques have modified the aims of premedication in pediatric practice. Anxiolysis, amnesia and easiness of induction are now the the main targets. This paper reviews both the literature and the personal experience of the authors on the subject. Many authors now prefer a benzodiazepine. Rectal instillation of benzodiazepine in solution avoids the trauma of the intramuscular route and produces a faster and more predictable effect, than suppositories. Diazepam (.1 to .2 mg/kg) and flunitrazepam (40 to 80 micrograms/kg) have been extensively used in this indication. Diazepam's duration of elimination being much longer than that of flunitrazepam, this last drug is preferred by many pediatric anesthetists. Midazolam (.4 to .5 mg/kg) has a much faster onset and shorter duration of action. It should thus be preferred if the environment enables the administration of premedication within 10 to 15 minutes of induction.

  19. Activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder: dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah

    2008-04-01

    In order to understand how age, culture, and problems in motor coordination impact the performance of activities of daily living, we used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine activities of daily living of younger (5-7 years of age) and older (8-9 years of age) children with and without DCD. By comparison with their typically developing age group, children with DCD had more difficulty with dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Difficulties with postural control and fine-motor skills were reported to contribute to poorer performance of activities of daily living. As expected, competence in the performance of activities of daily living improved in the older children with and without DCD and there were few differences in the performance of daily living tasks between typical children in Australia and Canada. Overall, the motor difficulties of children with DCD had a significant impact on performance of a wide range of daily activities.

  20. The academic, personality, and physical outcomes of only children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, T; Poston, D L

    1993-02-01

    Representative samples of 1,000 schoolchildren from 4 Chinese provinces were surveyed to compare the outcomes of only children to those of firstborn and later-born children. The children's ages ranged from 8 to 17 years, with half of the sample in the third grade and the other half in the sixth grade. 3 types of outcomes were considered. In terms of academics, differences between only children and others were found in 3 of the 4 provincial samples, with onlies being most likely to outscore others in verbal tests. In terms of personality evaluations, very few only-child effects were found. In 2 of the 4 provincial samples, only children were found to be taller or to weigh more than others. Taken together, these results suggest that the one-child policy in China is not producing a generation of "little emperors."

  1. Parental attitudes and personality traits, self-efficacy, stress, and coping strategies among mothers of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Development of children with cerebral palsy (CP depends on the quality of parental care. The aim of the research was to compare parenting attitudes in mothers of children with CP to mothers of typically developing children, and to study the relationship between parenting attitudes and personality traits, stress, coping strategies and self-efficacy in mothers of children with CP. Participants and procedure Twenty-seven mothers of children with cerebral palsy (MCCP (mean age 35.50 years, SD = 4.83 and twenty-eight mothers (mean age 35.60 years, SD = 4.27 of typically developing children (MTDC participated in this study. Each parent had a child between the ages of two and seven years. A battery of tests was administered to both groups, which included the Parenting Attitudes Scale (SPR, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES, and the COPE Inventory. Also, maternal stress and the amount of social support received were assessed. Results Although acceptance was the most common parental attitude among all participants, mothers of children with CP presented with a stronger tendency towards overprotective and demanding attitudes. MCCP obtained higher scores in neuroticism and lower in openness compared to MTDC. Furthermore, MCCP declared a higher level of distress than MTDC. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of mothers regarding self-efficacy, the level of social support or the most often used coping strategies. Neuroticism was found to be the best predictor of overprotective and demanding parental attitudes. Conclusions The study emphasises the importance of parenting programmes for mothers with children with CP to promote the development of autonomy among children with developmental difficulties.

  2. MR features of the developing perianterior horn structure including subcallosal fasciculus in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    To describe the changes in the magnetic resonance (MR) signal of the perianterior horn structure (PAS) with increasing age, we studied 69 infants and children aged between 3 days and 9.4 years (average: 2.8 years) without any neurological deficits. T1- and T2-weighted images and FLAIR (fluid attenuation inversion recovery) images were obtained in the axial plane. Based on a comparison of the intensity of the PAS with that of the cortex in each sequence (T1-WI/FLAIR/T2-WI), we classified the signal-intensity patterns into four types: I, low/low/high; II, low/high/high; III, iso/high/high; IV, high/low/low. Signal-intensity types I, II, III and IV were seen in 22, 8, 17, and 22 subjects, respectively, with younger subjects showing type I or II intensity patterns and older subjects showing type III or IV. In addition, T1-weighted and FLAIR images of subjects with a type I intensity pattern showed a rim of an isointensity component around the PAS that histologically coincided with migrating glial cells. The low-intensity area on FLAIR and T2-WI images of subjects with a type IV intensity pattern may represent myelinated fibers of the subcallosal fasciculus (ScF). The intensity of the MR signals of the PAS changes with increasing age, and this change may reflect histological features. A better understanding of these characteristics may help us to clarify myelination abnormalities, particularly those related to the ScF in the frontal lobe in infants and children. (orig.)

  3. The Association between Parental Personality Patterns and Internalising and Externalising Behaviour Problems in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Melanie D.; Connell, Gabrielle; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relationship between parental personality patterns and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a clinically referred sample of children (aged 4-8) and adolescents (aged 12-18). Methods: Data from families involved in two clinical trials in Victoria, Australia were analysed (n = 59). Families…

  4. Children with Special Education Needs and Subjective Well-Being: Social and Personal Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Tania; Bilimória, Helena; Albergaria, Francisca; Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cognitive and developmental difficulties show difficulty in social interaction, feelings of rejection, autonomy, social rules and in behavioural and emotional self-regulation. Importantly, their subjective well-being is associated to social support and personal factors, such as self-esteem and a positive self-image.…

  5. The Evaluation of a Personal Narrative Language Intervention for School-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth; O'Brien, Katy H.; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Lyrek, Kristen A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention focused on improving personal narrative skills of school-age children with Down syndrome (DS) using an approach involving visual supports. Four females with DS, ages 10 through 15 years, participated in this multiple baseline across participants single-subject…

  6. The Relationship between Children's Use of Television and Stereotypes about Occupations and Personality Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jennifer

    A questionnaire was administered to 94 fifth grade students to measure their use of television and the relationship of this use to their development and maintenance of stereotypes about occupations and personality attributes. It was hypothesized that the more television children viewed, the more likely they would be to develop stereotyped…

  7. A Note on Some Problems in the Testing of Personality Characteristics in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Michael; Hill, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    An examination is made of the value of using published personality tests with young blind and partially sighted children. Based on data gathered during a longitudinal investigation into the educational and psychological development of a group of 120 visually impaired learners, the authors conclude that their own selection of a test instrument…

  8. Personality and Psychopathology in Flemish Referred Children: Five Perspectives of Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Decuyper, Mieke; Rosseel, Yves; De Fruyt, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates five types of continuity of personality and internalizing and externalizing problems (i.e., structural, differential, mean-level, individual-level and ipsative continuity) in a sample of referred children and adolescents (N = 114) with a broad variety of psychological problems. Mothers were administered a child…

  9. Effects of Tennis Training on Personality Development in Children and Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Erdal; Sahin, Gülsah; Sentürk, Ugur; Aydin, Halide; Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week basic tennis training program on the personality development of early adolescents aged between 9 and 11 years. The research methodology consisted of a single group pre-test/post-test design implemented with a total of eight volunteer children (three boys and five girls). The…

  10. Greek Preschool Children's Playful Behaviour: Assessment and Correlation with Personal and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    All children and young people need to play. The impulse to play is innate. Yet, the pure essence of play is playfulness a notion not new, yet limitedly researched. Playfulness refers to the individual style each child has to play, which is linked to personality descriptors and attributes. The present study had a twofold aim. On the one hand, it…

  11. Family and Personal Networks : How a Partner and Children Affect Social Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rözer, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    This books describes and explains how a romantic partner and child(-ren) affect social relationships. Whereas many scholars have studied the importance of personal networks as a resource for the individual, comparatively little is known about how social networks emerge and how network composition

  12. The emergence of personal growth amongst healthcare professionals who care for dying children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaune, Laura; Muskat, Barbara; Anthony, Samantha J

    2018-06-01

    ABSTRACTObjective:Compassion fatigue, burnout, and vicarious traumatization are prominent topics in the current literature on the impact of the rewarding but challenging work of healthcare professionals who care for patients with life-limiting illnesses. The positive effects of caregiving constitute a newly emerging outcome that has been relatively unexplored in the pediatric literature, and yet they may play an important role in contributing to the satisfaction and well-being of the healthcare professionals who care for children who have a life-limiting illness. This paper reports the results of a secondary analysis of qualitative interview transcripts that explored the experiences of hospital-based pediatric healthcare providers caring for children with varied life-limiting illnesses. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 healthcare professionals (9 social workers, 8 nurses, and 8 physicians). The majority of participants were women (80%), with an age range between 20 and 60 years, and most (84%) had the experience of caring for more than 15 dying children. Thematic analysis was conducted using interpretive description and constant comparison. Every healthcare professional interviewed experienced personal growth as a result of their providing care for dying children. Three dimensions of personal growth were most consistently reported: (1) new or altered life perspectives, (2) enhanced personal resources, and (3) benevolence. A deeper understanding of the phenomenon of personal growth could help healthcare organizations to implement innovative approaches that would counterbalance compassion fatigue, and thereby enhance both healthcare provider well-being and child and family outcomes.

  13. Personality, coping style and well-being of parents rearing children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, L M; Billings, F J; Jobe, B M

    2006-12-01

    Parents with children with developmental disabilities (DD) encounter a variety of stressors associated with rearing their children and must develop effective coping mechanisms in order to adapt successfully to these challenges. Previous research has failed to establish the role of parental individual differences in the reported use of different coping strategies. The current study explores parental personality and whether children with DD were adopted or born into the families and their influence on the coping strategies used by mothers and fathers. A total of 97 mother-father dyads rearing at least one child with DD were participants. They narrated stressful situations related to their child and completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire twice. Data were also collected with regard to personality, depression and subjective well-being (SWB). Both adoptive and birth mothers and fathers used more problem-focused than emotion-focused strategies. Personality factors, Neuroticism especially, were predictive of coping strategy use. Higher levels of Positive Reappraisal were associated with higher levels of SWB, whereas higher levels of Escape-Avoidance were associated with lower levels of SWB, but only for mothers. Results were consistent with a dispositional model of strategy use in that frequency of use was associated with personality characteristics, was consistent over time, and for different children in the same families. Future research should focus on the persistence of the associations between strategy use and well-being and whether they hold true at different stages of the lifespan when coping contexts may change quite dramatically.

  14. HEADPLAY Personal Cinema System Facilitates Intravenous Cannulation in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangeline Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HEADPLAY personal cinema system (PCS is a portable visual headset/visor through which movie clips may be viewed. We studied the use of HEADPLAY PCS as a distraction tool in facilitating intravenous cannulation in children undergoing anaesthesia. 60 children were enrolled into the study and randomized into 2 groups. EMLA local anaesthetic cream was used to reduce the pain associated with intravenous cannulation. Children in group 1 wore the HEADPLAY visor whereas children in group 2 were subject to conventional distraction therapy. Children were asked to rate their anxiety, pain, and satisfaction scores after intravenous cannulation. Periprocedural anxiety was also determined using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of pain and anxiety scores between the 2 groups. Although the satisfaction score of the children in the HEADPLAY PCS group was marginally higher compared to the conventional group, this did not hit statistical significance. 86.6% of children in group 1 reported that they would want to use the visor again for their next intravenous cannulation. We conclude that HEADPLAY PCS is a distraction tool that is acceptable to most children and can contribute towards satisfaction of the intravenous cannulation process in children.

  15. The role of personal values in children's costly sharing and non-costly giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Lior; Daniel, Ella; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether children's values, global and abstract motivations serving as guiding principles, are organized similarly to those of adults, whether values can predict individual differences in children's sharing behaviors, and whether the normative nature of the situation influences the expression of these individual differences. Children (N=243, ages 5-12years) participated in a values ranking task as part of a visit to a science museum. The majority of children (n=150) also participated in a task examining costly sharing (i.e., sharing that results in giving up part of one's own resources) and non-costly giving (i.e., giving that does not influence one's own share). Starting from 5years of age, children showed a structure of values similar to that of adolescents and adults, specifically contrasting preferences for opposing values (i.e., self-transcendence with self-enhancement and openness to change with conservation). Importance given to self-transcendence values related positively to costly sharing but not to non-costly giving, indicating that in situations where it is more normative to share, individual differences in values are less expressed in children's actual sharing. In addition, children's sex and age moderated the relation between values and behavior. Children's values are an important aspect of their developing personalities. Taking them into consideration can greatly promote the research of prosocial and normative development as well as our understanding of individual differences in children's behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Should borderline personality disorder be included in the fourth edition of the Chinese classification of mental disorders?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jie; LEUNG Freedom

    2007-01-01

    @@ Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious Bpersonality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disturbances in mood regulation, impulse control, self-image and interpersonal relationships.1 In the United States, the prevalence of BPD has been estimated at 1%-2% of the general population, 10% of psychiatric outpatients, and 20% of inpatients.2,3 According to the 4th text revision of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-Ⅳ-TR),1 about 75% of BPD patients are women. The BPD diagnosis has been associated with heightened risk (8.5% to 10.0% among BPD patients) for completed suicide, a rate almost 50times higher than in the general population.4

  17. Personal exposures of preschool children to carbon monoxide: roles of ambient air quality and gas stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Mukala, K.; Pasanen, P.; Tuomisto, J.; Jantunen, M.J. (National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Division of Environmental Health)

    1994-12-01

    Personal 1 h mean CO exposures of preschool children in two day care centers (Toolo and Vallila) in Helsinki were measured with continuously recording personal exposure monitors. In Vallila, the median CO exposure of children from homes with gas stoves was 2.0 mgm[sup -3], and with electric stoves, 0.9 mgm[sup -3]. In Tooloo, the corresponding values were 1.9 and 1.0 mgm[sup -3], respectively. The national ambient air quality guidelines for CO in Finland were exceeded in a few percent of the exposure measurements. The results were compared to fixed-site ambient air monitoring data and related to the presence of town-gas fired stoves in the children's homes. The results show that fixed-site ambient air monitors are of little value in predicting personal exposures of children or even their relative differences between areas. They also show that town-gas fired stoves may have a profound effect on the CO exposures of the children. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  19. Environmental, parental, and personal influences on food choice, access, and overweight status among homeless children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rickelle; Smith, Chery

    2007-10-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with homeless children (n=56, aged 6-13 years) in an urban center in Minnesota, USA, to determine factors influencing food choice, food access, and weight status, with interview questions developed using the Social Cognitive Theory. Interview transcripts were coded and then evaluated both collectively and by weight status ( or = 85th percentile=overweight). Forty-five percent of children were overweight. Environmental, parental, and personal factors emerged as common themes influencing food access and choice. Despite children's personal food preferences, homelessness and the shelter environment created restrictive conditions that influenced food choice and access. Shelter rules, lack of adequate storage and cooking facilities, and limited food stores near the shelter, impacted the type and quality of food choices, ultimately affecting hunger, weight status, and perceived health.

  20. Personality in the Age of Industry: Structure, Heritability, and Correlates of Personality in Middle Childhood from the Perspective of Parents, Teachers, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D Angus; Durbin, C Emily; Hicks, Brian M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2017-04-01

    Middle childhood is a crucial juncture in the lifespan where children work towards achieving a sense of competence foundational for future development. However, middle childhood has historically been underrepresented in the personality literature. The current study provides a comprehensive examination of personality in middle childhood using a large (N = 2510), longitudinal sample of 10- to 12-year-old twins. The structure, heritability, and correlates of personality in this period were investigated using personality ratings of parents, teachers, and children. Results showed that personality in middle childhood has a coherent structure, is heritable, and is relevant for developmentally salient outcomes such as externalizing behavior, substance use, and academic engagement. Results emphasize the importance of investigating personality in middle childhood across multiple informants.

  1. Personality in the Age of Industry: Structure, Heritability, and Correlates of Personality in Middle Childhood from the Perspective of Parents, Teachers, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. Angus; Durbin, C. Emily; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Middle childhood is a crucial juncture in the lifespan where children work towards achieving a sense of competence foundational for future development. However, middle childhood has historically been underrepresented in the personality literature. The current study provides a comprehensive examination of personality in middle childhood using a large (N = 2510), longitudinal sample of 10- to 12-year-old twins. The structure, heritability, and correlates of personality in this period were investigated using personality ratings of parents, teachers, and children. Results showed that personality in middle childhood has a coherent structure, is heritable, and is relevant for developmentally salient outcomes such as externalizing behavior, substance use, and academic engagement. Results emphasize the importance of investigating personality in middle childhood across multiple informants. PMID:28408770

  2. Association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children in rural Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Kumar Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In India, children of upper primary school receive less attention from health-care providers. The majority of their health problems are preventable through hygienic practices. Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in a rural upper primary school of Odisha. Subjects and Methods: A semi-structured schedule based on the Global School Health Survey Questionnaire and necessary instruments for clinical examination were used. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Results: Of 90 participants, 58 (64.4% were girls. The mean age was 11.8 (±1.01 years. The mean body mass index of females was significantly higher than males (16.95 vs. 14.72; P = 0.001. More than 90% of children maintained good personal hygiene such as clean tongue, clean hair, handwashing, and using footwear. The most common morbidities found were dental caries (38.9%, history of worms in stool and lethargy (20%. A mean score of 6.14 ± 0.11 (out of 8 was seen for personal hygiene and not associated with any particular morbidity or gender. Brushing daily was significantly associated with reduced dental caries (χ2 = 8.7; P < 0.005 and foul-smelling breath (χ2 = 4.93; P < 0.05. Fungal infections were significantly less in children who bathed daily (χ2 = 28.7; <0.005 and wore clean clothes (χ2 = 5.06; P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dental caries, foul-smelling breath, and fungal infections were significantly associated with poor personal hygiene. School health services should also focus on upper primary school children for improvement of personal hygiene.

  3. Should mean arterial pressure be included in the definition of ambulatory hypertension in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suláková, Terezie; Feber, Janusz

    2013-07-01

    The diagnosis of hypertension (HTN)/normotension (NT) on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is usually based on systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The goal of this study was to analyze whether inclusion of mean arterial pressure (MAP) improves the detection of HTN on ABPM. We retrospectively studied ABPM records in 229 children (116 boys, median age = 15.3 years) who were referred for evaluation of HTN. A diagnosis of HTN was made if: (A) MAP or SBP or DBP was ≥ 1.65 SDS (95th percentile); (B) SBP or DBP was ≥ 1.65 SDS (95th percentile), during 24-h or daytime or night-time in both definitions. Using definition A, 46/229 patients had HTN compared to definition B by which only 37/229 patients had HTN (p = 0.001). The level of agreement between the two definitions was very good (kappa = 0.86 ± 0.04), however nine patients (19.5 %) were missed by not using MAP in the definition of HTN. These nine patients had only mild HTN with a median Z score of 1.69. The inclusion of MAP in the definition of ambulatory HTN significantly increased the number of hypertensive patients. MAP may be very helpful in detecting mild HTN in patients with normal/borderline SBP and DBP.

  4. Motor, linguistic, personal and social aspects of children with Down syndrome

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    Amanda Tragueta FERREIRA-VASQUES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA global developmental delay is expected from Down syndrome, affecting motor, cognitive, linguistic and personal-social skills. However, not always these delays are proportional; different conditions occur due to several intrinsic and extrinsic variables that must be controlled to form groups of greater homogeneity.Objective To enhance personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, gross motor and linguistic skills among children with Down syndrome and compare them with typically developing children, matched for gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, while controlling some variables that interfere with the global development.Methods The ethical aspects were fulfilled (Case No. 040/2009. The following inclusion criteria were considered: participants without a history of prematurity, very low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, significant hearing and vision problems, and signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder. After the inclusion criteria were considered, 40 children participated in the study, of which 20 had Down syndrome (experimental group - EG, these being of both genders and with chronological ages ranging from 38 to 63 months, and the other 20 being typically developing children (control group - CG, matching the EG in terms of gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, with this age ranging from 13 to 50 months. The evaluation consisted in applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a test that assesses areas such as personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, linguistic and gross motor development. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using Student’s t-test.Results A statistically significant difference was verified between the groups for the language and fine motor-adaptive areas.Conclusion Children with Down syndrome showed lower performance in language and fine motor skills when compared with typically developing children. There was no statistically significant difference in gross motor and personal

  5. Personality traits as predictors of children's social adjustment to school entry

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    Maja Zupančič

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporaneous and longitudinal predictive relations between three blocks of predictors and measures of children's social adjustment (social competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviour after the school entry were investigated. The first block of predictors captures expressions of child personality dimensions as perceived by pre-school teachers/assistant school teachers, the second block contains parental education and self-evaluations of parenting in mothers and fathers of the target children, and the third block refers to children's pre-school attendance prior to school entry. Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale, school teachers reported on firstgraders' social adjustment. The Inventory of Child Individual Differences was employed to assess personality when the target children were 3, 4, 5, and 6 years old, while at ages 3 and 6 their parents filled-in the Family Environment Questionnaire to provide self-reports on parenting. The blocks of predictors jointly explain a relatively large portion of variance in firstgraders' social adjustment both contemporaneously and longitudinally. Personality characteristics significantly predict all of the criteria measures, while family environment and pre-school attendance explain additional variance in internalizing behaviour (depressive, anxious, isolated, and dependent behaviour, over and above the contribution of personality. Perceptions of children's conscientiousness-openness at the beginning of the school year as well as through early childhood and of their agreeableness in preschool predict teacher ratings of the firstgraders' social competence. Externalizing behaviour (angry, aggressive, egotistical and oppositional behaviour was consistently predicted by low conscientiousness-openness, extraversion-emotional stability, and low agreeableness. Finally, low conscientiousness-openness in school, low extraversion-emotional stability in preschool, maternal inefficient

  6. The Sequence of Acquisition of Personal Pronoun Case and Person Reference among 6 Year Old Children in Two Selected Malaysian Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Abd Samad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pronoun case and person reference refer to the position of the pronoun in the sentence and the person the pronoun refers to respectively.  Examining the acquisition of pronoun case and person reference among young children can be insightful as, besides their obvious relevance to language development, both these constructs can have implications on other aspects of child development.  Attention given by children to these various constructs may indicate the importance children place on the concept of ego and self as well as on social relations.  The sequence of acquisition of personal pronouns among these children is therefore an important phenomenon to be examined as it can reflect linguistic and socio-cognitive development.  This largely descriptive study examines the sequence of acquisition of the English pronouns among forty 6 year old Malaysian children learning ESL in two kindergartens.  The children in the study were presented with 33 drawings to assess their familiarity with case and person reference expressed through English personal pronouns.  They were required to select the correct pronoun from three pronouns that were used to describe each drawing.  This paper reports on the accuracy rates for each pronoun and assumes that high accuracy rates indicate a more complete acquisition of the pronoun.  Error forms by the children were also be identified and examined.  Data obtained were compared to acquisition sequences in the literature and general implications related to the acquisition of personal pronouns among children in an ESL setting in Malaysia will be discussed.

  7. Personal carbon monoxide exposures of preschool children in Helsinki, Finland: levels and determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, S.; Mukala, K.; Jantunen, M. J.

    Personal CO exposures of 194 preschool children were measured with personal exposure monitors during a 24 week sampling period from fall 1990 to spring 1991 in Helsinki, Finland. Arithmetic mean of the maximum 1 and 8 h exposure levels were 6.0 and 3.3 mg m -3. The then Finnish ambient air quality guideline values for 1/8 h maximum CO level (30/10 mg m -3) were exceeded in 2/4% of the children's daily maximum 1/8 h exposure levels. Gas stove at home, parents, especially mother, smoking in the home, and living in high rise buildings — reflecting higher local population and traffic density — increased the children's CO exposures. The presence of a fireplace in the home was associated with decreased CO exposures. Father's high education reduced the children's CO exposure while mother's education level had no significant effect. The peak (15 min) exposure levels of the children commuting to day care center by car or bus were higher than those of the children who walked or came by bike.

  8. The quality of life in children with cerebral palsy according to their personal and parents' report

    OpenAIRE

    Glinac Alma; Delalić Azra; Matović Lejla

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender and socioeconomic status of family on the quality of life related to the health of children with cerebral palsy, according to the assessment of children themselves and one of the parents. Cross-sectional study included 76 children with cerebral palsy, with median age of 8.85, and 76 parents. The specific questionnaire, PedsQLTM Module cerebral palsy, Version 3.0, which includes age-adjusted questionnaire for children and a quest...

  9. Exposure assessment and modeling of particulate matter for asthmatic children using personal nephelometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Delfino, Ralph J.; Floro, Joshua N.; Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Samimi, Behzad S.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Allen, Ryan W.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    It has been shown that acute exposures to particulate matter (PM) may exacerbate asthma in children. However, most epidemiological studies have relied on time-integrated PM measurements taken at a centrally located stationary monitoring sites. In this article, we characterized children's short-term personal exposures to PM 2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters size-selective inlet was used to estimate real-time PM 2.5 concentrations on 20 asthmatic children, inside and outside of their residences, and at a central site. The personal and indoor pDRs were operated passively, while the home outdoor and central site instruments were operated actively. The subjects received 29.2% of their exposures at school, even though they only spent 16.4% of their time there. More precise personal clouds were estimated for the home-indoor and home-outdoor microenvironments where PM concentrations were measured. The personal cloud increased with increasing activity levels and was higher during outdoor activities than during indoor activities. We built models to predict personal PM exposures based on either microenvironmental or central-site PM 2.5 measurements, and evaluated the modeled exposures against the actual personal measurements. A multiple regression model with central site PM concentration as the main predictor had a better prediction power ( R2=0.41) than a three-microenvironmental model ( R2=0.11). We further constructed a source-specific exposure model utilizing the time-space-activity information and the particle infiltration efficiencies (mean=0.72±0.15) calculated from a recursive mass balance model. It was estimated that the mean hourly personal exposures resulting from ambient, indoor-generated, and personal activity PM 2.5 were 11.1, 5.5, and 10.0 μg/m 3, respectively, when the modeling error was minimized. The high PM 2.5 exposure to personal activities reported in our study is likely due to children's more active lifestyle as compared with older adult subjects in

  10. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  11. "You Might Belong in Gryffindor": Children's Courage and Its Relationships to Anxiety Symptoms, Big Five Personality Traits, and Sex Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Schubert, Tinke

    2010-01-01

    This study describes a first exploration of the construct of courage in youths. Children aged 8-13 years were invited to report on the most courageous action that they had ever performed during their life. In addition, the Courage Measure for Children (CM-C) was construed as an index of children's level of personal courage, and this scale was…

  12. Quality of life in children surviving cancer: A personality and multi-informant perspective [IF: 1.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clercq, B.; de Fruyt, F.; Koot, H.M.; Benoit, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe quality of life (QoL) of children surviving cancer in relation to their personality, using self- and maternal reports and examining differences with healthy referents. Method: Sixty-seven children who survived childhood cancer were compared with eighty-one healthy children on

  13. Sentence-position effects on children's perception and production of English third person singular -s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Demuth, Katherine; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2011-02-01

    Two-year-olds produce third person singular -s more accurately on verbs in sentence-final position as compared with verbs in sentence-medial position. This study was designed to determine whether these sentence-position effects can be explained by perceptual factors. For this purpose, the authors compared 22- and 27-month-olds' perception and elicited production of third person singular -s in sentence-medial versus-final position. The authors assessed perception by measuring looking/listening times to a 1-screen display of a cartoon paired with a grammatical versus an ungrammatical sentence (e.g., She eats now vs. She eat now). Children at both ages demonstrated sensitivity to the presence/absence of this inflectional morpheme in sentence-final, but not sentence-medial, position. Children were also more accurate at producing third person singular -s sentence finally, and production accuracy was predicted by vocabulary measures as well as by performance on the perception task. These results indicate that children's more accurate production of third person singular -s in sentence-final position cannot be explained by articulatory factors alone but that perceptual factors play an important role in accounting for early patterns of production. The findings also indicate that perception and production of inflectional morphemes may be more closely related than previously thought.

  14. A prospective investigation of borderline personality disorder in abused and neglected children followed up into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Paris, Joel

    2009-10-01

    Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.

  15. Personal Well-Being and Family Interactions of Working Couples With Preschool Children: A Correlational Study

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    Danila Secolim Coser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify potential relationships among personal well-being, parental practices, and interactions between parents and preschool children reported by working fathers and mothers ( n = 120, 60 couples from a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected using the Questionnaire on family and professional lives. Three scales were selected for data analysis: well-being; interaction between parents and children; and family life. Statistical tests (One-Way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed negative correlations between child-rearing practices and health problems reported by parents. Positive correlations were also found between reported parental interactions and child-rearing practices. Parental practices and interactions between parents and children varied according to the number of children (one or two.

  16. The personality structure of toddlers and pre-school children as perceived by their kindergarten teachers

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    Maja Zupančič

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyse the personality structure of children aged one to seven, as perceived by their kindergarten teachers. In addition, gender differences were examined to determine whether kindergarten teachers perceived the personality characteristics of toddler and pre-school girls differently than those of boys. 508 randomly-selected Slovenian children were assessed by their kindergarten teachers using adapted Flemish Big-Five Bipolar Rating Scales. Four-factor structures that explained more than two-thirds of the variance emerged for teachers' personality ratings of children in each of the three age groups: toddlers, three- to five-year-olds and five- to seven-year-olds. However, five of the twenty-five scales, four of them referring to the Conscientiousness dimension, did not appear to be relevant when assessing individual differences in the toddlerhood. Intellect/Openness, as observed for the toddler sample, and the combined Conscientiousness-Intellect/Openness factor, extracted for each of the two older age groups, accounted for the greatest part of the variance. Extroversion was obtained as a second factor in each of the three age groups, while Emotional Stability showed relatively less stability across these groups. Agreeableness was clearly differentiated only in the oldest age group, emerging there for the first time as an independent factor. A few gender differences were found to be significant within the two groups of pre-school children, with girls consistently being rated higher in terms of Conscientiousness-Intellect/Openness.

  17. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... species is included, except for certain worked African elephant ivory as provided in paragraph (f) of this... within 1 year of changing your residence from one country to another. (4) The shipment, or shipments if..., inherited, or otherwise acquired before you changed your residence. (f) African elephant worked ivory. You...

  18. Importance of the personal endotoxin cloud in school-age children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, Nathan; Liu, Andrew H; Zhang, Lening; Rodes, Charles E; Foarde, Karin; Dutton, Steven J; Murphy, James R; Gelfand, Erwin W

    2005-11-01

    A number of studies have observed associations between the amount of endotoxin in urban dust and chronic asthma severity, but a direct relationship between personal exposure to household endotoxin and acute asthma worsening has not yet been defined. We sought to investigate the relationship between day-to-day changes in personal endotoxin exposure and asthma severity. In the winter and spring of 1999 through 2000, endotoxin exposures were monitored in asthmatic schoolchildren by using portable, as opposed to stationary, monitors designed to measure inhalable and respirable particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microm in diameter. Children were followed with daily measurements of FEV(1) and asthma symptoms. Over a 24-hour period, median daily personal endotoxin exposures ranged from 0.08 EU/m(3) (measured at a particulate matter size range Personal exposures were significantly (P personal activities might be better correlated with disease severity. Increases in personal endotoxin exposures were associated with decreased FEV(1) values and increased symptoms. These findings demonstrate the importance of using personal monitoring to both measure and correlate endotoxin exposure with asthma severity.

  19. Impact of school health education program on personal hygiene among school children of Lucknow district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Ruby; Sachan, Beena; Khan, Mohsin Ali; Srivastava, J P

    2017-01-01

    Personal hygiene plays a major role to promote healthy life. This study was performed to assess the current level of knowledge and practicing behavior in regard to hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing, and taking care of nail and hair. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 800 students of Lucknow district. All the students were interviewed with a structured questionnaire (pretest). A visual display of good and bad personal hygiene was shown on projector and explained the benefits of good personal hygiene behavior. Again, structured questionnaire was given (posttest). Most of the students belonged to the 10-12 years age group. The knowledge of the students regarding general body cleanliness was 87.5% in posttest as compared to 53.8% in pretest. Keeping the hair well-trimmed was considered as a part of personal hygiene by 38.0% of students. Knowledge about eating less food in diarrhea was positive in 80% of students. Only 12.5% of students accepted that diarrhea can kill children (pretest) while 100% (posttest) children were aware of this fact. Practice regarding change of clothes was on alternate day in 79.5% of students. Most of the students were found washing their hair once a week (72.5%) and 70% students were washing hands before meal. Overall trend of knowledge and practice about personal hygiene was in poor condition among students at the time of pretest. Posttest results were highly satisfactory.

  20. Impact of school health education program on personal hygiene among school children of Lucknow district

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    Ruby Khatoon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personal hygiene plays a major role to promote healthy life. This study was performed to assess the current level of knowledge and practicing behavior in regard to hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing, and taking care of nail and hair. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 800 students of Lucknow district. All the students were interviewed with a structured questionnaire (pretest. A visual display of good and bad personal hygiene was shown on projector and explained the benefits of good personal hygiene behavior. Again, structured questionnaire was given (posttest. Results: Most of the students belonged to the 10–12 years age group. The knowledge of the students regarding general body cleanliness was 87.5% in posttest as compared to 53.8% in pretest. Keeping the hair well-trimmed was considered as a part of personal hygiene by 38.0% of students. Knowledge about eating less food in diarrhea was positive in 80% of students. Only 12.5% of students accepted that diarrhea can kill children (pretest while 100% (posttest children were aware of this fact. Practice regarding change of clothes was on alternate day in 79.5% of students. Most of the students were found washing their hair once a week (72.5% and 70% students were washing hands before meal. Conclusion: Overall trend of knowledge and practice about personal hygiene was in poor condition among students at the time of pretest. Posttest results were highly satisfactory.

  1. Comparison of the effects of storytelling and creative drama methods on children's awareness about personal hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Hemmati, Soheila; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hassan; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining and improving the health situation of children requires them to become more aware about personal hygiene through proper education. Based on several studies, teachings provided through informal methods are fully understandable for children. Therefore, the goal of this study is to compare the effects of creative drama and storytelling education methods on increasing the awareness of children regarding personal hygiene. This is an applied study conducted using semiempirical method in two groups. The study population consisted of 85 children participating in 4 th center for Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults in Isfahan, 40 of which were randomly selected and placed in storytelling and creative drama groups with 20 members each. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire created by the researchers whose content validity was confirmed by health education experts. The gathered information were analyzed using both descriptive (average and standard deviation) and analytical (independent t -test and paired t -test) statistical methods. The findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between the awareness score of both groups before and after intervention. The average awareness score of storytelling group was increased from 50.69 to 86.83 while the average score of creative drama group was increased from 57.37 to 85.09. Furthermore, according to paired t -test results, there was no significant difference between average scores of storytelling and creative drama groups. The results of the current study showed that although both storytelling and creative drama methods are effective in increasing the awareness of children regarding personal hygiene, there is no significant difference between the two methods.

  2. Hearing children's voices? Including children's perspectives on their experiences of domestic violence in welfare reports prepared for the English courts in private family law proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2017-03-01

    This research examined Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (Cafcass) reports prepared for private family court proceedings in domestic violence cases in England. The research found that in cases where children's accounts identified them as victims of violence, these disclosures regularly disappeared from report recommendations. Particular discourses regarding 'child welfare' and 'contact' were identified, which routinely impacted on the ways in which children's voices were taken into account. Whilst culturally there has undoubtedly been an influential move towards including children's perspectives in decision-making that affects them, how these views are interpreted and represented is subject to adult 'gate-keeping' and powerful cultural and professional ideologies regarding 'child welfare' and 'post-separation family relationships'. This research found that the unrelenting influence of deeply embedded beliefs regarding the preservation or promotion of relationships with fathers continues to have the effect of marginalising issues of safeguarding, including children's voiced experiences of violence, in all but the most exceptional of cases. Rather, safeguarding concerns in respect of domestic violence and child abuse were persistently overshadowed by a dominant presumption of the overall benefits of contact with fathers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies in children: hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment. Importantly, proper diagnosis depends on the collection of blood and urine specimen before nonspecific therapy (intravenous hydration, electrolytes, glucose or calcium injection. At the same time, the taking of precise history and searching for pathognomonic physical findings should be performed. This review was described for fast diagnosis and proper management of hypoglycemic emergencies, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis.

  4. Research on Personality and Affective Dispositions of Gifted Children: The Israeli Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidner, Moshe; Shani-Zinovich, Inbal

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews empirical research related to the personality and affective characteristics of gifted students in the Israeli educational context. The educational backdrop for the research is described and group differences in personality, emotional intelligence, self-identity, and mental health are discussed. Conclusions include a number of…

  5. Food preferences, personality and parental rearing styles: analysis of factors influencing health of left-behind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sha; Yu, Lina; Gao, Wanlin; Xue, Wentong

    2016-11-01

    To understand the health status and problems of left-behind children (LBC) in rural China, those whose parents have moved to urban areas without them, and to focus on ways to improve their physical and mental health. The study examined 827 children between 7 and 15 years old, selected using stratified cluster random sampling from five towns in Xiji County of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Each child was classified as either LBC or non-LBC. Measures included age- and sex-specific height and body mass index (kg/m 2 ), a food preference questionnaire, the Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-My Memories of Upbringing (EMBU). Malnutrition rates for LBC and non-LBC were 14.83 % (70/472) and 7.04 % (25/355) (χ 2  = 11.86, p health status of LBC is problematic. Food preferences, personality type and parenting styles should be taken into account when measures are developed to improve the health of these children.

  6. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  7. Problematic Technology Use in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. Personality and behavioral problems associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Cristina; Romero, Estrella

    2017-03-01

    In parallel to the rapid growth of access to new technologies (NT) there has been an increase in the problematic use of the same, especially among children and adolescents. Although research in this field is increasing, the studies have mainly been developed in the community, and the characteristics associated with the problematic use of NT are unknown in samples that require clinical care. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between problematic use of video games (UPV) and Internet (UPI) and personality traits and behavior problems in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. The sample consists of 88 patients who were examined in the clinical psychology consultation in the Mental Health Unit for Children and Adolescents of the University Hospital of Santiago de Compostela. Data were obtained from self-reports and rating scales filled out by parents. 31.8% of the participants present UPI and 18.2%, UPV. The children and adolescents with UPNT have lower levels of Openness to experience, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness and higher levels of Emotional instability, global Impulsivity and Externalizing behavior problems, as well as Attention and Thought problems. UPNT is a problem that emerges as an important issue in clinical care for children and adolescents, so its study in child and youth care units is needed. Understanding the psychopathological profile of children and adolescents with UPNT will allow for the development of differential and more specific interventions.

  8. Schoolyard Shade and Sun Exposure: Assessment of Personal Monitoring During Children's Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; McKercher, Grant R; Naughton, Kylie; Lochbaum, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for the development of melanoma later in life. However, it is challenging to accurately determine personal outdoor exposure to UVR, specifically erythemally weighted UVR (UV E ry ), due to technological constraints, variable time-activity patterns, and the influence of outdoor environmental design. To address this challenge, this study utilized mobile and stationary techniques to examine the UV E ry exposures of 14 children in a schoolyard in Lubbock, TX, in spring 2016. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of artificial shade on personal UV E ry exposures and to assess full sun exposure ratios (ERs) within the same playground microenvironment. On average, personal wrist dosimeters worn during play in the sun measured 18% of the total onsite UV E ry measured by a stationary UV pyranometer. Shade was found to significantly reduce the personal UV E ry exposures by 55%, UVB 280-315 nm exposures by 91%, and the overall solar radiation by 84%. Substantial benefits can be garnered through focused design of children's recreational space to utilize shade-both natural and artificial-to reduce UVR exposures during play, and to extend safe outdoor stays. Finally, although the wrist is a practical location for a dosimeter, it often underestimates full exposures, particularly during physical activity. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. Relationships between Adaptive Behaviours, Personal Factors, and Participation of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Hazel; Shiel, Agnes; Law, Mary; O'Donovan, Donough J; Segurado, Ricardo; Anaby, Dana

    2017-12-19

    To examine the extent to which personal factors (age, socioeconomic grouping, and preterm birth) and adaptive behaviour explain the participation patterns of young children. 65 Children 2-5 years old with and without a history of preterm birth and no physical or intellectual disability were selected by convenience sampling from Galway University Hospital, Ireland. Interviews with parents were conducted using the Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II) and the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP). Linear regression models were used to identify associations between the ABAS-II scores, personal factors, and APCP scores for intensity and diversity of participation. Adaptive behaviour explained 21% of variance in intensity of play, 18% in intensity of Skill Development, 7% in intensity of Active Physical Recreation, and 6% in intensity of Social Activities controlling for age, preterm birth, and socioeconomic grouping. Age explained between 1% and 11% of variance in intensity of participation scores. Adapted behaviour (13%), Age (17%), and socioeconomic grouping (5%) explained a significant percentage of variance in diversity of participation controlling for the other variables.  Adaptive behaviour had a unique contribution to children's intensity and diversity of participation, suggesting its importance.

  10. Study of anxiety symptoms in drawing-a-person test of Khorramabad 10 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Ebrahimi Moghaddam

    2014-03-01

    Results: Significant signs (p>0.05 in test group children (anxious were: small eyes, very bold graphic lines, parallel lines shaded and plaid, scrawl and repeated cleaning - abnormal physical state, to use black color, anxious face of dummy, small head, long legs, big feet, horizontal and inflexible arms and closed hands. Also signs of anxiety were significant based on sex in drawing-a-person test. Conclusion: According to findings of the present research and importance of anxiety disorders recognition in childhood and its impact on life time, it is suggested to pay more attention to these signs of children's drawings. Through timely diagnosis of children with anxiety disorders, future impacts of anxiety can be prevented.

  11. Personal and Professional Emotional Characteristics of Early Childhood Teachers and Their Proneness to Communicate with Parents and Colleagues about Children's Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea; Toselli, Monica; Denham, Susanne A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Early childhood teachers represent important socializers of children's emotions providing professional practices, such as communication about children's emotions, influencing children's development. According to an ecological framework, early childhood teachers' emotional practices are guided by both their personal and professional…

  12. Research on Relationship Among Internet-Addiction, Personality Traits and Mental Health of Urban Left-Behind Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Se, Jun; Zhang, Jingfu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this research, we attempted at exploring the relationships among urban left-behind children’s internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. Methods: In the form of three relevant questionnaires (Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Children’s Edition in Chinese and Mental Health Test), 796 urban left-behind children in China were investigated, concerning internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. Results: (1) The internet-addiction rate of urban left-behind children in China reached10.8%—a relatively high figure, with the rate among males higher than that among females. In terms of internet-addition salience, the figure of urban left-behind children was obviously higher than that of non-left-behind children. (2) In China, the personality deviation rate of the overall left-behind children was 15.36%; while the personality deviation rate of the internet-addicted urban left-behind children was 38.88%, a figure prominently higher than that of the non-addicted urban left-behind children group, with the rate among females higher than that among males. (3) The mental health problem rate of the overall urban left-behind children in China was 8.43%; while the rate of the internet-addicted urban left-behind children was 27.77%, a figure significantly higher than that of the non-addicted urban left-behind children. (4) There were significant relationships among internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. The total score of internet-addiction and its related dimensions can serve as indicators of personality neuroticism, psychoticism and the total scores of mental health. PMID:25946911

  13. Environmental and Personal Factors Related to Asthma Severity among Children: Hospital Based Study, Egypt

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    Omaima Ibrahim AboElkheir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood asthma is a complex disorder in which many environmental and personal factors play a role. However, the contribution of these factors to asthma severity is poorly understood. This study aims to determine the relationship between environmental exposures, personal factors and asthma severity among asthmatic children. Methods: This cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted on 180 asthmatic children; they were divided into mild, moderate and severe asthma according to forced expiratory volume in first second. Environmental factors (indoor and outdoor, food allergy, history of other allergic diseases, family history of allergic disorders, time trend of attacks as well as asthma outcome were reported. Results: Children with severe asthma were younger than those with mild or moderate asthma. Severe asthma was significantly linked to family history of allergy, presence of co-morbid allergic diseases, fish, egg and milk allergy, as well as exposure to passive smoking (73.7% and poor housing conditions. Also, it was significantly linked to presence of unauthorized factories in residential area (31.6 %, p=0.001. As well as, contact with pets (42.1%. Children with severe asthma had more limitations of physical activities (73.7%, missed school days (81.5%, with poor school performance (p=0.04 than those with mild moderate or asthma. Conclusion: Severe asthma was linked to female gender and younger age, co-morbid allergic diseases, family history of atopy and food allergy. It was higher among children residing in places with unauthorized factories and living in substandard housing condition. Children with severe asthma had poor asthma outcome.

  14. Use of Silver Diamine Fluoride for Dental Caries Management in Children and Adolescents, Including Those with Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Yasmi O; Marghalani, Abdullah A; Ureles, Steven D; Wright, John Timothy; Sulyanto, Rosalyn; Divaris, Kimon; Fontana, Margherita; Graham, Laurel

    2017-09-15

    This manuscript presents evidence-based guidance on the use of 38 percent silver diamine fluoride (SDF) for dental caries management in children and adolescents, including those with special health care needs. A guideline workgroup formed by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry developed guidance and an evidence-based recommendation regarding the application of 38 percent SDF to arrest cavitated caries lesions in primary teeth. The basis of the guideline's recommendation is evidence from an existing systematic review "Clinical trials of silver diamine fluoride in arresting caries among children: A systematic review." (JDR Clin Transl Res 2016;1[3]:201-10). A systematic search was conducted in PubMed®/MEDLINE, Embase®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and gray literature databases to identify randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews reporting on the effect of silver diamine fluoride and address peripheral issues such as adverse effects and cost. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of the evidence and the evidence-to-decision framework was employed to formulate a recommendation. The panel made a conditional recommendation regarding the use of 38 percent SDF for the arrest of cavitated caries lesions in primary teeth as part of a comprehensive caries management program. After taking into consideration the low cost of the treatment and the disease burden of caries, panel members were confident that the benefits of SDF application in the target populations outweigh its possible undesirable effects. Per GRADE, this is a conditional recommendation based on low-quality evidence. Conclusions and practical implications: The guideline intends to inform the clinical practices involving the application of 38 percent SDF to enhance dental caries management outcomes in children and adolescents, including those with special health care needs. These recommended

  15. [A study of temperament and personality in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvard, M; Sigel, L; Laurent, A

    2012-10-01

    The study of children's personality and its development has generated several theoretical models in psychology. In a developmental approach, Buss and Plomin elaborated a genetic model of temperament that involves four dimensions: emotionality (refers to the negative quality of the emotion and the intensity of the emotional reactions), activity (intensity and frequency of a person's energy output in motor movements and speech), sociability (search for social relationships and preference for activities with others) and shyness (behavioural inhibition and feelings of distress when in interaction with strangers). The psychobiological approach postulates a biological model of personality. Thus, in Gray's first model, there are two brain systems that explain behaviours: the Bbehavioural Activation System (BAS) related to impulsivity and the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) linked to anxiety. Finally, dispositional theories seek to identify functional units of the normal personality from the factorial approach. Accordingly, Barbaranelli et al. build a questionnaire, the big five questionnaire for children (BFQ-C), which is intended to estimate the emergence of five fundamental dimensions (energy/extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional instability and intellect/openness) in children from 8 to 18 years. The clinical study we will present concerns the personality of children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). STUDY 1: In a first study, we compared the ratings of 33 children with ADHD regarding their personality, as well as the ratings of their parents, over a one-year interval. The EAS questionnaire tapping into the genetic model put forth by Buss and Plomin evaluates four dimensions: emotionality, activity, sociability and shyness. The BIS/BAS scales for children correspond to Gray's first psychobiological model of personality. The BIS scale is unidimensional and the BAS scale is divided into three subscales (drive, fun

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP OF PERSONAL MATURITY OF THE ADOPTIVE PARENTS AND THE PROCESS OF SOCIALIZATIONAND IDENTIFICATION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

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    A N Pronina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topic of the development of children from orphanage in a foster home, showing the importance of personal maturity of the adoptive parents. The authors present the results of a study showing that there is a relationship between the individual criteria of personal maturity of the adoptive parents and the process of socialization and individualization of the children from orphanage.

  17. Socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors affecting children's exposure to VOCs in urban areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik

    2010-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p factors simultaneously, socioeconomic factors such as region had a greater effect on children's VOC exposures than indoor activities. From this study, we can suggest that socioeconomic factors as well as environmental factors should be considered when formulating environmental policy to

  18. Long-Term Developmental Changes in Children's Lower-Order Big Five Personality Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta; De Pauw, Sarah; van den Akker, Alithe; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    This study examined long-term developmental changes in mother-rated lower-order facets of children's Big Five dimensions. Two independent community samples covering early childhood (2-4.5 years; N = 365, 39% girls) and middle childhood to the end of middle adolescence (6-17 years; N = 579, 50% girls) were used. All children had the Belgian nationality. Developmental changes were examined using cohort-sequential latent growth modeling on the 18 facets of the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children. In early childhood, changes were mostly similar across child gender. Between 2 and 4.5 years, several facets showed mean-level stability; others changed in the direction of less Extraversion and Emotional Stability, and more Benevolence and Imagination. The lower-order facets of Conscientiousness showed opposite changes. Gender differences became more apparent from middle childhood onward for facets of all dimensions except Imagination, for which no gender differences were found. Between 6 and 17 years, same-dimension facets showed different shapes of growth. Facets that changed linearly changed mostly in the direction of less Extraversion, Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Imagination. Changes in facets for which nonlinear growth was found generally moved in direction or magnitude during developmental transitions. This study provides comprehensive, fine-grained knowledge about personality development during the first two decades of life. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Medicaid Personal Care Services for Children with Intellectual Disabilities: What Assistance Is Provided? When Is Assistance Provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Timothy R.; Patnaik, Ashweeta; Naiser, Emily; Fournier, Constance J.; McMaughan, Darcy K.; Dyer, James A.; Phillips, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the nature and timing of services provided to children with an intellectual disability (ID) identified by a new comprehensive assessment and care planning tool used to evaluate children's needs for Medicaid Personal Care Services (PCS) in Texas. The new assessment procedure resulted from a legal settlement with the advocacy community.…

  20. Relations between behavioral inhibition, big five personality factors, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical and clinically anxious children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Vreeke (Leonie); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form,

  1. Kid's Privacy on the Internet : Collecting Children's Personal Data on the Internet and the Protection of Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwt, J.

    2002-01-01

    The children of today are growing up with the Internet. At the same time, there is a lot of uncertainty and ignorance about collecting personal data from children on the Internet, for example for direct marketing purposes. There is also much uncertainty and ignorance about the applicability of data

  2. Spiritual dominance of the Sakha people traditional belief in the personality development of children

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    Mariia Baisheva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the article stems from the need to comprehend the spiritual dominance of the traditional belief of the Sakha people. The essential idea of the article is to consider the religious worldview of the Sakha people as a source of spiritual values. The purpose of the article is to justify the spiritual potential of the Sakha people in the personality development of their children. The scientific novelty of the article is to provide the most comprehensive picture of the existing views of the researchers on the issue of the beliefs of the Sakha people and the rationale for it as a source of the self-organizing system of personal spiritual formation. Research methods: Dialectic and Indigenous Methodology. The main part of the article is the concept of "Ichi" (spirits and nine Tusculums (programmes of the supreme Gods as sources of human spirituality. The findings of the study are reflected in the conclusion.

  3. The Draw-A-Person Test: an indicator of children's cognitive and socioemotional adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, J; de Goede, M; Aleva, A; van Rijswijk, P

    2005-03-01

    The authors examined aspects of reliability and validity of the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person Test (DAP; D. B. Harris, 1963). The participants were 115 seven- to nine-year-old students attending regular or special education schools. Three judges, with a modest degree of training similar to that found among practicing clinicians, rated the students' human figure drawings on developmental and personality variables. The authors found that counting details and determining developmental level in the DAP test could be carried out reliably by judges with limited experience. However, the reliability of judgments of children's social and emotional development and personality was insufficient. Older students and students attending regular schools received significantly higher scores than did younger students or students attending special education schools. The authors found that the success of the DAP test as an indicator of cognitive level, socioemotional development, and personality is limited when global judgments are used. The authors concluded that more specific, reliable, valid, and useful scoring systems are needed for the DAP test.

  4. Coercive and prosocial fathering, antisocial personality, and growth in children's postdivorce noncompliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, David Scott

    2010-01-01

    To better understand quantity and quality of divorced father contact, a weighted county sample of 230 divorced fathers with a child aged 4-11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance. Eighteen-month latent growth models obtained significant individual differences in levels of noncompliance and growth rates. ASP significantly moderated beneficial impact of fathers' monthly contact. Fathers' observed parenting practices significantly predicted noncompliance levels but not growth. Parenting did not account for the effect of Contact x ASP, suggesting both environmental and potentially genetic influences on child adjustment. Findings were robust across boys and girls and age levels. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed.

  5. Cognitive person variables in the delay of gratification of older children at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M L; Mischel, W; Shoda, Y

    1989-08-01

    The components of self-regulation were analyzed, extending the self-imposed delay of gratification paradigm to older children with social adjustment problems. Delay behavior was related to a network of conceptually relevant cognitive person variables, consisting of attention deployment strategies during delay, knowledge of delay rules, and intelligence. A positive relationship was demonstrated between concurrent indexes of intelligence, attention deployment, and actual delay time. Moreover, attention deployment, measured as an individual differences variable during the delay process, had a direct, positive effect on delay behavior. Specifically, as the duration of delay and the frustration of the situation increased, children who spent a higher proportion of the time distracting themselves from the tempting elements of the delay situation were able to delay longer. The effect of attention deployment on delay behavior was significant even when age, intelligence, and delay rule knowledge were controlled. Likewise, delay rule knowledge significantly predicted delay time, even when age, attention deployment, and intelligence were controlled.

  6. Montessori-Based Activities as a Trans-Generational Interface for Persons with Dementia and Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J; Lee, Michelle M

    2011-12-12

    Montessori-based activities for persons with dementia have been used to successfully provide opportunities for programming between older adults and preschool children in shared site. intergenerational care programs. Such intergenerational programming allows older adults with dementia to fulfill roles of teacher or mentor to younger children or as collaborative workmates for persons with more advanced dementia while providing children with positive one-on-one interactions with older adults. We review several studies using this approach, describe characteristics of the programs, participants and results obtained and provide recommendations for those interested in extending this line of work.

  7. Montessori-Based Activities as a Trans-Generational Interface for Persons with Dementia and Preschool Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J.; Lee, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Montessori-based activities for persons with dementia have been used to successfully provide opportunities for programming between older adults and preschool children in shared site. intergenerational care programs. Such intergenerational programming allows older adults with dementia to fulfill roles of teacher or mentor to younger children or as collaborative workmates for persons with more advanced dementia while providing children with positive one-on-one interactions with older adults. We review several studies using this approach, describe characteristics of the programs, participants and results obtained and provide recommendations for those interested in extending this line of work. PMID:22423215

  8. Cognitive and personality peculiarities in children sluggish cognitive tempo and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agris A.R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the review of data obtained by foreign investigators and concerning a set of symptoms united by the umbrella term “sluggish cognitive tempo” (SCT. At present this complex of symptoms is regarded as typical for children with either attention deficit without hyperactivity or as a subtype of attention deficit syndrome. ChildrenwithSCT often look inhibited, they tend to plunge into their own flow of thoughts and imaginations during the work, feel drowsiness in day time.Accordingtotheempiricaldata the decrease in information processing speed, sustained attention and selective attention are typical for this category of children. A number of studies also indicatein them the deficit of visual information processing and a lack of some components regulating the executive function. A number of studies disclose the expressed inclination of children with SCT to anxiety and depressive disorders as well as to poor social contacts and maladaptation. There exists a hypothesisthat a significant deficit of motivation is typical for children with this kind of impairment. Yet, the diagnostic status of this symptom group as well as itsneuro-cognitive and emotion-personality peculiarities haven’t been found so far and need further investigating.

  9. Compliance with an Ordinance Requiring the Use of Personal Flotation Devices by Children in Public Waterways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garen J. Wintemute

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For children ages 1-14, 21.6% of drowning cases involve swimming, wading, orplaying in natural bodies of water, such as rivers and lakes. Personal flotation devices (PFDs arebelieved to be an effective prevention measure. We measure compliance with city and countyordinances, publicized but not actively enforced, requiring that PFDs be worn by children accessingpublic bodies of water in Sacramento County, California.Methods: During June-August 2010, volunteers conducted 79 observation sessions at threepopular local river beaches where PFDs were available for use at no cost. They recorded personalcharacteristics and PFD use for 1,727 children in or very near the water and believed to be 0-13years of age (the age covered by the ordinances. We used logistic regression to quantify differencesin use by subject characteristics and study site.Results: The prevalence of PFD use was 29.9% overall, with large and significant differencesby age: < 1, 55.6%; 1-4, 37.6%; 5-10, 29.4%; 10-13, 14.6%; P < 0.0001. Usage did not varysignificantly by sex or race/ethnicity, and was somewhat higher at one study site (33.1% than at theothers (25.9% and 27.3%, P = 0.009.Conclusion: The combination of a statutory requirement and a cost-elimination strategy wasassociated with moderate rates of PFD use that were highest among young children.

  10. Personality Development Within a Generational Context: Life Course Outcomes of Shy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Tang, Alva; Day, Kimberly L; Lahat, Ayelet; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-08-01

    Studies have shown that shy children born in the 1920s and 1950s had delayed marriage and parenthood, less stable careers, and lower occupational attainment as adults than other children. Do these effects still hold true? We examined demographic and social outcomes of children born between 1977 and 1982 in a prospective longitudinal study. We assessed shyness in childhood (age 8), adolescence (age 12-16), young adulthood (age 22-26), and adulthood (age 30-35), and derived three shyness trajectories (i.e., decreasing, increasing, and low-stable). Social and demographic outcomes for shy children who outgrew their shyness (i.e., decreasing trajectory) were indistinguishable from those who were consistently low on shyness measures. However, a shyness trajectory beginning in adolescence and increasing to adulthood was associated with poorer outcomes, similar to previous studies. These findings highlight the importance of multiple assessments in long-term longitudinal studies and the need to consider personality development within a generational context.

  11. Validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimating fat-free mass in children including overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Megumi; Midorikawa, Taishi; Hikihara, Yuki; Masuo, Yoshihisa; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Torii, Suguru; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance (BI) analysis for predicting the fat-free masses (FFMs) of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals. The FFM and impedance (Z) values of arms, trunk, legs, and whole body were determined using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and segmental BI analyses, respectively, in 149 boys and girls aged 6 to 12 years, who were divided into model-development (n = 74), cross-validation (n = 35), and overweight (n = 40) groups. Simple regression analysis was applied to (length) 2 /Z (BI index) for each of the whole-body and 3 segments to develop the prediction equations of the measured FFM of the related body part. In the model-development group, the BI index of each of the 3 segments and whole body was significantly correlated to the measured FFM (R 2 = 0.867-0.932, standard error of estimation = 0.18-1.44 kg (5.9%-8.7%)). There was no significant difference between the measured and predicted FFM values without systematic error. The application of each equation derived in the model-development group to the cross-validation and overweight groups did not produce significant differences between the measured and predicted FFM values and systematic errors, with an exception that the arm FFM in the overweight group was overestimated. Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis is useful for predicting the FFM of each of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals, although the application for estimating arm FFM in overweight individuals requires a certain modification.

  12. Strategies that facilitate participation in family activities of children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: parents' and personal assistants' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin; Imms, Christine; Wilder, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Participation throughout one's life plays a significant role for development and emotional well-being. For this reason, there is a need to identify ways to facilitate participation in family activities for children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The study design was qualitative and explorative, based on semi structured interviews with 11 parents and 9 personal assistants of children with PIMD. The interviews revealed participation-facilitating strategies relating to the children's/adolescent's proximal environment, such as "Availability and acceptability of the activity", "Good knowledge about the child" and a "A positive attitude of people close to the child", as well as strategies related to the children/adolescents themselves: "Sense of belonging", "Possible for the child/adolescent to understand", "Opportunities to influence" and "Feeling of being needed". Children and adolescents with PIMD are dependent on support obtained through their environment. The identified strategies, individually adapted through awareness and knowledge by the parents and the personal assistants, provide important evidence to assist our understanding in gaining understanding about how to improve participation in family activities of children and adolescents with PIMD. Participation-facilitating strategies related to the child/adolescent and his or her proximal environments are identified to improve participation in children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Examples of strategies for the child's/adolescents' proximal environment include "good knowledge about the child/adolescent", and, for the child/adolescent, include creating "sense of belonging" and "opportunities to influence". Identifying and making these strategies explicit may assist in enhancing the participation of children and adolescents with PIMD in family activities. People in the child's/adolescent's proximal environment need to set

  13. The informative value of motor, mental, and moral qualities in the personality structure of preschool children aged 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangelova N.E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was to determine the presence or usefulness of the main components of the relationship of physical and psycho-physiological state in the personality structure of children of preschool age. The experiment involved 107 children aged 4 years (54 male, 53 female. Factor analysis of the structure of the motor system, the intellectual and moral sphere of children. Found that it is determined six orthogonal factors. The results give reason to believe that the development of the physical, intellectual and moral sphere of children of this age is complex. The interpretation of these data in the pedagogical aspect suggests that pre-school children are becoming a person under the influence of biological and psychological factors. Their activation is possible in the process of physical education.

  14. Personalized Treatment of Mothers With ADHD and Their Young At-Risk Children: A SMART Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Wang, Christine H; Strickland, Jennifer; Almirall, Daniel; Stein, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Young children of mothers with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for ADHD by virtue of genetics and environmental factors. Moreover, parent ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting and poor child behavioral treatment response. Thus, a combined approach consisting of behavioral parent training (BPT) and maternal stimulant medication (MSM) may be needed to effectively treat ADHD within families. However, providing combined BPT+MSM initially to all families may be unnecessarily burdensome because not all families likely need combined treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for these multiplex families in order to yield benefits to both the parent and child, thereby impacting the course of child ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms. This article presents our rationale for, design of, and preliminary experiences (based on 26 participants) with an ongoing pilot Sequential Multiple Assessment Randomized Trial (SMART) designed to answer questions regarding the feasibility and acceptability of study protocols and interventions. This article also describes how the subsequent full-scale SMART might change based on what is learned in the SMART pilot and illustrates how the full-scale SMART could be used to inform clinical decision making about how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for complex children and families in which a parent has ADHD.

  15. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting.This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites.After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99.Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  16. Paediatric International Nursing Study: using person-centred key performance indicators to benchmark children's services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCance, Tanya; Wilson, Val; Kornman, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the Paediatric International Nursing Study was to explore the utility of key performance indicators in developing person-centred practice across a range of services provided to sick children. The objective addressed in this paper was evaluating the use of these indicators to benchmark services internationally. This study builds on primary research, which produced indicators that were considered novel both in terms of their positive orientation and use in generating data that privileges the patient voice. This study extends this research through wider testing on an international platform within paediatrics. The overall methodological approach was a realistic evaluation used to evaluate the implementation of the key performance indicators, which combined an integrated development and evaluation methodology. The study involved children's wards/hospitals in Australia (six sites across three states) and Europe (seven sites across four countries). Qualitative and quantitative methods were used during the implementation process, however, this paper reports the quantitative data only, which used survey, observations and documentary review. The findings demonstrate the quality of care being delivered to children and their families across different international sites. The benchmarking does, however, highlight some differences between paediatric and general hospitals, and between the different key performance indicators across all the sites. The findings support the use of the key performance indicators as a novel method to benchmark services internationally. Whilst the data collected across 20 paediatric sites suggest services are more similar than different, benchmarking illuminates variations that encourage a critical dialogue about what works and why. The transferability of the key performance indicators and measurement framework across different settings has significant implications for practice. The findings offer an approach to benchmarking and celebrating

  17. Personal, social, and environmental factors associated with lifejacket wear in adults and children: A systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Peden

    Full Text Available Drowning claims 7% of the global burden of injury-related deaths. Lifejackets are routinely recommended as a drowning prevention strategy; however, a review of related factors regarding lifejacket wear has not previously been investigated.This systematic review examined literature published from inception to December 2016 in English and German languages. The personal, social, and environmental factors associated with lifejacket wear among adults and children were investigated, a quantitative evaluation of the results undertaken, and gaps in the literature identified.Twenty studies, with sample sizes of studies ranging between 20 and 482,331, were identified. Fifty-five percent were cross-sectional studies. All studies were scored IV or V on the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC grading system indicating mostly descriptive and cross-sectional levels of evidence. Factors associated with increased wear included age (mostly children, gender (mostly female, boat type (non-motorised, boat size (small boats, role modelling (children influenced by adult lifejacket wear, and activity (water-skiing, fishing. Factors not associated or inconsistent with lifejacket wear included education, household income, ethnicity, boating ability, confidence in lifejackets, waterway type, and weather and water conditions. Factors associated with reduced lifejacket wear included adults, males, discomfort, cost and accessibility, consumption of alcohol, and swimming ability. Three studies evaluated the impact of interventions.This review identified factors associated with both increased and decreased lifejacket wear. Future research should address the motivational factors associated with individuals' decisions to wear or not wear lifejackets. This, combined with further research on the evaluation of interventions designed to increase lifejacket wear, will enhance the evidence base to support future drowning prevention interventions.

  18. How and why children change in aggression and delinquency from childhood to adolescence: moderation of overreactive parenting by child personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, A D; Prinzie, P; Deković, M

    2010-06-01

    This study examines how and why children change in aggression and delinquency from age 6 to 15 years. Besides assessing the shape of the developmental trajectories of aggression and delinquency, we investigated whether child personality characteristics, parenting, and interactions between these two predict the development of aggression/delinquency. Employing a cohort-sequential design, data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality, and Development were used. The sample consisted of 586 children aged 6-9 years at the first assessment, and their parents. Mothers, fathers, and teachers rated child personality at Time 1 using the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children, and mothers and fathers rated externalizing behaviors at the first, second, and third assessment using the Child Behavior Checklist. Parents rated their own overreactive parenting at Time 1 with the Parenting Scale. Aggression and delinquency showed differential, though interrelated development. Less extraverted, benevolent and conscientious children, and more imaginative children were more susceptible to overreactivity. The model replicated across fathers' overreactivity. Parents of children who are less extraverted, benevolent and conscientious, or more imaginative, are in particular need of being supported in developing and maintaining effective disciplinary techniques.

  19. Is God just a big person? Children's conceptions of God across cultures and religious traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhof, Melanie A; Johnson, Carl N

    2017-03-01

    demonstrated that around the same age that children begin differentiating God's mind from human minds, they also differentiate between the two in terms of life-cycle attributes, attributing immortality to God, but not to humans. What does this study add? The present research contributes to the field by examining the God concepts of children from different religious backgrounds. These religious backgrounds have theologies with God concepts that range from physically concrete (Latter-Day Saints or Mormonism) to highly abstract (Islam). We also include Christian samples for comparison. The present research examines children's attributions to different supernatural agents including God, but also a ghost and an angel. The present studies look at children's attribution of not only supernatural mental attributions, but also the supernatural physical attributions of immateriality and omnipresence that have been understudied. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Public, private and personal: qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Gareth; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Hudson, Sheena; Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Lanumata, Tolotea

    2010-12-31

    Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to children from secondhand smoke and the

  1. Exploring the effects of age and delay on children's person identifications: verbal descriptions, lineup performance, and the influence of wildcards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorge, Aspasia; Zajac, Rachel

    2011-05-01

    We explored the effects of age and retention interval on several measures of children's person identification ability: verbal descriptions, lineup performance, and the success of a 'wildcard'--a photo of a silhouetted figure with a large question mark superimposed--in reducing children's tendency to choose from target-absent lineups. Children aged 5-7 years (N= 101) and 8-11 years (N= 109) were briefly exposed to an experimental confederate during a staged event. Either 1-2 days or 2 weeks later, children described the confederate and were then presented with either a target-present or -absent lineup. Within each group, approximately half of the children were presented with a wildcard and half were not. Target-present lineup performance improved as age increased. Compared to control children, children in the wildcard condition were more likely to correctly reject the target-absent lineup, and less likely to identify the innocent suspect. The wildcard did not influence children's target-present lineup accuracy, nor did delay exert an influence on any of our measures of lineup performance. These findings extend our knowledge of children's person identifications, as well as providing further support for the use of wildcards in photographic lineups. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  3. iStimulation: Apple iPad Use with Children Who Are Visually Impaired, Including Those with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaña, Laura V.; Ouimet, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Since its creation in the early 1980s, Light Box, a product developed by the American Printing House for the Blind (APH) that is designed for working on functional vision tasks with children who have visual impairments or multiple disabilities, has been an effective tool to help teach children with visual impairments to locate and track items…

  4. The Microbiome and Metabolome of Preterm Infant Stool Are Personalized and Not Driven by Health Outcomes, Including Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Late-Onset Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandro, Stephen; Osborne, Stephanie; Enriquez, Claudia; Bixby, Christine; Arrieta, Antonio; Whiteson, Katrine

    2018-06-27

    The assembly and development of the gut microbiome in infants have important consequences for immediate and long-term health. Preterm infants represent an abnormal case for bacterial colonization because of early exposure to bacteria and frequent use of antibiotics. To better understand the assembly of the gut microbiota in preterm infants, fecal samples were collected from 32 very low birth weight preterm infants over the first 6 weeks of life. Infant health outcomes included health, late-onset sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We characterized bacterial compositions by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomes by untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Preterm infant fecal samples lacked beneficial Bifidobacterium spp. and were dominated by Enterobacteriaceae , Enterococcus , and Staphylococcus organisms due to nearly uniform antibiotic administration. Most of the variance between the microbial community compositions could be attributed to the baby from which the sample derived (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA] R 2 = 0.48, P PERMANOVA R 2 = 0.43, P < 0.001) and weakly associated with bacterial composition (Mantel statistic r = 0.23 ± 0.05, P < 0.05). No measured metabolites were found to be associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, or a healthy outcome. Overall, preterm infant gut microbial communities were personalized and reflected antibiotic usage. IMPORTANCE Preterm infants face health problems likely related to microbial exposures, including sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the role of the gut microbiome in preterm infant health is poorly understood. Microbial colonization differs from that of healthy term babies because it occurs in the NICU and is often perturbed by antibiotics. We measured bacterial compositions and metabolomic profiles of 77 fecal samples from 32 preterm infants to investigate the differences between microbiomes in health and disease. Rather than finding

  5. Personal Safety for Children: A Guide for Parents = Una guia para los padres sobre la seguridad personal de los ninos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Noting that parents and teachers have the responsibility of safeguarding children and teaching them the skills they need to be safe, this pamphlet, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to help parents talk to their children about how to protect themselves against abduction and exploitation. The pamphlet is organized into six sections.…

  6. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  7. The impact of perceived discrimination on personality among Chinese migrant children: The moderating role of parental support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaoping; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Hou, Ke

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that perceived discrimination has harmful effects on migrant children's physical, mental and behavioral health. However, little is known as to whether these harmful effects cumulate to impact on migrant children's personalities. This study examines the effect of perceived discrimination on personality, as well as the moderating role of parental support in the discrimination-personality linkage. A purposeful convenience sample of 215 migrant children in Beijing, China, completed a standardized questionnaire. Migrant children experienced a moderate level of perceived discrimination, with Form 8 students experiencing greater discrimination than lower grades and those with lower family incomes also experiencing greater discrimination than those with higher family incomes. Perceived discrimination significantly predicted neuroticism; parental support significantly predicted extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, but the moderating effect of parental support was only marginally significant for the relation between discrimination and conscientiousness. This study underlines the need for researchers and policy makers to pay more attention to the impact of perceived discrimination on migrant children's personality development.

  8. Nobody asked me how I felt: experiences of adult children of persons with young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Maria Lage; Thorsen, Kirsten; Engedal, Knut; Haugen, Per Kristian; Johannessen, Aud

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies of young persons (old) with dementia, and the situation of their children has been a neglected research field. The aim is explore how adult children of a parent with young-onset dementia have experienced the development of their parents' dementia and what needs they have for assistance. Qualitative interviews with 14 informants (aged 20-37 years; 12 daughters, 2 sons) during 2011 were conducted and analyzed thematically. The informants experienced great burdens and felt neglected during the development of their parents' dementia, both by their family and by health and social services. They emphasized a need to be seen as individuals, with their experiences, feelings, and personal needs for assistance. The stresses experienced during the development of parental dementia seemed to increase conflicts in the family. There were variations in reactions between children, depending on age, gender, family structure and relationships, responsibilities, personal relations with both parents, and whether there was an adult primary caregiver. The length of time living together with the parent with dementia seemed to increase the stress and burden to the children. They expressed a great need for information and support. The findings strengthen the notion of the need for family-oriented support, combined with person-centered care for the children according to their needs. In addition, group meetings and contact with other young people in the same stage of life could be of interest for some.

  9. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  10. Providing mentoring for orphans and vulnerable children in internally displaced person camps: The case of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan H. Chiroma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC has become central to the response of many organisations (UN, UNHCR, AONN, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, etc. today. The number of OVC throughout northern Nigeria is growing as a result of the Boko Haram pandemic. Mostly, this is caused by the death of parents who have been killed by the insurgents. It has been estimated that by 2015, 200 000 children under the age of 18 had been orphaned by the Boko Haram insurgents. As the number of OVC is growing, it is becoming more and more difficult for their communities to address all their needs, including their need for positive role models and mentors. This article discusses the role that mentoring can play in the development of OVC affected by violence in northern Nigeria, specifically those in internally displaced person (IDP camps. This article argued that one approach to improve the holistic care of OVC in IDP camps in northern Nigeria is through the use of mentors.

  11. Providing mentoring for orphans and vulnerable children in internally displaced person camps: The case of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan H. Chiroma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC has become central to the response of many organisations (UN, UNHCR, AONN, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, etc. today. The number of OVC throughout northern Nigeria is growing as a result of the Boko Haram pandemic. Mostly, this is caused by the death of parents who have been killed by the insurgents. It has been estimated that by 2015, 200 000 children under the age of 18 had been orphaned by the Boko Haram insurgents. As the number of OVC is growing, it is becoming more and more difficult for their communities to address all their needs, including their need for positive role models and mentors. This article discusses the role that mentoring can play in the development of OVC affected by violence in northern Nigeria, specifically those in internally displaced person (IDP camps. This article argued that one approach to improve the holistic care of OVC in IDP camps in northern Nigeria is through the use of mentors.

  12. Use Patterns of Leave-on Personal Care Products among Swiss-German Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Hungerbühler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to model exposure to ingredients contained in personal care products (PCPs and assess their potential risks to human health, access to reliable PCP use data, including co-use patterns, is essential. A postal questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the use patterns of eight leave-on PCP categories among the German-speaking population of Switzerland (N = 1,196; ages 0–97 years, providing for the first time in Europe PCP use data for children <12 years of age. The majority of respondents (99% reported having used at least one of the investigated PCP categories in the past year. Co-use of two or more PCP categories at the same time was common and more complex amongst adults. Regular use of face cream and body lotion was very high in the youngest group of children aged 0–4 years (more than 79% respondents who may be more vulnerable to certain adverse effects of some PCP ingredients. A comparison with previously collected information on PCP use patterns in Germany and the Netherlands indicates differences in PCP use patterns among European consumers and suggests that surrogate PCP use data from other countries must be used with caution. This work extends the existing knowledge of PCP use patterns and will be useful for new exposure assessments for ingredients contained in PCPs used by the young consumers.

  13. Self-Reported Health Experiences of Children Living with Congenital Heart Defects: Including Patient-Reported Outcomes in a National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel Louise; Tadic, Valerija; Hogan, Ailbhe; Bull, Catherine; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta; Dezateux, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Understanding children's views about living with congenital heart defects (CHDs) is fundamental to supporting their successful participation in daily life, school and peer relationships. As an adjunct to a health and quality of life outcomes questionnaire, we asked school-age children who survived infant heart procedures to describe their experiences of living with CHDs. In a UK-wide cohort study, children aged 10 to 14 years with CHDs self-completed postal questionnaires that included an open question about having a 'heart problem'. We compared the characteristics of children with more and less severe cardiac diagnoses and, through collaborative inductive content analysis, investigated the subjective experiences and coping strategies described by children in both clinical severity groups. Text and/or drawings were returned by 436 children (246 boys [56%], mean age 12.1 years [SD 1.0; range 10-14]); 313 had less severe (LS) and 123 more severe (MS) cardiac diagnoses. At the most recent hospital visit, a higher proportion of the MS group were underweight (more than two standard deviations below the mean for age) or cyanosed (underweight: MS 20.0%, LS 9.9%; cyanosed: MS 26.2%, LS 3.5%). Children in the MS group described concerns about social isolation and feeling 'different', whereas children with less severe diagnoses often characterised their CHD as 'not a big thing'. Some coping strategies were common to both severity groups, including managing health information to avoid social exclusion, however only children in the LS group considered their CHD 'in the past' or experienced a sense of survivorship. Children's reported experiences were not dependent on their cardiac diagnosis, although there were clear qualitative differences by clinical severity group. Children's concerns emphasised social participation and our findings imply a need to shift the clinical focus from monitoring cardiac function to optimising participation. We highlight the potential for informing

  14. Phthalate metabolites in Norwegian mothers and children: Levels, diurnal variation and use of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Cequier, Enrique; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been associated with reproductive and developmental toxicity. Data on levels of these compounds in the Norwegian population is limited. In this study, urine samples were collected from 48 mothers and their children in two counties in Norway. Eleven different phthalate metabolites originating from six commonly used phthalates in consumer products were determined. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in children compared to mothers except for mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP). The mothers provided several urine samples during 24hours (h) and diurnal variation showed that the concentrations in the morning urine samples (24-8h) were significantly higher than at other time-periods for most of the phthalate metabolites. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for 24-hour time-period were in the range of 0.49-0.81. These moderate to high ICCs indicate that one spot urine sample can be used to estimate the exposure to phthalates. Since a significant effect of time of day was observed, it is still advisable to standardize the collection time point to reduce the variation. For the mothers, the use of personal care products (PCPs) were less associated with morning urine samples than early day (8-12h) and evening (16-24h) urine samples. The use of perfume and hair products were positively associated with the urinary concentrations of low molecular weight phthalates. Use of shower soap and shampoo were positively associated with urinary concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. For children, face cream use was positively associated with phthalate metabolites in the morning samples, and hand soap use was negatively associated with concentration of urinary DEHP metabolites in afternoon/evening samples. Since different PCPs were associated with the urinary phthalate metabolites in different time-periods during a day, more than one spot urine sample might be required to study associations between urinary

  15. Personality construct of Sasang Personality Questionnaire in an adolescent sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chae

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The validity of the SPQ construct was confirmed with adolescents. Further investigation on its personality construct would extend the clinical application of SPQ to young age groups including children.

  16. Personality characteristics of children in an orphanage as criteria for the developing of proactive attitude and successful social integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin A.N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a personality characteristics study of orphans and children left without parental care growing up in an orphanage. It is assumed that examined personality characteristics have an effect on the socialization and integration processes after graduating from the orphanage. The paper gives a comparative analysis of personality characteristics in 18 boys and 14 girls aged from 12 to 17 years in orphanages, as well as finds out the personality characteristics undermining the developing of child’s proactive attitude. The study used a children's version of "Individual typological questionnaire" by L.N. Sobchik and Cattell 14 PF method of multivariate personality study. Statistical significance of the results is due to Mann–Whitney U test and Student t-test for nonrandom access. Cattell 14PF study shows that boys and girls in the test groups have personality differences (p≤0.05. A pattern of the results may indicate a general trend of personal characteristics negatively affecting the success of adaptation after graduating from the orphanage.

  17. Tooth cleaning frequency in relation to socio-demographic variables and personal hygiene measures among school children of Udaipur district, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Panwar, J; Vyas, A; Sharma, J; Goutham, B; Duraiswamy, P; Kulkarni, S

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if frequency of tooth cleaning varies with social group, family size, bedtime and other personal hygiene habits among school children. Target population comprised schoolchildren aged 8-16 years of Udaipur district attending public schools. A two stage cluster random sampling procedure was executed to collect the representative sample, consequently final sample size accounted to 852 children. Data were collected by means of structured questionnaires which consisted of questions related to oral hygiene habits including a few general hygiene habits, bed time, family size, family income and dental visiting habits. The results show that 30.5% of the total sample cleaned their teeth twice or more daily and there was no significant difference between the genders for tooth cleaning frequency. Logistic regression analysis revealed that older children and those having less than two siblings were more likely to clean their teeth twice a day than the younger ones and children with more than two siblings. Furthermore, frequency of tooth cleaning was significantly lower among children of parents with low level of education and less annual income as compared with those of high education and more annual income. In addition, tooth cleaning habits were more regular in children using tooth paste and regularly visiting to the dentist. This study observed that tooth cleaning is not an isolated behaviour, but is a part of multifarious pattern of various social and behavioural factors. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  18. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sörman

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227 in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV, (ii self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.

  19. Effortful Control and Parents' Emotion Socialization Patterns Predict Children's Positive Social Behavior: A Person-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel L.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Smith, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined relations of effortful control with parent emotion socialization practices and child social behavior using a person-centered approach in children ages 18 months to 5 years. A total of 76 parents (66 mothers, 10 fathers) completed questionnaires at screening and 6-month follow-up. There were no age differences in…

  20. Preservice Teachers' Personality Traits and Engagement in Creative Activities as Predictors of Their Support for Children's Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il Rang; Kemple, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among preservice teachers' personality traits, their own engagement in creative activities, and their beliefs about the teaching practices that have been shown to support children's creativity. A total of 302 early childhood and elementary preservice teachers participated in this study. The…

  1. "Talking like a Book?" Socioeconomic Differences of Maternal Conversational Styles in Co-Constructing Personal Narratives with Young Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Feng

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated how Taiwanese mothers with different socioeconomic statuses (SES) co-constructed personal experience with their children in narrative conversations. Forty dyads recruited in Taiwan participated in the study, half from middle-class families and half from the working-class. Narrative conversations in Mandarin Chinese were…

  2. How and Why Children Change in Aggression and Delinquency from Childhood to Adolescence: Moderation of Overreactive Parenting by Child Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haan, A. D.; Prinzie, P.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examines how and why children change in aggression and delinquency from age 6 to 15 years. Besides assessing the shape of the developmental trajectories of aggression and delinquency, we investigated whether child personality characteristics, parenting, and interactions between these two predict the development of…

  3. Design and evaluation of a personal robot playing a self-management education game with children with diabetes type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Bierman, B.P.B.; Janssen, J.; Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Dooren, M.M.M. van; Vries, J.L.E. de; Burg, G.J. van der; Huisman, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a personal robot, providing diabetes self-management education in a clinical setting on the pleasure, engagement and motivation to play a diabetes quiz of children (7–12) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and on their acquisition of knowledge about their

  4. Variables Involved in Personal, Social and School Adjustment in a Sample of Preschool-Aged Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Parra, Antonio; Lopez-Rubio, Sonia; Carles, Rosario; Mata, Sara; Vives, Maria del Carmen; Navarro, Elena; Marquez, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The continuing incorporation of immigrant populations into the Spanish educational system poses an important challenge in that all participants must cooperate toward creating the best possible adaptation process at the academic level as well as on the personal and social levels. A number of different factors appear to influence children's…

  5. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in school aged children: the role of personal and parents related socio-economic and educational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mahmoodzadeh; Morteza, Amestejani; Mohammad, Karamyar; Ahmad-Ali, Nikibakhsh

    2013-02-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Urmia, Iran children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem. A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children (7-11 years old) from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method. Chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Of the 1600 questionnaires distributed, 918 (57%) were completed and included in the final analysis. The rest, which were not filled by parents and also those out of our study age range were excluded. Gender of the subjects was almost equally distributed (48.6% males and 51.4% females). Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% (n = 172) and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% (n=51). There was no significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, jobless father, working mother, single parent, poor school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection (UTI). Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found that Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.

  6. [Differences in attachment and personality in children from child guidance centers, child psychiatry units, and control families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Scheuerer-Englisch, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Insecure attachment and deficits in self-regulation as personality traits are risk factors for the development of psychopathological symptoms from infancy on. This study examines differences in attachment and personality in late childhood, comparing children from non-clinical families, from a child guidance center, and child psychiatry units with in-patient care. Children's attachment representations, their attachment behavior strategy, reported distressing parental behavior, their emotional openness, and attachment coherency were assessed with the Late Childhood Attachment Interview (LCAI). Ego-resiliency, ego-undercontrol, field-independence, aggressiveness, and anxiety were assessed by means of the California Child Q-Sort. The results show clear attachment differences, with the child guidance group showing more attachment insecurity in the LCAI compared to the control group, and the psychiatric in-patient group even more attachment insecurity, more distressing parenting from both mother and father, and more attachment disorganization than the other two groups. Whereas children from the child guidance center and the child psychiatry unit did not differ in personality, both groups were significantly different from the control group in all personality dimensions. The results suggest that personality differences may be a risk factor for behaviour problems, however problem severity and the choice of the treatment institution seem to be influenced by attachment security.

  7. Effect of dexmedetomidine on the stress reaction caused by sevoflurance anesthesia in school-age children with different personality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of dexmedetomidine on the stress reaction caused by sevoflurance anesthesia during the perianesthesia period in school-age children with different personality characteristics. Methods: A total of 160 children who were admitted in our hospital for transumbilical single-port laparoscopic hernia inner ring ligation were included in the study and randomized into dexmedetomidine (D group and midazolam (M group. The children were performed with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire before operation (children edition. Children were divided into the emotion group (group I and stable group (group II. The operation was performed under sevoflurance inhalation anesthesia. Patients in DI and DII groups were given 1 毺g/kg DEX, MI and MII groups were given 0.05 mg/kg midazolam, for 15 min. MAP and HR one day before operation (T0, before anesthesia induction (T1, 1 min after pneumoperitoneum establishment (T2, the time after pulling out the laryngeal mask (T3, and the time after shifting from the recovery room (T4 were recorded. A volume of 6 mL venous blood 1 d before operation and 4 h after operation was collected. Blood sugar concentration, cortisol and IL-6 levels were detected. Results: MAP at T1, T2, T3, and T4 in DI and MI groups were significantly elevated when compared with at T0. MAP at T2 and T3 in DII group was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MII group was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. When compared with DI group, MAP at T1, T2, and T3 in DII group was significantly reduced; MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MI group was significantly elevated; MAP at T1 in MII group was significantly reduced. When compared with DII group, MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MI and MII groups was significantly elevated. HR at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. When compared with DI group, HR at T1, T2, and T3 in DII group was significantly reduced; HR at each

  8. Primary spondylolysis of the axis vertebra (C/sub 2/) in the children, including one with pyknodysostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, G.

    1989-08-01

    This report describes 3 children with a cleft in the pedicles of the second cervical vertebra of uncertain cause. One of these patients had pyknodysostosis. Previous instances of such defects in the literature are reviewed with some considerations on the possible nature of the lesion. (orig.).

  9. Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: Direct association between personal dose and respiratory health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Marks, Guy B.; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread health problem associated with respiratory symptoms. Continuous exposure monitoring was performed to estimate alveolar and tracheobronchial dose, measured as deposited surface area, for 103 children and to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to airborne particles through spirometry, skin prick tests and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). The mean daily alveolar deposited surface area dose received by children was 1.35 × 10 3 mm 2 . The lowest and highest particle number concentrations were found during sleeping and eating time. A significant negative association was found between changes in pulmonary function tests and individual dose estimates. Significant differences were found for asthmatics, children with allergic rhinitis and sensitive to allergens compared to healthy subjects for eNO. Variation is a child's activity over time appeared to have a strong impact on respiratory outcomes, which indicates that personal monitoring is vital for assessing the expected health effects of exposure to particles. -- Highlights: •Particle dose was estimated through personal monitoring on more than 100 children. •We focused on real-time daily dose of particle alveolar deposited surface area. •Spirometry, skin prick and exhaled Nitric Oxide tests were performed. •Negative link was found between changes in pulmonary functions and individual doses. •A child's lifestyle appeared to have a strong impact on health respiratory outcomes. -- The respiratory health effects of daily airborne particle dose on children through personal monitoring

  10. The impact of including children with intellectual disability in general education classrooms on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gérard

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from classrooms with an included child with mild or moderate ID, and a control group of 202 pupils from classrooms with no included children with special educational needs (matched pairs sample). The progress of these 2 groups in their academic achievement was compared over a period of 1 school year. No significant difference was found in the progress of the low-, average-, or high-achieving pupils from classrooms with or without inclusion. The results suggest that including children with ID in primary general education classrooms with support does not have a negative impact on the progress of pupils without disability.

  11. PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING GENOTYPES, INCLUDING HLA-DQ2.2 VARIANT, IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleski, Nicole; Almeida, Lucas Malta; Almeida, Fernanda Coutinho de; Pratesi, Claudia Beatriz; Nóbrega, Yanna Karla de Medeiros; Gandolfi, Lenora

    2018-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2.2 and celiac disease in Brazilian children by analyzing the prevalence of the predisposing variants for celiac disease in a representative group of children of a population in which this determination is still missing. HLA-DQ typing was performed in samples from a group of celiac (n=100) and non-celiac children (n=110). All samples were tested for the presence of the following variants: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2.5), DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8) and DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02 (DQ2.2). Fisher`s exact test was used for statistical analysis. In the group of 100 celiac children, 78 (78%) were positive for DQ2, 13 (13 %) were DQ2/DQ8 and 6 (6%) were DQ8 positives. The HLA-DQ pattern in the 110 non-celiac children was as follows: positive for DQ2 in 33 (29.9%) samples, in 2 (1.8 %) was positive for DQ2/DQ8 and in 15 (13.6%) was positive for DQ8. We found significant differences between the distribution of some but not all of the analyzed alleles when comparing celiac and non-celiac children. The genotyping of celiac disease HLA-DQ predisposing alleles showed similarities with HLA-DQ patterns found in both European and non-European populations, which may be a reflection of the miscegenation, which gave origin to the current Brazilian population. No significant association was found between DQ2.2 variant and celiac disease in the studied population.

  12. PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING GENOTYPES, INCLUDING HLA-DQ2.2 VARIANT, IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole SELLESKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2.2 and celiac disease in Brazilian children by analyzing the prevalence of the predisposing variants for celiac disease in a representative group of children of a population in which this determination is still missing. METHODS: HLA-DQ typing was performed in samples from a group of celiac (n=100 and non-celiac children (n=110. All samples were tested for the presence of the following variants: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2.5, DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8 and DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02 (DQ2.2. Fisher`s exact test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In the group of 100 celiac children, 78 (78% were positive for DQ2, 13 (13 % were DQ2/DQ8 and 6 (6% were DQ8 positives. The HLA-DQ pattern in the 110 non-celiac children was as follows: positive for DQ2 in 33 (29.9% samples, in 2 (1.8 % was positive for DQ2/DQ8 and in 15 (13.6% was positive for DQ8. We found significant differences between the distribution of some but not all of the analyzed alleles when comparing celiac and non-celiac children. CONCLUSION: The genotyping of celiac disease HLA-DQ predisposing alleles showed similarities with HLA-DQ patterns found in both European and non-European populations, which may be a reflection of the miscegenation, which gave origin to the current Brazilian population. No significant association was found between DQ2.2 variant and celiac disease in the studied population.

  13. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  14. Birth weight and long-term overweight risk: systematic review and a meta-analysis including 643,902 persons from 66 studies and 26 countries globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schellong

    Full Text Available Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis.Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (p4,000 g was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.55-1.77. Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500-4,000 g as reference category (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84, and OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.77, respectively. Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.43-2.67.Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy, might therefore be a promising strategy of genuine overweight prevention, globally.

  15. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  16. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres M. Della Lucia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR® fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool and the other received only polished rice (control preschool. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  17. PERSONAL FEATURES OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS ILL WITH RESPIRATORY TUBERCULOSIS EXPOSED AND NOT EXPOSED TO THE SOURCE OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zolotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific personal features of 296 children and adolescents exposed to tuberculosis and those with unidentified exposure were comparatively analyzed. Children with unidentified exposure demonstrated psychic tension, poor self-control, poorly developed social communication skills which determined disruptive interpersonal relations and uneasy personal growth. Children exposed to tuberculosis in their families were characterized by judging didactive position towards their neighbors which was formed by dysfunctional patterns of relations in their parental families. Adolescent with unidentified exposure manifested the contrast combination of pre-morbid personal attitudes which had certain etiologic contribution to the development of borderline neurotic states. The higher level of destructive reactions in the interpersonal communication was observed in the adolescents exposed to tuberculosis in their families. Identified personal features are considered to be psychological factors determining the hyperactivation of adaptive systems at the pre-morbid state and consequent development of structural functional disorders in various systems of the host, as well as providing impact on the course of tuberculosis.

  18. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted. PMID:23633645

  19. Exposure to mobile telecommunication networks assessed using personal dosimetry and well-being in children and adolescents: the German MobilEe-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Silke; Kühnlein, Anja; Heinrich, Sabine; Praml, Georg; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

    2008-11-04

    the first to assess the individual level of exposure to mobile telecommunication networks using personal dosimetry, enabling objective assessment of exposure from all sources and longer measurement periods. In total, personal dosimetry was proofed to be a well accepted tool to study exposure to mobile phone frequencies in epidemiologic studies including health effects on children and adolescents.

  20. Exposure to mobile telecommunication networks assessed using personal dosimetry and well-being in children and adolescents: the German MobilEe-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Kries Rüdiger

    2008-11-01

    . Conclusion In comparison to previous studies this is one of the first to assess the individual level of exposure to mobile telecommunication networks using personal dosimetry, enabling objective assessment of exposure from all sources and longer measurement periods. In total, personal dosimetry was proofed to be a well accepted tool to study exposure to mobile phone frequencies in epidemiologic studies including health effects on children and adolescents.

  1. Involving children and young people in clinical research through the forum of a European Young Persons' Advisory Group: needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Segolene; Malik, Salma; Preston, Jenny; Escalera, Begonya Nafria; Dicks, Pamela; Touil, Nathalie; Mardirossian, Sandrine; Claverol-Torres, Joana; Kassaï, Behrouz

    2018-02-19

    Children and young people are seen as fundamental to the design and delivery of clinical research as active and reflective participants. In Europe, involvement of children and young people in clinical research is promoted extensively in order to engage young people in research as partners and to give them a voice to raise their own issues or opinions and for their involvement in planning and decision making in addition to learning research skills. Children and young people can be trained in clinical research through participation in young person advisory groups (YPAGs). Members of YPAGs assist other children and young people to learn about clinical research and share their experience and point of view with researchers, thereby possibly influencing all phases of research including the development and prioritization of research questions, design and methods, recruitment plans, and strategies for results dissemination. In the long term, the expansion of YPAGs in Europe will serve as a driving force for refining pediatric clinical research. It will help in a better definition of research projects according to the patients' needs. Furthermore, direct engagement of children and young people in research will be favorable to both researchers and young people. © 2018 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. Young Children's Psychological Selves: Convergence with Maternal Reports of Child Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Agathen, Jean M.; Ho, Moon-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The present research examined five-year-old children's psychological self-concepts. Non-linear factor analysis was used to model the latent structure of the children's self-view questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), a measure of children's self-concepts. The coherence and reliability of the emerging factor structure indicated that young children are…

  3. Birth Weight and Long-Term Overweight Risk: Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis Including 643,902 Persons from 66 Studies and 26 Countries Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (poverweight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59–0.76). High birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.55–1.77). Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500–4,000 g) as reference category (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84, and OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.77, respectively). Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.43–2.67). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy

  4. Personal care services provided to children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and their subsequent use of physician services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas R; Elliott, Timothy R; McMaughan, Darcy M; Patnaik, Ashweeta; Naiser, Emily; Dyer, James A; Fournier, Constance J; Hawes, Catherine; Phillips, Charles D

    2013-10-01

    Medicaid Personal Care Services (PCS) help families meet children's needs for assistance with functional tasks. However, PCS may have other effects on a child's well-being, but research has not yet established the existence of such effects. To investigate the relationship between the number of PCS hours a child receives with subsequent visits to physicians for evaluation and management (E&M) services. Assessment data for 2058 CSHCN receiving PCS were collected in 2008 and 2009. Assessment data were matched with Medicaid claims data for the period of 1 year after the assessment. Zero-inflated negative binomial and generalized linear multivariate regression models were used in the analyses. These models included patient demographics, health status, household resources, and use of other medical services. For every 10 additional PCS hours authorized for a child, the odds of having an E&M physician visit in the next year were reduced by 25%. However, the number of PCS hours did not have a significant effect on the number of visits by those children who did have a subsequent E&M visit. A variety of demographic and health status measures also affect physician use. Medicaid PCS for CSHCN may be associated with reduced physician usage because of benefits realized by continuity of care, the early identification of potential health threats, or family and patient education. PCS services may contribute to a child's well-being by providing continuous relationships with the care team that promote good chronic disease management, education, and support for the family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of particulate matter exposure estimates in young children from personal sampling equipment and a robotic sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A; Shalat, Stuart L; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-05-01

    Accurate characterization of particulate matter (PM) exposure in young children is difficult, because personal samplers are often too heavy, bulky or impractical to be used. The Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler was developed to help address this problem. In this study, we measured inhalable PM exposures in 2-year-olds via a lightweight personal sampler worn in a small backpack and evaluated the use of a robotic sampler with an identical sampling train for estimating PM exposure in this age group. PM mass concentrations measured by the personal sampler ranged from 100 to almost 1,200 μg/m 3 , with a median value of 331 μg/m 3 . PM concentrations measured by PIPER were considerably lower, ranging from 14 to 513 μg/m 3 with a median value of 56 μg/m 3 . Floor cleaning habits and activity patterns of the 2-year-olds varied widely by home; vigorous play and recent floor cleaning were most associated with higher personal exposure. Our findings highlight the need for additional characterization of children's activity patterns and their effect on personal exposures.

  6. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

  7. A prospective study of the prevalence of tuberculosis and bacteraemia in Bangladeshi children with severe malnutrition and pneumonia including an evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain.We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital.405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4% children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396 of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16% additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24-94 and 92% (95% CI: 87-95 respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital.TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes.

  8. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  9. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  10. Taking the sweetness out of the 'Share a Coke' marketing campaign: the influence of personalized labelling on elementary school children's bottled drink choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDarby, F; O'Hora, D; O'Shea, D; Byrne, M

    2018-01-01

    Drink personalization (featuring names on bottle labels) has been used by soft drink companies to make their drinks attractive to children, potentially increasing consumption. To date, no publically available research has evaluated the influence of personalization on children's drink choices. To determine (i) whether personalizing bottled drinks influences children's drink choices; (ii) whether it is comparably effective in promoting healthy and unhealthy drinks and (iii) whether drink choices are affected by self-esteem, body mass index and parental factors. Children aged 8-13 years (N = 404) were randomly assigned to one of three drink labeling conditions: Prime Healthy, Prime Unhealthy and Control. All participants selected one beverage from 12 options, comprising six healthy and unhealthy drinks. Personalizing healthy drinks increased choice of healthy drinks (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.24-4.00), and personalizing unhealthy drinks reduced choice of healthy drinks (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-.0.75). Higher self-esteem predicted choosing own-named drinks (OR = 1.08, 95% CI, 1.00-1.18; p = .049). Children's drink choices are influenced by personalizing drink bottles. Tighter regulation of this marketing strategy for soft drinks may reduce children choice of these drinks. Personalization may also be used to encourage children to choose healthy drinks. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  11. Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents (IRCAP) and Its Relationship with Social Capital, Life Style and Parents' Personality Disorders: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Nastaran; Kamali, Koorosh; Khaleghi, Ali; Ahmadi, Ameneh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We aimed at designing a cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents (IRCAP) and to determine its relationship with social capital, life style, and parents' personality disorders. Method: This cross sectional study was a national project implemented in all provinces of Iran. In this community-based study, using ‎multistage cluster sampling method, we selected 1000 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in each province. The total sample size reached to 31 000. ‎We randomly collected 170 blocks. Then, of each cluster head, we selected 6 cases including 3 cases of each gender in ‎different age groups (6- 9 years, 10- 14 years, and 15- 18 years). The clinical psychologists instructed the participants to complete the Persian version of Kiddie-Sads-‎Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). In addition, demographic data (gender, age, education, parent education, and economic situation) and information on lifestyle, social capital, and parents' personality disorders were obtained from the participants. Discussion: IRCAP study presents a protocol for an epidemiological survey on the first estimates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents across the country. This large body of data, on a range of individual behavioural and emotional items and scores, allows us to compare the rates and patterns of deviance between urban and rural places of residence in 31 provinces of Iran with non Iranian samples surveyed with the same measures.

  12. Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents and Its Relationship with Social Capital, Life Style and Parents' Personality Disorders: Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed at designing a cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents and to determine its relationship with social capital, life style, and parents' personality disorders.Method: This cross sectional study was a national project implemented in all provinces of Iran. In this community-based study, using ‎multistage cluster sampling method, we selected 1000 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in each province. The total sample size reached to 31 000. ‎We randomly collected 170 blocks. Then, of each cluster head, we selected 6 cases including 3 cases of each gender in ‎different age groups (6- 9 years, 10- 14 years, and 15- 18 years. The clinical psychologists instructed the participants to complete the Persian version of Kiddie-Sads-‎Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. In addition, demographic data (gender, age, education, parent education, and economic situation and information on lifestyle, social capital, and parents' personality disorders were obtained from the participants.Discussion: This study presents a protocol for an epidemiological survey on the first estimates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents across the country. This large body of data, on a range of individual behavioural and emotional items and scores, allows us to compare the rates and patterns of deviance between urban and rural places of residence in 31 provinces of Iran with non Iranian samples surveyed with the same measures.

  13. Confidence in Attachment Relationships and Marital Status as Protective Factors for Self-Perceived Parental Role and In-Person Visitation with Children Among Incarcerated Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquale, Michele Giovanni; Coppola, Gabrielle; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Pasceri, Maria; Pietralunga, Susanna; Taurino, Alessandro; Semeraro, Cristina; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2018-04-16

    The study aimed at investigating the role of confidence in attachment relationships and marital status as protective factors for incarcerated fathers' self-perceived parental role and in-person contacts with their children. Participants included 150 inmate fathers and 145 nonincarcerated control fathers who provided background sociodemographic information and completed two self-reports, the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Self-Perception of Parental Role. A two-phased cluster analytic plan allowed us to highlight two profiles of self-perceived parental roles, with incarceration and low confidence in attachment relationships increasing the risk of the less optimal of the two profiles. Higher confidence in attachment relationships and having a stable romantic relationship increased the likelihood of incarcerated fathers engaging in frequent contacts with their children, while the profile of self-perceived parental role had no effect. Implications for practice are discussed, and suggestions for further research are provided. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    During a post-doctoral project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort. The research is carried out...... and their relatives, also have focus on an professional and interdisciplinary perspective and an organizational perspective aimed at the conditions for implementation of singing and music in practice. Following research question will be elucidated: a) What experiences does persons with dementia and their relatives...... have when singing and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in everyday life and in their interaction and relationship with caregivers and what impact does it have on their quality of life and well-being? b) What impact does it have, from a professional and an interdisciplinary...

  15. Review: Personal Effects of Divorce in Relation to Children / Recension: Efectos personales del divorcio respecto de los hijos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Duplá Marín

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Review: Carmen López‐Rendo Rodríguez, Personal Effects of Divorce in Relation to Children, from Classical Rome to the Spanish Civil Code, RIDROM (online 9, 2012, pp. 249–270. Recension: Carmen López‐Rendo Rodríguez, Efectos personales del divorcio respecto de los hijos, De Roma al Codigo civil español, RIDROM (online 9, 2012, Pág. 249–270.

  16. Personalized features for attention detection in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Fatemeh; Guan, Cuntai; Wooi Boon Goh; Kai Keng Ang; Choon Guan Lim; Tih Shih Lee

    2017-07-01

    Measuring attention from electroencephalogram (EEG) has found applications in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is of great interest to understand what features in EEG are most representative of attention. Intensive research has been done in the past and it has been proven that frequency band powers and their ratios are effective features in detecting attention. However, there are still unanswered questions, like, what features in EEG are most discriminative between attentive and non-attentive states? Are these features common among all subjects or are they subject-specific and must be optimized for each subject? Using Mutual Information (MI) to perform subject-specific feature selection on a large data set including 120 ADHD children, we found that besides theta beta ratio (TBR) which is commonly used in attention detection and neurofeedback, the relative beta power and theta/(alpha+beta) (TBAR) are also equally significant and informative for attention detection. Interestingly, we found that the relative theta power (which is also commonly used) may not have sufficient discriminative information itself (it is informative only for 3.26% of ADHD children). We have also demonstrated that although these features (relative beta power, TBR and TBAR) are the most important measures to detect attention on average, different subjects have different set of most discriminative features.

  17. Fabry’s disease in children: analysis of personal observations, treatment possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Semyachkina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the rare disease of the lysosomal storage disease group – Fabry’s disease. The disease is associated with the sphingolipids dysmetabolism, is caused by the accumulation of the globotriosylceramide (Gb3 and othersphingolipidsin the organism tissues and cells; it is characterized by the progression and severity of the course. The diagnostic results of 6 patient children aged from 5 to 17 years are analyzed; 2 boys and 4 girls from 3 families. The hereditary burden with a large number of the disease cases, 16 patients in 3 families including 6 children, comes under notice. All 6 children were diagnosed with Fabry’s disease based on the genealogical analysis as well as biochemical and molecular genetic examination. The activity of α-galactosidase A enzyme in the blood leukocytes was significantly decreased in two boys, insignificantly decreased in two sisters, and was normal in two girls. When performing the molecular genetic analysis, 3 mutations in exon 5 of GLA gene were identified. It has been established that the damages of cardiovascularsystem and nervoussystem, kidneys and visual organ, depression of the perspiratory gland function shall be considered as the first clinical signs of the disease in the children; it seems likely that the angiokeratoma appearance is characteristic only for boys. The presence of the non-specific symptoms and signs of the connective tissue dysplasia is noteworthy. The emphasis is made towards the importance of the early Fabry’s disease diagnosis, as it is essential for the timely (prior to appearance of the clinical symptoms and signs beginning of the pathogenic treatment with the enzyme replacement drug. 

  18. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  19. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  20. Patterns and predictors of personal exposure to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion among women and children in rural China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J. (Univ. of Minnesota. Institute on the Environment, St. Paul, MN (United States)); Patz, J.; Bautista, L.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin. Dept. of Population Health Sciences, Madison, WI (United States)); Schauer, J.J. (Univ. of Wisconsin. Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, Madison, WI (United States)); Ezzati, M. (MRC-HPA Center for Environment and Health, Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)); Lu, L.; Cheng, C. (Yunnan Provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Yunnan (China))

    2011-12-15

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from domestic biomass combustion is an important health risk factor, yet direct measurements of personal IAP exposure are scarce. We measured 24-h integrated gravimetric exposure to particles <2.5 mum in aerodynamic diameter (particulate matter, PM{sub 2.5}) in 280 adult women and 240 children in rural Yunnan, China. We also measured indoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in a random sample of 44 kitchens. The geometric mean winter PM{sub 2.5} exposure among adult women was twice that of summer exposure [117 mug/m3 (95% CI: 107, 128) vs. 55 mug/m3 (95% CI: 49, 62)]. Children's geometric mean exposure in summer was 53 mug/m3 (95% CI: 46, 61). Indoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were moderately correlated with women's personal exposure (r = 0.58), but not for children. Ventilation during cooking, cookstove maintenance, and kitchen structure were significant predictors of personal PM{sub 2.5} exposure among women primarily cooking with biomass. These findings can be used to develop exposure assessment models for future epidemiologic research and inform interventions and policies aimed at reducing IAP exposure. (Author)

  1. Relationship between personal, maternal, and familial factors with mental health problems in school-aged children in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A validation study of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS) for use with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Meroz, Anat; Margalit, Adi Edit; Ratzon, Navah Z

    2012-11-01

    This study examines a potential instrument for measurement of typing postures of children. This paper describes inter-rater, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS), an observational measurement of postures and movements during keyboarding, for use with children. Two trained raters independently rated videos of 24 children (aged 7-10 years). Six children returned one week later for identifying test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing ratings obtained using the K-PECS to scores from a 3D motion analysis system. Inter-rater reliability was moderate to high for 12 out of 16 items (Kappa: 0.46 to 1.00; correlation coefficients: 0.77-0.95) and test-retest reliability varied across items (Kappa: 0.25 to 0.67; correlation coefficients: r = 0.20 to r = 0.95). Concurrent validity compared favourably across arm pathlength, wrist extension and ulnar deviation. In light of the limitations of other tools the K-PeCS offers a fairly affordable, reliable and valid instrument to address the gap for measurement of typing styles of children, despite the shortcomings of some items. However further research is required to refine the instrument for use in evaluating typing among children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. A Pilot Study of Stress System Activation in Children Enrolled in a Targeted Prevention Program: Implications for Personalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirically validated interventions addressing childhood psychological problems are now readily available, but success likely depends in part on accurately identifying which children will benefit from which intervention. This pilot study examined the stress activation and response system, first as a way to differentiate high versus low-risk children, and second to explore indicators of the stress system associated with favorable intervention response. Method. Participants (N = 43, 58% male were school-aged children who qualified for inclusion in the Early Risers “Skills for Success” Prevention Program based on their elevated levels of aggressive and/or socially withdrawn behavior and a normally developing comparison group. Compared to the normally developing group, children who were participants in the intervention exhibited a more blunted cortisol response to the stress paradigm. However, for the children in the intervention group, elevated cortisol levels at the start of the stress paradigm were concurrently associated with internalizing problems and predictive of improvement in internalizing problems over time. These findings provide preliminary evidence that hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis biological variables may be helpful tools for identifying children who would benefit from intervention and personalizing interventions.

  4. On feeding those hungry for praise : Person praise backfires in children with low self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, Eddie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337238529; Thomaes, Sander|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303776528; Overbeek, Geertjan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/25233602X; De Castro, Bram Orobio|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166985422; Van Den Hout, Marcel A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Bushman, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Child-rearing experts have long believed that praise is an effective means to help children with low self-esteem feel better about themselves. But should one praise these children for who they are, or for how they behave? Study 1 (N = 357) showed that adults are inclined to give children with low

  5. On feeding those hungry for praise: person praise backfires in children with low self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Overbeek, G.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van den Hout, M.A.; Bushman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Child-rearing experts have long believed that praise is an effective means to help children with low self-esteem feel better about themselves. But should one praise these children for who they are, or for how they behave? Study 1 (N = 357) showed that adults are inclined to give children with low

  6. Personality predispositions to depression in children of affectively-ill parents: the buffering role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R Z; Fishman, Michael B; Cohen, Joseph R; Young, Jami F

    2012-01-01

    A major theory of personality predispositions to depression posits that individuals who possess high levels of self-criticism and/or dependency are vulnerable to developing depression following negative life events. The goal of the current study was to test this theory of personality predispositions and the self-esteem buffering hypothesis in a sample of youth using an idiographic approach, a high-risk sample, and a multiwave longitudinal design. One hundred forty children aged 6 to 14 completed measures of dependency, self-criticism, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Over the course of the following year, 8 follow-up assessments were conducted 6 weeks apart during which all children were administered measures assessing depressive symptoms and the occurrence of negative events. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that higher levels of dependency were associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms following negative events among children possessing low, but not high, self-esteem. In contrast, self-criticism was not associated with changes in depressive symptoms over time regardless of children's levels of stress and/or self-esteem.

  7. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of special... special educator, school psychologist, speech therapist, or a reading specialist, in conformity with the... a multidisciplinary team and shall include a teacher or other specialist with knowledge in the areas...

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  9. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  10. Children and Eating: Personality and Gender are Associated with Obesogenic Food Consumption and Overweight in 6- to 12-Year-Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Vollrath, Margarete E.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Júlíusson, Pétur B.

    2012-01-01

    The role of children's personality traits in the consumption of potentially obesogenic foods was investigated in a sample of Norwegian children aged 6–12 years (N = 327, 170 boys, 157 girls). Mothers rated their child's personality on the traits of the Five Factor Model (i.e., Extraversion, Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Imagination). Mothers also completed a food frequency questionnaire assessing their child's consumption of sweet drinks, sweet foods, and fruit and vegetabl...

  11. To copy or to innovate? The role of personality and social networks on children's learning strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlings, B.; Flynn, E.; Kendal, R.

    2017-01-01

    In our technologically complex world, children frequently have problems to solve and skills to learn. They can develop solutions through learning strategies involving social learning or asocial endeavors. While evidence is emerging that children may differ individually in their propensity to adopt different learning strategies, little is known about what underlies these differences. In this article, we reflect on recent research with children, adults, and nonhuman animals regarding individual...

  12. Universal health care for children: why every self-interested person should support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, L R

    2001-04-01

    By comparison to other developed nations, both the health care and the health status of children in the U.S. are poor. Ethical arguments for covering all children for health services are numerous, but most of them require the suppression of self-interested motivations. Drawing from and developing the arguments of David Hume, this essay argues that self-interested motives need not work against an inclusive system, and can strengthen the case for covering children in particular. Anyone who hopes to benefit from the inter-generational transfers currently required by Social Security and Medicare policies should be an advocate for health care for all children.

  13. The shorter the better? A follow-up analysis of 10-session psychiatric treatment including the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; Stulz, Niklaus; Berthoud, Laurent; Caspar, Franz; Marquet, Pierre; Kolly, Stéphane; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2017-05-01

    There is little research on short-term treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD). While the core changes may occur only in long-term treatments, short-term treatments may enable the study of early generic processes of engagement in therapy and thus inform about effective treatment components. It was shown that a 10-session version of a psychiatric treatment was effective in reducing borderline symptoms at the end of this treatment [Kramer, U., Kolly, S., Berthoud, L., Keller, S., Preisig, M., Caspar, F., … Despland, J.-N. (2014). Effects of motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in a ten-session general psychiatric treatment for borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83, 176-186.]. Also, it was demonstrated in a randomized design that adding the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR), following an individualized case formulation based on Plan Analysis, further increased general outcome after session 10 and had a positive effect on the early changes in self-esteem and alliance. The present study focuses on the follow-up period after this initial treatment, examining treatment density and outcomes after 6 months and service utilization after 12 months. Outcome was measured using the OQ-45. Results on a sub-sample of N = 40 patients with available OQ-45 data at follow-up (n = 21 for MOTR-treatment, n = 19 for comparison treatment) showed maintenance of gains over the follow-up period, which did not differ between both conditions. It appeared for this sample that MOTR treatments, while using the same number of sessions, lasted more weeks (i.e., lower treatment density, defined as the number of sessions per week), when compared to the treatments without MOTR. Density marginally predicted symptom reduction at follow-up. Patients in MOTR treatments had a greater likelihood of entering structured psychotherapy after the initial sessions than patients in the comparison

  14. Attitudes of children and adolescents toward persons who are deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S. de; Freriksen, E.; Vervloed, M.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students’ attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and

  15. Attitudes of Children and Adolescents toward Persons Who Are Deaf, Blind, Paralyzed or Intellectually Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Stijn; Freriksen, Ellen; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students' attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and 144 university students were determined with two…

  16. Predictors of Family Conflict at the End of Life: The Experience of Spouses and Adult Children of Persons with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Betty J.; Kavanaugh, Melinda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Walsh, Matthew; Yonker, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Guided by an explanatory matrix of family conflict at the end of life, the purpose of this article was to examine the correlates and predictors of family conflict reported by 155 spouses and adult children of persons with lung cancer. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional statewide survey of family members of persons who died from lung…

  17. The Connection between Some Dimensions of Perceived Personal Competence and Permanent Low Intensity Stress in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgosi-Masnjak, Rea; And Others

    This study compared the perceived personal competence of two groups of parents of primary grade children in Croatia with (N=86) and without (N=186) mild intellectual disability. The comparison was based on the parents' perceived competence in the areas of parental role, self-respect, locus of control, and social anxiousness. Children in the two…

  18. Self-Schemas, Depression, and the Processing of Personal Information in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Zupan, Brian A.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the applicability of the self-as-schema model to children and examines the extent of negative self-schemas in relatively depressed children among 61 elementary school students; most of the students were between 8 and 12 years old. Results were consistent with the self-as-schema hypotheses, and mood congruent content-specific recall…

  19. Children's Weekend Activities in Four Countries: Context for Personal and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogru, Asil Ali

    2010-01-01

    Out-of-school time constitutes a major context of social and emotional development for children across cultures. Because it is not constrained by school attendance, weekend time allows cultural and gender differences in time usage to emerge. In this study, children's weekend activities, choice, and some of the related emotional outcomes were…

  20. Non-Verbal Psychotherapy of Deaf Children with Disorders in Personality Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Marina

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are principles of nonverbal therapy for deaf children with disorders in the development of self, and the possible existence of a relationship between lack of auditory experiences in deaf children and disorders in mother-child bonding. A case study presents a three-year-old deaf boy successfully treated through a nonverbal…

  1. Young Children's Role-Playing for Enhancing Personal Intelligences in Multiple Intelligences Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Shin, Hwa-Sik; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This article examines young children's role-play in an effort to develop methods with which teachers can enhance children's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Examining how MI practice is applied in different cultural and social contexts is important because it can provide new insights on enriching and enhancing curricula and…

  2. Children's Conceptions of Bullying and Repeated Conventional Transgressions: Moral, Conventional, Structuring and Personal-Choice Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Thornberg, Ulrika Birberg; Alamaa, Rebecca; Daud, Noor

    2016-01-01

    This study examined 307 elementary school children's judgements and reasoning about bullying and other repeated transgressions when school rules regulating these transgressions have been removed in hypothetical school situations. As expected, children judged bullying (repeated moral transgressions) as wrong independently of rules and as more wrong…

  3. Perspectives on Personal Pronoun Reversal in Children with ASD: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brehme

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Personal pronoun reversal (PPR, characterised by inverse use of personal pronouns (typically first and second person is a hallmark of an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (ASD; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. This literature review examines different theories accounting for the occurrence of PPR, in particular Kanner’s (1943 original view of PPR as echolalia, PPR as a result of impaired understanding of discourse roles (e.g. Tager-Flusberg, 1994, and PPR due to impaired theory of mind (Boucher, 2003. These existing theories are critiqued as overly simplistic, and the review argues that more complex theories are required to adequately explain the available evidence on PPR.

  4. COOPERATIVE PLAY AFFECTS SOCIAL INTERACTION OF CHILDREN WHO HAVE INTROVERT PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Rahmawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of school age children may developing task is learning to interact with their peer groups. The introvert have problem with their social interaction. One ways that can increase the social skill is play activities with social situation. So social play activities: cooperative play can be one of alternative solution to increase social interaction of children with introvert symptom. This study was aimed to explain effect of social play activities: cooperative play on social interaction of children with introvert symptom. Method: Quasy experiment design was used in this study. The population was school aged children with introvert symptom in SDN Kendangsari III/278 Surabaya. Total sample was 23 respondents consist of 12 respondents as treatment group and 11 respondents as controlled group. The independent variable was social play activities: cooperative play. The dependent was social interaction of children with introvert symptom. The Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with level significance ofα ≤ 0.005. Result: Result showed that social play activities: cooperative play had significant effect on social interaction of children with introvert symptom (increased. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test showed treatment group had p = 0.002 and controlled group had p = 1.00. Mann Whitney U Test showed p = 0.002. Discussion: It concluded that social play activities: cooperative play can be one way to change social interaction of children with introvert symptom. Further studies should involve larger respondents and better measurement tools to obtain more accurate results.

  5. Children's thinking about diversity of belief in the early school years: judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainryb, Cecilia; Shaw, Leigh A; Langley, Marcie; Cottam, Kim; Lewis, Renee

    2004-01-01

    Children's thinking about diversity of belief in 4 realms--morality, taste, facts, and ambiguous facts--was examined. Ninety-six participants (ages 5, 7, and 9) were interviewed about beliefs different from their own that were endorsed by characters with different status; their judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons were assessed. Five-year-olds made fewer relative and tolerant judgments than 7- and 9-year-olds. Nevertheless, participants of all ages organized their judgments according to the realm of diversity, thought that some beliefs are relative and some are nonrelative, and made tolerant judgments of some divergent beliefs (and their proponents) but not of others. The findings suggest that, in the early school years, children have multiple and well-differentiated perspectives on belief diversity.

  6. ABOUT HYPOALLERGENICITY: MEANS OF PERSONAL HYGIENE OF ORAL CAVITY FOR CHILDREN INCLINED ALLERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Afinogenov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings in the evaluation of the allergenic properties of «R.O.K.S.» lime toothpastes for infants under 3 and «R.O.K.S.» raspberry and strawberry toothpastes for children aged between 4 and 7 years old based on the adequate model of the animals with the contact dermatitis by means of the passive skin anaphylaxis. The authors proved that both toothpastes did not have any allergenic effect and may be recommended for application among children disposed to allergic reactions.Key words: hypo sensible toothpastes, children.

  7. The effects of growth hormone deficiency and growth hormone replacement therapy on intellectual ability, personality and adjustment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga González, B; Ferrández Longás, A; Oyarzábal, M; Nosas, R

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, it has been assumed that intellectual development in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is distributed between ranges of a normal population based on the observation that it does not differ substantially from that of children of the same age. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated this assumption. This Spanish Collaborative study was prospectively planned with two main purposes: to study a possible influence of GHD on intelligence quotient (IQ), personality traits and adaptative capacity and to study the evolution of these parameters during substitution therapy with growth hormone (GH). Although the overall intellectual ability of children with GHD is comparable to that of a normal reference population, some areas such the motor-component scale (evaluated by McCarthy test) and performance IQ (evaluated by WISC-R) were below the mean at the beginning of the study, showing significant improvement during therapy. Emotional adjustment (normal at study start) also improved significantly during treatment. Females showed better adjustment capacity before and during GH therapy. Longer studies with an increased number of cases are needed to confirm these effects of GHD and its treatment in children.

  8. Chernobyl accident: revision of individual thyroid dose estimates for the children included in the cohort of the Belarusian-American study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minenko, Victor; Shemyakina, Elena; Tretyakevich, Sergey

    2000-01-01

    The observed sharp increase in the number of childhood-thyroid-cancer cases in Belarus that has occurred since the Chernobyl accident stimulated the undertaking in 1994 of a long-term American-Belarusian cohort study. That epidemiological study is aimed at revealing the carcinogenic effectiveness of 131 I (the main contributor to the thyroid exposure) and at estimating the risk coefficient of thyroid disease, especially thyroid cancer, as a function of age at exposure. It is planned to follow actively 15,000 children (aged 0-18 at the time of the accident) sampled among about 40,000 who had their thyroid measured in vivo in 1986. Such direct thyroid measurements provide the basis for the initial thyroid dose estimates that have been established for the 40,000 children in the absence of personal interviews. As of August 1999, approximately 5,000 cohort subjects have been screened and interviewed. The initial estimates of individual thyroid dose are being revised for all of the cohort subjects that have been screened. The revision procedure of the 131 I thyroid dose assessment consists of two parts: (1) re-analysis of the direct thyroid measurements and (2) analysis of the responses to the personal interview which were conducted in order to determine the kinetics of the radioiodine intake by the cohort subjects. Revised estimates of thyroid dose resulting from 131 I intake are presented for a sample of 1,000 subjects residing in various areas of Belarus. The reason for the differences between the initial and the revised thyroid dose estimates are discussed. In addition to the estimation of the internal thyroid dose from 131 I, three minor contributors to the thyroid exposure are considered separately: (1) the internal exposure resulting from intake of short-lived radioiodines and radiotelluriums, (2) the internal exposure resulting from intake of other radionuclides (mainly radiocesiums), and (3) external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Examples

  9. Multiple benefits of personal FM system use by children with auditory processing disorder (APD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kristin N; John, Andrew B; Kreisman, Nicole V; Hall, James W; Crandell, Carl C

    2009-01-01

    Children with auditory processing disorders (APD) were fitted with Phonak EduLink FM devices for home and classroom use. Baseline measures of the children with APD, prior to FM use, documented significantly lower speech-perception scores, evidence of decreased academic performance, and psychosocial problems in comparison to an age- and gender-matched control group. Repeated measures during the school year demonstrated speech-perception improvement in noisy classroom environments as well as significant academic and psychosocial benefits. Compared with the control group, the children with APD showed greater speech-perception advantage with FM technology. Notably, after prolonged FM use, even unaided (no FM device) speech-perception performance was improved in the children with APD, suggesting the possibility of fundamentally enhanced auditory system function.

  10. Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and level of overweight in childhood is rapidly increasing. One potential contributor to the rise in overweight is a decline in physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to compare levels and patterns of PA and PA related personality in normal-weight (NW and overweight (OW 6- to 10-yr-old children. Methods Subjects were grouped into OW (N = 59, BMI = 24.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2 or NW (N = 61, BMI = 15.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2 according to International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Parents filled in a questionnaire on PA and sedentary behaviour and PA related personality of their child (born tired, moves slowly, is often tired, lacks energy, avoids physical efforts, prefers watching playing children instead of joining them, is always active, needs to let himself/herself go, has a lot of energy. Results NW children spent on average 77 min/day in MVPA, whereas OW children only 57 min/day (p = .001. OW children had fewer 5, 10 and 20 min bouts of MVPA (p = .01. OW and NW children showed identical PA patterns on both week days and weekends, although at different levels. According to parents' report, a greater percentage of OW children was not engaged in any sport (46% versus 23%, chi2 = 6.3, p = .01. OW children had a less active personality (p Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that NW children spent on average 20 min per day more in MVPA. PA patterns were similar in NW versus OW children, although at different levels. Greatest differences in PA according to weight status were found in the afternoon during after school hours. This is the first study to show distinct PA related personality traits in OW children compared to NW peers.

  11. COOPERATIVE PLAY AFFECTS SOCIAL INTERACTION OF CHILDREN WHO HAVE INTROVERT PERSONALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Rahmawati; Ah. Yusuf; Ilya Krisnana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: One of school age children may developing task is learning to interact with their peer groups. The introvert have problem with their social interaction. One ways that can increase the social skill is play activities with social situation. So social play activities: cooperative play can be one of alternative solution to increase social interaction of children with introvert symptom. This study was aimed to explain effect of social play activities: cooperative play on social inter...

  12. Artificial companions as personal coach for children: The Interactive Drums Teacher

    OpenAIRE

    Courgeon , Matthieu; Duhaut , Dominique

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The MOCA Project that aims at designing and studying the interaction and relationship between artificial companions and children in everyday life at home activities. Artificial companions are digital embodied entities that can be either robotic or virtual. In this paper, we focus on a single activity, subpart of the whole project: a coaching application that uses two artificial companions to teach the basics of drums to children. One device is a Nao robot, the other is...

  13. Investigating the Improvement of Decoding Abilities and Working Memory in Children with Incremental or Entity Personal Conceptions of Intelligence: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianna; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    One of the most significant current discussions has led to the hypothesis that domain-specific training programs alone are not enough to improve reading achievement or working memory abilities. Incremental or Entity personal conceptions of intelligence may be assumed to be an important prognostic factor to overcome domain-specific deficits. Specifically, incremental students tend to be more oriented toward change and autonomy and are able to adopt more efficacious strategies. This study aims at examining the effect of personal conceptions of intelligence to strengthen the efficacy of a multidimensional intervention program in order to improve decoding abilities and working memory. Participants included two children (M age = 10 years) with developmental dyslexia and different conceptions of intelligence. The children were tested on a whole battery of reading and spelling tests commonly used in the assessment of reading disabilities in Italy. Afterwards, they were given a multimedia test to measure motivational factors such as conceptions of intelligence and achievement goals. The children took part in the T.I.R.D. Multimedia Training for the Rehabilitation of Dyslexia (Rappo and Pepi, 2010) reinforced by specific units to improve verbal working memory for 3 months. This training consisted of specific tasks to rehabilitate both visual and phonological strategies (sound blending, word segmentation, alliteration test and rhyme test, letter recognition, digraph recognition, trigraph recognition, and word recognition as samples of visual tasks) and verbal working memory (rapid words and non-words recognition). Posttest evaluations showed that the child holding the incremental theory of intelligence improved more than the child holding a static representation. On the whole this study highlights the importance of treatment programs in which both specificity of deficits and motivational factors are both taken into account. There is a need to plan multifaceted intervention

  14. Morbidity pattern and personal hygiene in children among private primary school in urban area: are the trends changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaske, Mayavati S; Khismatrao, Deepak S; Kevin, Fernandez; Pandve, Harshal T; Kundap, Ritesh P

    2013-07-01

    School health is an important intervention as a great deal of research tells us that schools can have a major effect on children's health, by teaching them about health and promoting healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine common health problems and assess personal hygiene status among primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in academic years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, with three health check-up camps organized in private primary school of Pune city. A total of 450 students were assessed for health problems and composite score of personal hygiene status was calculated ranging from 0 to 5 by examination of hairs, nails, skin and clothes. Proportions calculated with application of Chi-square test and Pearson co-efficient applied to observe the relation between two quantitative variables. Out of 450 students examined, 56.2% were boys and 43.8% were girls with age ranging from 5 to 10 years. The major morbidities observed were dental caries (65.1%), upper respiratory tract infections (38.2%), ear wax (29.9%) and myopia (10.0%). Mean hygiene score was significantly higher in girls (4.32) than boys (3.95) and poor hygiene observed in older boys. Increasing myopia and poor dental hygiene denotes a changing morbidity pattern in private primary school of the urban area. The hygiene status of the girls is significantly better than boys.

  15. Influences of gender identity on children's maltreatment of gender-nonconforming peers: a person × target analysis of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Rachel E; Cooper, Patrick J; Perry, David G

    2014-05-01

    We investigated whether gender identity influences preadolescents' tendency to single out gender-atypical peers for abuse. Data were gathered from 195 boys and girls (M age = 10.1 years) in the fall and spring of a school year. Children self-reported multiple dimensions of gender identity (intergroup bias, felt pressure for gender differentiation, felt gender typicality, gender contentedness); peers assessed each other's social behavior (gender nonconformity, aggression toward each classmate). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how children's attacks on gender-nonconforming peers (relative to their attacks on other peers) changed over the school year depending on their gender identity. There was modest support for the hypothesis that overconfident, arrogant gender identity promotes abuse of gender-atypical peers but considerable support for the hypothesis that insecure, self-questioning gender identity fosters this tendency. Implications for issues central to contemporary personality theory (e.g., Person × Situation interaction) are discussed. New and somewhat surprising information about the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of gender-nonconforming preadolescents is provided.

  16. Self-worth and psychological adjustment of obese children: An analysis through the Draw-A-Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Alborghetti, Amelia; Bruno, Antonio; Troili, Giulia Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio

    2016-09-22

    To investigate psychopathological correlates of child obesity via the Draw-A-Person test (DAP). The participants were 50 children with a mean age of 9.74 years. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of body fat. Children were divided into normal (n = 17), overweight (n = 14) and obese (n = 19). Two qualitative methods of scoring the DAP based on an integrative approach were used to assess self-concept (ESW) and overall level of children's adjustment (EAC). A procedure for judging interpretative skills of clinicians was implemented before they evaluated children's drawings. As predicted by our hypothesis, BMI was negatively correlated with ESW, r (50) = -0.29, P < 0.05, but not with EAC, r (50) = - 0.08, P = ns. To evaluate the effect of gender, Pearson correlations were re-computed regrouping the sample accordingly: BMI and EAC reached a significant negative correlation in female subjects, r (24) = -0.36, P < 0.05, and a positive correlation in male subjects, r (26) = 0.37, P = < 0.05; negative correlation between BMI and ESW became stronger in females, r (24) = -0.51, P < 0.01 but not in males, whose correlation disappeared resulting not-significant, r (26) = -0.06, P = ns. No effect of age was found. Results indicate that obesity has a negative correlation exclusively on overall adjustment and self-concept in female children. It was concluded that there is a negative bias toward females that reveals how the stigma of obesity is widespread in Western society.

  17. Young siblings of children with cancer deserve care and a personalized approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, Luisa M; Wiley, Thomas J

    2008-03-01

    The youngest siblings may be both emotionally vulnerable and often neglected members of the family of a childhood cancer patient. The prompt identification of signs of distress in these subjects allows trained caregivers to intervene with personalized, age-appropriate, attention, and care. A narrative approach, based on personalized listening, writings, and spontaneous drawings, can provide the means to elicit markers of psychological maladjustment in even the youngest of siblings. Two exemplary cases are reported to illustrate this approach. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. LEGAL ANALYSIS OF ARTICLE 7 OF THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES: CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGNACIO CAMPOY CERVERA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to carry out an in-depth analysis of Article 7, “Children with disabilities”, of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. First of all it is explained how the Article 7 is the result of two different models of human rights: the “renewed” protectionism in relation with the children’s rights and the social model in relation with the rights of persons with disabilities. After, it is explained how was the development of the creation of Article 7 within the Ad Hoc Committee which was created for the elaboration of the Convention. In an extensive section it is analysed the wording of Article 7, particularly taking account of the General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Committee on the Rights of the Child. Finally, the analysis of the meaning and scope of Article 7 is completed, taking into account other articles of the Convention and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights.

  19. Components of Culture that Preclude Rejection of Developmentally Disabled Persons--Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Frederick A.; Radtke, Jean C.

    The paper deals primarily with the components of culture that preclude rejection of developmentally disabled persons with a view toward minifying these attitudes in the future. Reviewed are such components of culture as democratic ideals, religious factors, economic factors, and educational practices which foster negative attitudes toward the…

  20. A New Measure to Assess Psychopathic Personality in Children: The Child Problematic Traits Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik; Frogner, Louise; Lopez-Romero, Laura; Veen, Violaine; Andershed, Anna-Karin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the development of psychopathic personality from childhood to adulthood is crucial for understanding the development and stability of severe and long-lasting conduct problems and criminal behavior. This paper describes the development of a new teacher rated instrument to assess psychopathic personality from age three to 12, the Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI). The reliability and validity of the CPTI was tested in a Swedish general population sample of 2,056 3- to 5-year-olds (mean age = 3.86; SD = .86; 53 % boys). The CPTI items loaded distinctively on three theoretically proposed factors: a Grandiose-Deceitful Factor, a Callous-Unemotional factor, and an Impulsive-Need for Stimulation factor. The three CPTI factors showed reliability in internal consistency and external validity, in terms of expected correlations with theoretically relevant constructs (e.g., fearlessness). The interaction between the three CPTI factors was a stronger predictor of concurrent conduct problems than any of the three individual CPTI factors, showing that it is important to assess all three factors of the psychopathic personality construct in early childhood. In conclusion, the CPTI seems to reliably and validly assess a constellation of traits that is similar to psychopathic personality as manifested in adolescence and adulthood.

  1. Practitioners' Experiences of Personal Ownership and Autonomy in Their Support for Young Children's Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Sue; Fumoto, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the third phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship Project: "The Voice of the Child: ownership and autonomy in early learning". Building on the first and second phases of this study, this phase examined early years practitioners' experiences of supporting young children's thinking in relation to the personal…

  2. [Impacts of computer- and media usage on the personality development of children and young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süss, D

    2007-02-01

    The psychosocial development of children and the youth today is embedded in a media society. Socialization is understood as an interaction between the individual and its environment. Media are used to accomplish developmental tasks and media literacy has become a developmental task in itself. The presence of media in all social subsystems of every day life alters the general socialization processes, like the integration into peergroups or the detaching from the parents. Media can play the role of resources or the role of risk factors for the development. Empirical research shows that children's access to media is more and more enhanced and an increasing amount of time is spent with screen media. Media socialization of the young people takes on the mode of self education, but children are dependent on adults to prevent negative media effects such as Internet addiction. If media usage is part of an environment which is adequat for children's wellbeeing, the psychosocial development will not be affected negatively by the media.

  3. Long-Term Developmental Changes in Children's Lower-Order Big Five Personality Facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. de Haan (Amaranta); S.S.W. de Pauw (Sarah); A.L. van den Akker (Alithe); M. Deković (Maja); P.J. Prinzie (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ This study examined long-term developmental changes in mother-rated lower-order facets of children's Big Five dimensions. __Method:__ Two independent community samples covering early childhood (2-4.5 years; N=365, 39% girls) and middle childhood to the end of middle

  4. Long-term developmental changes in children's lower-order Big Five personality facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, A.D. de; Pauw, S. de; Akker, A.J. van den; Dekovic, M.; Prinzie, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined long-term developmental changes in mother-rated lower-order facets of children's Big Five dimensions. Method: Two independent community samples covering early childhood (2-4.5 years; N = 365, 39% girls) and middle childhood to the end of middle adolescence (6-17 years;

  5. Introducing Matrix Management within a Children's Services Setting--Personal Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Michael; Kakabadse, Nada K.

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on the introduction of "matrix management" arrangements for an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) within a Children's Service Directorate of a Local Authority (LA). It seeks to demonstrate critical self-awareness, consider relevant literature with a view to bringing insights to processes and outcomes, and offers…

  6. Individualizing and Personalizing communication and Literacy instruction for Children who are Deafblind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruce, Susan M.; Janssen, Marleen J.; Bashinski, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Interviews, field notes and 66 communication and literacy lessons, shared between 23 teachers and speech-language pathologists and 22 children who are deafblind (in the United States and the Netherlands) , were analyzed to identify professional views and intstructional strategies related to

  7. Epilepsy and violence: case series concerning physical trauma in children of persons with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauffin H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Helena Gauffin1,2 Anne-Marie Landtblom1–4 1Department of Neurology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Neurology Unit, Department of Medical Specialist, General Hospital, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, IMM, County Council, Linköping University, Motala, Sweden; 4Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Abstract: Historically, epilepsy has been associated with violence, but more recent studies have emphasized genetic and psychosocial factors as more important. The case series presented here aim to highlight the difficult situation the affected children are in. We report on three cases when children have been traumatized and, in one case, even been killed by their parent who was diagnosed with epilepsy. In the first case, we describe a woman with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy who was sentenced to forensic psychiatry care for killing her child. She lived under difficult psychosocial circumstances and a suicide attempt contributed to what happened. The second case describes a man with post-traumatic seizures who was sentenced for child abuse. Ictal or postictal violence was considered in these two cases but a causal link between the violence and epilepsy has not been established. In the third case, we describe a woman with focal epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNESs. Her child was hurt and frightened in relation to violent seizures, which were regarded as PNESs. This case series demonstrates that children of parents with epilepsy can be in a vulnerable situation. No causality has been established between the seizures and these events, so consequently other factors such as psychosocial stress, low cognitive function, and a suicide attempt must also be considered as important. When a child is hurt by a parent with epilepsy the patient must be closely examined to determine the role of the seizures

  8. Patterns of interparental conflict, parenting, and children's emotional insecurity: A person-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopystynska, Olena; Paschall, Katherine W; Barnett, Melissa A; Curran, Melissa A

    2017-10-01

    We examined the relations between interparental conflict (destructive and constructive), parenting behaviors (harshness and supportiveness) and children's emotional insecurity in early childhood when children were approximately 36 months of age. The sample consisted of low-income unmarried couples who were expectant/new parents who participated in the national Building Strong Families project. Interparental conflict was assessed through parents' reported perception of the other parent's conflict behavior. Parenting behaviors were measured through observational data, and children's emotional insecurity was based on parents' reports. Using latent profile analysis, three goals were addressed: (a) concordance or discord of mothers' and fathers' conflict behaviors, (b) the relation between couples' conflict behaviors and parenting, and (c) the association between couples' conflict behaviors and child emotional insecurity. Our findings revealed 4 profiles of couples that share similar characteristics, which in turn were differentially linked to aspects of parenting and child development. Further, results indicated that the vast majority of low-income unmarried couples engage in constructive conflict management behaviors. These findings highlight the need to consider the family unit when designing interventions or providing counseling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Index case finding facilitates identification and linkage to care of children and young persons living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saeed; Sabelli, Rachael A; Simon, Katie; Rosenberg, Nora E; Kavuta, Elijah; Harawa, Mwelura; Dick, Spencer; Linzie, Frank; Kazembe, Peter N; Kim, Maria H

    2017-08-01

    Evaluation of a novel index case finding and linkage-to-care programme to identify and link HIV-infected children (1-15 years) and young persons (>15-24 years) to care. HIV-infected patients enrolled in HIV services were screened and those who reported untested household members (index cases) were offered home- or facility-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) of their household by a community health worker (CHW). HIV-infected household members identified were enrolled in a follow-up programme offering home and facility-based follow-up by CHWs. Of the 1567 patients enrolled in HIV services, 1030 (65.7%) were screened and 461 (44.8%) identified as index cases; 93.5% consented to HIV testing of their households and of those, 279 (64.7%) reported an untested child or young person. CHWs tested 711 children and young persons, newly diagnosed 28 HIV-infected persons (yield 4.0%; 95% CI: 2.7-5.6), and identified an additional two HIV-infected persons not enrolled in care. Of the 30 HIV-infected persons identified, 23 (76.6%) were linked to HIV services; 18 of the 20 eligible for ART (90.0%) were initiated. Median time (IQR) from identification to enrolment into HIV services was 4 days (1-8) and from identification to ART start was 6 days (1-8). Almost half of HIV-infected patients enrolled in treatment services had untested household members, many of whom were children and young persons. Index case finding, coupled with home-based testing and tracked follow-up, is acceptable, feasible and facilitates the identification and timely linkage to care of HIV-infected children and young persons. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Evaluation of mental development of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected in screening test--personal observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Eugenia; Noczyńska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for a proper development of the central nervous system (CNS), skeleton and tooth buds. They are important from the early stages of fetal development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the mental development of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected in screening and to determine the effect of TSH, level of thyroid hormones during observation, perinatal factors as well as parental and environmental factors on the children's IQ. 44 children (28 girls and 16 boys) aged 3.5-18 years (mean age 7.3+/- 3.5) were enrolled in the study. The subjects' mental development was analyzed. General intelligence quotient was measured on verbal and non-verbal scale and chosen parameters of mental development were measured. The evaluation of mental development was performed in two age groups: group A - 20 patients in the age range 3.5-5.9 years (mean age 5.3+/-0.8) tested using the Columbus method, and group B - 24 patients in the age range 6-18 years (mean age 10.3+/-2.2) tested on the Wechsler Scale. The intelligence quotient (IQ) in both groups was within the average IQ range on Wechsler scale. Mean IQ values on verbal and non-verbal scale were comparable and within the average IQ range on Wechsler scale. The level of intelligence in group A correlated, on the brink of statistical significance (IS), with the education level of the parents (r=0.32; p=0.0934), while in the group B - IS correlated with birth weight (r=0.62; p=0.00247), it correlated on the brink of statistical significance with the education level of parents (r=0.4; p=0.0532) and mother's age (r=0.41; p=0.0514). The level of intelligence on verbal scale in group B, statistically significant, positively correlated with the body mass at birth (r=0.62; p=0.00147) and negatively with the mean value of TSH in 2-year follow-up period (r=-0.47; p=0.0381). The level of general intelligence and on verbal and non-verbal scale did not correlate with the time of commencement of therapy

  11. Assessment of spine pain presence in children and young persons studying in ballet schools

    OpenAIRE

    W?jcik, Ma?gorzata; Siatkowski, Idzi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Spine disorders affect various sections of the spine and have a variety of causes. Most pain occurs in the lumbo-sacral and cervical regions. Dance is associated with exercise. High levels of physical activity predispose to back pain occurrence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 237 ballet learners; 80 children (primary school level), mean age 11.24?0.77, mean of years of training ballet 2.14?0.74; 93 students (junior high school level), mean age 14.01?0.84, mean of years of ...

  12. [Planned children--supporting and inhibiting influences on the development of personality and relationships after technology-assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, Karin J

    2016-03-01

    In the western industrial countries more and more couples with an unfulfilled desire for a child use assisted reproductive technology (ART). This focusses on physical processes and doesn't sufficiently provide necessary supportive psychological/psychotherapeutic guidance.Neglecting the psychological dimension causes ART to enhance the risk for negative processes of emotional development of a child.After a brief overview of prevalence and summarizing the legal situation three areas will be discussed which involve a high risk potential and their influences on relationship- and personality development will be described: • The psychological burden for potential parents during the treatment. • Wishes of perfection and high expectations concerning the child which can turn normative crises into severe problems. • The frequent handling of the treatment as a taboo which can become a destructive family secret between parents and child.The paper will conclude with thoughts concerning prevention and treatment.Every person working in the field of childhood and adolescence can contribute to a healthy psychological development of these children. This means acknowledging and working through the emotional burden and the wishes and explaining about the dangers of taboos like in foster care and adoption.

  13. The effectiveness of discourse-based intervention on personal narrative of school-aged children with borderline intelligence quotient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belghis Rovshan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Discourse-based interventions were studied less in speech therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of discourse-based intervention on language disabilities in school-aged children with borderline intelligence quotient (IQ.Methods: In an experimental study, 33 students at the age of 6-13 years with borderline intelligence quotient (17 students for intervention and 16 students for control group were selected with available sampling. The intervention lasted 14 sessions (every session: 45 minutes that focused on the structure and content of discourse. Personal narrative was elicited with explanation of the same topic (go to a trip for pre- and post-test.Results: Mean scores of intelligence quotient, age and education had no difference between the two groups. The intervention caused the increase of compound sentences (p=0.038, types of cohesive conjunctions (p=0.003, and related information (p=0.008 and decrease of ungrammatical sentences (p=0.031.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that participation in the intervention program has a clinically significant effect on the participants' abilities to produce personal narrative.

  14. “Fairytale pedagogy” and non-fairy risks in emotional and personal development of the preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S. Burlakova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the need in differentiated cultural historical analysis of children’s development in the contemporary social and cultural stratification of the Russian society. The latter requires an analysis of different cultural and historical environments that are specific for different social strata, subcultural formations which are specified step by step in a particular family where the child is reared. The paper focuses on analyzing cultural historical and social situations with the development of contemporary children (5.5 to 7 years old in high-resource families of mid-upper social stratum living in the metropolis areas. On the basis of the empirical data receives within a particular family structure the child’s character is discussed on a par with his qualities which are most desirable, emphasized by parents and associated with the priorities of the group, according to which parents chose the way of developing their child. The discussion focuses on the strategies of child development in one of the most prestigious preschool educational institutions: the credo of the institution is analyzed, the main teaching strategies using the «fairy tales» are highlighted, the nature of the typical relationship between teachers and children in the institution is emphasized. Narrative allows to single out features of child perception and “recycling” this educational technology. The results obtained make it possible to identify major areas of risk in the emotional and personal development of children in this group supported by the ill-conceived teaching strategies, and they provide an opportunity to understand the obtained data in the wider cultural and historical perspective.

  15. Peculiarities of gastrointestinal disease concomitant to heart connective tissue dysplasia in children born from persons exposed to ionizing radiation in childhood after the ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashova, V.G.; Kolpakov, Yi.Je.; Vdovenko, V.Yu.; And Others

    2014-01-01

    UGITD namely chronic gastroduodenitis with typically concomitant involvement of several parts of digestive tract are most prevalent within all digestive system diseases in remote period upon the Chornobyl disaster in children born from persons exposed to ionizing radiation in a childhood. Presentation of UGITD occurs earlier in children suffering HCTDS with evident systemic pattern of organ and system injury along with an age. Refluxes of various nature and localization are the leading factors for UGITD onset in children suffering HCTDS. Thus a range of multidirectional tools of reflux disease prophylaxis is required for inclusion to the disease management

  16. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....403 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.403 What do protective services include? Protective services provided to a child, family or elderly person will be documented in...

  17. Disseminating cardiopulmonary resuscitation training by distributing 35,000 personal manikins among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Rasmussen, Lars S; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because most cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by lay persons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mass distribution of CPR instructional materials among schoolchildren. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: We distributed 35,002 resuscitation manikins to pupils (12 to 14 years of age) at 806 primary schools. Using the enclosed 24-minute instructional DVD, they trained in CPR and subsequently used the kit to train family and friends (second tier). They completed a questionnaire on who had trained...... in CPR using the kit. Teachers also were asked to evaluate the project. The incidence of bystander CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the months following the project was compared with the previous year. In total, 6947 questionnaires (19.8%) were returned. The 6947 kits had been used to train 17...

  18. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Strien, Rob T.; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources, personal cell

  19. Food and Personal Hygiene Perceptions and Practices among Caregivers Whose Children Have Diarrhea: A Qualitative Study of Urban Mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…

  20. Early Heritage-Language Education and the Abrupt Shift to a Dominant-Language Classroom: Impact on the Personal and Collective Esteem of Inuit Children in Arctic Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougie, Evelyne; Wright, Stephen C.; Taylor, Donald M.

    2003-01-01

    This research explored the impact of the abrupt shift from heritage-language to dominant-language education on Inuit children's personal and collective self-esteem. Specifically, the following question was addressed: will early heritage-language education serve as an inoculation against the potential negative impact of being submerged in a…

  1. Differences in compassion fatigue, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and relationship satisfaction, including sexual desire and functioning, between male and female detectives who investigate sexual offenses against children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Eric J; Lating, Jeffrey M; Lowry, Jenny L; Martino, Traci P

    2010-01-01

    Law enforcement detectives who work with traumatized individuals, especially children who were victims of sexual abuse or assault, are likely to experience job-related emotional distress. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among compassion fatigue, probable PTSD symptoms, and personal relationship satisfaction, including communication and sexual satisfaction, in a sample of 47 male and female detectives. Responses to the administered questionnaires indicated a relation between compassion fatigue symptoms and probable PTSD symptoms. There also were compelling gender differences. For example, for male detectives, open communication with their spouse or significant other was negatively correlated with burnout, indicating the more open the communication, the lower the reported burnout. However for female detectives there was a negative correlation between open communication with spouse or significant other and compassion satisfaction, suggesting that more open communication was related to lower levels of satisfaction with their ability to be a professional caregiver Furthermore, although stepwise regression analysis indicated that years of service as a detective is independently associated with sexual desire, female detectives evidenced less sexual desire and more difficulty with sexual functioning than did male detectives. Implications of these preliminary findings are discussed and limitations addressed.

  2. Role of impulsivity and other personality dimensions in attempted suicide with self-poisoning among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Gamaluddin, Hany; Mansour, Mona; Samiee', Afaf Abdel; Shaker, Nermin Mahmoud; El Rafei, Heba

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the role of impulsivity and personality dimensions in attempted suicide among youth. The study included 120 youths who attempted suicide and 100 matched controls. Attempters of suicide had higher total scores and subscales of impulsivity than controls. They had higher novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence scores, lower scores on persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. A total of 77.5% of suicide attempters had psychiatric disorders compared to 2% of controls. Main factors predicting the occurrence of suicidal attempts were the presence of psychiatric disorder, impulsivity, stressful life events, and high reward dependence of suicide attempters. The study supports that impulsivity and personality traits play an important role in youth suicide independently or as a part of other interacting factors.

  3. The Comparison of Drawing Family and the House-Tree-Person Test in Children with Addicted and Non-Addicted Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Shafiei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed at comparing results of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test in the children with addicted and non-addicted parents. Method: This is a scientific-comparative study in which 50 children with addicted parents attending Tehran rehab centers and 50 children with non-addicted parents who were selected using the random cluster sampling method were measured by means of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test. Findings: Results suggest that drawing indices in the are more in the house-tree-Person paintings and family drawings of the children with addicted parents in comparison to the non-addicted group, scoring higher in terms of the number of drawing indices such as depression and anxiety symptoms, weak self-esteem, and valuelessness. Conclusion: It can be said that the parents' drug abuse intensifies and expedites children's physical, affective and behavioral problems.

  4. Directory of Regional Centers and Educational Programs Providing Services to Deaf/Blind Children and Youth in the United States (Including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Lou, Comp.

    Listed in the directory are over 200 educational programs and services for deaf blind children in the United States and U. S. territories. It is noted that the 10 coordinators of regional centers for services to deaf blind children have aided in compilation of the directory. Listings are arranged by state within the New England, Mid-Atlantic…

  5. Insulin regimens and insulin adjustments in diabetic children, adolescents and young adults: personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchy, H

    2000-12-01

    Because recent multicenter studies, even those performed in developed countries without financial restriction, show that treatment of childhood diabetes is inadequate in general and that levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) are very different, diabetes treatment teams should individually explore the reasons for failure, without any prejudice or bias. The "good" treatment is signed by good HbA1c associated with good quality of life, and is not necessarily exportable without adjustment to the local way of life. HbA1c must be under 7%, if the upper normal limit is about 6%, which is possible, in our experience, even in diabetic children and adolescents. Our "recipes" are summarized. The number of daily insulin injections, 2 or 4, by itself does not necessarily give better results, but the 4-injection regimen allows greater freedom, taking into account that the proper insulin adjustment is difficult before adolescence. Successful glycemic control in young patients depends mainly on the quality and intensity of diabetes education. Any dogmatism must be avoided; only the objective result is important.

  6. Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar

    1982-01-01

    Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)

  7. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  8. Personalized Prognostic Risk Score for Long-Term Survival for Children with Acute Leukemia after Allogeneic Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitan, Menachem; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Millard, Heather R; Pulsipher, Michael A; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Auletta, Jeffery J; Brown, Valerie; Chan, Ka Wah; Diaz, Miguel Angel; Dietz, Andrew; Vincent, Marta González; Guilcher, Gregory; Hale, Gregory A; Hayashi, Robert J; Keating, Amy; Mehta, Parinda; Myers, Kasiani; Page, Kristin; Prestidge, Tim; Shah, Nirali N; Smith, Angela R; Woolfrey, Ann; Thiel, Elizabeth; Davies, Stella M; Eapen, Mary

    2017-09-01

    We studied leukemia-free (LFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with acute myeloid (AML, n = 790) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 1096) who underwent transplantation between 2000 and 2010 and who survived for at least 1 year in remission after related or unrelated donor transplantation. Analysis of patient-, disease-, and transplantation characteristics and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was performed to identify factors with adverse effects on LFS and OS. These data were used to develop risk scores for survival. We did not identify any prognostic factors beyond 4 years after transplantation for AML and beyond 3 years for ALL. Risk score for survival for AML includes age, disease status at transplantation, cytogenetic risk group, and chronic GVHD. For ALL, the risk score includes age at transplantation and chronic GVHD. The 10-year probabilities of OS for AML with good (score 0, 1, or 2), intermediate (score 3), and poor risk (score 4, 5, 6, or 7) were 94%, 87%, and 68%, respectively. The 10-year probabilities of OS for ALL were 89% and 80% for good (score 0 or 1) and poor risk (score 2), respectively. Identifying children at risk for late mortality with early intervention may mitigate some excess late mortality. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage from young children with chronic lung disease includes taxa present in both the oropharynx and nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R L; Kaestli, M; Chang, A B; Binks, M J; Pope, C E; Hoffman, L R; Smith-Vaughan, H C

    2016-07-07

    Invasive methods requiring general anaesthesia are needed to sample the lung microbiota in young children who do not expectorate. This poses substantial challenges to longitudinal study of paediatric airway microbiota. Non-invasive upper airway sampling is an alternative method for monitoring airway microbiota; however, there are limited data describing the relationship of such results with lung microbiota in young children. In this study, we compared the upper and lower airway microbiota in young children to determine whether non-invasive upper airway sampling procedures provide a reliable measure of either lung microbiota or clinically defined differences. The microbiota in oropharyngeal (OP) swabs, nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 78 children (median age 2.2 years) with and without lung disease were characterised using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) detected significant differences between the microbiota in BAL and those in both OP swabs (p = 0.0001, Pseudo-F = 12.2, df = 1) and NP swabs (p = 0.0001; Pseudo-F = 21.9, df = 1) with the NP and BAL microbiota more different than the OP and BAL, as indicated by a higher Pseudo-F value. The microbiota in combined OP and NP data (upper airways) provided a more comprehensive representation of BAL microbiota, but significant differences between the upper airway and BAL microbiota remained, albeit with a considerably smaller Pseudo-F (PERMANOVA p = 0.0001; Pseudo-F = 4.9, df = 1). Despite this overall difference, paired BAL and upper airway (OP and NP) microbiota were >50 % similar among 69 % of children. Furthermore, canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP analysis) detected significant differences between the microbiota from clinically defined groups when analysing either BAL (eigenvalues >0.8; misclassification rate 26.5 %) or the combined OP and NP data (eigenvalues >0

  10. The Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad

    2009-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…

  11. Relationship between tasks performed, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in Brazilian school children--a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Maria Serra-Negra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children's tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female, aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%, whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4% and some artistic activity (51.3% while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%. The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. CONCLUSION: Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism.

  12. Children and eating. Personality and gender are associated with obesogenic food consumption and overweight in 6- to 12-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Margarete E; Hampson, Sarah E; Júlíusson, Pétur B

    2012-06-01

    The role of children's personality traits in the consumption of potentially obesogenic foods was investigated in a sample of Norwegian children aged 6-12 years (N=327, 170 boys, 157 girls). Mothers rated their child's personality on the traits of the Five Factor Model (i.e., extraversion, benevolence, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and imagination). Mothers also completed a food frequency questionnaire assessing their child's consumption of sweet drinks, sweet foods, and fruit and vegetables, and reported their child's height and weight. Controlling for age and mothers' education, boys and girls who were less benevolent consumed more sweet drinks, and girls who were less conscientious and more neurotic consumed more sweet drinks. Boys and girls who were more benevolent and imaginative consumed more fruits and vegetables, and boys who were more extraverted, more conscientious, and less neurotic consumed more fruits and vegetables. Controlling for maternal education, boys and girls who were less extraverted, and girls who were less benevolent, less conscientious, and more neurotic were more likely to be overweight or obese. These findings suggest that children's personality traits play an important yet understudied role in their diet. Further investigation of mechanisms that relate child traits to obesogenic eating and overweight would be valuable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Corporal Punishment of Children in the Family based on the Semantic Reading of Traditional Islamic Narratives including the Word “Dharb” [Hitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حمیدرضا بصیری

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are various traditional Islamic narratives in relation to treating children. The common understanding of these narratives allows for the corporal punishment of children in the family, although some narratives forbid parents from such behavior. With reference to traditional Islamic texts, the word “hitting” (Arabic: dharb is the main and most frequently used word implying the permissibility of corporal punishment. An investigation of the use of the term “dharb” (Arabic: ضرب in the Quran, traditional Islamic narratives and the Arabic language reveals different instances of a general sense of “occurence” which can denote “doing or carrying out”. On this basis, a wide range of usages for this word in absolute terms (without preposition is conceivable with the meanings of protecting, financially supporting, guiding and nurturing children. It seems that limiting the meaning of dharb to corporal punishment in all traditional Islamic narratives without considering the other meanings has led to incorrect interpretations of such narratives.

  14. Heterogeneity in Clinical Symptoms and Cognitive Functioning of Children with Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and Inattention: Dimensional and Person-Centered Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambin Małgorzata J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate heterogeneity in clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning among children with hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention using a novel approach that combined dimensional and person-centered perspectives. Executive, verbal and visuo-spatial functioning, hyperactivity-impulsivity, inattention, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were examined in 102 children (37 girls and 65 boys at risk for ADHD and 62 children (31 girls and 31 boys not at risk for ADHD in the age range of 8–10 years. We extracted seven groups with various profiles of psychopathological symptoms and cognitive functioning. We propose that symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in these groups are related to different cognitive and affective-motivational problems.

  15. Relationship between Tasks Performed, Personality Traits, and Sleep Bruxism in Brazilian School Children - A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, Junia Maria; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen Elvira; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Background Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children’s tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. Methods And Findings A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female), aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C) were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%), whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4%) and some artistic activity (51.3%) while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%). The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. Conclusion Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism. PMID:24244614

  16. Personal strengths and traumatic experiences among institutionalized children given up at birth (Les Enfants de Duplessis--Duplessis' children): I: Early experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Sigal, John J; Boucher, Sophie; Paré, Nikolas; Ouimet, Marie Claude

    2005-12-01

    We examined childhood and early adult strengths and adverse experiences of a group of orphans given up at or near birth and raised in Quebec institutions into early adulthood. A follow-up interview of 81 adults (41 women, 40 men) at a mean age of 59.2 years included retrospective assessments of childhood experiences. Most participants reported multiple early adverse experiences, including, in descending order, unfair rules and excessive punishment, physical abuse, emotional neglect, witnessing violence, verbal abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and serious illness. Adverse experiences were mainly due to lay caretakers, not peers or nuns. Twelve childhood strengths, such as self-protectiveness and athletic talent, were scored at each of four age periods, yielding a median score equivalent to one strength at each period. Over half had significant childhood attachments, but of limited intimacy. Childhood variables correlated with their respective variables in later adulthood. Overall, these older adults reported a high prevalence of adverse or traumatic childhood experiences, counterbalanced by modest levels of individual strengths and attachment relationships. Institutionalization of children--if unavoidable--must build in effective safeguards against adverse experiences.

  17. A web-based programme for person-centred learning and support designed for preschool children with long-term illness: a pilot study of a new intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Anna-Lena; Simeonsdotter Svensson, Agneta; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Jenholt Nolbris, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    For children living with long-term illness, school age is a risk period with regard to psychosocial ill health and poor compliance with treatment. There is a need for methods to promote health, well-being, and self-esteem. This study describes a new concept for supporting children, person-centred web-based learning and support, which has been tested in 12 preschool children and incorporates learning about feelings, relationships, and the right to integrity. SKYPE was used for conversations between the child and the web teacher. Methods. The programme was developed and tested in two steps. The conversations were tape-recorded and analysed using phenomenography. The questions addressed concerned the quality of the intervention process: accessibility of intervention, learning content and support, and identification of measurable items and patterns. Findings. The children found it interesting to communicate with their web teacher using SKYPE. The story about Max and Sara served as a good basis for discussion, and development was found in the learning process. The children were able to talk about relations and feelings and developed an understanding for use in new situations in their daily lives. Items and patterns that are useful for research and documentation were identified, for example, well-being, resources, needs, and wishes.

  18. An exploratory study of drawings by bereaved children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, M; Thomas, G V

    1991-11-01

    Bereaved and non-bereaved children made drawings of a person, themselves, their family, and a topic of their choice; the drawings were then analysed to investigate whether the experience of bereavement was expressed in drawing in any reliable way. Bereaved children were no more likely than non-bereaved children to include indicators of emotional disturbance in their human figure drawings. Bereaved children, however, were reliably more likely than non-bereaved children to include themselves in a drawing of their family.

  19. Children Changing in Context: Child Temperament and Personality Development as Interrelated with Parenting in the Etiology of Adjustment Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this dissertation was to examine how child temperament and personality change, what the role of parenting is in explaining these changes, and how child temperament/personality and parenting together predict child internalizing and externalizing problems. In this dissertation, we

  20. Personality Predispositions to Depression in Children of Affectively-Ill Parents: The Buffering Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R. Z.; Fishman, Michael B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Young, Jami F.

    2012-01-01

    A major theory of personality predispositions to depression posits that individuals who possess high levels of self-criticism and/or dependency are vulnerable to developing depression following negative life events. The goal of the current study was to test this theory of personality predispositions and the self-esteem buffering hypothesis in a…

  1. Children's Behaviors and Emotions in Small-Group Argumentative Discussion: Explore the Influence of Big Five Personality Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting

    2009-01-01

    The assessment and structure of personality traits and small group learning during classroom discussions are both research fields that have undergone fast development in the past few decades. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and performance in discussions, especially with…

  2. Demonstrations of Agency in Contemporary International Children's Literature: An Exploratory Critical Content Analysis across Personal, Social, and Cultural Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Janelle B.

    2015-01-01

    International children's literature has the potential to create global experiences and cultural insights for young people confronted with limited and biased images of the world offered by media. The current inquiry was designed to explore, through a critical content analysis approach, international children's literature in which characters…

  3. Personalized web-based advice in combination with well-child visits to prevent overweight in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieken, van Amy; Vlasblom, Eline; Wang, Lu; Beltman, Maaike; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Hoir, L' Monique P.; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Background: Overweight is a major health issue, and parent-targeted interventions to promote healthy development in children are needed. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate E-health4Uth Healthy Toddler, an intervention that educates parents of children aged 18 to 24 months regarding

  4. "You might belong in Gryffindor": children's courage and its relationships to anxiety symptoms, big five personality traits, and sex roles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); B.N. Mayer (Birgit); T.W. Schubert (Thomas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study describes a first exploration of the construct of courage in youths. Children aged 8-13 years were invited to report on the most courageous action that they had ever performed during their life. In addition, the Courage Measure for Children (CM-C) was construed as an index of

  5. [Evaluation of physical development of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected in the screening test--personal observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Eugenia; Noczyńska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy resulting from thyroid hormones deficiency or lack of thyroid hormones (TH). Aim of the study is to evaluate the physical development of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected in screening tests, determine the effect of TSH level, thyroid hormones and perinatal, parental and environmental factors on the physical development of children. the study involved 79 children (47 girls, 32 boys) aged 3-18 years (mean age 7.3±3.5) with CH diagnosed in screening tests. Children's development was analysed in correlation with TSH value in the screening test, time of commencement of therapy with LT4, the initial dose of the LT4, mean TSH level in the first year of life, mean value of TSH and LT4 in the 2-year follow-up period, social origin, place of residence (village, city), parents': anthropometric parameters (BMI, height), age, level of education of the parents, which pregnancy it was, time of pregnancy. In children: body mass and length at birth, score on Apgar scale, additional chronic disease. Too low body mass was usually observed in the 2-4 month of life - 11.1%, while in the following months, the number of children with body mass below the 3 centile became lower. In children diagnosed with too low body mass 97 centile occurred more often in the group of children with CH in the age range of 11 months - 6.9 years than in the control group, whereas ≥7 years obesity did not occur. The number of children with insufficient body length increased in the age groups: 11-18 months - 7.4%; 1.6-3.9 years - 7.9 % and 4-6.9 years - 9.1%. Children ≥7 years with height 97 centile in three age groups did not go beyond 4%. The biggest number of children >97 centile was noted in the age group 1.6-3.9 years (7.9%). Mean height SDS in all age groups was within the norm (±1 SDS for healthy population). 1. Physical development of children in infancy was in normal range. 2. Mean SDS of body mass in children was

  6. Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Te Velde, S; Brug, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate potential personal, social and physical environmental predictors of daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake in 11-year-old boys and girls in nine European countries.Subjects:The total sample size was 13 305 (90.4% participation rate).Results:Overall, 43...... consistent. Differences between countries in cooking and preparing vegetables might be responsible for this larger diversity.Conclusions:This study showed that especially a combination of personal and social factors is related to daily fruit and vegetable intake in schoolchildren. This shows...... that a comprehensive multilevel intervention strategy based upon a series of individual and social correlates will be most promising in the promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in children.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2008) 62, 834-841; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602794; published online 16 May 2007....

  7. Personality predictors of the development of elementary school children's intentions to drink alcohol: the mediating effects of attitudes and subjective norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Andrews, Judy A; Barckley, Maureen; Severson, Herbert H

    2006-09-01

    The authors tested a mediation model in which childhood hostility and sociability were expected to influence the development of intentions to use alcohol in the future through the mediating mechanisms of developing attitudes and norms. Children in 1st through 5th grades (N=1,049) from a western Oregon community participated in a longitudinal study involving 4 annual assessments. Hostility and sociability were assessed by teachers' ratings at the 1st assessment, and attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions were assessed by self-report at all 4 assessments. For both genders, latent growth modeling demonstrated that sociability predicted an increase in intentions to use alcohol over time, whereas hostility predicted initial levels of these intentions. These personality effects were mediated by the development of attitudes and subjective norms, supporting a model wherein childhood personality traits exert their influence on the development of intentions to use alcohol through the development of these more proximal cognitions. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Non-Residential Father-Child Involvement, Interparental Conflict and Mental Health of Children Following Divorce: A Person-Focused Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-03-01

    Variable-centered research has found complex relationships between child well-being and two critical aspects of the post-divorce family environment: the level of non-residential father involvement (i.e., contact and supportive relationship) with their children and the level of conflict between the father and mother. However, these analyses fail to capture individual differences based on distinct patterns of interparental conflict, father support and father contact. Using a person-centered latent profile analysis, the present study examined (1) profiles of non-residential father contact, support, and interparental conflict in the 2 years following divorce (N = 240), when children (49 % female) were between 9 and 12 years of age and (2) differences across profiles in concurrent child adjustment outcomes as well as outcomes 6 years later. Four profiles of father involvement were identified: High Contact-Moderate Conflict-Moderate Support, Low Contact-Moderate Conflict-Low Support, High Conflict-Moderate Contact-Moderate Support, and Low Conflict-Moderate Contact-Moderate Support. Concurrently, children with fathers in the group with high conflict were found to have significantly greater internalizing and externalizing problems compared to all other groups. Six years later, children with fathers in the group with low contact and low support were found to have greater internalizing and externalizing problems compared to children with fathers in the high conflict group, and also greater internalizing problems compared to children with fathers in the low conflict group. These results provide insight into the complex relationship among non-residential fathers' conflict, contact, and support in child adjustment within divorcing families.

  9. Informant-related effects of neurofeedback and cognitive training in children with ADHD including a waiting control phase: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, Franziska; Zuberer, Agnieszka; Brandeis, Daniel; Drechsler, Renate

    2018-02-02

    There is controversy regarding the clinical efficacy of neurofeedback (NF) and computerized cognitive training (CogT) as treatments for ADHD. Meta-analyses claim that probably blinded teachers observe smaller effects than parents, because they are less biased. We investigated informant-specific effects by manipulating the involvement of informants, by controlling for waiting time effects, and by adding a blinded outcome measure. Seventy-seven children with ADHD were randomly allocated to slow cortical potential NF or to individualized CogT (of attention, working memory or inhibition). The training was conducted in schools (NF: n = 19, CogT: n = 19) or in outpatient clinics (NF: n = 19, CogT: n = 20). Three assessments were scheduled: baseline, followed by a waiting period, pre-training, and post-training. Multivariate Analyses of Variance were conducted to assess parent- and teacher-rated changes in ADHD symptoms and executive functions (EF), and changes according to standardized classroom observations. Both treatments resulted in significant improvements according to informants, with larger effects for parents (ADHD symptoms: parent η p 2  = .32; teacher η p 2  = .10), and according to observations (η p 2  = .19). The setting had no effect on outcome. Considerable waiting time effects were revealed for ADHD symptom ratings by both informants, for EF ratings only by teachers. Changed classroom behavior was uncorrelated with teacher-rated changes. Overall, the results do not support the notion that teachers are more objective while being as sensitive to change as parents. The three sources seem to contribute differential and mostly unrelated pieces of information to the evaluation of treatments.

  10. How does a newly encountered face become familiar? The effect of within-person variability on adults' and children's perception of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kristen A; Laurence, Sarah; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2017-04-01

    Adults and children aged 6years and older easily recognize multiple images of a familiar face, but often perceive two images of an unfamiliar face as belonging to different identities. Here we examined the process by which a newly encountered face becomes familiar, defined as accurate recognition of multiple images that capture natural within-person variability in appearance. In Experiment 1 we examined whether exposure to within-person variability in appearance helps children learn a new face. Children aged 6-13years watched a 10-min video of a woman reading a story; she was filmed on a single day (low variability) or over three days, across which her appearance and filming conditions (e.g., camera, lighting) varied (high variability). After familiarization, participants sorted a set of images comprising novel images of the target identity intermixed with distractors. Compared to participants who received no familiarization, children showed evidence of learning only in the high-variability condition, in contrast to adults who showed evidence of learning in both the low- and high-variability conditions. Experiment 2 highlighted the efficiency with which adults learn a new face; their accuracy was comparable across training conditions despite variability in duration (1 vs. 10min) and type (video vs. static images) of training. Collectively, our findings show that exposure to variability leads to the formation of a robust representation of facial identity, consistent with perceptual learning in other domains (e.g., language), and that the development of face learning is protracted throughout childhood. We discuss possible underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Personal samplers of bioavailable pesticides integrated with a hair follicle assay of DNA damage to assess environmental exposures and their associated risks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Anderson, Kim A; Chen, Haiying; Anderson, Rebecca; Salvador-Moreno, Naike; Mora, Dana C; Poutasse, Carolyn; Laurienti, Paul J; Daniel, Stephanie S; Arcury, Thomas A

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture in the United States employs youth ages ten and older in work environments with high pesticide levels. Younger children in rural areas may also be affected by indirect pesticide exposures. The long-term effects of pesticides on health and development are difficult to assess and poorly understood. Yet, epidemiologic studies suggest associations with cancer as well as cognitive deficits. We report a practical and cost-effective approach to assess environmental pesticide exposures and their biological consequences in children. Our approach combines silicone wristband personal samplers and DNA damage quantification from hair follicles, and was tested as part of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project involving ten Latino children from farmworker households in North Carolina. Our study documents high acceptance among Latino children and their caregivers of these noninvasive sampling methods. The personal samplers detected organophosphates, organochlorines, and pyrethroids in the majority of the participants (70%, 90%, 80%, respectively). Pesticides were detected in all participant samplers, with an average of 6.2±2.4 detections/participant sampler. DNA damage in epithelial cells from the sheath and bulb of plucked hairs follicles was quantified by immunostaining 53BP1-labled DNA repair foci. This method is sensitive, as shown by dose response analyses to γ radiations where the lowest dose tested (0.1Gy) led to significant increased 53BP1 foci density. Immunolabeling of DNA repair foci has significant advantages over the comet assay in that specific regions of the follicles can be analyzed. In this cohort of child participants, significant association was found between the number of pesticide detections and DNA damage in the papilla region of the hairs. We anticipate that this monitoring approach of bioavailable pesticides and genotoxicity will enhance our knowledge of the biological effects of pesticides to guide education programs and

  12. Features of Formation of Personality Traits of School-Age Children in the Use of Measures for Psychohygienic Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Mostova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the formation of personality traits of school-age chidren in the use of diagnostic and preventive programs psychohygienic correction for disorders of psychophysiological and psychological adaptation and changes in the health of 14–17-year-old students. To assess personality characteristics of students we used personality questionnaires of Eysenck, Spielberg and Phillips. The results determine the positive impact of measures for psychohygienic correction on the state of criterion parameters of anxious-neurotic personality traits of students of school age. Implementation of the developed program provide the appearance of the positive changes in the structure of indicators that display characteristics of neuroticism (p < 0.05, situational (p < 0.001 and personal (p < 0.01 anxiety both among girls and boys, and in the structure of indicators of school anxiety, determining the existence of problems in relationships with teachers (p < 0.05 among girls. Changes recorded during the analysis of the other components of school anxiety, i.e. personality traits of anxiety, adverse changes in the structure of which are directly related to the impact of such stressor as a modern school, had to be recognized as less significant, but in this case revealed changes should be interpreted as favorable.

  13. Swedish children with celiac disease comply well with a gluten-free diet, and most include oats without reporting any adverse effects: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsas, Dimitrios; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Högberg, Lotta; Hammersjö, Jan-Åke; Hollén, Elisabet

    2014-05-01

    The only known treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which initially meant abstention from wheat, rye, barley, and oats. Recently, oats free from contamination with wheat have been accepted in the GFD. Yet, reports indicate that all celiac disease patients may not tolerate oats. We hypothesized that celiac children comply well with a GFD and that most have included oats in their diet. A food questionnaire was used to check our patients; 316 questionnaires were returned. Mean time on the GFD was 6.9 years, and 96.8% of the children reported that they were trying to keep a strict GFD. However, accidental transgressions occurred in 263 children (83.2%). In 2 of 3 cases, mistakes took place when the patients were not at home. Symptoms after incidental gluten intake were experienced by 162 (61.6%) patients, mostly (87.5%) from the gastrointestinal tract. Small amounts of gluten (gluten consumption. Oats were included in the diet of 89.4% of the children for a mean of 3.4 years. Most (81.9%) ate purified oats, and 45.3% consumed oats less than once a week. Among those who did not consume oats, only 5.9% refrained because of symptoms. General compliance with the GFD was good. Only the duration of the GFD appeared to influence adherence to the diet. Most patients did not report adverse effects after long-term consumption of oats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of parenting styles of persons with and without spinal cord injury and their children's social competence and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, D H; Herson, L; Hudler-Hull, T

    2000-01-01

    This study compared the parenting styles of 62 individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and 62 individuals without disabilities and the behavior of their children aged 6 through 13 years. The relationship between parenting style and children's behavior was assessed. Pairs were matched by gender of parent and age and gender of child. The Parenting Dimensions Inventory and the Child Behavior Checklist were administered via telephone. After controlling for income, the 2 groups did not differ in the parenting factors of warmth/structure and strictness. Their children did not differ in social competence or behavior problems. Regardless of disability status, warmth and structure were found to be the aspects of parenting that were related to children's outcomes.

  15. Personal exposure measurements of school-children to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in winter of 2013, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Guo, Changyi; Jia, Xiaodong; Xu, Huihui; Pan, Meizhu; Xu, Dong; Shen, Xianbiao; Zhang, Jianghua; Tan, Jianguo; Qian, Hailei; Dong, Chunyang; Shi, Yewen; Zhou, Xiaodan; Wu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an exposure assessment of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter) among children and to explore the potential sources of exposure from both indoor and outdoor environments. In terms of real-time exposure measurements of PM2.5, we collected data from 57 children aged 8-12 years (9.64 ± 0.93 years) in two schools in Shanghai, China. Simultaneously, questionnaire surveys and time-activity diaries were used to estimate the environment at home and daily time-activity patterns in order to estimate the exposure dose of PM2.5 in these children. Principle component regression analysis was used to explore the influence of potential sources of PM2.5 exposure. All the median personal exposure and microenvironment PM2.5 concentrations greatly exceeded the daily 24-h PM2.5 Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, the USA, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The median Etotal (the sum of the PM2.5 exposure levels in different microenvironment and fractional time) of all students was 3014.13 (μg.h)/m3. The concentration of time-weighted average (TWA) exposure of all students was 137.01 μg/m3. The median TWA exposure level during the on-campus period (135.81 μg/m3) was significantly higher than the off-campus period (115.50 μg/m3, P = 0.013 < 0.05). Besides ambient air pollution and meteorological conditions, storey height of the classroom and mode of transportation to school were significantly correlated with children's daily PM2.5 exposure. Children in the two selected schools were exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 in winter of 2013 in Shanghai. Their personal PM2.5 exposure was mainly associated with ambient air conditions, storey height of the classroom, and children's transportation mode to school.

  16. Visual Perception and Recall of School-Age Navajo, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, and Caucasian Children of the Southwest including Results from a Pilot Study Among Eskimos and Athabascan School-Age Children of North Alaska. Monograph #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Laurel LeMieux

    The study determined if a significant difference was demonstrated between American Indians and Caucasians on visual perception and recall tasks associated with cognitive function. It was hypothesized that a significant difference existed between scores obtained by Indian children enrolled in reservation schools and that of Caucasian children…

  17. Personalized Web-Based Advice in Combination With Well-Child Visits to Prevent Overweight in Young Children: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grieken, Amy; Vlasblom, Eline; Wang, Lu; Beltman, Maaike; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; L'Hoir, Monique P; Raat, Hein

    2017-07-27

    Overweight is a major health issue, and parent-targeted interventions to promote healthy development in children are needed. The study aimed to evaluate E-health4Uth Healthy Toddler, an intervention that educates parents of children aged 18 to 24 months regarding health-related behaviors, as compared with usual care. The effect of this intervention on the following primary outcomes was evaluated when the children were 36 months of age: health-related behaviors (breakfast daily, activity and outside play, sweetened beverage consumption, television (TV) viewing and computer time), body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The BeeBOFT (acronym for breastfeeding, breakfast daily, outside playing, few sweet drinks, less TV viewing) study is a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 51 Youth Health Care (YHC) teams. In total, 1094 parents participated in the control group, and 1008 parents participated in the E-health4Uth Healthy Toddler intervention group. The intervention consisted of Web-based personalized advice given to parents who completed an eHealth module and discussion of the advice during a regular well-child visit. In this study the eHealth module was offered to parents before two regular well-child visits at 18 and 24 months of age. During the well-child visits, the parents' personalized advice was combined with face-to-face counseling provided by the YHC professional. Parents in the control group received usual care, consisting of the regular well-child visits during which general information on child health-related behavior was provided to parents. Parents completed questionnaires regarding family characteristics and health-related behaviors when the child was 1 month (inclusion), 6 months, 14 months, and 36 months (follow-up) of age. The child's height and weight were measured by trained health care professionals from birth through 36 months of age at fixed time points. Multilevel linear and logistic regression models were

  18. Food and personal hygiene perceptions and practices among caregivers whose children have diarrhea: a qualitative study of urban mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usfar, Avita A; Iswarawanti, Dwi N; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

    2010-01-01

    To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Urban Tangerang, near Jakarta, Indonesia. Twenty-four mothers whose monthly household income was less than $160 US and had latrines in their homes. To examine the relationship between mothers' perceptions and behaviors related to diarrhea, food hygiene, and personal hygiene. Interview transcripts were analyzed based on the phenomenon of interest and coded for common themes. Mothers differentiated diarrhea episodes as either disease or nondisease. Most mothers associated the importance of food hygiene with disease prevention, contaminating agents, and health. Mothers commonly wiped cutting boards with a kitchen towel after slicing vegetables, whereas they washed the board with soap and water after cutting raw meat. Mothers perceived that the importance of personal hygiene was for maintaining health and cleanliness. The majority of mothers washed their hands without soap after performing housework and cooking. Improving mothers' knowledge while incorporating existing perceptions might lead to positive changes.

  19. Representations of the caregiver-child relationship and of the self, and emotion regulation in the narratives of young children whose mothers have borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfie, Jenny; Swan, Scott A

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) represents a severe distortion in the development of attachment, self, and emotion regulation. Study of children at high risk of developing BPD may inform precursors to BPD. In a low socioeconomic status sample of 30 children aged 4-7 whose mothers have BPD and 30 normative comparisons, representations of the caregiver-child relationship and of the self, and emotion regulation were assessed with a story-stem completion measure. In contrast to comparisons and controlling for major depressive disorder, children whose mothers have BPD told stories with the following: (a) more parent-child role reversal, more fear of abandonment, and more negative mother-child and father-child relationship expectations; (b) more incongruent and shameful representations of the self; and (c) poorer emotion regulation indicated by more confusion of boundaries between fantasy and reality and between self and fantasy, more fantasy proneness, less narrative coherence, and marginally more intrusion of traumatic themes. In the sample as a whole, (a) a maladaptive caregiver-child relationship composite was associated with maternal identity disturbance and self-harm; (b) a maladaptive self-composite was associated with maternal self-harm; and (c) a maladaptive emotion regulation composite was associated with maternal identity disturbance, negative relationships, and self-harm. Results are discussed in terms of putative precursors to BPD and preventive interventions.

  20. The Role of Parenting for the Adjustment of Children with and without Learning Disabilities: A Person-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkauskiene, Rasa

    2009-01-01

    A person-oriented approach was used to examine the role of parenting in the associations between single learning disabilities and multiple learning disabilities and the adjustment difficulties in 8-11-year-olds. The results revealed that multiple, but not single, learning disabilities were associated with greater difficulties in emotional and…

  1. Evaluating Children's Learning Disabilities with an Apple II Personal Computer or Tempting Poor Learners with an Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Lee Hansen; And Others

    This paper describes the use of commercially-available software for the Apple Computer to augment diagnostic evaluations of learning disabled children and to enhance "learning to learn" strategies at the application/transfer level of learning. A short rationale discusses levels of evaluation and learning, using a model that synthesizes the ideas…

  2. Content Analysis of Free-Response Narratives to Personal Meanings of Death among Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Ching; Chen, Shih-Fen

    2006-01-01

    The study explores development of the concept of death among 204 Chinese children and adolescents and analyzes the relationships between death concept development and background variables. A coding manual for content analysis of death constructs adapted from R. A. Neimeyer et al. (1983) was used to classify each construct in the paragraphs written…

  3. Early Childhood Education and Care Practitioners' Perceptions of Children's Risky Play; Examining the Influence of Personality and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen

    2014-01-01

    While there is a growing interest in children's risk-taking behaviours and their safety when at play, there is also a focus on the need to balance the hazards of risks with the benefits of risk. This is also a growing concern among researchers of early childhood education and care (ECEC). The research conducted thus far on ECEC practitioners'…

  4. Children's Prosocial Conduct in Structured Situations and as Viewed by Others: Consistency, Convergence, and Relationships with Person Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Frank D.

    1980-01-01

    A sample of 41 fourth- through sixth-grade children participated in structured situations and were rated by themselves and their teachers on the same four facets of prosocial conduct (donating, helping, sharing, and cooperating). Among the results, the relationship between need for approval and prosocial conduct varied inversely with the…

  5. A School-Based Group Intervention to Strengthen Personal and Social Competencies in Latency-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMar, James

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a primary preventive intervention that prevents future chemical dependency in children (N=57). Results indicate substantial increases in internal locus of control, frustration tolerance, and assertive social skills, along with decreases in acting-out behavior. Findings suggest that school social workers can provide effective…

  6. Evaluation of Online and In-Person Nutrition Education Related to Salt Knowledge and Behaviors among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Whaley, Shannon E; Gurzo, Klara; Meza, Martha; Rosen, Nila J; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2017-09-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) differs from other federal nutrition programs in that nutrition education is a required component. WIC programs traditionally provide in-person education, but recently some WIC sites have started offering online education. Education focused on reducing salt intake is an important topic for WIC participants because a high-sodium diet has been associated with high blood pressure, and low-income populations are at increased risk. Our aim was to examine the impacts of traditional in-person and online nutrition education on changes in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors related to reducing salt intake in low-income women enrolled in WIC. Although a comparison of groups was not the primary focus, a randomized trial examining the impact of online and in-person nutrition education on participant knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors related to salt intake was conducted. Five hundred fourteen WIC participants from three Los Angeles, CA, WIC clinics received either in-person (n=257) or online (n=257) education. Questionnaires assessing salt-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors were administered at baseline and 2 to 4 months and 9 months later from November 2014 through October 2015. Positive changes in knowledge and self-efficacy were retained 2 to 4 months and 9 months later for both groups (Peducation resulted in improvements during a 9-month period in knowledge, self-efficacy, and reported behaviors associated with reducing salt intake in a low-income population. Offering an online education option for WIC participants could broaden the reach of nutrition education and lead to long-term positive dietary changes. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Pelican Project. Meeting the needs of children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragt, S.T.W.M. van

    2015-01-01

    The thesis, called ‘Pelican Project: Meeting the Needs of Children with asthma’ describes the importance of including personal treatment goals of children in the care of asthma. Through a health-related quality of life questionnaire, called ‘the Pelican instrument’, the treatment goals for children

  8. Infant SES as a predictor of personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although research into the continuity and change of personality traits during a lifespan has been fairly extensive, little research has been conducted on childhood predictors of adult personality. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the association between infant socioeconomic status (SES......), and Eysenck personality traits in adulthood. An additional aim was to investigate whether intelligence and education may mediate this association. METHODS: SES of 9125 children in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort was recorded at a 1-year examination. A subsample of this cohort, comprising 1182 individuals......, participated in a follow-up at 20-34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes measures of neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism and the so-called lie-scale. Associations of SES with each of the four personality traits were analysed by bivariate and partial...

  9. The association between kinematic risky driving among parents and their teenage children: moderation by shared personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Xie, Yunlong; Klauer, Sheila G; Albert, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the driving behavior of 42 parent-teenager dyads for 18 months, under naturalistic driving conditions. At baseline participants' personality characteristics were assessed. Objective risky driving measures (kinematic risky driving) were captured by accelerometers for the duration of the study. To estimate teenage and parent correlations in kinematic risky driving, separate Poisson regression models were fit for teenagers and parents. Standardized residuals were computed for each trip for each individual. Correlations were obtained by estimating the Spearman rank correlations of the individual average residuals across teenagers and parents. The bootstrap technique was used to estimate the standard errors associated with the parent-teenager correlations. The overall correlation between teenage and parent kinematic risky driving for the 18-month study period was positive, but weak (r=0.18). When the association between parent and teenagers' risky driving was adjusted for shared personality characteristics, the correlation reduced to 0.09. Although interesting, the 95% confidence intervals on the difference between these two estimates overlapped zero. We conclude that the weak similarity in parent-teen kinematic risky driving was partly explained by shared personality characteristics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A protective screen for persons assisting in X-ray examination of children and patients with severe diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    To increase the radiation protection reliability when carrying out auxiliary actions by medical attendants or patient relatives during X-ray investigations of children and seriously ill patients, X-ray screen provided with self-installed supporting rolls, a window with secured lead glass and a hand port is suggested. A screen constructure is described. Using the screens improves the radiation protection of roentgenologist

  11. Assessment of Personality Dimensions in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder Using the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Manoela; Caetano, Sheila C.; Hatch, John P.; Hunter, Kristina; Nicoletti, Mark; Pliszka, Steven R.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Soares, Jair C.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective We compared temperament and character traits in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BP) and healthy control (HC) subjects. Method Sixty nine subjects (38 BP and 31 HC), 8–17 years old, were assessed with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia–Present and Lifetime. Temperament and character traits were measured with parent and child versions of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Results BP subjects scored higher on novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and fantasy subscales, and lower on reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness compared to HC (all p adolescents. Higher parent-rated novelty seeking, lower self-directedness, and lower cooperativeness were associated with co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lower parent-rated reward dependence was associated with co-morbid conduct disorder, and higher child-rated persistence was associated with co-morbid anxiety. Conclusions These findings support previous reports of differences in temperament in BP children and adolescents and may assist in a greater understating of BP children and adolescents beyond mood symptomatology. PMID:19232019

  12. Reliability and validity of a questionnaire to measure personal, social and environmental correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in 10-11-year-old children in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Klepp, K-I; Due, P

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the internal consistency of the scales and the test-retest reliability and predictive validity of behaviour theory-based constructs measuring personal, social and environmental correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in 10-11-year-old children.......To investigate the internal consistency of the scales and the test-retest reliability and predictive validity of behaviour theory-based constructs measuring personal, social and environmental correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in 10-11-year-old children....

  13. The peculiarities of sexual development of children with clinical manifestations of insulin and leptin resistance born from the persons exposed in the childhood to radiation due to Chornobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopilova, O.V.; Stepanenko, O.A.; Tsvjet, L.O.; Matsyuk, Yi.V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to reveal the peculiarities of sexual development of the children with clinical manifestations of insulin and leptin resistance born from the persons who were exposed to radiation after Chornobyl accident in their childhood. The study involved 108 persons aged 12-14. The findings of the investigation demonstrated changes in the central and peripheral links of neurohumoral regulation disorders of thyroid metabolism, changes in menstrual cycle development.

  14. Personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments....... Patient characteristics included measures of symptom severity, personality pathology, trauma and socio-demographic characteristics. Significance testing and binary regression analysis were applied to identify important predictors. RESULTS: Patient characteristics on fifteen variables differed...

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux disease - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic esophagitis - children; Reflux esophagitis - children; GERD - children; Heartburn - chronic - children; Dyspepsia - GERD - children ... GERD. Certain factors can lead to GERD in children, including: Birth defects, such as hiatal hernia , a ...

  16. Personal and demographic factors and change of subjective indoor air quality reported by school children in relation to exposure at Swedish schools: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Smedje, Greta; Nordquist, Tobias; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies changes in subjective indoor air quality (SIAQ) among school children and relates these data to repeated exposure measurements during a two-year follow-up period. Data on SIAQ and demographic information were gathered by a questionnaire sent to 1476 primary and secondary school pupils in 39 randomly selected schools at baseline and after two years (follow-up). Exposure measurements were applied after questionnaire data were collected at baseline and follow-up in approximately 100 classrooms. The arithmetic mean values for baseline and follow-up were: for indoor air temperature 23.6°C and 21.8°C and for outdoor air flow rate 5.4 L/s and 7.9L/s. Older children, those with atopy at baseline, and those in larger schools reported impaired SIAQ during follow-up. Installation of new ventilation systems, higher personal air flow rate and air exchange rate, and better illumination were associated with improved SIAQ. Higher CO2 levels were associated with impaired SIAQ. In conclusion, sufficient ventilation and illumination in classrooms are essential for the perception of good indoor air quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Study of the Effect of a Child's Physical Attractiveness upon Verbal Scoring of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) and upon Personality Attributions

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Paula Theisler

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate possible examiner bias in scoring the Verbal subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) due to the level of facial attractiveness of the child. Sex of the child and sex of the research subject were also included as independent variables. No main effect for attractiveness or sex x attractiveness interactions were found. Thus, little evidence emerged to suggest attractiveness stereotyping effects in an intelligence testing ...

  18. Deceit and facial expression in children: the enabling role of the poker face child and the dependent personality of the detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marien eGadea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the relation between the facial expression of a group of children when they told a lie and the accuracy in detecting the lie by a sample of adults. To evaluate the intensity and type of emotional content of the children’s faces, we applied an automated method capable of analysing the facial information from the video recordings (FaceReader 5.0 software. The program classified videos as showing a neutral facial expression or an emotional one. There was a significant higher mean of hits for the emotional than for the neutral videos, and a significant negative correlation between the intensity of the neutral expression and the number of hits from the judges. The lies expressed with emotional facial expression were more easily recognized by adults than the lies expressed with a poker face; thus, the less expressive was the child the harder was to guess. The accuracy of the lie detectors was then correlated with their subclinical traits of personality disorders, to find that participants scoring higher in the dependent personality were significantly better lie detectors. A non-significant tendency for women to discriminate better was also found, whereas men tending to be more suspicious than women when judging the children’s veracity. This study is the first to automatically decoding the facial information of the liar child and relating the results with personality characteristics of the lie detectors in the context of deceptive behavior research. Implications for forensic psychology were suggested: to explore whether the induction of an emotion in a child during an interview could be useful to evaluate the testimony during legal trials.

  19. Investigating the improvement of decoding abilities and working memory in children with Incremental or Entity personal conceptions of intelligence: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eAlesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant current discussions has led to the hypothesis that domain-specific training programs alone are not enough to improve reading achievement or working memory abilities. Incremental or Entity personal conceptions of intelligence may be assumed to be an important prognostic factor to overcome domain-specific deficits. Specifically, incremental students tend to be more oriented toward change and autonomy and to adopt more efficacious strategies. This study aims at examining the efficacy of a multidimensional intervention program to improve decoding abilities and working memory. Participants were two children (M age = 10 yr. with developmental dyslexia and different conceptions of intelligence.Children were tested on a whole battery of reading and spelling tests commonly used in the assessment of reading disabilities in Italy. Then, they were given a multimedia test to measure motivational factors such as conceptions of intelligence and achievement goalsChildren took part in the T.I.R.D. Multimedia Training for the Rehabilitation of Dyslexia (Rappo & Pepi, 2010 reinforced by specific units to improve verbal working memory for three months. This training consisted of specific tasks to rehabilitate both visual and phonological strategies (sound blending, word segmentation, alliteration test and rhyme test, letter recognition, digraph recognition, trigraph recognition and word recognition are samples of visual tasks and verbal working memory (rapid words and non-words recognition.Posttest evaluations showed that the child holding the incremental theory of intelligence improved more than the child holding a static representation.On the whole this study highlights the importance of treatment programs in which account is taken of both specificity of deficits and motivational factors. There is a need to plan multifaceted intervention programs based on a transverse approach, looking at both cognitive and motivational factors.

  20. Children's Literature: An Issues Approach. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Masha Kabakow

    Introducing children from kindergarten through junior high school to the joy and benefits of reading, this book examines children's literature and its treatment of important, sometimes controversial issues. Focusing on the personal and societal concerns of today's youth--including sexuality, divorce, heritage, abuse, and death--the book offers…

  1. Personality development after physical abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R K

    1984-01-01

    Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

  2. Estudo de validade do DFH como medida de desenvolvimento cognitivo infantil The Draw-a-Person test as a valid measure of children's cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ruschel Bandeira

    2008-01-01

    concurrent validity. Ninety children from 6 to 12 years old (M=8,99 and SD=1,79, 37 girls and 53 boys, from public schools (kindergarten to 6th grade, who did not engage in psychological treatment and did not have learning disabilities participated in this study. Results showed moderate positive correlations among the three instruments, confirming that DAP scored via Wechsler' system is a valid measure of cognitive development. Suggestions are made in the sense of including DAP in assessment batteries or using it as a brief assessment.

  3. Getting poetic with data: Using poetry to disseminate the first-person voices of parents of children with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bernie; Sanders, Caroline; Bray, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the limitations of traditional prose-based approaches to research dissemination and explores the potential merits and tensions in adopting a poetic approach to disseminate participants' experiences and perspectives. Drawing on our experience of using I-poetry to create first-person poems from our research data we discuss the attractiveness of the subjective, expressive and relational opportunities of poetry, and its ability to compress experience and create emotional connections and evoke emotion. We also reflect upon and discuss the limitations, challenges and criticisms of the use of research poetry, with a specific focus on the use of data poems and their value in disseminating research findings. Using poetry compelled us to think with our data differently and our poems have generated visceral responses from parents and professionals. Research poetry has value within academic and clinical worlds but its greatest potential perhaps lies in providing a means of disseminating research to the wider range of stakeholders. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ljungman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. A secondary aim was to present a cognitive behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related distress for these parents. Methods An open trial was conducted where 15 parents of children who had completed successful treatment for cancer three months to five years earlier and who reported psychological distress related to a child’s previous cancer disease were provided CBT at a maximum of 15 sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up using self-reported psychological distress (including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, depression, and anxiety and the diagnostic Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Feasibility outcomes relating to recruitment, data collection, and delivery of the treatment were also examined. Individual case formulations for each participant guided the intervention and these were aggregated and presented in a conceptualization detailing core symptoms and their suggested maintenance mechanisms. Results A total of 93% of the participants completed the treatment and all of them completed the follow-up assessment. From baseline to post-assessment, parents reported significant improvements in PTSS, depression, and anxiety with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen’s d = 0.65–0.92. Results were maintained or improved at a three-month follow-up. At baseline, seven (47% participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and four (29% fulfilled the criteria for

  5. An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Ghaderi, Ata; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2018-01-01

    A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. A secondary aim was to present a cognitive behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related distress for these parents. An open trial was conducted where 15 parents of children who had completed successful treatment for cancer three months to five years earlier and who reported psychological distress related to a child's previous cancer disease were provided CBT at a maximum of 15 sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up using self-reported psychological distress (including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and anxiety) and the diagnostic Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Feasibility outcomes relating to recruitment, data collection, and delivery of the treatment were also examined. Individual case formulations for each participant guided the intervention and these were aggregated and presented in a conceptualization detailing core symptoms and their suggested maintenance mechanisms. A total of 93% of the participants completed the treatment and all of them completed the follow-up assessment. From baseline to post-assessment, parents reported significant improvements in PTSS, depression, and anxiety with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.65-0.92). Results were maintained or improved at a three-month follow-up. At baseline, seven (47%) participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and four (29%) fulfilled the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, compared to

  6. The Easter Seal Directory of Resident Camps for Persons with Special Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, Chicago, IL.

    The directory of resident camps is designed for persons with special health needs (children and adults with physical, mental, social, or emotional handicaps). Published by the National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, the listing contains residential facilities only (day care camp program information is not included). Listed…

  7. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION SUPPORTING CHILDREN WITH BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR REFERENCE PERSONS IN LOWER PRIMARY SCHOOL (GRADES 1-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike BECKER

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: in Germany we may state that despite all efforts of inclusive education there is a tendency towards segregated education as far as “Emotional and Social Development” is concerned. In Berlin, the “Transition” project could be developed. By the help of this support approach it was possible all participating children to stay at their primary schools. Aims: the survey was meant to find out in which way the support, in context of the “Transition” project, has contributed to successful inclusive learning of students with considerable problems in their social behaviour. Methods:a semi-standardized questionnaire for interviewing class teachers of regular school classes was used, and furthermore school certificates were assessed concerning regular school attendance as well as performance in Mathematics and German. Nine Berlin schools took part in the survey. The response rate was 96%. Results: the current survey shows that inclusive education in case of considerable problems in social behaviour may be successful by counselling parents and teachers, by cooperation with school and by youth aid, as well as by way of a temporary learning group relieving both students with difficult behaviour as well as the overall group and the teachers, one succeeds with practicing recognition and acceptance, even despite serious behavioural problems at school. Conclusion: the results clearly show that the teacher - student interaction and the student - student interaction improves significantly in the subjective perception of class teachers. For this relationship to work, all those participating in it need “a specific environment”.

  8. Personalized Search

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749939

    2015-01-01

    As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.

  9. Development of naive personality perception

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Tomoyuki

    2004-01-01

    Lay persons usually understand that the personality has consistency and causality. They also have the knowledge of what contents the personality consists of. Research of "theories of mind," which focuses on the developmental processes of the naive understanding of mind, suggests three stages : (a) alignment of actions (imitation) fosters the foundation of social cognition in young children (i.e., understanding that the mind causes behaviors, grasping the identity of a person, and discovering ...

  10. Personality and Depression: Explanatory Models and Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Kotov, Roman; Bufferd, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the association between personality and depression has implications for elucidating etiology and comorbidity, identifying at-risk individuals, and tailoring treatment. We discuss seven major models that have been proposed to explain the relation between personality and depression, and we review key methodological issues, including study design, the heterogeneity of mood disorders, and the assessment of personality. We then selectively review the extensive empirical literature on the role of personality traits in depression in adults and children. Current evidence suggests that depression is linked to traits such as neuroticism/negative emotionality, extraversion/positive emotionality, and conscientiousness. Moreover, personality characteristics appear to contribute to the onset and course of depression through a variety of pathways. Implications for prevention and prediction of treatment response are discussed, as well as specific considerations to guide future research on the relation between personality and depression. PMID:21166535

  11. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  12. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Adult Children's Support of Their Frail Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen

    2008-01-01

    Using three waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study, I examined the association of parental divorce and remarriage with the odds that biological, adult children give personal care and financial assistance to their frail parents. The analysis included 5,099 adult children in the mother sample and 4,029 children in the father sample.…

  13. Gardening with Children: My Summers at Beanstalk Children's Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecklin, Vicki L.

    2009-01-01

    There has been increased interest in recent years on gardening with children and a variety of programs have been started to support different types of programmatic goals. Goals of gardening programs include environmental stewardship, personal growth/social skills, an integrated learning environment, nutrition/health, science education, practical…

  14. Contaminants of Emerging Concern including Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) and the Office of Water (OW) assess the effects of pesticides on aquatic ecosystems using approaches that afford a high degree of protection for aquatic life and that were developed with high quality data.

  15. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of selected parameters of the endothelial function in brachial arteries and IMT measurements in carotid arteries in children with diabetes type 1 using personal insulin pumps--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tołwińska, Joanna; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Urban, Mirosława; Florys, Bozena; Peczyńska, Jadwiga

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a known risk factor for arterial atherosclerosis. The first symptoms can be found even in childhood. The ultrasonographic measurements of intimal plus medial thickness in carotid arteries (IMT) and flow mediated dilatation (FMD) evaluated in brachial arteries, play a known role in the detection in these cases. The diabetes treatment intensification is an important factor in delaying early atherosclerotic changes. Currently, intensive treatment of children's diabetes with use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with personal insulin pumps is gaining more and more popularity. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY was the evaluation of IMT and FMD indexes in children suffering from type 1 diabetes in the context of treatment intensification (multidose insulin injections v. personal insulin pumps). We examined 64 children (29 boys and 35 girls) in the mean age 15.5 years treated with the multidose insulin injections method and 10 children using personal insulin pumps (4 girls and 6 boys) in the mean age 14.5 years. Using high resolution ultrasonography we evaluated IMT values in carotid arteries and FMD parameters in brachial arteries. In our analysis we estimated the blood concentration of lipid parameters, values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the age of diabetes onset, duration time of the illness and the values of HbA1c as a marker of metabolic control. We noticed significantly higher FMD values in patients treated with personal insulin pumps (13.7 vs. 5.5%, p=0.001). IMT values were similar in both groups (0.52 vs. 0.5 mm, p=0. 41). The level of HDL cholesterol was higher and triglycerides lower in the group with treatment intensification. The metabolic control was the same in both groups. In patients treated by the multidose insulin injections IMT correlated with systolic blood pressure values. We didn't notice any correlation between IMT and FMD in any group. 1. Treatment intensification (personal insulin pumps) influences better vascular

  16. Four-years experience with monitoring of persons at the treatment of children patients with neuroblastoma by 131I-MIBG combination with hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanska, J.; Zimak, J.; Paskova, Z.; Dosel, P.

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of children patients with neuroblastoma by 131 I-MIBG in combination with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) started in the Czech Republic in 1997. Estimation of radiation load from extemal irradiation plays very important role in the treatment scheme elaborated at the Department of Nuclear Medicine. According to this scheme, activities of 5.5 GBq and 3.7 GBq are administered at the first and repeated therapies,respectively. 3 rd , 4 th , 5 th and 6 th day after the administration patients undergo HBO in the Institute of Aviation Medicine Prague. Activity administration and following care are realised at the bed station of the Department of Nuclear Medicine, which is the workplace of III. category with unsealed radionuclide sources. Real dose equivalents were checked during the reported four-year period. Members of both groups were equipped by personal digital dosemeters STEPHEN 6000 for inspection. From the presented results, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Monitoring of family members has to be performed in spite of the fact that exceeding of equivalent dose of 5 mSv is non-realistic. Unexpected situation concerning behaviour of both parents and children cannot be excluded. Moreover, records of H-values have to be stored and analysed in the case of possible pregnancy. (2) A question arises in connection with the special limit 5 mSv: What is the whole time of the treatment? Is it possible to understand it, similarly as in the case of iodine therapy, as 5 mSv per year or is it necessary to take into account really the whole, often very long, time of the treatment? (3) Monitoring of the staff maintaining the hyperbaric chamber and ambulance drivers seems to be unnecessary. Under normal condition, the staff is outside the chamber and its contact with a patient is minimal. In unusual situation, the instructed nurse from the Department of Nuclear Medicine equipped by STEPHEN 6000 will estimate dose equivalent and contact responsible medical

  17. Assessment of phthalates/phthalate alternatives in children's toys and childcare articles: Review of the report including conclusions and recommendation of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel of the Consumer Product Safety Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Hauser, Russ; Gennings, Chris; Koch, Holger M; Mirkes, Philip E; Schwetz, Bernard A; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) convened a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on Phthalates found in children's toys, and childcare products, and in products used by women of childbearing age. The CHAP conducted a risk assessment on phthalates and phthalate substitutes, and made recommendations to either ban, impose an interim ban, or allow the continued use of phthalates and phthalate substitutes in the above products. After a review of the literature, the evaluation included toxic end points of primary concern, biomonitoring results, extant exposure reconstruction, and epidemiological results. The health end points chosen were associated with the rat phthalate syndrome, which is characterized by malformations of the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, external genitalia (hypospadias), and by cryptorchidism (undescended testes), retention of nipples/areolae, and demasculinization (~incomplete masculinization) of the perineum, resulting in reduced anogenital distance. Risk assessment demonstrated that some phthalates should be permanently banned, removed from the banned list, or remain interim banned. Biomonitoring and toxicology data provided the strongest basis for a mixture risk assessment. In contrast, external exposure data were the weakest and need to be upgraded for epidemiological studies and risk assessments. Such studies would focus on routes and sources. The review presents recommendations and uncertainties.

  18. The Challenge of Personal Pronouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Warren H.

    1972-01-01

    Discussed are problems in the verbal comprehension and production of personal pronouns by learning disabled children. A learning approach based on echolalia and favoring a focus on the pronoun you which the child hears is advocated. (KW)

  19. Personality attributes of children with behavior problems. An exploratory analysis with the Exner Comprehensive System of the Rorschach Inkblot Test and implications for the socio-historical clinical practice approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From a Relational-Historical theoretical framework applied to clinical psychological practice, this study examines the data set underlying the personality attributes of different groups of children with behavior problems as demonstrated on the Rorschach Inkblot Test. To define the groups, categories were established from parents’ descriptions of their own children. This procedure allowed for the formation of three major psychological profiles: hyperkinetic, oppositional defiant, and antisocial (Saraiva & Ferreira, 2016. The major goal of this study is data exploration in a clinical setting, in order to investigate whether and in what ways groups of hyperkinetic, oppositional defiant, and antisocial children differ. These profile characteristics are important issues embraced by both psychodiagnosis and psychotherapy. The participants for this study were 39 Portuguese children, who were private clinic clients; there were 24 boys and 15 girls between the ages of 6 and 14. Their personality attributes were measured using the Rorschach Inkblot Test (Rorschach, 1994, and the Comprehensive System developed by Exner (1991, 1993, 2000 was applied, with the support of the clinical interpretation provided by Quintino-Aires (1999; 2009; 2012; 2014. Comparison of the three profiles showed four common aspects of personality structure: a deficit in cognitive perceptual skills, lack of self-control, limited relational skills, and low self-esteem. Differences in the three profiles revealed factors related to the functional characteristics of specific behavior patterns. Children with the hyperkinetic psychological profile show factors of difficulty in controlling their activity, impulsivity, and overlapping emotions about conscious action. Those with the oppositional defiant profile revealed factors of low self-confidence, low trust in others, high pessimism, loneliness, and structural stress. Finally, those with the antisocial profile had factors of a deficit

  20. Extending Big-Five Theory into Childhood: A Preliminary Investigation into the Relationship between Big-Five Personality Traits and Behavior Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, David J.; McGhee, Ron L.; Evans, J. Gary

    1999-01-01

    Investigation conducted to link Big-Five personality traits with behavior problems identified in childhood. Results show distinct patterns of behavior problems associated with various personality characteristics. Preliminary data indicate that identifying Big-Five personality trait patterns may be a useful dimension of assessment for understanding…

  1. A Person-Centered Exploration of Children of Immigrants' Social Experiences and Their School-Based Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieloch, Kerrie A.; Marks, Amy K.; García Coll, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to explore commonalities among discrimination, stereotyping, and peer-related social experiences of children of immigrants, and to see if these experiences might relate to children's school-based well-being. Two age-based cohorts of 294 children and their immigrant parents from Portugal, the Dominican Republic, and Cambodia were…

  2. An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Ljungman; Martin Cernvall; Ata Ghaderi; Gustaf Ljungman; Louise von Essen; Brjánn Ljótsson

    2018-01-01

    Objective A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer...

  3. Balanced parenting style and its impact on the development of child personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes research results of families, who have never applied to psychological counselling. To assess the normality and abnormality of parent and child personality existential criterion was used. In these families a so-called balanced style of parenting was revealed. This style indicates the compromising parental position in the education of their children concerning the existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determinism and self-determination. The study results suggest that this position is developed by parents independently and on a rational basis. In accordance with the existential criterion mentioned above, characteristics of the educational position of parents indicate normality of their personality. It is shown that a balanced style of parenting contributes to developing child personality type with a dual, contradictory orientation for both children and their parents when solving life problems. Children with this type of personality, as well as their parents, manifest inherent willingness to compromise position towards the same existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determinism and self-determination. Thanks to a balanced style of parenting favourable personal prerequisites for the development of normal personality are shown. As balanced style of parenting contributes to the normal development of child personality, these children have lack personal prerequisites for emerging difficulties in social adaptation, and therefore in families with such style of solving parent-child problems, due to these difficulties are completely absent.

  4. The birth order and personalities of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Ob, Tinnakorn; Boonyanaruthee, Vudhichai; Pinyopornpanich, Manee; Intaprasert, Suthi; Kuntawongse, Nahathai

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how birth position i.e. first-born, middle-born, lastborn, and only child, correlates with personality. One hundred and eighty from 186 (97%) 1st year medical students of Chiang Mai Medical School were asked to complete a questionnaire and take a personality test. The data obtained included age, sex, Grade Point Average (GPA), and family background i.e. birth order and the students' personality profiles, which were assessed by the California Psychological Inventory (CPI). The results showed that only children and lastborn had more positive personality factors than other groups. They had more ambition, breadth of interests, versatility, self confidence, clear-thinking, intelligence, and independence than first-born and middle-born (Cs and Ai scale on CPI). In addition, the students whose parents had died, separated, or divorced had some personality profiles that differed from the others. The findings both supported and contradicted other papers.

  5. Associations linking parenting styles and offspring personality disorder are moderated by parental personality disorder, evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui Green; Huang, Yueqin; Liu, Zhaorui; Liu, Baohua

    2011-08-30

    The aim of the study is to examine the association linking parenting and personality disorder controlling for parental personality disorder, and whether this association is moderated by parental PD. Data were from community-dwelling high school students aged 18 and above and their parents living in Beijing, China. A total of 181 cases and 2,605 controls were included in this study. Personality disorder in students was assessed via a two-stage approach, Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire as a screening tool and International Personality Disorder Examination as the diagnostic tool. Information about parenting was collected from students using Egna Minnen av. Betraffande Uppfostran. Negative parenting styles, e.g. rejective or over-protective parenting, were found to be associated with the occurrence of personality disorder. Conflictive parenting styles were also found to be associated with personality disorder. Generally stronger associations were found for students with parental personality disorder as compared to students without parental personality disorder. Findings from this study support the role of parenting in the occurrence of PD, especially for children with family history of personality disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  7. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  8. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders in Adults Data Sources Share Personality Disorders Definitions Personality disorders represent “an enduring pattern of inner ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  9. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  10. Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of children's learning is emerging. This new field differs from the old in recognizing that children's learning includes active as well as passive mechanisms and qualitative as well as quantitative changes. Children's learning involves substantial variability of representations and strategies within individual children as well as…

  11. Evidence for extended age dependent maternal immunity in infected children: mother to child transmission of HIV infection and potential interventions including sulfatides of the human fetal adnexa and complementary or alternative medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; Huilgol, Vidya; Metri, Kashinath; Sundell, I Birgitta; Tripathi, Satyam; Ramagouda, Nagaratna; Jadhav, Mahesh; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra; Koka, Prasad S

    2012-01-01

    The two neighboring southwestern states of India, Karnataka and Maharashtra, have high incidence of HIV/AIDS and are among the six most high prevalence HIV infected states. In Karnataka state, the northern districts of Bagalkot, Belgaum and Bijapur (the three Bs) and in Maharashtra state, the southern districts of Sangli, Satara, and Solapur (the three Ss) are the areas with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS. We have evaluated the incidence of maternal to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 infection in Belgaum District which is more than 500 kilometers distance by road from the campus in greater Bangalore (Karnataka State). We have obtained the prenatal CD4 counts of HIV infected pregnant mothers. We have also screened the HIV infected children in two orphanages (rehabilitation centres for HIV infected children) in Belgaum District. The clinical conditions of these infected children were assessed for their CD4 counts, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) intake status, outpatient illnesses and body composition. We have observed that there is an influence of the age factor on the CD4 counts of the HIV infected children. Further, in view of the role of our recently found involvement of sulfatide, 3-O- galactosylceramide, in inhibition of HIV-1 replication and enhancement of hematopoiesis which is otherwise inhibited due to such infection, we have discussed the possible role of sulfatides that biologically occur in the fetal adnexa (placentatrophoblasts /amnion/chorion-umbilical cord), in containing HIV infection as a potential safer alternative to the ART regimens currently approved to be clinically practiced. Lastly, we have discussed the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies such as evidence based yoga and ayurveda as add-on to ART in potential elimination of MTCT of HIV infection. Out of a total of 150 children delivered by HIV infected mothers, 13 children were found to be positive as determined by the dried blood smear (DBS) for virological testing

  12. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  13. Integrating the persons communicating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents some grounds for the working out of insights developed by Roy Harris and the fellow integrationalists, including the person-centered focus of Otto Jespersen when dealing with future communication studies. Whenever we are speaking of ‘something verbal’, immediately we are opening...... of ‘language’ evaporates, and we are left solely with persons and their understandings, actions and expressions to be investigated by us professionals, collaborating with the persons under scrutiny....

  14. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  15. Parental Perceptions of Life Context Variables for Involvement in Their Young Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ali Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover Turkish parents' perceptions of life context variables, including personal knowledge and skills and personal time and energy for involvement activities in their young children's education. The scales used in this study were based on parents' self-report, and included: (1) Parental Perceptions of Personal…

  16. Personal Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Climent i Martí, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Grado leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2013/2014. Director: Cristina Ayala del Pino Con este Trabajo Fin de Grado he querido aproximar el concepto del Personal Branding y de marca personal como la herramienta para diferenciarse en el entorno profesional. Partiendo con la definición del concepto, su construcción, el panorama actual, compaginar empleo con marca personal y acabando con la visión personal de un gurú de la Marca Person...

  17. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal

  18. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  19. Association of a four-locus gene model including IL13, IL4, FCER1B, and ADRB2 with the Asthma Predictive Index and atopy in Chinese Han children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S; Hua, L; Wang, X; Liu, Q; Bao, Y

    2018-05-11

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. We found that gene-gene interactions among IL13 rs20541, IL4 rs2243250, ADRB2 rs1042713, and FCER1B rs569108 in asthmatic children of Chinese Han nationality. This four-locus set constituted an optimal statistical interaction model. Objective: This study examined associations of the four-gene model consisting of IL13, IL4, FCER1B, and ADRB2 with the Asthma Predictive Index (API) and atopy in Chinese Han children. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes were genotyped in 385 preschool children with wheezing symptoms using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Student's t test and x2 tests were used for this analysis. : Significant correlations were found between the four-locus gene model and the stringent and loose API (both Pfour-locus gene model with atopy (Pfour-locus gene model consisting of L13 rs20541, IL4 rs2243250, ADRB2 rs1042713 and FCER1B rs569108 was associated with the API and atopy. These findings provide an evidence of the gene model for determining a high risk of developing asthma and atopy in Chinese Han children.

  20. On personal safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen

    1996-01-01

    The paper mainly expounds the personal safety culture, including the following aspects: the attitude to exploration, strict methods and the habit of exchange etc. It points out that straightening the education of safety culture and heightening the level of personal safety culture can get not only high-level safety but also high-level quality

  1. Personalized Web-Based Advice in Combination With Well-Child Visits to Prevent Overweight in Young Children: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieken, A. van; Vlasblom, E.; Wang, L.; Beltman, M.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; L'Hoir, M.P.; Raat, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Overweight is a major health issue, and parent-targeted interventions to promote healthy development in children are needed. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate E-health4Uth Healthy Toddler, an intervention that educates parents of children aged 18 to 24 months regarding

  2. Personalized web-based advice in combination with well-child visits to prevent overweight in young children : Cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Grieken, Amy; Vlasblom, Eline; Wang, Lu; Beltman, Maaike; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Background: Overweight is a major health issue, and parent-targeted interventions to promote healthy development in children are needed. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate E-health4Uth Healthy Toddler, an intervention that educates parents of children aged 18 to 24 months regarding

  3. Influence of Teachers' Personal Health Behaviors on Operationalizing Obesity Prevention Policy in Head Start Preschools: A Project of the Children's Healthy Living Program (CHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Monica Kazlausky; Nigg, Claudio R; Fialkowski, Marie K; Braun, Kathryn L; Li, Fenfang; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    To quantify the Head Start (HS) teacher mediating and moderating influence on the effect of a wellness policy intervention. Intervention trial within a larger randomized community trial. HS preschools in Hawaii. Twenty-three HS classrooms located within 2 previously randomized communities. Seven-month multi-component intervention with policy changes to food served and service style, initiatives for employee wellness, classroom activities for preschoolers promoting physical activity (PA) and healthy eating, and training and technical assistance. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) classroom scores and teacher questionnaires assessing on knowledge, beliefs, priorities, and misconceptions around child nutrition and changes in personal health behaviors and status were the main outcome measures. Paired t tests and linear regression analysis tested the intervention effects on the classroom and mediating and moderating effects of the teacher variables on the classroom environment. General linear model test showed greater intervention effect on the EPAO score where teachers reported higher than average improvements in their own health status and behaviors (estimate [SE] = -2.47 (0.78), P teacher health status and behaviors included in a multi-component policy intervention aimed at child obesity prevention may produce a greater effect on classroom environments. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  5. The clinician factor: Personality characteristics of clinicians and their impact upon clinical outcomes in the management of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Fergus J; Russell, Ellyn; McCombe, Julia; O'Connell, Michele A; Skinner, Timothy

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate clinician qualities that influence metabolic outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes. Data were gathered over two 3 month periods in a large tertiary diabetes center (1500 patients, 8 clinicians) from patients with type 1 diabetes who received continuous care from each clinician. Data included sex, age, diabetes duration, insulin regimen, body mass index (BMI), insulin dose and episodes of severe hypoglycemia. Clinician data included target blood glucose levels, target glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Diabetes Attitude Scale and Big 5 Personality Inventory Scale. Mean HbA1c per clinician was the primary outcome variable. The 8 clinicians saw a total of 464 patients during the first time period, and 603 in the second time period. Lowest to highest mean HbA1c per clinician varied by 0.7%. There were small but statistically significant differences between clinicians with their patients' age at diagnosis, duration of diabetes, age, gender, treatment type and BMI SD score. After controlling for these differences, the clinician characteristics that were associated with lower mean HbA1c were having no lower limit in target HbA1c and being self-reportedly "less agreeable." The impact of these clinician attitudinal traits was equivalent to the combined effects of patient characteristics and treatment type. There was a significant variation in metabolic outcomes between treating clinicians. After controlling for patient clinical differences, clinician mean HbA1c was associated with lower limit in target HbA1c and being "less agreeable." Clinicians who were more demanding and dogmatic appeared to have better outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Personalized Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Arjmand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from “personalized medicine” towards “precision medicine”. Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare. Accordingly, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as the new fields of medicine use cell-based products in order to develop personalized treatments. Different sources of stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have been considered in targeted therapies which could give many advantages. iPSCs as the novel and individual pluripotent stem cells have been introduced as the appropriate candidates for personalized cell therapies. Cellular therapies can provide a personalized approach. Because of person-to-person and population differences in the result of stem cell therapy, individualized cellular therapy must be adjusted according to the patient specific profile, in order to achieve best therapeutic results and outcomes. Several factors should be considered to achieve personalized stem cells therapy such as, recipient factors, donor factors, and the overall body environment in which the stem cells could be active and functional. In addition to these factors, the source of stem cells must be carefully chosen based on functional and physical criteria that lead to optimal outcomes.

  7. Online and In-Person Nutrition Education Improves Breakfast Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors: A Randomized Trial of Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Whaley, Shannon; Rosen, Nila J; Meza, Martha; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2016-03-01

    Although in-person education is expected to remain central to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) service delivery, effective online nutrition education has the potential for increased exposure to quality education and a positive influence on nutrition behaviors in WIC participants. Education focused on promoting healthy breakfast behaviors is an important topic for WIC participants because breakfast eating compared with breakfast skipping has been associated with a higher-quality diet and decreased risk for obesity. To examine the influences of online and in-person group nutrition education on changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to breakfast eating. Randomized-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of online and in-person nutrition education between March and September 2014. Five hundred ninety WIC participants from two Los Angeles, CA, WIC clinics were randomly assigned to receive in-person group education (n=359) or online education (n=231). Education focused on ways to reduce breakfast skipping and promoted healthy options at breakfast for parents and their 1- to 5-year-old children participating in WIC. Questionnaires assessing breakfast-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered before and after education, and at a 2- to 4-month follow-up. Changes within and between in-person and online groups were compared using t tests and χ(2) tests. Analysis of covariance and generalized estimating equations were used to assess differences in change between groups. Changes in knowledge between pretest and follow-up at 2 to 4 months were similar between groups. Both groups reported reductions in barriers to eating breakfast due to time constraints, not having enough foods at home, and difficulty with preparation. Increases in the frequency of eating breakfast were greater for both the parent (P=0.0007) and child (P=0.01) in the online group compared with the in-person group during

  8. Opinião dos pais sobre a voz, características de comportamento e de personalidade de seus filhos Parents opinion on the voice and on behavior and personality characteristics of their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela von Fritsch

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar como os pais percebem e descrevem seus filhos com relação à voz e às características de comportamento e personalidade. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 66 pais de crianças entre 6 e 9 anos, de ambos os sexos, os quais responderam a um questionário com 28 questões que investigavam características de voz, comportamento e personalidade de seus filhos. RESULTADOS: os resultados indicaram que a maioria dos pais (90,9% se mostra satisfeita com o som da voz de seu filho(a. Somente 9,1% dos pais caracterizaram a voz de seu filho como sendo pior que a das demais crianças e 31,8% achou que seu filho(a fala muito mais se comparado aos colegas. Aproximadamente um quarto (22,7% dos pais observou que o volume de voz utilizado por seus filhos é aumentado. Os pais que caracterizaram seus filhos como sendo mais falantes também perceberam a voz deles como sendo mais aguda (p=0,013. O volume de voz aumentado mostrou correlação positiva com agitação (p=0,044, inquietação (p=0,005, sociabilidade (p=0,021, menos quantidade de horas dormidas (p=0,013 e extroversão (p=0,014. Crianças caracterizadas como sendo mais calmas (p=0,011 e menos argumentativas (p=0,044 são também menos falantes na comparação com outras crianças. CONCLUSÃO: em geral, os pais parecem perceber características vocais em seus filhos, têm forte tendência a considerar seus filhos sensíveis, observadores e exigentes quanto a si mesmos, além de perceberem relação entre volume de voz e características de comportamento e personalidade.PURPOSE: to check how parents perceive and describe their children with 'regard to their voice and behavior and personality traits. METHODS: the study involved the participation of 66 parents of children between 6 and 9 year old, from both genders, who answered a questionnaire with 28 questions addressing voice, behavior and personality traits of their children. RESULTS: results indicated that the majority of the parents

  9. Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.

  10. Dimensions of personality: clinicians' perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullins-Sweatt, S.N.; Smit, V.; Verheul, R.; Oldham, J.; Widiger, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the opinions and preferences of practising clinicians about the clinical utility of personality scales included within 8 alternative dimensional models of personality disorder for inclusion within an official diagnostic nomenclature. Method: Psychiatrists (n = 226) and

  11. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  12. [The use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with personal insulin pumps in the treatment of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2004-01-01

    This paper sums up recently published researches on the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with the use of insulin pump in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1. Obtaining a balance in the organism metabolism in childhood and adolescence diabetology is nowadays one of the most important rules of the diabetes management in children. One of the modern ways to achieve that goal is the intensive insulin therapy model with use of the insulin pump. In this paper the advantages and disadvantages as well as the indications and contraindications for the CSII in children and adolescents with diabetes are widely discussed.

  13. Including whey protein and whey permeate in ready-to-use supplementary food improves recovery rates in children with moderate acute malnutrition: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobaugh, Heather C; Ryan, Kelsey N; Kennedy, Julie A; Grise, Jennifer B; Crocker, Audrey H; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Litkowski, Patricia E; Maleta, Kenneth M; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi

    2016-03-01

    The utility of dairy ingredients in the supplementary foods used in the treatment of childhood moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) remains unsettled. We evaluated the effectiveness of a peanut-based ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) with soy protein compared with a novel RUSF containing dairy ingredients in the form of whey permeate and whey protein concentrate in the treatment of children with MAM. We conducted a randomized, double-blind clinical effectiveness trial involving rural Malawian and Mozambican children 6-59 mo of age with MAM treated with either soy RUSF or a novel whey RUSF treatment of ~75 kcal · kg(-1) · d(-1) for up to 12 wk. The proportion of children that recovered from MAM was significantly higher in the group that received whey RUSF (960 of 1144; 83.9%) than in the group that received soy RUSF (874 of 1086; 80.5%; P whey RUSF also demonstrated better growth markers, with a higher mean midupper arm circumference (MUAC) at the time of discharge (P whey RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates and improved growth than did soy RUSF, although the whey RUSF supplement provided less total protein and energy than the soy RUSF. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01790048. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  15. Developing the personal narratives of children with complex communication needs associated with intellectual disabilities: What is the potential of Storysharing® ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Karen; Gooch, Lynsey; Johnson, Miranda

    2017-07-01

    Sharing personal experience in narrative is challenging for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The aim was to investigate the potential of Storysharing ® (Storysharing is an innovative communication method based on personal narrative, which has been developed to support conversations with people who have severe difficulties in communication) intervention. The study involved eleven pupil-educational supporter dyads at a special school. Storysharing ® was implemented over a 15-week period. Personal narratives were captured on video pre- and post-intervention. The data were analysed for discourse and narrative. Significant differences revealed a decline in 'query-answer' sequences and an increase in supporter use of 'prompts'. After intervention, there were fewer story episodes. Narrative structure showed gains in action sequences leading to climax, and in closing elements, indicating a more complete narrative. The Storysharing ® intervention appears to be associated with changes to the dyadic, personal narratives illustrating its potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools, wit...... a child’s personal religiosity, whereas not participating conjures up images of really religious families....

  17. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  18. Prevalence and associated risk factors of under nutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in internally displaced persons of jalozai camp, District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, W.; Ayub, A.; Hussain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The magnitude of under nutrition among children below five years of age is high in Pakistan. Undernutrition and infections are the two most important factors that affect the growth of children. This study explains the extent of undernutrition and prevalence of wasting and stunting among preschool children. Method: This cross sectional study with a sample size of 446 covered the age group 6-59 months in Jalozai Camp, District Nowshera. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height were measured as per WHO guidelines. Systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Results: According to height for age Z-score, out of 446 children studied, 8.5 percentage were stunted and 4.0 percentage were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z score, 11.4 percentage were underweight and 3.6 percentage were severely underweight. According to weight for height Z-score, 4.0 percentage were wasted and 2.7 percentage were severely wasted. Conclusion: The undernutrition in children is comparable to the national figures. Although our study found that absence of formal education, big family size, late and early weaning, absence of exclusive breast feeding and poverty were the factors associated with undernutrition in children, they could cause increase in under nutrition in future if not improved. (author)

  19. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework.

  20. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  1. Music training, cognition, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigall, Kathleen A; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Misura, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1) and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2). We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1) individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2) personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3) future correlational studies of links between music training and non-musical ability should account for individual differences in personality.

  2. Music training, cognition, and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Corrigall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1 and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2. We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1 individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2 personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3 future correlational studies of links between music training and nonmusical ability should account for individual differences in personality.

  3. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  4. Dealing with Difficult Young Children: Strategies for Teachers and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Anne K.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews current research on the individual temperament of young children and recommends strategies to understand and build upon children's personality strengths. Discusses the influence of adult perceptions and misperceptions on children's personality development. (DT)

  5. Will personal values predict the development of smoking and drinking behaviors? A prospective cohort study of children and adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, Hsi-Ping; Wu, Wen-Chi; Luh, Dih-Ling; Yen, Lee-Lan; Hurng, Baai-Shyun; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2016-12-01

    This study examined how personal values predict the development of smoking and drinking behaviors in adolescence. The longitudinal data of 1545 adolescents over a 6-year period were analyzed. The results showed that adolescents who valued health and academics had similarly lower odds of reporting cigarette and alcohol use and those who valued friends had significantly higher odds. While the odds increased over time, the trend on alcohol use lessened for adolescents who valued academics, while the trend accelerated for those who valued friends. The finding suggests the important role that personal values play in adolescent risk behavioral development.

  6. 19 CFR 148.42 - Personal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal effects. 148.42 Section 148.42 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Exemptions for Nonresidents § 148.42 Personal effects. (a... adornment, toilet articles, and similar personal effects. “Similar personal effects” include all articles...

  7. Person-Centered Transition Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Craig A.; Bates, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a person-centered planning approach for involving students with disabilities and their families in the transition planning process. Components of person-centered planning are discussed, including development of a personal profile, identification of future lifestyle preferences, action steps and responsible parties, and necessary changes…

  8. Work Engagement, Burnout and Personal Accomplishments Among Social Workers: A Comparison Between Those Working in Children and Adults' Services in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shereen

    2018-04-26

    Social workers (SWs) provide emotional and practical support to vulnerable service users who are likely to suffer from emotional trauma and mental health conditions. Stress and burnout levels are reported to be high among SWs, however, little is known about their relationships with different characteristics. The current article utilises unique and large dataset (n = 3786) on SWs working in adults and children's services to examine factors associated with burnout. Employing job-demand/resources model and structural equations modelling, we highlight the varying significant impact of work-engagement, administrative support and work experience as moderating factors to burnout across adult and children service specialism in this sample.

  9. Family Support and Loneliness among Older Persons in Multiethnic Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Jane Kimm Lii; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors affecting older persons' state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791). Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were ...

  10. Education for Flexible Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Novak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible personality transforms both cultural environment and itself. Post-modern personality is both contemplative and active. On one hand, it is subject to inner imagination of a creative act, and on the other hand, to creation of a tangible product What is more, flexible personality is also autonomous, mature, healthy and well balanced, as well as stable and responsive to the demand for change. Due to ever quicker changes, flexible personality is a must. And it is a task. The impact of professional work of adults on the education of children, however, is being conditioned by the exrigid family and rigid enterprises or institutions in which adults are employed. Nevertheless, flexible educational style is not repressive, as it used to be, nor permissive and totally concentrated on the child. It is a choice between the two qualities. The educators' style is dependent on their attitude towards life (play and self-education and not only towards work. Nowadays, flexibility is a way towards quality management of social and personal changes.

  11. Borderline personality features in childhood: the role of subtype, developmental timing, and chronicity of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Kathryn F; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Child maltreatment has been established as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few studies consider how maltreatment influences the development of BPD features through childhood and adolescence. Subtype, developmental timing, and chronicity of child maltreatment were examined as factors in the development of borderline personality features in childhood. Children (M age = 11.30, SD = 0.94), including 314 maltreated and 285 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided self-reports of developmentally salient borderline personality traits. Maltreated children had higher overall borderline feature scores, had higher scores on each individual subscale, and were more likely to be identified as at high risk for development of BPD through raised scores on all four subscales. Chronicity of maltreatment predicted higher overall borderline feature scores, and patterns of onset and recency of maltreatment significantly predicted whether a participant would meet criteria for the high-risk group. Implications of findings and recommendations for intervention are discussed.

  12. Borderline Personality Features in Childhood: The Role of Subtype, Developmental Timing and Chronicity of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Kathryn F.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Crick, Nicki

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment has been established as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few studies consider how maltreatment influences the development of BPD features through childhood and adolescence. Subtype, developmental timing and chronicity of child maltreatment were examined as factors in the development of borderline personality features in childhood. Children (M age = 11.30, SD = 0.94), including 314 maltreated and 285 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided self-reports of developmentally salient borderline personality traits. Maltreated children had higher overall borderline feature scores, higher scores on each individual subscale and were more likely to be identified as at high risk for development of BPD through raised scores on all 4 subscales. Chronicity of maltreatment predicted higher overall borderline feature scores and patterns of onset and recency of maltreatment significantly predicted whether a participant would meet criteria for the high-risk group. Implications of findings and recommendations for intervention are discussed. PMID:25047300

  13. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van Strien, Rob T; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources,

  14. Cultural influences on personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C; Suh, Eunkook M

    2002-01-01

    Ecologies shape cultures; cultures influence the development of personalities. There are both universal and culture-specific aspects of variation in personality. Some culture-specific aspects correspond to cultural syndromes such as complexity, tightness, individualism, and collectivism. A large body of literature suggests that the Big Five personality factors emerge in various cultures. However, caution is required in arguing for such universality, because most studies have not included emic (culture-specific) traits and have not studied samples that are extremely different in culture from Western samples.

  15. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality....

  16. Sensory Experiences of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: In Their Own Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Anne V.; Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2015-01-01

    First-person perspectives of children with autism spectrum disorder are rarely included in research, yet their voices may help more clearly illuminate their needs. This study involved phenomenological interviews with children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 12, ages 4-13) used to gain insights about their sensory experiences. This article…

  17. Integrating personality structure, personality process, and personality development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Anna; Schmitt, Manfred; Perugini, Marco; Johnson, Wendy; Blum, Gabriela; Borkenau, Peter; Costantini, Giulio; Denissen, J.J.A.; Fleeson, William; Grafton, Ben; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Kurzius, Elena; MacLeod, Colin; Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Robinson, Michael D.; Wood, Dustin; Wrzus, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    In this target article, we argue that personality processes, personality structure, and personality development have to be understood and investigated in integrated ways in order to provide comprehensive responses to the key questions of personality psychology. The psychological processes and

  18. Clothing and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

  19. Suicide and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nahit Ozmenler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personality is quite important for developing strategies in order to prevent suicide attempt. In this field, the data show variability based on scales used for the evaluation of personality, its definition and classification in the research. For example, while some authors used DSM criteria or ICD criteria, others preferred to focus on the temperament and character dimensions of personality. In studies based on diagnostic criteria; B group personality disorders, such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders were found to be most common comorbid personality disorder diagnosis. In studies aiming to investigate the relationship among suicide attempt, temperament and character features, the suicide attempters were found to have lower levels of self directedness, cooperativeness, and higher scores for self transcendence. Suicidal patients were inclined to have higher scores in several temperament groups like harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence. Tendency to impulsive behavior is reported as a common denominator for suicidal patients. Individuals, who have familial or acquired tendency of impulsivity, could react more dramatically and present with depressive and pessimistic mood when they have difficulties and encounter stress factors in their daily routine and could easily develop depressive disorders. These factors as a whole could lead to self destructive actions like suicide. Individual or familial history of suicide attempts or completed

  20. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  1. Personal Space Regulation in Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaroli, Erica; Santelli, Erica; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    People appropriately adjust the distance between themselves and others during social interaction, and they may feel discomfort and move away when another person intrudes on their personal space. In the present study, we investigated personal space in children with persistent difficulties in the domain of social behavior, such as children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and in children with typical development (TD). The stop-distance paradigm was used to derive estimates of interpersonal distance, before and after a brief interaction with an unfamiliar adult confederate. The results showed that ASD children felt comfortable at a greater distance compared to TD children. Moreover, personal space shrunk after interaction with the confederate in TD children, but it failed to do so in ASD children. These findings reveal that autism deeply affects the regulation of personal space, influencing both its size and flexibility. PMID:24086410

  2. Creación de juegos personalizados para niños y adolescentes hospitalizados = The creation of personalized toys for children and adolescent hospitalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zapatero Guillén

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Desde el año 2003, el Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Plástica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, el Museo Pedagógico de Arte Infantil y Departamento de Psicología Social de la Universidad de Salamanca están desarrollando una serie de investigaciones en torno a las posibilidades de mejora de los niños y adolescentes hospitalizados a través del juego, la creatividad y el arte, enmarcadas en el proyecto curArte. En este proyecto, desde 2008, se ha trabajado en el diseño de materiales de juego creativo especialmente adaptados para el contexto hospitalario. Entre otras actividades, los talleres “Tuning” se han centrado en el diseño y creación de un muñeco estándar susceptible de ser tuneado en donde han participado adolescentes hospitalizados, educadores, investigadores y diseñadores1. Palabras clave: Talleres creativos, diseño juguetes, niños hospitalizados Abstract From 2003, the Didactic Department of art education of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, the pedagogical museum of children art and the department of social psychology of the Universidad de Salamanca are developing investigations (Curarte Project around the possibilities to improve the stay of children hospitalized through games, creativity and art. In this project, from 2008, they have been working in the materials designs for creative toys specially adapted into a hospital context. The “tuning” workshops were focus on the design and creation of a standard doll that hospitalized children, educators, researchers and designers could modify. Key words: Creative workshops, toys design, children hospitalized.

  3. 儿童青少年抽动障碍的调查研究%The study of personality about tic disorders in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽彤

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解小学生抽动障碍的心理特点,以进一步探时抽动障碍儿童的病因及发病机制.方法 对我市7所小学的6000名6~14岁儿童青少年进行抽动障碍心理发育调查.结果 共检出抽动障碍患者550例(9.17%),抽动障碍伴发不良行为和情绪问题.结论 儿童青少年的抽动障碍患病率较高,部分可伴有行为和情绪的心理发育问题.%Objective To investigate the psychological characteristics of primary tic disorder, tic disorders in children to further explore the etiology and pathogenesis. Methods Seven primary schools on the city's 6000 children aged 6 to 14 adolescents with tic disorder psychological development survey. Results Patients with tie disorders were found in 550 cases (9.17%) , tic disorder associated with adverse behavioral and emotional problems. Conclusion Tic disorders in children and adolescents of high prevalence, some may be associated with behavioral and emotional problems of psychological development.

  4. Adolescence, physical inactivity and overweight: analysis based on socio-personal variables of the parents and the type of sport practiced by the children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantallops Ramón, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a larger study carry out in the island of Majorca, which aims to identify the major causes of obesity and overweight in adolescents, as well as to establish different types of analysis in order to understand and to promote interventions to increase physical activity levels in this population, as both a poor diet and sedentary lifestyle are the main causes of overweight. In this case we focus on the following aspects: the relationship between educational level of parents/mothers and their children’s obesity, socioeconomic status of families and its impact on overweight/obesity children and, finally, the relationship between type of sport practiced by the children (competitive sport/ non-competitive sport and overweight/obesity. To this end surveyed 4135 boys and girls from Majorca. The sample was obtained from a multistage sampling. The instrument used was a specifically designed questionnaire. The results show that educational level and socioeconomic status of parents as well as the type of sport practiced by their children are variables that favor the development of overweight and obesity in adolescence

  5. Personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents that may be present in exhaled air. Personalized ventilation is a new development in the field of HVAC and has the potential to fulfill the above requirements. This paper reviews...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analyzed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  6. Análisis Desde el Modelo Traumatogénico de los Indicadores Gráficos Asociados a Agresiones Sexuales Infantiles en la Prueba Persona Bajo la Lluvia Analysis Based on the Traumagenic Model of the Graphic Indicators Associated to Children Sexual Abuses in the Person in Rain Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pool

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo vincula teóricamente las dinámicas traumatogénicas de las agresiones sexuales descritas por David Finkelhor y Angela Browne con los indicadores gráficos asociados a agresiones sexuales infantiles (Girardi & Pool, 2005 en la prueba Persona Bajo la Lluvia. Como resultado de la presente investigación, se obtuvo que la mayoría de los indicadores asociados a agresiones sexuales infantiles en la prueba Persona Bajo la Lluvia corresponden a la dinámica traumatogénica de Indefensión. Corresponden a esta categoría los siguientes indicadores: lluvia sectorizada, ausencia de paraguas y cabeza grande. A la dinámica traumatogénica de Traición corresponde el indicador ausencia de entorno. El indicador gráfico brazos cortos representa la dinámica traumatogénica de Estigmatización. Por último, el indicador gráfico sonrisa maníaca no es incluido en ninguna de las variables traumatogénicas.This article's purpose is to link theoretically the traumagenic dynamics of sexual abuse described by David Finkelhor and Angela Browne with graphic indicators associated to sexual abuse in children (Girardi & Pool, 2005 in the Person in Rain test. As a result, it was clearly demonstrated that most of the indicators associated to children's sexual abuses in the Person in Rain test are related to the traumagenic dynamic of Helplessness. The indicators "sectioned rain", "absence of umbrella", and "big head", correspond to this category. The indicator "absence of environment" corresponds to the Betrayal traumagenic dynamic. The "short arms" graphic indicator represents the Stigmatization traumagenic dynamic. Finally, the "maniac smile" graphic indicator is not included in any of the traumagenic dynamics.

  7. Literary and Personal Criticism for Preservice Teachers: A Pedagogical Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    1998-01-01

    Provides a theoretical framework for designing a children's literature course that requires preservice teachers to critically analyze literature in ways that are personally meaningful. Suggests how preservice teachers can read children's literature intensively rather than extensively. (PA)

  8. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is

  9. Personalized nanomedicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Rizzo, L.Y.; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Personalized medicine aims to individualize chemotherapeutic interventions on the basis of ex vivo and in vivo information on patient- and disease-specific characteristics. By noninvasively visualizing how well image-guided nanomedicines-that is, submicrometer-sized drug delivery systems

  10. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  11. Deferred Personal Life Decisions of Women Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jamie; Pflibsen, Lacey; Eno, Cassie; Radhakrishnan, Priya

    2018-05-01

    Inadequate work-life balance can have significant implications regarding individual performance, retention, and on the future of the workforce in medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine whether women physicians defer personal life decisions in pursuit of their medical career. We conducted a survey study of women physicians ages 20-80 from various medical specialties using a combination of social media platforms and women physicians' professional listservs with 801 survey responses collected from May through November 2015. The primary endpoint was whether women physicians deferred personal life decisions in pursuit of their medical career. Secondary outcomes include types of decisions deferred and correlations with age, hours worked per week, specialty, number of children, and career satisfaction. Respondents were categorized into deferred and nondeferred groups. Personal decision deferments were reported by 64% of respondents. Of these, 86% reported waiting to have children and 22% reported waiting to get married. Finally, while 85% of women in the nondeferment group would choose medicine again as a career, only 71% of women in the deferment group would do so (p job satisfaction, and insurance/administrative burden. The results of this survey have significant implications on the future of the workforce in medicine. Overall, our analysis shows that 64% of women physicians defer important life decisions in pursuit of their medical career. With an increase in the number of women physicians entering the workforce, lack of support and deferred personal decisions have a potential negative impact on individual performance and retention. Employers must consider the economic impact and potential workforce shortages that may develop if these issues are not addressed.

  12. EARLY DETECTION OF HANDICAPS OF PERSONS WITH TRISOMIA OF 21 CHROMOSOME IN THE CYTOGENETIC LABORATORY IN THE CENTER FOR MENTAL HEALTH FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN SKOPJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. APOSTOLOSKI

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors which contribute the appearance of handicaps are numerous and complex. By their nature they are inherited or determined by factors of outer environment, mostly as a result of interaction of both. In the broad sense the genetic factors are located in 46 chromosomes in the human cell, before all in the female and male fertilized cell e.i. the genes located in the chromosomes which determine the function of the central nervous system. The chromosome aberrations e.i. the visible aberrations of the chromosome structure presents the cause for the appearance of handicaps mostly together with some syndrome. That’s the case with Dawn’s syndrome( mongolism where we can find trisomy of 21 chromosome.Relatively, the great number of examinees (176 which we discovered in a period of 10 years from all the places of R. Macedonia confirm the need for further investigations. The newborns with this syndrome are children with prenatal development finished in not adequate way. The presence of different physical appearance on the birth and later on, more or less, speaks about indefinite mixture of pathological factors in the growth of the child and the difference. The symptoms that are discovered in these children indicate that they are retarded in their psychological and physical development from the normal children, and the further growth and development are on a lower level. The psychological, pediatrics and psychiatric researches show that the level of intelligence of our examinees is low, where as the social adjustment is far more better.The examination of our examinees was made up of taking an anamnesis from the parents, mostly from the mother. Every examine was under taken an caryological test. Ten of them showed an translocative type of Down’s syndrome where one of the parents is the carrier of the heterological balanced translocation. The heterological balanced translocations can be discovered only through affected newborn child. Our researches

  13. COLISÃO DE DIREITOS: A LIBERDADE DE IMPRENSA E OS DIREITOS DA PERSONALIDADE DE CRIANÇAS E ADOLESCENTES / COLLISION OF RIGHTS: FREEDOM OF THE PRESS AND RIGHTS OF PERSONALITY OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Magalhães Fernandes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the recurring theme of the collision of fundamental rights, in particular the rights of the personality of people in development and press freedom. In the current Brazilian scenario, where the mass media gains centrality in shaping and dissemination of information in the country, it is perceived by some mass media, the daily practice of exploring the use of the image of children and adolescents, in which they are exposed to vexatious and embarrassing situations. With no claim to suppress freedom of the press for the rights of children and adolescents, or vice versa, this article aims to deepen the solution of conflicts between those rights guaranteed in the Constitution of 1988. For this purpose, it is adopted as a method to resolve this conflict the weighting of property and assets from the application of the principle of proportionality in this case. In this sense, there are the doctrinal contributions of Robert Alexy and Ronald Dworkin and the study of decisions of the Supreme Court (STF.

  14. Personal Beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

  15. Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure Assessment on Thyroid Cancer Risk among Persons in Belarus Exposed as Children or Adolescents Due to the Chernobyl Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available The excess incidence of thyroid cancer in Ukraine and Belarus observed a few years after the Chernobyl accident is considered to be largely the result of 131I released from the reactor. Although the Belarus thyroid cancer prevalence data has been previously analyzed, no account was taken of dose measurement error.We examined dose-response patterns in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 11,732 persons aged under 18 at the time of the accident, diagnosed during 1996-2004, who had direct thyroid 131I activity measurement, and were resident in the most radio-actively contaminated regions of Belarus. Three methods of dose-error correction (regression calibration, Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo were applied.There was a statistically significant (p0.2.In summary, the relatively small contribution of unshared classical dose error in the current study results in comparatively modest effects on the regression parameters.

  16. "What exactly is a paedophile?" Children talking about Internet risk

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Burn; Rebekah Willett

    2017-01-01

    Reports tell us that the internet is opening new dangers to children, including online grooming, exposure to pornography and financial scams (Carr 2004; Gardner 2003; UK Home Office 2001; O'Connell 2003). The result has been various initiatives which attempt to teach children safe surfing habits. The UK Home Office "ThinkUKnow" campaign featured advertisements on the radio, internet and cinemas, targeting teens and preteens with the message that the person they are chatting to "may not be who...

  17. Prediction of Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation Skills of 4-5 Age Group Children with Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine whether personal attributes, family characteristics of the child and parent-child relations predict children's emotional understanding and emotion regulation skills. The study was conducted with relational screening model, one of the screening models. Study sample included 423 children between the…

  18. PICTOAPRENDE: Design and evaluation of a tool that contributes to the personal autonomy of children and youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cárdenas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and evaluation of Pictoaprende, which is an interactive software designed to improve oral communication. Additionally, it contributes to the development of children and youth who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Ecuador. To fulfill this purpose initially analyzes the intervention area where the general characteristics of people with ASD and their status in Ecuador is described. Statistical techniques used for this evaluation constitutes the basis of this study. A section that presents the development of research-based cognitive and social parameters of the area of intervention is also shown. Finally, the algorithms to obtain the measurements and experimental results along with the analysis of them are presented.

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Adult-Rated Child Personality and Academic Performance in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…

  20. [Management of diabetic children at the University Hospital Center of Rabat: an example of partnership or personal initiative on the periphery of the school of medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafrej, A

    2003-04-01

    In Morocco there are at least 10,000 children under the age of 15 who suffer from type 1 diabetes who, due to the lack of appropriate management and care, are extremely susceptible to repeated hospital re-admission and long-term disabling degenerative complications. With the aim to reduce the frequency of complications, a specialised outpatient clinic was created at the children's hospital in Rabat in 1986. A multi-disciplinary team provides medical care as well as initial training and continuing education to the patients and their families according to a standardised protocol. The 700 young diabetics who are monitored in the clinic are at present autonomous in the delivery of their own daily treatment and continue to increasingly improve. After 10 years, this group of patients has experienced a diabetic retinopathy rate which is six times lower than since the onset of their illness. The programme is administered in partnership and with the financial support of a private sponsor and assistance of a parents' association. The programme is designed in compliance with the WHO Towards Unity for Health strategy and its core principles, namely: relevance, equity, quality, and effectiveness. In order to achieve sustainability, the programme needs an adopted geographic management structure and more formalised relationships linking the partners. Nevertheless, the programme could be considered as a laboratory experiment for the School of Medicine, in its search to create a wider social movement. This level of commitment implies recasting the foci of the medical training curriculum, promoting therapeutic patient education, giving more attention to the hospital's operations and building sustainable partnerships.