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Sample records for personnel safety fast

  1. The LHC personnel safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninin, P.; Valentini, F.; Ladzinski, T.

    2011-01-01

    Large particle physics installations such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider require specific Personnel Safety Systems (PSS) to protect the personnel against the radiological and industrial hazards. In order to fulfill the French regulation in matter of nuclear installations, the principles of IEC 61508 and IEC 61513 standard are used as a methodology framework to evaluate the criticality of the installation, to design and to implement the PSS.The LHC PSS deals with the implementation of all physical barriers, access controls and interlock devices around the 27 km of underground tunnel, service zones and experimental caverns of the LHC. The system shall guarantee the absence of personnel in the LHC controlled areas during the machine operations and, on the other hand, ensure the automatic accelerator shutdown in case of any safety condition violation, such as an intrusion during beam circulation. The LHC PSS has been conceived as two separate and independent systems: the LHC Access Control System (LACS) and the LHC Access Safety System (LASS). The LACS, using off the shelf technologies, realizes all physical barriers and regulates all accesses to the underground areas by identifying users and checking their authorizations.The LASS has been designed according to the principles of the IEC 61508 and 61513 standards, starting from a risk analysis conducted on the LHC facility equipped with a standard access control system. It consists in a set of safety functions realized by a dedicated fail-safe and redundant hardware guaranteed to be of SIL3 class. The integration of various technologies combining electronics, sensors, video and operational procedures adopted to establish an efficient personnel safety system for the CERN LHC accelerator is presented in this paper. (authors)

  2. The Daresbury personnel safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.E.; Ring, T.

    1989-01-01

    The personnel safety system designed for the SRS at Daresbury is a unified system covering the three accelerators of the source itself, the beamlines and the experimental stations. The system has also been applied to the experimental areas of the Nuclear Structure Facility, and is therefore established as a site standard. A dual guardline interlock module forms a building block for a relay based interlock system completely independent of the machine control system, although comprehensive monitoring of the system status via the control system computer is a feature. An outline of the design criteria adopted for the system is presented together with a more detailed description of the philosophy of the guardline logic and the way this is implemented in a standard modular form. The emphasis is on the design features of a modern microprocessor based variant of the original SRS system. Experience with the original system during build-up and operation of the SRS facility is described. 2 refs., 4 figs

  3. The safety of the fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Verbatim of an address by R.R. Matthews, Chief Nuclear Health and Safety Officer, UK Central Electricity Generating Board given on January 15th 1977. The object of this address was to give some opinions on the safety issues of fast reactors as seen from an operational point of view. An outline of the basic responsibilities for nuclear safety is first given, and it is emphasized that the Central Electricity Generating Board has a statutory responsibility for the safe operation of its nuclear plant. The Nuclear Installations Act places absolute responsibility on the operator for ensuring that injury to persons and damage to property do not occur, and the new Health and Safety at Work Act does likewise. In addition the Board has a Nuclear Health and Safety Department that has to ensure that adequate provision for safety is made in the design, construction, and operation of nuclear plant, and safety at operational stations is monitored continuously by inspectors. In addition the requirements of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, laid down in the site licence conditions, must be satisfied. All these requirements are here discussed in the light of application to commercial fast reactors. It is considered that the hazards to fast reactor operating personnel are small and little different from those of other types of reactor, and in some respects the fast reactor has advantages, particularly in regard to the use of a Na coolant. The possibility of various types of accident is considered. Radioactive effluent discharge is also considered. The fast reactor as an international problem is discussed, including security matters. The extensive experience gained in operation of the experimental and prototype fast reactors at Dounreay is emphasized. (U.K.)

  4. Unique safety manual for experimental personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busick, D.D.; Warren, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Within a few months of the discovery of x-rays the first radiation injuries were reported (ta71). During the past thirty years both the number and complexity of x-ray analytical units have increased markedly. The world-wide number of incidents leading to severe injury has also increased. For analytical x-ray machines the need for engineered and administrative safeguards has long been recognized. At Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) the personnel protection system has been carefully designed to maximize safety and minimize experimental interference. However, all possible experimental configurations cannot be anticipated and some interference is to be expected. There are means by which safeguards can be substituted as long as these substitutions do not degrade the existing degree of safety. any substitutions must be evaluated by the Radiation Safety Committee, the SSRL staff and Operational Health Physics. Some studies have indicated that between fifty and ninety percent of serious radiation accidents are directly related to human errors, i.e., ignoring administrative proccedures, by-passing engineered safeguards or by inadequate training. Lindell has estimated the annual probability of serious injury to be about 1:100 per macchine. No matter what the real probability of serious injury is the personnel protection system should reduce this risk to a value that approaches zero. It is hoped that this manual will bring into sharper focus some of the more serious results of unnecessary risk taking. We also hope that it will convey the very real necessity for safeguards which may at times appear to be arbitrary and unnecessary impediments to experimental purposes

  5. The Patient Safety Attitudes among the Operating Room Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherdsak Iramaneerat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first step in cultivating the culture of safety in the operating room is the assessment of safety culture among operating room personnel. Objective: To assess the patient safety culture of operating room personnel at the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, and compare attitudes among different groups of personnel, and compare them with the international standards. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of safety attitudes among 396 operating room personnel, using a short form of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ. The SAQ employed 30 items to assess safety culture in six dimensions: teamwork climate, safety climate, stress recognition, perception of hospital management, working conditions, and job satisfaction. The subscore of each dimension was calculated and converted to a scale score with a full score of 100, where higher scores indicated better safety attitudes. Results: The response rate was 66.4%. The overall safety culture score of the operating room personnel was 65.02, higher than an international average (61.80. Operating room personnel at Siriraj Hospital had safety attitudes in teamwork climate, safety climate, and stress recognition lower than the international average, but had safety attitudes in the perception of hospital management, working conditions, and job satisfaction higher than the international average. Conclusion: The safety culture attitudes of operating room personnel at the Department of Surgery, Siriraj Hospital were comparable to international standards. The safety dimensions that Siriraj Hospital operating room should try to improve were teamwork climate, safety climate, and stress recognition.

  6. Personnel radiation safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.

    1979-05-01

    The principal contributions to the radiation doses of the Swedish power reactor personnel are identified. The possi bilities to reduce these doses are examined. The radiation doses are analyzed according to different personnel categories, specific maintenance operations or inspections and to different radiation activities. Suggestions are given for reducing the radiation doses. (L.E.)

  7. Integral fast reactor safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Mueller, C.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Wade, D.C.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: (1) a pool-type primary system, (2) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (3) an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by (1) the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and (2) a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents

  8. Integral fast reactor safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Mueller, C.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Wade, D.C.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: a pool-type primary system, and advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents

  9. Safety culture assessment among laboratory personnel of a petrochemical company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shekari

    2014-05-01

    .Conclusion: Strong and positive safety culture among laboratory personnel would prevent incidence of many occupational accidents. In another word, it would help organizations to facilitate access to higher standards.

  10. 49 CFR 193.2511 - Personnel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES... or a means of escape. (c) Each LNG plant must be equipped with suitable first-aid material, the...

  11. NPP safety and personnel training. XII International conference. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The 12th International conference NPP Safety and Personnel Training took place in Obninsk, October 4-7, 2011. The issues of nuclear technologies safety are considered.The problems of life-cycle management of nuclear facilities are discussed. The criteria of assessment of physical protection systems of nuclear facilities are presented [ru

  12. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2009-07-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  13. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  14. Efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesgaard, Kristian Dahl; Nikolajsen, Lone; Giebner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Management of pain in the pre-hospital setting is often inadequate. In 2011, ambulance personnel were authorized to administer intravenous fentanyl in the Central Denmark Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered...... by ambulance personnel. METHODS: Pre-hospital medical charts from 2348 adults treated with intravenous fentanyl by ambulance personnel during a 6-month period were reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from before fentanyl treatment to hospital arrival...... patients (1.3%) and hypotension observed in 71 patients (3.0%). CONCLUSION: Intravenous fentanyl caused clinically meaningful pain reduction in most patients and was safe in the hands of ambulance personnel. Many patients had moderate to severe pain at hospital arrival. As the protocol allowed higher doses...

  15. Helicopter Operations and Personnel Safety (Helirescue Manual). Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle-Molle, John

    The illustrated manual includes information on various aspects of helicopter rescue missions, including mission management roles for key personnel, safety rules around helicopters, requests for helicopter support, sample military air support forms, selection of landing zones, helicopter evacuations, rescuer delivery, passenger unloading, crash…

  16. The aspect of personnel metal attitude in the production safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyosukarto, Priyanto M.

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of an accident could always be traced to component/system failures and/or human error. The two factors are closely related to competency of the personnel's involved, in which mental attitude is a decisive factor. Furthermore mental attitude could be viewed as an element of Safety (S) Culture. Consequently, S. Culture could might created or at lea ts, be enhanced by the introduction of appropriate values, norms, as well as attitudes. The ABC and TBC of safety norm have been discussed briefly. Whereas mental attitude has been defined and discussed in detail and graded into six levels, namely: attending, responding, complying, accepting, preferring, and integrating. To assure highest level of safety, personnel must achieve integrating level of attitude, in the sense that he would merely do an action on the basis of safety values and/or norms prevailing in the system, not due to external pressure. Furthermore, considering the work as a physical and an emotional activity resulting in stress and strain on the body, Karate exercises have been promoted as an alternative for enhancing mental attitude by means of reducing personnel vulnerability to strain and stress. This method is accomplished by exploiting Roux's Low of conditioning effect and by implementation of an in-depth understanding on the spiritual aspect of Karate. It is concluded that in the field of production safety, there is a positive correlation between Karate, mental attitude, competence, performance, quality, and safety

  17. Personnel Risks in Ensuring Safety of Medical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: modern strategies of management of the organization require the formation of special management approaches based on the analysis of the mechanisms and processes of the organization of medical activities related to possible risks in activity of medical personnel. Based on international experience and own research the authors have identified features of a system of management of personnel risk in medical activities, examined approaches showing the sequence and contents of the main practical activities of the formation, maintenance and development of the system of management of personnel risks. Emphasized is the need for further research and implementation of the system of management of personnel risk in health care organizations. Study and assessment of personnel risks affecting the security of medical activities aimed at the development of the system of personnel risk management, development of a system of identification and monitoring of HR risk indicators with a purpose to improve institutional management and increase efficiency of activity of medical organizations. Methods: in the present study, the following methods were used: systemic approach, content analysis, methods of social diagnosis (questionnaires, interviews, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, method of statistical processing of information. Results: approaches to predict the occurrence and development of personnel risks have been reviewed and proposed. Conclusions and Relevance: patient safety is a global issue affecting countries at all levels of development. Each year, the WHO identifies a number of systemic and technical aspects and trends in the field of patient safety related to actions of medical workers. Existing imbalances in the staffing of the health system of the Russian Federation increase the probability of potential risks in medical practice. The personnel policy of healthcare of the Russian Federation requires further improvement and

  18. The safety of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justin, F.

    1976-01-01

    A response is made to the main questions that a man in the street may arise concerning fast breeder reactors, in particular: the advantages of this line, dangerous materials contained in fast breeder reactors, containment shells protecting the environment from radiations, main studies now in progress [fr

  19. Modular reliability modeling of the TJNAF personnel safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinnamon, J.; Mahoney, K.

    1997-01-01

    A reliability model for the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (formerly CEBAF) personnel safety system has been developed. The model, which was implemented using an Excel spreadsheet, allows simulation of all or parts of the system. Modularity os the model's implementation allows rapid open-quotes what if open-quotes case studies to simulate change in safety system parameters such as redundancy, diversity, and failure rates. Particular emphasis is given to the prediction of failure modes which would result in the failure of both of the redundant safety interlock systems. In addition to the calculation of the predicted reliability of the safety system, the model also calculates availability of the same system. Such calculations allow the user to make tradeoff studies between reliability and availability, and to target resources to improving those parts of the system which would most benefit from redesign or upgrade. The model includes calculated, manufacturer's data, and Jefferson Lab field data. This paper describes the model, methods used, and comparison of calculated to actual data for the Jefferson Lab personnel safety system. Examples are given to illustrate the model's utility and ease of use

  20. Safety Features of Material and Personnel Movement Devices. Module SH-25. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safety features of material and personnel movement devices is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module covers safe conditions and operating practices for conveyors, elevators, escalators, moving walks, manlifts, forklifts, and motorized hand trucks. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each…

  1. Fast breeder reactor safety : a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Taking into consideration India's limited reserves of natural and vast reserves of thorium, the fast reactor route holds a great promise for India's energy supply in future. The fast reactor fueled with 239 Pu/ 238 U (unused or depleted) produces (breeds) more fissionable fuel material 239 Pu than it consumes. Calculations show that a fast breeder reactor (FBR) increases energy potential of natural uranium by about 60 times. As the fast reactor can also convert 232 Th into 233 U which is a fissionable material, it can make India's thorium reserves a source of almost inexhaustible energy supply for a long time to come. Significant advantage of FBR plants cooled by sodium and their world-wide operating experience are reviewed. There are two main safety issues of FBR, one nuclear and the other non-nuclear. The nuclear issue concerns core disruptive accident and the non-nuclear one concerns the high chemical energy potential of sodium. These two issues are analysed and it is pointed that they are manageable by current design, construction and operational practices. Main findings of safety research during the last six to eight years in West European Countries and United States of America (US) are summarised. Three stage engineered safety provision incorporated into the design of the sodium cooled Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) commissioned at Kalpakkam are explained. The important design safety features of FBTR such as primary system containment, emergency core cooling, plant protection system, inherent safety features achieved through reactivity coefficients, and natural convection cooling are discussed. Theoretical analysis and experimental research in fast reactor safety carried out at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research during the past some years are reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  2. The laser Megajoule facility personnel security and safety interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, J.C.; Arnoul, J.P.; Hurst, A.; Manson, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LMJ (Laser Megajoule) is designed to deliver about 1.4 MJ of 0.35 μm light to targets for high energy density physics experiments. Such an installation entails specific hazards related to the presence of intense laser beams, and high voltage power laser amplifiers. Furthermore, the thermonuclear fusion reactions induced by the experiment also produce different radiations and neutrons burst, and also activate various materials in the chamber environment. All these hazards could be lethal. The SSP (Personnel Safety System) was designed to prevent accidents and protect personnel working in the LMJ. To satisfy at the lowest cost the requirements of safety regulations and those of the operation management, the choice was made to implement a functional architecture built around two independent technological barriers when required by the risk level. Each technical barrier is composed of two subsets, one dedicated to hazard sources management, and the other one dedicated to worker presence management. The two completely independent barriers, even at the sensor or actuator level, are designed with different technologies adapted to the required Safety Integrity Level. The combination of these 2 barriers is equivalent to a unique barrier with a rate of dangerous failure of about 10 -6 per year

  3. X-ray and nuclear radiation facilities: personnel safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, W.J.; Pipes, E.W.; Rucker, T.R.; Smith, D.N.; West, C.M.

    1976-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a research and production installation. The nature and versatility of this work require the use of a large number and variety of x-ray and radiographic sources for nondestructive testing and material analyses. Presently, there are over 80 x-ray generators in the plant, which range in size from small, portable units which operate at a less than 50 kilovolts potential and 0.1 milliampere current to an electron linear accelerator which operates at 12-million electron volts and produces a radiation beam of such intensity that it could deliver a lethal dose to man in a fraction of a minute. There are also almost 50 gamma and neutron sources in use in the plant. These units range in size from a few millicuries to several hundred curies. Although the radiation safety at each of these facilities was considered adequate, the administrative and maintenance procedures became unduly complicated. Accordingly, engineering standards and uniform operating procedures were considered necessary to alleviate these complications and, in so doing, provide an improved measure of radiation safety. Development and implementation of these standards are described and the general philosophy and approach to these standards are outlined. Use of a matrix (type of installation versus radiation safety feature) to facilitate equipment classification and personnel safety feature requirements is presented. Included is a set of the standards showing formats, matrices, etc., and the detailed standards for each safety feature

  4. The Fast Flux Test Facility built on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    No other high-tech industry has grown as fast as the nuclear industry. The information available to the general public has not kept pace with the rapid growth of nuclear data---its growth has outpaced its media image and the safety of nuclear facilities has become a highly debated issue. This book is an attempt to bridge the gap between the high-tech information of the nuclear industry and its understanding by the general public. It explains the three levels of defense at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and why these levels provide an acceptable margin to protect the general public and on-site personnel, while achieving FFTF's mission to provide research and development for the US Department of Energy

  5. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, P.

    2014-01-01

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making

  6. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, P. [The Glocal University, Mirzapur Pole, Delhi- Yamuntori Highway, Saharanpur 2470001 (India)

    2014-10-06

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  7. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, P.

    2014-10-01

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  8. Integral fast reactor concept inherent safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFT development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. The design features that together fulfill these goals are: 1) a liquid metal (sodium) coolant, 2) a pool-type reactor primary system configuration, 3) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and 4) an integral fuel cycle. This paper reviews the design features that contribute to the safety margins inherent to the IFR concept. Special emphasis is placed on the ability of the IFR design to accommodate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS)

  9. Integral Fast Reactor concept inherent safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. The design features that together fulfill these goals are: (1) a liquid metal (sodium) coolant, (2) a pool-type reactor primary system configuration, (3) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (4) an integral fuel cycle. This paper reviews the design features that contribute to the safety margins inherent to the IFR concept. Special emphasis is placed on the ability of the IFR design to accommodate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS)

  10. Analysis of Critical Characteristics for Safety Graded Personnel Computers in the KNICS Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Dong Young

    2009-01-01

    Critical characteristics analysis of a safety related item is to identify characteristics to be verified to replace an original item with the dedicated item. It is sure that the dedicated item meeting critical characteristics would perform its intended safety function instead of the specified item. KNICS project developed two safety systems: IDiPS RPS (Reactor Protection System) and IDiPS ESF-CCS (Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System). Two safety systems of IDiPS are equipped with personnel computers, so-called COMs (Cabinet Operator Modules), in their cabinets. The personnel computers, COMs, are responsible for safety system monitoring, testing, and maintaining. Even though two safety systems are safety critical system, the personnel computers of two systems, i.e. COMs, are not graded as safety-graded items. Regulation requirements are expected to be strengthened, and the functions of the personnel computer may be enhanced to include safety-related functions and safety functions, it would be necessary that the grade of the personnel computers is adjusted to a higher level, the safety grade. To try to upgrade a non safety system, i.e. COMs, to a safety system, its safety functions and requirements, i.e. critical characteristics, must be identified and verified. This paper describes the process of the identification of critical characteristics and the results of analysis

  11. Safety Design Criteria of Indian Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    • Important feedback has been gained through the design and safety review of PFBR. • The safety criteria document prepared by AERB and IGCAR would provide important input to prepare the dedicated document for the Sodium cooled Fast Reactors at the national and international level. • A common approach with regard to safety, among countries pursuing fast reactor program, is desirable. • Sharing knowledge and experimental facilities on collaborative basis. • Evolution of strong safety criteria – fundamental to assure safety

  12. NPP safety and personnel training. XII International conference. Abstracts. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The XII International conference NPP Safety and Personnel Training took place in Obninsk, October 4-7 2011. The problems of personnel training for nuclear industry are discussed. The innovation nuclear systems and fuel cycle are considered. The much attention has been given to NPP radiation safety and radioecology issues. The recent high-speed computation and simulation methods used in reactor technology are presented [ru

  13. Relation of management, supervision, and personnel practices to nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, W.L.; Turnage, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The knowledge base of industrial/organization psychology suggests three major areas of research with important implications for nuclear power plant safety. These areas are: Management and Supervision: Personnel Selection, Training and Placement; and Organizational Climate. Evidence drawn from several Three Mile Island investigations confirms that organizational structure of plants and supervisory practices, the selection and training of personnel, and organizational climate are important factors. Difficulties in decision making and coordination of personnel are pinpointed. Deficiencies in training are highlighted and the climate of working atmosphere is discussed. These matters are related to nuclear power plant safety. Future research directions are presented

  14. Study on personnel qualification for non-destructive tests in the field of reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusch, K.; Wuestenberg, H.

    1977-01-01

    The training system for non-destructive testing is described, and the available and necessary personnel is analyzed; the personnel required for reactor safety problems is treated separately. On this basis, the subjects discussed in the study - available personnel, personnel requirements, training, training requirements, and suggestions for realisation - are treated in a general manner to begin with and afterwards with a view to specific problems of reactor safety. The methods employed are adapted to this situation. To obtain the necessary empirical data, questionnaires were set up and distributed, and experts in selected business companies and institutions were interviewed who work in the field of reactor safety or do same training in non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  15. Determining health personnel's application trends of new guidelines for preoperative fasting: findings from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Mevlüde; Pekin İşeri, Ozge

    2014-06-01

    For over a century, the discontinuation of oral food intake preoperatively after midnight has been routinely applied. Although routine fasting during the night before elective surgery has been abandoned by many modern centers, preoperative fasting after midnight continues as a routine practice. The purpose of this study was to determine trends in health personnel's application of new guidelines for preoperative fasting. The research sample of this descriptive study consisted of 73 nurses and physicians who were working in the surgical clinics during the time when the study was conducted and who agreed to participate in the study. The data of the study were collected using a questionnaire designed by the researchers. Of the health personnel included in the study group, 43.8% routinely kept adult patients fasting after midnight, 34.2% discontinued solid food intake 8 hours preoperatively, 5.5% discontinued solid food intake 6 hours preoperatively, and 34.2% discontinued the intake of clear and particulate liquids 4 to 8 hours preoperatively. Compliance of the American Society of Anesthesiologists' "2-4-6-8 rule" by health staff was very low. This study was carried out in a hospital and based on the statements of health staff. Therefore, the findings of the study are suggestive in nature and cannot be generalized. We recommend that the study should be conducted with larger sample groups and that actual preoperative fasting periods of the patients should be determined. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enforcement or incentives ? : promoting safety belt use among military personnel in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    During a nationwide campaign to promote safety belt use among military personnel, a field study was conducted at 12 different military bases in the netherlands. Amount of enforcement, type of publicity, and incentive strategies were varied among military bases. Observations of safety belt use among

  17. Fast neutron personnel dosimetry by CR-39 plastics a new electrochemical etching procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djeffal, S.

    1984-07-01

    In the first part of this work a brief description of solid state nuclear track detectors, the principles of track registration and the different reading techniques are given. In the experimental part of the present work we systematically analysed different etching procedures and set a new electrochemical etching method, which enables us to develop a new fast neutron dosimeter. This fast neutron dosimeter makes possible the measurement of low neutron doses in the energy range from 10 Kev to 20 Mev with a reasonably flat energy response. These new developments are very attractive in personnel neutron dosimetry where nuclear emulsions are still used despite their insensitivity to neutron energies down to 500 Kev (i.e. the energy range one often encounters around nuclear facilities)

  18. A new safety approach in the design of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhold, R.J.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Waltar, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to achieving fast reactor safety goals is becoming really apparent in the US Fast Reactor Program. Whereas the ''defense is best'' philosophy still prevails, there has been a tangible shift toward emphasizing passive mechanisms to protect the reactor and provide public safety---rather than relying on add-on active, engineered safety systems. This paper reviews the technical basis for this new safety approach and provides discussion on its implementation in current US liquid metal-cooled reactor designs. 4 refs., 4 figs

  19. Occupational safety and health textbook for radiological personnel employed in structural material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, J.

    1981-01-01

    The comprehensive textbook for X-ray and radiological testing personnel includes requirements and rules of occupational safety and health on the basis of Hungarian and international (mainly German) literature. In the chapter Fundamentals, X-ray and radioactive radiations, their measurements and biological effects, doses etc are described. In the chapter Occupational safety and health, the jobs representing radiation hazards are listed and safety regulations for them are reported. Finally, information for prevention and first aid is presented. Control questions are added to each part. The Appendix contains safety standards and regulations, information on legal aspects of safety and radiation protection as well as recommendations. (Sz.J.)

  20. Fast reactor test facilities in the US safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.; Dickerman, C.E.; Lennox, D.H.; Rose, D.

    1979-01-01

    The needs for safety information derivable from in-pile programs are reviewed, and the correlation made with existing and planned capability. In view of the current status of the U.S. breeder program, emphasis is given in the review to the impact of different fast breeder options on the required program and facilities. It is concluded that facility needs are somewhat independent of specific fast breeder concept, even though the relative emphasis on the various safety issues will differ. 8 refs

  1. Recruitment, qualification and training of personnel for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to outline the various factors that should to be considered in order to ensure that the operating organization has a sufficient number of qualified personnel for safe operation of a nuclear power plant. In particular, the objective of this publication is to provide general recommendations on the recruitment and selection of plant personnel and on the training and qualification practices that have been adopted in the nuclear industry since the predecessor Safety Guide was published in 1991. In addition, this Safety Guide seeks to establish a framework for ensuring that all managers and staff employed at a nuclear power plant demonstrate their commitment to the management of safety to high professional standards. This Safety Guide deals specifically with those aspects of qualification and training that are important to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. It provides recommendations on the recruitment, selection, qualification, training and authorization of plant personnel. That is, of all personnel in all safety related functions and at all levels of the plant. Some parts or all of this Safety Guide may also be used, with due adaptation, as a guide to the recruitment, selection, training and qualification of staff for other nuclear installations (such as research reactors or nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Section 2 gives guidance on the recruitment and selection of suitable personnel for a nuclear power plant. Section 3 gives guidance on the establishment of personnel qualification, explains the relationship between qualification and competence, and identifies how competence may be developed through education, experience and training. Section 4 deals with general aspects of the training policy for nuclear power plant personnel: the systematic approach, training settings and methods, initial and continuing training, and the keeping of training records. Section 5 provides guidance on the main aspects of training programmes

  2. Recruitment, qualification and training of personnel for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to outline the various factors that should to be considered in order to ensure that the operating organization has a sufficient number of qualified personnel for safe operation of a nuclear power plant. In particular, the objective of this publication is to provide general recommendations on the recruitment and selection of plant personnel and on the training and qualification practices that have been adopted in the nuclear industry since the predecessor Safety Guide was published in 1991. In addition, this Safety Guide seeks to establish a framework for ensuring that all managers and staff employed at a nuclear power plant demonstrate their commitment to the management of safety to high professional standards. This Safety Guide deals specifically with those aspects of qualification and training that are important to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. It provides recommendations on the recruitment, selection, qualification, training and authorization of plant personnel; that is, of all personnel in all safety related functions and at all levels of the plant. Some parts or all of this Safety Guide may also be used, with due adaptation, as a guide to the recruitment, selection, training and qualification of staff for other nuclear installations (such as research reactors or nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Section 2 gives guidance on the recruitment and selection of suitable personnel for a nuclear power plant. Section 3 gives guidance on the establishment of personnel qualification, explains the relationship between qualification and competence, and identifies how competence may be developed through education, experience and training. Section 4 deals with general aspects of the training policy for nuclear power plant personnel: the systematic approach, training settings and methods, initial and continuing training, and the keeping of training records. Section 5 provides guidance on the main aspects of training programmes

  3. Safety Analysis Of Actinide Recycled Fast Power Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufik, Mohammad

    2001-01-01

    Simulation for safety analysis of actinide recycled fast power reactor has been performed. The objective is to know reactor response about ULOF and ULOF and UTOP simultaneous accident. From parameter result such reactivity feedback, power, temperature, and cooled flow rate can conclusion that reactor have inherent safety system, which can back to new Equilibrium State

  4. Philosophy of safety evaluation on fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is the report submitted from the special subcommittee on reactor safety standard to the Nuclear Safety Commission on October 14, 1980, and it was decided to temporarily apply this concept to the safety examination on fast breeder reactors. The examination and discussion of this report were performed by taking the prototype reactor ''Monju'' into consideration, which is to be the present target, referring to the philosophy of the safety evaluation on fast breeder reactors in foreign countries and based on the experiences in the fast experimental reactor ''Joyo''. The items applicable to the safety evaluation for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) as they are among the existing safety examination guidelines are applied. In addition to the existing guidelines, the report describes the matters to be considered specifically for core, fuel, sodium, sodium void, reactor shut-down system, reactor coolant boundary, cover gas boundary and others, intermediate cooling system, removal of decay heat, containment vessels, high temperature structures, and aseismatic property in the safety design of LMFBR's. For the safety evaluation for LMFBR's, the abnormal transient changes in operation and the phenomena to be evaluated as accidents are enumerated. In order to judge the propriety of the criteria of locating LMFBR facilities, the serious and hypothetical accidents are decided to be evaluated in accordance with the guideline for reactor location investigation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. International standardization of safety requirements for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting the FaCT (Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development) project in cooperation with Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Mitsubishi FBR systems inc. (MFBR), where an advanced loop-type fast reactor named JSFR (Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is being developed. It is important to develop software technologies (a safety guideline, safety design criteria, safety design standards etc.) of FBRs as well as hardware ones (a reactor plant itself) in order to address prospective worldwide utilization of FBR technology. Therefore, it is expected to establish a rational safety guideline applicable to the JSFR and harmonized with national nuclear-safety regulations as well, including Japan, the United States and the European Union. This report presents domestic and international status of safety guideline development for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), results of comparative study for safety requirements provided in existing documents and a proposal for safety requirements of future SFRs with a roadmap for their refinement and worldwide utilization. (author)

  6. The operating organization and the recruitment, training and qualification of personnel for research reactors. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations on meeting the requirements on the operating organization and on personnel for research reactors. It covers the typical operating organization for research reactor facilities; the recruitment process and qualification in terms of education, training and experience; programmes for initial and continuing training; the authorization process for those individuals having an immediate bearing on safety; and the processes for their requalification and reauthorization

  7. Nuclear static eliminators halt airborne contamination and enhance personnel safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, G.F.; Regan, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    In January 1984, Nelco Products, Inc. opened a new plant in Fullerton, CA to produce fiberglass/epoxy sheet stock which is used to manufacture single-sided, double-sided and multi-layer printed circuit boards (PCB) for electronic and telecommunications apparatus. The process for making the PCB core material begins with woven fiberglass fabric which passes through a series of metal take-up and tensioning rollers, and is then immersed in and impregnated with an equivalent weight of epoxy resin. Shortly after startup, the plant encountered quality control and safety problems due to electrostatic charges that commonly occur when processing non-conductors such as fiberglass plastics and paper given serious consideration until the plant had been operating for about six months and continued to have quality and safety problems due to static charges. The engineers decided to try a bar-type nuclear static eliminator containing polonium 210 (Po-210) whose emissions create both negative and positive air ions. The nuclear-powered device is available only on an annual renewable lease, because the normal useful life is one year, and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires a leak test each 12 months. A fresh bar is shipped to the lessee at the end of the 12-month period, and the old one is returned to the lessor. The nuclear-powered static eliminators have improved the quality of the PCB core material since the fiberglass cloth is practically free of any dirt or dust before it enters the resin-impregnating bath. Furthermore, the operators no longer complain about electrical shocks

  8. Gas-cooled fast reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, C.L.; Simon, R.H.; Buttemer, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Initial conceptual design work on the GCFR began in the USA in the early 1960s and since the later 1960s has proceeded with considerable international cooperation. A 300 MWe GCFR demonstration plant employing three main cooling loops is currently being developed at General Atomic. A major preapplication licensing review of this demonstration plant was initiated in 1971 leading in 1974 to publication of a Safety Evaluation Report by the USAEC Directorate of Licensing. The preapplication review is continuing by addressing areas of concern identified in this report such that a major part of the work necessary to support the actual licensing of a GCFR demonstration plant has been established. The safety performance of the GCFR demonstration plant is based upon its inherent safety characteristics among which are the single phase and chemically inert coolant which is not activated and has a low reactivity worth, the negative core power and temperature reactivity coefficients and the small and negative steam reactivity worth. Recent studies of larger core designs indicate that as the reactor size increases central fuel, clad and coolant reactivity worths decrease and the Doppler coefficient becomes more negative. These inherent safety characteristics are complemented by safety design features such as enclosing the entire primary coolant system within a prestressed concrete pressure vessel (PCRV), providing two independent and diverse shutdown systems and residual heat removal (RHR) systems, limiting the worth of control rods to less than $1, employing pressure-equalized fuel rods, a core supported rigidly at its upper end and otherwise unrestrained and coolant downflow within the core to enhance debris removal should local melting occur. The structurally redundant PCRV design allows the potential depressurization leak area to be controlled and, since the PCRV is located within a containment building, coolant is present even after a depressurization accident and each RHR

  9. Higher operational safety of nuclear power plants by evaluating the behaviour of operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertins, M.; Glasner, P.

    1990-01-01

    In the GDR power reactors have been operated since 1966. Since that time operational experiences of 73 cumulative reactor years have been collected. The behaviour of operating personnel is an essential factor to guarantee the safety of operation of the nuclear power plant. Therefore a continuous analysis of the behaviour of operating personnel has been introduced at the GDR nuclear power plants. In the paper the overall system of the selection, preparation and control of the behaviour of nuclear power plant operating personnel is presented. The methods concerned are based on recording all errors of operating personnel and on analyzing them in order to find out the reasons. The aim of the analysis of reasons is to reduce the number of errors. By a feedback of experiences the nuclear safety of the nuclear power plant can be increased. All data necessary for the evaluation of errors are recorded and evaluated by a computer program. This method is explained thoroughly in the paper. Selected results of error analysis are presented. It is explained how the activities of the personnel are made safer by means of this analysis. Comparisons with other methods are made. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs

  10. A study of passive safety conditions for fast reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akinao

    1991-01-01

    A study has been made for passive safety conditions of fast reactor cores. Objective of the study is to develop a concept of a core with passive safety as well as a simple safety philosophy. A simple safety philosophy, which is wore easy to explain to the public, is needed to enhance the public acceptance for nuclear reactors. The present paper describes a conceptual plan of the study including the definition of the problem a method of approach and identification of tasks to be solved

  11. Control development of radiation protection and safety on personnel eye lens of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titik Kartika; Ishak

    2013-01-01

    The review on radiation protection and safety to the lens of personnel especially in interventional radiology activities has been carried out. The use of radiation in interventional radiology installations provide significant exposure to the lens of the eye, especially personnel. The results of the latest various surveys and researches on the effects of low dose radiation to the eye lens indicates that the eye lens dose threshold is less than the preconceived values. Based on these facts, recently, ICRP and IAEA provides recommendations regarding the reduction of the value of the eye lens dose limit for personnel. BAPETEN have adopted the value of the eye lens dose limit in the development of new regulations on radiation protection and safety. However, the application of this provision has various challenges that BAPETEN provide 3 (three) years transitional period. These challenges include the problem of monitoring the eye lens dose, the eye lens protective equipment which is not adequate, the lack of understanding of personnel related to the risk of low radiation to the eye lens, as well as the proper procedures to mitigate those risks. BAPETEN as a regulatory agency is expected to provide solutions to the problems faced by the stake holders. Therefore, to answer the challenge, it is necessary to develop better monitoring of radiation protection and safety. (author)

  12. Fast neutron reactors: the safety point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverie, M.; Avenas, M.

    1984-01-01

    All versions of nuclear reactors present favourable and unfavourable characteristics from the point of view of safety. The safety of the installations is obtained by making efforts to utilize in the best possible way those which are favourable and by taking proper steps in the face of those which are unfavourable. The present article shows how this general principle has been applied as regards the fast neutron reactors of integrated design which have been developped in France, taking into account the specific features of this version. A qualitative method to compare the safety of this version with that of pressurized water reactors which has been widely put to the test commercially all over the world is presented. These analyses make, generally speaking, several positive characteristics stand out for these fast neutron reactors from the safety aspects [fr

  13. Evaluation of different polymers for fast neutron personnel dosimetry using electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Cotter, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    There is considerable optimism for the enhancement by electrochemical etching of fast neutron-induced recoil tracks in polycarbonate for the purpose of personnel dosimetry. The threshold energy, however, is rather high. A desirable improvement would be to lower this energy below 1 MeV. With this objective in mind, we have commenced an investigation of cellulose acetate, triacetate, and acetobutyrate in addition to polycarbonate. These cellulose derivatives are chemically more reactive and physically weaker than polycarbonate. It might, therefore, be possible to initiate the electrochemical amplification at the sites of shorter recoil atom damage tracks than is possible with polycarbonate. Some characteristics important for electrochemically etching in aqueous electrolytes are listed. Chemical etching is combined with treeing, an electrical breakdown process that starts when the dielectric strength is exceeded. These mechanical and electrical properties pertain to the dry plastics. The absorption of water molecules and electrolyte ions will cause these values to be reduced. Results and conclusions of the study are presented

  14. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FAST and SAFE Passive Safety Devices for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Chihyung; Kim, In-Hyung; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The major factor is the impact of the neutron spectral hardening. The second factor that affects the CVR is reduced capture by the coolant when the coolant voiding occurs. To improve the CVR, many ideas and concepts have been proposed, which include introduction of an internal blanket, spectrum softening, or increasing the neutron leakage. These ideas may reduce the CVR, but they deteriorate the neutron economy. Another potential solution is to adopt a passive safety injection device such as the ARC (autonomous reactivity control) system, which is still under development. In this paper, two new concepts of passive safety devices are proposed. The devices are called FAST (Floating Absorber for Safety at Transient) and SAFE (Static Absorber Feedback Equipment). Their purpose is to enhance the negative reactivity feedback originating from the coolant in fast reactors. SAFE is derived to balance the positive reactivity feedback due to sodium coolant temperature increases. It has been demonstrated that SAFE allows a low-leakage SFR to achieve a self-shutdown and self-controllability even though the generic coolant temperature coefficient is quite positive and the coolant void reactivity can be largely managed by the new FAST device. It is concluded that both FAST and SAFE devices will improve substantially the fast reactor safety and they deserve more detailed investigations.

  16. Study of fast reactor safety test facilities. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, G.I.; Boudreau, J.E.; McLaughlin, T.; Palmer, R.G.; Starkovich, V.; Stein, W.E.; Stevenson, M.G.; Yarnell, Y.L.

    1975-05-01

    Included are sections dealing with the following topics: (1) perspective and philosophy of fast reactor safety analysis; (2) status of accident analysis and experimental needs; (3) experiment and facility definitions; (4) existing in-pile facilities; (5) new facility options; and (6) data acquisition methods

  17. Programmable controllers replace relays in MFTF-B personnel-safety interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for implementing personnel safety interlocks logic using industrial-type programmable controllers. The logic for all personnel safety interlocks except those totally internal to a subsystem is implemented in two non-redundant controllers. A high degree of fail-safe reliability is achieved by augmenting the protective features intrinsic to each controller with those provided by a small amount of external support hardware. The controllers are interfaced to the host computer system via fiber optic data links to enable display of interlock and overall system status on the control room graphic displays. When fully implemented, the controllers will perform the equivalent of over 2000 discreet relay functions

  18. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-B personnel safety and interlocks system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the field-side of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-B Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software

  19. Task Force Report, Safety of Personnel in LHC underground areas following the accident of 19th September 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Delille, B; Inigo-Golfin, J; Lindell, G; Roy, G; Tavian, L; Thomas, E; Trant, R; Völlinger, C

    2009-01-01

    In January 2009, the Task Force on Safety of Personnel in the LHC underground areas following the accident in sector 3-4 of 19th September 2008 (Safety Task Force) received from the CERN Director General the mandate to investigate the impact of the accident of 19th September 2008 on the safety of personnel working in the LHC underground areas. This mandate includes the elaboration of preventive and/or corrective measures, if deemed necessary. This report gives the conclusions and recommendations of the Safety Task Force which have been reviewed by an external advisory committee of safety experts.

  20. An independent safety assessment of Department of Energy nuclear reactor facilities: Training of operating personnel and personnel selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drain, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This study has been prepared for the Department of Energy's Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training (NFPQT) Committee. Its purpose is to provide the Committee with background information on, and assessment of, the selection, training, and qualification of nuclear reactor operating personnel at DOE-owned facilities

  1. Fast reactor safety and related physics. Volume I. Invited papers; panels; summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the twenty invited papers included. The papers covered sessions on licensing aspects of safety design bases, safety of demonstration plants, safety aspects of large commercial fast breeders, and safety test facilities.

  2. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  3. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan - Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D.A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.

    2012-01-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  4. Safety design study of fast breeder reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, M.; Inagaki, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on two fast breeder reactor (FBR) concepts, the tank type and the loop type, that have been studied as possible reactor designs to be used for a demonstration FBR (DFBR). The basic principle fo the DFBR design is to ensure plant safety through a defense-in-depth methodology. Improvements in the seismic and thermal stress designs have been attempted for both reactor concepts. The system design study strives to maximize the reliability of the safety-related systems and to rationalize commercialization of the plant

  5. Sodium Fast Reactor Safety and Licensing Research Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, Matthew; Lachance, Jeff; Sofu, Tanju; Wigeland, Roald; Flanagan, George; Bari, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The Sodium Fast Reactor Safety and Licensing Research Plan reports conclude a multi-year expert elicitation process. All information included in the studies are publicly available and the reports are UUR. These reports are intended to guide SFR researchers in the safety and licensing arena to important and outstanding issues Two (and a half) projects have been funded based on the recommendations in this report: • Modernization of SAS4A; • Incorporation of Contain/LMR with MELCOR; • (Data recovery at INL and PNNL)

  6. Evaluation of Portable Multi-Gas Analyzers for use by Safety Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, D. E.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Bardel, D. N.

    1998-01-01

    During confined space entry operations as well as Shuttle-safing operations, United Space Alliance (USA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) safety personnel use a variety of portable instrumentation to monitor for hazardous levels of compounds such as nitrogen dioxide (N%), monomethylhydrazine (NMM), FREON 21, ammonia (NH3), oxygen (O2), and combustibles (as hydrogen (H2)). Except for O2 and H2, each compound is monitored using a single analyzer. In many cases these analyzers are 5 to 10 years old and require frequent maintenance. In addition, they are cumbersome to carry and tend to make the job of personnel monitoring physically taxing. As part of an effort to upgrade the sensor technology background information was requested from a total of 27 manufacturers of portable multi-gas instruments. A set of criteria was established to determine which vendors would be selected for laboratory evaluation. These criteria were based on requests made by USA/NASA Safety personnel in order to meet requirements within their respective areas for confined-space and Shuttle-safing operations. Each of the 27 manufacturers of multi-gas analyzers was sent a copy of the criteria and asked to fill in the appropriate information pertaining to their instrumentation. Based on the results of the sensor criteria worksheets, a total of 9 vendors out of 27 surveyed manufacturers were chosen for evaluation. Each vendor included in the final evaluation process was requested to configure each of two analyzers with NO2, NH3, O2, and combustible sensors. A set of lab tests was designed in order to determine which of the multi-gas instruments under evaluation was best suited for use in both shuttle and confined space operations. These tests included linearity/repeatability, zero/span drift response/recovery, humidity, interference, and maintenance. At the conclusion of lab testing three vendors were selected for additional field testing. Based on the results of both the lab and

  7. Establishing management information system to solve the information management problem of nuclear safety related personnel's qualification management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haipeng; Liu Zhijun; Li Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid progress of nuclear energy and nuclear technology utilization, nuclear safety related personnel play an increasingly important role in ensuring nuclear safety. NNSA personnel qualification management information system conducts a multi-faceted, effective, real-time monitoring and information collection for nuclear safety staff practice unit management, knowledge management, license application, appraisal management or supervision, training management or supervision and certified staff management, and also is a milestone for NNSA to build the state department with 'five-feature' (learning-oriented, service-oriented, economical, innovative, clean-type). (authors)

  8. Conceptual design of module fast reactor of ultimate safety cooled by lead-bismuth alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnikov, V.O.; Stekolnikov, V.V.; Stepanov, V.S.; Gorshkov, V.T.; Kulikov, M.L.; Shulyndin, V.A.; Gromov, B.F.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Pashkin, Yu.G.

    1993-01-01

    During past time all basic problems arisen during working-out of NPP with lead-bismuth coolant were solved: physics and thermal physics of the cores, heat transfer and hydrodynamics, corrosion resistance of the structural materials and coolant technology, radiation and nuclear safety, investigations of emergency situations, development of fuel elements and absorbing elements of the reactor, equipment of the primary circuit and other circuits. A powerful experimental base equpped by unique rigs is made. A series of ship and test NPP has been constructed whereat repair of the plants and reactor refuelling are developed. Highly-skilled groups of investigators, designers and operation personnel capable of performing the development of the reactor plant with MFR within short terms have been formed. In this case MFR with lead-bismuth coolant may become the initial step in development of large-scale nuclear power engineering with fast reactors cooled by liquid lead

  9. Neutronics methods for transient and safety analysis of fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Modeling the evolution of possible or postulated accidents in nuclear reactors is fundamental in designing safe systems. For the next generation of reactors, in particular fast reactors, fuel movement during an accident can, in principle, drive an energetic event. Such is the issue of recriticality. The thermal energy produced during these events will, possibly, be converted into mechanical energy by some mechanisms. For example, the nuclear heat deposited in the fuel could cause fuel vaporization and its subsequent expansion. This movement would accelerate the surrounding sodium: part of the initial energy in the fuel is thus converted into sodium kinetic energy. This mechanical energy will finally be absorbed, in some way or another, by the reactor vessel. Providing an accurate estimate for the maximum mechanical work that any accidental sequence can do onto the reactor vessel is an essential step in designing a reactor containment that would withstand any load generated by any accident. That would assure accident containment, without consequences for the general public. Fast reactor accident modeling is a complicated task. The outcome of an accident is determined by different physical phenomena, all acting at almost the same time. Safety analysts must track all these different phenomena. Multi-physics codes have been developed for this task. They must contain accurate models for fluid-dynamics, neutronics, and structures. This work has to do with neutronics modeling of such accidents. Past and recent analyses have been limited to the approximate description of the neutronic field, for example by using a rough description of the energy and/or of the angular dependence of the neutron flux. In this work, different neutronic solvers are selected and coupled into a general multi-physics code for fast reactor accident analysis. Performances of each of them is then assessed. Some emphasis has been put also in assessing the speed of these solvers for determining the

  10. Methods for the sodium cooled fast reactor fire safety provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, B.V.; Dergachev, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    Problems of fire safety provision on NPPs with sodium cooled fast reactor are under discussion. Methods of sodium leak localization, measures eliminating sodium flaring up during leaks and main means of sodium fire extinguishing are considered. An extinguishing of sodium flaring up is performed by means of sodium temperatUre decrease and by limitation of hydrogen access to the flaring up surface. A conclusion is made that the most effective methods of extinguishing are the following: self-extinguishing (due to hydrogen burning out in a limiting volume); extinguishing by a gas mixture of nitrogen and carbonic acid (initial filling and blowing of rooms during sodium flaring up); extinguishing by special powders

  11. The safety basis of the integral fast reactor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, D.R.; Seidel, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) and metallic fuel have emerged as the US Department of Energy reference reactor concept and fuel system for the development of an advanced liquid-metal reactor. This article addresses the basic elements of the IFR reactor concept and focuses on the safety advances achieved by the IFR Program in the areas of (1) fuel performance, (2) superior local faults tolerance, (3) transient fuel performance, (4) fuel-failure mechanisms, (5) performance in anticipated transients without scram, (6) core-melt mitigation, and (7) actinide recycle

  12. Fast reactor safety and computational thermo-fluid dynamics approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninokata, Hisashi; Shimizu, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    This article provides a brief description of the safety principle on which liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is based and the roles of computations in the safety practices. A number of thermohydraulics models have been developed to date that successfully describe several of the important types of fluids and materials motion encountered in the analysis of postulated accidents in LMFBRs. Most of these models use a mixture of implicit and explicit numerical solution techniques in solving a set of conservation equations formulated in Eulerian coordinates, with special techniques included to specific situations. Typical computational thermo-fluid dynamics approaches are discussed in particular areas of analyses of the physical phenomena relevant to the fuel subassembly thermohydraulics design and that involve describing the motion of molten materials in the core over a large scale. (orig.)

  13. Safety characteristics of the integral fast reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Cahalan, J.E.; Sevy, R.H.; Wright, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is an innovative approach to liquid metal reactor design which is being studied by Argonne National Laboratory. Two of the key features of the IFR design are a metal fuel core design, based on the fuel technology developed at EBR-II, and an integral fuel cycle with a colocated fuel cycle facility based on the compact and simplified process steps made possible by the use of metal fuel. The paper presents the safety characteristics of the IFR concept which derive from the use of metal fuel. Liquid metal reactors, because of the low pressure coolant operating far below its boiling point, the natural circulation capability, and high system heat capacities, possess a high degree of inherent safety. The use of metallic fuel allows the reactor designer to further enhance the system capability for passive accommodation of postulated accidents

  14. ELFR: The European Lead Fast Reactor. Design, Safety Approach and Safety Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    • In the framework of the LEADER project, the safety approach for a Lead cooled fast reactor has been defined and, in particular, all the possible challenges to the main safety functions and their mechanisms have been specified, in order to better define the needed provisions. • On the basis of the above and taking into account the results of the safety analyses performed during previous project (ELSY), a reference configuration of the ELFR plant has been consolidated, by improving and updating the plant design features. In particular, the emerged safety concerns have been analyzed in the LEADER project and a new set of design options and safety provisions have been proposed. • The combination of favourable Lead coolant inherent characteristics and plant design features, specifically developed to face identified challenges, resulted in a very robust and forgiving design, even in very extreme conditions, as a Fukushima-like scenario

  15. Demonstrated operational and inherent safety of the prototype fast reactor (PFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, J.A.; Gregory, C.V.; Judd, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) is sited at Dounreay, on the north coast of Scotland in the United Kingdom, and has been in operation since 1974. Three aspects of the safety of the reactor are described, including the all-important practical consideration of operational safety, a demonstration of the limited consequences of a sodium/water reaction in a steam generator and the ability of the reactor to protect itself against highly improbable incidents. Attention is drawn to the low radiation levels in the plant and the correspondingly low dose rate to personnel. A feature of PFR operation has been the stable and predictable behaviour of its core together with the high degree of reliability exhibited by the engineered safety system. No failures have occurred within the standard driver charge but two experimental fuel pins suffered cladding failure, which was detected easily by the fission gas and delayed neutron detection systems. In the steam generating units sodium and water are separated by the single steel wall of the steam tubes. Although no under-sodium leak has occurred, an experimental programme is continuing and demonstrates that were any such leak to occur its consequences would be containable and would not result in the release of sodium to the environment or any breach of the reactor containment. The final section describes the inherent safety features of the reactor which enable it to survive a range of very improbable incidents even when the engineered safeguards fail. The features considered are natural circulation, which has been demonstrated by reactor experiment; the reactor's negative power coefficient, which, for example, enables the reactor to survive a complete loss of heat sink; and the durability of the fuel pins, demonstrated by a series of boiling experiments in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). (author)

  16. Radiation protection and safety guide no. GRPB-G-1: qualification and certification of radiation protection personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Darko, O.; Yeboah, J.; Osei, E.K.; Asiamah, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A number of accidents with radiation sources are invariably due to human factors. The achievement and maintenance of proficiency in protection and safety in working with radiation devices is a necessary prerequisite. This guide specifies the national scheme and minimum requirements for qualification and certification of radiation protection personnel. The objective is to ensure adequate level of skilled personnel by continuous upgrading of knowledge and skill of personnel. The following sectors are covered by this guide: medicine, industry, research and training, nuclear facility operations, miscellaneous activities

  17. Physical and technical aspects of lead cooled fast reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Smirnov, V.S.; Filin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    The safety analysis of lead-cooled fast reactors has been performed for the well-developed concept of BREST-OD-300 reactor. The most severe accidents have been considered. An ultimate design-basis accident has been defined as an event resulting from an external impact and involving a loss of leak-tightness of the lead circuit, loss of forced circulation of lead and loss of heat sink to the secondary circuit, failure of controls and of reactor scram with resultant insertion of total reactivity margin, etc. It was assumed in accident analysis that the protective feature available for accident mitigation was only reactivity feedback on the changes in the temperatures of the reactor core elements and coolant flow rate, and in some cases also actuation of passive protections of threshold action in response to low flow rate and high coolant temperature at the core outlet. It should be noted that the majority of the analyzed accidents could be overcame even without initiation of the above protections. It has been demonstrated that a combination of inherent properties of lead coolant, nitride fuel, physical and design features of fast reactors will ensure natural safety of BREST and are instrumental for avoiding by a deterministic approach the accidents associated with a significant release of radioactivity and requiring evacuation of people in any credible initiating event and a combination of events. (author)

  18. Training of maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture precises the method and means developed by EDF to ensure the training of maintenance personnel according to their initial educational background and their experience. The following points are treated: General organization of the training for maintenance personnel in PWR and GCR nuclear power stations and in Creys Malville fast breeder reactor; Basic nuclear training and pedagogical aids developed for this purpose; Specific training and training provided by contractors; complementary training taking into account the operation experience and feedback; Improvement of velocity, competence and safety during shut-down operations by adapted training. (orig.)

  19. Some aspects of the use of proton recoil proportional counters for fast neutron personnel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, T.J.; Bennett, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Gas-filled proton recoil proportional counters have been used extensively for the measurement of neutron spectra in degraded fission-spectrum environments. Some considerations relating to the use of these counters for personnel dosimetry are here described. High sensitivity and good accuracy in the determination of dose-equivalent can be obtained if relatively high pressure hydrogen-filled proportional counters are used as the active element in a dosimeter system

  20. Discussion on safety analysis approach for sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Suh, Nam Duk; Shin, Ahn Dong; Bae, Moo Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of nuclear energy is increasingly necessary not only because of the increasing energy consumption but also because of the controls on greenhouse emissions against global warming. To keep step with such demands, advanced reactors are now world widely under development with the aims of highly economical advances, and enhanced safety. Recently, further elaborating is encouraged on the research and development program for Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors, and in collaboration with other interested countries through the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is a strong contender amongst the GEN IV reactor concepts. Korea also takes part in that program and plans to construct demonstration reactor of SFR. SFR is under the development for a candidate of small modular reactors, for example, PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module). Understanding of safety analysis approach has also advanced by the demand of increasing comprehensive safety requirement. Reviewing the past development of the licensing and safety basis in the advanced reactors, such approaches seemed primarily not so satisfactory because the reference framework of licensing and safety analysis approach in the advanced reactors was always the one in water reactors. And, the framework is very plant specific one and thereby the advanced reactors and their frameworks don't look like a well assorted couple. Recently as a result of considerable advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), risk informed approaches are increasingly applied together with some of the deterministic approaches like as the ones in water reactors. Technology neutral framework (TNF) can be said to be the utmost works of such risk informed approaches, even though an intensive assessment of the applicability has not been sufficiently accomplished. This study discusses the viable safety analysis approaches for the urgent application to the construction of pool type SFR. As discussed in

  1. Passive safety system of a super fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutanto, E-mail: sutanto@fuji.waseda.jp [Cooperative Major in Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology—National Nuclear Energy Agency, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Oka, Yoshiaki [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Passive safety system of a Super FR is proposed. • Total loss of feedwater flow and large LOCA are analyzed. • The criteria of MCST and core pressure are satisfied. - Abstract: Passive safety systems of a Super Fast Reactor are studied. The passive safety systems consist of isolation condenser (IC), automatic depressurization system (ADS), core make-up tank (CMT), gravity driven cooling system (GDCS), and passive containment cooling system (PCCS). Two accidents of total loss of feedwater flow and 100% cold-leg break large LOCA are analyzed by using the passive systems and the criteria of maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) and maximum core pressure are satisfied. The isolation condenser can be used for mitigation of the accident of total loss of feedwater flow at both supercritical and subcritical pressures. The ADS is used for depressurization leading to a loss of coolant during line switching to operation of the isolation condenser at subcritical pressure. Use of CMT during line switching recovers the lost coolant. In case of large LOCA, GDCS can be used for core reflooding. Coolant vaporization in the core released to containment through the break is condensed by passive containment cooling system. The condensate flows to the GDCS pool by gravity force. The maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) of the accident satisfies the criterion.

  2. The personnel protection system for a Synchrotron Radiation Accelerator Facility: Radiation safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    The Personnel Protection System (PPS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed from the radiation safety point of view. The PPS, which is designed to protect people from radiation exposure to beam operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS), The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the very high radiation level inside the shielding housing (also called a PPS area). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing and a standard entry module at every entrance. The BCS prevents people from being exposed to the radiation outside a PPS area due to normal and abnormal beam losses. The BCS consists of the shielding (shielding housing and metal shielding in local areas), beam stoppers, active current limiting devices, and an active radiation monitor system. The system elements for the ACS and BCS and the associated interlock network are described. The policies and practices in setting up the PPS are compared with some requirements in the US Department of Energy draft Order of Safety of Accelerator Facilities

  3. Tests for validation of fast neutron reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, T.; Yamashita, H.

    2001-01-01

    Japanese scientific research and design enterprises in cooperation with industrial and power generating corporations implement a project on creating a fast neutron reactor of the ultimate safety. One of the basic expected results from such a development is creation of a reactor core structure that is able to eliminate recriticality occurrence in the course of reactor accident involving fuel melting. One of the possible ways to solve this problem is to include pipes (meant for specifying directed (controlled) molten fuel relocation) into fuel assembly structure. In the course of conduction and subsequent implementation of such a design the basic issue is to experimentally confirm the operating capacity of FA having such a structure and that is called FAIDUS. Within EAGLE Project on experimental basis of IAE NNC RK an activity has been started on preparation and conduction of out-of-pile and in-pile tests. During tests a sodium coolant will be used. Studies are conducted by NNC RK in cooperation with the Japanese corporations JAPC and JNC. Basic objective of out-of-pile tests was to obtain preliminary information on fuel relocation behavior under conditions simulating accident involving melting of core consisting of FAIDUS FA, which will help to clarify simulation criteria and to develop the most optimum structure of the experimental channel for reactor experiments conduction. The basic objective of in-pile tests was the experimental confirmation of operating capacity of FAIDUS FA model under reactor conditions. According to the program two tests are planned to be performed at IGR reactor: tests for validation of fast neutron reactor safety, and out-of-pile tests at EAGLE experimental facility without sodium coolant

  4. European in-pile investigations on fast breeder reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, J.; Penet, F.; Teague, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the difficulties faced by the various organisations responsible for the design and safety analysis of fast reactors, in the conception and execution of perfectly representative experiments corresponding to the various hypothetical accidents considered, the European experts in this field have chosen to adopt a more fundamental approach. By the coordination of the efforts in the different countries and pooling the results, it appears that sufficient data can be assembled to permit them to: isolate the influence of the principle parameters on the course of an accident and to have an appreciation of the possibilities for detection and propagation; and validate calculational models of the essential phenomena, and determine the values of the adjustable parameters used in accident codes. The present paper does not propose to give an exhaustive description of the European experimental programmes, nor of the possibilities for exploiting the results in safety analysis. The aim is simply to show with the aid of results already obtained or expected from the immediate programme, that it should be possible to answer certain fundamental questions concerning those accidents at present considered most important. Particular consideration is given to local blockages (SCARABEE, DFR and MOL 7C programmes), unprotected loss of pumps leading to cooling failure, and inlet blockage (SCARABEE and CABRI), and reactivity excursions (CABRI and VIPER). In addition it is planned to study, as part of the SCARABEE programme, the long-term post-accident behaviour of fuel in some simple configurations. It is shown that these various results should lead to a great improvement in our understanding of the progress of the hypothetical accidents taken into account in the design of fast breeder reactors [fr

  5. Design safety limits in prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puthiyavinayagam, P.; Roychowdhury, D.G.; Govindarajan, S.; Chellapandi, P.; Singh, Om Pal; Chetal, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: PFBR is designed to operate at 450 W/cm peak linear heat rating to a peak burn up of 100,000 MWd/t which corresponds to a damage dose of 85 dpa. The targetted reliability is to restrict pin failure to 1 in 10,000. All the design basis events are classified into four categories. Design safety limits imposed for DBE are in terms of temperatures, radiation doses and structural design parameters. Radiation limits are imposed in relation to RCB from the plant personnel and public point of view. Fuel pin integrity is assured with a detailed damage analysis by adopting cumulative damage concept for fixing clad temperature limits. Fuel temperatures are limited to melting point to preclude fuel slumping for events up to category 3. Partial melting is allowed for events in category 4 and the results obtained from transients experiments show that partial melting up to 50% of pellet area does not result in clad failure. Coolant temperatures are limited to boiling point to avoid burnout and reactivity effects

  6. Passive safety testing at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucoff, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    During 1986, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) conducted several tests designed to improve the understanding of the passive safety characteristics of an oxide-fueled liquid-metal reactor (LMR). Static and dynamic tests were performed over a broad range of power, flow, and temperature conditions that extended beyond those for normal operation. Key results of these tests are presented. Stable operation at low power with natural circulation cooling was demonstrated. A passive safety enhancement feature, the gas expansion module (GEM) was developed specifically to offset the large amount of cooldown reactivity that needs to be controlled in an oxide-fueled LMR undergoing an unprotected loss-of-flow accident. Nine GEMs were built and successfully tested in FFTF. With the reactor at 50% power (200 MW (thermal)), the main coolant pumps were turned off and the normal control rod scram response was inhibited. The GEMs and inherent core reactivity feedback mechanisms took the core subcritical with a modest peak coolant temperature transient that reached 85 degrees C above the pretransient value and always maintained a >400 degrees C margin to the sodium boiling point (910 degrees C)

  7. Accounting of features of motivation of personnel of a project organizational structure in system of personnel safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of motivation of effective activity of the staff, under which the authors have in the form of activity of employees, aimed at achieving personal and organizational needs. The authors distinguish between the concepts of stimulus and motive, while under the first definition they mean the achievement of here and now goals. Different approaches to the theory of motivation are considered, which testify to the need to take them into account in production activities and in the system of personnel security, as well as different levels of employee motivation classification, such as nuclear – an especially important and immediate need of the employee, compensating – an important but not a priority for the employee, organizational. Combining the first two, the background one is important for the organization, but remote in time for the employee. The model of distribution of employees, participants of the project organization depending on the performance of activities on the stages, taking into account the three criteria  – material incentive (nuclear demand, competency of the performer (compensating need, time motivation (background requirement is offered. The analysis is justified by the influence of motives of a different-level order, reflected in the growth of labor productivity, the reduction of administrative and managerial expenses, increased involvement of workers in activities related to improving working conditions, the accessibility of managers to a broader base of talented professionals, the ability to employ people living in remote places . It is pointed out that a long-term motivation can meet not only the immediate needs of the employee, but also be a background requirement, when, without having the opportunity to increase the salary to the employee, the head can motivate the employee with a convenient working regime. Studies on the need to take account of background needs. A matrix of integral

  8. Safety considerations in the fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.R.; Burton, W.R.; Taylor, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle safety problems for fast reactors, as compared with thermal reactors, are enhanced by the higher fissile content and heat rating of the fuel. Additionally recycling leads to the build up of substantial isotopes which contribute to the alpha and neutron hazards. The plutonium arisings in a nuclear power reactor programme extending into the next century are discussed. A requirement is to be able to return the product plutonium to a reactor about 9 months after the end of irradiation and it is anticipated that progress will be made slowly towards this fuel cycle, having regard to the necessity for maintaining safe and reliable operations. Consideration of the steps in the fuel cycle has indicated that it will be best to store the irradiated fuel on the reactor sites while I131 decays and decay heat falls before transporting and a suitable transport flask is being developed. Reprocessing development work is aimed at the key area of fuel breakdown, the inter-relation of the fuel characteristics on the dissolution of the plutonium and a solvent extract cycle leading to a product suitable for a co-located fabrication plant. Because of the high activity of recycled fuel it is considered that fabrication must move to a fully remote operation as is already the case for reprocessing, and a gel precipitation process producing a vibro compacted fuel is under development for this purpose. The waste streams from the processing plants must be minimised, processed for recovery of plutonium where applicable and then conditioned so that the final products released from the processing cycle are acceptable for ultimate disposal. The safety aspects reviewed cover protection of operators, containment of radioactive materials, criticality and regulation of discharges to the environment

  9. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-05-01

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  10. Fast Flux Test Facility final safety analysis report. Amendment 72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantt, D. A.

    1992-08-01

    This document provides the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 72 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) FSAR set. This amendment change incorporates Engineering Change Notices issued subsequent to Amendment 71 and approved for incorporation before June 24, 1992. These include changes in: Chapter 2, Site Characteristics; Chapter 3, Design Criteria Structures, Equipment, and Systems; Chapter 5B, Reactor Coolant System; Chapter 7, Instrumentation and Control Systems; Chapter 8, Electrical Systems - The description of the Class 1E, 125 Vdc systems is updated for the higher capacity of the newly installed, replacement batteries; Chapter 9, Auxiliary Systems - The description of the inert cell NASA systems is corrected to list the correct number of spare sample points; Chapter 11, Reactor Refueling System; Chapter 12, Radiation Protection and Waste Management; Chapter 13, Conduct of Operations; Chapter 16, Quality Assurance; Chapter 17, Technical Specifications; Chapter 19, FFTF Fire Specifications for Fire Detection, Alarm, and Protection Systems; Chapter 20, FFTF Criticality Specifications; and Appendix B, Primary Piping Integrity Evaluation.

  11. Sodium Fast Reactor Safety and Licensing Research Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, M.; Lachance, J.; Sofu, T.; Bari, R.; Flanagon, G.; Wigeland, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes potential research priorities for the US Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety related gaps in the available information, data and models needed to support the licensing of an SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology; accident sequences and initiators; source term characterization, codes and methods; and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this paper to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the applied technology access control designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust knowledge management and preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with applied technology and knowledge management. (author)

  12. Review of the Safety Design Approaches in Sodium Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Yong Bum

    2009-12-01

    The principle of the Defense in depth is essential in securing the safety of nuclear power plants, that is, to prevent cores-damaging severs accidents and to minimize the radiological consequences of the accidents 'as low as possible' (ALARA). One of the major design features of sodium fast reactors (SFRs) is that it has a large amount of sodium in the reactor vessel, providing a large heat capacity, such that it is feasible to contain the consequences of sever core damaging accidents in the vessel and primary system boundary. Containment of a severe accident in the primary system boundary, that is called in-vessel retention(IVR), is not a licensing requirement but set up as a design goal in most of the SFR design in the context of risk minimization. The objective of this report is to broadly review and compare the approaches and efforts made in the some of the major SFR designs of the US, Europe and Japan to prevent severe accidents and mitigate their consequences should they occur. Specifically, the subjects described in this report include design criteria or requirements, accident categorization and acceptance criteria, design features to prevent and contain severs accidents

  13. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan - Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofu, Tanju; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R.; Wigeland, Roald; Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F.

    2012-01-01

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  14. Analysis of criticality safety of coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    1991-01-01

    Power excursion during possible fast core flooding is analyzed as serious accident. Model gives short filling time of fast zone with moderator after break of fast core tank. Reactivity increase is determined by computer codes and verified in specific experiments. Measurements of safety rods drop time and reactivity worth are performed. Coupled core kinetics parameters are determined according to model of Avery. Power excursion study, depending on power level threshold and safety instrumentation response time is performed. It was shown that safety system can shut-down reactor safely even in case of highly set power thresholds and partially failure of safety chain. (author)

  15. PLC-based search and secure interlock system for the personnel safety in folded tandem ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumar, Sapna; Subramanyum, N.B.V.; Bhatt, Jignesh P.; Ware, Shailaja V.; Kansara, M.J.; Gupta, S.K.; Singh, P.

    2006-01-01

    Safety of the personnel is one of the key issues addressed in any accelerator project. The FOTIA facility at BARC is capable of operating under standard operation conditions without any radiation hazard. Even then for a safe and reliable operation of FOTIA a PLC (Programmable logic controller) based interlock system has been implemented. This interlocking system is compact, modular, flexible, robust and easy for troubleshooting. These advantages led to the popularity of PLC rather than using a relay-based system. This paper highlights the salient features of the search and secure interlock for the personal safety of FOTIA. (author)

  16. An extended role for thermoluminescent phosphors in personnel, environmental and accident dosimetry using sensitisation, re-estimation and fast fading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarises some techniques for extending the usefulness of conventional phosphors in personnel, environmental and accident dosimetry. An optimised procedure for utilising radiation sensitisation and UV re-estimation in thermoluminescent LiF is presented. In particular it is shown that optimum performance is achieved by using a UV wavelength of 250 +- 10 nm for both the UV/thermal anneal following sensitisation, and for the UV re-estimation procedure. In the case of Harshaw Lif Chips (3x3x0.9 mm 3 ) the sensitivity is increased by a factor of 4-5 to achieve a minimum detectable dose of approx.=10 μGy (2sigma) and a minimum re-estimable dose of 50-100 mGy (2sigma), dependent on batch. Sensitized LiF also exhibits improved tissue equivalence, extended linearity and improved precision at low doses. The information from fast-fading glow peaks, which is normally rejected, is shown to have a useful application to the evaluation of short-term increases in environmental dose rates such as may occur following accidental releases of radioactivity. (orig.)

  17. ESRD QIP - National Healthcare Safety Network Healthcare Personnel Influenza Vaccination - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the NHSN healthcare personnel influenza vaccination...

  18. Acoustic Waves: A Route to Enhance Sodium Fast Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeannot, Jean-Philippe; Baque, François; Cavaro, Matthieu; Gastaldi, Olivier; Lhuilier, Christian; Massacret, Nicolas; Moriot, Jérémy; Paumel, Kévin; Vandergaegen, Matthias; Rodriguez, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Improvement to prevent core meltdown and to provide a more robust safety demonstration → Safety objectives: - A level of safety at least equivalent to EPR’s level, - Consolidation of the defence-in-depth principle, - A more robust safety demonstration than those of the Phenix and Superphenix reactor. Acoustic techniques: - Low attenuation by the sodium medium - High velocity of US wave (2289 m.s-1 at 550°C) →

  19. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 1 include: impact of safety and licensing considerations on fast reactor design; safety aspects of innovative designs; intra-subassembly behavior; operational safety; design accommodation of seismic and other external events; natural circulation; safety design concepts; safety implications derived from operational plant data; decay heat removal; and assessment of HCDA consequences

  20. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 1 include: impact of safety and licensing considerations on fast reactor design; safety aspects of innovative designs; intra-subassembly behavior; operational safety; design accommodation of seismic and other external events; natural circulation; safety design concepts; safety implications derived from operational plant data; decay heat removal; and assessment of HCDA consequences.

  1. Role of the State Office for Nuclear Safety in testing special professional competence of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The laws and regulations governing the title topic are identified. The following terms are defined and their context highlighted: professional competence; special professional competence; selected personnel; requirements for selected personnel; requirements for selected personnel training; examination boards; and licensing procedure. (P.A.)

  2. Fast reactor safety program. Progress report, January-March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The goal of the DOE LMFBR Safety Program is to provide a technology base fully responsive to safety considerations in the design, evaluation, licensing, and economic optimization of LMFBRs for electrical power generation. A strategy is presented that divides safety technology development into seven program elements, which have been used as the basis for the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for the Program. These elements include four lines of assurance (LOAs) involving core-related safety considerations, an element supporting non-core-related plant safety considerations, a safety R and D integration element, and an element for the development of test facilities and equipment to be used in Program experiments: LOA-1 (prevent accidents); LOA-2 (limit core damage); LOA-3 (maintain containment integrity); LOA-4 (attenuate radiological consequences); plant considerations; R and D integration; and facility development

  3. Plant dynamics and safety analysis of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Some general features of sodium cooled fast breeders which influence the thermohydraulics and differ from LWR'S are discussed. Using the SNR-300 as a reference, some thermohydraulic transients from normal operation and from design accidents are presented. (orig.)

  4. Improving fuel cycle design and safety characteristics of a gas cooled fast reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, W.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This research concerns the fuel cycle and safety aspects of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor, one of the so-called "Generation IV" nuclear reactor designs. The Generation IV Gas Cooled Fast Reactor uses helium as coolant at high temperature. The goal of the GCFR is to obtain a "closed nuclear fuel cycle",

  5. Radiation control and safety of fast reactor; Radijaciona kontrola i sigurnost postrojenja sa brzim reaktorom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M; Antic, D [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1983-07-01

    The fundamental activities for safeguard of radiation control and safety and the necessary staff for them for fast reactor plant are shown. The basic systems for the plant radiation control are counted, especially with regards to poisoning of some fuel materials. The particular characteristics of the plant radiation control determined by the fast reactor are pointed out. (author)

  6. British Coal Compass Project summary: colliery based manpower, personnel, scheduling and safety systems and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, V. (Oasis Group PLC (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    In early 1991, British Coal reviewed its existing personnel and manpower planning systems and concluded they were inadequate for the future needs of the business. With wages accounting for 40% British Coal's 1990/91 operational costs, the Corporation targeted manpower management as an area to deliver further improvements. British Coal's strategy to continue to improve productivity required payroll and personnel related systems which could support new flexible working hours and variable shifts. This strategy would enable machine running time to be increased, leading to improved productivity levels. 3 figs.

  7. Safety evaluation report. Fast Flux Test Facility. Project No. 448

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    Information on the safety of the FFTF Reactor is presented under the following chapter headings: site characteristics; design of structures, components, equipment, and systems; reactor; reactor coolant system and connected systems; engineered safety features; electric power; auxiliary systems; radioactive waste management systems; radiation protection; conduct of operations; initial test programs; accident analysis; and quality assurance.

  8. Safety evaluation report. Fast Flux Test Facility. Project No. 448

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the safety of the FFTF Reactor is presented under the following chapter headings: site characteristics; design of structures, components, equipment, and systems; reactor; reactor coolant system and connected systems; engineered safety features; electric power; auxiliary systems; radioactive waste management systems; radiation protection; conduct of operations; initial test programs; accident analysis; and quality assurance

  9. Safety of the liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactor and aspects of its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, G.; Papp, R.; Huebel, D.

    1977-01-01

    Design and construction of the sodium-cooled fast reactors KNK-II (20MW(e)) and SNR-300 (300MW(e)) determine the status of safety engineering and safety R and D of LMFBRs in the Federal Republic of Germany. Both prototype fast power reactors have to go through a civil licensing process similar to that applied to present LWRs. A multilevel safety - or defence in depth - approach is applied to the design and construction of fast power reactors. All design data of the fast reactor plant are confirmed by extensive experimental programmes. Design limits of the plant are thoroughly discussed during the licensing process. Important safety R and D programmes have been and are still being performed. A very conservative safety analysis for hypothetical core and other plant accidents is used for present prototype fast reactors. The paper reviews the future trend of development of theoretical methods for accident analysis and the application of experimental results, especially in view of large commercial-type LMFBRs. The safety approach applied to the LMFBR plant is safe operation under normal operating conditions and safe shutdown under off-normal conditions. The consequences of releases of radioactivity to the environment meet the given standards. No chemical reprocessing plant for fast breeder fuel is in operation in the FRG at present; however, R and D work on investigation of all aspects and problem areas of the fast breeder fuel cycle are under way. Systems studies on safety aspects of the fast breeder fuel cycle (transport, reprocessing, fuel fabrication) and its impact on the environment have been performed and the main consequences of these studies are presented in the paper. (author)

  10. British Coal Compass project summary: colliery based manpower, personnel, scheduling and safety systems and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, V. [Oasis Group plc (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    In early 1991 British Coal reviewed its existing personnel and manpower planning systems and concluded they were inadequate for the future needs of the business. British Coal`s strategy to continue to improve productivity required payroll and personnel related systems which could support new flexible working hours and variable shifts. This strategy would enable machine running time to be increased, leading to improved productivity levels. The Corporation chose to install a distributed, integrated computer system, code named `Compass` to devolve many of the responsibilities for the management and payment of the industrial workforce from Corporate headquarters` functions to all its collieries. The system consists of eight main software systems: an on-line, real-time time and attendance system; a ristering system; a colliery personnel system; a strategic manpower planning system; a local data capture system; a central, core payroll system; a corporate personnel database; and a fail-safe, resilience system. The article describes the technology used and discusses the benefits of the system which started operations in autumn 1993. 3 figs.

  11. Simulator platform for fast reactor operation and safety technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.; Park, Y.S.; Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Dworzanski, P.; Misterka, J.

    2012-01-01

    A simulator platform for visualization and demonstration of innovative concepts in fast reactor technology is described. The objective is to make more accessible the workings of fast reactor technology innovations and to do so in a human factors environment that uses state-of-the art visualization technologies. In this work the computer codes in use at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the design of fast reactor systems are being integrated to run on this platform. This includes linking reactor systems codes with mechanical structures codes and using advanced graphics to depict the thermo-hydraulic-structure interactions that give rise to an inherently safe response to upsets. It also includes visualization of mechanical systems operation including advanced concepts that make use of robotics for operations, in-service inspection, and maintenance.

  12. Simulator platform for fast reactor operation and safety technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, R. B.; Park, Y. S.; Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Dworzanski, P.; Misterka, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-30

    A simulator platform for visualization and demonstration of innovative concepts in fast reactor technology is described. The objective is to make more accessible the workings of fast reactor technology innovations and to do so in a human factors environment that uses state-of-the art visualization technologies. In this work the computer codes in use at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the design of fast reactor systems are being integrated to run on this platform. This includes linking reactor systems codes with mechanical structures codes and using advanced graphics to depict the thermo-hydraulic-structure interactions that give rise to an inherently safe response to upsets. It also includes visualization of mechanical systems operation including advanced concepts that make use of robotics for operations, in-service inspection, and maintenance.

  13. Nuclear criticality safety basics for personnel working with nuclear fissionable materials. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vausher, A.L.

    1984-10-01

    DOE order 5480.1A, Chapter V, ''Safety of Nuclear Facilities,'' establishes safety procedures and requirements for DOE nuclear facilities. The ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Basic Program - Phase I'' is documented in this report. The revised program has been developed to clearly illustrate the concept of nuclear safety and to help the individual employee incorporate safe behavior in his daily work performance. Because of this, the subject of safety has been approached through its three fundamentals: scientific basis, engineering criteria, and administrative controls. Only basics of these three elements were presented. 5 refs

  14. An overview of FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] contributions to Liquid Metal Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility has provided a very useful framework for testing the advances in Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Technology. During the licensing phase, the switch from a nonmechanistic bounding technique to the mechanistic approach was developed and implemented. During the operational phase, the consideration of new tests and core configurations led to use of the anticipated-transients-without-scram approach for beyond design basis events and the move towards passive safety. The future role of the Fast Flux Test Facility may involve additional passive safety and waste transmutation tests. 26 refs

  15. Physics design of fast reactor safety test facilities for in-pile experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.; Matos, J.E.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Shaftman, D.H.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lam, S.K.; Pennington, E.M.; Woodruff, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    A determined effort to identify and resolve current Fast Breeder Reactor safety testing needs has recently resulted in a number of conceptual designs for FBR safety test facilities which are very complex and diverse both in their features and in their purpose. The paper discusses the physics foundations common to most fast reactor safety test facilities and the constraints which they impose on the design. The logical evolution, features, and capabilities of several major conceptual designs are discussed on the basis of this common background

  16. Thermal-hydraulic methods in fast reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.P.; Briggs, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for the solution of thermal-hydraulic problems in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) arising primarily from transient accident analysis are reviewed. Principal emphasis is given to the important phenomenological issues of sodium boiling and fuel motion. Descriptions of representative phenomenological and mathematical models, computational algorithms, advantages and limitations of the approaches, and current research needs and directions are provided

  17. Development of the Human Error Management Criteria and the Job Aptitude Evaluation Criteria for Rail Safety Personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, In Soo; Seo, Sang Mun; Park, Geun Ok (and others)

    2008-08-15

    It has been estimated that up to 90% of all workplace accidents have human error as a cause. Human error has been widely recognized as a key factor in almost all the highly publicized accidents, including Daegu subway fire of February 18, 2003 killed 198 people and injured 147. Because most human behavior is 'unintentional', carried out automatically, root causes of human error should be carefully investigated and regulated by a legal authority. The final goal of this study is to set up some regulatory guidance that are supposed to be used by the korean rail organizations related to safety managements and the contents are : - to develop the regulatory guidance for managing human error, - to develop the regulatory guidance for managing qualifications of rail drivers - to develop the regulatory guidance for evaluating the aptitude of the safety-related personnel.

  18. Development of the Human Error Management Criteria and the Job Aptitude Evaluation Criteria for Rail Safety Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, In Soo; Seo, Sang Mun; Park, Geun Ok

    2008-08-01

    It has been estimated that up to 90% of all workplace accidents have human error as a cause. Human error has been widely recognized as a key factor in almost all the highly publicized accidents, including Daegu subway fire of February 18, 2003 killed 198 people and injured 147. Because most human behavior is 'unintentional', carried out automatically, root causes of human error should be carefully investigated and regulated by a legal authority. The final goal of this study is to set up some regulatory guidance that are supposed to be used by the korean rail organizations related to safety managements and the contents are : - to develop the regulatory guidance for managing human error, - to develop the regulatory guidance for managing qualifications of rail drivers - to develop the regulatory guidance for evaluating the aptitude of the safety-related personnel

  19. Reliability analysis of diverse safety logic systems of fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Kumar, Bh.; Apte, P.R.; Srivani, L.; Ilango Sambasivan, S.; Swaminathan, P.

    2006-01-01

    Safety Logic for Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is designed to initiate safety action against Design Basis Events. Based on the outputs of various processing circuits, Safety logic system drives the control rods of the shutdown system. So, Safety Logic system is classified as safety critical system. Therefore, reliability analysis has to be performed. This paper discusses the Reliability analysis of Diverse Safety logic systems of FBRs. For this literature survey on safety critical systems, system reliability approach and standards to be followed like IEC-61508 are discussed in detail. For Programmable Logic device based systems, Hardware Description Languages (HDL) are used. So this paper also discusses the Verification and Validation for HDLs. Finally a case study for the Reliability analysis of Safety logic is discussed. (author)

  20. Personnel radiation safety. A case of hand lesion in a radiologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, M.Yi.; Kulyinyich, G.V.; Stadnik, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    The work featured the questions of norma and rules of radiation safety at work with ionizing radiation. The history of the question about the permissible doses is dabbler's. The changes in the skin when exceeding the tolerant dose are described. A case of severe local lesions of the hand caused by chronic occupational over irradiation, when the safety rules were neglected, is described

  1. Development of safety evaluation methods applied to the safety regulations for the operation stage of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study is to establish the safety evaluation methods needed in the operation stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). Related the above purpose of this study, some investigation studies for the technical standard applied to Monju were achieved in JFY 2012. (author)

  2. Fast flux test facility final safety analysis report amendment 79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautel, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This document is provided to replace, remove, or add applicable pages to the chapters on: Heat Transport System; Containment and Structures; Auxiliary Systems; Reactor Refueling System; Conduct of Operations; Safety Analysis; Quality Assurance; FFTF Criticality Specifications; and Appendix H's TRIGA Fuel Storage System

  3. Status of conceptual safety design study of Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shigenobu; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Niwa, Hajime; Shimakawa, Yoshio

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current conceptual safety design and related evaluation of Japanese Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor which is studied in the framework of the Feasibility Study (FS) on commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems in Japan are described. The purpose of the safety design is to establish a feasible safety concept of FBR which aims at a sustainable energy source of the next generations. The safety targets and the safety design principle are set aiming at realizing worldwide acceptability of the safety level. The basic safety design concept, which can meet the safety targets, was formulated taking along with the defense-in-depth philosophy as the basic safety design principle. In order to cope with wide range of energy and resource demands, there are some various designs both of oxide and metal fuel for JSFR. Some analytical results of typical design basis events, design extension conditions and core damage frequency estimation show the feasibility of the safety design concept for them. (author)

  4. The SCARABEE experimental fast reactor safety programme already completed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.P.; Teague, H.; Heusener, G.

    1979-08-01

    The SCARABEE in-pile experimental programme comprised a series of tests on unirradiated fuel pins, either single or in seven-pin clusters. The main objective was to obtain information on the mode and consequences of fast reactor fuel pin failure in conditions representative of loss of cooling in a LMFBR. The application of such programmes in full scale reactors leads to the great importance of the interpretation of experimental observations. The interpretation of that programme was carried out jointly by CEA, KFK and UKAEA; this international collaboration led to a sharper focusing on essential features to be modelled in experiments and computer codes and to a valuable convergence of views

  5. Neutron flux shape effects in large fast reactor safety calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galati, A.; Loizzo, P.; Musco, A.

    1978-01-01

    Three classes of accidents in a large fast reactor were studied by the two-dimensional core dynamics code NADYP-2. A Modified version of the code, including a point kinetics module, allowed comparison between 2D and 0D power, reactivity and temperature histories. A strong shape effect was evidenced by these calculations in the boiling phase of LOF accidents as well as in the accident generated by control rod removal. Some future possibilities of by passing the consequences of this effect are indicated

  6. RF radiation measurement for the Advanced Photon Source (AS) personnel safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J.J.; Kim, J.; Otocki, R.; Zhou, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) booster and storage ring RF system consists of five 1-MW klystrons, four 5-cell cavities, and sixteen single-cell cavities. The RF power is distributed through many hundreds of feet of WR2300 waveguide with H-hybrids and circulators. In order to protect personnel from the danger of RF radiation due to loose flanges or other openings in the waveguide system, three detector systems were implemented: an RF radiation detector, a waveguide pressure switch, and a Radiax aperture detector (RAD). This paper describes RF radiation measurements on the WR 2300 waveguide system

  7. Part I. Fuel-motion diagnostics in support of fast-reactor safety experiments. Part II. Fission product detection system in support of fast reactor safety experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devolpi, A.; Doerner, R.C.; Fink, C.L.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Braid, T.H.; Boyar, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    In all destructive fast-reactor safety experiments at TREAT, fuel motion and cladding failure have been monitored by the fast-neutron/gamma-ray hodoscope, providing experimental results that are directly applicable to design, modeling, and validation in fast-reactor safety. Hodoscope contributions to the safety program can be considered to fall into several groupings: pre-failure fuel motion, cladding failure, post-failure fuel motion, steel blockages, pretest and posttest radiography, axial-power-profile variations, and power-coupling monitoring. High-quality results in fuel motion have been achieved, and motion sequences have been reconstructed in qualitative and quantitative visual forms. A collimated detection system has been used to observe fission products in the upper regions of a test loop in the TREAT reactor. Particular regions of the loop are targeted through any of five channels in a rotatable assembly in a horizontal hole through the biological shield. A well-type neutron detector, optimized for delayed neutrons, and two GeLi gamma ray spectrometers have been used in several experiments. Data are presented showing a time history of the transport of Dn emitters, of gamma spectra identifying volatile fission products deposited as aerosols, and of fission gas isotopes released from the coolant

  8. Enhancing nuclear safety verification ability for personnel of regulatory body in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Nguyen Hoang; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2012-01-01

    A major issue dominating the nuclear energy development program is the availability of sufficient human resources. Vietnam needs to have significant numbers of engineers, technicians, and scientists in order to support and ensure the safety of nuclear power plant which will be paramount as the government's goal. In particular, to ensure safety in utilization of nuclear energy, a country embarking on a nuclear power program should consider the early establishment of a regulatory body which regulates nuclear power plants at all stages to protect public from radiation hazards and to preserve the environment. In this paper, some lessons learned and the status of human resource development for nuclear safety in Vietnam is presented. Some recommendations, proposed ideas are given on strategy development of human resource

  9. Safety of alternate day fasting and effect on disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddy, Kristin K; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Trepanowski, John F; Barnosky, Adrienne R; Bhutani, Surabhi; Varady, Krista A

    2015-05-06

    Alternate day fasting (ADF; ad libitum intake "feed day" alternated with 75% restriction "fast day"), is effective for weight loss, but the safety of the diet has been questioned. Accordingly, this study examined occurrences of adverse events and eating disorder symptoms during ADF. Obese subjects (n = 59) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol where food was provided on the fast day. Body weight decreased (P Bad breath doubled from baseline (14%) to post-treatment (29%), though not significantly. Depression and binge eating decreased (P effects on eating disorder symptoms.

  10. Reactivity monitoring for safety purposes on the UK prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, D.J.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The small size and high rating of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) make the provision of safety related instrumentation for individual subassemblies both difficult and expensive. Global monitoring of the core is thus very attractive. Reactivity monitoring is an important part of such global monitoring. Reactivity monitoring on a short timescale (a few seconds) is used on the UK Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) as a trip parameter and long-term reactivity monitoring is being developed as a means of providing early warning of slowly developing faults. Results are presented from PFR to demonstrate the capabilities of reactivity monitoring in an operational fast reactor power station. (author)

  11. Safety requirements expected to the prototype fast breeder reactor 'Monju'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    In July 2013, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) has enforced new regulatory requirements in consideration of severe accidents for the commercial light water reactors (LWR) and also prototype power generation reactors such as the sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) of 'Monju' based on TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (hereinafter referred to as '1F accident') occurred in March 2011. Although the regulatory requirements for SFR will be revised by NRA with consideration for public comments, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) set up 'Advisory Committee on Monju Safety Requirements' consisting of fast breeder reactor (FBR) and safety assessment experts in order to establish original safety requirements expected to the prototype FBR 'Monju' considering severe accidents with knowledge from JAEA as well as scientific and technical insights from the experts. This report summarizes the safety requirements expected to Monju discussed by the committee. (author)

  12. Overview of fast reactor safety research and development in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhold, R.J.; Avery, R.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The liquid metal reactor (LMR) safety R and D program in the U.S. is presently focused on support of two modular innovative reactor concepts: PRISM - the General Electric Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module and SAFR - the Rockwell International Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor. These reactor plant concepts accommodate the use of either oxide fuel or the metal fuel which is under development in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. Both concepts emphasize prevention of accidents through enhancement of inherent and passive safety characteristics. Enhancement of these characteristics is expected to be a major factor in establishing new and improved safety criteria and licensing arrangements with regulatory authorities for advanced reactors. Limited work is also continuing on the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB), a large pool plant design. Major elements of the current and restructured safety program are discussed. (author)

  13. Basic concept of fuel safety design and assessment for sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakae, Nobuo; Baba, Toshikazu; Kamimura, Katsuichiro

    2013-03-01

    'Philosophy in Safety Evaluation of Fast Breeder Reactors' was published as a guideline for safety design and safety evaluation of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor in Japan. This guideline points out that cladding creep and swelling due to internal pressure should be taken into account since the fuel is used under high temperature and high burnup, and that fuel assembly deformation and the prevention from coolant channel blockage should be taken into account in viewpoints of nuclear and thermal hydraulic design. However, the requirements including their criteria and evaluation items are not described. Two other domestic guidelines related to core design are applied for fuel design of fast reactor, but the description is considered to not be enough to practically use. In addition, technical standard for nuclear fuel used in power reactors is also applied for fuel inspection. Therefore, the technical standard and guideline for fuel design and safety evaluation are considered to be very important issue for nuclear safety regulation. This document has been developed according to the following steps: The guidelines and the technical standards, which are prepared in foreign countries and international organization, were reviewed. The technical background concerning fuel design and safety evaluation for fast reactor was collected and summarized in the world wide scale. The basic concept of fuel safety design and assessment for sodium-cooled fast reactor was developed by considering a wide range of views of the specialists in Japan. In order to discuss the content with foreign specialists IAEA Consultancy Meetings have been held on January, 2011 and January, 2012. The participants of the meeting came from USA, UK, EC, India, China and South Korea. The specialists of IAEA and JNES were also joined. Although this document is prepared for application to 'Monju'(prototype LMFR), it may be applied to experimental, demonstration and commercial types of LMFR after revising it by taking

  14. Passive and engineered safety features of the prototype fast reactor (PFR), Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    Prototype fast reactor (PFR) combines passive and engineered safety features. Natural convection, a strong negative power coefficient, the decay heat removal system, and a fuel design able to operate beyond failure are all inherent and passive safety features of the PFR. The reliable shutdown system and the protection provided against SGU leaks are example of engineered protection. Experience at PFR demonstrates the worth and potential of a range of passive and engineered safeguards

  15. Overall system description and safety characteristics of Prototype Gen IV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Woon; Chang, Jin Wook; Lim, Jae Yong; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Kwi Lim; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2016-01-01

    The Prototype Gen IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) has been developed for the last 4 years, fulfilling the technology demonstration of the burning capability of transuranic elements included in light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. The PGSFR design has been focused on the robustness of safety systems by enhancing inherent safety characteristics of metal fuel and strengthening passive safety features using natural circulation and thermal expansion. The preliminary safety information document as a major outcome of the first design phase of PGSFR development was issued at the end of 2015. The project entered the second design phase at the beginning of 2016. This paper summarizes the overall structures, systems, and components of nuclear steam supply system and safety characteristics of the PGSFR. The research and development activities to demonstrate the safety performance are also briefly introduced in the paper

  16. Overall System Description and Safety Characteristics of Prototype Gen IV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Yoo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prototype Gen IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR has been developed for the last 4 years, fulfilling the technology demonstration of the burning capability of transuranic elements included in light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. The PGSFR design has been focused on the robustness of safety systems by enhancing inherent safety characteristics of metal fuel and strengthening passive safety features using natural circulation and thermal expansion. The preliminary safety information document as a major outcome of the first design phase of PGSFR development was issued at the end of 2015. The project entered the second design phase at the beginning of 2016. This paper summarizes the overall structures, systems, and components of nuclear steam supply system and safety characteristics of the PGSFR. The research and development activities to demonstrate the safety performance are also briefly introduced in the paper.

  17. Innovative Approaches to Enhance Safety and Radiation Protection on a PET RI/RF Producing Facility for Occupationally Exposed Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Sobarzo, M.J.; Tenreiro, C.; Sadeghi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The explosive demand for positron emission tomography (PET) and, recently introduced, fusion technology (PET/CT and soon commercially available PET/MRI) as non-invasive diagnostic tools of choice for clinical imaging, results on a world wide PET centers and PET RI/RF production facilities remarkably increment . A charged particle accelerator when operated for PET radionuclides production produces ionizing radiation. The multi curies radionuclides from the accelerator and the radiopharmaceuticals synthesized are ionizing radiations emitters open sources. Therefore, the probability of unexpected radiation exposure is always present along full production line, from target loading for irradiation to final dose dispensing.Improving safety working conditions requires permanent radiological risks assessment associated with the production process for accelerator operators, radio chemist and hot cell assistants as well as other occupationally exposed personnel.In this work we present some of the experimental improvements added to our Cyclone 18/9 operation and routinely 18 FDG production process to improve personnel radioprotection. These approaches apply for professionals working on other accelerator field such as non-destructive analytical and tracer technicians at research and industrial levels with charged particle accelerators

  18. The exogenous factors determining aggressive behavior among reformatories’ inmates toward staff. The problem of personnel safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Chomczyński

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the selected exogenous conditions influencing the safety of staff in Polish reformatories for juvenile delinquents. There are discussed the circumstances linked with staff and inmates’ activities raising the risk of extraordinary events occurrence. The article posses the empirical character and the results presented here base on qualitative techniques..

  19. The Psychological Aspect of Safety Culture: Application of the Theory of Generations for the Formation of Safety Culture Among Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnitckaia, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of safety culture is an attempt of constructive influence on the socio psychological atmosphere of the team and the behavior of employees. By way of creating specific settings, the value system for the organization staff as part of the organizational culture, it is possible to forecast, plan and promote the desired behavior. However, it is necessary to take into account the corporate culture spontaneously established in the organization. The leaders often try to establish a safety culture, where the progressive values, norms are declared, and the results obtained are not those expected. This is partly because the organizational norms and values implemented come into conflict with reality and, therefore, are actively rejected by many members of the organization. The theory of generations developed by the American scientists (N. Howe, W. Strauss) helps in the analysis and consideration of the staff values formed under the influence of many factors, depending on the age of employees, in the course of safety culture formation. (author)

  20. Effects of government policies on the work of home care personnel and their occupational health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Esther; David, Hélène; Ledoux, Elise; Bourdouxhe, Madeleine; Gagnon, Isabelle; Ouellet, François

    2008-01-01

    The health sector in Québec (Canada) is dealing with profound macro-economic and macro-organizational changes. This article is interested in the impact of these changes on the work of home health aides (HHAs) and home care nurses and their occupational health and safety (OHS). The study was carried out in the home care services (HCS) of four local community service centres (CLSC) with different organizational characteristics. It is based on an analysis by triangulation of 66 individual and group interviews, 22 observed workdays and 35 observed multidisciplinary or professional meetings, as well as on administrative documents. HHAs are experiencing an erosion of their job because the relational and affective aspects of their work are disappearing. This may be due to an increase in their physical workload, leading to an increase in musculoskeletal problems and, to a lesser extent, in psychological health problems. Nurses are seeing an increase in the volume of invisible work that they have to do, which also has the effect of decreasing the relational aspects of their activity. The increasingly numerous psychological health problems are the consequence of this change in their profession. This study also shows that managers' decisions at the local level can reduce or increase the work constraints of HHAs and nurses. Examples of good practices for HHAs are the stabilization of clienteles and the possibility of organizing their itinerary, while for nurses, it is in how clientele follow-up tools are implemented. This article discusses the effects of government policies and decisions on the work and OHS of home care personnel. To address this subject, we use a specific analysis of the workload of home health aides (HHAs) and nurses. We will show the relationships between managers' organizational choices to respond to governmental constraints and the resulting work changes. We will also look at their consequences on occupational health and safety (OHS) and on the work of

  1. SACRD: a data base for fast reactor safety computer codes, general description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.; Forsberg, V.M.; Raiford, G.B.; Arwood, J.W.; Simpson, D.B.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    SACRD is a data base of material properties and other handbook data needed in computer codes used for fast reactor safety studies. Data are available in the thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, structural mechanics, aerosol transport, meteorology, neutronics, and dosimetry areas. Tabular, graphical and parameterized data are provided in many cases. A general description of the SACRD system is presented in the report

  2. Periodic safety review of the experimental fast reactor JOYO. Review of the activity for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yukimoto; Kashimura, Youichi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Isozaki, Kazunori; Hoshiba, Hideaki; Kitamura, Ryoichi; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Takamatsu, Misao; Sekine, Takashi

    2005-02-01

    Periodic safety review (Review of the activity for safety) which consisted of 'Comprehensive evaluation of operation experience' and Incorporation of the latest technical knowledge' was carried out up to January 2005. 1. Comprehensive evaluation of operation experience. It was confirmed that the effectual activities for safety through the operation of JOYO were carried out in terms of (1) Operation management, (2) Maintenance management, (3) Fuel management, (4) Radiation management, (5) Radioactive waste management, (6) Emergency planning and (7) Feedback of incidents and failures. 2. Reflection of the latest technical knowledge. It was confirmed that the latest technical knowledge including regulation and guide line established by Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan until March 31st. 2003 were properly reflected in impressing the safety of the reactor. As a result, it was evaluated that the activity for safety was carried out effectually, and no additional measure was identified continual safe operation of the reactor. (author)

  3. Safety and feasibility of fasting in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorff, Tanya B.; Groshen, Susan; Garcia, Agustin; Shah, Manali; Tsao-Wei, Denice; Pham, Huyen; Cheng, Chia-Wei; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Cohen, Pinchas; Wei, Min; Longo, Valter; Quinn, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Short-term starvation prior to chemotherapy administration protects mice against toxicity. We undertook dose-escalation of fasting prior to platinum-based chemotherapy to determine safety and feasibility in cancer patients. 3 cohorts fasted before chemotherapy for 24, 48 and 72 h (divided as 48 pre-chemo and 24 post-chemo) and recorded all calories consumed. Feasibility was defined as ≥ 3/6 subjects in each cohort consuming ≤ 200 kcal per 24 h during the fast period without excess toxicity. Oxidative stress was evaluated in leukocytes using the COMET assay. Insulin, glucose, ketones, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) were measured as biomarkers of the fasting state. The median age of our 20 subjects was 61, and 85 % were women. Feasibility criteria were met. Fasting-related toxicities were limited to ≤ grade 2, most commonly fatigue, headache, and dizziness. The COMET assay indicated reduced DNA damage in leukocytes from subjects who fasted for ≥48 h (p = 0.08). There was a non-significant trend toward less grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in the 48 and 72 h cohorts compared to 24 h cohort (p = 0.17). IGF-1 levels decreased by 30, 33 and 8 % in the 24, 48 and 72 h fasting cohorts respectively after the first fasting period. Fasting for 72 h around chemotherapy administration is safe and feasible for cancer patients. Biomarkers such as IGF-1 may facilitate assessment of differences in chemotherapy toxicity in subgroups achieving the physiologic fasting state. An onging randomized trial is studying the effect of 72 h of fasting. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00936364, registered propectively on July 9, 2009. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2370-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  4. Safety and feasibility of fasting in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorff, Tanya B; Groshen, Susan; Garcia, Agustin; Shah, Manali; Tsao-Wei, Denice; Pham, Huyen; Cheng, Chia-Wei; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Cohen, Pinchas; Wei, Min; Longo, Valter; Quinn, David I

    2016-06-10

    Short-term starvation prior to chemotherapy administration protects mice against toxicity. We undertook dose-escalation of fasting prior to platinum-based chemotherapy to determine safety and feasibility in cancer patients. 3 cohorts fasted before chemotherapy for 24, 48 and 72 h (divided as 48 pre-chemo and 24 post-chemo) and recorded all calories consumed. Feasibility was defined as ≥ 3/6 subjects in each cohort consuming ≤ 200 kcal per 24 h during the fast period without excess toxicity. Oxidative stress was evaluated in leukocytes using the COMET assay. Insulin, glucose, ketones, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) were measured as biomarkers of the fasting state. The median age of our 20 subjects was 61, and 85 % were women. Feasibility criteria were met. Fasting-related toxicities were limited to ≤ grade 2, most commonly fatigue, headache, and dizziness. The COMET assay indicated reduced DNA damage in leukocytes from subjects who fasted for ≥48 h (p = 0.08). There was a non-significant trend toward less grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in the 48 and 72 h cohorts compared to 24 h cohort (p = 0.17). IGF-1 levels decreased by 30, 33 and 8 % in the 24, 48 and 72 h fasting cohorts respectively after the first fasting period. Fasting for 72 h around chemotherapy administration is safe and feasible for cancer patients. Biomarkers such as IGF-1 may facilitate assessment of differences in chemotherapy toxicity in subgroups achieving the physiologic fasting state. An onging randomized trial is studying the effect of 72 h of fasting. NCT00936364 , registered propectively on July 9, 2009.

  5. Integrity of Safety-Related Fast Reactor Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.T.; Tomkins, B.

    1981-01-01

    The LMFBR contains several structural items whose integrity must be safeguarded during the life of the plant. These items include the main core support structures (strongback, diagrid) and the primary tank to which these structures are attached. In order to demonstrate an acceptable level of structural integrity, the chosen design philosophy must be supported by both analytical and experimental evidence. This paper describes the current approaches in the UK to these requirements. Section 2 describes the materials mechanical properties tests performed to date on both fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth in Type 316 austenitic stainless steel plate and weldments. This data illustrates the problems in identifying the relevant materials fracture parameters for use in assessments. Section 3 shows the test programmes in hand to extend the materials programmes to tests on structural features (mainly welded wide plate tests) which incorporate the complexity of weldments in a structural context. This includes experimental evidence on the effects of local weld residual stresses on structural failure. Various routes are open for the integrity assessment of FR structures. These are discussed in Section 4 but in effect they reduce to a fracture mechanics approach using some technique to cope with elastic-plastic fracture. The main problems at present relate to our ability in analysis to cope with residual stresses and the post-initiation region of the fracture resistance curve. Also, there is the problem of initial defect sizing by current NDE techniques. Current conservative analytical assessments give acceptable defect sizes of order a few millimetres in irradiated weldments. Finally, Section 5 discusses the options open in design to cope with safety related structures under normal and abnormal loading conditions. It is clear that several options exist in design to satisfy the demand for high integrity

  6. Present status of fast neutron personnel dosimetry system based on CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Sathian, Deepa; Jayalakshmi, V.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Kumar, Valli; Babu, Rajesh; Kar, S.; Joshi, V.M.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron sources are of different types depending upon the method of production such as nuclear reactors, particle accelerators and laboratory sources. Neutron sources depending upon their energy, flux, size etc. are used for variety of applications in basic and applied sciences, neutron scattering experiments and in industry such as oil well - digging, coal mining and processing, ore processing etc. Personnel working in nuclear installations such as reactors, accelerators, spent fuel processing plants, nuclear fuel cycle operations and those working in various industries such as oil refining, oil well-digging, coal mining and processing, ore processing, etc. need to be monitored for neutron exposures, if any. Neutron monitoring is especially necessary in view of the fact that the radiation weighting factor for neutron is much higher than gamma rays and also it varies with energy. Radiological Physics and Advisory Division is involved in monitoring of personnel working in neutron fields. Around 2100 workers from 70 institutions (DAE and Non-DAE) are monitored on a quarterly basis. Neutron personnel monitoring, carried out in the country is based on Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) technique. In this technique, neutrons interact with hydrogen in CR-39 polymer to produce recoil protons. These protons create damages in the polymer, which are enlarged and appear as tracks when subjected to electrochemical etching (ECE). These tracks are counted in an optical system to evaluate the neutron dose. The neutron dosimetry system based on SSNTD has undergone a significant development, since it was started in 1990. The development includes upgradation of image analysis system for counting tracks, introduction of chemical etching (CE) at elevated temperatures for evaluation of dose equivalents above 10 mSv and use of carbon laser for cutting of CR-39 detectors. The entire dose evaluation process has been standardized, which includes calibration and performance tests

  7. Perceptions and culture of safety among helicopter emergency medical service personnel in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, Adam; Grieve, Philip H; Hodgetts, Timothy J

    2016-11-01

    The use of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) has increased significantly in the UK since 1987. To date there has been no research that addresses HEMS pilots and medical crews' own ideas on the risks that they view as inherent in their line of work and how to mitigate these risks. The aim of this survey is to describe and compare the attitudes and perceptions towards risk in HEMS operations of these staff. A questionnaire was administered electronically to a representative selection of HEMS doctors, paramedics and pilots in the UK. A number of questions were grouped into common themes, and presented as Likert scales and ranking where appropriate. Descriptive and comparative results were presented and statistically analysed. The target sample of 100 consecutive respondents was achieved. All questionnaires were entirely completed. Respondents attributed the most risk to night HEMS operations without the use of night vision goggles, commercial pressure and mechanical aircraft failure. There was no statistical difference in overall perception of safety and years of experience (p=0.58) or between professions (p=0.08). Those who had experienced a crash were more likely to believe that HEMS operations are not inherently safe (p=0.05). We have surveyed a cross-section of the HEMS operational community in the UK in order to describe their perceptions of safety and risk within their professional life. Two-thirds of respondents believed that HEMS operations were inherently safe. Those who did not seemed to be influenced by personal experience of a crash or serious incident. We support increased operational training for clinical crewmembers, an increased emphasis on incident reporting and a culture of safety, and careful attention to minimum training and equipment requirements for all HEMS missions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 2 include: safety design concepts; operational transient experiments; analysis of seismic and external events; HCDA-related codes, analysis, and experiments; sodium fires; instrumentation and control/PPS design; whole-core accident analysis codes; and impact of safety design considerations on future LMFBR developments

  9. Evaluation of neutronic characteristics of in-pile test reactor for fast reactor safety research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uto, N.; Ohno, S.; Kawata, N. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1996-09-01

    An extensive research program has been carried out at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation for the safety of future liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to be commercialized. A major part of this program is investigation and planning of advanced safety experiments conducted with a new in-pile safety test facility, which is larger and more advanced than any of the currently existing test reactors. Such a transient safety test reactor generally has unique neutronic characteristics that require various studies from the reactor physics point of view. In this paper, the outcome of the neutronics study is highlighted with presenting a reference core design concept and its performance in regard to the safety test objectives. (author)

  10. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design

  11. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 2. [R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 2 include: safety design concepts; operational transient experiments; analysis of seismic and external events; HCDA-related codes, analysis, and experiments; sodium fires; instrumentation and control/PPS design; whole-core accident analysis codes; and impact of safety design considerations on future LMFBR developments.

  12. Analysis of Paks NPP Personnel Activity during Safety Related Event Sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareith, A.; Hollo, Elod; Karsa, Z.; Nagy, S.

    1998-01-01

    Within the AGNES Project (Advanced Generic and New Evaluation of Safety) the Level-1 PSA model of the Paks NPP Unit 3 was developed in form of a detailed event tree/fault tree structure (53 initiating events, 580 event sequences, 6300 basic events are involved). This model gives a good basis for quantitative evaluation of potential consequences of actually occurred safety-related events, i.e. for precursor event studies. To make these studies possible and efficient, the current qualitative event analysis practice should be reviewed and a new additional quantitative analysis procedure and system should be developed and applied. The present paper gives an overview of the method outlined for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the operator crew activity during off-normal situations. First, the operator performance experienced during past operational events is discussed. Sources of raw information, the qualitative evaluation process, the follow-up actions, as well as the documentation requirements are described. Second, the general concept of the proposed precursor event analysis is described. Types of modeled interactions and the considered performance influences are presented. The quantification of the potential consequences of the identified precursor events is based on the task-oriented, Level-1 PSA model of the plant unit. A precursor analysis system covering the evaluation of operator activities is now under development. Preliminary results gained during a case study evaluation of a past historical event are presented. (authors)

  13. Gas cooled fast reactor 2400 MWTh, status on the conceptual design studies and preliminary safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malo, J.Y.; Alpy, N.; Bentivoglio, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is considered by the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique as a promising concept, combining the benefits of fast spectrum and high temperature, using Helium as coolant. A status on the GFR preliminary viability was made at the end of 2007, ending the pre-conceptual design phase. A consistent overall systems arrangement was proposed and a preliminary safety analysis based on operating transient calculations and a simplified PSA had established a global confidence in the feasibility and safety of this baseline concept. Its potential for attractive performances had been pointed out. Compare to the more mature Sodium Fast Reactor technology, no demonstrator has ever been built and the feasibility demonstration will required a longer lead time. The next main project milestone is related to the GFR viability, scheduled in 2012. The current studies consist in revisiting the reactor reference design options as selected at the end of 2007. Most of them are being consolidated by going more in depth in the analysis. Some possible alternatives are assessed. The paper will give a status on the last studies performed on the core design and corresponding neutronics and cycle performance, the Decay Heat Removal strategy and preliminary safety analysis, systems design and balance of plant... This paper is complementary to the Icapp'09 papers 9062 dealing with the Gas cooled Fast Reactor Demonstrator ALLEGRO and 9378 related to GFR transients analysis. (author)

  14. Disinfection protocols for necropsy equipment in rabies laboratories: Safety of personnel and diagnostic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Roberta; Zecchin, Barbara; Tiozzo Caenazzo, Silvia; Cattoli, Giovanni; De Benedictis, Paola

    2016-08-01

    In the last decades, molecular techniques have gradually been adopted for the rapid confirmation of results obtained through gold standard methods. However, international organisations discourage their use in routine laboratory investigations for rabies post-mortem diagnosis, as they may lead to false positive results due to cross-contamination. Cleaning and disinfection are essential to prevent cross-contamination of samples in the laboratory environment. The present study evaluated the efficacy of selected disinfectants on rabies-contaminated necropsy equipment under organic challenge using a carrier-based test. The occurrence of detectable Rabies virus (RABV) antigen, viable virus and RNA was assessed through the gold standard Fluorescent Antibody Test, the Rabies Tissue Culture Infection Test and molecular techniques, respectively. None of the tested disinfectants proved to be effective under label conditions. Off label disinfection protocols were found effective for oxidizing agents and phenolic, only. Biguanide and quaternary ammonium compound were both ineffective under all tested conditions. Overall, discordant results were obtained when different diagnostic tests were compared, which means that in the presence of organic contamination common disinfectants may not be effective enough on viable RABV or RNA. Our results indicate that an effective disinfection protocol should be carefully validated to guarantee staff safety and reliability of results. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety evaluation for the prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU as a Japanese TSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    In the safety field of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), JNES is conducting an evaluation work of the safety regulation by Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA) for the re-start of a prototype FBR MONJU. MONJU has been stopped over 14 years since 1995 due to a sodium leakage accident at a secondary heat transport system, and is now reached to the criticality on 8th of May, 2010. JNES is supporting the safety regulation work conducted by NISA based on the following activities: i) Support of the technical evaluation of the application for the establishment license prepared by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), ii) Support of the description of the safety review report by NISA based on independent safety analyses for the major accident events such as unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) by employing the latest findings on the study of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) independently conducted by JNES, iii) Support of the risk-informed-regulation (RIR) such as an accident management (AM) review, iv), and Consideration on the safety regulation policy from the points of severe accidents and source-term behaviors including the cesium (Cs). The objective of this paper is to introduce the major activities of JNES in the safety domain of MONJU regulations. (author)

  16. International review on safety requirements for the prototype fast breeder reactor “Monju”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In response to the lessons learned from the serious nuclear accidents at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations, an advisory committee, which was set up by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, issued the report “Safety Requirements Expected to the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju” taking into account the SFR specific safety characteristics in July 2014. The report was reviewed by the leading international experts on SFR safety from five countries and one international organization in order to obtain independent and objective evaluation. The international review comments on each subsection were collected and compiled, and then a summary of results was derived through the discussion at the review meeting and individual feedbacks. As a result the basic concept for prevention of severe accidents and mitigation of their consequences of Monju is appropriate in consideration of SFR specific safety characteristics, and is in accordance with international common understanding. (author)

  17. International review on safety requirements for the prototype fast breeder reactor “Monju” (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    In response to the lessons learned from the serious nuclear accidents at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations, an advisory committee, which was set up by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, issued the report “Safety Requirements Expected to the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju” taking into account the SFR specific safety characteristics in July 2014. The report was reviewed by the leading international experts on SFR safety from five countries and one international organization in order to obtain independent and objective evaluation. The international review comments on each subsection were collected and compiled, and then a summary of results was derived through the discussion at the review meeting and individual feedbacks. As a result the basic concept for prevention of severe accidents and mitigation of their consequences of Monju is appropriate in consideration of SFR specific safety characteristics, and is in accordance with international common understanding. (author)

  18. Safety of fast track surgery in pancreaticoduodenectomy: a Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Weinan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the safety and clinical effect of fast track surgery in pancreaticoduodenectomy, one of the most complex surgeries in general surgery. MethodsThe Chinese and foreign databases were searched for articles on the application of fast tract surgery in pancreaticoduodenectomy published from January 1994 to April 2016. Two researchers evaluated the quality of the articles which met the inclusion criteria and extracted related data. Stata 12.0 software was used to analyze the overall incidence rate of complications and the incidence rates of pancreatic leakage and gastrointestinal emptying disorder, and the Begg rank correlation test and Egger linear regression method were used to investigate publication bias. ResultsThe fast track surgery group had a significantly lower overall incidence rate of complications than the conventional group (RR=0.748, 95%CI: 0.680-0.824, P<0.001. There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of pancreatic leakage between the two groups (RR=0.894, 95%CI:0.734-1.089, P=0.266. The fast track surgery group had a significantly lower incidence rate of gastrointestinal emptying disorder than the conventional group (RR=0.520, 95%CI:0.400-0.670, P<0.001. ConclusionFast track surgery is safe and effective in pancreaticoduodenectomy, but the application of some measures in fast track surgery still needs more medical evidence.

  19. Qualification of Simulation Software for Safety Assessment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors. Requirements and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sieger, Matt [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moe, Wayne [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); HolbrookINL, Mark [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this review is to enable application of codes or software packages for safety assessment of advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs. To address near-term programmatic needs, the authors have focused on two objectives. First, the authors have focused on identification of requirements for software QA that must be satisfied to enable the application of software to future safety analyses. Second, the authors have collected best practices applied by other code development teams to minimize cost and time of initial code qualification activities and to recommend a path to the stated goal.

  20. Fast reactor safety testing in Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) in the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Dutt, D.S.; Harrison, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several series of fast reactor safety tests were performed in TREAT during the 1980s. These focused on the transient behavior of full-length oxide fuels (US reference, UK reference, and US advanced design) and on modern metallic fuels. Most of the tests addressed fuel behavior under transient overpower or loss-of-flow conditions. The test series were the PFR/TREAT tests; the RFT, TS, CDT, and RX series on oxide fuels; and the M series on metallic fuels. These are described in terms of their principal results and relevance to analyses and safety evaluation. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Forced convection boiling of sodium. Study carried out in the framework of fast neutrons reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlety, Paul

    1971-01-01

    Within the framework of the safety of fast neutron reactors, this research thesis reports the study of sodium boiling in order to assess safety margins, and to predict the consequences of some accidents. The author thus addresses issues related to sodium boiling by notably focussing on boiling physics. He first defines these issues and presents the adopted approach for this research, and then describes the experimental installation. He reports the experimental study which comprised different types of tests, and presents experimental results. He reports the development of a calculation model which could report phenomena which have been experimentally noticed [fr

  2. Utilizing the Fast Flux Test Facility for international passive safety testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, P.K.; Padilla, A.; Lucoff, D.M.; Waltar, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    A two-phased approach has been undertaken in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to conduct passive safety testing. Phase I (1986 to 1987) was structured to obtain an initial understanding of the reactivity feedback components. The planned Phase II (1992 to 1993) international program will extend the testing to include static and dynamic feedback measurements, transient and demonstration tests, and gas expansion module (GEM) reactivity tests. The primary objective is to meet the needs for safety analysis code validation, with particular emphasis on reducing the uncertainties associated with structure reactivity feedback. Program scope and predicted FFTF responses are discussed and illustrated. (author)

  3. Compendium of computer codes for the safety analysis of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The objective of the compendium is to provide the reader with a guide which briefly describes many of the computer codes used for liquid metal fast breeder reactor safety analyses, since it is for this system that most of the codes have been developed. The compendium is designed to address the following frequently asked questions from individuals in licensing and research and development activities: (1) What does the code do. (2) To what safety problems has it been applied. (3) What are the code's limitations. (4) What is being done to remove these limitations. (5) How does the code compare with experimental observations and other code predictions. (6) What reference documents are available

  4. The role of structural integrity in liquid metal fast breeder reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.G.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive studies have demonstrated the favourable safety characteristics of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, which are attributable to both their inherent features and the engineered safeguards which are included. This requires demonstration that there is no risk of sudden catastrophic failure of the core support system allowing the core to drop off the control rods to give a prompt critical reactivity excursion. An important part of our work in support of the safety case for the U.K. Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor is to demonstrate that such a failure is virtually incredible. This covers design features, study of the fracture behaviour of stainless steel structures, and inspection and monitoring during fabrication and service. The paper gives a broad description of the relevant design features and supporting work programme

  5. A preliminary safety analysis for the prototype Gen IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwi Lim; Ha, Kwi Seok; Jeong, Jae Ho; Choi, Chi Woong; Jeong, Tae Kyeong; Ahn, Sang June; Lee, Seung Won; Chang, Won Pyo; Kang, Seok Hun; Yoo, Jae Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor of the Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR). To assess the effectiveness of the inherent safety features of the PGSFR, the system transients during design basis accidents and design extended conditions are analyzed with MARS-LMR and the subchannel blockage events are analyzed with MATRA-LMR-FB. In addition, the in-vessel source term is calculated based on the super-safe, small, and simple reactor methodology. The results show that the PGSFR meets safety acceptance criteria with a sufficient margin during the events and keeps accidents from deteriorating into more severe accidents.

  6. FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] performance measurements for safety, productivity and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newland, D.J.; Praetorius, P.R.; Tomaszewski, T.A.

    1987-05-01

    A useful set of performance measurements for Safety, Productivity and Control has evolved at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). In response to declining budgets and the resulting need to safely manage a manpower rampdown, an ''Early Warning System'' was developed in 1984. Its purpose was to monitor the effects of the staffing rampdown such that appropriate remedial action could be taken to correct adverse trends before a significant problem occurred. 1 tab

  7. Safeprops: A Software for Fast and Reliable Estimation of Safety and Environmental Properties for Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Mark Nicholas; Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens

    We present a new software tool called SAFEPROPS which is able to estimate major safety-related and environmental properties for organic compounds. SAFEPROPS provides accurate, reliable and fast predictions using the Marrero-Gani group contribution (MG-GC) method. It is implemented using Python...... as the main programming language, while the necessary parameters together with their correlation matrix are obtained from a SQLite database which has been populated using off-line parameter and error estimation routines (Eq. 3-8)....

  8. In-pile experiments and test facilities proposed for fast reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmes, M.A.; Avery, R.; Goldman, A.J.; Fauske, H.K.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Rose, D.; Wright, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    The role of in-pile experiments in support of the resolution of fast breeder reactor safety and licensing issues has been re-examined, with emphasis on key safety issues. Experiment needs have been related to the specific characteristics of these safety issues and to realistic requirements for additional test facility capabilities which can be achieved and utilized within the next ten years. It is found that those safety issues related to the energetics of core disruptive accidents have the largest impact on new facility requirements. However, utilization of existing facilities with modifications can provide for a continuing increase in experiment capability and experiment results on a timely bases. Emphasis has been placed upon maximum utilization of existing facilities and minimum requirements for new facilities. This evaluation has concluded that a new Safety Test Facility, STF, along with major modifications to the EBR II facility, improvement in TREAT capabilities, the existing Sodium Loop Safety Facility and corresponding Support Facilities provide the essential elements of the Safety Research Experiment Facilities (SAREF) required for resolution of key issues

  9. Development of standards and investigation of safety examination items for advancement of safety regulation of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to prepare the fuel technical standard and the structure and materials standard of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), and to develop the requirements in a reactor establishment permission. The objects of this study are mainly the Monju high performance core and a demonstration FBR. In JFY 2012, the following results were obtained. As for the fuel technical standard, the fuel technical standard adapting the examination of integrity of the FBR fuels was prepared based on the information and data obtained in this study. As for the structure and material standard, the investigation of the revised parts of the standard was carried out. And as for the examination of the safety requirements, safety evaluation items for the future FBR plant and the fission products to be considered in a reactor establishment permission were investigated and examined. (author)

  10. Fasting during Ramadan: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of vildagliptin in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz KMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kamran MA Aziz Aseer Diabetes Center, Aseer Central Hospital, Ministry of Health, Abha, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Diabetes management during Ramadan fasting is challenging to the physician in terms of minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia. As compared to oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs and sulfonylureas (SUs, which carry a higher and significant risk of hypoglycemia, newer antidiabetic agents such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors have demonstrated lower risk of hypoglycemia during Ramadan fasting, with better patient compliance. In addition to diabetes education and pre-Ramadan assessments, the physician should also consider use of DPP-4 inhibitors (such as vildagliptin during Ramadan fasting to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic subjects. Severe episodes of hypoglycemia have been demonstrated in recent research and clinical trials with OHAs/SUs. Conversely, these research observations have also demonstrated comparative safety and efficacy with lower risk of hypoglycemia associated with vildagliptin. Current research review has collected evidence-based clinical trials and observations for the drug vildagliptin to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia during Ramadan fasting, while at the same time focusing the role of diabetes self-management education (DSME, pre-Ramadan assessments, and patient care. Keywords: hypoglycemia, DPP4-inhibitors, oral hypoglycemic agents, Ramadan fasting, type 2 diabetes, vildagliptin

  11. A risk characterization of safety research areas for integral fast reactor program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Hill, D.J.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Tibbrook, R.W.; Wei, T.Y.; Wright, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper characterizes the areas of integral fast reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure to critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR safety and related base technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorities

  12. A risk characterization of safety research areas for Integral Fast Reactor program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Hill, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper characterizes the areas of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure of critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR Safety and related Base Technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorites

  13. Safety approach and R and D program for future french sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beils, Stephane; Carluec, Bernard; Devictor, Nicolas; Fiorini, Gian Luigi; Sauvage, Jean Francois

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents briefly the safety approach as well as the R and D program that is underway to support the deployment of future French Sodium-Cooled fast Reactors (SFRs): A) Safety objectives and principles for future reactors. The content of the first section reflects the works of AREVA, CEA, and EDF concerning the safety orientations for the future reactors. The availability of such orientations and requirements for the SFRs has to allow introducing and managing the process that will lead to the detailed definition of the safety approach, to the selection of the corresponding safety options, and to the identification and motivation of the supporting R and D. B) Strategy and roadmap in support of the R and D for future SFRs. This section describes the R and D program led jointly by CEA, EDF, and AREVA, which has been developed with the objectives to be able to preliminarily define, by 2012, the safety orientations for the future SFRs, and to deduce from them the characteristics of the ASTRID prototype. (author)

  14. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  15. Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety No. 146/1997 of 18 June 1997 specifying activities which have an immediate impact on nuclear safety, and activities which are particularly important with respect to radiation protection, requirements for qualification and professional training, procedures for examining special professional competence and for granting certificates to selected personnel, and the scope and structure of documentation to be approved for permitting the training of selected personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Decree specifies requirements in the following fields: (a) activities which have an immediate impact on nuclear safety and activities which are particularly important with respect to radiation protection; (b) requirements for the qualification of selected personnel; (c) requirements for professional training of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources who are to gain special professional competence; (d) examination commission; (e) examination of special professional competence of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources; (f) granting permission to perform activities of selected personnel; and (g) scope and structure of documentation required to permit professional training of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources. (P.A.)

  16. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    In light of the scientific evidence for changes in the climate caused by greenhouse-gas emissions from human activities, the world is in ever more desperate need of new, inexhaustible, safe and clean primary energy sources. A viable solution to this problem is the widespread adoption of nuclear breeder reactor technology. Innovative breeder reactor concepts using liquid-metal coolants such as sodium or lead will be able to utilize the waste produced by the current light water reactor fuel cycle to power the entire world for several centuries to come. Breed & burn (B&B) type fast reactor cores can unlock the energy potential of readily available fertile material such as depleted uranium without the need for chemical reprocessing. Using B&B technology, nuclear waste generation, uranium mining needs and proliferation concerns can be greatly reduced, and after a transitional period, enrichment facilities may no longer be needed. In this dissertation, new passively operating safety systems for fast reactors cores are presented. New analysis and optimization methods for B&B core design have been developed, along with a comprehensive computer code that couples neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and structural mechanics and enables a completely automated and optimized fast reactor core design process. In addition, an experiment that expands the knowledge-base of corrosion issues of lead-based coolants in nuclear reactors was designed and built. The motivation behind the work presented in this thesis is to help facilitate the widespread adoption of safe and efficient fast reactor technology.

  17. Development of safety evaluation methods and analysis codes applied to the safety regulations for the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to develop the safety evaluation methods and analysis codes needed in the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). In JFY 2012, the following results are obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination conducted for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes, such as core damage analysis code, were carried out following the planned schedule. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied. (author)

  18. Status of SACRD: a data base for fast reactor safety computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.; Flanagan, G.F.; Alter, H.

    1982-01-01

    In 1975 work was initiated to provide a central computerized data collection of evaluated data for use in fast reactor safety computer codes. This data base is called SACRD and is intended to encompass handbook and other nonproblem-dependent data related to LMFBR's, especially at extreme conditions where little or no experimental data are available. Version 1 of the data base was released in the latter part of 1978 and remained the standard version until Version 81, which was released in October 1981

  19. Sodium fire studies in France. Safety experiments applied to fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, Y.; Colome, J.; Malet, J.C.; Berlin, M.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Justin, J.; Duco, J.

    1976-01-01

    In fast reactors, the risk of sodium fires must be analyzed in detail and the consequences of an accidental fire must be known precisely. Beyond the search for prevention and detection means, techniques must be developed to set up a limit to damages created by an accidental fire: extinguishing, aerosol confinement, protection of the reactor structures. The program developed by the Nuclear Safety Department of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique to solve these various problems is described. The main results and their applications to the Super-Phenix reactor are presented [fr

  20. Physics constraints on the design of fast reactor safety test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.; Meneghetti, D.; Matos, J.; Snelgrove, J.; Shaftman, D.H.; Tzanos, C.; Lam, S.K.; Pennington, E.M.; Woodruff, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the physics foundations common to all fast reactor safety test facilities and the constraints which they impose on the design. While detailed design discussions are confined to the experience with six ANL designs, available data from other designs are used to confirm the validity of the considerations and to broaden the scope of the discussion. This helps to view the various designs as a unified effort, to define their potential capabilities, and to assess how they could best complement each other

  1. Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning LWRs with Internal Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downar, Thomas [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Zazimi, Mujid [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hill, Bob [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The objective of this proposal was to perform a detailed transient safety analysis of the Resource-Renewable BWR (RBWR) core designs using the U.S. NRC TRACE/PARCS code system. This project involved the same joint team that has performed the RBWR design evaluation for EPRI and therefore be able to leverage that previous work. And because of their extensive experience with fast spectrum reactors and parfait core designs, ANL was also part the project team. The principal outcome of this project was the development of a state-of-the-art transient analysis capability for GEN-IV reactors based on Monte Carlo generated cross sections and the US NRC coupled code system TRACE/PARCS, and a state-of-the-art coupled code assessment of the transient safety performance of the RBWR.

  2. The role of natural circulation in the FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] passive safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, R.L.; Padilla, A.; Burke, T.M.; Knecht, W.L.

    1987-03-01

    A series of tests were completed at the Fast Flux Test Facility to demonstrate the passive safety characteristics of liquid metal reactors with natural circulation flow. The first test consisted of transition from forced to natural circulation flow at an initial decay power of 0.3%. The second test represented an unprotected loss-of-flow transient to natural circulation from 50% power with the control rods prevented from scramming into the core. The third test was a steady-state, natural circulation condition with core fission powers up ato about 2.3%. Core sodium data and results of single and multi-channel computer models confirmed the reliability and effectiveness of natural circulation flow for liquid metal reactor safety

  3. Study of In-Pile test facility for fast reactor safety research: performance requirements and design features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, N.; Kawatta, N.; Niwa, H.; Kondo, S.; Maeda, K

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a program and the main design features of a new in-pile safety facility SERAPH planned for future fast reactor safety research. The current status of R and D on technical developments in relation to the research objectives and performance requirements to the facility design is given.

  4. Corporate financial decision makers' perceptions of their company's safety performance, programs and personnel: Do company size and industry injury risk matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Sarah; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chen, Peter Y; Courtney, Theodore K

    2010-01-01

    Top-level managers make important decisions about safety-related issues, yet little research has been done involving these individuals. The current study explored corporate financial decisions makers' perceptions of their company's safety and their justifications for these perceptions. This study also explored whether their perceptions and justifications varied as a function of company size or industry injury risk. A total of 404 individuals who were the most senior managers responsible for making decisions about property and casualty risk at their companies participated in this study. The participants took part in a telephone survey. The results suggest that corporate financial decision makers have positive views of safety at their companies relative to safety at other companies within their industries. Further, many believe their company's safety is influenced by the attention/emphasis placed on safety and the selection and training of safety personnel. Participants' perceptions varied somewhat based on the size of their company and the level of injury risk in their industry. While definitive conclusions about corporate financial decision makers' perceptions of safety cannot be reached as a result of this single study, this work does lay groundwork for future research aimed at better understanding the perceptions top-level managers.

  5. Objective Provision Trees of Reactivity Control Safety Function for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bongsuk; Yang, Huichang; Suh, Namduk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the DiD design during the licensing of Sf, but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth (DiD) levels and safety functions for KALIMER Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), suggested in the reference and, Objective Provision Trees (OPTs) of reactivity control function for level 1, 2, 3 and 4 DiD were developed and suggested in this paper. The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of Prototype Gen-IV Sf (PGSFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed level 1 to 4 OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defense-in-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. In the next stage of this study, other safety function will be researched and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement

  6. Objective Provision Trees of Reactivity Control Safety Function for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bongsuk; Yang, Huichang [TUEV Rheinland Korea Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the DiD design during the licensing of Sf, but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth (DiD) levels and safety functions for KALIMER Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), suggested in the reference and, Objective Provision Trees (OPTs) of reactivity control function for level 1, 2, 3 and 4 DiD were developed and suggested in this paper. The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of Prototype Gen-IV Sf (PGSFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed level 1 to 4 OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defense-in-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. In the next stage of this study, other safety function will be researched and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement.

  7. Safety system consideration of a supercritical-water cooled fast reactor with simplified PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S.

    1999-01-01

    The probabilistic safety of the supercritical-water cooled fast reactor (SCFR) is evaluated with the simplified probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology. SCFR has a once-through direct cycle where all feedwater flows through the core to the turbine at supercritical pressure. There are no recirculation loops in the once-through direct cycle system, which is the most important difference from the current light water reactor (LWR). The main objective of the present study is to assess the effect of this difference on the safety in the stage of conceptual design study. A safety system configuration similar to the advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) is employed. At loss of flow events, no natural recirculation occurs. Thus, emergency core flow should be quickly supplied before the completion of the feedwater pump coastdown at a loss of flow accident. The motor-driven high pressure coolant injection (MD-HPCI) system cannot be used for the quick core cooling due to the delay of the emergency diesel generator (D/G) start-up. Accordingly, an MD-HPCI system in an ABWR is substituted by a turbine-driven (TD-) HPCI system for the SCFR. The calculated core damage frequency (CDF) is a little higher than that of the Japanese ABWR and a little lower than that of the Japanese BWR when Japanese data are employed for initiating event frequencies. Four alternatives to the safety system configurations are also examined as a sensitivity analysis. This shows that the balance of the safety systems designed here is adequate. Consequently, though the SCFR has a once-through coolant system, the CDF is not high due to the diversity of feedwater systems as the direct cycle characteristics

  8. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu...

  9. Relative hazard potential: the basis for definition of safety criteria for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, L.; Ilberg, D.

    1977-02-01

    One of the main safety criteria to be met for larger thermal reactors is that the probability of exceeding the dose limits imposed by 10 CRF 100 should not be greater than 10 per reactor year. The potential hazard presented by a fast reactor could be substantially greater than that due to an LWR. The potential for harm of a reactor system may be judged by the effects which would arise from a severe accident. Several different types of effects may be considered: number of latent fatal cancers; number of deaths due to acute effects; number of thyroid tumors or nodules; extent of property damage; and genetic effects. Analytical methods for comparison are employed in this paper. A second important parameter reviewed in this report is the radio-toxicity attributed to the various isotopes. It was found that the worst conceivable accident to a 1000 MW(e) fast reactor would lead to effects on health greater by an order of magnitude than the worst accident usually considered for an LWR. Therefore, some reconsideration of the need for additional safety criteria for LMFBRs, as a guide to designers in relation to the control of the effects of very severe accidents, is desirable

  10. Overview of nuclear safety activities performed by JRC-IE on Gen IV fast reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Ammirabile, L.; D' Agata, E.; Fuetterer, M.; Ranguelova, V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Westerduinweg 3, 1755LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    The European Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan recognizes the need to develop new energy technologies, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure energy supply in Europe. Besides renewable energy and improved energy efficiency, a new generation of nuclear power plants and innovative nuclear power applications can play a significant role to achieve this goal. The JRC Institute for Energy 'Safety of Future Nuclear Reactors' (SFNR) Unit is engaged in experimental research, numerical simulation and modelling, scientific, feasibility and engineering studies on innovative nuclear reactor systems. This also represents a significant EURATOM contribution to the Generation IV International Forum. Its activities deal with, among others, the performance assessment of innovative fuels and materials, development of new reactor core concepts and safety solutions, and knowledge management and preservation. Special attention is given to fast reactor concepts, namely the sodium (SFR) and lead (LFR) cooled reactors. Recognizing the maturity of the SFR technology, the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) considers a prototype SFR to be built as a next-step towards the deployment of a first-of-a-kind Gen IV SFR. This paper gives an overview of current research preformed at JRC-IE with emphasis on the work performed in the Collaborative Project on European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR) within the European Commission's Seventh Framework Program. (authors)

  11. Overview of nuclear safety activities performed by JRC-IE on Gen IV fast reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Ammirabile, L.; D'Agata, E.; Fuetterer, M.; Ranguelova, V.

    2010-01-01

    The European Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan recognizes the need to develop new energy technologies, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure energy supply in Europe. Besides renewable energy and improved energy efficiency, a new generation of nuclear power plants and innovative nuclear power applications can play a significant role to achieve this goal. The JRC Institute for Energy 'Safety of Future Nuclear Reactors' (SFNR) Unit is engaged in experimental research, numerical simulation and modelling, scientific, feasibility and engineering studies on innovative nuclear reactor systems. This also represents a significant EURATOM contribution to the Generation IV International Forum. Its activities deal with, among others, the performance assessment of innovative fuels and materials, development of new reactor core concepts and safety solutions, and knowledge management and preservation. Special attention is given to fast reactor concepts, namely the sodium (SFR) and lead (LFR) cooled reactors. Recognizing the maturity of the SFR technology, the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) considers a prototype SFR to be built as a next-step towards the deployment of a first-of-a-kind Gen IV SFR. This paper gives an overview of current research preformed at JRC-IE with emphasis on the work performed in the Collaborative Project on European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR) within the European Commission's Seventh Framework Program. (authors)

  12. Physics and safety studies of a low conversion ratio sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J. E.; Smith, M. A.; Hill, R. N.; Dunn, F. E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of a compact fast burner reactor that can achieve a low transuranic conversion ratio. The major design option considered is the reduction of fissile breeding by the removal of fertile material from the fast reactor system. Reductions in the fuel pin diameter and thus fuel loading were employed to remove fertile material. Reactor performance parameters and reactivity coefficients were evaluated for a compact core design with a targeted conversion ratio of 0.25. To assess the safety implications, a detailed transient analysis model was employed using the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code. A series of calculations was performed to assess the behavior of the reactor and plant in an unprotected loss-of-flow accident (ULOF). A parametric study was also carried out using increasingly conservative modeling assumptions. The computational results show that for nominal, best-estimate analysis assumptions and input data, the low conversion ratio reactor design responds to the ULOF with a very high level of self-protection. Both short-term and long-term quasi-equilibrium reactor conditions predicted in the analysis indicate very large margins of safety. (authors)

  13. Safety requirements and options for a large size fast neutron reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogne, F.; Megy, J.; Robert, E.; Benmergui, A.; Villeneuve, J.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from the experience gained in the safety evaluation of the PHENIX reactor, and from results already obtained in the safety studies on fast neutron reactors, the French regulatory bodies have defined since 1973 what could be the requirements and the recommendations in the matter of safety for the first large size ''prototype'' fast neutron power plant of 1200 MWe. Those requirements and recommendations, while not being compulsory due to the evolution of this type of reactors, will be used as a basis for the technical regulation that will be established in France in this field. They define particularly the care to be taken in the following areas which are essential for safety: the protection systems, the primary coolant system, the prevention of accidents at the core level, the measures to be taken with regard to the whole core accident and to the containment, the protection against sodium fires, and the design as a function of external aggressions. In applying these recommendations, the CREYS-MALVILLE plant designers have tried to achieve redundancy in the safety related systems and have justified the safety of the design with regard to the various involved phenomena. In particular, the extensive research made at the levels of the fuel and of the core instrumentation makes it possible to achieve the best defence to avoid the development of core accidents. The overall examination of the measures taken, from the standpoint of prevention and surveyance as well as from the standpoint of means of action led the French regulatory bodies to propose the construction permit of the CREYS MALVILLE plant, provided that additional examinations by the regulatory bodies be made during the construction of the plant on some technological aspects not fully clarified at the authorization time. The conservatism of the corresponding requirements should be demonstrated prior to the commissioning of the power plant. To pursue a programme on reactors of this type, or even more

  14. Qualification of NPP operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiao.

    1987-01-01

    Competence of personnel is one of the important problems for safety operation of nuclear power plant. This paper gives a description of some aspects, such as the administration of NPP, posts, competence of personnel, training, assessing the competence and personnel management

  15. Safety design of Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water fast reactor (PBWFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Uchida, Shoji; Yamada, Yumi; Koyama, Kazuya

    2008-01-01

    In Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water small fast reactor (PBWFR), steam is generated by direct contact of feedwater with primary Pb-Bi coolant above the core, and Pb-Bi coolant is circulated by steam lift pump in chimneys. Safety design has been developed to show safety features of PBWFR. Negative void reactivity is inserted even if whole of the core and upper plenum are voided hypothetically by steam intrusion from above. The control rod ejection due to coolant pressure is prevented using in-vessel type control rod driving mechanism. At coolant leak from reactor vessel and feedwater pipes, Pb-Bi coolant level in the reactor vessel required for decay heat removal is kept using closed guard vessel. Dual pipes for feedwater are employed to avoid leak of water. Although there is no concern of loss of flow accident due to primary pump trip, feedwater pump trip initiates loss of coolant flow (LOF). Injection of high pressure water slows down the flow coast down of feedwater at the LOF event. The unprotected loss of flow and heat sink (ATWS) has been evaluated, which shows that the fuel temperatures are kept lower than the safety limits. (author)

  16. Fast Reactor Physics. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Symposium on Fast Reactor Physics and Related Safety Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Karlsruhe, 30 October - 3 November 1967. The meeting was attended by 183 scientists from 23 countries and three international organizations. Contents: (Vol.1) Review of national programmes (5 papers); Nuclear data for fast reactors (12 papers); Experimental methods (3 papers); Zoned systems (7 papers); Kinetics (7 papers). (Vol.11) Fast critical experiments (8 papers); Heterogeneity in fast critical experiments (5 papers); Fast power reactors (13 papers); Fast pulsed reactors (3 papers); Panel discussion. Each paper is in its original language (50 English, 11 French and 3 Russian) and is preceded by an abstract in English with a second one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  17. Recommandations essentielles de sécurité relatives au travail du personnel des laboratoires géologiques de chantier Essential Safety Recommendations Concerning Work by Personnel in Well Site Mud Logging Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambre Syndicale du Pétrole

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le personnel travaillant dans les cabines géologiques sur chantiers de forage doit respecter des règles de sécurité pour la prévention des accidents et doit connaître nécessairement les consignes à suivre en cas de danger. Ces recommandations sont relatives à l'installation des cabines géologiques et aux problèmes créés par leur équipement très diversifié, comprenant notamment de nombreux capteurs dispersés sur le chantier et leur réseau de câbles de liaison. Huit annexes rappellent les risques inhérents à la présence d'hydrogène sulfuré et les conditions d'utilisation des appareils de protection, les problèmes liés aux fours à micro-ondes éventuellement installés, ceux liés à la présence de sources radioactives. Une large part de ces recommandations est consacrée au stockage, à la manipulation et à l'élimination des produits chimiques couramment présents dans les cabines. Dix-neuf fiches de prévention simplifiées rappellent les risques que ces produits chimiques font courir au personnel et précisent les premiers soins à appliquer. Les deux dernières annexes traitent de la définition des zones classées pour les forages à terre et les forages en mer. The personnel working in mud logging units at well sites must respect safety rules for the prevention of accidents and must know the instructions to be followed in case of danger. These recommendations concern the installation of logging units and the problems created by the highly diversified equipment in such units, including in particular numerous sensors scattered around the site and the network of cables linking the sensors to the unit. Eight appendixes review the risks inherent in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and the conditions for using protective equipment, the problems linked to any microwave ovens that may be installed, and the problems linked to the presence of radioactive sources. A large portion of these recommen-dations is devoted to

  18. Energy deposition measurements in fast reactor safety experiments with fission thermocouple detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.A.; Scott, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation of phenomena occurring in in-pile fast reactor safety experiments requires an accurate measurement of the time dependent energy depositions within the fissile material. At Sandia Laboratories thin-film fission thermocouples are being developed for this purpose. These detectors have high temperature capabilities (400 to 500 0 C), are sodium compatible, and have milli-second time response. A significant advantage of these detectors for use as energy deposition monitors is that they produce an output voltage which is directly dependent on the temperature of a small chip of fissile material within the detectors. However, heat losses within the detector make it necessary to correct the response of the detector to determine the energy deposition. A method of correcting the detector response which uses an inverse convolution procedure has been developed and successfully tested with experimental data obtained in the Sandia Pulse Reactor (SPR-II) and in the Annular Core Research Reactor

  19. Testing and qualification of Control and Safety Rod and its drive mechanism of Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Babu, V.; Veerasamy, R.; Patri, Sudheer; Ignatius Sundar Raj, S.; Kumar Krovvidi, S.C.S.P.; Dash, S.K.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Rajan, K.K.; Puthiyavinayagam, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) has two independent fast acting diverse shutdown systems. The absorber rod of the first system is called Control and Safety Rod (CSR). CSR and its Drive Mechanism (CSRDM) are used for reactor control and for safe shutdown of the reactor by scram action. In view of the safety role, the qualification of CSRDM is one of the important requirements. CSR and CSRDM were qualified in two stages by extensive testing. In the first stage, the critical subassemblies of the mechanism, such as scram release electromagnet, hydraulic dashpot and dynamic seals and CSR subassembly, were tested and qualified individually simulating the operating conditions of the reactor. Experiments were also carried out on sodium vapour deposition in the annular gaps between the stationary and mobile parts of the mechanism. In the second stage, full-scale CSRDM and CSR were subjected to all the integrated functional tests in air, hot argon and subsequently in sodium simulating the operating conditions of the reactor and finally subjected to endurance tests. Since the damage occurring in CSRDM and CSR is mainly due to fatigue cycles during scram actions, the number of test cycles was decided based on the guidelines given in ASME, Section III, Div. 1. The results show that the performance of CSRDM and CSR is satisfactory. Subsequent to the testing in sodium, the assemblies having contact with liquid sodium/sodium vapour were cleaned using CO 2 process and the total cleaning process has been established, so that the mechanism can be reused in sodium. The various stages of qualification programmes have raised the confidence level on the performance of the system as a whole for the intended and reliable operation in the reactor.

  20. Effectiveness and Safety of Newer Antidiabetic Medications for Ramadan Fasting Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Mudher Mikhael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia is the most common side effects for most glucose-lowering therapies. It constitutes a serious risk that faces diabetic patients who fast during Ramadan (the 9th month in the Islamic calendar. New glucose-lowering classes like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2 inhibitors are efficacious in controlling blood glucose level with less tendency to induce hypoglycemia and thus may constitute a good choice for diabetic patients during Ramadan. This study reviews the safety and efficacy of newer glucose-lowering therapies during Ramadan. This study was accomplished through a careful literature search about studies that assess the benefit and side effects of these new glucose-lowering therapies during Ramadan during September 2015. Vildagliptin, sitagliptin, liraglutide, exenatide, and dapagliflozin were the only studied glucose-lowering therapies. All of the studied newer glucose-lowering therapies except dapagliflozin were associated with reduced risk to induce hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal upset was common with the usage of liraglutide while increased thirst sensation was common with dapagliflozin. In conclusion DPP-4 inhibitors such as vildagliptin and sitagliptin may form a suitable glucose-lowering therapy option for Ramadan fasting patients.

  1. Personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards

  2. Personnel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-31

    This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards

  3. Compact sodium cooled nuclear power plant with fast core (KNK II- Karlsruhe), Safety Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    After the operation of the KNK plant with a thermal core (KNK I), the installation of a fast core (KNK II) had been realized. The planning of the core and the necessary reconstruction work was done by INTERATOM. Owner and customer was the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe (KfK), while the operating company was the Kernkraftwerk-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (KBG) Karlsruhe. The main goals of the KNK II project and its special experimental test program were to gather experience for the construction, the licensing and operation of future larger plants, to develop and to test fuel and absorber assemblies and to further develop the sodium technology and the associated components. The present safety report consists of three parts. Part 1 contains the description of the nuclear plant. Hereby, the reactor and its components, the handling facilities, the instrumentation with the plant protection, the design of the plant including the reactor core and the nominal operation processes are described. Part 2 contains the safety related investigation and measures. This concerns the reactivity accidents, local cooling perturbations, radiological consequences with the surveillance measures and the justification of the choice of structural materials. Part three finally is the appendix with the figures, showing the different buildings, the reactor and its components, the heat transfer systems and the different auxiliary facilities [de

  4. Development and Verification of the Computer Codes for the Fast Reactors Nuclear Safety Justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.E.; Mosunova, N.A.; Strizhov, V.F.

    2015-01-01

    The information on the status of the work on development of the system of the nuclear safety codes for fast liquid metal reactors is presented in paper. The purpose of the work is to create an instrument for NPP neutronic, thermohydraulic and strength justification including human and environment radiation safety. The main task that is to be solved by the system of codes developed is the analysis of the broad spectrum of phenomena taking place on the NPP (including reactor itself, NPP components, containment rooms, industrial site and surrounding area) and analysis of the impact of the regular and accidental releases on the environment. The code system is oriented on the ability of fully integrated modeling of the NPP behavior in the coupled definition accounting for the wide range of significant phenomena taking place on the NPP under normal and accident conditions. It is based on the models that meet the state-of-the-art knowledge level. The codes incorporate advanced numerical methods and modern programming technologies oriented on the high-performance computing systems. The information on the status of the work on verification of the separate codes of the system of codes is also presented. (author)

  5. Validation study of computer code SPHINCS for sodium fire safety evaluation of fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Tajima, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    A computer code SPHINCS solves coupled phenomena of thermal hydraulics and sodium fire based on a multi-zone model. It deals with an arbitrary number of rooms, each of which is connected mutually by doorways and penetrations. With regard to the combustion phenomena, a flame sheet model and a liquid droplet combustion model are used for pool and spray fires, respectively, with the chemical equilibrium model based on the Gibbs free energy minimization method. The chemical reaction and mass and heat transfer are solved interactively. A specific feature of SPHINCS is detailed representation of thermalhydraulics of a sodium pool and a steel liner, which is placed on the floor to prevent sodium-concrete contact. The authors analyzed a series of pool combustion experiments, in which gas and liner temperatures are measured in detail. It has been found that good agreement is obtained and the SPHINCS code has been validated with regard to pool combustion phenomena. Further research needs are identified for pool spreading modeling considering thermal deformation of steel liner and measurement of pool fluidity property as a mixture of liquid sodium and reaction products. The SPHINCS code is to be used mainly in the safety evaluation of the consequence of a sodium fire accident in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor as well as fire safety analysis in general

  6. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) liquid-metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.L.; Landry, R.R.; Throm, E.D.; Wilson, J.N.

    1991-12-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) presents the final results of a preapplication design review for the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) liquid metal reactor (Project 673). The SAFR conceptual design was submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) ''Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (51 FR 24643 which provides for the early Commission review and interaction). The standard SAFR plant design consists of four identical reactor modules, referred to as ''paks,'' each with a thermal output rating of 900 MWt, coupled with four steam turbine-generator sets. The total electrical output was held to be 1400 MWe. This SER represents the NRC staff's preliminary technical evaluation of the safety features in the SAFR design. It must be recognized that final conclusions in all matters discussed in this SER require approval by the Commission. During the NRC staff review of the SAFR conceptual design, DOE terminated work on this design in September 1988. This SER documents the work done to that date and no additional work is planned for the SAFR

  7. A new physics design of control safety rods for prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Riyas, A.; Alagan, M.; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    2008-01-01

    The absorber rods of 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), which is under construction at Kalpakkam, have been designed to provide sufficient shutdown margin during normal and accidental conditions for ensuring the safe shut down. There are nine control and safety rods (CSR) and 3 diverse safety rods (DSR). Absorber material used is initially 65% enriched B 4 C. Based on the reported experiments in PHENIX reactor and design of absorber rods in SUPERPHENIX, the design of CSR is modified by introducing 20 cm length natural B 4 C at the top and bottom of absorber column and maintaining the remaining portion with 65% enriched B 4 C. This design ensures sufficient shutdown margin (SDM) during normal operation and also during the one stuck rod condition. For comparison of the above two designs, a CSR of 57% of enrichment was considered which gives the same worth as the revised CSR design with natural B 4 C sections in top and bottom. There is significant savings in the initial inventory of enriched B 4 C for CSR. The annual requirement of enriched boron also reduces. This new CSR can last for about 5 cycles, based on its clad life. But, it is planned to be replaced after every 3 cycles (1 cycle equals 180 efpd) of operation due to radiation damage effects in hexcan D9 steel. Use of ferritic steel for hexcan can extend the life of CSR to 5 cycles

  8. Study on safety of crystallization method applied to dissolver solution in fast breeder reactor reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Fujine, Yukio; Asakura, Toshihide; Murazaki, Minoru; Koyama, Tomozo; Sakakibara, Tetsuro; Shibata, Atsuhiro

    1999-03-01

    The crystallization method is proposed to apply for recovery of uranium from dissolution liquid, enabling to reduce handling materials in later stages of reprocessing used fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuels. This report studies possible safety problems accompanied by the proposed method. Crystallization process was first defined in the whole reprocessing process, and the quantity and the kind of treated fuel were specified. Possible problems, such as criticality, shielding, fire/explosion, and confinement, were then investigated; and the events that might induce accidental incidents were discussed. Criticality, above all the incidents, was further studied by considering exampled criticality control of the crystallization process. For crystallization equipment, in particular, evaluation models were set up in normal and accidental operation conditions. Related data were selected out from the nuclear criticality safety handbooks. The theoretical densities of plutonium nitrates, which give basic and important information, were estimated in this report based on the crystal structure data. The criticality limit of crystallization equipment was calculated based on the above information. (author)

  9. A status report on the integral fast reactor fuels and safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, D.R.; Seidel, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor (ALMR) concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The IFR program is specifically responsible for the irradiation performance, advanced core design, safety analysis, and development of the fuel cycle for the US Department of Energy's ALMR program. The basic elements of the IFR concept are (a) metallic fuel, (b) liquid-sodium cooling, (c) modular, pool-type reactor configuration, (d) an integral fuel cycle based upon pyrometallurgical processing. The most significant safety aspects of the IFR program result from its unique fuel design, a ternary alloy of uranium, plutonium, and zirconium. This fuel is based on experience gained through > 25 yr operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) with a uranium alloy metallic fuel. The ultimate criteria for fuel pin design is the overall integrity at the target burnup. The probability of core meltdown is remote; however, a theoretical possibility of core meltdown remains. The next major step in the IFR development program will be a full-scale pyroprocessing demonstration to be carried out in conjunction with EBR-II. The IFR fuel cycle closure based on pyroprocessing will also have a dramatic impact on waste management options and on actinide recycling

  10. Training of nonlicensed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetrick, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    The safety and efficiency with which a station operates is a function of the competence and proficiency of all personnel. This includes the nonlicensed personnel who make up the bulk of the station staff. Thus the training of these members of the station complement is an important function in overall station performance. Standards, regulations, regulatory guides, and codes provide guidance to the training requirements for such personnel. Training needs and objectives must be established, a plan prepared and then all incorporated into a training program. A well planned and operated training program will stimulate effective communications between the different groups within the station and between the station and off site support groups

  11. Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, Juan (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache %3CU%2B2013%3E CEA, France)

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the

  12. Stationary liquid fuel fast reactor SLFFR — Part II: Safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Jung, Y.S.; Yang, W.S., E-mail: yang494@purdue.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A multi-channel safety analysis code named MUSA is developed for SLFFR transient analyses. • MUSA is verified against the SYS4A/SASSYS-1 code by simulating the ULOF accident for the advanced burner test reactor. • It is shown that SLFFR has a passive shutdown capability for double-fault, beyond-design-basis accidents UTOP, ULOHS and ULOF. - Abstract: Safety characteristics have been evaluated for the stationary liquid fuel fast reactor (SLFFR) proposed for effective burning of hazardous TRU elements of used nuclear fuel. In order to model the geometrical configuration and reactivity feedback mechanisms unique to SLFFR, a multi-channel safety analysis code named MUSA was developed. MUSA solves the time-dependent coupled neutronics and thermal-fluidic problems. The thermal-fluidic behavior of the core is described by representing the core with one-dimensional parallel channels. The primary heat transport system is modeled by connecting compressible volumes by liquid segments. A point kinetics model with six delayed neutron groups is used to represent the fission power transients. The reactivity feedback is estimated by combining the temperature and density variations of liquid fuel, structural material and sodium coolant with the corresponding axial distributions of reactivity worth in each individual thermal-fluidic channel. Preliminary verification tests with a conventional solid fuel reactor agreed well with the reference solutions obtained with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code. Transient analyses of SLFFR were performed for unprotected transient over-power (UTOP), unprotected loss of heat sink (ULOHS) and unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accidents. The results showed that the thermal expansion of liquid fuel provides sufficiently large negative feedback reactivity for passive shutdown of UTOP and ULOHS. The ULOF transient is also terminated passively with the negative reactivity introduced by the gas expansion modules installed at the core periphery

  13. Knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, A R; Isah, E C

    2009-09-01

    To assess the knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 350 respondents who were selected by means of a systematic sampling method and interviewed using a semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaire. An observational checklist was thereafter used to inspect their personal hygiene status. The mean age of the food handlers was 26.4 +/- 6.1 years. Two hundred and twenty eight (65.1%) were females while 34.9% were males. A majority (98%) of the respondents had formal education. There was good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among the respondents. Knowledge was significantly influenced by previous training in food hygiene and safety (p = 0.002). Food handlers who had worked for longer years in the fast food restaurants had better practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.036). The level of education of respondents did not significantly influenced their practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.084). Although, 299 (85.4%) food handlers were generally clean, skin lesions was seen in 4 (7.3%) of them. This study showed good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety by food handlers in the fast food restaurants in Benin City, but there is need for improvement through training and retraining of food handlers by the management of the restaurants and the local government authorities.

  14. Design of the environment of care for safety of patients and personnel: does form follow function or vice versa in the intensive care unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Judene; Streifel, Andrew J

    2010-08-01

    We review the context of the environment of care in the intensive care unit setting in relation to patient safety and quality, specifically addressing healthcare-associated infection issues and solutions involving interdisciplinary teams. Issues addressed include current and future architectural design and layout trends, construction trends affecting intensive care units, and prevention of construction-associated healthcare-associated infections related to airborne and waterborne risks and design solutions. Specific elements include single-occupancy, acuity-scalable intensive care unit rooms; environmental aspects of hand hygiene, such as water risks, sink design/location, human waste management, surface selection (floor covering, countertops, furniture, and equipment) and cleaning, antimicrobial-treated or similar materials, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, specialized rooms (airborne infection isolation and protective environments), and water system design and strategies for safe use of potable water and mitigation of water intrusion. Effective design and operational use of the intensive care unit environment of care must engage critical care personnel from initial planning and design through occupancy of the new/renovated intensive care unit as part of the infection control risk assessment team. The interdisciplinary infection control risk assessment team can address key environment of care design features to enhance the safety of intensive care unit patients, personnel, and visitors. This perspective will ensure the environment of care supports human factors and behavioral aspects of the interaction between the environment of care and its occupants.

  15. Analysis of advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor core designs with improved safety characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K.

    2012-09-15

    Currently, the large majority of nuclear power plants are operated with thermal-neutron spectra and need regular fuel loading of enriched uranium. According to the identified conventional uranium resources and their current consumption rate, only about 100 years’ nuclear fuel supply is foreseen. A reactor operated with a fast-neutron spectrum, on the other hand, can induce self-sustaining, or even breeding, conditions for its inventory of fissile material, which effectively allow it, after the initial loading, to be refueled using simply natural or depleted uranium. This implies a much more efficient use of uranium resources. Moreover, minor actinides become fissionable in a fast-neutron spectrum, enabling full closure of the fuel cycle and leading to a minimization of long-lived radioactive wastes. The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is one of the most promising candidates to meet the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) declared goals. In comparison to other Generation IV systems, there is considerable design experience related to the SFR, and also more than 300 reactor years of practical operation. As a fast-neutron-spectrum system, the long-term operation of an SFR core in a closed fuel cycle will lead to an equilibrium state, where both reactivity and fuel mass flow stabilize. Although the SFR has many advantageous characteristics, it has one dominating neutronics drawback: there is generally a positive reactivity effect when sodium coolant is removed from the core. This so-called sodium void effect becomes even stronger in the equilibrium closed fuel cycle. The goal of the present doctoral research is to improve the safety characteristics of advanced SFR core designs, in particular, from the viewpoint of the positive sodium void reactivity effect. In this context, particular importance has been given to the dynamic core behavior under a hypothetical unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) accident scenario, in which sodium boiling occurs. The proposed

  16. Analysis of advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor core designs with improved safety characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, K.

    2012-09-01

    Currently, the large majority of nuclear power plants are operated with thermal-neutron spectra and need regular fuel loading of enriched uranium. According to the identified conventional uranium resources and their current consumption rate, only about 100 years’ nuclear fuel supply is foreseen. A reactor operated with a fast-neutron spectrum, on the other hand, can induce self-sustaining, or even breeding, conditions for its inventory of fissile material, which effectively allow it, after the initial loading, to be refueled using simply natural or depleted uranium. This implies a much more efficient use of uranium resources. Moreover, minor actinides become fissionable in a fast-neutron spectrum, enabling full closure of the fuel cycle and leading to a minimization of long-lived radioactive wastes. The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is one of the most promising candidates to meet the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) declared goals. In comparison to other Generation IV systems, there is considerable design experience related to the SFR, and also more than 300 reactor years of practical operation. As a fast-neutron-spectrum system, the long-term operation of an SFR core in a closed fuel cycle will lead to an equilibrium state, where both reactivity and fuel mass flow stabilize. Although the SFR has many advantageous characteristics, it has one dominating neutronics drawback: there is generally a positive reactivity effect when sodium coolant is removed from the core. This so-called sodium void effect becomes even stronger in the equilibrium closed fuel cycle. The goal of the present doctoral research is to improve the safety characteristics of advanced SFR core designs, in particular, from the viewpoint of the positive sodium void reactivity effect. In this context, particular importance has been given to the dynamic core behavior under a hypothetical unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) accident scenario, in which sodium boiling occurs. The proposed

  17. Nuclear safety considerations in the conceptual design of a fast reactor for space electric power and propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, T.-M.; Koenig, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Some nuclear safety aspects of a 3.2 mWt heat pipe cooled fast reactor with out-of-core thermionic converters are discussed. Safety related characteristics of the design including a thin layer of B4C surrounding the core, the use of heat pipes and BeO reflector assembly, the elimination of fuel element bowing, etc., are highlighted. Potential supercriticality hazards and countermeasures are considered. Impacts of some safety guidelines of space transportation system are also briefly discussed, since the currently developing space shuttle would be used as the primary launch vehicle for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft.

  18. The R and D issues necessary to achieve the safety design of commercialized liquid-metal cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Kotake; Koji, Dozaki; Shigenobu, Kubo; Yoshio, Shimakawa; Hajime, Niwa; Masakazu, Ichimiya

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems (hereafter described as F/S), the safety design principle is investigated and several kinds of design studies are now in progress. Among the designs for liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (LMR), the advanced loop type sodium cooled fast reactor (FR) is one of the promising candidate as future commercialized LMR. In this paper, the safety related research and development (R and D) issues necessary to achieve the safety design are described along the defence-in-depth principle, taking account of not only the system characteristics of the advanced loop concepts but also design studies and R and D experiences so far. Safety issues related to the hypothetical core disruptive accidents (CDA) are emphasized both from the prevention and mitigation. A re-criticality free core concept with a special fuel assembly is pursued by performing both analytical and experimental efforts, in order to realize the rational design and to establish easy-to-understand safety logic. Sodium related issues are also given to ensure plant availability and to enhance the acceptability to the public. (authors)

  19. Importance of Sodium Fuel Interaction in Fast Reactor Safety Evaluation - CEA Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1976-01-01

    The consequences of interactions between molten metal (aluminium-uranium alloy) and water have long been a subject of concern for those in charge of reactor safety, following accidents observed or induced in certain reactors (BORAX, SL1, SPERT 1 D). In such accidents, as in similar cases occurring in traditional industries (aluminium foundries, steel works, paper mills...) the contact between the hot liquid product and the coolant entails rapid vaporization of the latter with effects identical to that of an explosive. Although chemical reactions of water decomposition occur in some cases, the main phenomenon is the conversion of the thermal energy stored in the hot substance into mechanical energy. Despite the fact that a molten oxide fuel differs from an aluminium-uranium alloy, as does sodium from water, the consequences of possible contact between the molten mixed uranium and plutonium oxide and sodium must be carefully studied since such a contact may occur in accident conditions in sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors. The essential purpose of an evaluation of reactor safety in accident conditions is in fact to ensure the containment of dangerous products Consequently, any phenomenon likely to endanger containment barriers must be carefully examined. In conclusion: Whereas an accident within an assembly seems to show little likelihood of creating conditions seriously endangering fuel containment, the gravity of problems associated with an overall accident on the core is worthy of thorough and attentive study. In the case of an overall accident on the core of a fast reactor, the interaction between the molten fuel and the sodium is of consequence at two levels. The first is the retention of mechanical energy which may be considerable. The second is the recovery of fuel fragments in an overall cooled configuration but where local cooling problems may give rise to interaction. A greater effort is required in performing tests and mastering their results to

  20. 49 CFR 193.2711 - Personnel health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel health. 193.2711 Section 193.2711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2711 Personnel health. Each operator...

  1. Inherent safety that the reactivity effect of core bending in fast reactors brings about

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Yagawa, Genki.

    1994-01-01

    FBRs have the merit on safety by low operation pressure and the large heat capacity of coolant, in addition, due to the core temperature rise at the time of accidents and the thermal expansion of core structures, the negative feedback of reactivity can be expected. Recently, attention has been paid to the negative feedback of reactivity due to core bending. It can be expected also in the core of limited free bow type. Bending is caused by the difference of thermal expansion on six surfaces of hexagonal wrapper tubes. The bending changes core reactivity and exerts effects to fuel exchange force and operation, insertion of control rods and the structural soundness of fuel assemblies. for the purpose of limiting the effect that core bending exerts to core characteristics to allowable range, core constraint mechanism is installed. The behavior of core bending at the time of anticipated transient without scram is explained. The example of the analysis of PRISM reactor is shown. The experiment that confirmed the negative feedback of reactivity due to core bending under the condition of ULOF was that at the fast flux test facility. (K.I.)

  2. Mathematical modelling of performance of safety rod and its drive mechanism in sodium cooled fast reactor during scram action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Babu, V.; Thanigaiyarasu, G.; Chellapandi, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical modelling of dynamic behaviour of safety rod during scram action in fast reactor. • Effects of hydraulics, structural interaction and geometry on drop time of safety rod are understood. • Using simplified model, drop time can be assessed replacing detailed CFD analysis. • Sensitivities of the related parameters on drop time are understood. • Experimental validation qualifies the modelling and computer software developed. - Abstract: Performance of safety rod and its drive mechanism which are parts of shutdown systems in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plays a major role in ensuring safe operation of the plant during all the design basis events. The safety rods are to be inserted into the core within a stipulated time during off-normal conditions of the reactor. Mathematical modelling of dynamic behaviour of a safety rod and its drive mechanism in a typical 500 MWe SFR during scram action is considered in the present study. A full-scale prototype system has undergone qualification tests in air, water and in sodium simulating the operating conditions in the reactor. In this paper, the salient features of the safety rod and its mechanism, details related to mathematical modelling and sensitivity of the parameters having influence on drop time are presented. The outcomes of the numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results. In this process, the mathematical model and the computer software developed are validated

  3. Personnel dose assignment practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1993-04-01

    Implementation of DOE N 5480.6 Radiological Control Manual Article 511(3) requirements, to minimize the assignment of personnel dosimeters, should be done only under a broader context ensuring that capabilities are in place to monitor and record personnel exposure both for compliance and for potential litigation. As noted in NCRP Report No. 114, personnel dosimetry programs are conducted to meet four major objectives: radiation safety program control and evaluation; regulatory compliance; epidemiological research; and litigation. A change to Article 511(3) is proposed that would require that minimizing the assignment of personnel dosimeters take place only following full evaluation of overall capabilities (e.g., access control, area dosimetry, etc.) to meet the NCRP objectives

  4. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  5. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given

  6. Application of Probability Calculations to the Study of the Permissible Step and Touch Potentials to Ensure Personnel Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisawy, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a practical method to evaluate the actual step and touch potential distributions in order to determine the risk of failure of the grounding system. The failure probability, indicating the safety level of the grounding system, is related to both applied (stress) and withstand (strength) step or touch potentials. The probability distributions of the applied step and touch potentials as well as the corresponding withstand step and touch potentials which represent the capability of the human body to resist stress potentials are presented. These two distributions are used to evaluate the failure probability of the grounding system which denotes the probability that the applied potential exceeds the withstand potential. The method is accomplished in considering the resistance of the human body, the foot contact resistance and the fault clearing time as an independent random variables, rather than fixed values as treated in the previous analysis in determining the safety requirements for a given grounding system

  7. SVBR-75/100 multi-purpose modular inherent-safety fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragunov, Yu.G.; Stepanov, V.S.; Klimov, N.N.; Dedul, A.V.; Zrodnokov, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Komlev, O.G.; Krushelnitsky, V.N.; Takh, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this century energy consumption, including electric power, will continue growing on a large scale especially in developing countries. Significant changes in electric power market needs are to be expected in the direction of decreasing and varying the capacity of power sources. To satisfy the expected growth of demand for electric power and to take a decision concerning the ways of further development of global power, including nuclear engineering, it is very important to continue the development of innovative concepts of nuclear power sources, which might successfully compete with alternative power technologies at the future power markets. The proposed nuclear power source (or in other words - reactor plant) of new generation is supposed: - to have small power capacity in the range of 10 - 100 MW (electric) and possibility of its multi-purpose application (independent nuclear power source for desalination installations and electricity supply, nuclear power plants (NPP) of various capacity and purpose; - to use modular principle of construction of NPP of various capacity on the basis of unified 'typical' reactor plants; - to have qualitatively new level of passive safety and possess properties of inherent safety, deterministically excluding any opportunity of severe accidents; - to have an opportunity to use different kinds of fuel and to work in various fuel cycles at various stages of development of nuclear power without change in the design. And also to have long (7-10 years, and in the long term 15-20 years) core life time and enrichment on U-235 not higher than 20 % (which is in compliance with recommendations of IAEA under non-proliferation condition); - to be completely factory-manufactured, and an opportunity of its safe transportation to and from the NPP site shall be provided. Unified multi-purpose reactor plant SVBR-75/100 (Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactor with equivalent electric power of 75 - 100 MW-e depending on the steam parameters) meets the set of the

  8. Relevance of passive safety testing at the fast flux test facility to advanced liquid metal reactors - 5127

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Omberg, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Significant cost and safety improvements can be realized in advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) designs by emphasizing inherent or passive safety through crediting the beneficial reactivity feedbacks associated with core and structural movement. This passive safety approach was adopted for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and an experimental program was conducted to characterize the structural reactivity feedback. Testing at the Rapsodie and EBR-II reactors had demonstrated the beneficial effect of reactivity feedback caused by changes in fuel temperature and core geometry mechanisms in a liquid metal fast reactor in a holistic sense. The FFTF passive safety testing program was developed to examine how specific design elements influenced dynamic reactivity feedback in response to a reactivity input and to demonstrate the scalability of reactivity feedback results from smaller cores like Rapsodie and EBR-II to reactor cores that were more prototypic in scale to reactors of current interest. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Technology program is in the process of preserving, protecting, securing, and placing in electronic format information and data from the FFTF, including the core configurations and data collected during the passive safety tests. Evaluation of these actual test data could provide insight to improve analytical methods which may be used to support future licensing applications for LMRs. (authors)

  9. Utilizing a GPS-enabled fleet management system to improve safety through real-time personnel monitoring and asset management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavreas, M. [Bell Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The telepod is a real-time dispatch, tracking and vehicle management system developed by Bell, which also allows remote access to company data. Advantages of the system were discussed in this power point presentation. It was suggested that the system offers increased efficiency, asset tracking and more accurate maintenance. Productivity improvements are made possible through real-time dispatching of orders, which results in improved customer service. Additional benefits of the system include fuel savings; trip reports to track vehicle start and stop times; and improved route changes through trip analysis. The system also enables the tracking of vehicles driven after work hours and on weekends. The generator tracking capability provides information on when generators are being moved as well as uptime for improved maintenance in addition to registering fuel levels to ensure business keeps running during a blackout. The vehicle management system is also capable of identifying under-utilized vehicles and can assist in the reduction of inactive vehicles as well as in a reduction of fuel consumption and harmful emissions by controlling idling time. Other advantages include maintenance eliminated mileage errors; an improved inspection program; remote diagnosis and prognostics; a reduction in downtime and costs associated with unnecessary vehicle breakdown; and reduced vehicle wear and tear. Among the safety features is a trigger for the dispatch of emergency vehicles. It was suggested that the lone worker device provides technicians with a sense of security, as well as ensuring greater consumer safety. It was concluded that Bell supports industry cooperation for safe driving awareness through advertising campaigns, and communicates safety messages to customers, employees and the public at large. tabs, figs.

  10. SACRD: a data base for fast reactor safety computer codes, contents and glossary of Version 1 of the system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.; Forsberg, V.M.; Raiford, G.B.; Arwood, J.W.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    SACRD is a data base of material properties and other handbook data needed in computer codes used for fast reactor safety studies. This document lists the contents of Version 1 and also serves as a glossary of terminology used in the data base. Data are available in the thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, structural mechanics, aerosol transport, meteorology, neutronics and dosimetry areas. Tabular, graphical and parameterized data are provided in many cases

  11. Personnel Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)

  12. Improving Fuel Cycle Design and Safety Characteristics of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, W.F.G. van

    2006-01-01

    The Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR)is one of the Generation IV reactor concepts. This concept specifically targets sustainability of nuclear power generation. In nuclear reactors fertile material is converted to fissile fuel. If the neutrons inducing fission are highly energetic, the opportunity exists to convert more than one fertile nucleus per fission, thereby effectively breeding new nuclear fuel. Reactors operating on this principle are called ‘Fast Breeder Reactor’. Since natural uranium contains 99.3%of the fertile isotope 238 U, breeding increases the energy harvested from the nuclear fuel. If nuclear energy is to play an important role as a source of energy in the future, fast breeder reactors are essential for breeding nuclear fuel. Fast neutrons are also more efficient to destruct heavy (Minor Actinide, MA) isotopes, such as Np, Am and Cm isotopes, which dominate the long-term radioactivity of nuclear waste. So the waste life-time can be shortened if the MA nuclei are destroyed. An important prerequisite of sustainable nuclear energy is the closed fuel cycle, where only fission products are discharged to a final repository, and all Heavy Metal (HM) are recycled. The reactor should breed just enough fissile material to allow refueling of the same reactor, adding only fertile material to the recycled material. Other key design choices are highly efficient power conversion using a direct cycle gas turbine, and better safety through the use of helium, a chemically inert coolant which cannot have phase changes in the reactor core. Because the envisaged core temperatures and operating conditions are similar to thermal-spectrum High Temperature Reactor (HTR) concepts, the research for this thesis initially focused on a design based on existing HTR fuel technology: coated particle fuel, assembled into fuel assemblies. It was found that such a fuel concept could not meet the Generation IV criteria set for GCFR: self-breeding is difficult, the temperature

  13. Safety studies dedicated to molten salt reactors with a fast neutron spectrum and operated in the Thorium fuel cycle - Innovative concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brovchenko, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear reactors of the 4. generation must allow an optimized use of natural resources, while performing at a high safety level. The framework of this thesis is the deployment study of one of such a system, an innovative and still little studied Molten Salt Fast Reactor. An excellent safety is an ultimate requirement of the nuclear energy deployment, so it is important to raise this question at the current early stage of the MSFR concept development. This concept was the subject of a neutronic tool benchmark within a European project EVOL. Definition, calculations and results analyses were performed during this thesis. Comparisons of static neutronic and burn-up calculations, performed by the project participants, concluded to a good agreement between the different codes and methods used and pointed out the sensibility of the nuclear database choice on the results. With the aim of safety analysis of the MSFR, the decay heat was studied in detail. The tool used for the decay heat calculation was developed and validated, to finally evaluate the decay heat in the reactor. The decay heat source presented in different zones was quantified, concluding to a high importance of the cooling of the fuel salt and the bubbling system enclosing a part of the fission products. The safety analysis methodology was also studied in this thesis. Even if the safety principles are directly transposable to the MSFR, the precise recommendations are not. This is due to the specificity of the design that relies on the liquid state of the fuel, on the reprocessing systems located in the reactor and the embryonic stage of the design. First, a preliminary transposition work of some criteria to the MSFR design was realized, resulting amongst other things in a list of accidental scenarios particular for MSFR. Finally, a preliminary physical study of some types of accidental scenarios was performed, that can be used as a basis for further analyses with more sophisticated tools. (author) [fr

  14. A Survey on the HFE-related Technologies for the Improvements of Human Performance of Safety Personnel in Rail System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, G. O.; Suh, S. M.; Sim, Y. R.; Go, J. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Son, C. H.

    2005-08-01

    Many studies have shown that the most cases of rail accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state-of-the-art report describes three major HFE-related technologies, training simulator, the integrated test facility for human factors engineering, and human performance evaluation system, that are used in the other industries including nuclear power industry for the purpose of increasing rail safety through out the improvement of human task performance. Base on this report, the way of developing those technologies that should be applied to the korean rail system is presented

  15. A Survey on the HFE-related Technologies for the Improvements of Human Performance of Safety Personnel in Rail System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, G. O.; Suh, S. M.; Sim, Y. R.; Go, J. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Son, C. H

    2005-08-15

    Many studies have shown that the most cases of rail accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state-of-the-art report describes three major HFE-related technologies, training simulator, the integrated test facility for human factors engineering, and human performance evaluation system, that are used in the other industries including nuclear power industry for the purpose of increasing rail safety through out the improvement of human task performance. Base on this report, the way of developing those technologies that should be applied to the korean rail system is presented.

  16. Reactor design and safety approach for a tank-type fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.M.; Yamaki, Hideo; Goodman, L.

    1984-06-01

    A tank type plant has been designed that offers compactness, high reliability under seismic and thermal transients, and a safety design approach that provides a balance between public safety and plant availability. This report provides a description of the design philosophy and safety features of the reactor

  17. JSFR design progress related to development of safety design criteria for Generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors. (1) Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Hideki; Ando, Masato; Ito, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    JAEA, JAPC and MFBR have been conducting design study for the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), which is a design concept aiming at future commercial use as sustainable electric power source. As the result of the design study and R and D activity related the innovative technologies incorporated in the design in the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project up to 2010, basic design concept of JSFR was established and its development process to the commercialization including construction and operation of a demonstration version of JSFR was outlined. JSFR is a looptype next generation sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), which is aiming at achieving development targets of Generation IV reactors concerning sustainability, safety and reliability, economics and proliferation resistance and physical protection by introducing the innovative technologies such as shortened high-chromium steel piping. The output power is assumed for the design study as 1,500 MWe for the commercial version and 750 MWe for the demonstration version. In FaCT phase I up to 2010, in order to evaluate feasibility to achieve the development targets, the design study has been conducted on the main components and systems. Since 2011, in order to contribute to the development of safety design criteria (SDC) and safety design guideline (SDG), which include the lessons learned from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants accident, in the frame work of Generation IV International Forum (GIF), the design study is focusing on the design measures against severe external events such as earthquake and tsunami. At the same time, the design study is going into detail and paying much attention to the maintenance and repair to make surer its feasibility. This paper summarizes the design concept of the demonstration version of JSFR in which progress of design work was incorporated for the safety issues on SDC and SDG of a SFR. (author)

  18. Safety Design Criteria (SDC) for Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Ryodai

    2013-01-01

    SDC Development Background & Objectives: • Safety Design Criteria (SDC) Development for Gen-IV SFR: – Proposed at the GIF Policy Group (PG) meeting in October 2010 –SDC “harmonization” is increasingly important for: • Realization of enhanced safety designs meeting to Gen-IV safety goals and safety approach common to SFR systems; • Preparation for the forthcoming licensing in the near future; • Because Gen-IV SFR are progressing into conceptual design stage. • The SDC is the Reference criteria: – Of the designs of safety-related Structures, Systems & Components that are specific to the SFR system; – For clarifying the requisites systematically & comprehensively; – When the technology developers apply the basic safety approach and use the codes & standards for conceptual design of the Gen-IV SFR system

  19. Validation of computer codes of industrial safety with the aid of fast cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falgayrettes, M.; Hamon, P.; Fiche, C.; Delli, C.

    1984-08-01

    Fast neutron nuclear reactors are dimensioned so as to contain the consequences of major hypothetical accidents. Considerable calculation methods are used to achieve this measurement; these programs, especially developed, have been substantiated by an important number and variety of tests which are described in this paper which also attempts to show what fast cinematography has contributed to these tests: complementarity and highlighting of new phenomena [fr

  20. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizhov, K.; Simakov, A.; Seregin, V.; Kudrin, I.; Shandala, N.; Tsovyanov, A.; Kryuchkov, V. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, RF Ministry of Health and Social Development. 46, Zhivopisnaya St., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Krasnoschekov, A.; Kosnikov, A. [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management ' SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management' ' RosRAO' 183017, Murmansk, Lobova st., 100 (Russian Federation); Kemsky, I. [Regional management - 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 184682, Snezhnogorsk, Valentina Biryukova St., 5/1 (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks 55, 1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data

  1. 10 CFR 36.55 - Personnel monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel monitoring. 36.55 Section 36.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Operation of Irradiators § 36.55 Personnel monitoring. (a) Irradiator operators shall wear a personnel dosimeter that is...

  2. Provisions of communication between NPP operational personnel: drifts of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskarev, S.; Aksenov, V.R.

    2000-01-01

    Approaches to the creation of control room systems (CRS) in foreign countries are based on support of operator actions. The basis is the provision of compressed information about safety and technological processes with performance on screens of monitors and by paying special attention to human factors. In contrast to the traditional, the . advantage of such boards consists in granting to the operator a flexible format with the integrated information, with graphic, generalized, etc., representation of the data. When organizing information concerning the: operative personnel, the following principles are fixed: (a) Hierarchical performance of the information about NPP technological process and safety. (b) Provision of fast access to a required format or automatic performance of 8 required format in emergencies. (c) Hierarchical organization of the signal system; a uniform format of display organization. (d) Information support of the operative personnel at normal operation and in accident conditions. (authors)

  3. Level II Probabilistic Safety Analysis Methodology for the Application to GEN-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, T. W.; Han, S. H.; Jeong, H. Y.

    2010-03-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing liquid metal reactor (LMR) design technologies under a National Nuclear R and D Program. Nevertheless, there is no experience of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) domestically for a fast reactor with the metal fuel. Therefore, the objective of this study is to establish the methodologies of risk assessment for the reference design of GEN-IV sodium fast reactor (SFR). An applicability of the PSA methodology of U. S. NRC and PRISM plant to the domestic GEN-IV SFR has been studied. The study contains a plant damage state analysis, a containment event tree analysis, and a source-term release category binning process

  4. 30 CFR 77.1400 - Personnel hoists and elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personnel hoists and elevators. 77.1400 Section 77.1400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1400 Personnel...

  5. Validation of KENO V.a for criticality safety calculations involving WR-1 fast-neutron fuel arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I. C.

    1991-07-15

    The KENO V.a criticality safety code, used with the SCALE 27-energy-group ENDF/B-IV-based cross-section library, has been validated for low-enriched uranium carbide (UC) WR-1 fast-neutron (FN) fuel arrangements. Because of a lack of relevant experimental data for UC fuel in the published literature, the validation is based primarily on calculational comparisons with critical experiments for fuel types with a range of enrichments and densities that cover those of the FN UC fuel. The ability of KENO V.a to handle the unique annular pin arrangement of the WR-1 FN fuel bundle was established using a comparison with the MCNP3B code used with a continuous-energy ENDF/B-V-based cross-section library. This report is part of the AECL--10146 report series documenting the validation of the KENO V.a criticality safety code.

  6. Gas-cooled fast reactor safety - and overview and status of the U.S. program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torri, A.; Buttemer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    In the revised GCFR Safety Program Plan a quantitative risk limit line has been adopted to establish requirements for the safety related functions and systems. The risk limit line is derived from an interpretation of NRC established licensing requirements, including those for LMFBR's. Multiple barriers to the progression of accident sequences are defined in the form of six Lines of Protection (LOPs). LOPs-1 to 3 are dedicated to accident prevention and represent the normal operating systems, the dedicated safety systems and the inherent design features, respectively. LOPs-4 to 6 are dedicated to the mitigation of core melt accident consequences and include in-vessel accident containment, secondary containment integrity and radiological attenuation, respectively. Cumulative frequency limits and consequence limits are established for each LOP. Design features associated with each LOP are described and the results of supporting safety analyses are summarized. (author)

  7. Safety evaluation report related to operation of Fast Flux Test Facility. Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This supplement provides (1) the staff's evaluation of additional information received since issuance of the Safety Evaluation Report regarding previously identified uncompleted review items, (2) a discussion of comments made by the ACRS in its report of November 8, 1978, and (3) the staff's evaluation of additional or revised information related to new or old issues that have arisen since the issuance of the Safety Evaluation Report

  8. Nutrient Intakes of the Enlisted Personnel Aboard the USS Saratoga Before and After Implementing ’Fast Food’ to the Food Service System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    intakes. In 1978, vitamin A fortified milk shakes (dry base) and vitamin C fortified extruded French fried potatoes and vitamin C fortified non...dry base) and vitamin C fortified extruded French fried potatoes and vitamin C fortified non-carbonated beverages were provided with the "Fast Food...identification of any unusual food items, and assignment of each food item as a component of either a meal or between-meal snack . The LAIR Nutrient Factor File

  9. Periodic safety review of the experimental fast reactor JOYO. Review of aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kazunori; Ogawa, To-ru; Nishino, Kazunari

    2005-05-01

    Periodic safety review (Review of the aging management) which consisted of ''Technical review on aging for the safety related structures, systems and components'' and ''Establishment a long term maintenance program'' was carried out up to April 2005. 1. Technical review on aging for the safety related structures, systems and components. It was technically confirmed to prevent the loss of function of the safety related structures, systems and components due to aging phenomena, which (1) irradiation damage, (2) corrosion, (3) abrasion and erosion, (4) thermal aging, (5) creep and fatigue, (6) Stress Corrosion Cracking, (7) insulation deterioration and (8) general deterioration, under the periodic monitoring or renewal of them. 2. Establishment of long term maintenance program. The long term maintenance during JFY2005 to 2014 were established based on the technical review on aging for the safety related structures, systems and components. It was evaluated that the inspection and renewal based on the long term maintenance program, in addition to the spontaneous inspection of the long term voluntary long-term inspection plan, could prevent the loss of function of the safety related structures, systems and components. (author)

  10. Various reactivity effects value for assuring fast reactor core inherent safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, S.B.; Vasilyev, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the results of temperature and power reactivity feedback components calculations for fast reactors with different core volume when using oxide, carbide, nitride and metal fuel. Reactor parameters change in loss of flow without scram and transient over power without scram accidents was evaluated. The importance of various reactivity feedback components in restricting the consequences of these accidents has been analyzed. (author)

  11. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  12. 10 CFR 39.65 - Personnel monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel monitoring. 39.65 Section 39.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.65 Personnel monitoring. (a) The licensee may not permit an individual to act as a logging...

  13. 10 CFR 34.47 - Personnel monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel monitoring. 34.47 Section 34.47 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.47 Personnel monitoring. (a) The licensee may not...

  14. 21 CFR 211.28 - Personnel responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... apparel, such as head, face, hand, and arm coverings, shall be worn as necessary to protect drug products... observation) to have an apparent illness or open lesions that may adversely affect the safety or quality of... medical personnel not to jeopardize the safety or quality of drug products. All personnel shall be...

  15. BREST-OD-300 Reactor as a prototype of the future commercial lead cooled fast reactor of natural safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, V.V.; Smirnov, V.S.; Filin, A.I.; Glazov, A.G. [N.A. Dollezhal Institute ' NIKIET' , PO Box 788, Moscow, 101000 (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    This paper briefly describes the physical and design features of a demonstration 300 MWe fast reactor with uranium-plutonium nitride fuel and lead coolant, BREST-OD-300, under development in Russia. This reactor is regarded as a prototype of future commercial reactors, which may form a foundation for large-scale growth of nuclear power in this new century. It is demonstrated that the natural properties of the lead coolant and nitride fuel combined with the physical and design features specific to fast reactors ensure natural safety of BREST and, with any credible initiating events, allow deterministic exclusion of accidents with large radioactive releases requiring evacuation of local residents. The paper identifies the ways and means of attaining natural safety, which rule out prompt criticality excursion, loss of cooling and fuel failure through use of a small reactivity margin, commensurable with {beta}{sub eff}, low pressure in the circuit, large margins to temperature limits, high natural circulation, passive decay heat removal by air unlimited in time, high heat accumulating capability of lead-filled circuit, stabilizing temperature and coolant flow rate feedbacks, etc. (authors)

  16. BREST-OD-300 Reactor as a prototype of the future commercial lead cooled fast reactor of natural safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Smirnov, V.S.; Filin, A.I.; Glazov, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the physical and design features of a demonstration 300 MWe fast reactor with uranium-plutonium nitride fuel and lead coolant, BREST-OD-300, under development in Russia. This reactor is regarded as a prototype of future commercial reactors, which may form a foundation for large-scale growth of nuclear power in this new century. It is demonstrated that the natural properties of the lead coolant and nitride fuel combined with the physical and design features specific to fast reactors ensure natural safety of BREST and, with any credible initiating events, allow deterministic exclusion of accidents with large radioactive releases requiring evacuation of local residents. The paper identifies the ways and means of attaining natural safety, which rule out prompt criticality excursion, loss of cooling and fuel failure through use of a small reactivity margin, commensurable with β eff , low pressure in the circuit, large margins to temperature limits, high natural circulation, passive decay heat removal by air unlimited in time, high heat accumulating capability of lead-filled circuit, stabilizing temperature and coolant flow rate feedbacks, etc. (authors)

  17. Probabilistic safety analysis about the radiation risk for the driver in a fast-scan container/vehicle inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junli; Zhu Guoping; Ming Shenjin; Cao Yanfeng

    2008-01-01

    A new Container/Vehicle Inspection System called fast-scan inspection system has been developed and used in some countries, which has a special advantage in scanning efficiency of 200 - 400 containers per hour. However, for its unique scanning mode, the fast-scan inspection system causes some worries about the radiation risk for the truck drivers, who will drive the container truck to pass through the scanning tunnel and might be exposed by the radiation beam in accidents. A PSA analysis, which has been widely used to evaluate the safety of nuclear power plant in the past, is presented here to estimate the probability of accidental exposure to the driver and evaluate the health risk. The fault tree and event tree analysis show that the probability of accidental exposure to the driver is pretty low and the main failure contributions are human errors and scanning control devices failures, which provides some recommendations for the further improvement about this product. Furthermore, on the basic of ICRP No.60 and 76 reports, the health risk to the truck driver is only about 4.0x10 -14 /a. Compared with the exempt level of 5x10 -7 /a, it can be concluded that the fast-scan system is safe enough for the truck driver. (author)

  18. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system

  19. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  20. Personnel ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A dosimeter and method for use by personnel working in an area of mixed ionizing radiation fields for measuring and/or determining the effective energy of x- and gamma radiation; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent to the surface of the body; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent at a depth in the body; the presence of slow neutron, fast neutron dose equivalent; and orientation of the person wearing the dosimeter to the source of radiation is disclosed. Optionally integrated into this device and method are improved means for determining neutron energy spectrum and absorbed dose from fission gamma and neutron radiation resulting from accidental criticality

  1. The integral fast reactor (IFR) concept: Physics of operation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.C.; Chang, Y.I.

    1987-01-01

    The IFR concept employs a pool layout, a U/Pu/Zr metal alloy fuel and a closed fuel cycle based on pyrometallurgical reprocessing and injection casting refabrication. The reactor physics issues of designing for inherent safety and for a closed fissile self-sufficient integral fuel cycle with uranium startup and potential actinide transmutation are discussed

  2. Cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release in the fasted and fed state in elderly healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Krauwinkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The effect of food on the cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release (MR) capsules 0.4 mg in elderly subjects was assessed both after single and multiple dosing. Methods: Thirty-six elderly (age greater than or equal to 60 years) male volunteers were recruited and after a

  3. The integral fast reactor (IFR) concept: physics of operation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.C.; Chang, Y.I.

    1987-01-01

    The IFR concept employs a pool layout, a U/Pu/Zr metal alloy fuel and a closed fuel cycle based on pyrometallurgical reprocessing and injection casting refabrication. The reactor physics issues of designing for inherent safety and for a closed fissile self-sufficient integral fuel cycle with uranium startup and potential actinide transmutation are discussed

  4. Significance of coast down time on safety and availability of a pool type fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Plant dynamics studies for quantifying the benefits of flow coast down time. • Establishment of minimum flow coast down time required for safety. • Assessment of influence of flow coast down on enhancing plant availability. • Synthesis of thermo mechanical benefits of flow coast down time on component design. - Abstract: Plant dynamic investigation towards establishing the influence of flow coast down time of primary and secondary sodium systems on safety and availability of plant has been carried out based on one dimensional analysis. From safety considerations, a minimum flow coast down time for primary sodium circuit is essential to be provided to limit the consequences of loss of flow event within allowable limits. Apart from safety benefits, large primary coast down time also improves plant availability by the elimination of reactor SCRAM during short term power failure events. Threshold values of SCRAM parameters also need optimization. By suitably selecting the threshold values for SCRAM parameters, significant reduction in the inertia of pumping systems can be derived to obtain desirable results on plant availability. With the optimization of threshold values and primary flow coast down behaviour equivalent to a halving time of 8 s, there is a possibility to eliminate reactor SCRAM during short term power failure events extending up to 0.75 s duration. Benefits of secondary flow halving on reducing transient thermal loading on components have also been investigated and mixed effects have been observed

  5. The roles of the seismic safety and monitoring systems in the PEC fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoni, P.; Di Tullio, E.M.; Massa, B.; Martelli, A.; Sano, T.

    1988-01-01

    Two different seismic systems are foreseen in the case of PEC: the seismic safety system, that provides the automatic scram, and the seismic monitoring system. During earthquake, three triaxial seismic switches are triggered if a threshold value of the ground acceleration is exceeded. In this case, the signals from the seismic switches are processed by the safety system (with a 2/3 logic) and the shutdown system is triggered. Peak acceleration is the parameter used by the safety system to quantify the seismic event. This way, however, no information is obtained with regard to earthquake frequency content. Thus, reactor safety is guaranteed by adopting a threshold considerably lower than the Z.P.A. of the Design Basis Earthquake. Furthermore, in the case of significant earthquakes, the seismic motion is measured by about 20 triaxial accelerometers, located both in the free field and on the plant's structures. Data are digitazed and recordered by the seismic monitoring system. This system also elaborates the recordered time-histories providing floor response spectra and compares such spectra to the design values. The above-mentioned elaborations and comparisons are performed in short time for two triaxial measuring positions, thus allowing the Operator to immediately get a more complete information on the seismic event. The complete set of data recorded by the seismic monitoring system also allows the actual dynamic response of the plant to be determined and compared to the design values. On the basis of this comparison the necessary safety analysis can be carried out to verify whether the design limits of the plant were respected: in the positive case the reactor can be restarted. (author)

  6. Safety design/analysis and scenario for prevention of CDA with ECCS in lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoru, Takahashi; Vaclav, Dostal; Abu Khalid, Rivai; Novitrian; Yumi, Yamada

    2007-01-01

    Safety design has been developed to show safety feature of Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water small fast reactor (PBWFR). The core is designed to have negative void reactivity even if the entire core and upper plenum are voided by steam intrusion from above. In-vessel type control rod driving mechanisms are used to prevent control rods from accidental ejection due to high pressure in the reactor vessel. In cases of coolant leakage from reactor vessel and feed water pipes, Pb-Bi coolant level in the reactor vessel is kept at the required level for decay heat removal by means of closed type guard vessel. Dual pipes are adopted to avoid leak of water in the feedwater system. Pump trip in feedwater systems initiates loss of coolant flow (LOF) event, although there is no concern of loss of flow accident due to primary pump trip. Injection of high pressure water slows down the flow-coast-down of feedwater at the LOF event. It has been evaluated that the fuel temperature is kept lower than safety limits at the unprotected loss of flow and heat sink (ATWS). A scenario for prevention of the core disruptive accident (CDA) with the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) is examined. The reactor becomes super-critical when the reactor vessel is filled with water. It is necessary to use water with boric acid for the ECC system, and additional backup rods for sub-critical core in water injection. (authors)

  7. Liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors: Preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning LMFBR design characteristics; uranium-plutonium/uranium recycle homogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/uranium spiked recycle heterogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/uranium spiked recycle homogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle heterogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle homogeneous core; thorium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle homogeneous core; denatured uranium-233/thorium cycle homogeneous core; safety consideration for the LMFBR; and environmental considerations

  8. Third Joint GIF–IAEA Workshop on Safety Design Criteria for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors, 26-27 February 2013, Vienna, Austria. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of the meeting were to: • Present and share information on the work carried out by GIF, the IAEA and the Member States on the definition of safety design criteria for SFR, including safety approach and requirements on general plant design; • Present the document prepared by the GIF-SFR Task Force on Safety Design Criteria; • Present and discuss safety design concepts of SFRs under development in Member States, with particular emphasis on design measures against Design Basis Accidents and Design Extended Conditions, as well as the associated safety evaluations and supporting R&D; • Draft a room document which should be the basis of the discussion for the Panel on Safety Design Criteria of the FR13 Conference in Paris. • Discuss the results and agree on the future actions of the 3rd Joint GIF-IAEA Workshop on Safety of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

  9. Safety-Related Optimization and Analyses of an Innovative Fast Reactor Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalin Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since a fast reactor core with uranium-plutonium fuel is not in its most reactive configuration under operating conditions, redistribution of the core materials (fuel, steel, sodium during a core disruptive accident (CDA may lead to recriticalities and as a consequence to severe nuclear power excursions. The prevention, or at least the mitigation, of core disruption is therefore of the utmost importance. In the current paper, we analyze an innovative fast reactor concept developed within the CP-ESFR European project, focusing on the phenomena affecting the initiation and the transition phases of an unprotected loss of flow (ULOF accident. Key phenomena for the initiation phase are coolant boiling onset and further voiding of the core that lead to a reactivity increase in the case of a positive void reactivity effect. Therefore, the first level of optimization involves the reduction, by design, of the positive void effect in order to avoid entering a severe accident. If the core disruption cannot be avoided, the accident enters into the transition phase, characterized by the progression of core melting and recriticalities due to fuel compaction. Dedicated features that enhance and guarantee a sufficient and timely fuel discharge are considered for the optimization of this phase.

  10. The US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor and the Fast Flux Test Facility Phase IIA passive safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, P.K.; Harris, R.A.; Campbell, L.R.; Dautel, W.A.; Dubberley, A.E.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses the safety approach of the Advanced Liquid Metal reactor program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, which relies upon passive reactor responses to off-normal condition to limit power and temperature excursions to levels that allow safety margins. Gas expansion modules (GEM) have included in the design to provide negative reactivity to enhance these margins in the extremely unlikely event that pumping power is lost and the highly reliable scram system fails to operate. The feasibility and beneficial features of these devices were first demonstrated in the core of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in 1986. Preapplication safety evaluations by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have identified areas that must be addressed if these devices are to be relied on. One of these areas is the response of the reactor when it is critical and the pumps are turned on, resulting in positive reactivity being added to the core. Tests to examine such transients have been performed as part of the continuing FFTF program to confirm the passive safety characteristics of liquid metal reactors (LMR). The primary tests consisted of starting the main coolant pumps, which forced sodium coolant into the GEMS, decreasing neutron leakage and adding positive reactivity. The resulting transients were shown to be benign and easily mitigated by the reactivity feedbacks inherent in the FFTF and all LMRs. Steady-state auxiliary tests of the GEM and feedback reactivity worths accurately predicted the transient results. The auxiliary GEM worth tests also demonstrated that the worth can be determined at a subcritical state, which allows for a verification of the GEM's availability prior to ascending to power

  11. Preliminary scoping safety analyses of the limiting design basis protected accidents for the Fast Flux Test Facility tritium production core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-l computer code is used to perform a series of analyses for the limiting protected design basis transient events given a representative tritium and medical isotope production core design proposed for the Fast Flux Test Facility. The FFTF tritium and isotope production mission will require a different core loading which features higher enrichment fuel, tritium targets, and medical isotope production assemblies. Changes in several key core parameters, such as the Doppler coefficient and delayed neutron fraction will affect the transient response of the reactor. Both reactivity insertion and reduction of heat removal events were analyzed. The analysis methods and modeling assumptions are described. Results of the analyses and comparison against fuel pin performance criteria are presented to provide quantification that the plant protection system is adequate to maintain the necessary safety margins and assure cladding integrity

  12. Research and development studies on the seismic behaviour of the PEC fast reactor (safety analysis detailed report no. 8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelli, A.; Forni, M.; Masoni, P.; Maresca, G.; Castoldi, A.; Muzzi, F. [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Ansaldo Spa, Genoa [Italy; ISMES Spa, Bergamo [Italy

    1988-01-15

    This paper presents the main features and results of the numerical and experimental studies that were carried out by ENEA (Italian Commission for Alternative Energy Sources) for the seismic verification of the Italian PEC fast reactor test facility. More precisely, the paper focuses on the wide-ranging research and development programme that has been performed (and recently completed) on the reactor building, the reactor-block, the main vessel, the core and the shutdown system. The needs of these detailed studies are stressed and the feed-backs on the design, necessary safisfy the seismic safety requirements, are recalled. The general validity of the analyses in the framework of the research and development activities for nuclear reactor is also pointed out.

  13. The EUCLID/V1 Integrated Code for Safety Assessment of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactors. Part 1: Basic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosunova, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes the basic models included in the EUCLID/V1 integrated code intended for safety analysis of liquid metal (sodium, lead, and lead-bismuth) cooled fast reactors using fuel rods with a gas gap and pellet dioxide, mixed oxide or nitride uranium-plutonium fuel under normal operation, under anticipated operational occurrences and accident conditions by carrying out interconnected thermal-hydraulic, neutronics, and thermal-mechanical calculations. Information about the Russian and foreign analogs of the EUCLID/V1 integrated code is given. Modeled objects, equation systems in differential form solved in each module of the EUCLID/V1 integrated code (the thermal-hydraulic, neutronics, fuel rod analysis module, and the burnup and decay heat calculation modules), the main calculated quantities, and also the limitations on application of the code are presented. The article also gives data on the scope of functions performed by the integrated code's thermal-hydraulic module, using which it is possible to describe both one- and twophase processes occurring in the coolant. It is shown that, owing to the availability of the fuel rod analysis module in the integrated code, it becomes possible to estimate the performance of fuel rods in different regimes of the reactor operation. It is also shown that the models implemented in the code for calculating neutron-physical processes make it possible to take into account the neutron field distribution over the fuel assembly cross section as well as other features important for the safety assessment of fast reactors.

  14. Enhanced thermal expansion control rod drive lines for improving passive safety of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, M.; Baumann, W.; Kuechle, M.; Kussmaul, G.; Vaeth, W.; Bertram, A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a device for increasing the thermal expansion effect of control rod drive lines on negative reactivity feedback in fast reactors. The enhanced thermal expansion of this device can be utilized for both passive rod drop and forced insertion of absorbers in unprotected transients, e.g. ULOF. In this way the reactor is automatically brought into a permanently subcritical state and temperatures are kept well below the boiling point of the coolant. A prototype of such a device called ATHENa (German: Shut-down by THermal Expansion of Na) is presently under construction and will be tested. The paper presents the principle, design features and thermal properties of ATHENs as well as results of reactor dynamics calculations of ULOF's for EFR with enhanced thermal expansion control rod drive lines. (author)

  15. A moderation layer to improve the safety behavior of sodium cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, B.; Weiß, F.P., E-mail: b.merk@fzd.de [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut für Sicherheitsforschung, Dresden (germany)

    2011-07-01

    The nature of the sodium void effect in an infinite lattice is discussed and for a reduction of the effect the insertion of moderating material is proposed. The effect of three different moderating layers on the sodium void defect and the feedback effects is investigated. Especially the uranium zirconium hydride UzrH layer causes a strong reduction of the sodium void effect. Additionally, this layer improves the fuel temperature effect and the coolant effect of the system significantly. All changes caused by the insertion of the UZrH layer lead to a significant increase in stability of the fast reactor system against transients. The moderating layers have only a small influence on the breeding effect and on the production of minor actinides. (author)

  16. A moderation layer to improve the safety behavior of sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, B.; Weiß, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the sodium void effect in an infinite lattice is discussed and for a reduction of the effect the insertion of moderating material is proposed. The effect of three different moderating layers on the sodium void defect and the feedback effects is investigated. Especially the uranium zirconium hydride UzrH layer causes a strong reduction of the sodium void effect. Additionally, this layer improves the fuel temperature effect and the coolant effect of the system significantly. All changes caused by the insertion of the UZrH layer lead to a significant increase in stability of the fast reactor system against transients. The moderating layers have only a small influence on the breeding effect and on the production of minor actinides. (author)

  17. Safety studies on oxide fuel elements for the fast neutron programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollier, H.; Truffert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Studies leading to the definition of a fuel element and instructions for its use overlap with safety studies to the extent that they must guarantee, for nominal running conditions, a failure rate consistent with the working rules of the Station. Given the present state of knowledge on the causes and kinetics of damage affecting the cladding, it is mainly dealt with the principles of this research. The advantages of applying statistical computing methods to the two factors which govern the lifetime of the pins: their working conditions and quality, are demonstrated [fr

  18. Safety of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitors during Ramadan Fasting: Evidence, Perceptions and Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem A. Beshyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are a new glucose-lowering therapy for T2DM with documented benefits on blood glucose, hypertension, weight reduction and long term cardiovascular benefit. They have an inherent osmotic diuretic effect and lead to some volume loss and possible dehydration. There is some concern about the safety of using SGLT2 inhibitors in Muslim type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients during the fast during Ramadan. Currently, there is a dearth of research data to help guide physicians and reassure patients.  One study confirmed good glycemic control with less risk of hypoglycemia and no marked volume depletion. Data in the elderly and in combination with diuretics are reassuring of their safe to use in Ramadan in general. SGLT2 inhibitor-related diabetic ketoacidosis has not been reported during Ramadan and is unlikely to be relevant. Survey of physicians revealed that the majority felt that SGLT2 inhibitors are generally safe in T2DM patients during Ramadan fasting but should be discontinued in certain high risk patients. Some professional groups with interest in diabetes and Ramadan fasting included SGLT2 inhibitors in their guidelines on management of diabetes during Ramadan. They acknowledged the lack of trial data, recommended caution in high risk groups, advised regular monitoring and emphasized pre-Ramadan patients’ education. In conclusion, currently, knowledge, data and experience with SGLT2 inhibitors in Ramadan are limited. Nonetheless, stable patients with normal kidney function and low risk of dehydration may safely use the SGLT2 inhibitors therapy. Higher risk patients should be observed carefully and managed on individual basis.

  19. Operational safety at the FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, Q.L.; Hagan, J.W.; Seeman, S.E.; Baker, S.M.

    1981-02-01

    An extensive operational nuclear safety program has been an integral part of the design, startup, and initial operating phases of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). During the design and construction of the facility, a program of independent safety overviews and analyses assured the provision of responsible safety margins within the plant, protective systems, and engineered safety features for protection of the public, operating staff, and the facility. The program is continuing through surveillance of operations to verify continued adherence to the established operating envelope and for timely identification of any trends potentially adverse to those margins. Experience from operation of FFTF is being utilized in the development of enhanced operational nuclear safety aids for application in follow-on breeder reactor power systems. The commendable plant and personnel safety experiences of FFTF through its startup and ascension to full power demonstrate the overall effectiveness of the FFTF operational nuclear safety program

  20. Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Information Document, Amendment 10. GCFR residual heat removal system criteria, design, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of safety design bases to support the conceptual design of the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) residual heat removal (RHR) systems. The report is structured to enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to review and comment in the licensability of these design bases. This report also presents information concerning a specific plant design and its performance as an auxiliary part to assist the NRC in evaluating the safety design bases

  1. A safety design approach for sodium cooled fast reactor core toward commercialization in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shigenobu

    2012-01-01

    JAEA’s safety approach for SFR core design is based on defence‐in‐depth concept, which includes DBAs and DECs (prevention and mitigation): • The reactor core is designed to have inherent reactivity feedback characteristics with negative power coefficient. • Operation temperature range is set sufficiently below the coolant boiling temperature so as to avoid coolant boiling against anticipated operational occurrences and DBAs. • If the plant state deviates from operational states, the safe reactor shutdown is achieved by automatic insertion of control rods. 2 active reactor shutdown systems are provided. • Failure of active reactor shutdown is assumed in a design extension condition . Passive shutdown capability is provided by SASS under such condition. • As a design extension condition, core disruptive accident is assumed. In order to prevent severe mechanical energy release which might cause containment function failure, core sodium void worth is limited below 6 dollars and molten fuel discharge capability is utilized by FAIDUS. (author)

  2. Investigation of safety measures to severe accident of Fast Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    So as to plan the accident management to severe accident of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR), it is primary important to understand the progression of severe accident (SA) precisely. In this study, it has been aimed to reveal two items that work as keys in the evaluation of SA in sodium cooled FBR. One is the cool-ability of degraded core on the core support plate by sodium natural circulation in the post accident heat removal (PAHR) phase. An obstacle that hinders the smooth heat transfer from fuel debris to coolant is the formation of sodium-uranate by chemical reaction between sodium and fuel. Following the measurement of physical values of sodium-uranate in FY 2011, experiments has been performed to reveal the conditions for sodium-uranate formation on fuel debris in sodium pool simulating the actual situation of the degraded core. The cool-ability of the debris bed was analyzed using the Lipinski 1-D model. Another research performed in this study is the measurement of fission product (cesium and antimony) evaporation rates from FBR fuel as a function of temperature, because presently the fission product evaporation rates data for LWR is also temporarily used for FBR SA analysis. The measurement was performed using the irradiated fuels in the Test Reactor JOYO. (author)

  3. The bottom-supported fast reactor - system simplifications and enhanced safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrozelli, J.; Golan, S.; Kawamura, Yutaka; Kumaoka, Yoshio; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    The 600-MW(electric) bottom-supported fast reactor (BSFR) incorporates the following key features: (1) modular upper internal structure (UIS); (2) electromagnetic pumps (EMPs); (3) low-sodium-void-worth metal-fuel core; and (4) bottom supported reactor vessel (BSRV), which is entirely supported by the basement, except for the control rods, control rod drives (CRDs), UIS, and the stationary plug; by comparison, a top-supported reactor vessel (TSRV) is completely supported by the operating floor. The diameter of the reactor vessel (RV) is 12.8 m (42 ft), and the height (distance from the basemat to the operating floor) is 19.8 m (65 ft). The RV is supported by a single support cylinder anchored to the basemat. The core has 210 driver assemblies and 192 radial blanket assemblies in an annular configuration. The primary heat transport system components consist of four intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs), four EMPs, and four primary reactor auxillary cooling systems. All these components are supported by the BSRV and hang from their tops. Six modular, vertically movable UIS mechanisms clear the UIS from the space over the core during refueling. The top closure is designed to operate at the reactor outlet temperature and is free to expand and contract. Small bellows between the top closure and each UIS model accommodate differential movements and comprise a portion of the cover gas boundary. A 1200-MW(electric) plant with two 600-MW(electric) (twin) nuclear steam supply systems is being studied

  4. Innovating analytical spectroscopies for the improvement of liquid sodium cooled fast neutron reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the project of sodium fast reactor ASTRID, CEA is currently developing new analytical techniques to monitor the chemical purity of liquid sodium. Indeed, incidental situations occurring in the reactor, such as fuel clad failures, leakages in the steam generator or in the coolant pumps, and accelerated corrosion, might release several elements in the sodium. Analytical techniques based on laser ablation and emission spectroscopy are well suited for this application. They do not require any sample preparation, and can perform direct on-line analysis. Amongst them, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Ablation coupled to Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LA-LIF) have been selected for this study. The objective of this work was to characterize the sensitivity of those two techniques for the detection of impurities in liquid sodium. Their limits of detection were calculated for model analytes using calibration lines. Then results were theoretically extrapolated to other analytes of interest. This study shows the feasibility of the detection of steel corrosion products in liquid sodium. However, the LIBS technique is more robust and easier to implement, and would therefore be more suited to nuclear conditions. (author) [fr

  5. Structure and experimental program for SNEAK 12 - an assembly for fast breeder safety experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, F.

    1979-01-01

    The critical assembly SNEAK 12 and its foreseen experimental program have the main purpose to check the validity of neutron physics calculational methods used in the analysis of accidental situations of fast breeder reactors. In the investigation of accidental courses configurations have to be considered, which are caused by assembly deformation and meltdown and which are characterized by irregular fuel and structural material arrangements with cavities and empty channels. The reactivity differences between the unperturbed core and a series of perturbed configurations have to be determined. The individual configurations have to be chosen in such a way, that the calculational methods for the different aspects of the accident sequence (formation of cavities and channels, relocation of fissile and fertile material and steel) can be tested one by one. Two different cores are foreseen: SNEAK 12A as a one-zone core with enriched uranium fuel and SNEAK 12B with a central test zone with plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel surrounded by a driver zone of enriched uranium. The report describes these cores and their assemblies, and the experimental program is outlined

  6. Personnel monitoring in geologic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, I.N.; Seredin, Yu.V.

    1981-01-01

    State of radiation safety for the personnel of geologic crews carrying out neutron logging of wells using Po-Be sources has been evaluated. Given are results of development of methods for the evaluation of individual radiation loads for personnel when working with Po-Be neutron sources useful for the application in practice by a geologic logging crew as well as a quantitative evaluation of profissional radiation loads during this kind of work. The following methods are recommended for personnel monitoring: 1) calculation of whole-body irradiation doses and hands from averaged values of radiation dose rate; 2) calculational tabulated determination of irradiation doses during recharging of shanks of well instruments. Personnel monitoring by means of instrumental methods is not necessary in the considered case [ru

  7. Safety performance comparation of MOX, nitride and metallic fuel based 25-100 MWe Pb-Bi cooled long life fast reactors without on-site refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su'ud, Zaki

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the safety performance of 25-100 MWe Pb-Bi cooled long life fast reactors based on three types of fuels: MOX, nitride and metal is compared and discussed. In the fourth generation NPP paradigm, especially for Pb-Bi cooled fast reactors, inherent safety capability is necessary against some standard accidents such as unprotected loss of flow (ULOF), unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP), unprotected loss of heat sink (ULOHS). Selection of fuel type will have important impact on the overall system safety performance. The results of safety analysis of long life Pb-Bi cooled fast reactors without on-site fuelling using nitride, MOX and metal fuel have been performed. The reactors show the inherent safety pattern with enough safety margins during ULOF and UTOP accidents. For MOX fuelled reactors, ULOF accident is more severe than UTOP accident while for nitride fuelled cores UTOP accident may push power much higher than that comparable MOX fuelled cores. (author)

  8. [Nutrition value of wild-growing fruits from mountain Dagestan and its safety after fast freezing and cold storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseynova, B M

    2016-01-01

    Results of research of mineral composition, content of vitamin C and P, titrable acids, pectinaceous and phenol substances in fresh, fast-frozen (t=-30 °C), and also stored within 3 and 9 months (t=-18 °C) fruits of wild-growing blackberry, cornel, medlar and sea-buckthorn are presented in article. Determination of mineral composition was carried out by flame atomic absorption photometry, vitamin C and pectinaceous substances -by titirimetric methods, phenolic substances and vitamin P - by colorimetric methods. Vitamin C content was minimal in fresh fruits of cornel (6.9±0.3 mg%), amounted to 21.7-32.0 mg% in the fruits of blackberries and medlar and reached 180.1±7.2 mg% in the fruit of sea-buckthorn. Vitamin P concentration ranged from 34.9 (sea-buckthorn) to 180.0 mg% (cornel). Berries of a cornel contained also the greatest number of titrable acids (33.2±1.3 g/dm3), phenolic compounds (243.0±4.8 mg%) and pectinaceous substances (2.91±0.08%). The most significant content of potassium (521±15.6 mg%), calcium (133.2±5.2 mg%), magnesium (62.4±2.5 mg%) and iron (2.81±0.05 mg%) was revealed in medlar fruits. Consumption of 100 g of the studied fruits provides daily requirements of a human body, depending on a species of wild plants: in calcium -for 2-13.3%, potassium - for 7.0-20.8%, magnesium - for 8.1-15.6%, iron - for 5.9-19.2% and in vitamin C - from 5.8-24.6 to 145.7% in the case of sea buckthorn. The applied processing method of conservation - fast freezing (t=-30 °С) of fruits and their long storage (t=-18 °С) is the effective way ensuring high safety of nutrients in them. In the studied berries after 9-months cold storage the safety of vitamin C varied ranging from 55.7 (blackberry) to 76.1% (cornel), and vitamin P - from 81.9 (sea-buckthorn) to 92.8% (cornel). Stability of titrable acids, except for medlar fruits, varied from 84.2% (blackberry) to 94.0% (sea-buckthorn). The safety of phenolic and pectinaceous compounds by the end of 9 months

  9. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators

  10. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  11. A neutronics study for improving the safety and performance parameters of a 3600 MWth Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kaichao; Krepel, Jiri; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Chawla, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The potential for neutronics design optimization is assessed for a large SFR core. ► Both beginning-of-life and equilibrium fuel cycle conditions are considered. ► The sodium void effect is decomposed via a neutron balance based methodology. ► The optimized core options adopt an appropriate sodium plenum design to reduce the void effect. ► The introduction of moderator pins is considered for enhancing the Doppler effect. - Abstract: The Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of the most promising Generation IV systems with many performance advantages, but has one dominating neutronics drawback – a positive sodium void reactivity. The starting point for the present study is an SFR core design considered in the Collaborative Project on the European Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR). The aim is to analyze, for this reference core, four safety and performance parameters from the viewpoint of four different optimization options, and to propose possible optimized core designs. In doing so, the study focuses not only on the beginning-of-life state of the core, but also on the beginning of equilibrium closed fuel cycle. The four studied optimization options are: (a) introducing an upper sodium plenum and boron layer, (b) varying the core height-to-diameter (H/D) ratio, (c) introducing moderator pins into the fuel assembly, and (d) modifying the initial plutonium content. The sensitivity of the void reactivity, Doppler constant, nominal reactivity and breeding gain has been evaluated. In particular, the void reactivity, which is the most crucial safety parameter for the SFR, has been decomposed into its reaction-wise, isotope-wise and energy-group-wise components using a methodology based on the neutron balance equation. Extended voiding in the upper sodium plenum region – in conjunction with the effect of a boron layer introduced above the plenum – is found to be particularly effective in the void effect reduction while, at the same time

  12. Burnup effects on criticality, breeding and safety of 1,000 MWe gas-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Fumio

    1977-12-01

    Burnup characteristics of 1,000 MWe, PuO 2 - UO 2 fuelled helium-cooled fast breeder reactor have been studied concerning criticality, breeding and safety. A 26-energy group cross-section set produced from ENDF/B-3 was used. Criticality and breeding were studied with two-dimensional burnup code APOLLO and 4-energy group cross-section set generated by collapsing the mentioned cross-section set. Safety aspects such as Doppler reactivity effect, coolant-depressurisation and steam-ingression reactivity effect were studied with multi-dimensional diffusion theory code CITATION and perturbation theory code PERKY, as well as the 26-energy group cross-section set. The following were revealed: (1) The reactivity swing over a year's irradiation is merely 1.5% ΔK/K. This small swing may permit relatively long fuel dwelling in GCFR and , thus, the frequency of outages for refuelling can be minimised. (2) The surplus fissile plutonium over a year's irradiation is about 360 Kg, and the system doubling time is about 9 years. The GCFR studied has excellent breeding, compared with those in PuO 2 -UO 2 fuelled LMFBR and other GCFRs. (3) The coolant-depressurisation reactivity effect becomes more positive with burnup. This is not so serious as the sodium-void reactivity effect of LMFBR. (4) In the start-up core, the steam-ingression reactivity effect due to steam ingression to the core and blanket from the secondary coolant system becomes positive at certain steam density (0.02gr/cc) and this positive effect increases with steam density. With advance of burnup, however, the effect becomes negative, this increasing with steam density. After all, the steam ingression is no hazard in operation of GCFR since the reactivity effect is negative in the equilibrium state. (auth.)

  13. Safety and efficacy of fast-track surgery in perioperative nursing for biliary calculi surgery: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qinan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo systematically review the efficacy and safety of fast-track surgery (FTS in perioperative nursing for biliary calculi surgery. MethodsOnline databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data were comprehensively searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Potential bias was evaluated by Cochrane tools and data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. ResultsA total of 11 RCTs with 1455 patients were included (738 cases in FTS group and 717 cases in control group. The results of meta-analysis showed that FTS significantly reduced the length of postoperative hospital stay (MD=-4.10, 95% CI: -5.68 to -2.52, P<0.000 01 and hospital costs (MD=-0.47, 95%CI: -0.60 to -0.34, P<0.000 01; meanwhile, FTS shortened the time to gastrointestinal recovery (SMD=-2.05, 95%CI: -2.84 to -1.27, P<0.000 01, as well as the time to first defecation (SMD=-1.27, 95% CI: -2.08 to -0.46, P<0.000 01. As for safety, FTS significantly reduced the total complications of choledocholithiasis (RR=0.53, 95%CI: 0.43-0.65, P<0.000 01 and hepatolithiasis (RR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.35-0.77, P=0.001. ConclusionFTS is effective and safe in perioperative nursing for biliary calculi surgery. It can significantly reduce the length of postoperative hospital stay, enhance gastrointestinal recovery, shorten the time to first defecation, and reduce total complications.

  14. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  15. Educating personnel for nuclear technology in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otcenasek, P.

    1980-01-01

    The basic preconditions are discussed of educating personnel for nuclear power and nuclear technology in Czechoslovakia. In educating specialists, the high societal significance of nuclear power and the need to obtain qualified personnel for safeguarding safety and reliability of nuclear facilities operation should primarily be borne in mind. The system of training applies not only to operating and maintenance personnel of nuclear power plants but also to fuel and power generation, transport, engineering, building industry, health care, education and other personnel. (J.B.)

  16. The implication of sensitivity analysis on the safety and delayed-neutron parameters for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onega, R.J.; Florian, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The delayed-neutron energy spectra for LMFBRs are not as well known as those for LWRs. These spectra are necessary for kinetics calculations which play an important role in safety and accident analyses. A sensitivity analysis was performed to study the response of the reactor power and power density to uncertainties in the delayed-neutron spectra during a rod-ejection accident. The accidents studied were central control-rod-ejections with ejection times of 2,10 and 30s. A two-energy group and two-precursor group model was formulated for the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) reference design MOX-fueled LMFBR. The sensitivity analysis is based on the use of adjoints so that it is not necessary to repeatedly solve the governing (kinetics) equations to obtain the sensitivity derivatives. This is of particular importance when large systems of equations are used. The power and power-density responses were found to be most sensitive to uncertainties in the spectrum of the second delayed-neutron precursor group, resulting from the fission of 238 U, producing neutrons in the first energy group. It was found, for example, that for a rod-ejection time of 30s, and uncertainty of 7.2% in the fast components of the spectra resulted in a 24% uncertainty in the predicted power and power density. These responses were recalculated by repeatedly solving the kinetics equations. The maximum discrepancy between the recalculated and the sensitivity analysis response was only 1.6%. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate the need for improved delayed-neutron spectral data in order to reduce the uncertainties in accident analyses. (author)

  17. Improving human performance in maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Anez, Francisco; Agueero Agueero, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The continuous evolution and improvement of safety-related processes has included the analysis, design and development of training plans for the qualification of maintenance nuclear power plant personnel. In this respect, the international references in this area recommend the establishment of systematic qualification programmes for personnel performing functions or carrying out safety related tasks. Maintenance personnel qualification processes have improved significantly, and training plans have been designed and developed based on Systematic Approach to Training methodology to each job position. These improvements have been clearly reflected in recent training programmes with new training material and training facilities focused not only on developing technical knowledge and skills but also on improving attitudes and safety culture. The objectives of maintenance training facilities such as laboratories, mock-ups real an virtual, hydraulic loops, field simulators and other training material to be used in the maintenance training centre are to cover training necessities for initial and continuous qualification. Evidently, all these improvements made in the qualification of plant personnel should be extended to include supplemental personnel (external or contracted) performing safety-related tasks. The supplemental personnel constitute a very spread group, covering the performance of multiple activities entailing different levels of responsibility. Some of these activities are performed permanently at the plant, while others are occasional or sporadic. In order to establish qualification requirements for these supplemental workers, it is recommended to establish a rigorous analysis of job positions and tasks. The objective will be to identify the qualification requirements to assure competence and safety. (authors)

  18. Scientific and technical conference Thermophysical experimental and calculating and theoretical studies to justify characteristics and safety of fast reactors. Thermophysics-2012. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyakin, S.G.; Kukharchuk, O.F.; Sorokin, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The collection includes abstracts of reports of scientific and technical conference Thermophysics-2012 which has taken place on October 24-26, 2012 in Obninsk. In abstracts the following questions are considered: experimental and calculating and theoretical studies of thermal hydraulics of liquid-metal cooled fast reactors to justify their characteristics and safety; physico-chemical processes in the systems with liquid-metal coolants (LMC); physico-chemical characteristics and thermophysical properties of LMC; development of models, computational methods and calculational codes for simulating processes of of hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer, including impurities mass transfer in the systems with LMC; methods and means for control of composition and condition of LMC in fast reactor circuits on impurities and purification from them; apparatuses, equipment and technological processes at the work with LMC taking into account the ecology, including fast reactors decommissioning; measuring techniques, sensors and devices for experimental studies of heat and mass transfer in the systems with LMC [ru

  19. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel facilities...

  20. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  1. Status of the design and safety project for the sodium-cooled fast reactor as a generation IV nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hajime; Fiorini, Gian-Luigi; Sim, Yoon-Sub; Lennox, Tom; Cahalan, James E.

    2005-01-01

    The Design and Safety Project Management Board (DSPMB) was established under the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) System Steering Committee (SSC) in the Generation IV international Forum. The DSPMB will promote collaborative R and D activities on reactor core design, and safety assessment for candidate systems, and also integrate these results together with those from other PMBs such as advanced fuel and component to a whole fast reactor system in order to develop high performance systems that will satisfy the goals of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The DSPMB has formulated the present R and D schedules for this purpose. Two SFR concepts were proposed: a loop-type system with primarily a MOX fuel core and a pool-type system with a metal fuel core. Study of innovative systems and their evaluation will also be included. The safety project will cover both the safety assessment of the design and the preparation of the methods/tools to be used for the assessment. After a rather short viability phase, the project will move to the performance phase for development of performance data and design optimization of conceptual designs. This paper describes the schedules, work packages and tasks for the collaborative studies of the member countries. (author)

  2. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments

  3. Personnel Monitoring Department - DEMIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The activities and purposes of the Personnel Monitoring Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry of the Brazilian CNEN are presented. A summary of the personnel monitoring service is given, such as dosemeters supply, laboratorial inspections, and so on. The programs of working, publishing, courses and personnel interchange are also presented. (J.A.M.M.)

  4. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  5. Personnel preferences in personnel planning and scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    van der Veen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Summary The personnel of an organization often has two conflicting goals. Individual employees like to have a good work-life balance, by having personal preferences taken into account, whereas there is also the common goal to work efficiently. By applying techniques and methods from Operations Research, a subfield of applied mathematics, we show that operational efficiency can be achieved while taking personnel preferences into account. In the design of optimization methods, we explicitly con...

  6. JSFR design progress related to development of safety design criteria for generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors. (3) Progress of component design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enuma, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Orita, Junichi; Eto, Masao; Miyagawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    In the frame work of generation IV international forum (GIF), safety design criteria (SDC) and safety design guideline (SDG) for the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors have been developing in the circumstance of worldwide deployment of SFRs. JAEA, JAPC, MFBR have been investigating design study for JSFR to satisfy SDC in the feasibility study of SDG for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). In addition to the safety measures, maintainability, reparability and manufacturability are taken into account in the JSFR design study. This paper describes the design of main components. Enlargement of the access route for the inspection devices and addition of the access routes were carried out for the reactor structure. The pump-integrated IHX (pump/IHX) was modified for the primary heat exchanger (PHX), which was installed for the decay heat removal in the IHX at the upper plenum, to be removable for improved repair and maintenance. For the steam generator (SG), protective wall tube type design is under investigation as an option with less R and D risks. (author)

  7. Air system in the hot cell for injectable radiopharmaceutical production: requirements for personnel and environment safety and protection of the product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Fabio E.; Araujo, Elaine B., E-mail: fecampos@ipen.b, E-mail: ebaraujo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are applied in Nuclear Medicine in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and must be manufactured in accordance with the basic principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for sterile pharmaceutical products. In order to prevent the uncontrolled spread of radioactive contamination, the processing of radioactive materials requires an exhausted and shielded special enclosure called hot cell. The quality of air inside the hot cell must be controlled in order to prevent the contamination of the product with particulate material or microorganisms. On the other hand, the hot cell must prevent external contamination with radioactive material. The aim of this work is to discuss the special requirements for hot cells taking in account the national rules for injectable pharmaceutical products and international standards available. Ventilation of radiopharmaceutical production facilities should meet the requirement to prevent the contamination of products and the exposure of working personnel to radioactivity. Positive pressure areas should be used to process sterile products. In general, any radioactivity should handle within specifically designed areas maintained under negative pressures. The production of sterile radioactive products should therefore be carried out under negative pressure surrounded by a positive pressure zone ensuring that appropriate air quality requirements are met. Some of the recent developments in the use of radioisotopes in medical field have also significantly impacted on the evolution of handling facilities. Application of pharmaceutical GMP requirements for air quality and processing conditions in the handling facilities of radioactive pharmaceuticals has led to significant improvements in the construction of isolator-like hot cells and clean rooms with HEPA filtered ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Clean grade A (class 100) air quality hot cells are now available commercially, but in a high cost

  8. Air system in the hot cell for injectable radiopharmaceutical production: requirements for personnel and environment safety and protection of the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Fabio E.; Araujo, Elaine B.

    2009-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are applied in Nuclear Medicine in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and must be manufactured in accordance with the basic principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for sterile pharmaceutical products. In order to prevent the uncontrolled spread of radioactive contamination, the processing of radioactive materials requires an exhausted and shielded special enclosure called hot cell. The quality of air inside the hot cell must be controlled in order to prevent the contamination of the product with particulate material or microorganisms. On the other hand, the hot cell must prevent external contamination with radioactive material. The aim of this work is to discuss the special requirements for hot cells taking in account the national rules for injectable pharmaceutical products and international standards available. Ventilation of radiopharmaceutical production facilities should meet the requirement to prevent the contamination of products and the exposure of working personnel to radioactivity. Positive pressure areas should be used to process sterile products. In general, any radioactivity should handle within specifically designed areas maintained under negative pressures. The production of sterile radioactive products should therefore be carried out under negative pressure surrounded by a positive pressure zone ensuring that appropriate air quality requirements are met. Some of the recent developments in the use of radioisotopes in medical field have also significantly impacted on the evolution of handling facilities. Application of pharmaceutical GMP requirements for air quality and processing conditions in the handling facilities of radioactive pharmaceuticals has led to significant improvements in the construction of isolator-like hot cells and clean rooms with HEPA filtered ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Clean grade A (class 100) air quality hot cells are now available commercially, but in a high cost

  9. Report of investigation into allegations of retaliation for raising safety and quality of work issues regarding Argonne National Laboratory's Integral Fast Reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    In August 1990 James A. Smith resigned his position as an experimenter at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), located near Idaho Falls, Idaho. Smith who holds a Ph.D. in metallurgy, had worked at the Laboratory since 1988, primarily on its Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) project. He alleged that the quality of the Laboratory's work on that project had been undermined by fundamental errors in metallurgy and related sciences, at least some of which had nuclear safety implications; that the Laboratory had published false and misleading accounts of its work; that prevailing attitudes at the Laboratory were antithetical to quality scientific work; and that because he had expressed concerns about these matters his job was threatened by his managers. Evidence gathered during an investigation by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Safety (NS) is presented and conclusions and recommendations are provided

  10. Progress of thermal hydraulic evaluation methods and experimental studies on a sodium-cooled fast reactor and its safety in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamide, Hideki, E-mail: kamide.hideki@jaea.go.jp; Ohshima, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ohshima.hiroyuki@jaea.go.jp; Sakai, Takaaki, E-mail: sakai.takaaki@jaea.go.jp; Tanaka, Masaaki, E-mail: tanaka.masaaki@jaea.go.jp

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Thermal hydraulic issues for safety design criteria of sodium cooled fast reactors. • Measurement of velocity data in a subchannel surrounded by wire wrapped fuel-pins. • Statistical evaluation of core hot spot temperature during natural circulation. • Simulation of dynamics of molten fuel pool in a core disruptive accident. • V&V procedure of a multi-dimensional thermal hydraulic code on thermal striping. - Abstract: In the framework of the Generation-IV International Forum, the safety design criteria (SDC) incorporating safety-related R&D results on innovative technologies and lessons learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants accident has been established to provide the set of general criteria for the safety designs of structures, systems and components of Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (Gen-IV SFRs). A number of thermal-hydraulic evaluations are necessary to meet the concept of the criteria in the design studies of Gen-IV SFRs. This paper focuses on four kinds of thermal-hydraulic issues associated with the SDC, i.e., fuel subassembly thermal-hydraulics, natural circulation decay heat removal, core disruptive accidents, and thermal striping. Progress of evaluation methods on these issues is shown with activities on verification and validation (V&V) and experimental studies towards commercialization of SFR in Japan. These evaluation methods are planned to be eventually integrated into a comprehensive numerical simulation system that can be applied to all possible phenomena in SFR systems and that can be expected to become an effective tool for the development of human resource and the handing our knowledge and technologies down.

  11. Enhancing operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, J S

    1997-09-01

    The presentation briefly considers the following aspects concerning enhancing operational safety of NPP: licensed control room supervision, reactivity changes, personnel access to control room, simulator training.

  12. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  13. The fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: brief description of fast reactors; advantage in conserving uranium resources; experience, in UK and elsewhere, in fast reactor design, construction and operation; safety; production of plutonium, security aspects; consideration of future UK fast reactor programme. (U.K.)

  14. Safety analyses for sodium-cooled fast reactors with pelletized and sphere-pac oxide fuels within the FP-7 European project PELGRIMM - 15386

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.; Andriolo, L.; Matzerath-Boccaccini, C.; Delage, F.; Parisi, C.; Del Nevo, A.; Abbate, G.; Schmitt, D.

    2015-01-01

    The European FP-7 project PELGRIMM addresses the development of Minor-Actinide (MA) bearing oxide fuel for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors. Optionally, both MA homogeneous recycling and heterogeneous recycling is investigated with pellet and sphere-pac fuel. A first safety assessment of sphere-pac fuelled cores should be given in the Work Package 4 of the project. This assessment is in continuity with the former FP-7 CP-ESFR project. Within the CP-ESFR project the CONF2 core design has been developed characterized by a core with a large upper sodium plenum to reduce the coolant void worth. This optimized core has been chosen for the safety analyses in PELGRIMM. The task within the PELGRIMM project is thus a safety assessment of the CONF2 core loaded either with pellets or with sphere-pac fuel. The investigations started with the design of the CONF2 core with sphere-pac fuel and the determination of core safety parameters and burn-up behavior. The neutronic analyses have been performed with the MCNPX code. Variants of the CONF2 core contain up to 4% Am in the fuel. The results revealed an extended void worth (core + upper plenum) for an Am free core of 1 up to 3 dollars for the 4% Am core. Thermal-hydraulic design analyses have been performed by RELAP5-3D. The accident simulations should be performed by different codes, some of which focus on the initiation phase of the accident, as SAS4A, BELLA and the MAT5DYN code, whereas the SIMMER-III code will also deal with the later accident phases and a potential whole core melting. The codes had to be adapted to the specifics of the sphere-pac fuel, in particular to the thermal conductivity and gap conditions. Analyses showed that the safety assessment has to take into account two main phases. Starting up the core, the green fuel shows a reduced fuel thermal conductivity. After restructuring within a couple of hours, the thermal conductivity recovers and the fuel temperature decreases. The main objective of the safety analyses

  15. Safety considerations in design of fast spectrum ads for transuranic or minor actinide burning: a status report on activities of the OECD/Nea expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Development Committee of the OECD/NEA convened an expert group for a 'Comparative Study of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and Fast Reactors (FR) in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles'. The expert group has studied complexes (i.e. energy parks) of fission-based energy production and associated waste management facilities comprised of thermal and fast reactors, and ADS. With a goal to minimise transuranic (TRU) flows to the repository per unit of useful energy provided by the complex, the expert group has studied homogenous and heterogeneous recycle of TRU and minor actinides (MA) in the facilities of the complex using aqueous or dry recycle in single and double strata architectures. In the complexes considered by the expert group the ADS is always assigned a TRU or MA (and sometimes a LLFP) incineration mission - with useful energy production only as a secondary ADS goal to partially offset the cost of its construction and operation. Ancillary issues have also been considered - including ADS safety challenges and strategies for resolving them. This paper reports on the status of the expert group's considerations of ADS safety strategy. (author)

  16. Personnel preferences in personnel planning and scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Summary The personnel of an organization often has two conflicting goals. Individual employees like to have a good work-life balance, by having personal preferences taken into account, whereas there is also the common goal to work efficiently. By applying techniques and methods from Operations

  17. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...

  18. Safety and interlock system for Tristan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Kudo, K.; Katoh, T.; Akiyama, A.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes alarm and interlock system of TRISTAN, concentrating on personnel safety. The basis of TRISTAN machine-control system (TMS) is an N-to-N computer network and KEK NODAL which offers high software productivity. TMC achieves high flexibility of operation both for normal operation and for the fast commissioning. However, to assure the safety of personnel and the TRISTAN machine operation, the safety system has to continue functioning during TMC failure as well. A distributed safety and interlock system (DSIS) is used for diversification of risks in TRISTAN system. DSIS is functionally subdivided along local system lines and has a hierarchical structure of 12 programmable sequence controllers (PSCs). Optical fiber links connect the PSCs at subsystem level and a PSC at the supervisory level of TRISTAN central control room (TCCR). The subsystem PSCs provide the interlock functions between their local devices. The local PSCs interact with the central system through a limited number of summarized signals. The central PSC provides the interlock functions between the subsystems and interacts with an operator's panel. Personnel safety is based on a system of electrical interlock keys, emergency push-buttons around the tunnel, at the entrance gates or in the control room

  19. Analysis of Accident Scenarios for the Development of Probabilistic Safety Assessment Model for the Metallic Fuel Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Park, S. Y.; Yang, J. E.; Kwon, Y. M.; Jeong, H. Y.; Suk, S. D.; Lee, Y. B.

    2009-03-01

    The safety analysis reports which were reported during the development of sodium cooled fast reactors in the foreign countries are reviewed for the establishment of Probabilistic Safety Analysis models for the domestic SFR which are under development. There are lots of differences in the safety characteristics between the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel SFR and metallic fuel SFR. Metallic fuel SFR is under development in Korea while MOX fuel SFR is under development in France, Japan, India and China. Therefore the status on the development of fast reactors in the foreign countries are reviewed at first and then the safety characteristics between the MOX fuel SFR and the metallic fuel SFR are reviewed. The core damage can be defined as coolant voiding, fuel melting, cladding damage. The melting points of metallic fuel and the MOX fuel is about 1000 .deg. C and 2300 .deg. C, respectively. The high energy stored in the MOX fuel have higher potential to voiding of coolant compared to the possibility in the metallic fuel. The metallic fuel has also inherent reactivity feedback characteristic that the metallic fuel SFR can be shutdown safely in the events of transient overpower, loss of flow, and loss of heat sink without scram. The metallic fuel has, however, lower melting point due to the eutectic formation between the uranium in metallic fuel and the ferrite in metallic cladding. It is needed to identify the core damage accident scenarios to develop Level-1 PSA model. SSC-K computer code is used to identify the conditions in which the core damage can occur in the KALIMER-600 SFR. The accident cases which are analyzed are the triple failure accidents such as unprotected transient over power events, loss of flow events, and loss of heat sink events with impaired safety systems or functions. Through the analysis of the triple failure accidents for the KALIMER-600 SFR, it is found that the PSA model developed for the PRISM reactor design can be applied to KALIMER-600. However

  20. SAFR: a marriage of safety and innovation in LMR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancet, R.T.; Mills, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) is a natural evolution of earlier designs, given the current economic and licensing environment. Stringent safety and economic goals have been established for the SAFR plant. This paper describes how these goals are being satisfied, with the primary emphasis being placed on safety. The top level safety goals are: (a) to provide inherently safe responses to all credible events (b) to minimize the potential for severe accidents, and (c) to eliminate the need for evacuation, (d) limited financial risk, (e) assured investment protection, (f) minimum development risk, (g) high capacity factor, (h) long plant life, and (i) low personnel radiation exposure

  1. On the safety and performance demonstration tests of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and validation and verification of computational codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jeong, Ji Young; Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Sung Kyun; Euh, Dong Jin; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2016-01-01

    The design of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) has been developed and the validation and verification (V and V) activities to demonstrate the system performance and safety are in progress. In this paper, the current status of test activities is described briefly and significant results are discussed. The large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test program, Sodium Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment-1 (STELLA-1), produced satisfactory results, which were used for the computer codes V and V, and the performance test results of the model pump in sodium showed good agreement with those in water. The second phase of the STELLA program with the integral effect tests facility, STELLA-2, is in the detailed design stage of the design process. The sodium thermal-hydraulic experiment loop for finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger performance test, the intermediate heat exchanger test facility, and the test facility for the reactor flow distribution are underway. Flow characteristics test in subchannels of a wire-wrapped rod bundle has been carried out for safety analysis in the core and the dynamic characteristic test of upper internal structure has been performed for the seismic analysis model for the PGSFR. The performance tests for control rod assemblies (CRAs) have been conducted for control rod drive mechanism driving parts and drop tests of the CRA under scram condition were performed. Finally, three types of inspection sensors under development for the safe operation of the PGSFR were explained with significant results

  2. On the safety and performance demonstration tests of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and validation and verification of computational codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jeong, Ji Young; Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Sung Kyun; Euh, Dong Jin; Joo, Hyung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The design of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) has been developed and the validation and verification (V and V) activities to demonstrate the system performance and safety are in progress. In this paper, the current status of test activities is described briefly and significant results are discussed. The large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test program, Sodium Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment-1 (STELLA-1), produced satisfactory results, which were used for the computer codes V and V, and the performance test results of the model pump in sodium showed good agreement with those in water. The second phase of the STELLA program with the integral effect tests facility, STELLA-2, is in the detailed design stage of the design process. The sodium thermal-hydraulic experiment loop for finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger performance test, the intermediate heat exchanger test facility, and the test facility for the reactor flow distribution are underway. Flow characteristics test in subchannels of a wire-wrapped rod bundle has been carried out for safety analysis in the core and the dynamic characteristic test of upper internal structure has been performed for the seismic analysis model for the PGSFR. The performance tests for control rod assemblies (CRAs) have been conducted for control rod drive mechanism driving parts and drop tests of the CRA under scram condition were performed. Finally, three types of inspection sensors under development for the safe operation of the PGSFR were explained with significant results.

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than a thousand articles on biological safety in infectious disease laboratories are listed for the use of supervisors responsible for the safety of laboratory personnel. An author index is included.

  4. Safety verdict about the 300-MW prototype nuclear power station with fast sodium cooled reactor in Kalkar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The safety verdict had been elaborated on the order of the Ministry of Economy, Middle Classes and Technology of the state North Rhine-Westphalia. It covers the behaviour of the so-called target core of the Mark-Ia core as a whole as well as its individual subassemblies, i.e. fuel, diluent, absorber, blanket and reflector subassemblies. The report considers the aspects of the neutron physics, thermal hydraulics and mechanical design together with the quality assurance, the treatment of radiological questions and the determination of the decay heat. The safety authorities come to the conclusion the sufficient provision against damages has been taken in the design of the core subassemblies

  5. On the use of a moderation layer to improve the safety behavior in sodium cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, Bruno, E-mail: b.merk@fzd.de [Institute of Safety Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Fridman, Emil; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Institute of Safety Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Using a moderation layer can reduce the sodium void effect in a SFR. > Inserting the moderation layer improves the Doppler effect significantly. > The uniform layer distribution avoids effects on power and burnup distribution. > Hydride containing material like uranium-zirconium hydride is most efficient. - Abstract: This work shows the effect of the use of moderating layers on the sodium void effect in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. The moderating layers consisting of either boron carbide B{sub 4}C or uranium-zirconium hydride UZrH cause a strong reduction of the sodium void effect. Additionally these layers improve the fuel temperature effect and the coolant effect of the system. The use of the UZrH is significantly more effective for the reduction of the sodium void effect as well as for the improvement of the fuel temperature and the coolant effect. All changes cause by the insertion of the UZrH layer cause a significantly increased stability of the fast reactor system against transients. The moderating layers have only a small influence on the breeding effect and on the production of minor actinides.

  6. Improved and verification of fast reactor safety analysis techniques. Annual summary, March 1, 1975--February 29, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.F.; Bott, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    Analyses of the Kiwi-TNT and SNAPTRAN-2 experiments have been performed with the VENUS-II fast-reactor disassembly code. The results show that VENUS-II provides an adequate characterization of these experiments. As is the case for LMFBRs, the excursions were initially turned over by temperature feedback effects, with ultimate shutdown coming from core disassembly. The calculated fission energies agree with the experimental values to within about 50 percent for the Kiwi excursion and 10 percent for the SNAPTRAN-2 experiment. The results of the analyses are being evaluated to determine the reasons for the remaining differences. It appears that part of the difference observed in the Kiwi-TNT analysis could relate to not explicitly treating the heat-transfer from the beaded fuel (a problem not present in LMFBR calculations). Both analyses also have uncertainties associated with the new equation-of-state that had to be added to VENUS-II to allow treatment of the core materials not used in fast reactors. Finally, there are uncertainties in the temperature feedback coefficients being used. In general, the uncertainties associated with applying VENUS-II to LMFBR excursions should be even smaller than those encountered in these experimental comparisons. This is because the temperature (Doppler) coefficients and core material equations-of-state are better known, and the complications associated with heat transfer from the beaded fuel are not present

  7. The LMFBR safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to review the present status of the safety case for the liquid metal cooled fast reactor (FBR). A particular emphasis is placed on activities in Europe where the FBR has been progressively developed for many years during which time systems have passed from small experimental plants to the 1200 MWe SPX-1. The FBR has been found to be an easily controlled plant with low impact on the environment and low dose rates to operational personnel. Aspects of reactor design and associated R and D that are required for FBRs to be licensed and the progress made to meet these requirements are described. Fault conditions in the credible range can be dealt with safely, the FBR having several advantageous characteristics which assist safety. Also measures are foreseen to mitigate potential consequences of more severe but improbable accidents. This study sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities was carried out by Colenco Ltd in vlose collaboration with the Safety Working Group (SWG) which is a subgroup of the CEC Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC)

  8. Overview of Experiments for Physics of Fast Reactors from the International Handbooks of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bess, J. D.; Briggs, J. B.; Gulliford, J.; Ivanova, T.; Rozhikhin, E. V.; Semenov, M. Yu.; Tsibulya, A. M.; Koscheev, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    is the critical experiments with fast reactor fuel rods in water, interesting in terms of justification of nuclear safety during transportation and storage of fresh and spent fuel. These reports provide a detailed review of the experiment, designate the area of their application and include results of calculations on modern systems of constants in comparison with the estimated experimental data.

  9. Motorcycle Training for California Driver Licensing Personnel. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Motor Vehicles, Sacramento.

    The development of a 6-hour motorcycle course of instruction for personnel responsible for motorcycle licensing is described in this project report. The primary goals are stated and include (1) training driver licensing personnel in motorcycle safety and principles of operation, and (2) purchasing and installing appropriate motorcycle skill…

  10. Training of nuclear power plant personnel in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennant, D.

    1993-01-01

    All of the utilities, Ontario Hydro, Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, operating Nuclear Power Plants in Canada have Training Centres which provide training for all of their plant personnel whose job activities could affect plant and personnel safety. This report points out the methods used for training, which generally conform to that described by the IAEA as a Systematic Approach to Training (SAT)

  11. Experimental investigations of heat transfer during sodium boiling in fuel assembly model in justification of advanced fast reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafizov, R.R.; Poplavskij, V.M.; Rachkov, V.I.; Sorokin, A.P.; Ashurko, Yu.M.; Volkov, A.V.; Ivanov, E.F.; Privezentsev, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental facility is built up and investigation of heat exchange during sodium boiling in simulated fast reactor core assembly in conditions of natural and forced circulation with sodium plenum and upper end shield model are conducted. It is shown that in the presence of sodium plenum there is possibility to provide long-term cooling of fuel assembly when heat flux density on the surface of fuel element simulator up to 140 and 170 kW/m 2 in conditions of natural and forced circulation, respectively. The obtained data is used for improving calculational model of sodium boiling process in fuel assembly and calculational code COREMELT verification. It is pointed out that heat transfer coefficients in the case of liquid metal boiling in fuel assemblies are slightly over the ones in the case of liquid metals boiling in pipes and pool boiling [ru

  12. Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) Design: Safety, Neutronics, Thermal Hydraulics, Structural Mechanics, Fuel, Core, and Plant Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C

    2010-02-22

    The idea of developing fast spectrum reactors with molten lead (or lead alloy) as a coolant is not a new one. Although initially considered in the West in the 1950s, such technology was not pursued to completion because of anticipated difficulties associated with the corrosive nature of these coolant materials. However, in the Soviet Union, such technology was actively pursued during the same time frame (1950s through the 1980s) for the specialized role of submarine propulsion. More recently, there has been a renewal of interest in the West for such technology, both for critical systems as well as for Accelerator Driven Subcritical (ADS) systems. Meanwhile, interest in the former Soviet Union, primarily Russia, has remained strong and has expanded well beyond the original limited mission of submarine propulsion. This section reviews the past and current status of LFR development.

  13. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  14. Civilian Personnel: Career Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This revision; (1) Contains changes required by the establishment of a consolidated and realigned management structure for civilian personnel, manpower, and related functions in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army...

  15. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  16. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  17. Nuclear power plant radiation: personnel safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roekmantara, Roestan

    1975-01-01

    Reactor using water as coolant, moderator, and heat transfer can produce a sufficiently great internal and external radiation caused by contamination. The process of contamination and actions that must be taken to avoid radiation workers from receiving more than the maximum permissible dose are presented. (author)

  18. [Employees in high-reliability organizations: systematic selection of personnel as a final criterion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubaid, V; Anheuser, P

    2014-05-01

    Employees represent an important safety factor in high-reliability organizations. The combination of clear organizational structures, a nonpunitive safety culture, and psychological personnel selection guarantee a high level of safety. The cockpit personnel selection process of a major German airline is presented in order to demonstrate a possible transferability into medicine and urology.

  19. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  20. Development of fast reactor containment safety analysis code, CONTAIN-LMR. (3) Improvement of sodium-concrete reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Doi, Daisuke; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    A computer code, CONTAIN-LMR, is an integrated analysis tool to predict the consequence of severe accident in a liquid metal fast reactor. Because a sodium-concrete reaction behavior is one of the most important phenomena in the accident, a Sodium-Limestone Concrete Ablation Model (SLAM) has been developed and installed into the original CONTAIN code at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the U.S. The SLAM treats chemical reaction kinetics between the sodium and the concrete compositions mechanistically using a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer (B/L) and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region, the application is limited to the reaction between sodium and limestone concrete. In order to apply SLAM to the reaction between sodium and siliceous concrete which is an ordinary structural concrete in Japan, the chemical reaction kinetics model has been improved to consider the new chemical reactions between sodium and silicon dioxide. The improved model was validated to analyze a series of sodium-concrete experiments which were conducted in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). It has been found that relatively good agreement between calculation and experimental results is obtained and the CONTAIN-LMR code has been validated with regard to the sodium-concrete reaction phenomena. (author)

  1. On the Safety and Performance Demonstration Tests of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and Validation and Verification of Computational Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Bum Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR has been developed and the validation and verification (V&V activities to demonstrate the system performance and safety are in progress. In this paper, the current status of test activities is described briefly and significant results are discussed. The large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test program, Sodium Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment-1 (STELLA-1, produced satisfactory results, which were used for the computer codes V&V, and the performance test results of the model pump in sodium showed good agreement with those in water. The second phase of the STELLA program with the integral effect tests facility, STELLA-2, is in the detailed design stage of the design process. The sodium thermal-hydraulic experiment loop for finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger performance test, the intermediate heat exchanger test facility, and the test facility for the reactor flow distribution are underway. Flow characteristics test in subchannels of a wire-wrapped rod bundle has been carried out for safety analysis in the core and the dynamic characteristic test of upper internal structure has been performed for the seismic analysis model for the PGSFR. The performance tests for control rod assemblies (CRAs have been conducted for control rod drive mechanism driving parts and drop tests of the CRA under scram condition were performed. Finally, three types of inspection sensors under development for the safe operation of the PGSFR were explained with significant results.

  2. Modeling of a confinement bypass accident with CONSEN, a fast-running code for safety analyses in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.caruso@uniroma1.it [Sapienza University of Rome – DIAEE, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Roma (Italy); Giannetti, Fabio [Sapienza University of Rome – DIAEE, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Roma (Italy); Porfiri, Maria Teresa [ENEA FUS C.R. Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The CONSEN code for thermal-hydraulic transients in fusion plants is introduced. • A magnet induced confinement bypass accident in ITER has been simulated. • A comparison with previous MELCOR results for the accident is presented. -- Abstract: The CONSEN (CONServation of ENergy) code is a fast running code to simulate thermal-hydraulic transients, specifically developed for fusion reactors. In order to demonstrate CONSEN capabilities, the paper deals with the accident analysis of the magnet induced confinement bypass for ITER design 1996. During a plasma pulse, a poloidal field magnet experiences an over-voltage condition or an electrical insulation fault that results in two intense electrical arcs. It is assumed that this event produces two one square meters ruptures, resulting in a pathway that connects the interior of the vacuum vessel to the cryostat air space room. The rupture results also in a break of a single cooling channel within the wall of the vacuum vessel and a breach of the magnet cooling line, causing the blow down of a steam/water mixture in the vacuum vessel and in the cryostat and the release of 4 K helium into the cryostat. In the meantime, all the magnet coils are discharged through the magnet protection system actuation. This postulated event creates the simultaneous failure of two radioactive confinement barrier and it envelopes all type of smaller LOCAs into the cryostat. Ice formation on the cryogenic walls is also involved. The accident has been simulated with the CONSEN code up to 32 h. The accident evolution and the phenomena involved are discussed in the paper and the results are compared with available results obtained using the MELCOR code.

  3. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  4. LANSCE personnel access control system (PACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  5. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  6. Harmonious personnel scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn van Draat, Laurens; Post, Gerhard F.; Veltman, Bart; Winkelhuijzen, Wessel

    2006-01-01

    The area of personnel scheduling is very broad. Here we focus on the ‘shift assignment problem’. Our aim is to discuss how ORTEC HARMONY handles this planning problem. In particular we go into the structure of the optimization engine in ORTEC HARMONY, which uses techniques from genetic algorithms,

  7. Nuclear Test Personnel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOIA Electronic Reading Room Privacy Impact Assessment DTRA No Fear Act Reporting Nuclear Test Personnel Review NTPR Fact Sheets NTPR Radiation Dose Assessment Documents US Atmospheric Nuclear Test History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak

  8. A review of fast reactor progress in Japan, March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomabechi, K

    1979-07-01

    The fast reactor development project in Japan will be continued in the next fiscal year, from April 1979 through March 1980, at a similar scale of effort both in budget and personnel, to those of the fiscal year of 1978. The total budget for LMFBR development for the next fiscal year is approximately 24 billion Yen, excluding wages of the personnel of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, PNC. The number of the technical people currently engaging in the fast reactor development in the PNC is approximately 500, excluding those working for plutonium fuel fabrication. Concerning the experimental fast reactor JOYO, approval for power increase from presently approved 50 MWt to 75 MWt with the present core and also to 100 MWt with a modified core in the future was granted by the regulatory authority in September 1978. Two operational cycles at 50 MWt have been completed very recently and preparation for power increase to 75 MWt is being made. With respect to the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, progress toward construction is being made and an environmental impact statement of MONJU filed last autumn is being reviewed by the concerned authorities. By the new atomic energy law recently made effective in Japan, the tasks of the former Japan Atomic Energy Commission were split into two and the Atomic Energy Safety Commission was newly established on 4th October 1978 in order to deal with nuclear safety problems in the country. All other problems are treated by the Atomic Energy Commission, as before. Highlights and topics of the fast reactor development activities in the past twelve months are summarized in this paper.

  9. Safe Management Of Fast Reactors: Towards Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, Andrejs

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary systemic approach to socio-technical optimization of nuclear energy management is proposed, by recognizing a) the rising requirements to nuclear safety being realized using fast reactors (FR), b) the actuality to maintain and educate qualified workforce for fast reactors, c) the reactor safety and public awareness as the keystones for improving attitude to implement novel reactors. Knowledge management and informational support firstly is needed in: 1) technical issues: a) nuclear energy safety and reliability, b) to develop safe and economic technologies; 2) societal issues: a) general nuclear awareness, b) personnel education and training, c) reliable staff renascence, public education, stakeholder involvement, e).risk management. The key methodology - the principles being capable to manage knowledge and information issues: 1) a self-organization concept, 2) the principle of the requisite variety. As a primary source of growth of internal variety is considered information and knowledge. Following questions are analyzed indicating the ways of further development: a) threats in peaceful use of nuclear energy, b) basic features of nuclear risks, including terrorism, c) human resource development: basic tasks and instruments, d) safety improvements in technologies, e) advanced research and nuclear awareness improvement There is shown: public education, social learning and the use of mass media are efficient mechanisms forming a knowledge-creating community thereby reasoning to facilitate solution of key socio-technical nuclear issues: a) public acceptance of novel nuclear objects, b) promotion of adequate risk perception, and c) elevation of nuclear safety level and adequate risk management resulting in energetic and ecological sustainability. (author)

  10. Development of a lumped parametric model for scoping investigations of uncertainties in fast reactor probabilistic safety analysis. Progress report, October 10, 1974--October 10, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Luck, L.B.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the researh reported is to explore the possibility of the development of a novel reactor safety analysis methodology suitable for a parametric investigation of uncertainties in the progression of severe fast reactor accidents. The essential feature of this approach is a description of the reactor state by means of volumetric distributions (the distribution of volume of reactor materials, such as coolant, clad, and fuel, with temperature and in the case of fuel material, also with power). Stationary volumetric distributions are computed from detailed spatial temperature and power distributions of materials in the steady state reactor. Stationary volumetric distributions and other reactor physics quantities form the input for the reactor transient calculations in which the accident progression is described by the behavior of transient volumetric distributions. The report discusses the representation of spatial temperature distributions, the theory and calculation of stationary volumetric distributions, and includes examples of single subassembly and reactor distributions. The status of reactor neutronic code development and application is discussed and results are displayed

  11. Design and safety aspect of lead and lead-bismuth cooled long-life small safe fast reactors for various core configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, S.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Design and safety aspects of long-life small safe fast reactors using liquid lead or lead-bismuth coolant with metallic or nitride fuel are discussed. Neutronic analyses are performed to investigate the effect of core height to diameter ratio (H/D) on design performance of the proposed reactors. All reactors are subjected to the constraint of 12 years operation without refueling and shuffling with constant 150 MWt reactor power and also to the requirement of maximum excess reactivity during burnup to be less than 0.1%Δk. The results show that the pancake design with H/D of ∼2/3 gives the most negative coolant void coefficient under the requirements for excess reactivity. Modified designs with the central region axially fulfilled with fertile material are proposed to improve the coolant void coefficient. Thermal-hydraulic analysis results show the possibility to operate the reactors up to the end of life without changing their orifice pattern, necessary pumping power for the proposed design smaller than the conventional large sodium cooled FBR, and the natural circulation contribution of 25-40% at the normal operating condition. The reactivity feedback coefficients are also estimated and appeared to be negative for all the components including the coolant density coefficient. (author)

  12. Development and application of an advanced fuel model for the safety analysis of the generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkevich, P.

    2008-09-01

    Until about the year 2030, current-day nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be replaced by so-called Gen-III or Gen-III+ units, which are mainly based on light water reactor technology. The principal new features are increased safety and improved economical effectiveness. However, these systems use the same fuel forms and are based on the same fuel cycle. Beyond 2030, the interest is likely to shift towards fourth generation NPPs, which offer the possibility of complete fuel cycle closure. Generation-IV reactor concepts include both thermal and fast systems, and involve a wide range of fuel forms and compositions. The present research has been focused on the development of a thermo-mechanical model for the innovative fuel design of the Generation-IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). The principal distinctive feature of the fuel is that the fuel pellets are arranged within plates which enclose an inner honeycomb structure. Apart from the geometry, the usage of new materials is foreseen. Thus, the fuel pellets are of mixed uranium-plutonium carbide, and the cladding is bulk or fiber-reinforced SiC. The setting up of an appropriate materials database was thus the very first task which had to be carried out in the current work. The main purpose of the currently developed model is to provide reliable data, in the context of transient analysis, for the calculation of the principal neutronic feedbacks in the GFR core, viz. the fuel temperature for the Doppler effect and the fuel plate deformation for the axial core expansion effect. None of the available fuel modeling codes is suitable for a realistic simulation of the GFR fuel, as the inner honeycomb structure cannot be explicitly taken into account. The development work has been carried out largely in the context of PSI’s generic code system for fast reactor safety analysis, FAST. Thereby, it has mainly involved extension of the thermo-mechanical code FRED, developed originally for the modeling of traditional rodded fuel

  13. Method of Competence System Estimation for the Ukrainian NPP Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushchyna, Maryna

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • During the research the scale allowing assessing the influence of personnel competences and infrastructure on the enterprise safety culture level was developed. • The scale was approved on the statistical data characterizing industrial traumatism on the enterprises of atomic power and atomic industrial complex. • The proposed scale allows receiving system estimation of the safety culture level

  14. Youth and Tattoos: What School Health Personnel Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelli McCormack; Perlmutter, Paula; McDermott, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The recent proliferation of tattooing has prompted increased concern for safety and awareness of hazardous conditions. Transmission of infectious diseases can occur when proper sterilization and safety procedures are not followed. Adolescents are a critical high-risk group that need the attention of school health personnel to help them become…

  15. Role and responsibilities of management in NPP personnel training and competence. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The main aim and result of this seminar was imparting knowledge to various levels of Paks NPP management on their special tasks and responsibilities to achieve personnel competence, which include: meeting relevant regulatory and other requirements; defining the qualifications for NPP personnel jobs; training using systematic approach to training to attain the required level of qualification and competence of all NPP personnel, which includes management, operations, maintenance and technical support personnel and others; recruiting and retaining qualified personnel, including career development; supporting the training of all personnel on their responsibilities for introducing, maintaining and improving safety. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Work environment and health promotion needs among personnel in the faculty of medicine, Thammasat university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2013-04-01

    Work environment and health promotion needs are important factors for quality of life of workers. Study occupational health and safety hazards and control measures as well as health status and health promotion needs among personnel in Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University. This was a cross sectional study. Questionnaires were designed to collect demographic data, health status, health promotion needs, occupational health and safety hazards, and job demand/control data. Questionnaires were sent out to 181 personnel and 145 were returned filled-out (80.1%). Among them, 42.8% had physical illness or stress, 68.3% had debt problem, 20% had some problems with coworker or work environment, 65.5% had a high workload, and 64.1% felt they did not get enough work benefits. Job demand and control factors included attention from leaders, fast-pace work, relationship among coworkers, repetitive work, hard work, high stress work, and high workload The occupational safety and health system included training to use new equipment, supervisor training, work skill training, work in sitting position for long period of time, appropriate periodic health exam, appropriate medical service, proper canteen, proper salary raise, and facilities for health promotion. In the occupational health hazards, employees were working in low temperature, bright light, and had a lack of health promotion programs. Requested programs to improve quality of life were Thai traditional massage, workplace improvement, health promotion, one-day travel, and Friday's happy and healthy program. Results from the present study can be used to improve workplace environment and health of personnel in the Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University.

  17. Strategy and tactics of the radiological protection of the Shelter personnel in connection with the coming works on stabilization and reorganization of the Shelter object into the radioactive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyuk, O.F.; Danilov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The research aim is to analyze the Shelter personnel work conditions and to estimate how these conditions specify radiological defence. It is shown that the synergetic influence of radiofactor Shelter object microclimate is very dangerous because of its ability to deteriorate significantly the personnel health up to acute stress reaction. In these cases there appear the episodes of the short disorders of orientation in the surrounding situation, paroxysmal consciousness disturbances which may become the nondirect reason of the overirradiation and growth of work traumatic injury. That is why the methods of the stress-reaction prophylaxis and improvement of the individual defence become extremely improvement for the shelter object personnel. It was shown that the following medicines are perspective due to their adaptogenic and radioprotective abilities, such as: α-2-recombinant interferon, antiinflammatory, steroid, antioxidant and enterosorptive preparations of biological nature [ru

  18. Fast reactors: potential for power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: basic facts about conventional and fast reactors; uranium economy; plutonium and fast reactors; cooling systems; sodium coolant; safety engineering; handling and recycling plutonium; safeguards; development of fast reactors in Britain and abroad; future progress. (U.K.)

  19. Modernization of personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferburg, M.; Rehn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Personnel training in German nuclear power plants adheres to high standards complying with government regulations. The development of PC technology allows the introduction of new training methods, e.g. computer based training (CBT), as well as their integration into existing systems. In Germany, the operators of nuclear power plants have developed their own computer based standards with a screen design, a hardware platform and an assessment standard. 25% of the theoretical training of the shift personnel is covered by CBT. The CBT-Programmes offer multimedia features: videos, photographs, sound, graphs and switching diagrams of existing systems, practice oriented simulations and 3-D animations. Interaction is the most important attribute of an efficient self-learning-programme. A typical example of such an appropriate theme is the CBT-Lesson ''Pressure Surges in Pipes and Components of Power Plants''. (author)

  20. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  1. Employment of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    If a company or institution hires personnel of a security service company to protect its premises, this kind of employment does not mean the company carries on temporary employment business. Within the purview of section 99, sub-section 1 of the BetrVG (Works Constitution Act), the security service personnel is not 'employed' in the proper sense even if the security tasks fulfilled by them are done at other times by regular employees of the company or institution. The court decision also decided that the Works Council need not give consent to employment of foreign security personnel. The court decision was taken for settlement of court proceedings commenced by Institute of Plasma Physics in Garching. In his comments, W. Hunold accedes to the court's decision and discusses the underlying reasons of this decision and of a previous ruling in the same matter by putting emphasis on the difference between a contract for services and a contract for work, and a contract for temporary employment. The author also discusses the basic features of an employment contract. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  3. Towards harmonized qualifications for radiation exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso, Hugo A.

    2008-01-01

    The accelerated process of globalization affecting mankind doesn't exclude safety matters. Indeed, some trans national corporations are increasingly offering specialized engineering services such as industrial radiography or well lodging. As well, a growing scientific exchange involves the mobility of nuclear researchers in different areas, for instance radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Such a breakdown in the technological frontiers must necessarily be reflected by the regulatory solutions. Particularly, diverse levels of theoretical-practical training for radiation exposed personnel coexist in the Latin-American Region, being an especially sensitive problem for radiation protection matters. The spectrum goes from post-graduate courses required for radiation protection officers in some countries, while in others only basic recommendations are required for the operating personnel. Another scheme consists of medium level course for the operating personnel, while radiation protection officers don't have special requirements. Many educational private institutions teach non standardized courses which only give broad concepts of radiation protection. On the other hand, usually nothing is said about the operational training, or else its certification is entrusted to the employer itself. In some countries multiple Regulatory Authorities apply dissimilar criteria to assess safety matters, including the evaluation of workers applications. The necessary regional integration makes indispensable to establish common standards for granting authorizations. Having similar or homogeneous requirements for the universe of radiation exposed personnel, i.e. source operators, radiation protection officers, qualified experts and technical support people would be easier for the Regulatory Authorities to have common methodologies of evaluation for the applicants. An IAEA supported technical cooperation project related to this paper seeks to establish standardized

  4. Electronic Official Personnel Folder System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The eOPF is a digital recreation of paper personnel folder that stores electronic personnel data spanning an individual's Federal career. eOPF allows employees to...

  5. Safety training

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    Habilitation électrique A course entitled "Habilitation électrique pour personnel de laboratoire" (electrical safety qualification for laboratory personnel) will be held on 22 and 23 June. Registration by e-mail to isabelle.cusato@cern.ch. Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases A course entitled "Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases" given in French will be held on 18-19 June 2009. This course is obligatory for all FGSOs at CERN, and it is recommended for anyone handling flammable gas or solvents. To sign up please visit this page. For more information please contact Isabelle Cusato, tel. 73811.

  6. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  7. Personnel policy and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmaier, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of personnel policy and management two main points must be considered and fitted together: the aspects of the applicant and the aspects of the utility. The applicant wishes a position which suits to his abilities, education, training, experience and self-evaluation. The enterprise has beside these qualification criteria to look to some additional points: reliability - not only in the profession of the applicant but also in his daily life. In this examination licensing authorities are involved too; responsibility in a very broad sense and the ability to make correct decisions sometimes under stress situations. (orig.)

  8. Personnel hazards from medical electron accelerator photoneutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.; Jenkins, T.M.; Shore, R.A.; LaRiviere, P.D.

    1979-12-01

    For medical accelerators, neutron penetration through the room entry door is the major personnel hazard. Most therapy accelerator rooms are designed with at least a rudimentary maze to avoid the use of massive doors. Often, however, the maze may be similar to those shown in scale outline drawings of some medical electron accelerator rooms where the authors have made neutron measurements outside the doors which were of different thicknesses and compositions. The results are tabulated. It should be noted that there can be significant dose equivalents (H) at the door when a maze is inadequate, and that all three components - fast neutron, thermal neutron, and neutron capture γ rays - can be equally important

  9. Safety design criteria for the next generation Sodium-cooled fast reactors based on lessons learned from the Fukushima NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, architecture of the safety design criteria as requirements for SFR system and the activities on safety research works to establish safety evaluation methods for the next generation SFRs are summarized with the basis on lessons learned from the Fukushima NPS accident. Nuclear safety is a grovel issue which should be achieved by the international cooperation. In respect of the development for the next generation reactor, it is necessary to build the harmonized safety criteria and evaluation methods to establish the next level of safety

  10. Training of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Selected staffs (in the area of NPPs) are examined by the State Examining Committee established by Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR's) chairman. The committee consists of representatives of NRA SR , Bohunice NPPs, Mochovce NPP, Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and experts from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology of the Slovak Technical University. The review of selected personnel of NPP V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPP which passed exams in 1996 is given. NRA SR paid attention to the upgrading training process of individual categories of staff for V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPPs, simulator training and training with computerized simulation system according to the United criteria of nuclear installation personnel training that started in 1992. During the year, an inspection was performed focused on examination of technical equipment of the simulator of Mochovce NPP, professional eligibility and overall preparation of simulator training including simulator software. Throughout the year launching works continued at the simulator with the deadline of commissioning to trial use operation in the first half of 1997

  11. Quo vadis, personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1975-01-01

    With the increasing use of nuclear power and radiation sources, the selection of optimum systems for personnel monitoring is becoming a matter of worldwide concern. The present status of personnel dosimetry, sometimes characterized by unstable and inaccurate detectors and oversimplified interpretation of the results, leaves much to be desired. In particular, photographic film, although having certain advantages with regard to economics and information content, undergoes rapid changes in warm and humid climates. Careful sealing reduces, but does not prevent, these problems. The replacement of film by solid-state dosimeters, primarily thermoluminescence dosimeters, is in progress or being considered by an increasing number of institutions and requires a number of decisions concerning the choice of the optimum detector(s), badge design, and evaluation system; organizational matters, such as the desirability of automation and computerized bookkeeping; etc. The change also implies the potential use of such advanced concepts as different detectors and monitoring periods for the large number of low-risk persons and the small number of high-risk radiation workers. (auth)

  12. Personnel training and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    In order to make the full benefits of neutron radiography available in the nondestructive test (NDT) field, it has been necessary to formalize its application. A group under the Penetrating Radiation Committee of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) was organized to prepare a recommended practice for neutron radiography. The recommended practices require the establishment of an appropriate certification program. The requirements on the employer to establish and maintain a qualification and certification program are outlined. To conduct a program of nondestructive testing using neutron radiography requires the usual three levels of qualified and certified personnel. The program is administered by a Level III person. Routine exposure, reviews, and reporting of test results are the responsibilities of Level I and Level II personnal. The amount of training and nature of the required practical examination are also specified. The recommended practices document assures users that NDT work in the field of neutron radiography is performed by qualified personnel. Although no training courses are available to provide experience in the depth required by the recommended practices document, SNT-TC-1A, short courses are provided at a number of locations to familarize user's representatives with the interpretation of neutron radiographs and capabilities and limitations of the technique

  13. Planned Procedures for Fast Determination of Radiation Levels and Personnel Dosimetry in Connection with Radiological Accidents; Methodes de Dosimetrie Rapide du Personnel en Cas d'Accident Radiologique; 041f 041b 0410 041d 0414 ; Servicio Organizado de Determinacion Rapida de los Niveles de Radiacion y de Dosimetria del Personal en Caso de Accidente Radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K. -A.; Wahlberg, T. [AB Atomenergi, Studsvik (Sweden)

    1965-06-15

    'exterieur. En matiere de dosimetrie du personnel, il est souhaitable d'obtenir aussitot que possible des donnees preliminaires approximatives sur les debits d'exposition externe et interne et de recevoir egalement dans des delais raisonnables des donnees assez precises sur la dose de rayonnement a laquelle chaque personne a ete exposee. Des equipes de controle dosimetrique font une enquete rapide sur les lieux afin de proceder a une evaluation generale des risques. Ces equipes entrent en action des le declenchement du signai d'alarme; munies d'appareils portatifs, elles se deplacent en voiture selon des itineraires sur le site determines. Des essais pratiques ont montre que les renseignements recueillis par ces equipes parviennent au poste central dans les 10 a 15 minutes qui suivent l'alarme et permettent de se faire une idee de l'intensite des rayonnements a l'interieur et a l'exterieur des differents batiments. Les appareils portatifs comportent des echantillonneurs d'air a prelevement tres rapide, fonctionnant suivant le principe de la pompe a vide. Les doses individuelles d'exposition externe sont evaluees a l'aide de films dosimetres, par activation des dosimetres de criticite et par les analyses de la radioactivite des cheveux et du sang. La contamination interne est determinee par anthroporadiametrie et analyses radiometriques des excreta. Afin de delimiter les champs de rayonnement crees par un accident, plusieurs postes de controle fixes sont dotes de differents types de dosimetres dont les indications sont egalement relevees aussitot que possible en cas d'accident presume. (author) [Spanish] La AB Atomenergi de Suecia cuenta con un servicio para casos de urgencia que empieza a actuar tan pronto como se recibe una senal de alarma indicadora de que se ha planteado una situacion extraordinaria que entrana considerables riesgos de irradiacion. Este servicio actua desde una oficina central en la que se encuentra almacenado el correspondiente equipo y que dispone de varios

  14. Personnel Selection Method Based on Personnel-Job Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Li Wang; Xilin Hou; Lili Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The existing personnel selection decisions in practice are based on the evaluation of job seeker's human capital, and it may be difficult to make personnel-job matching and make each party satisfy. Therefore, this paper puts forward a new personnel selection method by consideration of bilateral matching. Starting from the employment thoughts of ¡°satisfy¡±, the satisfaction evaluation indicator system of each party are constructed. The multi-objective optimization model is given according to ...

  15. Nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for personnel in nuclear disaster for defence needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Yadav, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the tragedy of nuclear device exploding over Japan by USA in 1945 awareness exists amongst the armed forces personnel all over the world that a requirement of implementing radiological protection is imminent. Towards this adoption of radiological safety programme is a criterion. In a nuclear war disaster scenario, one encounters initial nuclear radiation (gamma and neutron radiations), gamma radiations from fallout, heat and blast. At certain distances Tanks/ armoured vehicles will survive and 4 R/s radiation level sensing to actuate relays for closing the ports of vehicles is essential, leading to reduction in inhalation, ingestion of fallout radioactivity and reduction in radiation dose received by occupants of the vehicle. Towards this sturdy radiation monitors to indicate gamma dose rate of the order of 1000 R/h, gamma and neutron dosimeters of the order of 1000 cGy with reading instruments are to be developed. These must work in harsh environment and sustain JSS 55555 conditions of army. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur over past one decade has been involved in developing personnel, area and field monitoring instruments like dosimeters, survey meters, which are useful, acceptable to army personnel, armoured and personnel carrier vehicles, field structures/shelters. Technology transfer after satisfaction of armed forces, product ionisation and supply, maintenance, training has been the endeavor of the DRDO. Herein it is proposed to highlight the techno electronics nuclear radiation monitoring sensors and associated electronics systems developed first time in the country and productionised in bulk for Services for implementing personnel protection. The sensors developed and described are - Radiophotoluminescent Glass (RPLG) for gamma radiation dosimetry , neutron sensitive PIN diode for fast neutron dosimetry, gamma radiation sensitive PIN diode, superheated liquid neutron and gamma sensors. The dosimeter, dose rate meter and field/area instruments are

  16. Safety and regulatory aspects of front end facilities of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Kirity Bhushan; Jha, S.K.; Bhasin, Vivek; Behere, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Fuels Group of BARC consists of various divisions with diverse activities but impeccable safety records. This has been made possible with strict safety culture among trained personnel across all divisions. The major activities of this group encompass the front end fuel fabrication facilities for thermal and fast reactors and post irradiation examination of fuel and structural materials. The group has been responsible for delivering departmental targets, as and when required, fulfilling all safety and security requirements. The present article covers the safety and regulatory aspects of this group with special emphasis on group safety management by the administrative/organizational control, the procedure followed for regulatory review and control which are carried out and the laid down procedures for identifying, classifying and reporting of safety related incidents. (author)

  17. Experience with training of operating and maintenance personnel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Cencinger, F.

    1988-01-01

    The system is described of the specialist training of personnel for Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. Training consists of basic training, vocational training and training for the respective job. Responsible for the training is the Research Institute for Nuclear Power Plants; actual training takes place at three training centres. Personnel are divided into seven categories for training purposes: senior technical and economic staff, shift leaders, whose work has immediate effect on nuclear safety, engineering and technical personnel of technical units, shift leaders of technical units, personnel in technical units, shift service personnel and operating personnel, maintenance workers. Experience with training courses run at the training centre is summed up. Since 1980 the Centre has been training personnel mainly for the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Recommendations are presented for training personnel for the Temelin nuclear power plant. (Z.M.)

  18. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  19. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  20. A new electret dosimeter for fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Suarez, A.A.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1982-01-01

    A new electret for fast-neutron personnel dosimetry is described and calibration curves obtained. Its performance may be improved by changes in the wall composition and geometric parameters. The advantages of electrets over TL and film are the non-erasure of information, low cost, fast reading and portability. (U.K.)

  1. Review of fast reactor activities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjpe, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    A review of fast reactor activities in India is introduced. One stage of construction of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) and design studies for 500MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) are briefly summarized. The emphasis is on fast reactor physics, materials studies, radiochemistry, and the safety and fuel reprocessing programme

  2. Competency assessments for nuclear industry personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    In 1996, the IAEA published Technical Reports Series No. 380, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation: A Guidebook. This publication provides guidance for the development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes for all nuclear power plant personnel using the systematic approach to training (SAT) methodology. The SAT methodology has since been adopted and used for the development and implementation of training programmes for all types of nuclear facility and activities in the nuclear industry. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that an additional publication be prepared to provide further guidance concerning competency assessments used for measuring the knowledge, skills and attitudes of personnel as the result of training. This publication has been prepared in response to that recommendation. A critical component of SAT (as part of the implementation phase) is the assessment of whether personnel have achieved the standards identified in the training objectives. The nuclear industry spends a significant amount of resources conducting competency assessments. Competency assessments are used for employee selection, trainee assessment, qualification, requalification and authorization (in some Member States the terminology may be 'certification' or 'licensing'), and job advancement and promotion. Ineffective testing methods and procedures, or inappropriate interpretation of test results, can have significant effects on both human performance and nuclear safety. Test development requires unique skills and, as with any skill, training and experience are needed to develop and improve them. Test item and examination development, use, interpretation of results and examination refinement, like all other aspects of SAT, should be part of an ongoing, systematic process. This publication is primarily intended for use by personnel responsible for developing and administering

  3. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  4. Training and Certification of Research Reactor Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarina Masood

    2011-01-01

    The safe operation of a research reactor requires that reactor personnel be fully trained and certified by the relevant authorities. Reactor operators at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor underwent extensive training and are certified, ever since the reactor first started its operation in 1982. With the emphasis on enhancing reactor safety in recent years, reactor operator training and certification have also evolved. This paper discusses the changes that have to be implemented and the challenges encountered in developing a new training programme to be in line with the national standards. (author)

  5. Operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The PNL Safety, Standards and Compliance Program contributed to the development and issuance of safety policies, standards, and criteria; for projects in the nuclear and nonnuclear areas. During 1976 the major emphasis was on developing criteria, instruments and methods to assure that radiation exposure to occupational personnel and to people in the environs of nuclear-related facilities is maintained at the lowest level technically and economically practicable. Progress in 1976 is reported on the preparation of guidelines for radiation exposure; Pu dosimetry studies; the preparation of an environmental monitoring handbook; and emergency instrumentation preparedness

  6. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Reynolds, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    This book describes the major design features of fast breeder reactors and the methods used for their design and analysis. The foremost objective of this book is to fulfill the need for a textbook on Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) technology at the graduate level or the advanced undergraduate level. It is assumed that the reader has an introductory understanding of reactor theory, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. The book is expected to be used most widely for a one-semester general course on fast breeder reactors, with the extent of material covered to vary according to the interest of the instructor. The book could also be used effectively for a two-quarter or a two-semester course. In addition, the book could serve as a text for a course on fast reactor safety since many topics other than those appearing in the safety chapters relate to FBR safety. Methodology in fast reactor design and analysis, together with physical descriptions of systems, is emphasized in this text more than numerical results. Analytical and design results continue to change with the ongoing evolution of FBR design whereas many design methods have remained fundamentally unchanged for a considerable time

  7. Site security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    As required by 10 CFR Part 73, this training manual provides guidance to assist licensees in the development of security personnel training and qualifications programs. The information contained in the manual typifies the level and scope of training for personnel assigned to perform security related tasks and job duties associated with the protection of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors

  8. Personnel Officers: Judging Their Qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gisela

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the backgrounds and qualifications appropriate for a library personnel administrator, including (1) a master's degree in library science; (2) library work experience; (3) additional training in administration, personnel management, organizational development, and psychology; and (4) personal attributes such as good communication skills,…

  9. Personnel Practices for Small Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Ronald A.

    Personnel administration in higher education is the focus of this "hands-on, how-to-do-it" guide that provides fundamental materials for developing and maintaining a sound personnel program. Part One (Employment) examines government regulations, employee recruitment and selection, pre-employment inquiries and screening, post-employment process,…

  10. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of neutron exposures to personnel is an issue that has received increased attention in the last few years. It is important to consider key aspects of the whole dosimetry system when developing dose estimates. This begins with selection of proper dosimeters and survey instruments, and extends through the calibration methods. One must match the spectral response and sensitivity of the dosimeter to the spectral characteristics of the neutron fields. Threshold detectors that are insensitive to large fractions of neutrons in the lower energy portion of reactor spectra should be avoided. Use of two or more detectors with responses that complement each other will improve measurement quality. It is important to understand the spectral response of survey instruments, so that spectra which result in significant overresponse do not lead to overestimation of dose. Calibration sources that do not match operational field spectra can contribute to highly erroneous results. In those situations, in-field calibration techniques should be employed. Although some detection developments have been made in recent years, a lot can be done with existing technology until fully satisfactory, long term solutions are obtained

  11. Personnel dosimetry in fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, S.; Gardon, M.; Bochud, F.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F.R.; Trueb, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Physicians who frequently perform fluoroscopic examinations are exposed to high intensity radiation fields and should use protective equipment such as lead aprons, thyroid shields and lead glasses. Standard individual dosimeters are worn under the lead apron in order to measure a dose that is representative of effective dose. However, large parts of the body are not protected by the apron (e.g. arms, head). Given a protection factor for the apron of about 100, an important irradiation of a body part not under the apron could go undetected. A study was conducted to analyse this situation by measuring dose using two dosimeters, one over-apron and one under-apron, for radiologists performing frequent fluoroscopic examinations. Measurements made over six-month period show that, indeed, the use of a single under-apron dosimeter is inadequate for personnel monitoring. Large doses to the head and arms are going undetected by this technique. A method for weighting the doses measured by under- and over-apron dosimeters to obtain a value better representative of the effective dose will be proposed. (authors)

  12. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path

  13. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  14. Integral Fast Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Walters, L.C.; Laidler, J.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Wade, D.C.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1992. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R ampersand D

  15. Project fast breeder (PSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of the fast breeder project (PSB) contains contributions of the participating institutes on the four subjects: 1) Development of oxidic fuel rods and materials for the SNR line, 2) Physics and safety investigations for the SNR line, 3) Carbidic fuel elements, and 4) Back-up solution with gaseous coolant. (HK) [de

  16. Special training of shift personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The first step of on-the-job training is practical observation phase in an operating Nuclear Plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists give the practical feeling for Nuclear Power Plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own Nuclear Power Plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and assisted during their process of practical learning by special instructors. The preparation for the licensing exams is vitally important for shift personnel and special courses are provided after the first non-nuclear trial operation of the plant. Personnel training also includes performance of programmes and material for retraining, training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well as training centers. (orig./RW)

  17. Improving method for calculating integral index of personnel security of company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chjan Khao Yui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper improves the method of calculating the integral index of personnel security of a company. The author has identified four components of personnel security (social and motivational safety, occupational safety, not confliction security, life safety which are characterized by certain indicators. Integral index of personnel security is designed for the enterprises of machine-building sector in Kharkov region, taking into account theweight coefficients j-th component of bj, and weighting factors that determine the degree of contribution of the ith parameter in the integral index aіj as defined by experts.

  18. Performing personnel dosimetry investigations and records quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perle, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation Safety Officers (RSOs) sometimes face situations in which personnel dosimetry estimates are required after dosimeters issued to radiation workers (film or TLD badges, extremity dosimeters, etc.) are lost or damaged before processing. This article was prepared to help those involved with personnel dosimetry investigations became aquatinted with this process. A factor that contributes to the anxiety of those unfamiliar with dosimetry investigations is the lack of published guidance available in this subject. More printed resources are needed to help radiation safety professionals familiarize themselves and understand personnel dosimetry investigations. Topics discussed in this presentation include the justification of performing dosimetry investigations, recommendations on how to perform them and the advantages of performing such investigations

  19. The Basic Requirements for Personnel Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The code of practice presented here as part of the Agency's Safety Standards deals with the problem of personnel monitoring in establishments in which, or in part of which, work is primarily with radiation sources. It is a development of the fundamental requirements on the subject contained in the Agency's Basic Safety Standards. The code has been prepared by the Secretariat of the Agency on the basis of the work of a panel of experts drawn from a number of Member States. In addition, representatives of several interested international organizations participated in the work of the panel. The Board of Governors of the Agency considered this code of practice in September 1964 and authorized its application to Agency and Agency-assisted operations and recommended to Member States that it be taken into account in the formulation of national regulations or recommendations.

  20. Personnel development in the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, G.L.; Stibbs, W.

    1991-01-01

    The decade of the 1980s saw dramatic changes in the Drilling Industry worldwide; from record high utilization rates for mobile rigs to total depression and bankruptcies; from a strong market in the Gulf of Mexico to the steady flow of rigs to operating locations outside North America. A major drilling contractor operating on land and offshore, long known as an industry leader in training, has tripled its employee development efforts in the last five years to prepare for this challenge. This paper describes the Contractor's current program of training and highlights the commitment in resources required in order to provide for the operational continuity, manpower capability and safety objectives of the future. The paper clarifies the relationship it anticipates between the coming manpower shortage, development of personnel and the safety of its people and environment. It discusses plans already in place to effectively develop drilling expertise in lesser developed countries of operation

  1. Optimization method development of the core characteristics of a fast reactor in order to explore possible high performance solutions (a solution being a consistent set of fuel, core, system and safety)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingremeau, J.-J.X.

    2011-01-01

    In the study of any new nuclear reactor, the design of the core is an important step. However designing and optimising a reactor core is quite complex as it involves neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and fuel thermomechanics and usually design of such a system is achieved through an iterative process, involving several different disciplines. In order to solve quickly such a multi-disciplinary system, while observing the appropriate constraints, a new approach has been developed to optimise both the core performance (in-cycle Pu inventory, fuel burn-up, etc...) and the core safety characteristics (safety estimators) of a Fast Neutron Reactor. This new approach, called FARM (Fast Reactor Methodology) uses analytical models and interpolations (Meta-models) from CEA reference codes for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and fuel behaviour, which are coupled to automatically design a core based on several optimization variables. This global core model is then linked to a genetic algorithm and used to explore and optimise new core designs with improved performance. Consideration has also been given to which parameters can be best used to define the core performance and how safety can be taken into account.This new approach has been used to optimize the design of three concepts of Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). For the first one, using a SiC/SiCf-cladded carbide-fuelled helium-bonded pin, the results demonstrate that the CEA reference core obtained with the traditional iterative method was an optimal core, but among many other possibilities (that is to say on the Pareto front). The optimization also found several other cores which exhibit some improved features at the expense of other safety or performance estimators. An evolution of this concept using a 'buffer', a new technology being developed at CEA, has hence been introduced in FARM. The FARM optimisation produced several core designs using this technology, and estimated their performance. The results obtained show that

  2. 9 CFR 381.310 - Personnel and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.310... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel and training. 381.310 Section 381.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 9 CFR 318.310 - Personnel and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 318.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Canning and Canned Products § 318.310 Personnel and training. All operators of thermal processing systems...

  4. Assuring the competence of nuclear power plant contractor personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report was prepared in response to a recommendation by the IAEA International Working Group on Training and Qualification of NPP Personnel (JWG-T and Q) and supported by a number of IAEA meetings on NPP personnel training. IAEA publications on NPP training are the only international documents available to all Member States with nuclear programmes. This report complements the following IAEA publications on NPP personnel training: Technical Reports Series No. 380, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, A Guidebook; IAEA-TECDOC-1057, Experience in the Use of Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel and IAEA-TECDOC-1063, IAEA World Survey on Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training. This TECDOC also supplements the IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-O1 (Rev. 1), Staffing of Nuclear Power Plants and the Recruitment Training and Authorization of Operating Personnel and Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Operation. Within the context of this report NPP contractors are defined as any personnel working for a nuclear power plant who are not directly employed by the nuclear power plant. Competence is the ability to perform to identified standards; it comprises skills, knowledge and attitudes and may be developed through education, experience and training. Qualification is a formal statement of achievement, resulting from an auditable assessment; if competence is assessed, the qualification becomes a formal statement of competence and may be shown on a certificate, diploma, etc. It is recognized that personnel are used to perform tasks that are of a specialised or temporary nature where it is not feasible to hire or maintain a full-time NPP employee. Accordingly, contractors may be used in a variety of situations to support NPPs. Typical situations include: supplies and services being delivered by the contractors that are subject to different quality standards based on a graded approach to assuring

  5. Assuring the competence of nuclear power plant contractor personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This report was prepared in response to a recommendation by the IAEA International Working Group on Training and Qualification of NPP Personnel (JWG-T and Q) and supported by a number of IAEA meetings on NPP personnel training. IAEA publications on NPP training are the only international documents available to all Member States with nuclear programmes. This report complements the following IAEA publications on NPP personnel training: Technical Reports Series No. 380, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, A Guidebook; IAEA-TECDOC-1057, Experience in the Use of Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel and IAEA-TECDOC-1063, IAEA World Survey on Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training. This TECDOC also supplements the IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-O1 (Rev. 1), Staffing of Nuclear Power Plants and the Recruitment Training and Authorization of Operating Personnel and Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Operation. Within the context of this report NPP contractors are defined as any personnel working for a nuclear power plant who are not directly employed by the nuclear power plant. Competence is the ability to perform to identified standards; it comprises skills, knowledge and attitudes and may be developed through education, experience and training. Qualification is a formal statement of achievement, resulting from an auditable assessment; if competence is assessed, the qualification becomes a formal statement of competence and may be shown on a certificate, diploma, etc. It is recognized that personnel are used to perform tasks that are of a specialised or temporary nature where it is not feasible to hire or maintain a full-time NPP employee. Accordingly, contractors may be used in a variety of situations to support NPPs. Typical situations include: supplies and services being delivered by the contractors that are subject to different quality standards based on a graded approach to assuring

  6. Quality assurance for external personnel monitoring in nuclear industrial facilities, CNNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yansheng; Dai Jun; Li Taosheng

    1993-01-01

    More than 6000 personnel are currently being monitored for occupational exposure in CNNC, China. Personnel monitoring is one of the important items of radiation protection. The data of individual dose are not only indispensable for radiation safety assessment but also the basis for radiation protection measures to be taken. Possibly, it could provide basic information for epidemiological studies, optimization procedure of radiation protection (risk/benefit analyses) and medical or legal purposes. Obviously, personnel monitoring and its quality assurance are very significant

  7. Education as a Basic Element of Improving Professional Important Qualities of Aviation Technical Maintenance Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbačovs Oļegs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the importance of professional qualities, competence and their increase, directly dependent on the training of aviation technical maintenance personnel and determination the level of flight safety is covered. This publication analyses necessary training and requirements for aviation technical personnel involved in aircraft maintenance, as well as the requirements for aviation training organizations, defined as per Part-147, for such personnel preparation and training.

  8. Licensing requirements regarding the qualification of operating personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The legal requirements regarding the qualifications of operating personnel in nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are outlined as in article 7 of the Atomic Energy Act. For the responsible operating personnel the requisite competence and reliability are legally required; for subordinate personnel the law requires only the necessary knowledge. The requisite competence and the necessary knowledge have been further specified in a set of guidelines by the authorities; work on specification of reliability requirements is under way. Essential elements of the requisite competence of responsible operating personnel are their professional qualification, their safety-related knowledge, their abilities, their practical experience, and - for the responsible shift personnel - their nuclear, plant-related training as well as a written and oral examination. Requalification is indispensible for keeping the requisite competence on a level in accordance with the current state of science and technology. Facts concerning the personal reliability of the responsible operating personnel are assessed by the competent authorities on the basis of information available at other state institutions. For the responsible shift personnel, physical and psychological fitness are important factors contributing to their reliability. The necessary knowledge subordinate operating personnel must possess with respect to plant safety and safety of the personnel is assured via instruction on safety and via special briefings at the working place. Lack of safety-related knowledge has to be compensated for by assigning an experienced permanent supervisor for each activity in question. Current work on qualification of operating personnel concentrates on training, including simulator training, of responsible shift personnel. (author)

  9. Dental Health Status and Treatment Needs of Police Personnel of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Police personnel form the backbone for safety and security of a community hence their health is of utmost importance. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of police personnel employed in police stations of ...

  10. Certification of Canadian nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of Canadians and the environment, and to implement Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. As part of its mandate, the CNSC requires certification of those who work in positions with direct impact on the safety of Canadian nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors. Other positions, such as exposure device operators and radiation safety officers at other nuclear facilities, also require CNSC certification. In this paper, the certification process of Canadian NPP personnel will be examined. In keeping with the CNSC's regulatory philosophy and international practice, licensees bear the primary responsibility for the safe operation of their NPPs. They are therefore held entirely responsible for training and testing their workers, in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements, to ensure they are fully qualified to perform their duties. The CNSC obtains assurance that all persons it certifies are qualified to carry out their respective duties. It achieves this by overseeing a regime of licensee training programs and certification examinations, which are based on a combination of appropriate regulatory guidance and compliance activities. Reviews of the knowledge-based certification examination methodology and of lessons learned from Fukushima have generated initiatives to further strengthen the CNSC's certification programs for NPP workers. Two of those initiatives are discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Some problems of NPP personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajshnis, P.P.; Kumkov, L.P.; Omel'chuk, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Shortcomings of NPP personnel training are discussed. Development of full-scale training systems is necessary for qualitative training operative personnel. Primary problems that should be necessarily solved for ensuring effective training NPP personnel are considered

  12. Personnel Investigations and Clearance Tracking (OPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Security file-related information for the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM)'s employee and contractor personnel. The data is OPM-specific, not government-wide.

  13. Energy Requirements of Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Baker-Fulco, Carol J

    2005-01-01

    ...) have been measured while training under various conditions. Group mean total energy expenditures for 424 male military personnel from various units engaged in diverse missions ranged from 13.0 to 29.8 MJ per day...

  14. Individual protection of NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshcheev, V.S.; Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Chetverikova, Z.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features of NPP personnel individual protection are considered, mainly with respect to maintenance and repair works on various type reactors. The major concern is given to the selection and application reglamentations of the individual protection system (IPS), employment of sanitary locks, the organization of individual protection under the conditions of a heating microclimate. The ways are specified to the development and introduction of the most effective IPS and improvement of the entire NPP personnel individual protection system with respect to providing the necessary protection effect for maintaining high working capability of the personnel and minimizing the IPS impact on human organism functional systems. The accumulated experience in the personnel individual protection can be applied during construction and operation of NPP's in CMEA member-countries [ru

  15. Transportation security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Objective of this manual is to train security personnel to protect special nuclear materials and nuclear facilities against theft and sabotage as required by 10 CFR Part 73. This volume contains the introduction and rationale

  16. Office of Personnel Management (OPM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for the Office of Personnel Management. OPM will use the SSN verifications in its investigative...

  17. Personnel external dose monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengyuan

    1989-01-01

    The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given

  18. THEORETICAL BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT OF PERSONNEL RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Haliashova, Katsiaryna

    2017-01-01

    Necessity of personnel risks management is based on research results. The authors' approaches to the determination of personnel risks and to their management have been explored. The author's definition of the concept of "personnel risks" is proposed. A classification of personnel risks is developed depending on the stage of origin and the tasks of the personnel policy, as well as the methods of management personnel risks in the organization. The article presents a methodical approach to perso...

  19. Department of Energy's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), October 20--24, 1980: A special report prepared for the Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training Committee: An independent on-site safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The intent of this on-site safety review was to make a broad management assessment of HFIR operations, rather than conduct a detailed in-depth audit. The result of the review should only be considered as having identified trends or indications. The Team's observations and recommendations are based upon licensed reactor facility practices used to meet industry standards. For the most part, these standards form the basis for many of the comments in this report. The Team believes that a uniform minimum standard of performance should be achieved in the operation of DOE reactors. In order to assure that this is accomplished, clear standards are necessary. Consistent with the provisions of past AEC and ERDA policy, the Team has used the standards of the commercial nuclear power industry. It is recognized that this approach is conservative in that the HFIR reactor has a significantly greater degree of inherent safety (low temperature, low pressure, low power) than a licensed reactor

  20. A review of the UK fast reactor programme. March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports on the Fast Reactor Programme of United Kingdom. These are the main lines: Dounreay Fast Reactor; Prototype Fast Reactor; Commercial Fast Reactor; engineering development; materials development; chemical engineering/sodium technology; fast reactor fuel; fuel cycle; safety; reactor performance study

  1. Fast breeder project (PSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Activities performed during the 1st quarter of 1976 at or on behalf of the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe, within the framework of the Fast Breeder Project are given a survey. The following project subdivisions are dealt with: Fuel rod development; materials testing and developments; corrosion studies and coolant analyses; physical experiments; reactor theory; safety of fast breeders; instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring; effects on the environment; sodium technology tests; thermodynamic and fluid flow tests in gas. (HR) [de

  2. JSFR design progress related to development of safety design criteria for generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors. (4) Balance of plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Atsushi; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ohtaka, Masahiko; Uzawa, Masayuki; Ikari, Risako; Iwasaki, Mikinori

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, design study and evaluation related with safety design criteria (SDC) and safety design guideline (SDG) on the balance of plant (BOP) of the demonstration JSFR including fuel handling system, power supply system, component cooling water system, building arrangement are reported. For the fuel handling system, enhancement of storage cooling system has been investigated adding diversified cooling systems. For the power supply, existing emergency power supply system has been reinforced and alternative emergency power supply system is added. For the component cooling system, requirements and relation with safety grade components such investigated. Additionally for the component cooling system, design impact when adding decay heat removal system by sea water has been investigated. For reactor building, over view of evaluation on the external events and design policy for distributed arrangement is reported. Those design study and evaluation provides background information of SDC and SDG. (author)

  3. Nuclear instrumentation systems in prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumaran, P.M.; Nagaraj, C.P.; Paramasivan-Pillai, C.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Sivaramakrishna, M.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear instrumentation systems of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) primarily comprise of global Neutron Flux Monitoring, Failed Fuel Detection and Location, Radiation Monitoring and Post-Accident Monitoring. High temperature fission chambers are provided at in-vessel locations for monitoring neutron flux. Failed fuel detection and location is by monitoring the cover gas for fission gases and primary sodium for delayed neutrons. Signals of the core monitoring detectors are used to initiate SCRAM (safety action) to protect the reactor from various postulated initiating events. Radiation levels in all potentially radioactive areas are monitored to act as an early warning system to keep the release of radioactivity to the environment and exposure to personnel well below the permissible limits. Fission Chambers and Gamma Ionisation Chambers are located in the reactor vault concrete for monitoring the neutron flux and gamma radiation levels during and after an accident. (authors)

  4. Training, education and qualification of NPP operating personnel in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vrey, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the organization and the requirements of the training, education and qualification of NPP operating personnel in the Netherlands. It describes the implementation of a formally required scheme of personnel qualification after TMI, and the current practice as developed by the training staff of both Dutch nuclear power plants. Attention is given to the specific circumstances and problems in the Netherlands, and the resulting program. The licensing criteria for control room operating personnel are discussed, including the level of government involvement. Measures are described to improve the approach to training of NPP personnel involved in safety relevant activities. Finally, some ideas are given for strategies to cope with adverse stress situations

  5. Augmented reality for improved safety

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, CERN experts have to operate in low visibility conditions or in the presence of possible hazards. Minimising the duration of the operation and reducing the risk of errors is therefore crucial to ensuring the safety of personnel. The EDUSAFE project integrates different technologies to create a wearable personnel safety system based on augmented reality.    The EDUSAFE integrated safety system uses a camera mounted on the helmet to monitor the working area.  In its everyday operation of machines and facilities, CERN adopts a whole set of measures and safety equipment to ensure the safety of its personnel, including personal wearable safety devices and access control systems. However, sometimes, scheduled and emergency maintenance work needs to be done in zones with potential cryogenic hazards, in the presence of radioactive equipment or simply in demanding conditions where visibility is low and moving around is difficult. The EDUSAFE Marie Curie Innovative&...

  6. Safety first!

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Among the many duties I assumed at the beginning of the year was the ultimate responsibility for Safety at CERN: the responsibility for the physical safety of the personnel, the responsibility for the safe operation of the facilities, and the responsibility to ensure that CERN acts in accordance with the highest standards of radiation and environmental protection.   The Safety Policy document drawn up in September 2014 is an excellent basis for the implementation of Safety in all areas of CERN’s work. I am happy to commit during my mandate to help meet its objectives, not least by ensuring the Organization makes available the necessary means to achieve its Safety objectives. One of the main objectives of the HSE (Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection) unit in the coming months is to enhance the measures to minimise CERN’s impact on the environment. I believe CERN should become a role model for an environmentally-aware scientific research laboratory. Risk ...

  7. Cytogenic Investigations in Flight Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.; Obe, G.; Bergau, L.

    1999-01-01

    During long-distance flights at high altitudes flight personnel are exposed to cosmic radiation. In order to determine whether there are biological effects of such low dose radiation exposure in aircrew, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in 59 female cabin attendants and a matched control group of 31 members of station personnel. The mean number of dicentric chromosomes amounts to 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6) per 1,000 cells in cabin attendants and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9) per 1,000 cells in controls. In an additional control group of 56 female clerks from Berlin the mean frequency of dicentric chromosomes was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6). Neither in dicentric frequency and distribution nor in other aberrations was a significant difference between the groups of flight and station personnel found. The high frequency of multi-aberrant cells was remarkable in flight personnel as well as in station personnel. The reason for this phenomenon is unknown and needs further investigation. (author)

  8. 76 FR 81359 - National Security Personnel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Security Personnel System AGENCY: Department of Defense; Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule... concerning the National Security Personnel System (NSPS). Section 1113 of the National Defense Authorization... National Security Personnel System (NSPS) in regulations jointly prescribed by DOD and OPM (Office of...

  9. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1990-01-01

    The author criticises the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's fast breeder reactor programme in his evidence to the House of Commons Select Committee on Energy in January 1990. He argues for power generation by renewable means and greater efficiency in the use rather than in the generation of electricity. He refutes the arguments for nuclear power on the basis of reduced global warming as he claims support technology produces significant amounts of carbon dioxide in any case. Serious doubts are raised about the costs of a fast breeder reactor programme compared to, say, generation by pressurised water reactors. The idea of a uranium scarcity in several decades is also refuted. The reliability of fast breeder reactor technology is called into question. He argues against reprocessing plutonium for economic, health and safety reasons. (UK)

  10. Training of research reactor personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherruau, F.

    1980-01-01

    Research reactor personnel operate the reactor and carry out the experiments. These two types of work entail different activities, and therefore different skills and competence, the number of relevant staff being basically a function of the size, complexity and versatility of the reactor. Training problems are often reactor-specific, but the present paper considers them from three different viewpoints: the training or retraining of new staff or of personnel already employed at an existing facility, and training of personnel responsible for the start-up and operation of a new reactor, according to whether local infrastructure and experience already exist or whether they have to be built up from scratch. On-the-spot experience seems to be an essential basis for sound training, but requires teaching abilities and aids often difficult to bring together, and the availability of instructors that does not always fit in smoothly with current operational and experimental tasks. (author)

  11. Integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics

  12. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Fast reactor recharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, L.N.; Kurilkin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Disclosure is made of a device for recharging a fast-neutron reactor, intended for the transfer of fuel assemblies and rods of the control and safety system, having profiled heads to be gripped on the outside. The device comprises storage drums whose compartments for rods of the control and safety system are identical to compartments for fuel assemblies. In order to store and transport rods of the control and safety system from the storage drums to the recharging mechanism provision is made for sleeve-type holders. When placed in such a holder, the dimensions of a rod of the control and safety system are equal to those of a fuel assembly. To join a holder to a rod of the control and safety system, on the open end of each holder there is mounted a collet, whereas on the surface of each rod of the control and safety system, close to its head, there is provided an encircling groove to interact with the collet. The grip of the recharging mechanism is provided with a stop interacting with the collet in order to open the latter and withdraw the safety and control system rod from its holder

  14. Personnel Management theories and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanni Feng

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction Many new businesses are opened in the whole world every day.Unfortunately,only a minor part of them has success and continues its activity.There is a variety of reasons which determine the hankruptcy of companies.Most of them are included in running a business,and more and more people come to realize the significance of management,especially personnel management,as personnel represents the relationship between people in the company,which is a key point for the development of enterprise.

  15. Ethnic Minority Personnel Careers: Hindrances and Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Catharine

    2004-01-01

    Personnel departments often have particular responsibility for equal opportunities within their organizations. This paper explores equal opportunities within personnel departments themselves, in relation to the careers of ethnic minority personnel practitioners. Through primary research, it identifies a range of criteria which can affect personnel careers, of which ethnic origin is often one. However, although being categorized as of ethnic minority origin often hinders personnel careers, the...

  16. Basis scheme of personnel training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.; Odehnal, J.

    1998-01-01

    Basic scheme of the training system for NPP personnel of CEZ-EDU personnel training system is described in detail. This includes: specific training both basic and periodic, and professional training meaning specialized and continuous training. The following schemes are shown: licence acquisition and authorisation for PWR-440 Control Room Personnel; upgrade training for job positions of Control Room personnel; maintaining and refresh training; module training for certificate acquisition of servicing shift and operating personnel

  17. Italian position paper on the safety analysis of liquid metal fast breeder reactors as related to sodium fires. The PEC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerosa, A.

    1983-01-01

    To obtain a deep understanding of physical phenomena and engineering problems connected to sodium fires, and to optimize the utilization of human and financial resources available, CNEN (now ENEA) has decided to join the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in the realization of a Franco-Italian experimental programme on sodium fires, named ESMERALDA. As for design preventions for PEC reactor (a fast flux, liquid metal cooled, fuel element testing reactor) fundamental choices were made taking into account all available knowledge, but with particular reference to the results of CEA's previous experiments on sodium fires. More detailed design analysis will be possible in the future, based on experimental results coming from the ESMERALDA programme

  18. Training of nuclear power facility personnel. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The proceedings of the conference entitled ''Training of Nuclear Power Facility Personnel'' and held in Tale, Czechoslovakia, on 24 - 27 April 1989, contain full texts of 58 contributions, 57 of which fall in the INIS subject scope. The aim of the conference was to summarize experience gained during the training and education of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants operating personnel, to put forth new suggestions for increasing the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants, and to establish the needs and new trends in the training and education of nuclear power plants personnel. The topics treated at the conference can be divided into three basic groups as follows: 1. professional qualification of nuclear power plant staff members; 2. development of technical means for the nuclear power plants personnel training; and 3. training of maintenance personnel, the system and organization of this training and education. The proceedings are published in two volumes. Part 1 contains the texts of 25 papers falling in the INIS subject scope. (Z.M.)

  19. Study of personnel monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Aline B.; Lorenzini, Fabiane; Carlos, Janaina; Bernasiuk, Maria E.B.; Rizzatti, Mara R.; Fuentefria, Jose L.B.

    1996-01-01

    Surveillance of several health institutions who use ionizing radiation sources, as well as data from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) are studied concerning the use of personnel dosimeters. The results show that several institutions do not provide them and those which provide do not know how to use them

  20. Rights & Responsibilities. Personnel Management Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gale; And Others

    This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  1. Personnel monitoring for beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Johns, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The practical considerations which have to be taken into account in the design of personnel monitors intended to measure doses resulting from exposure to beta rays are discussed. These include the measurement of doses in situations involving either fairly uniform or non-uniform irradiation and of doses to the male gonads. (UK)

  2. Project Management Personnel Competencies Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An important factor for the success management of IT projects is the human resource. People involved in the project management process have to be evaluated. In order to do that, same criteria has to be specified. This paper describes some aspects regarding the personnel evaluation.

  3. Reactor safety research in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershagen, B.

    1980-02-01

    Objectives, means and results of Swedish light water reactor safety research during the 1970s are reviewed. The expenditure is about 40 Million Swkr per year excluding industry. Large efforts have been devoted to experimental studies of loss of coolant accidents. Large scale containment response tests for simulated pipe breaks were carried out at the Marviken facility. At Studsvik a method for testing fuel during fast power changes has been developed. Stress corrosion, crack growth and the effect of irradiation on the strength ductility of Zircaloy tube was studied. A method for determining the fracture toughness of pressure vessel steel was developed and it was shown that the fracture toughness was lower than earlier assumed. The release of fission products to reactor water was studied and so was the release, transport and removal of airborne radioactive matter for Swedish BWRs and PWRs. Test methods for iodine filter systems were developed. A system for continuous monitoring of radioactive noble gas stack release was developed for the Ringhals plant. Attention was drawn to the importance of the human factor for reactor safety. Probabilistic methods for risk analysis were applied to the Barsebaeck 2 and Forsmark 3 boiling water reactors. Procedures and working conditions for operator personnel were investigated. (GBn)

  4. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakman, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  5. National synchrotron light source medical personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, S.; Gmur, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-01-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated

  6. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  7. Safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.U.

    1997-01-01

    It is assumed that in an accelerator-driven system (ADS) the same type of accidents can be envisaged as in critical reactors. After briefly describing the basic safety features of ADS, the first investigations of the behaviour of an accelerator driven fast oxide reactor during an unprotected loss-of-flow accident and the investigation of reactivity accidents in a large sodium-cooled ADS are presented

  8. Staffing of nuclear power plants and the recruitment, training and authorization of operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPP). It supplements Safety Series No. 50-C-O(Rev.1) ''Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation''. The present version of this Guide is a revision which takes into account the developments, particularly in training practices, which have taken place since the first edition appeared in 1979. The objective of this Safety Guide is to outline various factors to be considered in order to ensure that the operating organization has a sufficient number of qualified and motivated personnel for the operation of NPP. The Guide covers the organization for a NPP, the requirements in terms of education and experience for the various members of the operating personnel to be recruited, the recruitment, the training and continuing training programmes, as well as the authorizations for persons whose duties have an immediate bearing on safety

  9. Review of fast reactor activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balz, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1978-07-01

    The Commission of the European Communities continued its activities on the following lines: activities aimed at preparing for commercialization of fast breeder reactors which are essentially performed in the frame of Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC); the execution of its own research program in the Joint Research Center. The report covers activities of the FRCC, of the Safety Working Group (SWG), the Whole Core Accident Code (WAC) subgroup, Containment (CONT) subgroup, Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG). Research and development activities are concerned with LMFBR safety, subassembly thermal hydraulics, fuel-coolant interactions, post-accident heat removal, dynamic load response, safety related material properties, utilization limits of fast breeder fuels, plutonium and actinide aspects of nuclear fuel cycle.

  10. Review of fast reactor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1978-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities continued its activities on the following lines: activities aimed at preparing for commercialization of fast breeder reactors which are essentially performed in the frame of Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC); the execution of its own research program in the Joint Research Center. The report covers activities of the FRCC, of the Safety Working Group (SWG), the Whole Core Accident Code (WAC) subgroup, Containment (CONT) subgroup, Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG). Research and development activities are concerned with LMFBR safety, subassembly thermal hydraulics, fuel-coolant interactions, post-accident heat removal, dynamic load response, safety related material properties, utilization limits of fast breeder fuels, plutonium and actinide aspects of nuclear fuel cycle

  11. Provisions of communication between NPP operational personnel: drifts of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskarev, S.A; Aksenov, V.R.

    2001-01-01

    At present Russia has a problem of new NPPs construction, which have to replace old one. The main goal here is provision of safety operation. Communication provision between operational personnel and variety of plant systems is one of the aspects of it. The aim of this paper is research of foreign experience in communication and operator support systems development, consideration of several modern projects based on these systems, definition drifts of development. (authors)

  12. Staffing, recruitment, training, qualification and certification of operating personnel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Safety of public, occupational workers and the protection of environment should be assured while activities for economic and social progress are pursued. These activities include the establishment and utilisation of nuclear facilities and the use of radioactive sources. This safety guide provides guidance on the aspects of staffing, recruitment, training, qualification and certification of operating personnel of nuclear power plants

  13. Culture safety in the nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benar Bukit

    2008-01-01

    Culture safety is aimed to empower all the personnel to contribute and responsible to the installation safety where they work in. Culture safety is important as there were so many accidents happened due to the little attention given to the safety, take as examples of what happened in Three Mille Island installation (1979) and Chernobyl (1986). These remind us that human factor gives a significant contribution to the failure of operational system which influences the safety. Therefore, as one of institutions which has nuclear installation. National Nuclear Energy Agency must apply the culture safety to guarantee the safety operation of nuclear installation to protect the personnel, community and environment from the hazard of radioactive radiation. Culture safety has two main components. The first component under the management responsibility is a framework needed in an organisation. The second component is the personnel attitude in al/ levels to respond and optimize those framework. (author)

  14. Essential themes in Personnel economics

    OpenAIRE

    Josheski, Dushko

    2014-01-01

    In this paper are presented essential themes in the subject of personnel economics. In the first part analysis has been conducted on the impact of peer pressure on workplace behaviour. Then again models for compensation structures within firms, and their influence on the utility of work by employees. In the final section of the paper the productivity spillover effect has been analyzed, and the causes of existence of spillovers and their impact on workers’ productivity

  15. Modern methods of personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.

    The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given

  16. Career path for operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper explains how selected personnel can now obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics with a Nuclear Power Operations option. The program went into effect the Fall of 1984. Another program was worked out in 1982 whereby students attending the Nuclear Operators Training Program could obtain an Associates of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering Technology at the end of two years of study. This paper presents tables and charts which describe these programs and outline the career path for operators

  17. Moral distress in nursing personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Barlem,Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi,Valéria Lerch; Lunardi,Guilherme Lerch; Tomaschewski-Barlem,Jamila Geri; Silveira,Rosemary Silva da; Dalmolin,Graziele de Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the frequency and intensity of moral distress experienced by nursing personnel in southern Brazil, covering elements of their professional practice. METHOD: a survey was undertaken in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with 247 nurses. Data was collected by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. RESULTS: the perception of situations that lead to moral distress is enhanced in nurses and in nursing staff working in institutions with greater openness to dialogu...

  18. Personnel exposures in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, K.S.; Patel, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    The manifold increase in production, and ease of availability of radioisotopes in India have been responsible for a tremendous increase in use of radioisotopes in industrial radiography during past fifteen years. Among various applications of radioisotopes the industrial radiography involves a large potential risk of occupational radiation exposures. The dose records of past fifteen years in respect of all radiation workers maintained by the Personnel Monitoring Group of Division of Radiological Protection of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have been analysed. Analysis of excessive exposure (exceeding 400 mrem/fortnight) reveals that this figure is increasing at an alarming rate among the radiation workers of this category. In spite of various regulatory controls the dose per person per week has remained higher as compared to the same in other categories. This combined with the increase in number of radiation workers every year would soon contribute significantly to the per capita dose for radiation workers. Use of adequately shielded fool-proof remote control equipment and training of all personnel in safe handling of radiation sources seem to be the only solution to arrest the rate of increase in personnel exposures of this category. (auth.)

  19. Work environment, overtime and sleep among offshore personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2017-02-01

    Personnel working on North Sea oil/gas installations are exposed to remote and potentially hazardous environments, and to extended work schedules (typically, 14×12h shifts). Moreover, overtime (additional to the standard 84-h week) is not uncommon among offshore personnel. Evidence from onshore research suggests that long work hours and adverse environmental characteristics are associated with sleep impairments, and consequently with health and safety risks, including accidents and injuries. However, little is known about the extent to which long hours and a demanding work environment combine synergistically in relation to sleep. The present study sought to address this issue, using survey data collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N=551). The multivariate analysis examined the additive and interactive effects of overtime and measures of the psychosocial/physical work environment (job demands, job control, supervisor support, and physical stressors) as predictors of sleep outcomes during offshore work weeks. Control variables, including age and sleep during leave weeks, were also included in the analysis model. Sleep duration and quality were significantly impaired among those who worked overtime (54% of the participants) relative to those who worked only 12-h shifts. A linear relationship was found between long overtime hours and short sleep duration; personnel who worked >33h/week overtime reported job demands, and positively related to supervisor support, only among personnel who worked overtime. Poor sleep quality was predicted by the additive effects of overtime, low support and an adverse physical environment. These findings highlight the need to further examine the potential health and safety consequences of impaired sleep associated with high overtime rates offshore, and to identify the extent to which adverse effects of overtime can be mitigated by favourable physical and psychosocial work environment characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  20. National Finance Center Personnel/Payroll System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The NFC system is an USDA system used for processing transactions for payroll/personnel systems. Personnel processing is done through EPIC/HCUP, which is web-based....

  1. Vitamin D status in female military personnel during combat training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Andrew J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health. Recent data suggest that vitamin D and calcium supplementation might affect stress fracture incidence in military personnel. Although stress fracture is a health risk for military personnel during training, no study has investigated changes in vitamin D status in Soldiers during United States (US Army basic combat training (BCT. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the effects of BCT on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH levels in female Soldiers. Serum 25(OHD and PTH were assessed in 74 fasted Soldier volunteers before and after an 8-week BCT course conducted between August and October in Columbia, South Carolina. In the total study population, 25(OHD levels decreased (mean ± SD from 72.9 ± 30.0 to 63.3 ± 19.8 nmol/L (P P P P

  2. The integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    On April 3rd, 1986, two demonstrations of the inherent capability of sodium-cooled fast reactors to survive unprotected loss of cooling accidents were carried out on the experimental sodium-cooled power reactor, EBR-II, on the Idaho site of Argonne National Laboratory. Transients potentially of the most serious kind, one an unprotected loss of flow, the other an unprotected loss of heat sink, both initiated from full power. In both cases the reactor quietly shut itself down, without damage of any kind. These tests were a part of the on-going development program at Argonne to develop an advanced reactor with significant new inherent safety characteristics. Called the integral fast reactor, or IFR, the basic thrust is to develop everything that is needed for a complete nuclear power system - reactor, closed fuel cycle, and waste processing - as a single optimized entity, and, for simplicity in concept, as an integral part of a single plant. The particular selection of reactor materials emphasizes inherent safety characteristics also makes possible a simplified close fuel cycle and waste process improvements. The paper describes the IFR concept, the inherent safety, tests, and status of IFR development today

  3. Chapter 9. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on the overall training system and on developing programmes for individual categories for NPP V-1 Bohunice, NPP V-2 Bohunice, NPP Mochovce and SE-VYZ. The fundamental theoretical and periodical training for both Bohunice and Mochovce NPPs personnel, simulator training for NPP Bohunice, and periodical simulator training for Bohunice personnel is carried out by the VUJE Training center in Trnava, whereas the simulator training and periodical training for NPP Mochovce is carried at Mochovce plant. Based on a successful passing of examination before the examining committee, UJD issues, a certificate on special professional skills of selected staff of nuclear installations for specific activity for the given type of nuclear installation and for the following positions: (a)Shift manager for scientific start up with the right of manipulation; (b) Shift supervisor; (c) Unit supervisor; (d) Primary circuit operator; (e) Secondary circuit operator; (f) Reactor physicist; (g) Shift manager for scientific start up without the right of manipulation. Examination of selected personnel is described. Last year the examining committee held twelve session for oral theoretical examination. The number of licenses issued in 1999 and the total number of valid licenses is given.Conclusions from inspections carried out by UJD and inspections and tests carried out by the NPP operators in 1999, as well as results from operation and start up of nuclear units confirm that the standard of professional skills of the staff at nuclear installations a high standard of operational safety is being achieved on a permanent basis. Increasing the qualification of UJD staff was done in a form of training and courses scheduled in the plan of training for the staff for 1999. These training, composed of specialized qualification study, functional study, as well as study aimed at maintaining qualification. Training courses organized

  4. Radiological safety aspects in the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthi, T.N.; Janardhanan, S.; Soman, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of radiological safety in the fabrication of (U, Pu)O 2 fuel assemblies for fast reactors utilising high exposure plutonium are discussed. Derived working limits for plutonium as a function of the burn-up of RAPS (Rajasthan Atomic Power Station) fuel, external gamma and neutron exposures from feed product batches, finished fuel pins and assemblies are presented. Shielding requirements for the various glove box operations are also indicated. In general, high exposure plutonium handling calls for remote fabrication and automation at various stages would play a key role in minimising exposures to personnel in a large production plant. (author)

  5. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  6. Fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Peter

    Bogen omfatter en gennemgang af lovgivning, praksis og teori vedrørende køb af fast ejendom og offentligretlig og privatretlig regulering. Bogen belyser bl.a. de privatretlige emner: købers misligholdelsesbeføjelser, servitutter, naboret, hævd og erstatningsansvar for miljøskader samt den...

  7. Personnel Development Practices in Turkish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays everything develops and changes very quickly and sustainability of organizational goals will be possible only when personnel can keep up with these changes. From administrative aspect it is important to enhance personnel's potential and prompt them to achieve organizational goals. Personnel development is a process which influences and…

  8. A systematic review of job-specific workers' health surveillance activities for fire-fighting, ambulance, police and military personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, M. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to describe (1) the existing job-specific workers' health

  9. THE ROLE OF THE TECHNICAL STAFF IN THE FLIGHT SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Artyuhovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of the maintenance personnel in the safety of flights. Statistical data and the reasons of wrong actions of the maintenance personnel are presented. The reasons of wrong actions of the personnel are analysed within the interrelation of personal and human factors.

  10. Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, W.I.

    1981-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Hanford site a few miles north of Richland, Washington, is a major link in the chain of development required to sustain and advance Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) technology in the United States. This 400 MWt sodium cooled reactor is a three loop design, is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy, and is the largest research reactor of its kind in the world. The purpose of the facility is three-fold: (1) to provide a test bed for components, materials, and breeder reactor fuels which can significantly extend resource reserves; (2) to produce a complete body of base data for the use of liquid sodium in heat transfer systens; and (3) to demonstrate inherent safety characteristics of LMFBR designs

  11. Personnel Neutron Monitoring at AB Atomenergi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagsgaard, S; Widell, C O

    1964-02-15

    The routine personnel monitoring of fast neutrons is carried out by the counting of tracks in a nuclear emulsion. The tracks are counted in a microscope on a projection screen. This is a very tedious job and is only done on irradiated films which are counted over 6 mm{sup 2}. The irradiated films are selected according to the recorded dose on the gamma film. It is often difficult to tell how much the visible tracks have faded during a two-weeks period. Fortunately the fading does not often exceed 20 % for this period. If the dosimeter has been gamma-irradiated, it may be difficult to recognize the proton tracks. If the film is stored for some time before being developed, this gamma fog will to some extent fade away. For large neutron doses a foil activation dosimeter is used. This dosimeter consists of a cadmium-shielded phosphorus foil, a cadmium shielded gold foil and an unshielded gold foil. The phosphorus foil has to be counted shortly after exposure.

  12. Personnel Neutron Monitoring at AB Atomenergi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagsgaard, S.; Widell, C.O.

    1964-02-01

    The routine personnel monitoring of fast neutrons is carried out by the counting of tracks in a nuclear emulsion. The tracks are counted in a microscope on a projection screen. This is a very tedious job and is only done on irradiated films which are counted over 6 mm 2 . The irradiated films are selected according to the recorded dose on the gamma film. It is often difficult to tell how much the visible tracks have faded during a two-weeks period. Fortunately the fading does not often exceed 20 % for this period. If the dosimeter has been gamma-irradiated, it may be difficult to recognize the proton tracks. If the film is stored for some time before being developed, this gamma fog will to some extent fade away. For large neutron doses a foil activation dosimeter is used. This dosimeter consists of a cadmium-shielded phosphorus foil, a cadmium shielded gold foil and an unshielded gold foil. The phosphorus foil has to be counted shortly after exposure

  13. Training of personnel for nuclear power in Ceske Energeticke Zavody Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodny, J.; Krestan, J.

    1983-01-01

    The projects of training of personnel and recruitment of apprentices have to be started 10 years prior to the commissioning of a nuclear power plant. Training starts three years prior to the physical start-up. The education and training of personnel in the nuclear programme including the implementation of their social background is an equivalent component of nuclear safety. The most important aspects are presented of personnel training with regard to organization, recruitment, theoretical and practical education and training, material and technical provisions and social programme. At present personnel training and the education of specialists have reached a high standard but the problem of social care of personnel in future plants is serious and has not been solved. (M.D.)

  14. FAST: An advanced code system for fast reactor transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikityuk, Konstantin; Pelloni, Sandro; Coddington, Paul; Bubelis, Evaldas; Chawla, Rakesh

    2005-01-01

    One of the main goals of the FAST project at PSI is to establish a unique analytical code capability for the core and safety analysis of advanced critical (and sub-critical) fast-spectrum systems for a wide range of different coolants. Both static and transient core physics, as well as the behaviour and safety of the power plant as a whole, are studied. The paper discusses the structure of the code system, including the organisation of the interfaces and data exchange. Examples of validation and application of the individual programs, as well as of the complete code system, are provided using studies carried out within the context of designs for experimental accelerator-driven, fast-spectrum systems

  15. Planning and management support for NPP personnel SAT-based training programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziakova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with planning and management support for NPP personnel SAT based training programmes based on IAEA TC Project SLR/0/003 on upgrading NPP personnel training, with the aim of upgrading NPP safety and reliability of NPP operation and maintenance. The costs needed include both Slovak and IAEA sources. Five stages of the Project are defined: planning; organizing; motivating; implementation; control, review and accountability

  16. Risk perception among nuclear power plant personnel: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated risk perception, well-being, and organizational commitment among nuclear power plant personnel. The study group, 428 employees from a nuclear power plant, completed a questionnaire which included the same questions as those in previous surveys on risk perception of lay persons and industrial workers. Hazards at work were not seen as a sizable problem by nuclear power plant personnel. The study group estimated the safety of nuclear power plants better and the possibility of a serious nuclear accident as more unlikely than the general public. Compared to employees in other industrial companies, the overall perceived risks at work among plant personnel did not exceed the respective perceptions of the reference groups. Risk-related attitudes did not explain well-being among plant personnel, but the relationship between the perceived probability of a serious nuclear accident at work and organizational commitment yielded to a significant correlation: Those plant workers who estimated the likelihood of an accident higher were less committed to the organization. 21 refs., 2 tabs

  17. The calibration procedures in the Studsvik standardized personnel dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widell, C.O.

    1978-01-01

    Every large nuclear installation in Sweden reads its own personnel TLDs. In order to supervise this decentralized reading of dose meters, the TLD readers are connected by telephone lines to a central computer for dose registration. This computer is used both for registering the personnel doses and for checking the TLD readers. This checking is performed by the use of pre-irradiated calibration dose meters which are always used when a batch of personnel dose meters are read. The pre-irradiated dose meters are either irradiated using 137 Cs to various doses up to 100mSv(10000mrem) or using a 90 Sr source in a reference dose irradiator to a dose equal to 3mSv(300mrem) from a 137 Cs source. The results from the reading of the pre-irradiated dose meters are processed by the computer and a calibration factor is calculated. The calibration factor is automatically used to calculate the doses to the personnel TLD's. However, if the calibration factor deviates by more than 10% from the previously used factor, this fact is shown to the operator - who then has to decide what calibration factor is going to be used. This calibration and supervisory procedure together with the safety interlocks in the TLD readers has resulted in a very reliable and accurate dosimetry system. (author)

  18. Proficiency evaluation of maintenance personnel: Training equivalency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear industry has recognized the importance of safe, quality, productive maintenance practices and has taken a number of initiatives that have generally improved maintenance programs. Because proficient maintenance practices are critical to plant safety and reliability, most plants have also recognized the need for reliable, valid testing techniques that demonstrate and assure the competence of their maintenance personnel. Until now, resource demands were too great to develop in-plant testing programs. In the past, maintenance supervisors have exempted personnel from training, using informal judgment of the employees' previous training and experience and informal observation of the employee on the job. While this procedure may have some degree of validity, it fails to provide the documentation for training equivalency that is required to satisfy the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) guidelines. To assess and demonstrate the proficiency levels of personnel, Calvert Cliffs needed to establish an objective, reliable, time-saving, and valid system to evaluate the competency levels of personnel. This was done in a joint effort with the Electric Power Research Institute

  19. The Integral Fast Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, its technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and its future development path

  20. Control in personnel exposure of RCD/FCD facility RLG during the period 2005 - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, S.; Thanamani, S.; Sapkal, J.A.; Bairwa, Satya Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Radio Chemistry Wing, RLG, houses Radio Chemistry Division and Fuel Chemistry Division and certain common utility services. The personnel in the facility carry out radiochemical operations involving isotopes of Pu and other actinides. The HP Unit, Radio Chemistry Wing provides essential safety coverage to the personnel of the facility. The lab personnel of RCD/FCD facility at RLG carry out active operations, such operations held in suitable containment systems, under the HP supervision by RHC Unit advising safe work practices. The lab personnel are provided with monitoring programmes viz. TLD, Bio-assay and Lung counting periodically. Presently the dose limit for occupational exposure is 20 mSv per annum with 100 mSv for 5 consecutive calendar years. The present paper on TLD dose report enlists the details of the personnel exposure year wise and highlights the control in personnel exposure due to the safe procedures followed. The decreasing trend in the average personnel exposure over the period 2005 - 2008 validates the practice of adherence to safety procedures, though the amount of activity handled in the facility has increased by a few folds

  1. Training of personnel in the field of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasten, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    Training of personnel in the whole nuclear fuel cycle and also in the other fields of the use of radioactivity is one of the essentials with respect to compliance assurance. The transport of radioactive material is the only activity that takes place outside a facility: on roads, on railways, on the sea or in the air. A high level of safety is therefore an absolute requirement for all transport operations. To ensure this high level the training of the personnel involved in these activities plays an important role. Many studies show that most of the incidents in radioactive materials transport are caused by man-made errors: even so there have been no events with serious radiological consequences anywhere worldwide. There are many requirements in the various national and international regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material with regard to training. An overview is given of the special regulations, e.g. for road transport drivers, for safety advisers in the whole field of the transport of dangerous goods, for specially educated personnel in sea and air transports. In addition, the newest developments in the European Community in this field are discussed. An evaluation of the present regulations and proposals for further rules are also given. (Author)

  2. Applied Health Physics and Safety annual report for 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    This report describes and summarizes the activities of the applied sections and/or groups of the Health Physics Division. Projects and activities covered include personnel monitoring, environmental monitoring, radiation and safety surveys, and industrial safety

  3. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on c...

  4. Hydrogen safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA experience with hydrogen began in the 1950s when the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) research on rocket fuels was inherited by the newly formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Initial emphasis on the use of hydrogen as a fuel for high-altitude probes, satellites, and aircraft limited the available data on hydrogen hazards to small quantities of hydrogen. NASA began to use hydrogen as the principal liquid propellant for launch vehicles and quickly determined the need for hydrogen safety documentation to support design and operational requirements. The resulting NASA approach to hydrogen safety requires a joint effort by design and safety engineering to address hydrogen hazards and develop procedures for safe operation of equipment and facilities. NASA also determined the need for rigorous training and certification programs for personnel involved with hydrogen use. NASA's current use of hydrogen is mainly for large heavy-lift vehicle propulsion, which necessitates storage of large quantities for fueling space shots and for testing. Future use will involve new applications such as thermal imaging

  5. Accommodation and Occupational Safety for Pregnant Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McQuiston, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    ... (commonly referred to as Pregnant Women's Study or PWS) is a cooperative effort between the United States Air Force 74th Medical Group, Armstrong Laboratory's Computenzed Anthropomernc Research and Design (CARD...

  6. Radiation protection and personnel safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Due to availability of a variety of radioisotopes from BRIT, a considerable number of industrial organizations have come up in India which employ radiation sources in one form or the other. More such organizations may come up in the near future due to the 'Make in India' policy of the Government. All ionizing radiations, whether electromagnetic (gamma- ã ) or corpuscular (particles of alpha-á, or beta-â-), and neutrons (0n1) are harmful to the human body. The damage done by radiations is sinister as human senses are not capable of detecting even lethal doses of radiation. The dose of radiations absorbed by human body which take into account the biological effectiveness of different types of radiations as noted above. The overall outcome of exposure to radiation is initiated by damage to the cells of the organism. The effects of radiation may be deterministic or stochastic, early or late, of somatic or genetic type. The somatic effects (physical) can either be immediate or delayed when the whole body is acutely irradiated with radiation doses. All countries including India have brought their national laws/standards on ionizing radiation in line with the ICRP codes. The conditions for registration, transport, storage, protection and use of radiation sources have been laid down in regulations. The purpose of practical protection against radiation is to prevent any individual receiving a harmful dose. Radiation measurement Instruments like dose meter, pocket dosimeter, NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and recording instruments such as film/TLD badge have been briefly described

  7. Annual Safety Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    A safety report from Section K (Nuclear Physics) of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics is presented for 1981. The report begins with general matters concerning safety policy at NIKHEF, licences and expenditure. Works accidents (none of them radiological) are detailed and accident prevention considered. The measurement programme for neutron radiation in the vicinity of the accelerator is described and the results are discussed. The means and results of personnel dosimetry are also presented. The report is concluded with a list of publications concerning safety aspects at NIKHEF. (C.F.)

  8. LTE for public safety

    CERN Document Server

    Liebhart, Rainer; Wong, Curt; Merkel , Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the book is to educate government agencies, operators, vendors and other regulatory institutions how LTE can be deployed to serve public safety market and offer regulatory / public safety features. It is written in such a way that it can be understood by both technical and non-technical personnel with just introductory knowledge in wireless communication. Some sections and chapters about public safety services offered by LTE network are intended to be understood by anyone with no knowledge in wireless communication.

  9. Advanced fuels safety comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmes, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The safety considerations of advanced fuels are described relative to the present understanding of the safety of oxide fueled Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Safety considerations important for the successful implementation of advanced fueled reactors must early on focus on the accident energetics issues of fuel coolant interactions and recriticality associated with core disruptive accidents. It is in these areas where the thermal physical property differences of the advanced fuel have the greatest significance

  10. Staffing of nuclear power plants and the recruitment, training and authorization of operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Guide is a part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS (Nuclear Safety Standards) programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It outlines the various factors to be considered in order to ensure that the Operating Organization has a sufficient number of qualified site personnel who are clearly aware of their duties and responsibilities. The Guide covers the organization for a nuclear power plant, the educational qualifications and experience of the persons who are recruited for plant operation, the recruitment and training schedule, the training of operating personnel, the authorizations for persons whose duties have an immediate bearing on safety, and re-training of personnel. The provisional list of NUSS programme titles is attached

  11. Advances by the Integral Fast Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The advances by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, improved passive safety, and the development of a prototype fuel cycle facility. 14 refs

  12. Chapter 9. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The overall training system and the development of projects for training of all categories of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice, SE-VYZ and NPP Mochovce staff were the subject of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) attention. During 2000, the following inspections were carried out on nuclear personnel training: (a) NPP Bohunice: an inspection focused on compliance with requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of Bohunice plant staff ; (b) NPP Mochovce: an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of NPP Mochovce staff; an inspection focused on verifying the simulator aided training; an inspection focused on checking the preparedness of NPP Mochovce operation and technical personnel for NPP Mochovce Unit 2 operation; (c) Technology for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste Bohunice (BSC): an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of SE-VYZ staff; VUJE Trnava: verification of technical equipment and professional skills of VUJE Trnava staff and tasks arising out of the 'Authorisation on nuclear installation staff training'. Examinations of selected personnel were scheduled according to the plan of examining committee meetings. For each examined person written tests are generated by the computer from the database of test questions at the Training Centre of VUJE Trnava for individual positions - categories of selected staff of NPP V-1 and NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce so that the examination questions both in written and oral part equally cover individual facilities and regimes of operation of NPP. The database is continuously updated, thereby containing new questions resulting from the recent changes carried out at NPPs. A part of the examination in case of promotion to a higher position is the practical part, which is conducted under

  13. Mandatory influenza vaccination for all healthcare personnel: a review on justification, implementation and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiffany L; Jing, Ling; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2017-10-01

    As healthcare-associated influenza is a serious public health concern, this review examines legal and ethical arguments supporting mandatory influenza vaccination policies for healthcare personnel, implementation issues and evidence of effectiveness. Spread of influenza from healthcare personnel to patients can result in severe harm or death. Although most healthcare personnel believe that they should be vaccinated against seasonal influenza, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that only 79% of personnel were vaccinated during the 2015-2016 season. Vaccination rates were as low as 44.9% in institutions that did not promote or offer the vaccine, compared with rates of more than 90% in institutions with mandatory vaccination policies. Policies that mandate influenza vaccination for healthcare personnel have legal and ethical justifications. Implementing such policies require multipronged approaches that include education efforts, easy access to vaccines, vaccine promotion, leadership support and consistent communication emphasizing patient safety. Mandatory influenza vaccination for healthcare personnel is a necessary step in protecting patients. Patients who interact with healthcare personnel are often at an elevated risk of complications from influenza. Vaccination is the best available strategy for protecting against influenza and evidence shows that institutional policies and state laws can effectively increase healthcare personnel vaccination rates, decreasing the risk of transmission in healthcare settings. There are legal and ethical precedents for institutional mandatory influenza policies and state laws, although successful implementation requires addressing both administrative and attitudinal barriers.

  14. Safety and maintenance engineering: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A compilation is presented for the dissemination of information on technological developments which have potential utility outside the aerospace and nuclear communities. Safety of personnel engaged in the handling of hazardous materials and equipment, protection of equipment from fire, high wind, or careless handling by personnel, and techniques for the maintenance of operating equipment are reported.

  15. Asbestos exposure of building maintenance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarek, S; Corn, M; Blake, C

    1996-06-01

    The exposures of building maintenance personnel and occupants to airborne asbestos fibers, and the effects of operations and maintenance programs on those exposures, continue to be an important public health issue. The subject of this investigation was a large metropolitan county with numerous public buildings which routinely conducted air sampling for asbestos. A total of 302 personal air samples in nine task categories collected during maintenance worker activities in proximity to asbestos-containing materials were analyzed; 102 environmental air samples in four task categories were also analyzed. The arithmetic means of the 8-hr time weighted average exposures for personal sampling for each task category were all below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 fibers (f)/cc > 5 microm. The highest mean 8-hr time weighted average exposure was 0.030 f/cc > 5 microm for ceiling tile replacement. The maximum asbestos concentration during sample collection for environmental samples was 0.027 f/cc > 5 microm. All asbestos-related maintenance work was done within the framework of an Operations and Maintenance Program (OMP) which utilized both personal protective equipment and controls against fiber release/dispersion. Results are presented in association with specific OMP procedures or controls. These results support the effectiveness of using Operations and Maintenance Programs to manage asbestos in buildings without incurring unacceptable risk to maintenance workers performing maintenance tasks.

  16. Education in logistics and training of non-logistic personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2011-01-01

    the logistics structure in the defense system and its horizontal connections and relations with civil surroundings where economic aspects are dominant. This structure has influence on decision-making (logistics aspects of decision-making in various aspects of their lives and work. Through logistics content in non-logistics subjects, non-logistic personnel should acquire knowledge referring to the support of their decision-making processes in various aspects of their lives and work where combat aspects and factors are predominant. Approach to the adoption of logistics content In the process of adoption of logistics content, a combination of traditional and modern ways of studying should be applied, emphasizing active participation of cadets in the process of learning. Cadets should be motivated to use different sources of knowledge (people, documents, space, time… and they should apply them adequately. They should be helped to learn how to make optimal decisions and to solve typical problems in particular situations, considering logistical aspects of decision-making, to learn the art of gathering and classification of information from different areas and sources, art of selection and analysis of information, to learn how to find possibilities of problem-solving and acting according to their own choice (not insisting on conventional solutions, to connect their own experiences and their education as well as to learn and explore on their own. Institutional framework for enhancing education and training Enhancement of quality of logistics education and training should be incorporated in a long-term concept of development of education and training in the defense system and society, considering the technology of education and training process. There should not be a search for fast, cheap and high quality solutions in education since such solutions do not exist either in theory or practice. Education should not be considered as an expense but as an investment seriously

  17. Safety Management at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligam, A.S.; Zarina Masood; Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Adequate safety measures and precautions, which follow relevant safety standards and procedures, should be in place so that personnel safety is assured. Nevertheless, the public, visitor, contractor or anyone who wishes to enter or be in the reactor building should be well informed with the safety measures applied. Furthermore, these same elements of safety are also applied to other irradiation facilities within the premises of Nuclear Malaysia. This paper will describes and explains current safety management system being enforced especially in the TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP) namely radiation monitoring system, safety equipment, safe work instruction, and interconnected internal and external health, safety and security related departments. (author)

  18. Development of instructors for nuclear power plant personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    In 1996 the IAEA published Technical Reports Series No. 380, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, A Guidebook, which provides guidance with respect to development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that an additional publication be prepared to provide further details concerning the development of instructors for NPP personnel training. The quality of nuclear power plant personnel training is strongly dependent on the availability of competent instructors. Instructors must have a comprehensive practical as well as theoretical understanding of all aspects of the subjects being taught and the relationship of the subject to nuclear plant operation. Instructors should have the appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs) in their assigned areas of responsibility. They should thoroughly understand all aspects of the contents of the training programmes and the relationship between these contents and overall plant operation. This means that they should be technically competent and show credibility with the trainees and other plant personnel. In addition, the instructors should be familiar with the basics of adult learning and a systematic approach to training, and should have adequate instructional and assessment skills. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on various aspects of instructor selection, development and deployment, by quoting actual examples from different countries. It highlights the importance of having an appropriate training policy, especially considering the various organisational arrangements that exist in different utilities/countries. This should result in: plant performance improvement, improved human performance, meeting goals and objectives of the business (quality, safety, productivity), and improving training programs. This publication is available in two formats - as a conventional printed

  19. The integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    On April 3rd, 1986, two dramatic demonstrations of the inherent capability of sodium-cooled fast reactors to survive unprotected loss of cooling accidents were carried out on the experimental sodium-cooled power reactor, EBR-II, on the Idaho site of Argonne National Laboratory. Transients potentially of the most serious kind, one an unprotected loss of flow, the other an unprotected loss of heat sink, both initiated from full power. In both cases the reactor quietly shut itself down, without damage of any kind. These tests were a part of the on-going development program at Argonne to develop an advanced reactor with significant new inherent safety characteristics. Called the Integral Fast Reactor, or IFR, the basic thrust is to develop everything that is needed for a complete nuclear power system - reactor, closed fuel cycle, and waste processing - as a single optimized entity, and, for simplicity in concept, as an integral part of a single plant. The particular selection of reactor materials emphasizes inherent safety characteristics and also makes possible a simplified closed fuel cycle and waste process improvements

  20. Fast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, E.; Linde, R.; Tiemens, U.; Weiss, H.

    1978-01-01

    A system has been constructed for fast tomosynthesis, whereby X-ray photographs are made of a single layer of an object. Twenty five X-ray tubes illuminate the object simultaneously at different angles. The resulting coded image is decoded by projecting it with a pattern of lenses that have the same form as the pattern of X-ray tubes. The coded image is optically correlated with the pattern of the sources. The scale of this can be adjusted so that the desired layer of the object is portrayed. Experimental results of its use in a hospital are presented. (C.F.)