Thomsen, Cynthia J; Stander, Valerie A; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S
Although research has documented negative effects of combat deployment on mental health, few studies have examined whether deployment increases risky or self-destructive behavior. The present study addressed this issue. In addition, we examined whether deployment effects on risky behavior varied depending on history of pre-deployment risky behavior, and assessed whether psychiatric conditions mediated effects of deployment on risky behavior. In an anonymous survey, active duty members of the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy (N = 2116) described their deployment experiences and their participation in risky recreational activities, unprotected sex, illegal drug use, self-injurious behavior, and suicide attempts during three time frames (civilian, military pre-deployment, and military post-deployment). Respondents also reported whether they had problems with depression, anxiety, or PTSD during the same three time frames. Results revealed that risky behavior was much more common in civilian than in military life, with personnel who had not deployed, compared to those who had deployed, reporting more risky behavior and more psychiatric problems as civilians. For the current time period, in contrast, personnel who had deployed (versus never deployed) were significantly more likely to report both risky behavior and psychiatric problems. Importantly, deployment was associated with increases in risky behavior only for personnel with a pre-deployment history of engaging in risky behavior. Although psychiatric conditions were associated with higher levels of risky behavior, psychiatric problems did not mediate associations between deployment and risky behavior. Implications for understanding effects of combat deployment on active duty personnel and directions for future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The Export Development Corporation (EDC) supports Canadian exporters and investors in international projects by providing export credit insurance for commodities and by providing financing for projects ranging from chemical plants to pipeline projects. EDC has been an active participant in financing projects in 'risky markets' in China, Columbia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia and Venezuela. This presentation reviewed the origins and dimensions of the Asian crisis and how the spillover effects are showing up in most regions of the world. It was suggested that the factors which contributed to the crisis were: (1) growing macroeconomic imbalances, (2) excessive private capital inflows financing risky and low-profitability ventures, (3) financial sector mismanagement, (4) political uncertainty, and (5) decline in investor confidence. The Asian financial crisis will affect other developing countries in the following ways: (1) shrinking foreign private capital flows, (2) widening spreads for foreign and private borrowers, (3) reduced trade volumes due to import compression, (4) lower prices for traded goods, (5) depressed international interest rates. As a result of the Asian crisis, banks in Japan, Korea, Singapore, Europe and North America have cancelled or restructured several billion dollars in loans. Several projects are now under review, have been delayed or cancelled. It was suggested that significant changes in risk management strategies must be made in order for the countries of Asia to restructure their economies. Putting an end to 'cronyism' establishing well-supervised banking, legal and court systems that are up-to-date and transparent, are also essential ingredients of recovery
Rapp, Carolin; Shore, Jennifer; Tosun, Jale
This article addresses ongoing debates about whether the welfare state hinders or fosters self-employment. Starting a business can be an inherently risky undertaking and is thus not a feasible option for all people. Policies that have the potential to shoulder some of this risk can be particularly...
Callier, Heather H.
Ecstasy is a risky behavior that continues to be a concern in the education system today. The review of the Ecstasy literature focused on the definition of risky behavior, prevalence, and other basis aspects of Ecstasy; discovering life events that are associated with Ecstasy use, the function of this behavior, interventions for substance abuse,…
This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards
This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards
Xu, Eric R; Kralik, Jerald D
Rhesus monkeys have been shown to prefer risky over safe options in experiential decision-making tasks. These findings might be due, however, to specific contextual factors, such as small amounts of fluid reward and minimal costs for risk-taking. To better understand the factors affecting decision-making under risk in rhesus monkeys, we tested multiple factors designed to increase the stakes including larger reward amounts, distinct food items rather than fluid reward, a smaller number of trials per session, and risky options with greater variation that also included non-rewarded outcomes. We found a consistent preference for risky options, except when the expected value of the safe option was greater than the risky option. Thus, with equivalent mean utilities between the safe and risky options, rhesus monkeys appear to have a robust preference for the risky options in a broad range of circumstances, akin to the preferences found in human children and some adults in similar tasks. One account for this result is that monkeys make their choices based on the salience of the largest payoff, without integrating likelihood and value across trials. A related idea is that they fail to override an impulsive tendency to select the option with the potential to obtain the highest possible outcome. Our results rule out strict versions of both accounts and contribute to an understanding of the diversity of risky decision-making among primates.
A PhD Dissertation, presented as part of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the NOVA - School of Business and Economics This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between risky behaviors and social environment, including the strategic construction of conversational networks to discuss HIV related issues, the impact of social stigma on risky behaviors, and how subjective expectations from parents can influence childhood obesity. Underst...
Light, Audrey; Ahn, Taehyun
Given that divorce often represents a high-stakes income gamble, we ask how individual levels of risk tolerance affect the decision to divorce. We extend the orthodox divorce model by assuming that individuals are risk averse, that marriage is risky, and that divorce is even riskier. The model predicts that conditional on the expected gains to marriage and divorce, the probability of divorce increases with relative risk tolerance because risk averse individuals require compensation for the additional risk that is inherent in divorce. To implement the model empirically, we use data for first-married women and men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a probit model of divorce in which a measure of risk tolerance is among the covariates. The estimates reveal that a 1-point increase in risk tolerance raises the predicted probability of divorce by 4.3% for a representative man and by 11.4% for a representative woman. These findings are consistent with the notion that divorce entails a greater income gamble for women than for men.
Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.
Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)
In everyday life, we often have to decide between options that differ in their immediate and long-term consequences. Would you, for example, opt for a delicious piece of cake or rather eat a healthy apple? To investigate how people make risky decisions, this thesis focuses on the Iowa gambling task
Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo
Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.
Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Jamieson, Patrick E; Khurana, Atika; Weitz, Ilana
To investigate how exposure to sex, alcohol and violent content in mainstream and Black-oriented movies relates to corresponding adolescent behavior among Black youth from the United States and whether those relationships are moderated by ethnic identity. The present study uses survey data from an online sample of 1000 Black adolescents and content analysis ratings on top-grossing 2014 films and 2013/2014 Black-oriented films. Content-specific exposure measures for alcohol, sexual activity, and violence were calculated from self-reported exposure data and content analysis ratings. Regression analyses estimated the associations among exposures to risky health content in mainstream and Black-oriented films and adolescent behaviors as well as moderation by ethnic group identity. Black adolescents were mostly unaffected by exposure to risk portrayals in mainstream films, but exposure to risk in Black-oriented films was related to their behavior in all three domains. Strong group identity strengthened the relationship between exposure to sex in Black-oriented and mainstream films depending on the sexual outcome. The type of movie (i.e., mainstream or Black-oriented) through which Black adolescents are exposed to risky health portrayals is important for understanding its relationship to their behavior, and variations by ethnic identity were limited to sex content. Future research should identify the mechanisms through which risk content in Black-oriented films is associated with Black adolescents' risky behaviors to determine how media influence contributes to behavioral disparities among youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Long, Arwen B.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; Platt, Michael L.
Some people love taking risks, while others avoid gambles at all costs. The neural mechanisms underlying individual variation in preference for risky or certain outcomes, however, remain poorly understood. Although behavioral pathologies associated with compulsive gambling, addiction and other psychiatric disorders implicate deficient serotonin signaling in pathological decision making, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating a link between serotonin and risky decision making, in ...
Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia
Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.
Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette
; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....
Peng, Jiaxi; Zhang, Jiaxi; Sun, Hao; Zeng, Zhicong; Mai, Yuexia; Miao, Danmin
By applying unitive vocabulary, "die" or "save," to respective frames of the Asian disease problem, Tversky and Kahneman were able to define framing effect. In this study, we preliminarily explored the effect of mixed frames, which are characterized by the use of different vocabulary in one frame. In study 1, we found that only the sure option description had significant effect on decision-making, while the effects of risky option descriptions were not significant, nor were interactions between descriptions. In study 2, the results suggested that after controlling the effects of the hedonic tone of the sure options, risky option description did not significantly predict decision-making. In study 3, we found that neither the sure-to-risky option presentation order nor presentation order within risky options had significant effect on decision-making. We thus concluded that sure option description can serve as the decision-making foundation (reference point) for decision-makers in mixed frames.
... Issues Subscribe September 2011 Print this issue Risky Business Dealing With Your Teen’s Behavior Send us your ... go it alone. You can find helpful resources online and in community and school programs (See our ...
Maldonado, Antonio; Serra, Sara; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Megías, Alberto
The main aim of this research was to investigate the decision making process in risky situations. We studied how different types of feedback on risky driving behaviors modulate risk evaluation and risk-taking. For a set of risky traffic situations, participants had to make evaluative judgments (judge the situation as risky or not) and urgent decisions (brake or not). In Experiment 1, participants received feedback with and without negative emotional content when they made risky behaviors. In Experiment 2 we investigated the independent effects of feedback and negative emotional stimuli. The results showed three important findings: First, urgent decisions were faster [F(1, 92) = 6.76, p = .01] and more cautious [F(1, 92) = 17.16, p towards more cautious responses [F(1, 111) = 14.09, p emotional stimuli had an effect only when they were presented as feedback. The results of this research increase our understanding of the processes involved in risky driving behavior and suggest efficient ways to control risk taking through the use of feedback.
Shams, Mohsen; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
Iran has one of the highest fatality rates due to road traffic crashes (RTC) in the world. The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for RTC in Iran is more than 1,300,000 years, which is more than that for any other disease such as cardiovascular or cancer. We evaluated risky driving behaviors in Tehran, the capital of Iran. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on the data obtained from the Tehran Police Safety Driving Department. Offenses and crashes were studied in different municipal districts in Tehran from March 2006 to March 2007. The inclusion criteria were risky driving behaviors fined by the police. Nonbehavioral offences were excluded. There were 3,821,798 offenses in Tehran. Not wearing a seat belt was the most common (59%) example of risky driving behavior, followed by tailgating, not wearing motorcycle helmets, talking on the cell phone while driving, overtaking from the wrong side, speeding, not driving between the lanes, weaving in and out of traffic, left deviation, and changing lanes without signals. The most common causes of RTC in Tehran are speeding, overtaking from the wrong side, and the rapid changing of driving lanes. The study factors effective in preventing risky driving behaviors in Tehran is recommended. The consideration of specific characteristics of the municipal districts is necessary to reduce risky driving behaviors.
The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments
Full Text Available Taking care of oneself is crucial for maintaining one´s psychical and physical health. In the context of risky profession this topic can play an even more important role, because it can be the source of necessary information for improvement of coping capacity when one is confronted with crisis situations. The aim of the present study is to identify the most common forms of self-care among selected risky professions. In the second part is the attention focused on the comparison of the specificities of risky to non-risky professions in self-care. Methods: For data collection Self-regulation Self-care Questionnaire by authors Hricová and Lovaš (in press is used. The sample consists of two groups. In the first one participated 156 respondents, who worked in risky professions - namely police officers (60 at the age between 22 to 55 years (average age is 36.88, SD=9.49, fire fighters (46 at the age between 22 to 62 years (average age is 35.13, SD=8.31 and paramedics (50 at the age between 25 to 55 years (average age is 40.3, SD=6.62. 76.2% of the sample are men, 19.0% are women and 4,8% didn´t state their gender. The second sample consists of 161 participants who work in administrative, industry production or IT sphere. They were at the age between 23 to 61 years (average age is 38.01, SD=10.45. 74% of the sample are men and 21.7% are women. Results and discussion: Results confirmed the dominance of psychological self-care above physical among risky professions. To the forefront gets the need to live meaningful life, to fully use one´s skills and to be satisfied with one´s life and decisions. All this needs can be assigned to the necessity of sense, which could be seen as a result of everyday contact with critical and life threaten situations. Equally important sphere of self-care is the necessity of high-quality relationships, which doesn´t mean only relationships with family or friends. It is important to highlight also relationships with
... Risky Surgical Combination A A A | Print | Share Smoking and Bone Healing – A Risky Surgical Combination Imagine ... saying that they'd prefer patients to quit smoking. There hasn't been a great deal of ...
The activities and purposes of the Personnel Monitoring Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry of the Brazilian CNEN are presented. A summary of the personnel monitoring service is given, such as dosemeters supply, laboratorial inspections, and so on. The programs of working, publishing, courses and personnel interchange are also presented. (J.A.M.M.)
Long, Arwen B; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Platt, Michael L
Some people love taking risks, while others avoid gambles at all costs. The neural mechanisms underlying individual variation in preference for risky or certain outcomes, however, remain poorly understood. Although behavioral pathologies associated with compulsive gambling, addiction and other psychiatric disorders implicate deficient serotonin signaling in pathological decision making, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating a link between serotonin and risky decision making, in part due to the lack of a good animal model. We used dietary rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) to acutely lower brain serotonin in three macaques performing a simple gambling task for fluid rewards. To confirm the efficacy of RTD experiments, we measured total plasma tryptophan using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. Reducing brain serotonin synthesis decreased preference for the safe option in a gambling task. Moreover, lowering brain serotonin function significantly decreased the premium required for monkeys to switch their preference to the risky option, suggesting that diminished serotonin signaling enhances the relative subjective value of the risky option. These results implicate serotonin in risk-sensitive decision making and, further, suggest pharmacological therapies for treating pathological risk preferences in disorders such as problem gambling and addiction.
Kocher, M.G.; Pahlke, J.; Trautmann, S.T.
We study the effects of time pressure on risky decisions for pure gain prospects, pure loss prospects, and mixed prospects involving both gains and losses. In two experiments we find that time pressure has no effect on risk attitudes for gains, but increases risk aversion for losses. For mixed
Birnbaum, Michael H.
During the last 25 years, prospect theory and its successor, cumulative prospect theory, replaced expected utility as the dominant descriptive theories of risky decision making. Although these models account for the original Allais paradoxes, 11 new paradoxes show where prospect theories lead to self-contradiction or systematic false predictions.…
Matthies, S; Philipsen, A; Svaldi, J
Risky decision making and disadvantageous choices constitute core characteristics of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Consequences include negative psychosocial and health-related outcomes. However, risky decision making and its interrelations with emotional states in ADHD are poorly understood. Therefore, the authors investigated risky decision making without and after boredom induction in adults with and without ADHD. In study 1, ADHD patients (n = 15) and age/education matched controls (CG; n = 16) were compared on the Game of Dice Task (GDT), an established task measuring decision making in unambiguous situations. In study 2, ADHD patients (n = 14) and CG (n = 13) underwent boredom induction prior to the GDT. In study 1, ADHD patients selected the disadvantageous alternatives significantly more often than CG. In study 2, no significant group differences were found due to an increase in risky decision making in CG following the boredom induction. Even if severity of depression did not affect our results, it may be necessary to compare GDT responses in ADHD patients with and without current depression. Risk as a motor of disadvantageous decision making needs to be taken into account in therapeutic contexts as a maintenance factor of dysfunctional behaviour. The findings of study 2 are in line with postulated alterations of emotional state adjustment in ADHD. The link between decisions making and emotional regulation in ADHD needs further attention in research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
05) and adolescents' sexual risky behaviour. The results further showed the significant position between Parents adolescent disclosure (X2 cal = 32.856) is the most potent factor followed Parental autonomy (X2 cal = 24.642); Parent adolescent relationship (X2 cal = 18.986); Positive adolescent behaviour (X2 cal = 11.626); ...
Tobler, P.N.; Weber, E.U.; Glimcher, P.W.; Fehr, E.
In this chapter, we describe how risk and ambiguity impact the value of choice options, how this impact can be modelled formally and how it is implemented in the brain. In particular, we give an overview of two distinct ways of how risky choice options can be decomposed – either into outcomes and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of psychoactive substances is one of the most important public health issues. Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs are among the top risk factors for ill-health defined by World Health Organisation. The risky behaviours acquired in teenage can be magnified or decreased during university when a person starts having more awareness about the importance of own wellness. This paper describes the results of the project "Sportello Salute Giovani" ("Youth Health Information Desk" with respect to risky behaviours in a large sample of Italian university students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 questions of the survey "Sportello Salute Giovani" dealing with risky behaviors, the use of psychoactive substances such as tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs were included. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Besides, chi square test were used to test the differences in sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: About 24% of the interviewed students currently smokes. 89% and 42.2% respectively drinks at least rarely or weekly beer, wine or spirits. About 40% of students smoked at least a joint and about 2% used other drugs (mostly cocaine. CONCLUSION: The "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey suggests that the frequency of risky behaviours in Italian university students is not reassuring, although they should be aware about the negative consequences on their and others health because of their educational level.
Lucas, Brian J; Galinsky, Adam D
Philosophers and psychologists have long been interested in identifying factors that influence moral judgment. In the current analysis, we compare the literatures on moral psychology and decision making under uncertainty to propose that utilitarian choices are driven by the same forces that lead to risky choices. Spanning from neurocognitive to hormonal to interpersonal levels of analysis, we identify six antecedents that increase both utilitarian and risky choices (ventromedial prefrontal cortex brain lesions, psychopathology, testosterone, incidental positive affect, power, and social connection) and one antecedent that reduces these choices (serotonin activity). We identify the regulation of negative affect as a common mechanism through which the effects of each antecedent on utilitarian and risky choices are explained. By demonstrating that the same forces and the same underlying mechanism that produce risky choices also promote utilitarian choices, we offer a deeper understanding of how basic psychological systems underlie moral judgment. © The Author(s) 2015.
van der Veen, Egbert
Summary The personnel of an organization often has two conflicting goals. Individual employees like to have a good work-life balance, by having personal preferences taken into account, whereas there is also the common goal to work efficiently. By applying techniques and methods from Operations Research, a subfield of applied mathematics, we show that operational efficiency can be achieved while taking personnel preferences into account. In the design of optimization methods, we explicitly con...
The perceived inability of the Skyrme model to reproduce pseudovector pion-baryon coupling has come to be known as the ''Yukawa problem.'' In this talk, we review the complete solution to this problem. The solution involves a new configuration known as the rotationally improved Skyrmion, or ''RISKY,'' in which the hedgehog structure is modified by a small quadrupole distortion. We illustrate our ideas both in the Skyrme model and in a simpler model with a global U(l) symmetry
Chua, J.; Woodward, R.
Over the past few years many Canadian oil producers have shifted their exploration efforts to finding larger reserves outside of Canada. Evaluation of such international projects requires the same type of economic analysis as is carried out for domestic projects, essentially discounted cash flow or net present value analysis. Applying this evaluation methodology requires two types of data: a series of forecasted cash flows and an appropriate hurdle rate. Conventional wisdom states that foreign projects should be evaluated at a higher discount rate than domestic projects. This wisdom is called into question. While some overseas projects may indeed be of higher risk, especially unconventional projects or those located in politically unstable areas, it is not obvious that overseas projects located in politically stable economies and comparable technologically to domestic projects are indeed more risky. In addition to evaluating the market riskiness of overseas projects, the extent to which on-going globalization of world financial markets might impact the riskiness of both domestic and overseas investments in the energy industry is assessed. It is indicated that it may be appropriate for Canadian oil and gas companies to revisit the methods used to measure their corporate hurdle rates in light of this globalization process. 3 tabs
Full Text Available It is not known whether patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME differ from healthy people in decision making under risk, i.e., when the decision-making context offers explicit information about options, probabilities, and consequences already from the beginning. In this study, we adopted the Game of Dice Task-Double to investigate decision making under risk in a group of 36 patients with JME (mean age 25.25/SD 5.29 years and a group of 38 healthy controls (mean age 26.03/SD 4.84 years. Participants also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment focused on frontal executive functions. Significant group differences were found in tests of psychomotor speed and divided attention, with the patients scoring lower than the controls. Importantly, patients made risky decisions more frequently than controls. In the patient group, poor decision making was associated with poor executive control, poor response inhibition, and a short interval since the last seizure episode. Executive control and response inhibition could predict 42% of variance in the frequency of risky decisions. This study indicates that patients with JME with poorer executive functions are more likely to make risky decisions than healthy controls. Decision making under risk is of major importance in every-day life, especially with regard to treatment decisions and adherence to long-term medical therapy. Since even a single disadvantageous decision may have long-lasting consequences, this finding is of high relevance.
Unterberger, Iris; Zamarian, Laura; Prieschl, Manuela; Bergmann, Melanie; Walser, Gerald; Luef, Gerhard; Javor, Andrija; Ransmayr, Gerhard; Delazer, Margarete
It is not known whether patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) differ from healthy people in decision making under risk, i.e., when the decision-making context offers explicit information about options, probabilities, and consequences already from the beginning. In this study, we adopted the Game of Dice Task-Double to investigate decision making under risk in a group of 36 patients with JME (mean age 25.25/SD 5.29 years) and a group of 38 healthy controls (mean age 26.03/SD 4.84 years). Participants also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment focused on frontal executive functions. Significant group differences were found in tests of psychomotor speed and divided attention, with the patients scoring lower than the controls. Importantly, patients made risky decisions more frequently than controls. In the patient group, poor decision making was associated with poor executive control, poor response inhibition, and a short interval since the last seizure episode. Executive control and response inhibition could predict 42% of variance in the frequency of risky decisions. This study indicates that patients with JME with poorer executive functions are more likely to make risky decisions than healthy controls. Decision making under risk is of major importance in every-day life, especially with regard to treatment decisions and adherence to long-term medical therapy. Since even a single disadvantageous decision may have long-lasting consequences, this finding is of high relevance.
Full Text Available Using five variants of the Asian Disease Problem, we dissected the risky-choice framing effect by requiring each participant to provide preference ratings for the full decision problem and also to provide attractiveness ratings for each of the component parts, i.e., the sure-thing option and the risky option. Consistent with previous research, more risky choices were made by respondents receiving negatively framed versions of the decision problems than by those receiving positively framed versions. However, different processes were evident for those scoring high and low on numeracy. Whereas the choices of the less numerate showed a large effect of frame above and beyond any influence of their evaluations of the separate options, the choices of the highly numerate were almost completely accounted for by their attractiveness ratings of the separate options. These results are consistent with an increased tendency of the highly numerate to integrate complex numeric information in the construction of their preferences and a tendency for the less numerate to respond more superficially to non-numeric sources of information.
van der Veen, Egbert
Summary The personnel of an organization often has two conflicting goals. Individual employees like to have a good work-life balance, by having personal preferences taken into account, whereas there is also the common goal to work efficiently. By applying techniques and methods from Operations
Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.
personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...
Lynsay A. Shepherd
Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.
Full Text Available The paper researches the tendencies and dynamic characteristics of risky business. The means of development stimulation in risky business in the USA are examined. The factors for insurance companies, banks, retirement funds of their investors’ function inability are explained. The multichoice model of economy structure transformation according to the innovative changes and regulatory policy is developed. The authors systematize the factors, which determine the branch attraction for risky investment. Four scenarios for the development of risky industry in Ukraine are studied and the matrix of their development is formed.
The safety and efficiency with which a station operates is a function of the competence and proficiency of all personnel. This includes the nonlicensed personnel who make up the bulk of the station staff. Thus the training of these members of the station complement is an important function in overall station performance. Standards, regulations, regulatory guides, and codes provide guidance to the training requirements for such personnel. Training needs and objectives must be established, a plan prepared and then all incorporated into a training program. A well planned and operated training program will stimulate effective communications between the different groups within the station and between the station and off site support groups
Laussen, Peter C; Allan, Catherine K; Larovere, Joan M
Remarkable achievements have occurred in pediatric cardiac critical care over the past two decades. The specialty has become well defined and extremely resource intense. A great deal of focus has been centered on optimizing patient outcomes, particularly mortality and early morbidity, and this has been achieved through a focused and multidisciplinary approach to management. Delivering high-quality and safe care is our goal, and during the Risky Business symposium and simulation sessions at the Eighth International Conference of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society in Miami, December 2010, human factors, systems analysis, team training, and lessons learned from malpractice claims were presented.
This revision; (1) Contains changes required by the establishment of a consolidated and realigned management structure for civilian personnel, manpower, and related functions in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army...
This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs
Implementation of DOE N 5480.6 Radiological Control Manual Article 511(3) requirements, to minimize the assignment of personnel dosimeters, should be done only under a broader context ensuring that capabilities are in place to monitor and record personnel exposure both for compliance and for potential litigation. As noted in NCRP Report No. 114, personnel dosimetry programs are conducted to meet four major objectives: radiation safety program control and evaluation; regulatory compliance; epidemiological research; and litigation. A change to Article 511(3) is proposed that would require that minimizing the assignment of personnel dosimeters take place only following full evaluation of overall capabilities (e.g., access control, area dosimetry, etc.) to meet the NCRP objectives
The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included
Simon, Nicholas W.; Montgomery, Karienn S.; Beas, Blanca S.; Mitchell, Marci R.; LaSarge, Candi L.; Mendez, Ian A.; Bañuelos, Cristina; Vokes, Colin M.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Haberman, Rebecca P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry
Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by abnormal risky decision-making and dysregulated dopamine receptor expression. The current study was designed to determine how different dopamine receptor subtypes modulate risk-taking in young adult rats, using a “Risky Decision-making Task” that involves choices between small “safe” rewards and large “risky” rewards accompanied by adverse consequences. Rats showed considerable, stable individual differences in risk preference in the task, which were not related to multiple measures of reward motivation, anxiety, or pain sensitivity. Systemic activation of D2-like receptors robustly attenuated risk-taking, whereas drugs acting on D1-like receptors had no effect. Systemic amphetamine also reduced risk-taking, an effect which was attenuated by D2-like (but not D1-like) receptor blockade. Dopamine receptor mRNA expression was evaluated in a separate cohort of drug-naive rats characterized in the task. D1 mRNA expression in both nucleus accumbens shell and insular cortex was positively associated with risk-taking, while D2 mRNA expression in orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex predicted risk preference in opposing nonlinear patterns. Additionally, lower levels of D2 mRNA in dorsal striatum were associated with greater risk-taking. These data strongly implicate dopamine signaling in prefrontal corticalstriatal circuitry in modulating decision-making processes involving integration of reward information with risks of adverse consequences. PMID:22131407
BACKGROUND: Students of higher institutions are assumed to be exposed to many risky sexual behaviors. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of risky behavior and predisposing factors in the context of higher education institutions in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the pattern of ...
Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, Kathryn Paige
Adolescents engage in more risky behavior when they are with peers and show, on average, heightened susceptibility to peer influence relative to children and adults. However, individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence are not well understood. The current study examined whether the effect of peers on adolescents' risky decision…
Ruiter Robert AC
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.
Pearson, Carolyn M; Pisetsky, Emily M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B
Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) frequently endorse risky behaviors such as self-harm and substance use. However, no studies of BN to date have examined factors associated with engaging in individual or co-occurring risky behaviors. Given that individuals with BN often have personality psychopathology, which has been linked to symptoms and course of illness, this study sought to examine how personality may differentiate engagement in risky behaviors among BN individuals. A sample of 133 women with BN completed self-report measures of personality psychopathology at baseline, and then reported on bulimic and risky behaviors (e.g., substance misuse, self-harm) over 2 weeks using ecological momentary assessment. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the unique associations between state-level predictor variables (each risky behavior, e.g., substance misuse, and combination of risky behaviors, e.g., substance misuse plus self-harm) and trait-level personality constructs. Substance misuse behavior, above and beyond all other risky behaviors, was significantly associated with higher scores on trait dissocial behavior (P = 0.004). Substance misuse in BN has a unique association with dissocial behavior, a personality trait characterized by hostility, impulsivity, and entitlement. These results suggest that targeting personality variables may help facilitate more effective treatment of risky behaviors, including substance use in BN. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:681-688). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sarkar, Sheila; Andreas, Marie
Data gathered from 1,430 teenage student drivers and 880 teenage traffic violators were used to examine the levels of exposure to risky driving behaviors and perceptions concerning the level of danger of such behaviors. For student drivers, 55% reported exposure to risky driving by being in a car with a driver engaging in such activities as drunk…
Nazar P. Shabila
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil, Iraq, and to explore the relationship between risky driving behaviours and perceptions of risky driving. Methods: This self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to May 2014 among a random sample of 400 medical students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil. The questionnaire was designed to assess the frequency of engagement in 21 risky driving behaviours, the perceived risk of each behaviour and the preference for each behaviour as ranked on a 5-point scale. Results: A total of 386 students responded to the survey (response rate: 96.5%. Of these, 211 reported that they currently drove a vehicle (54.7%. Drivers most frequently engaged in the following behaviours: playing loud music (35.9%, speeding (30.4%, allowing front seat passengers to not wear seat belts (27.9% and using mobile phones (27.7%. Least frequent driving behaviours included not stopping at a red light (3.9%, driving while sleepy (4.4%, driving after a mild to moderate intake of alcohol (4.5% and drunk driving (6.4%. Mean risky driving behaviour scores were significantly higher among males (P 20-year-olds (P = 0.028. There was a significant positive relationship between the preference for risky behaviours and risky driving behaviours (beta = 0.44; P <0.001. Conclusion: Medical students in Erbil reported high frequencies of several serious risky driving behaviours. The preference for risky behaviours was found to be an important predictor of risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil.
Ross, J Megan; Duperrouzel, Jacqueline; Vega, Melanie; Gonzalez, Raul
Engagement in risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a significant public health concern. A growing body of literature is elucidating the role of brain systems and neuropsychological constructs implicated in RSB, which may pave the way for novel insights and prevention efforts. In this article, we review studies incorporating neuropsychology into the study of RSB across the lifespan. The review of the literature on the neuropsychology of RSB is separated into three different sections by age of participants. Background is presented on research associating RSB with neurocognitive processes and the brain systems involved. Given the overlap between RSBs and substance use, studies addressing these problems in tandem are also discussed. Neurocognitive constructs are implicated in RSB, including impulsivity, decision-making, and working memory. Thus far, evidence suggest that neuropsychological factors are associated with engagement in RSB. More research on the influence of neuropsychological factors on engagement in RSB is necessary and may help inform future prevention efforts. (JINS, 2016, 22, 586-594).
The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have....... The "extreme 20th century" will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be more extreme and its temporal bindings easier to observe. The much celebrated revolutions in military affairs will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away. Kantian convergences may appear....
This lecture precises the method and means developed by EDF to ensure the training of maintenance personnel according to their initial educational background and their experience. The following points are treated: General organization of the training for maintenance personnel in PWR and GCR nuclear power stations and in Creys Malville fast breeder reactor; Basic nuclear training and pedagogical aids developed for this purpose; Specific training and training provided by contractors; complementary training taking into account the operation experience and feedback; Improvement of velocity, competence and safety during shut-down operations by adapted training. (orig.)
Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru
Fijn van Draat, Laurens; Post, Gerhard F.; Veltman, Bart; Winkelhuijzen, Wessel
The area of personnel scheduling is very broad. Here we focus on the ‘shift assignment problem’. Our aim is to discuss how ORTEC HARMONY handles this planning problem. In particular we go into the structure of the optimization engine in ORTEC HARMONY, which uses techniques from genetic algorithms,
FOIA Electronic Reading Room Privacy Impact Assessment DTRA No Fear Act Reporting Nuclear Test Personnel Review NTPR Fact Sheets NTPR Radiation Dose Assessment Documents US Atmospheric Nuclear Test History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak
... on Your Summer Fun Print version Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun Summer ... adults involve the use of alcohol. 1 Swimmers can get in over their heads. Alcohol impairs judgment ...
Key words: Risky sexual behaviours, University students, Debre Tabor. Introduction .... Missionary/religious school. 2. 0.6. Others. 1 ..... Abebe A, Mitikie G. Perception of high school students towards voluntary HIV counseling and testing, using ...
Beck, Kenneth H; Ali, Bina; Daughters, Stacey B
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between distress tolerance and risky and aggressive driving. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was hypothesized to be related negatively to aggressive driving and risky driving. An anonymous, web-based survey of 769 college students was conducted at a large East Coast university. After controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, year in school, grade point average, and driving frequency, distress tolerance was significantly inversely related to reported risky driving and aggressive driving. College drivers who have a diminished capacity to endure frustration without experiencing negative emotional states (i.e., low distress tolerance) tend to drive aggressively and in a risky manner. Traditional deterrence-based approaches to highway safety may benefit from inclusion of a wider array of prevention strategies that focus on emotion regulation while driving.
Haferburg, M.; Rehn, H.
Personnel training in German nuclear power plants adheres to high standards complying with government regulations. The development of PC technology allows the introduction of new training methods, e.g. computer based training (CBT), as well as their integration into existing systems. In Germany, the operators of nuclear power plants have developed their own computer based standards with a screen design, a hardware platform and an assessment standard. 25% of the theoretical training of the shift personnel is covered by CBT. The CBT-Programmes offer multimedia features: videos, photographs, sound, graphs and switching diagrams of existing systems, practice oriented simulations and 3-D animations. Interaction is the most important attribute of an efficient self-learning-programme. A typical example of such an appropriate theme is the CBT-Lesson ''Pressure Surges in Pipes and Components of Power Plants''. (author)
Ana I. Gil Lacruz; Marta Gil Lacruz; Juan Oliva
Sexually transmitted diseases pose an important public health problem around the world. Although many studies have explored the link between alcohol use and risky sexual practices, the unobserved differences among individuals make it difficult to assess whether the associations are casual in nature. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have obtained data from the Spanish Health and Sexual Behavior Survey (2003) in order to analyze risky sexual behaviors using four alternative methodolo...
following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six
Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as it is across other Western countries. However, there is no systematic mechanism for gathering data about cosmetic surgery, nor about the outcomes of that surgery. This column argues that the business of cosmetic surgery in Australia has questionable marketing standards, is conducted with little scrutiny or accountability and offers patients imperfect knowledge about cosmetic procedures. It also argues that while medical practitioners debate among themselves over who should carry out cosmetic procedures, little attention has been paid to questionable advertising in the industry and even less to highlighting the real risks of undergoing cosmetic surgery. While consumers are led to believe that cosmetic surgery is accessible, affordable and safe, they are sheltered from the reality of invasive and risky surgery and from the ability to clearly discern that all cosmetic procedures carry risk. While doctors continue to undertake advertising and engage in a territorial war, they fail to address the really important issues in cosmetic surgery. These are: providing real evidence about what happens in the industry, developing stringent regulations under which the industry should operate and ensuring that all patients considering cosmetic surgery are fully informed as to the risks of that surgery.
If a company or institution hires personnel of a security service company to protect its premises, this kind of employment does not mean the company carries on temporary employment business. Within the purview of section 99, sub-section 1 of the BetrVG (Works Constitution Act), the security service personnel is not 'employed' in the proper sense even if the security tasks fulfilled by them are done at other times by regular employees of the company or institution. The court decision also decided that the Works Council need not give consent to employment of foreign security personnel. The court decision was taken for settlement of court proceedings commenced by Institute of Plasma Physics in Garching. In his comments, W. Hunold accedes to the court's decision and discusses the underlying reasons of this decision and of a previous ruling in the same matter by putting emphasis on the difference between a contract for services and a contract for work, and a contract for temporary employment. The author also discusses the basic features of an employment contract. (orig./HP) [de
Lattin, Kenneth R.
United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)
US Agency for International Development — The eOPF is a digital recreation of paper personnel folder that stores electronic personnel data spanning an individual's Federal career. eOPF allows employees to...
Competence of personnel is one of the important problems for safety operation of nuclear power plant. This paper gives a description of some aspects, such as the administration of NPP, posts, competence of personnel, training, assessing the competence and personnel management
Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina; Markšaitytė, Rasa; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Šeibokaitė, Laura; Pranckevičienė, Aistė
The study aims to evaluate how the factors of motivation and attitudes about traffic safety are related to risky driving evaluated by young drivers both subjectively and objectively. Risky driving was evaluated in three ways: self-knowledge, driving in a simulation environment, and recalled violations of road traffic regulations as well as accidents caused. 226 respondents aged 18–29 answered the questions from the self-knowledge questionnaire, 40 of them participated in the experiment of dri...
A dosimeter and method for use by personnel working in an area of mixed ionizing radiation fields for measuring and/or determining the effective energy of x- and gamma radiation; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent to the surface of the body; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent at a depth in the body; the presence of slow neutron, fast neutron dose equivalent; and orientation of the person wearing the dosimeter to the source of radiation is disclosed. Optionally integrated into this device and method are improved means for determining neutron energy spectrum and absorbed dose from fission gamma and neutron radiation resulting from accidental criticality
In the field of personnel policy and management two main points must be considered and fitted together: the aspects of the applicant and the aspects of the utility. The applicant wishes a position which suits to his abilities, education, training, experience and self-evaluation. The enterprise has beside these qualification criteria to look to some additional points: reliability - not only in the profession of the applicant but also in his daily life. In this examination licensing authorities are involved too; responsibility in a very broad sense and the ability to make correct decisions sometimes under stress situations. (orig.)
Selected staffs (in the area of NPPs) are examined by the State Examining Committee established by Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR's) chairman. The committee consists of representatives of NRA SR , Bohunice NPPs, Mochovce NPP, Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and experts from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology of the Slovak Technical University. The review of selected personnel of NPP V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPP which passed exams in 1996 is given. NRA SR paid attention to the upgrading training process of individual categories of staff for V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPPs, simulator training and training with computerized simulation system according to the United criteria of nuclear installation personnel training that started in 1992. During the year, an inspection was performed focused on examination of technical equipment of the simulator of Mochovce NPP, professional eligibility and overall preparation of simulator training including simulator software. Throughout the year launching works continued at the simulator with the deadline of commissioning to trial use operation in the first half of 1997
With the increasing use of nuclear power and radiation sources, the selection of optimum systems for personnel monitoring is becoming a matter of worldwide concern. The present status of personnel dosimetry, sometimes characterized by unstable and inaccurate detectors and oversimplified interpretation of the results, leaves much to be desired. In particular, photographic film, although having certain advantages with regard to economics and information content, undergoes rapid changes in warm and humid climates. Careful sealing reduces, but does not prevent, these problems. The replacement of film by solid-state dosimeters, primarily thermoluminescence dosimeters, is in progress or being considered by an increasing number of institutions and requires a number of decisions concerning the choice of the optimum detector(s), badge design, and evaluation system; organizational matters, such as the desirability of automation and computerized bookkeeping; etc. The change also implies the potential use of such advanced concepts as different detectors and monitoring periods for the large number of low-risk persons and the small number of high-risk radiation workers. (auth)
In order to make the full benefits of neutron radiography available in the nondestructive test (NDT) field, it has been necessary to formalize its application. A group under the Penetrating Radiation Committee of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) was organized to prepare a recommended practice for neutron radiography. The recommended practices require the establishment of an appropriate certification program. The requirements on the employer to establish and maintain a qualification and certification program are outlined. To conduct a program of nondestructive testing using neutron radiography requires the usual three levels of qualified and certified personnel. The program is administered by a Level III person. Routine exposure, reviews, and reporting of test results are the responsibilities of Level I and Level II personnal. The amount of training and nature of the required practical examination are also specified. The recommended practices document assures users that NDT work in the field of neutron radiography is performed by qualified personnel. Although no training courses are available to provide experience in the depth required by the recommended practices document, SNT-TC-1A, short courses are provided at a number of locations to familarize user's representatives with the interpretation of neutron radiographs and capabilities and limitations of the technique
Full Text Available The main research problem is focused on the following question: Is it possible to identify specific patterns of interaction between precipitating and protective factors for the risky behavior among adolescents. The research was conducted on the sample of 204 adolescents of both genders (18 to 20 years old. Specific personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics are manifested as the most important precipitating and/or protective factors for the risky behavior. The frame of reference for personality assessment was the alternative five-factor model (Zuckerman, 2002, specified in the ZKPQ-50-CC questionnaire, and consisted of the five biologically determined personality traits: activity, aggressiveness/hostility, impulsive sensation seeking, neuroticism/anxiety and sociability. Latent dimensions of the risky behavior: risky activities and life - conditions, were extracted by applying the homogeneity analyses (HOMALS. The matrix of squared Euclidean distances (in the common space of factor scores on the principal components of ZKPQ questionnaire, scores on HOMALS dimensions and school grades was a subject of the Ward hierarchical cluster analysis method, extracting three clusters. According to the discriminant functions: risk proneness and pro-social activity, the clusters were identified: the group of pro-social oriented adolescents, the aloof group and the group of adolescents prone to risky behavior. The results have considerable implications for the prevention programs’ development and implementation.
Wong, Mitchell D; Coller, Karen M; Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Kennedy, David P; Buddin, Richard; Shapiro, Martin F; Kataoka, Sheryl H; Brown, Arleen F; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Bergman, Peter; Chung, Paul J
We examined whether exposure to high-performing schools reduces the rates of risky health behaviors among low-income minority adolescents and whether this is due to better academic performance, peer influence, or other factors. By using a natural experimental study design, we used the random admissions lottery into high-performing public charter high schools in low-income Los Angeles neighborhoods to determine whether exposure to successful school environments leads to fewer risky (eg, alcohol, tobacco, drug use, unprotected sex) and very risky health behaviors (e.g., binge drinking, substance use at school, risky sex, gang participation). We surveyed 521 ninth- through twelfth-grade students who were offered admission through a random lottery (intervention group) and 409 students who were not offered admission (control group) about their health behaviors and obtained their state-standardized test scores. The intervention and control groups had similar demographic characteristics and eighth-grade test scores. Being offered admission to a high-performing school (intervention effect) led to improved math (P performance of public schools in low-income communities may be a powerful mechanism to decrease very risky health behaviors among low-income adolescents and to decrease health disparities across the life span. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.
Li Wang; Xilin Hou; Lili Zhang
The existing personnel selection decisions in practice are based on the evaluation of job seeker's human capital, and it may be difficult to make personnel-job matching and make each party satisfy. Therefore, this paper puts forward a new personnel selection method by consideration of bilateral matching. Starting from the employment thoughts of ¡°satisfy¡±, the satisfaction evaluation indicator system of each party are constructed. The multi-objective optimization model is given according to ...
Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R
It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements
Shimp, Kristy G; Mitchell, Marci R; Beas, B Sofia; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry
The ability to make advantageous decisions under circumstances in which there is a risk of adverse consequences is an important component of adaptive behavior; however, extremes in risk taking (either high or low) can be maladaptive and are characteristic of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. To better understand the contributions of various affective and cognitive factors to risky decision making, cohorts of male Long-Evans rats were trained in a "Risky Decision making Task" (RDT), in which they made discrete trial choices between a small, "safe" food reward and a large, "risky" food reward accompanied by varying probabilities of footshock. Experiment 1 evaluated the relative contributions of the affective stimuli (i.e., punishment vs. reward) to RDT performance by parametrically varying the magnitudes of the footshock and large reward. Varying the shock magnitude had a significant impact on choice of the large, "risky" reward, such that greater magnitudes were associated with reduced choice of the large reward. In contrast, varying the large, "risky" reward magnitude had minimal influence on reward choice. Experiment 2 compared individual variability in RDT performance with performance in an attentional set shifting task (assessing cognitive flexibility), a delayed response task (assessing working memory), and a delay discounting task (assessing impulsive choice). Rats characterized as risk averse in the RDT made more perseverative errors on the set shifting task than did their risk taking counterparts, whereas RDT performance was not related to working memory abilities or impulsive choice. In addition, rats that showed greater delay discounting (greater impulsive choice) showed corresponding poorer performance in the working memory task. Together, these results suggest that reward-related decision making under risk of punishment is more strongly influenced by the punishment than by the reward, and that risky and impulsive decision making are associated with
Šeibokaitė, Laura; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Sullman, Mark J M; Markšaitytė, Rasa; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina
Risky driving is a common cause of traffic accidents and injuries. However, there is no clear evidence of how difficulties in emotion regulation contribute to risky driving behavior, particularly in small post-Soviet countries. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and self-reported risky driving behavior in a sample of Lithuanian drivers. A total of 246 nonprofessional Lithuanian drivers participated in a cross-sectional survey. Difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer 2004), and risky driving behavior was assessed using the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ; Lajunen et al. 2004). Males scored higher than females in aggressive violations and ordinary violations. Females scored higher for the nonacceptance of emotional responses, whereas males had more difficulties with emotional awareness than females. More difficulties in emotion regulation were positively correlated with driving errors, lapses, aggressive violations, and ordinary violations for both males and females. Structural equation modeling showed that difficulties in emotion regulation explained aggressive and ordinary violations more clearly than lapses and errors. When controlling for interactions among the distinct regulation difficulties, difficulties with impulse control and difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior predicted risky driving. Furthermore, nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation strategies were related to less violations and more driving errors. Emotion regulation difficulties were associated with the self-reported risky driving behaviors of Lithuanian drivers. This provides useful hints for improving driver training programs in order to prevent traffic injuries.
Dahal, Govinda P.; Hennink, Monique; Hinde, Andrew
We use the Nepal Adolescents and Young Adults (NAYA) Survey of 2000 to analyse the prevalence of sexual activity and risky sexual behaviour among Nepalese males aged 14-22 years. Risky sexual behaviour is considered to be characterised by having multiple partners, or having one non-regular partner with whom a condom was not used, in the 12 months before the survey. About 9 per cent of the sexually active married men aged 14-22 years, and about 20 per cent of sexually active single men in the ...
Bensley, Kara M; Seelig, Amber D; Armenta, Richard F; Rivera, Anna C; Peterson, Arthur V; Jacobson, Isabel G; Littman, Alyson J; Maynard, Charles; Bricker, Jonathan B; Boyko, Edward J; Rull, Rudolph P; Williams, Emily C
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and unhealthy alcohol use are commonly associated conditions. It is unknown whether specific symptoms of PTSD are associated with subsequent initiation of unhealthy alcohol use. Data from the first 3 enrollment panels (n = 151,567) of the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study of military personnel were analyzed (2001-2012). Complementary log-log models were fit to estimate whether specific PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters were associated with subsequent initiation of 2 domains of unhealthy alcohol use: risky and problem drinking (experience of 1 or more alcohol-related consequences). Models were adjusted for other PTSD symptoms and demographic, service, and health-related characteristics. Eligible study populations included those without risky (n = 31,026) and problem drinking (n = 67,087) at baseline. In adjusted analyses, only 1 PTSD symptom-irritability/anger-was associated with subsequent increased initiation of risky drinking (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.09) at least 3 years later. Two symptom clusters (dysphoric arousal [RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.23] and emotional numbing [RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22-1.40]) and 5 symptoms (restricted affect [RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.19], sense of foreshortened future [RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.18], exaggerated startle response [RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13], sleep disturbance [RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15], and irritability/anger [RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07-1.17]) were associated with subsequent initiation of problem drinking. Findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters are associated with subsequent initiation of unhealthy alcohol use.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not extend to the contributions of
As required by 10 CFR Part 73, this training manual provides guidance to assist licensees in the development of security personnel training and qualifications programs. The information contained in the manual typifies the level and scope of training for personnel assigned to perform security related tasks and job duties associated with the protection of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors
Discusses the backgrounds and qualifications appropriate for a library personnel administrator, including (1) a master's degree in library science; (2) library work experience; (3) additional training in administration, personnel management, organizational development, and psychology; and (4) personal attributes such as good communication skills,…
Bouchard, Ronald A.
Personnel administration in higher education is the focus of this "hands-on, how-to-do-it" guide that provides fundamental materials for developing and maintaining a sound personnel program. Part One (Employment) examines government regulations, employee recruitment and selection, pre-employment inquiries and screening, post-employment process,…
The measurement of neutron exposures to personnel is an issue that has received increased attention in the last few years. It is important to consider key aspects of the whole dosimetry system when developing dose estimates. This begins with selection of proper dosimeters and survey instruments, and extends through the calibration methods. One must match the spectral response and sensitivity of the dosimeter to the spectral characteristics of the neutron fields. Threshold detectors that are insensitive to large fractions of neutrons in the lower energy portion of reactor spectra should be avoided. Use of two or more detectors with responses that complement each other will improve measurement quality. It is important to understand the spectral response of survey instruments, so that spectra which result in significant overresponse do not lead to overestimation of dose. Calibration sources that do not match operational field spectra can contribute to highly erroneous results. In those situations, in-field calibration techniques should be employed. Although some detection developments have been made in recent years, a lot can be done with existing technology until fully satisfactory, long term solutions are obtained
Baechler, S.; Gardon, M.; Bochud, F.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F.R.; Trueb, Ph.
Physicians who frequently perform fluoroscopic examinations are exposed to high intensity radiation fields and should use protective equipment such as lead aprons, thyroid shields and lead glasses. Standard individual dosimeters are worn under the lead apron in order to measure a dose that is representative of effective dose. However, large parts of the body are not protected by the apron (e.g. arms, head). Given a protection factor for the apron of about 100, an important irradiation of a body part not under the apron could go undetected. A study was conducted to analyse this situation by measuring dose using two dosimeters, one over-apron and one under-apron, for radiologists performing frequent fluoroscopic examinations. Measurements made over six-month period show that, indeed, the use of a single under-apron dosimeter is inadequate for personnel monitoring. Large doses to the head and arms are going undetected by this technique. A method for weighting the doses measured by under- and over-apron dosimeters to obtain a value better representative of the effective dose will be proposed. (authors)
The first step of on-the-job training is practical observation phase in an operating Nuclear Plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists give the practical feeling for Nuclear Power Plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own Nuclear Power Plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and assisted during their process of practical learning by special instructors. The preparation for the licensing exams is vitally important for shift personnel and special courses are provided after the first non-nuclear trial operation of the plant. Personnel training also includes performance of programmes and material for retraining, training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well as training centers. (orig./RW)
Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.
Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily
Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein
Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily informed by protection motivation theory. We invited…
Swanholm, Eric; Vosvick, Mark; Chng, Chwee-Lye
Objective: To explain variance in depression in students (N = 648) using a model incorporating sexual trauma, pessimism, and risky sex. Method: Survey data collected from undergraduate students receiving credit for participation. Results: Controlling for demographics, a hierarchical linear regression analysis [Adjusted R[superscript 2] = 0.34,…
This paper contributes to conflicting evidence on the link between poverty and risky sexual behaviour by examining the effect of wealth status on age at first sex, condom use, and multiple partners using nationally representative adolescents\\' data from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. The results show that the ...
Keywords: Risky sexual behavior, living with parents, family environment. African Halth ... increases the probability of negative consequences ... greater the gender imbalance in rates of HIV infection, with ... communication and family support) (22 Items with. 5-point ... students relationship and school-students relationship).
Full Text Available Substance abuse and risky sexual behavior have been identified as behaviors that can endanger adolescent psychosocial development. This study examined the relationship between methamphetamine (MAMP use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents. Risky sexual behavior was compared not only between MAMP users and non-users, but also between high-frequency and low-frequency MAMP users. We compared the sexual intercourse histories of 85 adolescents formally charged as MAMP users with those of 170 gender-matched adolescents with no record of MAMP use. MAMP usage characteristics were compared between users who had and those who had not experienced sexual intercourse. Previous sexual experience was more likely in MAMP users than in non-users. MAMP users were also more likely to have had a greater total number of sexual partners and were more likely to have had unplanned sex under the influence of alcohol. High-frequency MAMP use was associated with increased tendencies to engage in unprotected sex and to use MAMP before sexual intercourse. In general, the chance of sexual intercourse increased in proportion to frequency of MAMP use. Given the clear link between MAMP use and risky sexual behavior, risk-reduction programs directed at teen MAMP users are urgently needed.
Backgound: HIV/AIDS pandemic is a great public health concern hence the need to identify interventions to prevent new infections among risk groups. Objective: To determine risky sexual behaviours among HIV sero-discordant individuals attending Defence Forces Memorial Hospital (DFMH). Design: A descriptive ...
Oct 2, 2017 ... journalCode=rsah20. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact ..... borative experiences between different role players can facilitate ..... between participants meaning that for some there was more of.
though male circumcision coupled with preventive behaviour reduces this risk. Objective: To compare the factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among circumcised and uncircumcised men in Bo- tswana. Methods: Nationally representative data from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey III were used. A sample of 313 ...
... it was recommended that those in the helping professions should take cognizance of those variables that have been found to influence risky sexual behaviours and decisions among couples. The result also recommends intervention strategy to help couples achieve a better reproductive health behaviour, relationship and ...
DeKay, Michael L.; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Fischbeck, Paul S.
Substantial evidence indicates that information is distorted during decision making, but very few studies have assessed the distortion of probability and outcome information in risky decisions. In two studies involving six binary decisions (e.g., banning blood donations from people who have visited England, because of "mad cow disease"),…
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been known to be responsible for several negative forms, of behavior, actions, attitudes and social ills. The link between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behavior has also been established. As the scorge of HIV ravages the population, the ...
Chen, Yiwei; Ma, Xiaodong
The present study investigated the role of anticipated emotions in risky decisions of young and older adults. Young and older adults were asked to make a choice between an alternative that may have either a very positive or a very negative consequence and an alternative that was relatively safe. Meanwhile, they rated their anticipated emotions if…
, sexual activity, exposure to HIV-prevention services, and to identify correlates of risky sexual behaviour (not having used a condom at first or last sexual encounter and/or having multiple sexual partners over a 12-month period) among street ...
Background: Risky sexual behavior is any behavior that increases the probability of negative consequences associated with sexual contact. Family environment, peer influence, community factors and school attachment seem an important factor affecting sexual risk behavior and decision of in-school youths. Objective: To ...
Salamanca Acosta, N.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.; Montizaan, R.M.
Using representative household panel data, we show that the investment behavior of households is related to the economic locus of control of household heads. A household’s internal locus of control in economic issues is positively related to its decision to hold risky assets as well as its share of
Salamanca, N.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.; Montizaan, R.M.
Using representative household panel data, we show that the investment behavior of households is related to the economic locus of control of household heads. A household's internal locus of control in economic issues is positively related to its decision to hold risky assets as well as its share of
Descriptive and stepwise logistic regression model was carried out using SPSS version 21. ... (STI) were 16 times more likely to have early sexual contact compared to those students who ... Key words: Risky sexual behaviours, University students, Debre Tabor. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Reid, Adam M.; Graziano, Paulo A.; Balkhi, Amanda M.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; Cottler, Linda B.; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R.
Objective: The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. Participants: A sample of 555 college students was…
Vajshnis, P.P.; Kumkov, L.P.; Omel'chuk, V.V.
Shortcomings of NPP personnel training are discussed. Development of full-scale training systems is necessary for qualitative training operative personnel. Primary problems that should be necessarily solved for ensuring effective training NPP personnel are considered
Office of Personnel Management — Security file-related information for the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM)'s employee and contractor personnel. The data is OPM-specific, not government-wide.
Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Baker-Fulco, Carol J
...) have been measured while training under various conditions. Group mean total energy expenditures for 424 male military personnel from various units engaged in diverse missions ranged from 13.0 to 29.8 MJ per day...
Koshcheev, V.S.; Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Chetverikova, Z.S.
Specific features of NPP personnel individual protection are considered, mainly with respect to maintenance and repair works on various type reactors. The major concern is given to the selection and application reglamentations of the individual protection system (IPS), employment of sanitary locks, the organization of individual protection under the conditions of a heating microclimate. The ways are specified to the development and introduction of the most effective IPS and improvement of the entire NPP personnel individual protection system with respect to providing the necessary protection effect for maintaining high working capability of the personnel and minimizing the IPS impact on human organism functional systems. The accumulated experience in the personnel individual protection can be applied during construction and operation of NPP's in CMEA member-countries [ru
Romanova, I.N.; Seredin, Yu.V.
State of radiation safety for the personnel of geologic crews carrying out neutron logging of wells using Po-Be sources has been evaluated. Given are results of development of methods for the evaluation of individual radiation loads for personnel when working with Po-Be neutron sources useful for the application in practice by a geologic logging crew as well as a quantitative evaluation of profissional radiation loads during this kind of work. The following methods are recommended for personnel monitoring: 1) calculation of whole-body irradiation doses and hands from averaged values of radiation dose rate; 2) calculational tabulated determination of irradiation doses during recharging of shanks of well instruments. Personnel monitoring by means of instrumental methods is not necessary in the considered case [ru
Objective of this manual is to train security personnel to protect special nuclear materials and nuclear facilities against theft and sabotage as required by 10 CFR Part 73. This volume contains the introduction and rationale
Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for the Office of Personnel Management. OPM will use the SSN verifications in its investigative...
The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given
Necessity of personnel risks management is based on research results. The authors' approaches to the determination of personnel risks and to their management have been explored. The author's definition of the concept of "personnel risks" is proposed. A classification of personnel risks is developed depending on the stage of origin and the tasks of the personnel policy, as well as the methods of management personnel risks in the organization. The article presents a methodical approach to perso...
Christine L Cox
Full Text Available Research on the neural correlates of risk-related behaviors and personality traits has provided insight into mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological decision-making. Task-based neuroimaging studies implicate a distributed network of brain regions in risky decision-making. What remains to be understood are the interactions between these regions and their relation to individual differences in personality variables associated with real-world risk-taking.We employed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC methods to investigate differences in the brain's intrinsic functional architecture associated with beliefs about the consequences of risky behavior. We obtained an individual measure of expected benefit from engaging in risky behavior, indicating a risk seeking or risk-averse personality, for each of 21 participants from whom we also collected a series of R-fMRI scans. The expected benefit scores were entered in statistical models assessing the RSFC of brain regions consistently implicated in both the evaluation of risk and reward, and cognitive control (i.e., orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, lateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate. We specifically focused on significant brain-behavior relationships that were stable across R-fMRI scans collected one year apart. Two stable expected benefit-RSFC relationships were observed: decreased expected benefit (increased risk-aversion was associated with 1 stronger positive functional connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and right insula, and 2 weaker negative functional connectivity between left nucleus accumbens and right parieto-occipital cortex.Task-based activation in the IFG and insula has been associated with risk-aversion, while activation in the nucleus accumbens and parietal cortex has been associated with both risk seeking and risk-averse tendencies. Our results suggest that
subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT...pharmacy records, and the screening proce - dures to detect risky alcohol use in these individuals 15-Oct-2014 Task 3: Complete training for the two...has contributed to discussions about research design and statistical analyses, and provided updated power calculations to ad- dress reduced sample
John W. Payne; Dan J. Laughhunn; Roy Crum
This investigation draws upon concepts from prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky [Kahneman, D., A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: an analysis of decisions under risk. Econometrica 47 263--291.]) and multiattribute utility theory (Keeney and Raiffa [Keeney, R. L., H. Raiffa. 1976. Decisions with Multiple Objectives: Preferences and Value Tradeoffs. Wiley, New York.]) in an examination of the multiattribute risky choice behavior of 128 managers. The questions of how managers edit multiattribu...
James B. Hittner
Full Text Available This study investigated the relevance of social settings as predictors of risky sexual behavior. In a young adult sample (n = 324, M age = 20.2 years, we examined the association between frequency of attendance at five different settings and frequency of engaging in four risky sexual behaviors (i.e., unprotected intercourse when not drunk or high, unprotected intercourse when drunk or high, casual sex when not drunk or high, casual sex when drunk or high. Predictive associations were examined using negative binomial regression, and all analyses controlled for frequency of recent alcohol use and age at first use of alcohol. Greater attendance at fraternity/sorority parties predicted more frequent intercourse for females in the not drunk or high and drunk or high contexts, and more frequent casual sex for males in the not drunk or high context. Greater attendance at large private parties predicted more frequent intercourse for females in the not drunk or high context. Greater attendance at bars without dance floors predicted more frequent intercourse for males in the drunk or high context. These findings highlight the importance of socializing habits in understanding risky sexual behavior.
Full Text Available The study reported in this manuscript used a mixture item response model with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2009 (N = 16,410 to identify subtypes of adolescents at-risk for engaging in unhealthy behaviors, and to find individual survey items that were most effective at identifying such students within each subtype. The goal of the manuscript is twofold: 1 To demonstrate the utility of the mixture item response theory model for identifying subgroups in the population and for highlighting the use of group specific item response parameters and 2 To identify typologies of adolescents based on their propensity for engaging in sexually and substance use risky behaviors. Results indicate that 4 classes of youth exist in the population, with differences in risky sexual behaviors and substance use. The first group had a greater propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior, while group 2 was more likely to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol. Group 3 was the most likely to use other substances, such as marijuana, methamphetamine, and other mind altering drugs, and group 4 had the lowest propensity for engaging in any of the sexual or substance use behaviors included in the survey. Finally, individual items were identified for each group that can be most effective at identifying individuals at greatest risk. Further proposed directions of research and the contribution of this analysis to the existing literature are discussed.
Wolf, G.; Obe, G.; Bergau, L.
During long-distance flights at high altitudes flight personnel are exposed to cosmic radiation. In order to determine whether there are biological effects of such low dose radiation exposure in aircrew, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in 59 female cabin attendants and a matched control group of 31 members of station personnel. The mean number of dicentric chromosomes amounts to 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6) per 1,000 cells in cabin attendants and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9) per 1,000 cells in controls. In an additional control group of 56 female clerks from Berlin the mean frequency of dicentric chromosomes was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6). Neither in dicentric frequency and distribution nor in other aberrations was a significant difference between the groups of flight and station personnel found. The high frequency of multi-aberrant cells was remarkable in flight personnel as well as in station personnel. The reason for this phenomenon is unknown and needs further investigation. (author)
... Security Personnel System AGENCY: Department of Defense; Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule... concerning the National Security Personnel System (NSPS). Section 1113 of the National Defense Authorization... National Security Personnel System (NSPS) in regulations jointly prescribed by DOD and OPM (Office of...
Research reactor personnel operate the reactor and carry out the experiments. These two types of work entail different activities, and therefore different skills and competence, the number of relevant staff being basically a function of the size, complexity and versatility of the reactor. Training problems are often reactor-specific, but the present paper considers them from three different viewpoints: the training or retraining of new staff or of personnel already employed at an existing facility, and training of personnel responsible for the start-up and operation of a new reactor, according to whether local infrastructure and experience already exist or whether they have to be built up from scratch. On-the-spot experience seems to be an essential basis for sound training, but requires teaching abilities and aids often difficult to bring together, and the availability of instructors that does not always fit in smoothly with current operational and experimental tasks. (author)
@@ 1.Introduction Many new businesses are opened in the whole world every day.Unfortunately,only a minor part of them has success and continues its activity.There is a variety of reasons which determine the hankruptcy of companies.Most of them are included in running a business,and more and more people come to realize the significance of management,especially personnel management,as personnel represents the relationship between people in the company,which is a key point for the development of enterprise.
Smith, Benjamin J; Xue, Feng; Droutman, Vita; Barkley-Levenson, Emily; Melrose, A James; Miller, Lynn C; Monterosso, John R; Bechara, Antoine; Appleby, Paul R; Christensen, John L; Godoy, Carlos G; Read, Stephen J
HIV is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and although most MSM use condoms consistently during casual sex, some take risks. To better understand the psychology of those risky decisions, we examined neural correlates of playing a virtual sexual 'hook up' game in an functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner in MSM who had, in the past 90 days, been sexually risky (N = 76) or safe (N = 31). We found that during potentially risky sexual choices, previously risky MSM had more right insula activity than previously safe MSM. Real-life sexual risk was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Insula activity that differentiated risky and safe MSM was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Future work should further examine if, and to what extent, insula activation during safe sex negotiation drives MSM's rash risky sexual decision-making. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Reid, Adam M; Graziano, Paulo A; Balkhi, Amanda M; McNamara, Joseph P H; Cottler, Linda B; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R
The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. A sample of 555 college students was collected between August 2010 and February 2012. Students completed several self-report measures assessing their drug use history, attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms, temperament, and risky behaviors beyond drug use. Those who reported more frequent NPSU were more likely to engage in high-risk behavior across all 4 domains studied. Further, effortful control abilities partially mediated the link between NPSU and risky behaviors. These results highlight the associated risks of frequent NPSU for college students as well as provide future directions for examining effortful control as a potentially important mechanism linking NPSU to other risky behaviors.
Personnel departments often have particular responsibility for equal opportunities within their organizations. This paper explores equal opportunities within personnel departments themselves, in relation to the careers of ethnic minority personnel practitioners. Through primary research, it identifies a range of criteria which can affect personnel careers, of which ethnic origin is often one. However, although being categorized as of ethnic minority origin often hinders personnel careers, the...
Rerucha, F.; Odehnal, J.
Basic scheme of the training system for NPP personnel of CEZ-EDU personnel training system is described in detail. This includes: specific training both basic and periodic, and professional training meaning specialized and continuous training. The following schemes are shown: licence acquisition and authorisation for PWR-440 Control Room Personnel; upgrade training for job positions of Control Room personnel; maintaining and refresh training; module training for certificate acquisition of servicing shift and operating personnel
Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results indicate that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper min...
De Gouveia, Natalie Gois
The aim of this study was to examine adolescent perceptions of risky behaviour using a mobile phone. This research may contribute to creating an awareness of risky and healthy adolescent uses of mobile phones. Anonymous sketches were collected from Grade 10 learners depicting their understanding of risky behaviour using the mobile phone. Thereafter, 12 learners agreed, through informed consent, to participate in semi-structured interviews. All participants considered the mobile phone an i...
Full Text Available Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed.
Brussoni, Mariana; Gibbons, Rebecca; Gray, Casey; Ishikawa, Takuro; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Chabot, Guylaine; Fuselli, Pamela; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.
Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed. PMID:26062038
Guerra, Aline B.; Lorenzini, Fabiane; Carlos, Janaina; Bernasiuk, Maria E.B.; Rizzatti, Mara R.; Fuentefria, Jose L.B.
Surveillance of several health institutions who use ionizing radiation sources, as well as data from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) are studied concerning the use of personnel dosimeters. The results show that several institutions do not provide them and those which provide do not know how to use them
Barker, Gale; And Others
This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…
Piesch, E.; Johns, T.F.
The practical considerations which have to be taken into account in the design of personnel monitors intended to measure doses resulting from exposure to beta rays are discussed. These include the measurement of doses in situations involving either fairly uniform or non-uniform irradiation and of doses to the male gonads. (UK)
Full Text Available An important factor for the success management of IT projects is the human resource. People involved in the project management process have to be evaluated. In order to do that, same criteria has to be specified. This paper describes some aspects regarding the personnel evaluation.
Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.
Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies on decision making have mainly focused on decisions on behalf of oneself. Considering that people often make decisions on behalf of others, it is intriguing that there is little neurobiological evidence on how decisions for others differ from those for self. Thus, the present study focused on the direct comparison between risky decisions for self and those for other using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants (N = 23 were asked to perform a gambling task for themselves (decision-for-self condition or for another person (decision-for-other condition while in the scanner. Their task was to choose between a low-risk option (i.e., win or lose 10 points and a high-risk option (i.e., win or lose 90 points. The winning probabilities of each option varied from 17% to 83%. Compared to choices for others, choices for self were more risk-averse at lower winning probability and more risk-seeking at higher winning probability, perhaps due to stronger affective process during risky decision for self compared to other. The brain activation pattern changed according to the target of the decision, such that reward-related regions were more active in the decision-for-self condition than in the decision-for-other condition, whereas brain regions related to the theory of mind (ToM showed greater activation in the decision-for-other condition than in the decision-for-self condition. A parametric modulation analysis reflecting each individual’s decision model revealed that activation of the amygdala and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC were associated with value computation for self and for other, respectively, during a risky financial decision. The present study suggests that decisions for self and other may recruit fundamentally distinctive neural processes, which can be mainly characterized by dominant affective/impulsive and cognitive/regulatory processes, respectively.
Jung, Daehyun; Sul, Sunhae; Kim, Hackjin
Previous neuroimaging studies on decision making have mainly focused on decisions on behalf of oneself. Considering that people often make decisions on behalf of others, it is intriguing that there is little neurobiological evidence on how decisions for others differ from those for oneself. The present study directly compared risky decisions for self with those for another person using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were asked to perform a gambling task on behalf of themselves (decision-for-self condition) or another person (decision-for-other condition) while in the scanner. Their task was to choose between a low-risk option (i.e., win or lose 10 points) and a high-risk option (i.e., win or lose 90 points) with variable levels of winning probability. Compared with choices regarding others, those regarding oneself were more risk-averse at lower winning probabilities and more risk-seeking at higher winning probabilities, perhaps due to stronger affective process during risky decisions for oneself compared with those for other. The brain-activation pattern changed according to the target, such that reward-related regions were more active in the decision-for-self condition than in the decision-for-other condition, whereas brain regions related to the theory of mind (ToM) showed greater activation in the decision-for-other condition than in the decision-for-self condition. Parametric modulation analysis using individual decision models revealed that activation of the amygdala and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) were associated with value computations for oneself and for another, respectively, during risky financial decisions. The results of the present study suggest that decisions for oneself and for other may recruit fundamentally distinct neural processes, which can be mainly characterized as dominant affective/impulsive and cognitive/regulatory processes, respectively. PMID:23519016
How is information integrated across the\\ud attributes of an option when making risky\\ud choices? In most descriptive models of\\ud decision under risk, information about\\ud risk, and reward is combined multiplicatively\\ud (e.g., expected value; expected utility\\ud theory, Bernouli, 1738/1954; subjective\\ud expected utility theory, Savage, 1954;\\ud Edwards, 1955; prospect theory, Kahneman\\ud and Tversky, 1979; rank-dependent utility,\\ud Quiggin, 1993; decision field theory,\\ud Busemeyer and To...
Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Hyeon Soo
As software based digital I and C (Instrumentation and Control) systems are used more prevalently in nuclear plants, enhancement of software dependability has become an important issue in the area of nuclear I and C systems. Critical attributes of software dependability are safety and reliability. These attributes are tightly related to software failures caused by faults. Software testing and V and V (Verification and Validation) activities are hence important for enhancing software dependability. If the risky modules of safety-critical software can be predicted, it will be possible to focus on testing and V and V activities more efficiently and effectively. It should also make it possible to better allocate resources for regulation activities. We propose a prediction technique to estimate risky software modules by adopting machine learning models based on software complexity metrics. An empirical study with various machine learning algorithms was executed for comparing the prediction performance. Experimental results show SVMs (Support Vector Machines) perform as well or better than the other methods.
Ojala, Karita E; Janssen, Lieneke K; Hashemi, Mahur M; Timmer, Monique H M; Geurts, Dirk E M; Ter Huurne, Niels P; Cools, Roshan; Sescousse, Guillaume
Dopamine has been associated with risky decision-making, as well as with pathological gambling, a behavioral addiction characterized by excessive risk-taking behavior. However, the specific mechanisms through which dopamine might act to foster risk-taking and pathological gambling remain elusive. Here we test the hypothesis that this might be achieved, in part, via modulation of subjective probability weighting during decision making. Human healthy controls ( n = 21) and pathological gamblers ( n = 16) played a decision-making task involving choices between sure monetary options and risky gambles both in the gain and loss domains. Each participant played the task twice, either under placebo or the dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor antagonist sulpiride, in a double-blind counterbalanced design. A prospect theory modelling approach was used to estimate subjective probability weighting and sensitivity to monetary outcomes. Consistent with prospect theory, we found that participants presented a distortion in the subjective weighting of probabilities, i.e., they overweighted low probabilities and underweighted moderate to high probabilities, both in the gain and loss domains. Compared with placebo, sulpiride attenuated this distortion in the gain domain. Across drugs, the groups did not differ in their probability weighting, although gamblers consistently underweighted losing probabilities in the placebo condition. Overall, our results reveal that dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor antagonism modulates the subjective weighting of probabilities in the gain domain, in the direction of more objective, economically rational decision making.
Timmer, Monique H. M.; ter Huurne, Niels P.
Abstract Dopamine has been associated with risky decision-making, as well as with pathological gambling, a behavioral addiction characterized by excessive risk-taking behavior. However, the specific mechanisms through which dopamine might act to foster risk-taking and pathological gambling remain elusive. Here we test the hypothesis that this might be achieved, in part, via modulation of subjective probability weighting during decision making. Human healthy controls (n = 21) and pathological gamblers (n = 16) played a decision-making task involving choices between sure monetary options and risky gambles both in the gain and loss domains. Each participant played the task twice, either under placebo or the dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist sulpiride, in a double-blind counterbalanced design. A prospect theory modelling approach was used to estimate subjective probability weighting and sensitivity to monetary outcomes. Consistent with prospect theory, we found that participants presented a distortion in the subjective weighting of probabilities, i.e., they overweighted low probabilities and underweighted moderate to high probabilities, both in the gain and loss domains. Compared with placebo, sulpiride attenuated this distortion in the gain domain. Across drugs, the groups did not differ in their probability weighting, although gamblers consistently underweighted losing probabilities in the placebo condition. Overall, our results reveal that dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonism modulates the subjective weighting of probabilities in the gain domain, in the direction of more objective, economically rational decision making. PMID:29632870
Nwokoji, Ugboga Adaji; Ajuwon, Ademola J
Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%). The majority (88.1%) had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and interact freely with civilian
Ajuwon Ademola J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%. The majority (88.1% had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and
In this paper are presented essential themes in the subject of personnel economics. In the first part analysis has been conducted on the impact of peer pressure on workplace behaviour. Then again models for compensation structures within firms, and their influence on the utility of work by employees. In the final section of the paper the productivity spillover effect has been analyzed, and the causes of existence of spillovers and their impact on workers’ productivity
Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.
The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given
Ninin, P.; Valentini, F.; Ladzinski, T.
Large particle physics installations such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider require specific Personnel Safety Systems (PSS) to protect the personnel against the radiological and industrial hazards. In order to fulfill the French regulation in matter of nuclear installations, the principles of IEC 61508 and IEC 61513 standard are used as a methodology framework to evaluate the criticality of the installation, to design and to implement the PSS.The LHC PSS deals with the implementation of all physical barriers, access controls and interlock devices around the 27 km of underground tunnel, service zones and experimental caverns of the LHC. The system shall guarantee the absence of personnel in the LHC controlled areas during the machine operations and, on the other hand, ensure the automatic accelerator shutdown in case of any safety condition violation, such as an intrusion during beam circulation. The LHC PSS has been conceived as two separate and independent systems: the LHC Access Control System (LACS) and the LHC Access Safety System (LASS). The LACS, using off the shelf technologies, realizes all physical barriers and regulates all accesses to the underground areas by identifying users and checking their authorizations.The LASS has been designed according to the principles of the IEC 61508 and 61513 standards, starting from a risk analysis conducted on the LHC facility equipped with a standard access control system. It consists in a set of safety functions realized by a dedicated fail-safe and redundant hardware guaranteed to be of SIL3 class. The integration of various technologies combining electronics, sensors, video and operational procedures adopted to establish an efficient personnel safety system for the CERN LHC accelerator is presented in this paper. (authors)
This paper explains how selected personnel can now obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics with a Nuclear Power Operations option. The program went into effect the Fall of 1984. Another program was worked out in 1982 whereby students attending the Nuclear Operators Training Program could obtain an Associates of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering Technology at the end of two years of study. This paper presents tables and charts which describe these programs and outline the career path for operators
Barlem,Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi,Valéria Lerch; Lunardi,Guilherme Lerch; Tomaschewski-Barlem,Jamila Geri; Silveira,Rosemary Silva da; Dalmolin,Graziele de Lima
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the frequency and intensity of moral distress experienced by nursing personnel in southern Brazil, covering elements of their professional practice. METHOD: a survey was undertaken in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with 247 nurses. Data was collected by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. RESULTS: the perception of situations that lead to moral distress is enhanced in nurses and in nursing staff working in institutions with greater openness to dialogu...
Shenoy, K.S.; Patel, P.H.
The manifold increase in production, and ease of availability of radioisotopes in India have been responsible for a tremendous increase in use of radioisotopes in industrial radiography during past fifteen years. Among various applications of radioisotopes the industrial radiography involves a large potential risk of occupational radiation exposures. The dose records of past fifteen years in respect of all radiation workers maintained by the Personnel Monitoring Group of Division of Radiological Protection of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have been analysed. Analysis of excessive exposure (exceeding 400 mrem/fortnight) reveals that this figure is increasing at an alarming rate among the radiation workers of this category. In spite of various regulatory controls the dose per person per week has remained higher as compared to the same in other categories. This combined with the increase in number of radiation workers every year would soon contribute significantly to the per capita dose for radiation workers. Use of adequately shielded fool-proof remote control equipment and training of all personnel in safe handling of radiation sources seem to be the only solution to arrest the rate of increase in personnel exposures of this category. (auth.)
Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Murry, Velma M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Lorenz, Frederick O.
This study investigated how early experience with racial discrimination affected the subsequent risky sexual behaviors of a diverse sample of African American youths (N = 745). The analyses focused on 3 risk-promoting factors thought to mediate the hypothesized discrimination--risky sex relation: negative affect, affiliation with deviant peers,…
Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Goldfinger, Marc; Abela, John R. Z.; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao
The goals of the current study were to examine whether (a) negative events mediate the relationship between materialism and risky behavior engagement and (b) materialism moderates the relationship between stress and engagement in risky behaviors in Chinese youth. At Time 1, 406 adolescents (ages 14-19) from Yue Yang, China, completed measures…
Savage, Melissa N.; Bouck, Emily C.
Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) engage in risky behavior and offending. However, little is known on the impact school-related predictors have on engagement in risky behaviors for adolescents with ID. This study analyzed secondary data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to determine levels of engagement in risky…
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Cowan, Benjamin W.
This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in…
Bachanas, Pamela J; Morris, Mary K; Lewis-Gess, Jennifer K; Sarett-Cuasay, Eileen J; Sirl, Kimberly; Ries, Julie K; Sawyer, Mary K
To describe empirically the risky sexual behavior of an at-risk sample of adolescent girls, to assess psychosocial correlates of risky behavior, and to examine the utility of applying a risk and protective model to predicting teens' risky sexual behavior. Participants included 158 African American girls, ages 12 to 19, who were receiving medical care in an adolescent primary care clinic. Teens completed measures of depression, conduct problems, substance use, peer norms, social support, HIV knowledge, sexual self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Teens in this sample reported high rates of risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debuts and frequent unprotected sexual encounters with multiple partners. African American girls who reported high rates of substance use and who reported that their peers engaged in risky behaviors also reported engaging in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. Little support was obtained for protective factors (HIV knowledge, social support, sexual self-efficacy) moderating the relations between risk factors and adolescents' risky sexual behavior in this sample. Teens presenting in primary care settings in urban environments seem to be at high risk for HIV, STDs, and substance abuse, and risk reduction strategies should be introduced during the preteen years. An interdisciplinary model of care in primary care settings serving adolescents is clearly indicated, and prevention-oriented interventions aimed at reducing risky behaviors and preventing the development of more significant health, mental health, or substance abuse disorders are needed.
Dekkers, T.J.; Popma, A.; Agelink van Rentergem, J.A.; Bexkens, A.; Huizenga, H.M.
ADHD has been associated with various forms of risky real life decision making, for example risky driving, unsafe sex and substance abuse. However, results from laboratory studies on decision making deficits in ADHD have been inconsistent, probably because of between study differences. We therefore
Chapman, Stephanie; Ashack, Kurt; Bell, Eric; Sendelweck, Myra Ann; Dellavalle, Robert
Background: Understanding of associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among high school students across the United States is incomplete. Objective: To identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning and analyze differences between state specific data. Methods: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013 in...
This paper employs data from the 1998 South African Demographic and Health Survey in exploring the nature of socio-economic inequalities in and determinants of risky sexual behaviour. Risky sexual behaviour was associated with poverty only in the case of multiple partnerships. Affluent women that have engaged in ...
US Agency for International Development — The NFC system is an USDA system used for processing transactions for payroll/personnel systems. Personnel processing is done through EPIC/HCUP, which is web-based....
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel monitoring. 36.55 Section 36.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Operation of Irradiators § 36.55 Personnel monitoring. (a) Irradiator operators shall wear a personnel dosimeter that is...
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel health. 193.2711 Section 193.2711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2711 Personnel health. Each operator...
Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz
Nowadays everything develops and changes very quickly and sustainability of organizational goals will be possible only when personnel can keep up with these changes. From administrative aspect it is important to enhance personnel's potential and prompt them to achieve organizational goals. Personnel development is a process which influences and…
Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B Abdul; Kamarudin, Rozanim Bt; Manickam, Mala; Abd Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Saari, Riyanti Bt
To identify the characteristics of current drinker and risky alcohol-drinking pattern by profiles in Malaysia. We analyzed data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. It was a cross-sectional population-based with two stages stratified random sampling design. A validated Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Malay questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol consumption and its alcohol related harms. Analysis of complex survey data using Stata Version 12 was done for descriptive analysis on alcohol use and risky drinking by socio-demography profiles. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of risky drinking status with the socio-demography characteristics. The prevalence of current alcohol use was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.5, 12.7], among them 23.6% (95% CI: 21.0, 26.4) practiced risky drinking. The onset for alcohol drinking was 21 years old (standard deviation 7.44) and majority preferred Beer. Males significantly consumed more alcohol and practiced risky drinking. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among urbanites, Chinese, those with high household income, and high education. Conversely, risky drinking was more prevalent among rural drinkers, Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak, low education and low household income. The estimated odds of risky drinking increased by a factor of 3.5 among Males while a factor of 2.7 among Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak. Education status and household income was not a significant predictor to risky drinking. There was an inverse drinking pattern between current drinker and risky drinking by the socio-demography profiles. Initiating early screening and focused intervention might avert further alcohol related harms and dependence among the risky drinkers. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar
Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our
Scott-Parker, Bridie; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Hyde, Melissa K
While there is research indicating that many factors influence the young novice driver's increased risk of road crash injury during the earliest stages of their independent driving, there is a need to further understand the relationship between the perceived risky driving behaviour of parents and friends and the risky behaviour of drivers with a Provisional (intermediate) licence. As part of a larger research project, 378 drivers aged 17-25 years (M=18.22, SD=1.59, 113 males) with a Provisional licence completed an online survey exploring the perceived riskiness of their parents' and friends' driving, and the extent to which they pattern (i.e. base) their driving behaviour on the driving of their parents and friends. Young drivers who reported patterning their driving on their friends, and who reported they perceived their friends to be risky drivers, reported more risky driving. The risky driving behaviour of young male drivers was associated with the perceived riskiness of their fathers' driving, whilst for female drivers the perceived riskiness of their mothers' driving approached significance. The development and application of countermeasures targeting the risky behaviour of same-sex parents appears warranted by the robust research findings. In addition, countermeasures need to encourage young people in general to be non-risky drivers; targeting the negative influence of risky peer groups specifically. Social norms interventions may minimise the influence of potentially-overestimated riskiness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Transformation of economic and political course in the last decade in Russia has evoked big changes in the main agent of techno-genic risk, companies concerned with production, storage, recycling, and transportation of chemical, biological, energetic, etc. products. The basic aspect of the changes is the 'denationalizing' transformation of ownership, from state to shareholder or private, providing instability both during and, mainly, after the process of transformation, in cases of 'refreezing' the inadequate 'new order of things'. The transformation is hindered by compressed and indefinite terms of transformation, worsening of financial level of companies due to their 'transitional' status, struggle for power within and outside the companies initiated by provocative and dangerous actions by different fighting groups and forces in the firms, factories, and industry branches. The paper is written on the basis of in-depth expert interviews and clarifies the peculiarities of the risky transformation. (author)
The importance of business interrelationships for the success of the capital intensive and inherently risky petroleum industry was discussed. The major types of interrelationships include: (1) joint interest/ownership, (2) joint ventures, (3) production sharing contracts, and (4) strategic alliances. The makings of a successful and unsuccessful business relationship were also described. Examples of successful joint ventures, (Syncrude with Athabasca Oil Trust), joint ownerships (Gulf Oil with IPL), strategic alliances (Northrock Resources), and production sharing contracts (Gulf Oil with Talisman and Pertamina) were outlined by way of illustration. A failed joint venture between Gulf Oil, British Gas and Komineft to revitalize production and exploration in the Komi Republic (formerly part of the USSR) was also cited as an example of a situation where unsteady operational and political environments combined to bring about the failure of the project
Bhatia, Sudeep; Loomes, Graham
We examine the effects of multiple sources of noise in risky decision making. Noise in the parameters that characterize an individual's preferences can combine with noise in the response process to distort observed choice proportions. Thus, underlying preferences that conform to expected value maximization can appear to show systematic risk aversion or risk seeking. Similarly, core preferences that are consistent with expected utility theory, when perturbed by such noise, can appear to display nonlinear probability weighting. For this reason, modal choices cannot be used simplistically to infer underlying preferences. Quantitative model fits that do not allow for both sorts of noise can lead to wrong conclusions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Guo, Lisa; Trueblood, Jennifer S; Diederich, Adele
Every day, people face snap decisions when time is a limiting factor. In addition, the way a problem is presented can influence people's choices, which creates what are known as framing effects. In this research, we explored how time pressure interacts with framing effects in risky decision making. Specifically, does time pressure strengthen or weaken framing effects? On one hand, research has suggested that framing effects evolve through the deliberation process, growing larger with time. On the other hand, dual-process theory attributes framing effects to an intuitive, emotional system that responds automatically to stimuli. In our experiments, participants made decisions about gambles framed in terms of either gains or losses, and time pressure was manipulated across blocks. Results showed increased framing effects under time pressure in both hypothetical and incentivized choices, which supports the dual-process hypothesis that these effects arise from a fast, intuitive system.
Gueudré, Thomas; Martin, David G.
Essential to each other, growth and exploration are jointly observed in alive and inanimate entities, such as animals, cells or goods. But how the environment's structural and temporal properties weights in this balance remains elusive. We analyze a model of stochastic growth with time correlations and diffusive dynamics that sheds light on the way populations grow and spread over general networks. This model suggests natural explanations of empirical facts in econo-physics or ecology, such as the risk-return trade-off and the Zipf law. We conclude that optimal growth leads to a localized population distribution, but such risky position can be mitigated through the space geometry. These results have broad applicability and are subsequently illustrated over an empirical study of financial data.
Sacco, Donald F; Brown, Christina M; Young, Steven G; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt
Although past research has reliably established unique effects of social exclusion on human cognition and behavior, the current research focuses on the unique effects of social inclusion. Recent evidence indicates that social inclusion leads to enhanced prioritization of reproductive interests. The current study extends these findings by showing that the pursuit of these inclusion-induced reproductive goals occurs in sex-specific ways. Across three experiments, social inclusion led men, but not women, to endorse riskier, more aggressive mating strategies compared to control and socially excluded participants. Specifically, included men were more likely to endorse sexual aggression (Experiment 1), high-risk mate poaching behaviors (Experiment 2), and high-risk mate retention tactics (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that the experience of social inclusion can affect sex-differentiated preferences for risky mating strategies. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
McElroy, Todd; Corbin, Jonathan
The study of risk preference has become a widely investigated area of research. The current study is designed to investigate the relationship between handedness, hemispheric predominance and valence imposition in a risky-choice decision task. Research into the valence hypothesis (e.g., Ahern & Schwartz, 1985; Davidson, 1984) has shown that the left hemisphere is more active in processing positively valenced stimuli, whereas the right hemisphere is more active in processing negatively valenced stimuli. A total of 520 individuals (343 female, 117 male) participated in a self-imposed framing task and took a degree of handedness questionnaire. The results of the framing task and handedness questionnaire showed that participants' degree of handedness significantly influenced the positive/negative valence they imposed onto the framing task as well as their level of risk preference.
Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E
Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.
Full Text Available AiM: This study was planned as a descriptive study in order to investigate risky health behaviors of immigrant and non immigrant adolescents. METHODS: The study was performed in a high school situated Izmir between the dates of October and November 2008. Sample group of this research was included 293 immigrant and 813 non immigrant adolescents. Data were collected by using Socio-demographic question form and and Health Risk Behaviors Scale. Data were collected from students with a technical pencil-paper by researcher in classroom. Frequencies, one way anova (post-hoc bonferroni and independent t test were used with Stastical Package for Social Science 13.0 program for statistical analysis of data. Written consent was taken from Izmir Directorate of Education to carry out the study. Oral consent was taken from the school manager and the students. RESULTS: Mean age of adolescents was 15.42+/-0.03. It was determined that risky health behaviors mean score (t: 2.161, p: 0.031 and physical activity (t: 2.132, p: 0.033, nutrition (t:3.030, p: 0.003, hygiene (t: 3.850, p: 0.000 sub-scales mean scores of immigrant adolescent were statistically higher than non immigrant adolescents (p<0.05. CONCLUSiONS: Consequently, this study was important to health professionals worked primary health services and school health services The study have significant data about migration affects on health behaviors of adolescent to show health professionals worked primary care and school health services and to plan health services towards adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(4.000: 289-294
Diederich, Adele; Trueblood, Jennifer S
Many phenomena in judgment and decision making are often attributed to the interaction of 2 systems of reasoning. Although these so-called dual process theories can explain many types of behavior, they are rarely formalized as mathematical or computational models. Rather, dual process models are typically verbal theories, which are difficult to conclusively evaluate or test. In the cases in which formal (i.e., mathematical) dual process models have been proposed, they have not been quantitatively fit to experimental data and are often silent when it comes to the timing of the 2 systems. In the current article, we present a dynamic dual process model framework of risky decision making that provides an account of the timing and interaction of the 2 systems and can explain both choice and response-time data. We outline several predictions of the model, including how changes in the timing of the 2 systems as well as time pressure can influence behavior. The framework also allows us to explore different assumptions about how preferences are constructed by the 2 systems as well as the dynamic interaction of the 2 systems. In particular, we examine 3 different possible functional forms of the 2 systems and 2 possible ways the systems can interact (simultaneously or serially). We compare these dual process models with 2 single process models using risky decision making data from Guo, Trueblood, and Diederich (2017). Using this data, we find that 1 of the dual process models significantly outperforms the other models in accounting for both choices and response times. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to identify certain risky behavior patterns (unsafe sex, tobacco and drug use, and binge drinking and the factors affecting these behaviors among first- and third-year students in a university. Method: The study included a total of 8407 students enrolled as first- (4392 and third- (4015 year students. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. In data analysis, respecting sampling weights, models were formed by logistic regression method to determine factors that affect the risky behaviors. Results: 731 male–1114 female students from the first year and 560 male–1096 female students from the third year were interviewed. Male students were found to be engaged in risky behaviors more frequently than females. Logistic models of the study indicated that gender, place of residence, relationship with parents, and socialization with friends have profound effects on risky behaviors. Conclusion: After leaving home, young people develop their own lifestyles, and this study demonstrates that lifestyle is the main effective factor for risky behaviors in this group. Universities need to assume more responsibility to guide students’ lives and to provide the facilities and opportunities that encourage and facilitate their adoption of a healthy lifestyle. Key Words: University students, risky behaviours Bir Üniversitede Öğrencilerin Riskli Davranışları: Kesitsel Bir Çalışma Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, bir üniversitenin birinci ve üçüncü sınıf öğrencileri arasında bazı riskli davranış modellerini (güvensiz seks, tütün ve uyuşturucu kullanımı ve aşırı alkol ve bu davranışları etkileyen faktörleri saptamaktır. Yöntem: Araştırmanın evrenini birinci (4392 ve üçüncü (4015 sınıflarda kayıtlı 8407 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Veri öğrencilerin gözlem altında doldurdukları anket aracılığı ile toplanmıştır. Riskli davranışları etkileyen fakt
Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula J.; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Temple, Jeff R.
Objective To examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents’ risky sexual behavior across one year, and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents’ gender and ethnicity. Methods A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from 7 public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Results Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior. PMID:25797949
Hosain, G M Monawar; Berenson, Abbey B; Tennen, Howard; Bauer, Lance O; Wu, Z Helen
This study was undertaken to assess the association between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and high-risk sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study interviewed 462 low-income women aged 18-30 years. We used the 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist to assess ADHD symptoms. Risky sexual behaviors included sex before 15 years of age, risky sex partners in lifetime, number of sex partners in the last 12 months, condom use in the last 12 months, alcohol use before sex in the last 12 months, traded sex in lifetime, and diagnosed with sexually transmitted infection (STI) in lifetime. Mean ADHD symptom score was 19.8 (SD±12.9), and summary index of all risky sexual behavior was 1.77 (SD±1.37). Using unadjusted odds ratios (OR), women who endorsed more ADHD symptoms reported engaging in more risky sexual behaviors of all types. However, when multivariable logistic regression was applied adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, the adjusted ORs remained significant for having risky sex partners and having ≥3 sex partners in the prior 12 months. We observed some differences in risky sexual behavior between two domains of ADHD. The ADHD symptom score appears to be associated with some risky sexual behaviors and deserves further attention. A brief ADHD screening can identify this high-risk group for timely evaluation and safe sex counseling.
Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R
The objectives of this study is to examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' risky sexual behavior across 1 year and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents' gender and ethnicity. A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from seven public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior.
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride
Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.
Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results suggest that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper mining cities. These effects were partly concentrated among young adults and copper boom induced in-migration to mining cities appears to have contributed to these reductions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Andersen, Dorte Raaby; Andersen, Lars Peter; Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann
Objectives The objective of this follow-up study was to investigate associations between individual, occupational and work environment factors and burnout among both uniformed and non-uniformed personnel working in the Danish Prison and Probation Service. Methods The participants (N = 4808......) with client contact received a questionnaire in 2010 and again in 2011. In 2010, 2843 participants responded to the questionnaire (59.1%), and in 2011, 1741 responded to the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 61.2% of the baseline population, and 36.2% of the invited population. Burnout and work...... characteristics were measured with validated scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, and data was analysed by logistic regression. Results Risk factors with the highest impact on burnout were work environmental factors: quantitative demands, emotional demands, involvement in and meaning of work...
Poole, D.E.; Ring, T.
The personnel safety system designed for the SRS at Daresbury is a unified system covering the three accelerators of the source itself, the beamlines and the experimental stations. The system has also been applied to the experimental areas of the Nuclear Structure Facility, and is therefore established as a site standard. A dual guardline interlock module forms a building block for a relay based interlock system completely independent of the machine control system, although comprehensive monitoring of the system status via the control system computer is a feature. An outline of the design criteria adopted for the system is presented together with a more detailed description of the philosophy of the guardline logic and the way this is implemented in a standard modular form. The emphasis is on the design features of a modern microprocessor based variant of the original SRS system. Experience with the original system during build-up and operation of the SRS facility is described. 2 refs., 4 figs
Dear Colleagues, Many important discussions are scheduled for the upcoming Council Week (13-17 June) on topics including the Medium-Term Plan, the Pension Fund and other matters of great relevance to us. I would therefore like to share the main outcome of the week with you and I invite you to join me and the Directors in the Main Auditorium at 10 a.m. on Thursday 23 June. The meeting will last about one hour and a webcast will also be available. Best regards, Fabiola Gianotti DG presentation to personnel Thursday 23 June at 10 am Main Auditorium Retransmission in Council Chamber, IT Auditorium, Kjell Jonhsen Auditorium, Prevessin 864-1-C02 Webcast on cern.ch/webcast More information on the event page.
Roberson, P.L.; Fox, R.A.; Hadley, R.T.; Holbrook, K.L.; Hooker, C.D.; McDonald, J.C.
A base of technical information has been acquire and used to evaluate the calibration, design, and performance of selected personnel systems in use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilites. A technical document was prepared to guide DOE and DOE contractors in selecting and evaluating personnel dosimetry systems and calibration. A parallel effort was initiated to intercompare the adiological calibrations standards used to calibrate DOE personnel dosimeters
Hinchliff, Gemma L M; Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Patton, George C; Williams, Joanne
This study examined the association of risky dieting amongst adolescent girls with depressed mood, family conflict, and parent-child emotional closeness. Grade 6 and 8 females (aged 11-14years, N=4031) were recruited from 231 schools in 30 communities, across three Australian States (Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia). Key measures were based on the Adolescent Dieting Scale, Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and widely used short measures of family relationship quality. Controls included age, early pubertal onset, and socioeconomic status. Risky dieting was significantly related to family conflict and depressed mood, depressed mood mediated the association of family conflict and risky dieting, and these associations remained significant with controls in the model. Family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are associated with risky dieting. Prevention programs may benefit from a broadening of behavioural targets to include depressed mood and family problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
AJRH Managing Editor
people's practicing risky sexual behaviour in the era of HIV/AIDS. Data used in ... pregnancies, unsafe induced abortion and HIV .... additional selection criteria. ...... India. International. Family. Planning. Perspectives 1999; 25(3): 139-146. 18.
Pearson, Matthew R; Murphy, Elaine M; Doane, Ashley N
The present study examined the predictive effects of five impulsivity-like traits (Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation Seeking, Negative Urgency, and Positive Urgency) on driving outcomes (driving errors, driving lapses, driving violations, cell phone driving, traffic citations, and traffic collisions). With a convenience sample of 266 college student drivers, we found that each of the impulsivity-like traits was related to multiple risky driving outcomes. Positive Urgency (tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative affect) was the most robust predictor of risky driving outcomes. Positive Urgency is a relatively newly conceptualized impulsivity-like trait that was not examined in the driving literature previously, suggesting a strong need to further examine its role as a personality trait related to risky driving. These findings generally support the multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-like traits, and they specifically support the addition of Positive Urgency to a list of risk factors for risky driving behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Bryant, Fred B; King, Scott
We investigated the moderating effects of drug/alcohol use in the past 3 months on the relationships of peer influence, parental permissiveness, and teen disposition (i.e., achievement motivation, attitude toward school, and value placed on health) with adolescent risky sexual behaviour. Participants were 207 adolescents receiving psychiatric care. Substance use did not moderate the relationship between adolescent disposition and risky sex. By contrast, peer influence and parental permissiveness were linked to risky sex but only for teens who reported using drugs/alcohol. Controlling for other predictors in the model, negative peer influence explained 21% and parental permissiveness explained 13% of the variance in risky sex among substance users, but less than half of 1% of the variance among non-substance users. The disinhibiting effects of substance use on decision-making and the need for effective parental monitoring to reduce opportunities for risk behaviour are discussed.
Wachs, Sebastian; Junger, Marianne; Sittichai, Ruthaychonee
This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet
Martinussen, Laila Marianne
; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
.... It implements policy, establishes uniform DoD-wide procedures, provides guidelines and model programs, delegates authority, and assigns responsibilities regarding civilian personnel management within...
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Guldager, Bernadette; Gyntelberg, Finn
PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of personnel in the main battle tank (MBT) units in the Danish army with those of personnel in other types of army units, and to investigate associations between job function in the tank, military rank, and musculoskeletal problems......, and ankle. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were only 4 women in the MBT group; as a consequence, female personnel were excluded from the study. The participation rate was 58.0% (n = 184) in the MBT group and 56.3% (n = 333) in the reference group. The pattern of musculoskeletal disorders among personnel...
Sapronov, V.G.; Issupov, V.I.
Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant personnel training system improvement is described, including creation of Training center, development of training courses based on SAT methodology, development of training hardware
Included are comments and statistics on current employment levels, projected requirements for future stations, sources of personnel for current and projected stations, and methods of employee selection
Social Security Administration — SSA provides the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) with tax returns, Social Security benefits, and military retirement information for the purpose of correctly...
The basic preconditions are discussed of educating personnel for nuclear power and nuclear technology in Czechoslovakia. In educating specialists, the high societal significance of nuclear power and the need to obtain qualified personnel for safeguarding safety and reliability of nuclear facilities operation should primarily be borne in mind. The system of training applies not only to operating and maintenance personnel of nuclear power plants but also to fuel and power generation, transport, engineering, building industry, health care, education and other personnel. (J.B.)
DONENBERG, GERI R.; EMERSON, ERIN; BRYANT, FRED B.; KING, SCOTT
We investigated the moderating effects of drug/alcohol use in the past 3 months on the relationships of peer influence, parental permissiveness, and teen disposition (i.e., achievement motivation, attitude toward school, and value placed on health) with adolescent risky sexual behaviour. Participants were 207 adolescents receiving psychiatric care. Substance use did not moderate the relationship between adolescent disposition and risky sex. By contrast, peer influence and parental permissiven...
Boutros, Nathalie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Semenova, Svetlana; Lee, Soon; Markou, Athina
Adolescent ethanol exposure increases risky choice and alters corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) systems in adulthood. The impact of stress on risky choice after adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure is not known. We investigated time-specific effects of AIE vapor exposure during early adolescence on risky choice after stress or no stress in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air or AIE vapor on postnatal days 28-42 (adolescence) and were exposed to 10days of social defeat or no stress on postnatal days 172-181 (adulthood). Risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task under baseline conditions and after days 1 and 10 of social defeat. CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) mRNA levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) 24h post-stress to evaluate persistent effects of stress on the brain. AIE exposure had no effect on risky choice either at baseline or after social defeat. Additionally, neither acute nor chronic social defeat affected risky choice in air-exposed rats. In the PFC, chronic social defeat selectively decreased CRF mRNA levels in air-exposed rats and increased CRFR1 mRNA levels in all rats. AIE exposure increased CRF mRNA levels in the CeA with no effect of social stress. Our results indicate no effect of ethanol exposure via vapor during early adolescence on risky choice, while our previous findings indicated that AIE exposure via gavage affected risky choice. Both AIE exposure and social defeat altered CRF and CRFR1 mRNA levels in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Šincek, Daniela; Tomašić Humer, Jasmina; Duvnjak, Ivana
Background: This paper explores problematic Internet gaming in the context of other forms of risky behaviour. The basic premise is that children and adolescents at risk will display different types of risky behaviour in various settings. Subjects and methods: Children and adolescents (N=1150) were surveyed about (cyber)violence, problematic gaming (habits, motives and symptoms), self-disclosure via Facebook and self-esteem. Results: Regular gamers were more violent both face-to-fa...
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact o...
Patel, Vimla L.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Kaufman, David R.; Gutnik, Lily A.; Shortliffe, Edward H.
To create a culture of safe practices, we need to understand how and under what conditions the public makes risky decisions about their health. Because risky sexual behaviors are known to be common in young adults, we investigated their decision making regarding sexual activities that could incur a high risk of HIV infection. Sixty young urban adults maintained journals for two weeks and were interviewed regarding condom use and sexual history. We characterized four patterns...
Michael Grossman; Sarah Markowitz
Risky sexual behaviors by teenagers have shown to be strongly correlated with drug and alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study is to examine the question of whether alcohol and drug use increases the likelihood that teenagers will engage in four risky sexual behaviors: having sex, sex with multiple partners, sex without a condom, and sex without birth control. Two-stage least squares and a reduced form model are used to account for the potential endogeneity of substance use. The findin...
Slavinskienė, Justina; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Šeibokaitė, Laura; Markšaitytė, Rasa
Worldwide statistics indicate that novice drivers are still one of the riskiest drivers’ groups as they highly contribute to road accidents and traffic rules violations. Thus, the psychological variables that allow predicting whether novice drivers will violate traffic rules are important in risky driving research. The aim of this study is to find out if pre-drivers’ attitudes towards risky driving measured before obtaining driving license could predict future traffic offences during the firs...
Anderson, Amy E.; Hure, Alexis J.; Forder, Peta M.; Powers, Jennifer; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Loxton, Deborah J.
BACKGROUND: Risky patterns of alcohol use prior to pregnancy increase the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes. It is important to understand how consumption changes once women become pregnant. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of women that partake in risky drinking patterns before pregnancy and to examine how these patterns change once they become pregnant. METHODS: A sample of 1577 women from the 1973-78 cohort of the Austra...
Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja
A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei
Gender differences in sexual behavior as a consequence of migration have been ignored in both the migration and the HIV literature in China. This study examines differences among temporary migrants in terms of sexual behavior and factors that make female migrants more vulnerable to the risk of acquiring HIV infection. Results suggest that the interplay of migration and gender renders female temporary migrants particularly vulnerable to engaging in casual and commercial sex. Although male temporary migrants do not differ from male nonmigrants in prevalence of casual and commercial sex, the prevalence rates of casual and commercial sex for female temporary migrants are found to be 14 and 80 times those for female nonmigrants, respectively. Female temporary migrants' higher unemployment rate and concentration in the service and entertainment sectors are keys to understanding differences in the prevalence of casual and commercial sex among temporary migrants according to sex. Policy measures to promote female temporary migrants' equal access to employment are urgently needed to improve their economic well-being and to reduce their risky sexual behavior.
Li, Cunbin; Yuan, Jiahang; Qi, Zhiqiang
With rapid speed on electricity using and increasing in renewable energy, more and more research pay attention on distribution grid planning. For the drawbacks of existing research, this paper proposes a new risky group decision-making method for distribution grid planning. Firstly, a mixing index system with qualitative and quantitative indices is built. On the basis of considering the fuzziness of language evaluation, choose cloud model to realize "quantitative to qualitative" transformation and construct interval numbers decision matrices according to the "3En" principle. An m-dimensional interval numbers decision vector is regarded as super cuboids in m-dimensional attributes space, using two-level orthogonal experiment to arrange points uniformly and dispersedly. The numbers of points are assured by testing numbers of two-level orthogonal arrays and these points compose of distribution points set to stand for decision-making project. In order to eliminate the influence of correlation among indices, Mahalanobis distance is used to calculate the distance from each solutions to others which means that dynamic solutions are viewed as the reference. Secondly, due to the decision-maker's attitude can affect the results, this paper defines the prospect value function based on SNR which is from Mahalanobis-Taguchi system and attains the comprehensive prospect value of each program as well as the order. At last, the validity and reliability of this method is illustrated by examples which prove the method is more valuable and superiority than the other.
Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda; Sood, Neeraj
Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forster, Alice; Wardle, Jane; Stephenson, Judith; Waller, Jo
A significant minority of parents are concerned about adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The way the HPV vaccine is reported in the media has the potential to influence public understanding and vaccination decisions. The present study examined the content of articles published between 2003 and 2008 in British national newspapers that addressed the issue of adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination. We used mixed methods to analyze 92 articles in which the issue was mentioned. Qualitative framework analysis highlighted three main types of discussion: news stories proposing that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination, counterarguments insisting that adolescents will not engage in risky sexual behavior after HPV vaccination, and parents' views of the issue of risky sexual behavior. The results indicated that newspapers provide parents with broadly positive descriptive norms about vaccination; however, the issue that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behaviors following HPV vaccination is regularly discussed in the national press and has the potential to increase parents' concerns about vaccination.
Full Text Available Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD tend to exhibit disadvantageous risky decision-making not only in their real life but also in laboratory tasks. Decision-making is a complex multifaceted function and different cognitive processes are involved in decision-making for gains and losses. However, the relationship between impaired decision-making and gain versus loss processing in the context of IGD is poorly understood. The main aim of the present study was to separately evaluate decision-making for risky gains and losses among college students with IGD using the Cups task. Additionally, we further examined the effects of outcome magnitude and probability level on decision-making related to risky gains and losses respectively. Sixty college students with IGD and 42 matched healthy controls (HCs participated. Results indicated that IGD subjects exhibited generally greater risk taking tendencies than HCs. In comparison to HCs, IGD subjects made more disadvantageous risky choices in the loss domain (but not in the gain domain. Follow-up analyses indicated that the impairment was associated to insensitivity to changes in outcome magnitude and probability level for risky losses among IGD subjects. In addition, higher Internet addiction severity scores were associated with percentage of disadvantageous risky options in the loss domain. These findings emphasize the effect of insensitivity to losses on disadvantageous decisions under risk in the context of IGD, which has implications for future intervention studies.
Nobrega, José N; Hedayatmofidi, Parisa S; Lobo, Daniela S
Risky decision-making is characteristic of depression and of addictive disorders, including pathological gambling. However it is not clear whether a propensity to risky choices predisposes to depressive symptoms or whether the converse is the case. Here we tested the hypothesis that rats showing risky decision-making in a rat gambling task (rGT) would be more prone to depressive-like behaviour in the learned helplessness (LH) model. Results showed that baseline rGT choice behaviour did not predict escape deficits in the LH protocol. In contrast, exposure to the LH protocol resulted in a significant increase in risky rGT choices on retest. Unexpectedly, control rats subjected only to escapable stress in the LH protocol showed a subsequent decrease in riskier rGT choices. Further analyses indicated that the LH protocol affected primarily rats with high baseline levels of risky choices and that among these it had opposite effects in rats exposed to LH-inducing stress compared to rats exposed only to the escape trials. Together these findings suggest that while baseline risky decision making may not predict LH behaviour it interacts strongly with LH conditions in modulating subsequent decision-making behaviour. The suggested possibility that stress controllability may be a key factor should be further investigated.
Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Shalev, Idan
This study was designed to examine prospective associations of risky family environments with subsequent levels of negative emotions and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length (TL), a marker of cellular aging. A second purpose was to determine whether negative emotions mediate the hypothesized link between risky family processes and diminished telomere length. Participants were 293 adolescents (age 17 years at the first assessment) and their primary caregivers. Caregivers provided data on risky family processes when the youths were age 17 years, youths reported their negative emotions at age 18 years, and youths' TL was assayed from a blood sample at age 22 years. The results revealed that (a) risky family processes forecast heightened negative emotions (β = .316, p emotions forecast shorter TL (β = -.187, p = .012), and (c) negative emotions served as a mediator connecting risky family processes with diminished TL (indirect effect = -0.012, 95% CI [-0.036, -0.002]). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that risky family processes presage premature cellular aging through effects on negative emotions, with potential implications for lifelong health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Albert, Derek A; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Jarret, Julien; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Paquette, Martin; Badeau, Nancy; Brown, Thomas G
Risky driving is a significant contributor to road traffic crashes, especially in young drivers. Transient mind wandering states, an internal form of distraction, are associated with faster driving, reduced headway distance, slower response times, reduced driver vigilance, and increased crash risk. It is unclear whether a trait tendency to mind wander predicts risky driving, however. Mind wandering is also associated with poor executive control, but whether this capacity moderates the putative link between mind wandering tendency and risky driving is uncertain. The present study tested whether mind wandering tendency predicts risky driving behaviour in young male drivers aged 18-21 (N=30) and whether this relationship is mediated by driver vigilance and moderated by executive control capacity. Mind wandering was measured with the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and the Daydreaming Frequency Scale (DDFS). Risky driving was assessed by mean speed in a driving simulator and driver vigilance was quantified by horizontal eye movements measured with eye tracking. Results showed that greater mind wandering tendency based on SART performance significantly predicts faster mean speed, confirming the main hypothesis. Neither driver vigilance mediated nor executive control capacity moderated this relationship as hypothesized. These findings speak to the complexity of individual differences in mind wandering. Overall, mind wandering tendency is a significant marker of risky driving in young drivers, which could guide the development of targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Ferketich, Amy K; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D
To develop and validate a risky sexual behavior index specific to cervical cancer research. Sexual behavior data on 428 women from the Community Awareness Resources and Education (CARE) study were utilized. A weighting scheme for eight risky sexual behaviors was generated and validated in creating the CARE Risky Sexual Behavior Index. Cutpoints were then identified to classify women as having a low, medium, or high level of risky sexual behavior. Index scores ranged from 0 to 35, with women considered to have a low level of risky sexual behavior if their score was less than six (31.3% of sample), a medium level if their score was 6–10 (30.6%), or a high level if their score was 11 or greater (38.1%). A strong association was observed between the created categories and having a previous abnormal Pap smear test (p Sexual Behavior Index provides a tool for measuring risky sexual behavior level for cervical cancer research. Future studies are needed to validate this index in varied populations and test its use in the clinical setting.
Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano
Although there are several studies on the effects of personality and attitudes on risky driving among young drivers, related research in older drivers is scarce. The present study assessed a model of personality-attitudes-risky driving in a large sample of active older drivers. A cross-sectional design was used, and structured and anonymous questionnaires were completed by 485 older Italian drivers (Mean age=68.1, SD=6.2, 61.2% males). The measures included personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, risky driving (errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and self-reported crash involvement and number of issued traffic tickets in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling showed that personality traits predicted both directly and indirectly traffic violations, errors, and lapses. More positive attitudes toward traffic safety negatively predicted risky driving. In turn, risky driving was positively related to self-reported crash involvement and higher number of issued traffic tickets. Our findings suggest that theoretical models developed to account for risky driving of younger drivers may also apply in the older drivers, and accordingly be used to inform safe driving interventions for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polat, Yusuf; Ergin, Cağri; Kaleli, Ilknur; Pinar, Ahmet
Contaminated water sources, reservoirs and systems such as evaporative condensers of air-conditioners are known to be the main transmission routes of Legionella spp. which are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria. By virtue of this point the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of Legionella pneumophila seropositivity in a profession considered as risky due to the direct and prolonged exposure to air-conditioning and air-circulating systems. For this purpose, in the period of February-August 2004 a total of 79 male subjects (63 were bus drivers and 16 were driver assistants) who were continously travelling to two different route (South part as hot climate and Middle/North parts as cold climate of Turkey) from Denizli province coach station (a province located in internal Aegian where accepted as crossroads), were included to the study. The mean age and mean working duration of bus drivers were 43.0 +/- 1.1 years and 20.0 +/- 1.1 years, respectively, while these values were 22.5 +/- 0.9 years and 4.0 +/- 0.6 years, respectively, for the drivers' assistants. The serum samples collected from the subjects were screened by a commercial indirect immunofluorescence method (Euroimmun, Germany) using L. pneumophila serogrup 1-14 antigens for the presence of specific antibodies. Additionally, air-conditioners' moisture exhaust samples of the busses in which seropositive subjects travelling with have been examined by culture and 5S rRNA gene targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, for the presence of Legionella spp. The overall L. pneumophila seropositivity rate was detected as 15.2% (12/79). This rate was 19% (12/63) for bus drivers while all of the drivers' assistants were found seronegative. The seropositivity rate was found statistically higher in the personnel who were travelling to the hot climates (10/36, 27.8%) than those who travel to cold climates (2/43, 4.6%), (p travel. Our data indicated that long distance bus drivers were chronically exposed to this
Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Westerveld, Gre J.; Hutter, Renée C.; Olff, Miranda; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
This study i) describes the number of police personnel with PTSD who are working and those who are on sick leave before and after an out-patient-clinic treatment program and ii) examines which factors are related to return to work. Police personnel treated for PTSD (n=121). In this retrospective
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory personnel. 26.155 Section 26.155 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Laboratories Certified by the Department of Health and Human... ensure the continued competency of laboratory personnel by documenting their in-service training...
The principal contributions to the radiation doses of the Swedish power reactor personnel are identified. The possi bilities to reduce these doses are examined. The radiation doses are analyzed according to different personnel categories, specific maintenance operations or inspections and to different radiation activities. Suggestions are given for reducing the radiation doses. (L.E.)
Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.
A stochastic computer model for simulating the actions and behavior of nuclear power plant maintenance personnel is described. The model considers personnel, environmental, and motivational variables to yield predictions of maintenance performance quality and time to perform. The mode has been fully developed and sensitivity tested. Additional evaluation of the model is now taking place
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel monitoring. 39.65 Section 39.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.65 Personnel monitoring. (a) The licensee may not permit an individual to act as a logging...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel monitoring. 34.47 Section 34.47 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.47 Personnel monitoring. (a) The licensee may not...
... apparel, such as head, face, hand, and arm coverings, shall be worn as necessary to protect drug products... observation) to have an apparent illness or open lesions that may adversely affect the safety or quality of... medical personnel not to jeopardize the safety or quality of drug products. All personnel shall be...
Current trends and conditions in the health physics profession are discussed. The need for health physics personnel in academia, nuclear power plants, other nuclear industry, national laboratories, and other sectors and the shortfall in qualified personnel to fill the available positions is described. Reasons for the present situation and recommendations for alleviating it are presented
Full Text Available This article deals with transition way of economic of the Russian Federation on an innovative way of development. The special attention is given the internal social and economic environment of the organizations which, as a rule, counteracts development of innovative activity of the personnel. Ways of increase of innovative activity of the personnel are offered.
Muche, Achenef Asmamaw; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Berhe, Abadi Kidanemariam; Fekadu, Gedefaw Abeje
Risky sexual practice is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. There are various studies on the prevalence and determinants of risky sexual practice in different regions of the country but there is no study which shows the national estimate of risky sexual practices in Ethiopia. Therefore, this review was conducted to estimate the national pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice and its risk factors in Ethiopia. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline was followed to review published and unpublished studies in Ethiopia. The databases used were; PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL and African Journals Online. Search terms were; risky sexual behavior, risky sexual practice, unprotected sex, multiple sexual partner, early sexual initiation, and/or Ethiopia. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument was used for critical appraisal. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager software. Descriptive information of studies was presented in narrative form and quantitative results were presented in forest plots. The Cochran Q test and I 2 test statistics were used to test heterogeneity across studies. The pooled estimate prevalence and the odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed by a random effect model. A total of 31 studies with 43,695 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice was 42.80% (95% CI: 35.64%, 49.96%). Being male (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.37), substance use (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.41, 8.31), peer pressure (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.69, 6.87) and watching pornography (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.21, 5.86) were factors associated with an increase in risky sexual practices. The prevalence of risky sexual practices is high in Ethiopia. Being male, substance use, peer pressure and viewing pornographic materials were found to be associated with risky sexual practices. Therefore, life skills training is recommended to
Full Text Available Background: Binge eating has been usually viewed as a preference for risky over safe appetitive rewards although this view has been drawn without manipulating stressing-inducing food cues. In healthy women, stressful cues bias behavior for safer options, raising the question of whether food cues modulate binging patients’ behaviors towards safer options.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with binging patients (20 bulimia nervosa (BN and 23 binging anorexia nervosa (ANB patients and two control groups (22 non-binging restrictive (ANR anorexia nervosa patients and 20 healthy participants, without any concomitant impulsive disorder. We assessed decisions under risk with a gambling task with known probabilities and decisions under uncertainty with the balloon analog risk taking task (BART with unknown probabilities of winning, in three cued-conditions including neutral, binge food and stressful cues.Results: In the gambling task, binging patients and ANR patients adopted similar safer attitudes and coherently elicited a higher aversion to losses when primed by food as compared to neutral cues. This differential behavior was also observed in the BART in BN and ANR patients only, aligning with the behavior of healthy controls when primed with stressful cues. In ANB patients, similar safer behaviors were observed in food and neutral conditions in the BART but with a higher variability in their choices in food condition. This higher variability was associated with higher difficulties to discard irrelevant information. Conclusion: Decision making under risk and under uncertainty is not fundamentally altered in binging patients but might be disturbed by a concomitant task.
Xue, Feng; Droutman, Vita; Barkley-Levenson, Emily; Melrose, A James; Miller, Lynn C; Monterosso, John R; Bechara, Antoine; Appleby, Paul R; Christensen, John L; Godoy, Carlos G; Read, Stephen J
Abstract HIV is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and although most MSM use condoms consistently during casual sex, some take risks. To better understand the psychology of those risky decisions, we examined neural correlates of playing a virtual sexual ‘hook up’ game in an functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner in MSM who had, in the past 90 days, been sexually risky (N = 76) or safe (N = 31). We found that during potentially risky sexual choices, previously risky MSM had more right insula activity than previously safe MSM. Real-life sexual risk was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Insula activity that differentiated risky and safe MSM was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Future work should further examine if, and to what extent, insula activation during safe sex negotiation drives MSM’s rash risky sexual decision-making. PMID:29149326
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks
Yang, Jiaoyan; Du, Feng; Qu, Weina; Gong, Zhun; Sun, Xianghong
Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of injury-related fatalities in China and pose the most serious threat to driving safety. Driver personality is considered as an effective predictor for risky driving behavior and accident liability. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between personality and risky driving behavior, but only a few of them have explored the effects of personality variables on accident involvement. In addition, few studies have examined the effects of personality on Chinese drivers' risky driving and accident involvement. The present study aimed to examine the effects of personality variables on Chinese drivers' unsafe driving behaviors and accident involvement. Two hundred and twenty-four Chinese drivers aged 20 to 50 were required to complete questionnaires assessing their personality traits (anger, sensation-seeking, altruism, and normlessness), risky driving behaviors (aggressive violations, ordinary violations), and accident involvement (all accidents, serious accidents, at-fault accidents). Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for gender, age, and overall mileage, were conducted to identify the personality traits related to risky driving behaviors and accident involvement. Participants' personality traits were found to be significantly correlated with both risky driving behavior and accident involvement. Specifically, the traits of anger and normlessness were effective predictors for aggressive violations. The traits of anger, sensation-seeking, normlessness, and altruism were effective predictors for ordinary violations. Moreover, altruism and normlessness were significant predictors for the total number of accidents participants had during the past 3 years. Consistent with previous studies, the present study revealed that personality traits play an important role in predicting Chinese drivers' risky driving behaviors. In addition, Chinese drivers' personality characteristics were also associated with accident
Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is associated with heightened risk tolerance and altered decision- making. This raises the question as to whether alcohol dependent patients (ADP are incapable of proper risk assessment. We investigated how healthy controls (HC and ADP engage neural networks to cope with the increased cognitive demands of risky decisions. We collected fMRI data while 34 HC and 16 ADP played a game that included safe and risky trials. In safe trials, participants accrued money at no risk of a penalty. In risky trials, reward and risk simultaneously increased as participants were instructed to decide when to stop a reward accrual period. If the participant failed to stop before an undisclosed time, the trial would bust and participants would not earn the money from that trial. Independent Component Analysis was used to identify networks engaged during the anticipation and the decision execution of risky compared with safe trials. Like HC, ADP demonstrated distinct network engagement for safe and risky trials at anticipation. However, at decision execution, ADP exhibited severely reduced discrimination in network engagement between safe and risky trials. Although ADP behaviorally responded to risk they failed to appropriately modify network engagement as the decision continued, leading ADP to assume similar network engagement regardless of risk prospects. This may reflect disorganized network switching and a facile response strategy uniformly adopted by ADP across risk conditions. We propose that aberrant salience network (SN engagement in ADP might contribute to ineffective network switching and that the role of the SN in risky decisions warrants further investigation.
Anderson, Amy E; Hure, Alexis J; Forder, Peta M; Powers, Jennifer; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Loxton, Deborah J
Risky patterns of alcohol use prior to pregnancy increase the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes. It is important to understand how consumption changes once women become pregnant. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of women that partake in risky drinking patterns before pregnancy and to examine how these patterns change once they become pregnant. A sample of 1577 women from the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were included if they first reported being pregnant in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and reported risky drinking patterns prior to that pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine which risky drinking patterns were most likely to continue into pregnancy. When reporting risky drinking patterns prior to pregnancy only 6% of women reported weekly drinking only, whereas 46% reported binge drinking only and 48% reported both. Women in both binge categories were more likely to have experienced financial stress, not been partnered, smoked, used drugs, been nulliparous, experienced a violent relationship, and were less educated. Most women (46%) continued these risky drinking patterns into pregnancy, with 40% reducing these behaviors, and 14% completely ceasing alcohol consumption. Once pregnant, women who binged only prior to pregnancy were more likely to continue (55%) rather than reduce drinking (29%). Of the combined drinking group 61% continued to binge and 47% continued weekly drinking. Compared with the combined drinking group, binge only drinkers prior to pregnancy were less likely to reduce rather than continue their drinking once pregnant (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.47). Over a third of women continued risky drinking into pregnancy, especially binge drinking, suggesting a need to address alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy.
Amy E Anderson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risky patterns of alcohol use prior to pregnancy increase the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes. It is important to understand how consumption changes once women become pregnant. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of women that partake in risky drinking patterns before pregnancy and to examine how these patterns change once they become pregnant. METHODS: A sample of 1577 women from the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were included if they first reported being pregnant in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and reported risky drinking patterns prior to that pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine which risky drinking patterns were most likely to continue into pregnancy. RESULTS: When reporting risky drinking patterns prior to pregnancy only 6% of women reported weekly drinking only, whereas 46% reported binge drinking only and 48% reported both. Women in both binge categories were more likely to have experienced financial stress, not been partnered, smoked, used drugs, been nulliparous, experienced a violent relationship, and were less educated. Most women (46% continued these risky drinking patterns into pregnancy, with 40% reducing these behaviors, and 14% completely ceasing alcohol consumption. Once pregnant, women who binged only prior to pregnancy were more likely to continue (55% rather than reduce drinking (29%. Of the combined drinking group 61% continued to binge and 47% continued weekly drinking. Compared with the combined drinking group, binge only drinkers prior to pregnancy were less likely to reduce rather than continue their drinking once pregnant (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.47. CONCLUSIONS: Over a third of women continued risky drinking into pregnancy, especially binge drinking, suggesting a need to address alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy.
Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; ?stergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette
Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gende...
Hudek-Knežević, Jasna; Kardum, Igor; Krapić, Nada
On a sample of 203 males and 219 females the effects of HIV-transmission knowledge, five-factor personality traits and three components of psychopathy (antisocial behavior, interpersonal manipulation and impulsive thrill seeking) on overall risky sexual behaviors as well as risky sexual behaviors during previous month were explored by using a series of hierarchical regression analyses. The main hypothesis tested in this research is that psychopathy is an important predictor of risky sexual be...
... implementation of a plan to address the current and projected needs for personnel who are qualified in accordance... accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, including personnel from minority backgrounds and personnel... retraining, recruiting, and hiring personnel; (B) The specific time period by which all State unit personnel...
The results are given of measurements of the radiation burden of personnel in departments of nuclear medicine in the years 1979 to 1981 using film dosemeters and ring thermoluminescence dosemeters evaluated by the national personnel dosemeter service. The relations are examined of the exposure of hands and the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and especially their use for examinations. Certain organizational measures are indicated for reducina radiation burden in a laboratory for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. The results of measurements and evaluations of radiation burden of personnel of nuclear medicine departments are confronted with conclusions published in the literature. (author)
Organization of monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination wastes is considered. The devices used for this purpose are enumerated. In sanitary sluices through which the personnel leaving the repair zone it is recommended to particularly thoroughly control hand skin contamination and most contaminated parts of overalls (sleeves, breeches lower parts, pockets, stomack region). In sanitary check points during personnel leaving the operator zone monitoring of overalls and skin contamination is performed. The overalls and other individual protective clothing are subjected to control in a special loundry before and after washing (decontamination) [ru
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75, Baja (103 and private owned car (172 drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9. Majority were 339 (96.9% males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6% had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6% had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7% had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3% had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7% had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6% house car and 58(37.4% taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6% followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9% of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22% ever had car accident while driving. Conclusions Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky
Hill, Danielle C; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Magill, Molly; Clarke, Jennifer G
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents are on the rise. The majority of adolescents who contract STIs do so through risky sexual behavior. Previous literature has identified multiple correlates of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, including physical and sexual victimization, mental health concerns, and substance use. Few studies, however, have examined these relationships together in a comprehensive model. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship violence was related to risky sexual behavior, and whether mental health symptoms and substance use mediated this relationship. A cross-sectional design was used, and adolescent females (N = 179), recruited from social service agencies, were 18.9 years old on average and were 37.2% White, 19.3% Black, 37.9% multiracial, and 5.6% other. Regression results revealed that females who were physically assaulted and sexually victimized by their intimate partners did engage in more sex without condoms. Mediational analyses indicated that PTSD symptoms significantly influenced the relationship between (1) physical assault and risky sexual behavior and (2) sexual victimization and risky sexual behavior. Contrary to expectations, PTSD may act to reduce risk perhaps by reducing interest in sex. It is important to address victimization, PTSD, and sexual risk in young women. More work is needed to understand these complex relationships using longitudinal designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Sutherland, Melissa A; Kelly-Weeder, Susan
The purpose of this study was to use an ecological lens to explore gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. This was a secondary analysis of data from a larger behavioral intervention trial that targeted drinking behaviors among adolescents. Data from a total of 2,560 male and female urban adolescents between the ages of 14 and 21 were analyzed for personal, interpersonal, and community exposure to violence and risky sexual behavior. Violence has an impact on sexual risk. For females, carrying a weapon (p= 0.020) and feeling safe in intimate relationships (p= 0.029) were individual correlates of risky sexual behavior, while for males, race/ethnicity (p= 0.019) and being in a physical fight (p= 0.001) were significant correlates of risky sexual behavior. Risky sexual behavior among adolescents may lead to negative reproductive health outcomes. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to affect change in this population through their frequent contact with adolescents in a variety of community and school-based venues. Nurse practitioners are also well-prepared to identify at-risk adolescents and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Martini, Alice; Ellis, Simon J; Grange, James A; Tamburin, Stefano; Dal Lago, Denise; Vianello, Greta; Edelstyn, Nicola M J
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are considered dopaminergic treatment side effects. Cognitive and affective factors may increase the risk of ICD in PD. The aim is to investigate risky decision-making and associated cognitive processes in PD patients with ICDs within a four-stage conceptual framework. Relationship between ICDs and affective factors was explored. Thirteen PD patients with ICD (ICD+), 12 PD patients without ICD (ICD-), and 17 healthy controls were recruited. Overall risky decision-making and negative feedback effect were examined with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). A cognitive battery dissected decision-making processes according to the four-stage conceptual framework. Affective and motivational factors were measured. ANOVA showed no effect of group on overall risky decision-making. However, there was a group × feedback interaction [F (2, 39) = 3.31, p = 0.047]. ICD+, unlike ICD- and healthy controls, failed to reduce risky behaviour following negative feedback. A main effect of group was found for anxiety and depression [F(2, 38) = 8.31, p = 0.001], with higher symptoms in ICD+ vs. healthy controls. Groups did not differ in cognitive outcomes or affective and motivational metrics. ICD+ may show relatively preserved cognitive function, but reduced sensitivity to negative feedback during risky decision-making and higher symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Full Text Available This study (1 reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber bullying roles; and (2 investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet Use (CIU, online grooming victimization, and sexting and risky offline activities (bad behavior in school, drinking alcohol and truancy than non-involved adolescents. The sample comprised self-reports of 1928 German, Dutch and Thai adolescents (Age = 12–18; M = 14.52; SD = 1.6. The results revealed age, sex and country differences in bullying frequency rates. CIU, sending of sexts and risky offline activities were most strongly associated with combined bully-victims. The receiving of sexts was most strongly associated with combined bullies; and online grooming victimization was most strongly related to cyber bully-victims. Another important finding is that the associations between risky offline activities and combined bullying are stronger than for traditional and cyber bullying. The findings contribute to better understanding of the associations between varying bullying roles and risky online and offline activities among adolescents. In sum, the results underscore the need to promote life skills rather than adopting more conventional approaches, which focus almost exclusively on reduction of risks.
Yang, Juan; Dedovic, Katarina; Zhang, Qinglin
Self-esteem, a value one places on oneself, influences one's cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses across various situations. In the case of risky decision-making, high self-esteem (SE) individuals rely on their positive self-views and tend to be less defensive in response to a risky task; low SE individuals, on the contrary, tend to have fewer accessible positive resources and thus, are more prone to risk-aversion. While past studies have provided evidence for a link between self-esteem and a behaviorally-risky response, no study has explored the relation between self-esteem and the electrophysiological correlates of risky response. Therefore, the current study investigated the correlates of risky decision-making in high SE compared to low SE participants using event-related potentials (ERP) technology in 28 undergraduate students playing a blackjack game. The results showed that there was no difference between the high SE participants and the low SE participants with respect to the behavioral assessments of the risk-taking decision-making. However, for the electrophysiological data, we observed that the amplitude of P2 (150-300 ms) was more positive in the high SE participants compared to the low SE participants over the central-posterior scalp region. Dipole source analysis indicated that this positive component was generated in posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). These findings suggest that the high SE participants experienced more emotional signals than the low SE participants during decision-making.
Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
This theoretical article views children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective, addressing specific evolutionary functions and especially the anti-phobic effects of risky play. According to the non-associative theory, a contemporary approach to the etiology of anxiety, children develop fears of certain stimuli (e.g., heights and strangers) that protect them from situations they are not mature enough to cope with, naturally through infancy. Risky play is a set of motivated behaviors that both provide the child with an exhilarating positive emotion and expose the child to the stimuli they previously have feared. As the child's coping skills improve, these situations and stimuli may be mastered and no longer be feared. Thus fear caused by maturational and age relevant natural inhibition is reduced as the child experiences a motivating thrilling activation, while learning to master age adequate challenges. It is concluded that risky play may have evolved due to this anti-phobic effect in normal child development, and it is suggested that we may observe an increased neuroticism or psychopathology in society if children are hindered from partaking in age adequate risky play.
Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter
Full Text Available This theoretical article views children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective, addressing specific evolutionary functions and especially the anti-phobic effects of risky play. According to the non-associative theory, a contemporary approach to the etiology of anxiety, children develop fears of certain stimuli (e.g., heights and strangers that protect them from situations they are not mature enough to cope with, naturally through infancy. Risky play is a set of motivated behaviors that both provide the child with an exhilarating positive emotion and expose the child to the stimuli they previously have feared. As the child's coping skills improve, these situations and stimuli may be mastered and no longer be feared. Thus fear caused by maturational and age relevant natural inhibition is reduced as the child experiences a motivating thrilling activation, while learning to master age adequate challenges. It is concluded that risky play may have evolved due to this anti-phobic effect in normal child development, and it is suggested that we may observe an increased neuroticism or psychopathology in society if children are hindered from partaking in age adequate risky play.
Letamo, Gobopamang; Keetile, Mpho; Navaneetham, Kannan
The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of ART perception on risky sexual behaviours in Botswana. Using binary logistic regression analysis controlling for individual characteristics, the results tend to support the hypothesis that ART misconceptions do not necessarily increase risky sexual behaviours. In particular, the study findings suggest the belief that ARVs cure HIV and AIDS and that people on ARVs should not always use condoms do not necessarily lead to increased risky sexual behaviours, particularly among women. Gender differentials exist in the perceived sexual risk resulting from the use of ART. Risky sexual behaviours increase for women who, wrongly, believed that ARVs cure HIV and AIDS and people on ARVs should not always use condoms. Although there is evidence to suggest ART perceptions do not necessarily lead to increased risky sexual behaviours, HIV and AIDS prevention programmes are needed to strengthen their information, education and communication intervention component that can address misconceptions about ART treatment and provide correct information that is gender-appropriate.
Vogel, Ineke; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Burdorf, Alex; de Waart, Frouwkje
To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, and hard drugs) and unsafe sexual intercourse. A total of 944 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Risky MP3-player listeners used cannabis more often during the past 4 weeks. Students exposed to risky sound levels during discotheque and pop concert attendance used cannabis less often during the past 4 weeks, were more often binge drinkers, and reported inconsistent condom use during sexual intercourse. The coexistence of risky music-listening behaviors with other health-risk behaviors provides evidence in support of the integration of risky music-listening behaviors within research on and programs aimed at reducing more traditional health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and unsafe sexual intercourse.
Kim, Ji-Su; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwak, Yeunhee
Adolescents in sexual minority groups are known to be at risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases through risky sexual behavior. However, few studies have examined associations between sexual orientation and risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in Korean adolescents. Therefore, this cross-sectional study used raw data from the Tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey to explore these relationships. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between risky sexual behavior and sexual orientation in adolescents. The participants were 6,884 adolescents who provided data regarding demographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and risky sexual behavior. The proportions of homosexual and bisexual subjects who used condoms, engaged in sexual intercourse after drinking alcohol, and experienced sexually transmitted diseases were higher relative to those of heterosexual subjects. Associations between homosexuality and bisexuality and sexually transmitted diseases and engagement in sexual intercourse after drinking remained after multivariate adjustment. Interventions to prevent risky sexual behavior should target sexual orientation, to improve sexual health and prevent sexually transmitted disease in homosexual and bisexual adolescents.
Leech, Tamara G J
This study examines the association between gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior among young women. Previous studies have posed seemingly contradictory arguments: that either traditional attitudes or egalitarian attitudes are associated with riskier behavior. Data are based on the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, representing 520 sexually active 18-19-year-old women. Propensity radius matching was used to assess differences in rates of multiple sexual partners and sex outside of a committed relationship. Relative to moderate gender role attitudes, both egalitarian gender role attitudes and traditional gender role attitudes are associated with higher rates of risky sexual behavior. Both women with egalitarian role attitudes and those with traditional role attitudes have about a 10% higher prevalence of risky behavior compared to women with more moderate gender role attitudes. Existing, seemingly contradictory contentions about the relationship between gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior may be more coherent than they seem. By shifting focus from risk to protection, the results suggest that moderate gender role attitudes are protective against risky sexual behavior. Future studies should investigate the causal mechanisms and intervention implications of this protective relationship. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 484.4 Personnel... baccalaureate degree in social work, psychology, sociology, or other field related to social work, and has had...
US Agency for International Development — WebPass Explorer (WebPASS Framework): USAID is partnering with DoS in the implementation of their WebPass Post Personnel (PS) Module. WebPassPS does not replace...
Social Security Administration — Each year the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) sends SSA a file to be verified and matched against the Master Earnings File (MEF) and Employer Information File...
Office of Personnel Management — Precursor to the Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM). It contains data about the employee and their position, along with various...
Roberson, P.L.; Holbrook, K.L.
This guide describes minimum acceptable performance levels for personnel dosimetry systems used at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal is to improve both the quality of radiological calibrations and the methods of comparing reported occupational doses between DOE facilities. Reference calibration techniques are defined. A standard for evaluation of personnel dosimetry systems and recommended design parameters for personnel dosimeters are also included. Approximate intervals for the radiation energies for which these guidelines are appropriate are 15 keV to 2 MeV for photons; above 0.3 MeV for beta particles; and 1 keV to 2 MeV for neutrons. An analysis of ANSI N13.11 was completed using performance evaluations of selected personnel dosimetry systems in use at DOE facilities. The results of this analysis are incorporated in the guidelines
The ISO Standard 1757 ''Personnel Photographic Film Dosemeters'', issued in June 1980, is briefly described. UVVVR's own dosemeter developed for use in the national film dosimetry service in Czechoslovakia is evaluated in relation to this ISO Standard. (author)
Linden, Dimitri; Pelt, Dirk; Dunkel, Curtis; Born, Marise
markdownabstractJob Performance: The term job performance can either refer to the objective or subjective outcomes one achieves in a specific job (e.g., the profit of a sales persons, the number of publications of a scientist, the number of successful operations of a surgeon) or to work-related activities (e.g., writing an article, conducting specific surgical acts). In the majority of research on this topic, job performance as an outcome is used. Personnel selection: Personnel selection refe...
Adesesan B. Adeyemo; Oluwafemi Oriola
This paper applies forensic data mining to determine the true status of employees and thereafter provide useful evidences for proper administration of administrative rules in a Typical Nigerian Teaching Service. The conventional technique of personnel audit was studied and a new technique for personnel audit was modeled using Artificial Neural Networks and Decision Tree algorithms. Atwo-layer classifier architecture was modeled. The outcome of the experiment proved that Radial Basis Function ...
The basics of personnel dosimetry technics, used by the Radiologic Protetion and Assessorie Service (SAPRA) are presented, consisting on use of thermoluminescent and CaSO 4 :Dy monitors in aggregated pellets by Teflon. The characteristics of this dosemeters, relating to the sensitivity, energetic dependence, spike temperature, characteristic emission curve, decay and light effect are shown. The thermoluminescent dosemeter measure system and the personnel monitoring system are also described. (C.G.C.) [pt
Gonzalez Anez, Francisco; Agueero Agueero, Jorge
The continuous evolution and improvement of safety-related processes has included the analysis, design and development of training plans for the qualification of maintenance nuclear power plant personnel. In this respect, the international references in this area recommend the establishment of systematic qualification programmes for personnel performing functions or carrying out safety related tasks. Maintenance personnel qualification processes have improved significantly, and training plans have been designed and developed based on Systematic Approach to Training methodology to each job position. These improvements have been clearly reflected in recent training programmes with new training material and training facilities focused not only on developing technical knowledge and skills but also on improving attitudes and safety culture. The objectives of maintenance training facilities such as laboratories, mock-ups real an virtual, hydraulic loops, field simulators and other training material to be used in the maintenance training centre are to cover training necessities for initial and continuous qualification. Evidently, all these improvements made in the qualification of plant personnel should be extended to include supplemental personnel (external or contracted) performing safety-related tasks. The supplemental personnel constitute a very spread group, covering the performance of multiple activities entailing different levels of responsibility. Some of these activities are performed permanently at the plant, while others are occasional or sporadic. In order to establish qualification requirements for these supplemental workers, it is recommended to establish a rigorous analysis of job positions and tasks. The objective will be to identify the qualification requirements to assure competence and safety. (authors)
Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress and associated physical and mental health related issues are not addressed in Indian police personnel with adequate importance. Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted among police personnel (both male and female in Calicut urban police district, Kerala state, India. Police personnel from all designations (ranks, except from the all India services (Indian Police Service were included in the study. Data were collected using a specifically designed datasheet covering socio-demographic profile, physical and mental health related details which was prepared by researchers. Occupational stress was measured using Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-OP and Organisational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-ORG. Result: The study found that both operational and organisational stress was significant among the police officers. Organisational stress was experienced in moderate level by 68% and in high level by 14%. Operational stress scores were in the moderate range in 67% and in high range in 16.5%. The younger age group (21-35 years and lower level rank police personnel had higher stress. Stress was higher among female police personnel compared to males. While 23% of them had been diagnosed with physical illnesses, a significant four per cent of them with mental illness, and 29% of them reported substance abuse. Conclusion: The results point to the high level of stress among Indian police personnel and the need for urgent interventions from the government to address the occupational stress.
Galizzi, Matteo M
This work proposes a critical, non systematic, review of the three main lines of health policy interventions to deal with risky behaviours, such as over-eating, smoking, sedentary lives, and excess alcohol drinking, namely: i) the release of information on health risks and consequences; ii) the use of incentives; and iii) direct policy intervention in markets, through regulation and taxation. First, the health and economic impact of the risky behaviours epidemics are briefly described. Then a critical review follows on the evidence existing on the effectiveness of each type of intervention. The review will also highlight the public health approach staying beyond each type of policy on risky behaviours and critically consider them within the context of more general health and social policy interventions.
Matteo M. Galizzi
Full Text Available This work proposes a critical, non systematic, review of the three main lines of health policy interventions to deal with risky behaviours, such as over-eating, smoking, sedentary lives, and excess alcohol drinking, namely: i the release of information on health risks and consequences; ii the use of financial incentives; and iii direct policy intervention in markets, through regulation and taxation. First, the health and economic impact of the risky behaviours epidemics are briefly described. Then a critical review follows on the evidence existing on the effectiveness of each type of intervention. The review will also highlight the public health approach staying beyond each type of policy on risky behaviours and critically consider them within the context of more general health and social policy interventions.
Edelman, E Jennifer; Lunze, Karsten; Cheng, Debbie M; Lioznov, Dmitry A; Quinn, Emily; Gnatienko, Natalia; Bridden, Carly; Chaisson, Christine E; Walley, Alexander Y; Krupitsky, Evgeny M; Raj, Anita; Samet, Jeffrey H
The link between HIV stigma with substance use is understudied. We characterized individuals with high HIV stigma and examined whether HIV stigma contributes to substance use among HIV-positive Russians reporting risky alcohol use. We analyzed data from HERMITAGE, a randomized controlled trial of 700 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) with past 6-month risky sex and risky alcohol use in St. Petersburg, Russia (2007-2011). Participants who were female and reported depressive symptoms and lower social support were more likely to endorse high HIV stigma (all p's stigma was not significantly associated with the primary outcome unhealthy substance use and was not consistently associated with secondary substance use outcomes. Interventions to enhance social and mental health support for PLWHA, particularly women, may reduce stigma, though such reductions may not correspond to substantial decreases in substance use among this population.
Madan, Christopher R; Ludvig, Elliot A; Spetch, Marcia L
When making decisions on the basis of past experiences, people must rely on their memories. Human memory has many well-known biases, including the tendency to better remember highly salient events. We propose an extreme-outcome rule, whereby this memory bias leads people to overweight the largest gains and largest losses, leading to more risk seeking for relative gains than for relative losses. To test this rule, in two experiments, people repeatedly chose between fixed and risky options, where the risky option led equiprobably to more or less than did the fixed option. As was predicted, people were more risk seeking for relative gains than for relative losses. In subsequent memory tests, people tended to recall the extreme outcome first and also judged the extreme outcome as having occurred more frequently. Across individuals, risk preferences in the risky-choice task correlated with these memory biases. This extreme-outcome rule presents a novel mechanism through which memory influences decision making.
Somerville, Leah H; Haddara, Nadia; Sasse, Stephanie F; Skwara, Alea C; Moran, Joseph M; Figner, Bernd
This study evaluated the aspects of complex decisions influenced by peers, and components of peer involvement influential to adolescents' risky decisions. Participants (N = 140) aged 13-25 completed the Columbia Card Task (CCT), a risky choice task, isolating deliberation-reliant and affect-reliant decisions while alone, while a friend monitors choices, and while a friend is merely present. There is no condition in which a nonfriend peer is present. Results demonstrated the risk-increasing peer effect occurred in the youngest participants in the cold CCT and middle-late adolescents in the hot CCT, whereas other ages and contexts showed a risk-decreasing peer effect. Mere presence was not sufficient to influence risky behavior. These boundaries in age, decision, and peer involvement constrain prevailing models of adolescent peer influence. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.
Panno, Angelo; Lauriola, Marco; Figner, Bernd
Only very recently has research demonstrated that experimentally induced emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) affect risky choice (e.g., Heilman et al., 2010). However, it is unknown whether this effect also operates via habitual use of emotion regulation strategies in risky choice involving deliberative decision making. We investigated the role of habitual use of emotion regulation strategies in risky choice using the "cold" deliberative version of the Columbia Card Task (CCT; Figner et al., 2009). Fifty-three participants completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003) and--one month later--the CCT and the PANAS. Greater habitual cognitive reappraisal use was related to increased risk taking, accompanied by decreased sensitivity to changes in probability and loss amount. Greater habitual expressive suppression use was related to decreased risk taking. The results show that habitual use of reappraisal and suppression strategies predict risk taking when decisions involve predominantly cognitive-deliberative processes.
Neppl, Tricia K; Dhalewadikar, Jui; Lohman, Brenda J
Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence. Results indicated that parenting and deviant peers was related to engagement in tobacco use, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Moreover, attitudes and intentions mediated this relationship even after parent use and adolescent early involvement in these behaviors were taken into account.
Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael J.; Møller, Mette
Self-report measures of driving-related attitudes and beliefs miss potentially important precursors of driving behaviour, namely, automatic and implicit thought processes. The present study used an adapted Go/No-go Association Task to measure implicit thought without relying on the participants......' self-reports. Implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving were measured in 53 Danish drivers (31 female, 22 male). Further, we explored the relationship between implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving, and self-reported driving behaviour and skills. The results suggest that implicit...... attitudes were significantly related to self-reported driving behaviour and skills for male (but not female) drivers. Pending future research with larger sample sizes, the difference between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical...
Full Text Available South Africa has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world. Most accidents are avoidable and are caused by driver behaviour and errors. The purpose of this article was to identify the riskiest driver behaviours in commercial fleets in South Africa, to determine the business impact of such behaviour, to establish a framework for the management of risky driver behaviour and to test the framework by applying a leading commercial driver behaviour management system as a case study. The case study comprised three South African commercial fleets. Using data from these fleets, critical incident triangles were used to determine the ratio data of risky driver behaviour to near-collisions and collisions. Based on managing the riskiest driver behaviours as causes of more serious incidents and accidents, the results indicated that through the implementation of an effective driver risk management system, risky incidents were significantly reduced.
.... Surveys of military personnel show that, particularly for junior personnel, financial problems constitute a major source of stress, subordinate only to increased workload and family separation...
Burgess Dowdell, Elizabeth
In today's world, more adolescents are using the Internet as an avenue for social communication and a source of information and to experiment with risky online behaviors. To better understand how early adolescents are using the Internet, a study was undertaken to more clearly identify online use and online risky behaviors and to describe any online relationships with strangers middle-school students may be participating in. This exploratory study adapted the Youth Internet Safety Survey of Finkelhor et al to identify the usage and characteristics of online youth, solicitation of youth, and risky behaviors. Four hundred and four students, with a mean age of 12 years, were recruited from public and parochial schools located in the Northeast. Findings from this study indicate that of a total sample of 404 middle-school students, a small grouping (n = 59; 14.6%) are beginning risky online communication behaviors with strangers. Students who communicated online with strangers were older and had higher rates of posting personal information, risky online behaviors, and stealing. The majority of this group (84%) met offline with the online stranger, and three students reported having been assaulted. Findings suggest that early adolescents are beginning risky online and offline behaviors. Understanding their experiences is important since they highlight how middle-school students are undertaking risks in a new environment that many adults and parents do not fully understand. Clinicians, educators, healthcare providers, and other professionals need to be informed of Internet behaviors in order to assess for risk, to make referrals, to intervene, and to educate.
Abayomi, O; Babalola, O R; Olakulehin, O A; Ighoroje, M
Drink driving contributes significantly to road traffic injuries. Little is known about the relationship between drink driving and other high-risk behaviors in non-Western countries. The study aimed to assess the relationship between drink driving and other risky behaviors including making phone calls, sending text messages, nonuse of protective gear, and driving against traffic. A cross-sectional survey of risky behavior among undergraduates was conducted. A stratified random sampling method was used to identify young undergraduates who had driven a motorized vehicle in the past year. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and other tools developed by researchers were used to identify the risky behaviors. Of 431 respondents, 10.7% had engaged in drink driving in the past 12 months. The most common risky behavior was making phone calls (63.7%), followed by nonuse of helmets (54.7%), driving against traffic (49.2%), nonuse of seat belts (46.8%), and sending text messages (26.1%). Alcohol use was significantly associated with making phone calls (U = 1.148; P < .0001), sending text messages (U = 1.598; P = .021), nonuse of helmets (U = 1.147; P < .0001), driving against traffic (U = 1.234; P < .0001), and nonuse of seat belts (U = 3.233; P = .001). Drink driving was associated with all risky behaviors except nonuse of seat belts (U = 1.842; P = .065). Alcohol use and drink driving were associated with multiple risky driving behaviors. This provides useful insight for policy development and presents additional challenges for traffic injury prevention.
Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.
Item response theory (IRT) methodology allowed an in-depth examination of several issues that would be difficult to explore using traditional methodology. IRT models were estimated for 4 risky-choice items, answered by students under either a gain or loss frame. Results supported the typical framing finding of risk-aversion for gains and risk-seeking for losses but also suggested that a latent construct we label preference for risk was influential in predicting risky choice. Also, the Asian Disease item, most often used in framing research, was found to have anomalous statistical properties when compared to other framing items. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs
Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frank, T D
Using a nonlinear Fokker-Planck perspective we re-formulate the linear discrepancy model proposed by Boster and colleagues that describes the emergence of risky shifts during group decision making. Analytical expressions for the stationary case are derived and risky shifts are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Striking similarities with the Kuramoto model for group synchronization are pointed out
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks
Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…
Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri
African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…
The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a 'risky' cybersecurity behaviours scale. The results demonstrated that Internet addiction was a significant predictor for risky cybersecurity behaviours. A positive attitude towards cybersecurity in business was negatively related to risky cybersecurity behaviours. Finally, the measure of impulsivity revealed that both attentional and motor impulsivity were both significant positive predictors of risky cybersecurity behaviours, with non-planning being a significant negative predictor. The results present a further step in understanding the individual differences that may govern good cybersecurity practices, highlighting the need to focus directly on more effective training and awareness mechanisms.
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service of process upon personnel. 720.20... DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL; SERVICE OF PROCESS AND SUBPOENAS; PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS Service of Process and Subpoenas Upon Personnel § 720.20 Service of process upon personnel. (a) General. Commanding...
The Guidebook will prove especially useful for, and is addressed primarily to: nuclear power operating organizations establishing or upgrading their NPP personnel training systems; regulatory personnel responsible for setting requirements and/or evaluating NPP personnel training; and organizations (within or outside the operating organization) responsible for the development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes for NPP personnel. Figs, tabs
Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study examined the associations between sibling intimacy and conflict and youths' reports of risky behavior in a sample of adolescents ages 11-20. Participants were mothers, fathers, and sibling dyads in 393 families who were interviewed annually for 3, 4, or 5 years. Multivariate multilevel models tested longitudinal links between sibling…
Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Bokhoven, I. van; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Lochman, J.E.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.
Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents
Full Text Available This article presents a quantitative model comparison contrasting the process predictions of two prominent views on risky choice. One view assumes a trade-off between probabilities and outcomes (or nonlinear functions thereof and the separate evaluation of risky options (expectation models. Another view assumes that risky choice is based on comparative evaluation, limited search, aspiration levels, and the forgoing of trade-offs (heuristic models. We derived quantitative process predictions for a generic expectation model and for a specific heuristic model, namely the priority heuristic (Brandstätter, Gigerenzer, & Hertwig, 2006, and tested them in two experiments. The focus was on two key features of the cognitive process: acquisition frequencies (i.e., how frequently individual reasons are looked up and direction of search (i.e., gamble-wise vs. reason-wise. In Experiment 1, the priority heuristic predicted direction of search better than the expectation model (although neither model predicted the acquisition process perfectly; acquisition frequencies, however, were inconsistent with both models. Additional analyses revealed that these frequencies were primarily a function of what Rubinstein (1988 called similarity. In Experiment 2, the quantitative model comparison approach showed that people seemed to rely more on the priority heuristic in difficult problems, but to make more trade-offs in easy problems. This finding suggests that risky choice may be based on a mental toolbox of strategies.
Kalenscher, T.; Tobler, P.N.; Hofmann, K.P.
When making decisions between different options, we often consider two basic properties of these options, how risky they are and when they will occur. For example, we may choose to gamble or to wait for a larger reward. Decisions under risk refer to decisions among known probabilistic options,
Damico, James; Apol, Laura
Literature that vividly and explicitly describes (often in the form of testimonies from one or more characters) traumatic and/or catastrophic events of human history poses particular challenges for readers. This article proposes testimonial response as one approach to responding to these "risky historical texts." By way of introducing "testimonial…
Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel
We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels.
Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Brandstätter, Eduard
This article presents a quantitative model comparison contrasting the process predictions of two prominent views on risky choice. One view assumes a trade-off between probabilities and outcomes (or non-linear functions thereof) and the separate evaluation of risky options (expectation models). Another view assumes that risky choice is based on comparative evaluation, limited search, aspiration levels, and the forgoing of trade-offs (heuristic models). We derived quantitative process predictions for a generic expectation model and for a specific heuristic model, namely the priority heuristic (Brandstätter et al., 2006), and tested them in two experiments. The focus was on two key features of the cognitive process: acquisition frequencies (i.e., how frequently individual reasons are looked up) and direction of search (i.e., gamble-wise vs. reason-wise). In Experiment 1, the priority heuristic predicted direction of search better than the expectation model (although neither model predicted the acquisition process perfectly); acquisition frequencies, however, were inconsistent with both models. Additional analyses revealed that these frequencies were primarily a function of what Rubinstein (1988) called “similarity.” In Experiment 2, the quantitative model comparison approach showed that people seemed to rely more on the priority heuristic in difficult problems, but to make more trade-offs in easy problems. This finding suggests that risky choice may be based on a mental toolbox of strategies. PMID:24151472
Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.
The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…
Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on the engagement in risky sexual online behavior. A four-wave longitudinal study among a representative sample of 1,016 Dutch adolescents (12-17 years old) was conducted. Two autoregressive cross-lagged
I. Vogel (Ineke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. Burdorf (Alex); F. de Waart (Frouwkje)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes,
Dekkers, Tycho J; Popma, Arne; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Bexkens, Anika; Huizenga, Hilde M
ADHD has been associated with various forms of risky real life decision making, for example risky driving, unsafe sex and substance abuse. However, results from laboratory studies on decision making deficits in ADHD have been inconsistent, probably because of between study differences. We therefore performed a meta-regression analysis in which 37 studies (n ADHD=1175; n Control=1222) were included, containing 52 effect sizes. The overall analysis yielded a small to medium effect size (standardized mean difference=.36, pdecision making than control groups. There was a trend for a moderating influence of co-morbid Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD): studies including more participants with co-morbid DBD had larger effect sizes. No moderating influence of co-morbid internalizing disorders, age or task explicitness was found. These results indicate that ADHD is related to increased risky decision making in laboratory settings, which tended to be more pronounced if ADHD is accompanied by DBD. We therefore argue that risky decision making should have a more prominent role in research on the neuropsychological and -biological mechanisms of ADHD, which can be useful in ADHD assessment and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article theorizes migration as risk, drawing on Biesta's notion of risk. The author explores how productive risk connects with emancipation, seeing the risky migrant subjects in societies in new ways, rather than positioning them as marginalized threats. Finally, the author connects the theory of migration as risk to current qualitative data…
Zeelenberg, M.; Beattie, J.; Pligt, van der J.; Vries, de N.K.
Previous research has considered the question of how anticipated regret affects risky decision making. Several studies have shown that anticipated regret forces participants towards the safe option, showing risk-aversion. We argue that these results are due to the previous confounding of the
A Risky Business? geeft een gedetailleerde analyse van de besluitvormingsprocessen van vrouwelijke oekraïense migranten die naar Polen emigreren om daar als huishoudelijke hulp te gaan werken. Deze studie laat zien hoe de sociale banden en migrantenorganisaties de machtsongelijkheid tussen een
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the risky health behaviors and to raise the awareness of adolescents (attending high school education about prevention of risky behaviors and solutions by the effect of module-based training courses (about reproductive health and birth control, sexually transmitted infections, harmful habits, psychosocial behavior. Being planned as cross-sectional, this study was performed between September 2013-June 2014 in three states and a private high school in Zonguldak and conducted with a group of students aged between 14 and 19.926 students have participated before the training and 534 students have participated after training. It was seen that the mean scores of ‘The Adolescent Risk-Taking Questionnaire', ‘The Adolescent's Attitudes Towards Violence Scale' and ‘taking risk about social status', ‘traffic', ‘subtance use' subscales have decreased after the risk prevention trainings. The means scores of ‘Adolescent Coping with Problems Scale', ‘Nutrition Behaviour Scale' and ‘Nutrition Attitude Scale' have raised. Hence, the scores of domains reflecting adolescent health perception such as hygiene, sleep and exercise have raised while the scores of somatic symptoms domain, such as abdominal pain, headache, and fatigue have been failed. Consequently, it was determined that the training courses about risky health behaviours were effective in preventing risky health behaviors and creating positive health perceptions of adolescents.
Conclusion: Accordingly, it is seen that in youth, risky behavior is seen more in males and affected by various socio-demographic factors.We hope that the data obtained from this work will be a guide for health education to be done. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(4.000: 348-354
Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle
A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…
Panno, A.; Lauriola, M.; Figner, B.
Only very recently has research demonstrated that experimentally induced emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) affect risky choice (e.g., Heilman et al., 2010). However, it is unknown whether this effect also operates via habitual use of emotion regulation
Simon, Nicholas W; Gilbert, Ryan J; Mayse, Jeffrey D; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry
We developed a behavioral task in rats to assess the influence of risk of punishment on decision making. Male Long-Evans rats were given choices between pressing a lever to obtain a small, 'safe' food reward and a large food reward associated with risk of punishment (footshock). Each test session consisted of 5 blocks of 10 choice trials, with punishment risk increasing with each consecutive block (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%). Preference for the large, 'risky' reward declined with both increased probability and increased magnitude of punishment, and reward choice was not affected by the level of satiation or the order of risk presentation. Performance in this risky decision-making task was correlated with the degree to which the rats discounted the value of probabilistic rewards, but not delayed rewards. Finally, the acute effects of different doses of amphetamine and cocaine on risky decision making were assessed. Systemic amphetamine administration caused a dose-dependent decrease in choice of the large risky reward (ie, it made rats more risk averse). Cocaine did not cause a shift in reward choice, but instead impaired the rats' sensitivity to changes in punishment risk. These results should prove useful for investigating neuropsychiatric disorders in which risk taking is a prominent feature, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and addiction.
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.
The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…
Background According to previous studies, one of the common problems of everyday life of persons with tattoos is risky behavior. However, direct examination of the decision making process, as well as factors which determine women’s risk-taking decisions to get tattoos, have not been conducted. This study investigates whether risk taking decision-making is associated with the self-assessment impulsiveness in tattooed women. Methods Young women (aged 18–35 years) with (N = 60) and without (N = 60) tattoos, performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), as a measure of decision-making processes, as well as completing the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Results Tattooed women showed significantly higher scores in the BIS-11 and preference for disadvantageous decks on the IGT compared to non-tattooed women. There was no significant correlation between risky decision-making in the IGT and BIS-11 impulsivity measures. A significantly higher rate of smoking was observed in the tattooed women. However, the analysis did not reveal a group effect after adjustment for smoking in the IGT and the BIS-11 measures. Conclusions The present study was specifically designed to resolve questions regarding associations between impulsiveness and risky decision-making in tattooed women. It shows that in tattooed women, risky decisions are not a direct result of their self-reported impulsiveness. Smoking does not explain the psychometric differences between tattooed women and controls. PMID:24180254
Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn
We explored the risky driving behaviors and risk perceptions of a cohort of young novice drivers and sought to determine their associations with crash risk. Provisional drivers aged 17 to 24 (n = 20 822) completed a detailed questionnaire that included measures of risk perception and behaviors; 2 years following recruitment, survey data were linked to licensing and police-reported crash data. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore crash risk. High scores on questionnaire items for risky driving were associated with a 50% increased crash risk (adjusted relative risk = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.25, 1.81). High scores for risk perception (poorer perceptions of safety) were also associated with increased crash risk in univariate and multivariate models; however, significance was not sustained after adjustment for risky driving. The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Systemwide intervention, including licensing reform, is warranted.
Brussoni, Mariana; Olsen, Lise L; Pike, Ian; Sleet, David A
Injury prevention plays a key role in keeping children safe, but emerging research suggests that imposing too many restrictions on children's outdoor risky play hinders their development. We explore the relationship between child development, play, and conceptions of risk taking with the aim of informing child injury prevention. Generational trends indicate children's diminishing engagement in outdoor play is influenced by parental and societal concerns. We outline the importance of play as a necessary ingredient for healthy child development and review the evidence for arguments supporting the need for outdoor risky play, including: (1) children have a natural propensity towards risky play; and, (2) keeping children safe involves letting them take and manage risks. Literature from many disciplines supports the notion that safety efforts should be balanced with opportunities for child development through outdoor risky play. New avenues for investigation and action are emerging seeking optimal strategies for keeping children "as safe as necessary," not "as safe as possible." This paradigm shift represents a potential for epistemological growth as well as cross-disciplinary collaboration to foster optimal child development while preserving children's safety.
Leech, Tamara G. J.; Dias, Janice Johnson
Scant attention has been given to the consequence of actual weight status for adolescents' sexual wellbeing. In this article, we investigate the race-specific connection between obesity and risky sexual behavior among adolescent girls. Propensity scores and radius matching are used to analyze a sample of 340 adolescents aged 16-17 who participated…
Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.
Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk
David A. Sleet
Full Text Available Injury prevention plays a key role in keeping children safe, but emerging research suggests that imposing too many restrictions on children’s outdoor risky play hinders their development. We explore the relationship between child development, play, and conceptions of risk taking with the aim of informing child injury prevention. Generational trends indicate children’s diminishing engagement in outdoor play is influenced by parental and societal concerns. We outline the importance of play as a necessary ingredient for healthy child development and review the evidence for arguments supporting the need for outdoor risky play, including: (1 children have a natural propensity towards risky play; and, (2 keeping children safe involves letting them take and manage risks. Literature from many disciplines supports the notion that safety efforts should be balanced with opportunities for child development through outdoor risky play. New avenues for investigation and action are emerging seeking optimal strategies for keeping children “as safe as necessary,” not “as safe as possible.” This paradigm shift represents a potential for epistemological growth as well as cross-disciplinary collaboration to foster optimal child development while preserving children’s safety.
Full Text Available Cocaine use disorder is associated with maladaptive decision-making behaviour, which strongly contributes to the harmful consequences of chronic drug use. Prior research has shown that cocaine users exhibit impaired neuropsychological test performances, particularly with regard to attention, learning, and memory but also in executive functions such as decision-making and impulse control. However, to what extent cocaine users show impaired decision-making under risk without feedback has not yet been investigated systematically. Therefore, to examine risk-taking behaviour, 31 chronic cocaine users and 26 stimulant-naïve healthy controls, who were part of the Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study, performed the Randomized Lottery Task (RALT with winning lotteries consisting of an uncertain and a certain prospect. Results revealed that risky decisions were associated with male sex, increased cocaine use in the past year, higher cocaine concentrations in the hair, and younger age. In addition, higher levels of cocaine in the hair and cumulative lifetime consumption were associated with risky decisions, whereas potentially confounding factors including cognition and psychiatric symptoms had no significant effect. Taken together, our results indicate that cocaine users who increased their consumption over a period of one year show deficits in the processing of risky information accompanied with increased risk-taking. Future research should analyse whether risky decisions could potentially serve as a prognostic marker for cocaine use disorder.
Griffith, R.V.; Hankins, D.E.
NTA film and albedo detectors represent the major portion of personnel dosimeters now used for occupational neutron monitoring. However, recent attention to the spectral response of these systems has demonstrated the need for detectors that have a better match to the fields being monitored. Recent developments in direct recoil track etch dosimeters present some intriguing alternatives, and careful use of 237 Np fission fragment detectors offers the advantage of a good dose equivalent spectral match. Work continues on a number of other new detector mechanisms, but problems with sensitivity, energy response, gamma interference, etc., continue to prevent development of most mechanisms into viable personnel dosimeters. Current dosimeter limitations make a systematic approach to personnel neutron monitoring particularly important. Techniques have been developed and tested, using available portable survey instruments, that significantly improve the quality of dosimeter interpretation. Even simple spectrometry can be done with modest effort, significantly improving the health physicists ability to provide accurate neutron monitoring
The management principles in this publication were developed by a committee of senior utility officials with assistance by the staff of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and with input from virtually all U.S. nuclear utilities. The principles are aimed at creating an environment within a nuclear power plant that promotes a healthy respect for the unique technology that nuclear electric power represents and, thus, to promote great care and conservative, thoughtful decision-making by the nuclear plant staff. The scope of the principles includes all nuclear personnel and gives guidance in the selection and development of management and supervisory personnel and other key individuals in the areas of operations, maintenance, technical support and engineering. Utility managers are encouraged to make in-depth comparisons between these principles and their day-to-day policies and practices, and to use such efforts as opportunities to communicate their organization's management philosophy to all nuclear personnel.
For the past decade, the demand for health physics personnel, at both the professional and technical levels, has been increasing, and indeed has become quite acute in recent years. The need for health physics personnel is demonstrated by a summary of projected requirements and potential candidates by the year 1991. Suggestions made for ensuring the availability of qualified health physics personnel includes: 1) a characterization study of health physicists should be conducted, with emphasis on industry, to determine qualifications, job satisfaction factors, and other data pertinent to entry and retention in the field; 2) the curricula currently offered by post-secondary schools should be evaluated for quality and relevance; and 3) an industry standard or protocol for qualification and training of health physics should be developed and implemented
Clauss, D.B.; Parks, M.B.; Julien, J.T.; Peters, S.W.
Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is investigating the leakage potential of mechanical penetrations as part of a research program on containment integrity under severe accident loads for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Barnes et al. (1984) and Shackelford et al. (1985) identified leakage from personnel airlocks as an important failure mode of containments subject to severe accident loads. However, these studies were based on relatively simple analysis methods. The complex structural interaction between the door, gasket, and bulkhead in personnel airlocks makes analytical evaluation of leakage difficult. In order to provide data to validate methods for evaluating the leakage potential, a full-size personnel airlock was subject to simulated severe accident loads consisting of pressure and temperature up to 300 psig and 800 degrees F. The test was conducted at Chicago Bridge and Iron under contract to Sandia. The authors provide a detailed report on the test program
It is said that Physical Protection (PP) has two purposes. One is to prevent from occurring risks of threat and terrorism and the other is to minimize damages which will be happened in case of unusual conditions or emergency situation. To achieve this goal, personnel who perform their duties should have professional knowledge and skills concerning security. However, since newcomers rarely satisfy their knowledge and skill for nuclear security in most cases. Therefore, we have to provide adequate education and training after they joined to our company. To this end, our company, located in Aomori Prefecture focused on security and physical protection for nuclear related facilities. In this paper, personnel training and challenges in order to bring up security personnel at our company will be introduced. (author)
The management principles in this publication were developed by a committee of senior utility officials with assistance by the staff of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and with input from virtually all U.S. nuclear utilities. The principles are aimed at creating an environment within a nuclear power plant that promotes a healthy respect for the unique technology that nuclear electric power represents and, thus, to promote great care and conservative, thoughtful decision-making by the nuclear plant staff. The scope of the principles includes all nuclear personnel and gives guidance in the selection and development of management and supervisory personnel and other key individuals in the areas of operations, maintenance, technical support and engineering. Utility managers are encouraged to make in-depth comparisons between these principles and their day-to-day policies and practices, and to use such efforts as opportunities to communicate their organization's management philosophy to all nuclear personnel
Vingilis, Evelyn; Yıldırım-Yenier, Zümrüt; Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Wickens, Christine; Seeley, Jane; Fleiter, Judy; Grushka, Daniel H
Entry of terms reflective of extreme risky driving behaviors into the YouTube website yields millions of videos. The majority of the top 20 highly subscribed automotive YouTube websites are focused on high-performance vehicles, high speed, and often risky driving. Moreover, young men are the heaviest users of online video sharing sites, overall streaming more videos, and watching them longer than any other group. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on YouTube videos and risky driving. A systematic search was performed using the following specialized database sources-Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, ERIC, and Google Scholar-for the years 2005-2015 for articles in the English language. Search words included "YouTube AND driving," "YouTube AND speeding," "YouTube AND racing." No published research was found on the content of risky driving videos or on the effects of these videos on viewers. This literature review presents the current state of our published knowledge on the topic, which includes a review of the effects of mass media on risky driving cognitions; attitudes and behavior; similarities and differences between mass and social media; information on the YouTube platform; psychological theories that could support YouTube's potential effects on driving behavior; and 2 examples of risky driving behaviors ("sidewalk skiing" and "ghost riding the whip") suggestive of varying levels of modeling behavior in subsequent YouTube videos. Every month about 1 billion individuals are reported to view YouTube videos (ebizMBA Guide 2015 ) and young men are the heaviest users, overall streaming more YouTube videos and watching them longer than women and other age groups (Nielsen 2011 ). This group is also the most dangerous group in traffic, engaging in more per capita violations and experiencing more per capita injuries and fatalities (e.g., Parker et al. 1995 ; Reason et al. 1990 ; Transport Canada 2015 ; World Health Organization 2015 ). YouTube also
Hoefert, M.; Raffnsoe, R.C.; Tuyn, J.W.N.; Wittekind, D.
From following the development of personnel doses at CERN over the past six years it has become evident that work in areas of induced radioactivity is the principal cause of exposure. The results of photon dose measurements free-in-air and around a phantom are presented and discussed in the light of new quantities in individual monitoring. The importance of these results, with respect to the practical situation, is discussed and the problem of phantom size is mentioned. Finally, the results of dose measurements in the phantom are presented, since such information is important in cases where it becomes necessary to transform personnel doses into personal doses. (author)
With the ultimate aim of reducing the possibility of human error in nuclear power plant operations, the Guidebook discusses the organizational aspects, the staffing requirements, the educational systems and qualifications, the competence requirements, the ways to establish, preserve and verify competence, the specific aspects of personnel management and training for nuclear power plant operations, and finally the particular situations and difficulties to be overcome by utilities starting their first nuclear power plant. An important aspect presented in the Guidebook is the experience in training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel in various countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America
A survey about training places and the volume of the training program for reactor personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany is given. Paragraph 7 of the atomic energy act, which imposes on the operators of nuclear energy plants the qualifired training of the personnel, is refered to. Positive experiences with the use of simulation equipment for training have led to the planning of a simulator-centre which is expected to be ready for operation in 1977. The versatile program of this centre is briefly reported. (ORU) [de
The personnel dosimetry monitoring program at the Portsmouth uranium enrichment facility has been improved by using thermoluminescent dosimetry to monitor for ionizing radiation exposure, and by automating most of the operations and all of the associated information handling. A thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) card, worn by personnel inside security badges, stores the energy of ionizing radiation. The dosimeters are changed-out periodically and are loaded 150 cards at a time into an automated reader-processor. The resulting data is recorded and filed into a useful form by computer programming developed for this purpose
Current performance estimates for personnel access control systems use estimates of Type I and Type II verification errors. A system performance equation which addresses normal operation, the insider, and outside adversary attack is developed. Examination of this equation reveals the inadequacy of classical Type I and II error evaluations which require detailed knowledge of the adversary threat scenario for each specific installation. Consequently, new performance measures which are consistent with the performance equation and independent of the threat are developed as an aid in selecting personnel access control systems
Anspach, D.A.; Anspach, J.P.; Crain, B. Jr.
There is a need for an automated system for protecting and monitoring sensitive or classified parts and material. Sandia has developed a real-time personnel and material tracking system (PAMTRAK) that has been installed at selected DOE facilities. It safeguards sensitive parts and material by tracking tags worn by personnel and by monitoring sensors attached to the parts or material. It includes remote control and alarm display capabilities and a complementary program in Keyhole to display measured material attributes remotely. This paper describes the design goals, the system components, current installations, and the benefits a site can expect when using PAMTRAK
Anthony Idowu Ajayi
Full Text Available Background: Over a million people globally acquire sexually transmitted infections (STI every day mainly through unprotected sexual contact. While the consequences of risky sexual behaviour are well documented, the literature on young educated women's perceptions of, and narratives about risky sexual behaviour is limited, and thus, it is difficult to fathom from available sources why such behaviour persists. This study examined the prevalence of sexual risk-taking and assessed female University students' knowledge of the consequences of unprotected sex and reasons why such behaviour persists. Paradoxes between their narratives and risky sexual behaviour were discussed. Methods: The study adopted a mixed study design involving a survey of 420 students selected using cluster random sampling, 20 in-depth interviews and 5 focus group discussions. The analysis of the quantitative data involves the use of descriptive and inferential statistics, while thematic content analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. Results: High prevalence of unprotected sexual intercourse was reported and was not associated with age, year of study, place of residence and religion. The narratives of participants indicate that female university students were aware of the risks associated with unprotected sex. Participants generally condemned sexual risk-taking and asserted that freedom, peer influence, poverty, ignorance, lack of sex education, civilisation, promiscuity, and satisfying sexual urge were the reasons for the persistent risky sexual behaviour among female university students. Also, perceived reduced fun associated with condom use, nourishment of marital expectations, and equivalence of unprotected sex with trust are among the reasons for persistent sexual risk-taking among female university students. Conclusion: Our findings show that female students practice risky sexual behaviour despite having knowledge of its consequences. Change in sexual behaviour
Thomas J Crowley
Full Text Available Adolescents with conduct and substance problems ("Antisocial Substance Disorder" (ASD repeatedly engage in risky antisocial and drug-using behaviors. We hypothesized that, during processing of risky decisions and resulting rewards and punishments, brain activation would differ between abstinent ASD boys and comparison boys.We compared 20 abstinent adolescent male patients in treatment for ASD with 20 community controls, examining rapid event-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD responses during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In 90 decision trials participants chose to make either a cautious response that earned one cent, or a risky response that would either gain 5 cents or lose 10 cents; odds of losing increased as the game progressed. We also examined those times when subjects experienced wins, or separately losses, from their risky choices. We contrasted decision trials against very similar comparison trials requiring no decisions, using whole-brain BOLD-response analyses of group differences, corrected for multiple comparisons. During decision-making ASD boys showed hypoactivation in numerous brain regions robustly activated by controls, including orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, anterior cingulate, basal ganglia, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. While experiencing wins, ASD boys had significantly less activity than controls in anterior cingulate, temporal regions, and cerebellum, with more activity nowhere. During losses ASD boys had significantly more activity than controls in orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum, with less activity nowhere.Adolescent boys with ASD had extensive neural hypoactivity during risky decision-making, coupled with decreased activity during reward and increased activity during loss. These neural patterns may underlie the dangerous, excessive, sustained risk-taking of such boys. The findings suggest that the dysphoria, reward
Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Scott-Parker, Bridie
The overrepresentation of young drivers in poor road safety outcomes has long been recognized as a global road safety issue. In addition, the overrepresentation of males in crash statistics has been recognized as a pervasive young driver problem. Though progress in road safety evidenced as a stabilization and/or reduction in poor road safety outcomes has been made in developed nations, less-developed nations contribute the greatest road safety trauma, and developing nations such as Colombia continue to experience increasing trends in fatality rates. The aim of the research was to explore sex differences in self-reported risky driving behaviors of young drivers, including the associations with crash involvement, in a sample of young drivers attending university in Colombia. The Spanish version of the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale (BYNDS-Sp) was applied in an online survey to a sample of 392 students (225 males) aged 16-24 years attending a major university. Appropriate comparative statistics and logistic regression modeling were used when analyzing the data. Males reported consistently more risky driving behaviors, with approximately one quarter of all participants reporting risky driving exposure. Males reported greater crash involvement, with violations such as speeding associated with crash involvement for both males and females. Young drivers in Colombia appear to engage in the same risky driving behaviors as young drivers in developed nations. In addition, young male drivers in Colombia reported greater engagement in risky driving behaviors than young female drivers, a finding consistent with the behaviors of young male drivers in developed nations. As such, the research findings suggest that general interventions such as education, engineering, and enforcement should target transient rule violations such as speeding and using a handheld mobile phone while driving for young drivers in Colombia. Future research should investigate how these
Reinholdz, Hanna; Fornazar, Robin; Bendtsen, Preben; Spak, Fredrik
To compare two identification methods for risky drinking in primary health care centres (PHCs). Sixteen PHCs from three Swedish counties were randomized into strands: consultation-based early identification (CEI) or systematic screening early identification (SS). Measurements took place at baseline and during two intervention periods. Patients filled in questionnaires including gender, age, if they had the issue of alcohol brought up during the consultation and the AUDIT-C (a three item screening tool). The intervention periods were preceded by training sessions for clinicians. The AUDIT-C was used for categorization of risky drinking with cut-offs for risky drinking set at ≥5 for men and ≥4 for women. In the SS strand, clinicians were supposed to give AUDIT-C to all patients for the identification of risky drinking. In the CEI strands, they were encouraged to use early clinical signs to identify risky drinking. The proportions of patients having the issue of alcohol brought up are higher during the intervention periods than baseline. A higher proportion of all patients and of risk drinkers in SS, than in CEI, had the issue of alcohol brought up. A higher mean score of AUDIT-C was found among patients having the issue of alcohol brought up in CEI than in SS, and this was also true after adjusting for age and gender. More patients are asked about alcohol in the SS strand and thus have the possibility of receiving brief interventions. CEI identifies risk drinkers with higher AUDIT-C scores which might indicate more severe problems. No comparison of the effectiveness of a brief intervention following these alternative identification procedures is reported here.
Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Grazioli, Véronique S; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard
Peer pressure (PP) toward misconduct is a well-known risk factor for substance use. However, the way it interacts with social factors and the associations of the aspects of PP other than PP toward misconduct have been understudied. This study examined the associations of three aspects of PP with risky substance use and tested whether the associations of PP toward misconduct were moderated by social factors. A representative sample of 5,680 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing risky alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use, PP toward misconduct, toward peer involvement, and toward peer conformity, as well as social support (SS) and neighbourhood cohesion. Multinomial logistic regression models were used. PP toward misconduct was positively associated with all substance use outcomes. The PP toward misconduct-risky alcohol use association was stronger in individuals reporting high than in those reporting low levels of PP toward peer involvement, SS, and neighbourhood cohesion. The PP toward misconduct-risky cannabis use association was stronger in individuals reporting high than in those reporting low levels of SS and neighbourhood cohesion. The PP toward misconduct-smoking association was stronger in individuals reporting high than in those reporting low levels of PP toward peer involvement. The risk for substance use associated with PP toward misconduct varies as a function of social factors. Being well connected with others (high level of PP toward peer involvement and SS), and living in a cohesive neighbourhood may amplify the risk for risky substance use associated with PP toward misconduct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they
An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xi; Zu, Ping; Mai, Jin-cheng; Liang, Jian-ping; Xu, Zhi-yong; Man, Xue-jun; Mao, Yan; Tao, Fang-biao
To explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer pressure, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. Based on the cluster sampling method, the participants who were recruited from 5 junior middle schools in Guangzhou and 3 junior middle schools in Shenyang city on October, 2010, were administered to complete the questionnaire concerned with their experiences with drinking and smoking during the past 30 days preceding the survey, and the hours using computer daily both in weekdays and in weekend. The level of resistance to peer influence and risky decision-making were assessed by Resistance to peer influence scale (RPIS) and Youth decision-making questionnaire (YDMQ). Logistic regression was used to explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer influence, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. A total of 1985 questionnaires were valid, including 1001(50.4%) boys and 984 (49.6%) girls. About 27.1% (537/1985) junior middle school students reported having health risk behaviors, boys' (30.7%, 307/1001) was higher than girls' (23.4%, 230/984) with significant gender difference (P peer influence (low and middle level vs high level, had odds ratios of 2.97 (1.96 - 4.50) and 1.51 (1.05 - 2.16)), and also the middle and high level of risky decision-making (middle and high level vs low level, had odds ratios of 1.62 (1.19 - 2.22) and 3.43 (2.39 - 4.90)) were all the risk factors of adolescent health risk behaviors. Adolescents with poor ability of resistance to peer pressure and high risky decision-making were both the risk factors of adolescent health risk behaviors.
Hariri, Aytul Gursu; Karadag, Figen; Gokalp, Peykan; Essizoglu, Altan
Risky sexual behavior associated with such sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as hepatitis B and C, herpes, Treponema pallidum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is more frequent among psychiatric patients and parenteral drug abusers than the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate risky sexual behavior in psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCH), bipolar disorder, and heroin addiction (HA), and to compare them with those observed in healthy controls. The study group (N = 485; 234 females and 251 males) consisted of patients that consecutively presented to Bakırkoy State and Training Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases in Istanbul and normal healthy controls. The chi-squared test was used for comparisons between groups and categorical variables. One-way analysis of variance (post-hoc Bonferroni test) was used for demographic data. A 22-item questionnaire for collecting demographic, illness history, and sexual activity data, and a structured 23-item form for collecting data on risky sexually behavior were administered to the participants. In all, 10% of the participants had a positive history for STIs. The majority of risky sexual behaviors was observed among the HA patients. The frequency of being sexually assaulted and having homosexual acts among the SCH group were higher. None of the patients had a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test result. The frequency of positivity for hepatitis B and C markers was highest among the HA patients. The provision of information and training about all STIs and risky sexual behavior should become routine in the treatment of mentally ill patients, especially those that abuse drugs. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Almuneef, Maha; Qayad, Mohammed; Aleissa, Majid; Albuhairan, Fadia
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with risky health behaviors and the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. This study examined associations between ACEs, chronic diseases, and risky behaviors in adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2012 using the ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). A cross-sectional design was used, and adults who were at least 18 years of age were eligible to participate. ACEs event scores were measured for neglect, household dysfunction, abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional), and peer and community violence. The ACE-IQ was supplemented with questions on risky health behaviors, chronic diseases, and mood. A total of 931 subjects completed the questionnaire (a completion rate of 88%); 57% of the sample was female, 90% was younger than 45 years, 86% had at least a college education, 80% were Saudi nationals, and 58% were married. One-third of the participants (32%) had been exposed to 4 or more ACEs, and 10%, 17%, and 23% had been exposed to 3, 2, or 1 ACEs respectively. Only 18% did not have an ACE. The prevalence of risky health behaviors ranged between 4% and 22%. The prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases ranged between 6% and 17%. Being exposed to 4 or more ACEs increased the risk of having chronic diseases by 2-11 fold, and increased risky health behaviors by 8-21 fold. The findings of this study will contribute to the planning and development of programs to prevent child maltreatment and to alleviate the burden of chronic diseases in adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Best, Ryan; Charness, Neil
The framing of decision scenarios in terms of potential gains versus losses has been shown to influence choice preferences between sure and risky options. Normative cognitive changes associated with aging have been known to affect decision-making, which has led to a number of studies investigating the influence of aging on the effect of framing. Mata, Josef, Samanez-Larkin, and Hertwig (2011) systematically reviewed the available literature using a meta-analytic approach, but did not include tests of homogeneity nor subsequent moderator variable analyses. The current review serves to extend the previous analysis to include such tests as well as update the pool of studies available for analysis. Results for both positively and negatively framed conditions were reviewed using two meta-analyses encompassing data collected from 3,232 subjects across 18 studies. Deviating from the previous results, the current analysis finds a tendency for younger adults to choose the risky option more often than older adults for positively framed items. Moderator variable analyses find this effect to likely be driven by the specific decision scenario, showing a significant effect with younger adults choosing the risky option more often in small-amount financial and large-amount mortality-based scenarios. For negatively framed items, the current review found no overall age difference in risky decision making, confirming the results from the prior meta-analysis. Moderator variable analyses conducted to address heterogeneity found younger adults to be more likely than older adults to choose the risky option for negatively framed high-amount mortality-based decision scenarios. Practical implications for older adults are discussed. PMID:26098168
Becker, William C; Fenton, Brenda T; Brandt, Cynthia A; Doyle, Erin L; Francis, Joseph; Goulet, Joseph L; Moore, Brent A; Torrise, Virginia; Kerns, Robert D; Kreiner, Peter W
Opioid overdose and other related harms are a major source of morbidity and mortality among US Veterans, in part due to high-risk opioid prescribing. We sought to determine whether having multiple sources of payment for opioids-as a marker for out-of-system access-is associated with risky opioid therapy among veterans. Cross-sectional study examining the association between multiple sources of payment and risky opioid therapy among all individuals with Veterans Health Administration (VHA) payment for opioid analgesic prescriptions in Kentucky during fiscal year 2014-2015. Source of payment categories: (1) VHA only source of payment (sole source); (2) sources of payment were VHA and at least 1 cash payment [VHA+cash payment(s)] whether or not there was a third source of payment; and (3) at least one other noncash source: Medicare, Medicaid, or private insurance [VHA+noncash source(s)]. Our outcomes were 2 risky opioid therapies: combination opioid/benzodiazepine therapy and high-dose opioid therapy, defined as morphine equivalent daily dose ≥90 mg. Of the 14,795 individuals in the analytic sample, there were 81.9% in the sole source category, 6.6% in the VHA+cash payment(s) category, and 11.5% in the VHA+noncash source(s) category. In logistic regression, controlling for age and sex, persons with multiple payment sources had significantly higher odds of each risky opioid therapy, with those in the VHA+cash having significantly higher odds than those in the VHA+noncash source(s) group. Prescribers should examine the prescription monitoring program as multiple payment sources increase the odds of risky opioid therapy.
Best, Ryan; Charness, Neil
The framing of decision scenarios in terms of potential gains versus losses has been shown to influence choice preferences between sure and risky options. Normative cognitive changes associated with aging have been known to affect decision making, which has led to a number of studies investigating the influence of aging on the effect of framing. Mata, Josef, Samanez-Larkin, and Hertwig (2011) systematically reviewed the available literature using a meta-analytic approach, but did not include tests of homogeneity or subsequent moderator variable analyses. The current review serves to extend the previous analysis to include such tests as well as update the pool of studies available for analysis. Results for both positively and negatively framed conditions were reviewed using 2 meta-analyses encompassing data collected from 3,232 subjects across 18 studies. Deviating from the previous results, the current analysis found a tendency for younger adults to choose the risky option more often than older adults for positively framed items. Moderator variable analyses found this effect likely to be driven by the specific decision scenario, showing a significant effect, with younger adults choosing the risky option more often in small-amount financial and large-amount mortality-based scenarios. For negatively framed items, the current review found no overall age difference in risky decision making, confirming the results from the prior meta-analysis. Moderator variable analyses conducted to address heterogeneity found younger adults to be more likely than older adults to choose the risky option for negatively framed high-amount mortality-based decision scenarios. Practical implications for older adults are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Aim: In the last decade, the prevalence of injecting drugs has been increasing rapidly. Injecting drug use puts one at the risk of risky behaviors that affect the health of individual and society. The present study aims at evaluating and comparing risky behaviors of injecting and non-injecting drug users. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 4400 addicts referred to public, private and drop-in-centers (DICs in 2014 were enrolled. The addicts were divided into injecting and non-injecting drug users. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and the pattern of drug use and risky behavior. Data were analyzed by SPSSV21, chi-square test and ANOVA. A significance level of less than 0.05 was considered. Results: Among the addicts, 4% were injecting drug users (IDUs and 96% non-injecting drug addicts (non-IDUs. The age of the first injection was 24.68 ± 6.45 years old. The age of onset of drug use in IDUs was significantly lower than in non-IDUs (P<0.001. Risky behaviors including the use of shared needles, risky sexual relations, a history of sexually transmitted infections and a history of imprisonment and suicide were significantly higher in IDUs. Addiction relapse and slip during treatment were higher in IDUs (P<0.001. Conclusion: Injecting drug addiction significantly increases the risk of relapse and risky behaviors. Priority should be given to risky behavior prevention programs.
Tian, Lingyun; Liu, Minhui; Li, Li; Fang, Zhengqing; Xiao, Hongling; Wu, Ying; Xia, Yanping
To investigate the current status on knowledge for unintentional injury and risky behavior among school-age children in Changsha, China, and to provide scientific evidence for the preventive strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 866 students who were between 6 and 12 years old in Changsha. Two primary schools were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from all primary schools of Changsha city to collect the information regarding knowledge for unintentional injury and risky behavior occurring in the 6-month period before the survey. The mean score for knowledge of unintentional injury was 11.83±2.38. The levels of knowledge for unintentional injury differed significantly in child's age, parents' education background and child's injury history (Pchild's knowledge level was correlated with child's age, mother's education, child's injury history. The mean score for risky behavior was 17.61±10.35. The levels of risky behavior differed significantly in child's gender, father's age to have the child, parents' marriage status, whom does/do child live with, child's injury history and medical history since the birthday (Pchild's injury history, parents' marriage status, child's gender. There was no significant correlation between knowledge and risky behavior (P>0.05). It is a common phenomenon in school-age children who are lack of the knowledge for unintentional injury and risky behavior. This study provides useful information on the risk factors for unintentional injury and risky behavior, which would be significant for prevention program.
Odimegwu, Clifford O; De Wet, Nicole; Banda, Pamela C
The link between economic empowerment and high risky sexual behaviour has been debated by different scholars in various settings. However, no consistently clear connection between poverty and lack of education has been found regarding engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Also, not much research has been done to examine the strength of these relationships for adolescents and women. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between female economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour in Africa. Using the latest Demographic and Health Surveys Data (DHS 2011-2014) from Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Zambia, univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done on women aged 15 to 49 to examine the patterns of and differences in the association between women's economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour. The findings both at community and individual level indicate that empowered women (higher education and wealth household) and adolescents aged 15 to 19 are highly significantly associated with engagement in high risky behaviour. The result of this study stresses the need to look further than individual factors in the quest to resolve risky sexual behaviour in Africa. The interrelations between female economic empowerment and engagement in risky sexual behaviour are more complicated and less straightforward than usually presumed.
Le, Thao N; Kato, Tomoko
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of age, gender, peer, family, and culture in adolescent risky sexual behavior for Cambodian and Laotian (Lao)/Mien youth. We obtained cross-sectional, in-home interview data including measures of individualism, collectivism, acculturation, risky sexual behavior, peer delinquency, parent engagement, and parent discipline from a sample of mostly second-generation Cambodian (n = 112) and Lao/Mien (n = 67) adolescents. Data were analyzed using step-wise, hierarchical multiple regressions. Peer delinquency and age (older) were significant predictors of risky sexual behavior in both groups. Parent discipline also significantly predicted risky sexual behavior, but only for Lao/Mien adolescents. Vertical and horizontal individualism were associated positively with risky sexual behavior for Cambodian youth whereas collectivism (horizontal) was associated negatively with risky sexual behavior for Lao/Mien youth. Acculturation was nonsignificant in both groups. In addition to age, parents, and peer groups, the findings suggest that culture also matters in risky sexual behavior, particularly for Cambodian and Laotian youth.
It is argued that the penalty for most mistakes made by security is the payment of money by the utility. The security personnel has only to act reasonably and not in a negligent manner. Preventing of sabotage is more important than obtaining a conviction, so it is better to search and not get a conviction than it is not to search
The most important requirements for the emergency team can be summarized in three points. 1) The emergency team must be made up of top personnel from all fields and it should be functionally equiped. 2) The emergency teams must have complete command of their equipment. 3) The members of the team must be well motivated. 1 fig
Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.
The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described
Neal W. Tamayo
As a consultant for a government agency, this paper will design recommendations and improvements for the agency’s public personnel administration. In order to do this, the consultant has to become familiar with the agency, its departments and also understand the key factors. The department chosen from the government for this paper is the Social Security Administration (Kestenbaum, 2014).
... belongings, eat food, drink beverages, chew gum, or use tobacco in any form in areas where food or food... FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery... Basis 1 § 260.104 Personnel. The establishment management shall be responsible for taking all...
The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.
nutbers of available youth. John haisbitt, author of Megatrends, predicts that labor short.ges are beginning to occur and will continue throughout the...available resources (e.g., personnel and material). 81. Your work group’s performance in compariscn to similar work groups is very high. ORGANIZATION CLIMA "E
... Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.705 Personnel qualifications. (a) General... involved in the furnishing of outpatient physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language...) of the Act and the requirements in part 484 of this chapter. (2) For a speech-language pathologist...
Health is the most important issue when an employer is deciding whether to hire a worker, according to a new study from the Netherlands. The research looked at the results of a ‘vignette’ study on employer preferences when hiring or retaining personnel. It also showed that when an employer is
It is argued that the penalty for most mistakes made by security is the payment of money by the utility. The security personnel has only to act reasonably and not in a negligent manner. Preventing of sabotage is more important than obtaining a conviction, so it is better to search and not get a conviction than it is not to search. (DLC)
The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry
... GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Organization and Personnel § 606.20... testing, storage or distribution of blood or blood components shall be adequate in number, educational... areas where the collection, processing, compatibility testing, storage or distribution of blood or blood...
Schein, Edgar H.
Arguing that the personnel manager will increasingly have to become a change agent and process consultant, the author discusses tasks involved and skills required for the new role. A shift in focus toward top management as the primary client and utilization of more flexible intervention into organizational processes are predicted. (JT)
Wangler, Lawrence A.
Discusses personnel profession's increased responsibilities which are due to (1) consolidation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, (2) labor law reform, (3) privacy legislation, (4) social security legislation, (5) open retirement, (6) medical plan costs, (7) codetermination, (8) labor scarcity, (9) top management compensation, and…
KOROTKOVA M.V.; RYBKINA M.V.; NIKITINA S.O.; SCHERNYKH A.V.
The article analyzes the strategic human resource management in an educational institution. Analyzes the basic normative-legal documents regulating educational activities, including the part of management. Particular importance is given to the types of educational institutions (budgetary, state, and autonomous). The stages of strategic management of staff in educational institutions and development model of strategic management personnel are shown.
Procopio, Michael J.
We present the Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine (SAPLE) web application, a directory search application for use by Sandia National Laboratories personnel. SAPLE's purpose is to return Sandia personnel 'results' as a function of user search queries, with its mission to make it easier and faster to find people at Sandia. To accomplish this, SAPLE breaks from more traditional directory application approaches by aiming to return the correct set of results while placing minimal constraints on the user's query. Two key features form the core of SAPLE: advanced search query interpretation and inexact string matching. SAPLE's query interpretation permits the user to perform compound queries when typing into a single search field; where able, SAPLE infers the type of field that the user intends to search on based on the value of the search term. SAPLE's inexact string matching feature yields a high-quality ranking of personnel search results even when there are no exact matches to the user's query. This paper explores these two key features, describing in detail the architecture and operation of SAPLE. Finally, an extensive analysis on logged search query data taken from an 11-week sample period is presented.
Useche, Sergio A; Ortiz, Viviola Gómez; Cendales, Boris E
There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two. A sample of 524 male Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operators were drawn from four transport companies in Bogotá, Colombia. The participants answered a survey which included an adapted version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) for BRT operators, as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Job Content Questionnaires, the Subjective Fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale (NFR). Utilizing Structural Equation Models (SEM) it was found that risky driving behaviors in BRT operators could be predicted through job strain, effort-reward imbalance and social support at work. It was also found that fatigue and need for recovery fully mediate the associations between job strain and risky driving, and between social support and risky driving, but not the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) and risky driving. The results of this study suggest that a) stress related working conditions (Job Strain, Social Support and ERI) are relevant predictors of risky driving in BRT operators, and b) that fatigue is the mechanism which links another kind of stress related to working conditions (job strain and low social support) with risky driving. The mechanism by which ERI increases risky driving in BRT operators remains unexplained. This research suggests that in addition to the individual centered stress-reduction occupational programs, fatigue management interventions aimed to changing some working conditions may reduce
In 1996, the IAEA published Technical Reports Series No. 380, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation: A Guidebook. This publication provides guidance for the development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes for all nuclear power plant personnel using the systematic approach to training (SAT) methodology. The SAT methodology has since been adopted and used for the development and implementation of training programmes for all types of nuclear facility and activities in the nuclear industry. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that an additional publication be prepared to provide further guidance concerning competency assessments used for measuring the knowledge, skills and attitudes of personnel as the result of training. This publication has been prepared in response to that recommendation. A critical component of SAT (as part of the implementation phase) is the assessment of whether personnel have achieved the standards identified in the training objectives. The nuclear industry spends a significant amount of resources conducting competency assessments. Competency assessments are used for employee selection, trainee assessment, qualification, requalification and authorization (in some Member States the terminology may be 'certification' or 'licensing'), and job advancement and promotion. Ineffective testing methods and procedures, or inappropriate interpretation of test results, can have significant effects on both human performance and nuclear safety. Test development requires unique skills and, as with any skill, training and experience are needed to develop and improve them. Test item and examination development, use, interpretation of results and examination refinement, like all other aspects of SAT, should be part of an ongoing, systematic process. This publication is primarily intended for use by personnel responsible for developing and administering
Briso, Hugo A.
The accelerated process of globalization affecting mankind doesn't exclude safety matters. Indeed, some trans national corporations are increasingly offering specialized engineering services such as industrial radiography or well lodging. As well, a growing scientific exchange involves the mobility of nuclear researchers in different areas, for instance radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Such a breakdown in the technological frontiers must necessarily be reflected by the regulatory solutions. Particularly, diverse levels of theoretical-practical training for radiation exposed personnel coexist in the Latin-American Region, being an especially sensitive problem for radiation protection matters. The spectrum goes from post-graduate courses required for radiation protection officers in some countries, while in others only basic recommendations are required for the operating personnel. Another scheme consists of medium level course for the operating personnel, while radiation protection officers don't have special requirements. Many educational private institutions teach non standardized courses which only give broad concepts of radiation protection. On the other hand, usually nothing is said about the operational training, or else its certification is entrusted to the employer itself. In some countries multiple Regulatory Authorities apply dissimilar criteria to assess safety matters, including the evaluation of workers applications. The necessary regional integration makes indispensable to establish common standards for granting authorizations. Having similar or homogeneous requirements for the universe of radiation exposed personnel, i.e. source operators, radiation protection officers, qualified experts and technical support people would be easier for the Regulatory Authorities to have common methodologies of evaluation for the applicants. An IAEA supported technical cooperation project related to this paper seeks to establish standardized
Orsini, Caitlin A; Hernandez, Caesar M; Singhal, Sarthak; Kelly, Kyle B; Frazier, Charles J; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry
Decision making is a multifaceted process, consisting of several distinct phases that likely require different cognitive operations. Previous work showed that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical substrate for decision making involving risk of punishment; however, it is unclear how the BLA is recruited at different stages of the decision process. To this end, the current study used optogenetics to inhibit the BLA during specific task phases in a model of risky decision making (risky decision-making task) in which rats choose between a small, "safe" reward and a large reward accompanied by varying probabilities of footshock punishment. Male Long-Evans rats received intra-BLA microinjections of viral vectors carrying either halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0-mCherry) or mCherry alone (control) followed by optic fiber implants and were trained in the risky decision-making task. Laser delivery during the task occurred during intertrial interval, deliberation, or reward outcome phases, the latter of which was further divided into the three possible outcomes (small, safe; large, unpunished; large, punished). Inhibition of the BLA selectively during the deliberation phase decreased choice of the large, risky outcome (decreased risky choice). In contrast, BLA inhibition selectively during delivery of the large, punished outcome increased risky choice. Inhibition had no effect during the other phases, nor did laser delivery affect performance in control rats. Collectively, these data indicate that the BLA can either inhibit or promote choice of risky options, depending on the phase of the decision process in which it is active. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To date, most behavioral neuroscience research on neural mechanisms of decision making has used techniques that preclude assessment of distinct phases of the decision process. Here we show that optogenetic inhibition of the BLA has opposite effects on choice behavior in a rat model of risky decision making, depending on the phase
Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin
This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group.
Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Ewing, Brett A.; Storholm, Erik D.; Parast, Layla; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.
Despite suggestions that there are gender differences in the association between conduct disorder (CD) and risky sexual behavior, limited empirical research has examined this question. Youth (N = 616) were recruited from four primary care clinics and completed questions related to risky sexual behavior, alcohol and marijuana use, and CD. Results of stratified multivariate models indicated that the association between CD and having four or more lifetime partners, having two or more partners in the last 3 months, and engaging in condomless sex was stronger among female youth. However, association between CD and alcohol and other drug use before sex was stronger in male youth. This is an important contribution to our understanding of gender-specific manifestations of conduct disorder, and has the potential to inform screening and brief intervention efforts for this population. PMID:28182979
Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann
In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.
Golyan Vasyl A.
Full Text Available The essence of agrarian natural resource use as an important prerequisite for agricultural production in the area of risky farming (drainage zone, irrigation zone, and mountainous areas has been disclosed. The problem points of rationalizing the agrarian natural resource use in the drainage zone have been identified in relation to the structural deformations of agricultural production. The main sectoral and institutional priorities for agrarian natural resource use in the drainage zone have been determined. The principles of agrarian natural resource use in the area of risky farming have been formulated, consisting in the restoration of traditional agricultural specialization, maintaining the environmental-economic balance, ensuring the adaptability to international environmental conventions, comprehensively countering the rural poverty, overcoming the asymmetry in information, preserving the food orientation of agricultural production, and transforming negative externalities into positive effects.
Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Ewing, Brett A; Storholm, Erik D; Parast, Layla; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
Despite suggestions that there are gender differences in the association between conduct disorder (CD) and risky sexual behavior, limited empirical research has examined this question. Youth (N = 616) were recruited from four primary care clinics and completed questions related to risky sexual behavior, alcohol and marijuana use, and CD. Results of stratified multivariate models indicated that the association between CD and having four or more lifetime partners, having two or more partners in the last 3 months, and engaging in condomless sex was stronger among female youth. However, the association between CD and alcohol and other drug use before sex was stronger in male youth. This is an important contribution to our understanding of gender-specific manifestations of conduct disorder, and has the potential to inform screening and brief intervention efforts for this population. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; Hessler, Danielle M; Morrison, Diane M; Stoner, Susan A; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Abdallah, Devon A
This experiment examined the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. Women completed an individual difference measure of relationship motivation and then were randomly assigned to partner familiarity condition (low, high) and to alcohol consumption condition (high dose, low dose, no alcohol, placebo). Then women read and projected themselves into a scenario of a sexual encounter. Relationship motivation and partner familiarity interacted with intoxication to influence primary appraisals of relationship potential. Participants' primary and secondary relationship appraisals mediated the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and intoxication on condom negotiation, sexual decision abdication, and unprotected sex intentions. These findings support a cognitive mediation model of women's sexual decision making and identify how individual and situational factors interact to shape alcohol's influences on cognitive appraisals that lead to risky sexual decisions. This knowledge can inform empirically based risky sex interventions.
Beck, Kenneth H; Daughters, Stacey B; Ali, Bina
Being a hurried driver is associated with a variety of risky driving behaviors, yet the mechanisms underlying this behavior remain unknown. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was examined as a predictor of hurried driving among 769 college students. Results indicate that after controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, the student's year in school, their grade point average, driving frequency, angry driving, aggressive driving as well as other forms of self-reported risky driving; hurried driving was significantly associated with lower levels of distress tolerance. Hurried drivers also reported greater levels of frustration and impatience with other drivers, suggesting that they have difficulty in withstanding or coping with negative psychological states when driving. Traditional traffic safety campaigns that emphasize enforcement may be less successful with these drivers. The need to develop campaigns that address the affective coping abilities that contribute to this behavioral pattern is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cross, Catharine P
Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female) on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34) and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.
Catharine P. Cross
Full Text Available Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34 and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.
Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Hingson, Ralph
We examined the prevalence of impaired driving among US high school students and associations with substance use and risky driving behavior. We assessed driving while alcohol or drug impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol- or drug-impaired drivers (RWI) in a nationally representative sample of 11th-grade US high school students (n = 2431). We examined associations with drinking and binge drinking, illicit drug use, risky driving, and demographic factors using multivariate sequential logistic regression analysis. Thirteen percent of 11th-grade students reported DWI at least 1 of the past 30 days, and 24% reported RWI at least once in the past year. Risky driving was positively associated with DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25; P phone calls (OR = 3.2) while driving. Our findings suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to the prevention of DWI, RWI, and other risky driving behavior.
Liao, C J; Kao, C Y
Suggests that with the shortage of nursing personnel, hospital administrators have to pay more attention to the needs of nurses to retain and recruit them. Also asserts that improving nurses' schedules is one of the most economic ways for the hospital administration to create a better working environment for nurses. Develops an algorithm for scheduling nursing personnel. Contrary to the current hospital approach, which schedules nurses on a person-by-person basis, the proposed algorithm constructs schedules on a day-by-day basis. The algorithm has inherent flexibility in handling a variety of possible constraints and goals, similar to other non-cyclical approaches. But, unlike most other non-cyclical approaches, it can also generate a quality schedule in a short time on a microcomputer. The algorithm was coded in C language and run on a microcomputer. The developed software is currently implemented at a leading hospital in Taiwan. The response to the initial implementation is quite promising.
In Germany, professional training of power plant operating personnel became an important issue in the fifties, when power plant parameters as well as complexity of instrumentation and control increased considerably. Working Groups of VGB Technische Vereiningung der Grosskraftwerketreiber e.v. (Association of Large Power Plant Operators) developed a professional career for power plant operating personnel and defined pre-requisites, scope and objectives of training. In 1957 the German utilities founded KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V. (kws) as a school for theoretical training and for guidance of practical training in the power plants. KWS is a non-profit organisation and independent of authorities. Today KWS has 127 members in Germany and in 6 other countries. The objectives of KWS include the training of: -Kraftwerker (control room operators; - Kraftwerksmesiter (shift supervisors); and - shift engineers; according the guidelines of the VGB
Anant V. Khandekar
Full Text Available Overall competency of the working personnel is often observed to ultimately affect the productivity of an organization. The globalised competitive atmosphere coupled with technological improvements demands for efficient and specialized manpower for the industrial operations. A set of typical technological skills and attitudes is thus demanded for every job profile. Most often, these skills and attitudes are expressed imprecisely and hence, necessitating the support of fuzzy sets for their effective understanding and further processing. In this paper, a method based on fuzzy axiomatic design principles is applied for solving the personnel selection problems. Selecting a middle management staff of a service department for a large scale organization is demonstrated here as a real life example. Five shortlisted candidates are assessed with respect to a set of 18 evaluation criteria, and the selection committee with experts from the related fields also realizes the outcome of the adopted approach to be quite appropriate, befitting and in agreement with their expectations.
In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables
Simulator training and retraining of operations personnel is essential for their acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills and qualification for operating a nuclear power plant, and for effective feedback of experience including human based operating errors. Simulator training is the most effective way by far of training operations personnel in co-operation and communication in a team, which also involves instilling attitudes and approaches for achieving excellence and individual responsibility and alertness. This technical document provides guidance to Member States on the procurement, setting up and utilization of a simulator training centre; it will also be useful for organizations with previous experience in the use of simulators for training. The document is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held in the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in 1989-1992. 17 refs, 2 tabs
The basic training of nuclear power reactor personnel should be given very close attention since it constitutes the foundation of their knowledge of nuclear technology. Emphasis should be given on the thorough understanding of basic nuclear concepts in order to have reasonable assurance of successful assimilation by those personnel of more specialized and advanced concepts to which they will be later exposed. Basic training will also provide a means for screening to ensure that those will be sent for further spezialized training will perform well. Finally, it is during the basic training phase when nuclear reactor operators will start to acquire and develop attitudes regarding reactor operation and it is important that these be properly founded. (orig.)
Katagiri, Hisako; Yamagata, Junko
We introduce our efforts to utilize education, training, competence assessment, and quality control of personnel engaged in urinary sediment and blood cell morphology examinations in our laboratory. There are no standard samples for these morphological examinations, and standardization has not been completed for all types of blood cells or urinary sediment components. We had been carrying out simultaneous microscopic examination involving trainee staff and senior laboratory technologists as a means of education and evaluation, but acceptance criteria were unclear. Moreover, we had continued our operation without assessment of the level of achievement of routine works or the competence of individual staff members. Taking the opportunity of receiving ISO 15189 certification, we have been able to establish clear standards for evaluating personnel education and training in morphological examinations. We will continuously make efforts to maintain and manage this system.
A collection is presented containing 11 papers submitted at a conference on the selection and education of specialists for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The conference was attended by specialists from universities and colleges, research institutes and production plants. It debated the methods and aims of both general and specialized theoretical and practical personnel education, the proposals for teaching centre equipment, the use of simulators, computers and other aids in the teaching process; training on school reactors was included. A proposal was put forward of the system of education, the teaching process itself, the content of the basic theoretical subjects, and the method of testing pupils' knowledge. The importance was stressed of establishing a national coordination centre to safeguard the syllabus, methodology, teaching aids, and also the training proper. The system of personnel education in the Paks nuclear power plant, Hungary, is presented as an example. (M.S.)
Autori sõnul on aktsia- ja võlakirjaturud hinnanud sõjaväelist riigipööret Tais ja Põhja-Korea saamist tuumariigiks triviaalseteks ja globaalseid riske vähendavaks. Riski hind näib praegusel ajal olevat pöördvõrdelises seoses olukorraga riigis. Kindel on, et praegu on ohtlik aeg osta arenevate turgude võlakirju, osta Bulgaaria kinnisvara, riskifondide fonde, indeksifonde ja muid investeeringuid
Enejoh, Victor; Pharr, Jennifer; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.
Although improved knowledge is often the first approach in HIV prevention for adolescents, studies have shown that despite being well informed, adolescents still engage in risky sexual behavior (RSB). Low self-esteem has been considered to be a psychological explanation for behavioral problems, but little is known about the impact of self-esteem on RSB among adolescents in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescents with high self-esteem demonstrate lower RSB compa...
Safiri, Saeid; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Yunesian, Masud; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Shamsipour, Mansour; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar
Background Risky behaviors may interrupt development or cause considerable morbidity or mortality. This study’s purpose was to determine subgroups of students based on risky behaviors and assess the prevalence of risky behaviors in each of the subgroups. Participants and methods This anonymous cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2015 and November 2015, with 1,777 students from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, through multistage random sampling method. The data were analyzed by latent class analysis. Results The prevalence rates of cigarette smoking (more than or equal to ten cigarettes), hookah use (≥1 time/month), and alcohol consumption (≥1 time/month) during the last year were 12.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9–14.0), 11.6% (95% CI: 10.0–13.1), and 4.9% (95% CI: 3.8–5.9), respectively. The prevalence rates of illicit opioids (1.8%, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5), cannabis (1.2%, 95% CI: 0.7–1.7), methamphetamine (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–1.6), methylphenidate (2.5%, 95% CI: 1.7–3.2), and extramarital sex (5.5%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.6) over the last year were also estimated. Three latent classes were determined: 1) low risk; 2) cigarette and hookah smoker; and 3) high risk. It is worth mentioning that 3.7% of males and 0.4% of females were in the high risk group. Conclusion Subgrouping of college students showed that a considerable percentage of them, especially males, were classified into the high risk and cigarette and hookah smoker groups. Appropriate preventive measures that consider multiple different risky behaviors simultaneously are needed for this part of the population. PMID:27524898
Šincek, Daniela; Humer, Jasmina Tomašić; Duvnjak, Ivana
This paper explores problematic Internet gaming in the context of other forms of risky behaviour. The basic premise is that children and adolescents at risk will display different types of risky behaviour in various settings. Children and adolescents (N=1150) were surveyed about (cyber)violence, problematic gaming (habits, motives and symptoms), self-disclosure via Facebook and self-esteem. Regular gamers were more violent both face-to-face and via the Internet, and were more prone to problematic gaming than occasional gamers. Those who played games for more than five hours per day (9% of respondents) were classified as potentially problematic gamers. They experienced and committed more violence both face-to-face and via the Internet, were more involved in self-disclosure and had more problematic gaming symptoms than those who played for less than five hours a day, but these groups did not differ in self-esteem. Participants could choose from a list of eight different motives for their gaming; those motivated by peer communication, a sense of control, relaxation, conformism, self-efficacy and to distract from problems reported more symptoms of problematic gaming than those not motivated by these factors. Gender, age, self-esteem, self-disclosure and committing violence contributed to explaining the variance in problematic gaming, accounting for about 26% of its variance. Boys, lower self-esteem, more self-disclosure and committing both types of violence more regularly were connected with reporting more symptoms of problematic gaming. The results will be discussed in the context of a general proneness to risky behaviour. Committing violence against peers (both traditional and cyber) predicts significantly problematic gaming. This supports the premise that children and adolescents at risk are prone to exhibiting different forms of risky behaviour in different settings.
Full Text Available Recent work has revealed a relationship between pathological video game use and increased impulsivity among children and adolescents. A few studies have also demonstrated increased risk-taking outside of the video game environment following game play, but this work has largely focused on one genre of video games (i.e., racing. Motivated by these findings, the aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between pathological and non-pathological video game use, impulsivity, and risky decision making. The current study also investigated the relationship between experience with two of the most popular genres of video games (i.e., first-person shooter and strategy and risky decision making. Consistent with previous work, approximately 7% of the current sample of college-aged adults met criteria for pathological video game use. The number of hours spent gaming per week was associated with increased impulsivity on a self-report measure and on the temporal discounting task. This relationship was sensitive to the genre of video game; specifically, experience with first-person shooter games was positively correlated with impulsivity, while experience with strategy games was negatively correlated with impulsivity. Hours per week and pathological symptoms predicted greater risk-taking in the risk task and the Iowa Gambling task, accompanied by worse overall performance, indicating that even when risky choices did not pay off, individuals who spent more time gaming and endorsed more symptoms of pathological gaming continued to make these choices. Based on these data, we suggest that the presence of pathological symptoms and the genre of video game (e.g., first-person shooter, strategy may be important factors in determining how the amount of game experience relates to impulsivity and risky-decision making.
Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Kuffel, Judson
Recent work has revealed a relationship between pathological video game use and increased impulsivity among children and adolescents. A few studies have also demonstrated increased risk-taking outside of the video game environment following game play, but this work has largely focused on one genre of video games (i.e., racing). Motivated by these findings, the aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between pathological and non-pathological video game use, impulsivity, and risky decision making. The current study also investigated the relationship between experience with two of the most popular genres of video games [i.e., first-person shooter (FPS) and strategy] and risky decision making. Consistent with previous work, ~7% of the current sample of college-aged adults met criteria for pathological video game use. The number of hours spent gaming per week was associated with increased impulsivity on a self-report measure and on the temporal discounting (TD) task. This relationship was sensitive to the genre of video game; specifically, experience with FPS games was positively correlated with impulsivity, while experience with strategy games was negatively correlated with impulsivity. Hours per week and pathological symptoms predicted greater risk-taking in the risk task and the Iowa Gambling task, accompanied by worse overall performance, indicating that even when risky choices did not pay off, individuals who spent more time gaming and endorsed more symptoms of pathological gaming continued to make these choices. Based on these data, we suggest that the presence of pathological symptoms and the genre of video game (e.g., FPS, strategy) may be important factors in determining how the amount of game experience relates to impulsivity and risky-decision making.
Susann eFiedler; Andreas eGlöckner
In the last years, research on risky choice has moved beyond analyzing choices only. Models have been suggested that aim to describe the underlying cognitive processes and some studies have tested process predictions of these models. Prominent approaches are evidence accumulation models such as decision field theory (DFT), simple serial heuristic models such as the adaptive toolbox, and connectionist approaches such as the parallel constraint satisfaction (PCS) model. In two studies involving...
Panou, Angeliki; Ntantogian, Christoforos; Xenakis, Christos
Historically, the financial benefits of cyber security investments have not been calculated with the same financial discipline used to evaluate other material investments. This was mainly due to a lack of readily available data on cyber incidents impacts and systematic methodology to support the efficacy of cyber investments. In this paper we propose an innovative, cyber investment management framework named RiSKi that incorporates detection and continuous monitoring of insiders societal beha...
Li, Ying; Zhang, Nan
End user of information system (IS) is the weakest point in terms of IS security. A variety of approaches are developed to convince end users to avoid IS risky behaviors. However, they do not always work. We would like to argue that one of the reasons is that previous studies focused on System 2 thinking (analytic, deliberate, rule-governed and effortful process) and overlooked the factors that can influence people who are using System 1 thinking (automatic, effortless, associa...
Aleksandra Peplińska; Magdalena Wyszomirska-Góra; Piotr Połomski; Marcin Szulc
Background The aim of this study was to search for comprehensive socio-demographic and personal (personality and temperamental) determinants of risky on-the-road behavior. Based on the results of previous studies, we assumed that the main predictors of dangerous traffic behavior include: internal locus of control, sensation seeking, risk seeking and risk acceptance, as well as high self-esteem, a low level of reactivity combined with a high level of endurance and activity (which together...
Pokhrel, Pallav; Bennett, Brooke L; Regmi, Sakshi; Idrisov, Bulat; Galimov, Artur; Akhmadeeva, Leila; Sussman, Steve
Individualism and collectivism are cultural syndromes that have been associated with adolescent problem behavior in studies conducted in the U.S. and Southeast Asia. However, research investigating the mechanisms of how cultural orientation impacts health risk behaviors has been limited. This study tested a new model explaining the relationship between cultural orientation (i.e., individualism, collectivism) and adolescent problem behavior (i.e., substance use and risky sex) in terms of interpersonal self-regulation (i.e., social self-control). As such, the study is rooted in theories of the role of culture in developing self-regulation. Participants were high school students (N = 716) from the Bashkirtostan Republic of the Russian Federation. Adolescents from the Russian Federation tend to show high prevalence of cigarette smoking and binge drinking. People of the Russian Federation in general are traditionally collectivist in orientation, although increased globalization and post-Soviet capitalism may indicate high individualist values in younger generation Russians. Using path analysis we found that in addition to having direct effects, higher individualism indirectly affected substance use and risky sexual behavior through social self-control and negative life events. Higher collectivism was found to have a direct protective effect on risky sexual behavior and a direct effect on social self-control. However, collectivism was not found to have indirect effects on substance use or risky sexual behavior. Higher individualism appears to function as a risk factor for adolescent problem behavior and this relationship may be mediated by lower social self-control. Culturally-tailored prevention programs utilizing the individualism-collectivism framework may benefit from addressing social self-control.
Breslau, Joshua; Yu, Hao; Han, Bing; Pacula, Rosalie L; Burns, Rachel M; Stein, Bradley D
The dependent coverage expansion (DCE) enacted through the Affordable Care Act increased health insurance coverage among young adults. Increasing insurance coverage in this age group has the potential for unintended consequences on risky substance use. Repeated cross-sectional surveys were used to compare change in substance use during the period the DCE was implemented in the 19-25year old target age group (Pre-DCE n=15,772, Post-DCE n=22,719) with contemporaneous change in a slightly older age group that was not targeted by the policy (Pre-DCE=19,851, Post-DCE n=28,157). Outcomes include 11 measures of alcohol, illicit drug and cigarette use. Statistical controls were included for demographic and socioeconomic factors and for early initiation of substance use to adjust for historical trends in developmental trajectories. Risky substance use decreased in young adults relative to the older age group over the period that the DCE was implemented. However, statistical adjustment for initiation of substance use prior to age 18, which is prior to exposure to the DCE, accounted for the differences between the age groups. In adjusted models, associations between the DCE and substance use outcomes range from 0.96 to 1.08 with p-values ranging from 0.330 to 0.963. Historical trends in initiation of substance use prior to age 18, not the DCE, account for change in risky substance use among 19-25year olds relative to 26-34year olds. The evidence does not support the suggestion that health insurance coverage would increase risky substance use among young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al-Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Zein, Salam; Saleh, Nadine; Salameh, Pascale
Samar Rachidi,1 Sanaa Awada,1 Amal Al-Hajje,1 Wafaa Bawab,1 Salam Zein,1 Nadine Saleh,1,2 Pascale Salameh1,21Laboratory of Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Public Health Labanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: The harmful effects of medication and licit substance use during pregnancy may potentially constitute a major public health concern. Our study aims to assess risky exposure of Lebanese pregnant women to drugs, tobacco, caff...
Ward, C L; Lombard, C J; Gwebushe, N
Objectives To assess critical incident exposure among prehospital emergency services personnel in the developing world context of South Africa; and to assess associated mental health consequences. Methods We recruited a representative sample from emergency services in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, to participate in this cross sectional epidemiological study. Questionnaires covered critical incident exposure, general psychopathology, risky alcohol use, symptoms of post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychological and physical aggression between co‐workers. Open ended questions addressed additional stressors. Results Critical incident exposure and rates of general psychopathology were higher than in studies in the developed world. Exposure to critical incidents was associated with general psychopathology, symptoms of PTSD, and with aggression between co‐workers, but not with alcohol use. Ambulance, fire, and sea rescue services had lower general psychopathology scores than traffic police. The sea rescue service also scored lower than traffic police on PTSD and psychological aggression. The defence force had higher rates of exposure to physical assault, and in ambulance services, younger staff were more vulnerable to assault. Women had higher rates of general psychopathology and of exposure to psychological aggression. Other stressors identified included death notification, working conditions, and organisational problems. Conclusions Service organisations should be alert to the possibility that their personnel are experiencing work ‐related mental health and behavioural problems, and should provide appropriate support. Attention should also be given to organisational issues that may add to the stress of incidents. Workplace programmes should support vulnerable groups, and address death notification and appropriate expression of anger. PMID:16498167
Hankins, D.E.; Homann, S.; Westermark, J.
We developed a personnel neutron dosimetry system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 plastic at elevated temperatures. The doses obtained using this dosimeter system are more accurate than those obtained using other dosimetry systems, especially when varied neutron spectra are encountered. This CR-39 dosimetry system does not have the severe energy dependence that exists with albedo neutron dosimeters or the fading and reading problems encountered with NTA film. 3 refs., 4 figs
The purpose of this report is to present the evaluated data from external exposures of 1268 radiation workers in Guatemala carried out in the period of 1997-2000. The collective dose in medicine, industry and other applications shown a tendency to increase in the period of study, radiology is the practice that shown a trend to decrease, that could be explained as a result of inspections and personnel training carried out in this practice
Procedure for education and training of all the personnel employed at Bohunice Nuclear power plant is presented in detail describing the training system structure, kinds of training, staff members qualification development, short term and long term tasks needed to assure attaining the training objectives. The proposed Staff Members Lifetime education implementation project contains basic starting points, measures to be implemented by 1998. It was prepared on the basis of a primary analysis which confirmed the existing need for implementing the lifetime education system
Marina V. Polevaya
Full Text Available The article deals with the training of spe-cialists in the eld of labor and the house-keeper personnel management within the federal state educational standards of higher education. The analysis of the possibility of training in these specialties in the various educational standards. The necessity of focusing on the prepara-tion of these destinations within certain standards.
Vora, K.G.; Nagpal, J.S.; Pendurkar, H.K.; Gangadharan, P.
A pocket type thermoluminescent personnel dosemeter using CaSO 4 : Dy phosphor is described. Two glass capillaries containing the phosphor are fitted into a plastic tube and covered by a cylindrical filter. The combination is fitted into an ink barrel of a fountain pen. The response of this Dy glass dosimeter was studied for various incident photon energies. A uniform response over the energy range from 33 keV to 1250 keV is achieved. (A.K.)
This report examined specific functional components of the routine external personnel dosimeter program at Hanford. Components studied included: dosimeter readout; dosimeter calibration; dosimeter field response; dose calibration algorithm; dosimeter design; and TLD chip acceptance procedures. Additional information is also presented regarding the dosimeter response to light- and medium-filtered x-rays, high energy photons and neutrons. This study was conducted to clarify certain data obtained during the FY-1980 studies
The starting point in deriving the requirement profile for the shift personnel in the control rooms of nuclear power stations is information of a technical, organisational and ergonomic kind. The technique used, the distribution of work to different work areas and the configuration of the workplace is determined by the tasks and the environmental conditions in which they have to be done. (orig./DG) [de
programs. 8. Target Audience Description ( TAD ) The TAD is the initial description of the number and type of personnel required to operate, maintain...requirements, etc.) describing the Soldiers operating or maintaining the system. In cases where operating a system requires a security clearance, the TAD ...Authority. Milestone Decision Authority Target Audience Description ( TAD ) AR 602-2 AR 611-1 DA Pam 611-21 X X X X X X The TAD lists
Picazo, T.; Llorca, N.; Alabau, J.
In this paper it is proposed to consider the mode of the frequency distribution of the low dose dosemeters from each clinic that uses X rays as the background environmental dose that should be subtracted from the personnel dosimetry to evaluate the doses due to practice. The problems and advantages of this indirect method to estimate the environmental background dose are discussed. The results for 60 towns are presented. (author)
Kusev, Petko; Purser, Harry; Heilman, Renata; Cooke, Alex J.; Van Schaik, Paul; Baranova, Victoria; Martin, Rose; Ayton, Peter
Financial risky decisions and evaluations pervade many human everyday activities. Scientific research in such decision-making typically explores the influence of socio-economic and cognitive factors on financial behavior. However, very little research has explored the holistic influence of contextual, emotional, and hormonal factors on preferences for risk in insurance and investment behaviors. Accordingly, the goal of this review article is to address the complexity of individual risky behav...
Duarte, Nichole A.; Woods, Steven Paul; Rooney, Alexandra; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, Igor
Methamphetamine (MA) use and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur and are independently associated with dysregulation of frontostriatal loops and risky decision-making; however, whether their comorbidity exacerbates risky decision-making is not known. This study evaluated 23 participants with histories of MA dependence and ADHD (MA+ADHD+), 25 subjects with MA dependence alone (MA+ADHD−), and 22 healthy adults (MA−ADHD−), who completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) ...
The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a ?risky? cybersecurity ...
Chapman, Stephanie; Ashack, Kurt; Bell, Eric; Sendelweck, Myra Ann; Dellavalle, Robert
Understanding of the associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among adolescents across the United States is incomplete. The purpose of this study is to identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning according to region. We analyzed the results from surveys of adolescents in 14 different states administered as part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013. D...
Carpentier, Aline; Brijs, Kris; Declercq, Katrien; Brijs, Tom; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert
The aim of the study was to examine the relative importance of young novice drivers' family climate on their driving behavior. A sample of young novice drivers (N=171) between the age of 17 and 24, who held their permanent (or temporary) driver's license for no longer than one year, participated. The questionnaire included items related to the participants' family climate, 3 socio-cognitive determinants (i.e., attitude, locus of control and social norm), and risky driving behaviors. We expected both family climate and the socio-cognitive determinants to exert a direct effect on risky driving. Furthermore we hypothesized that the socio-cognitive determinants would moderate the impact of family climate on risky driving. The results showed that the effect of family climate on risky driving only originated from one single factor (i.e., noncommitment). Besides that, the results confirmed the importance of the three socio-cognitive determinants to the degree that attitude, locus of control, and social norm significantly predicted the self-reported risky driving. In line of what we hypothesized, attitude moderated the relationship between noncommitment and risky driving. Lastly, we found an unexpected three-way interaction which indicated that locus of control moderated the relation between noncommitment and risky driving only when young drivers' attitude was risk-supportive. We recommend scholars and practitioners to take into account the interaction between external sources of influence (such as an individual's family climate) and more personally oriented dispositions (such as an individual's attitude, social norm and locus of control) when trying to explain and change young novices' risky driving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period mid-June to mid-September 2005, a limited number of vacancies for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature) will be available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of vacancies available, no children having previously worked at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks and the allowance for the period will be CHF 1621.- net. Candidates should apply via the HR Department's electronic recruitment system (E-rt) : http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/internal/personnel/pmd/cr/Staff-kids-05.pdf Completed application forms must be returned to this Service by 8 April 2005 ...
Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period mid-June to mid-September 2003, there will be a limited number of vacancies for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature) which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of vacancies available, no children previously appointed at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks, the allowance being CHF 1582.- for this period. Application form can be obtained from Martine PLAZA, HR Division (by using the slip in the bulletin or by electronic mail to Martine.Plaza@cern.ch) or at http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/general/HN-personnel/ Completed application forms must be returne...
Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period mid-June to mid-September 2003, there will be a limited number of vacancies for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature) which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of vacancies available, no children previously appointed at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks, the allowance being CHF 1582.- for this period. Application form can be obtained from Martine PLAZA, HR Division (by electronic mail to Martine.Plaza@cern.ch) or at http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/general/HN-personnel/ Completed application forms must be returned to this service by 2 May 2003 at th...
Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period mid-June to mid-September 2003, there will be a limited number of vacancies for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature) which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of vacancies available, no children previously appointed at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks, the allowance being CHF 1582.- for this period. Application form can be obtained from Martine PLAZA, HR Division (by electronic mail to Martine.Plaza@cern.ch) or at http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/general/HN-personnel/ Completed application forms must be returned to this service by 2 May 2003 at t...
Full Text Available Increased noise, which is also below the occupational exposure values and is “hearing safe” noise, affects the exposed person’s health as a non-specific stressor. Increased noise level also creates an environment for additional vocal apparatus load. The objective of this study was to determine preschool personnel occupational noise and its relationship with subjective health complaints. Data were obtained with survey assistance through subjective answers of respondents about health complaints and noise exposure among Rīga preschool personnel. Objective noise measurements were made to assess real noise levels in the preschool environment. Data from 155 respondents and objective measurements of 37 preschool classrooms were obtained. The results showed that the average 8-h noise exposure among Rīga preschool educational institutions was 70 dB(A, which did not exceed the Latvian work environment noise limits, but exceeded the 35–40 dB(A noise limit in the educational environment guidelines recommended by the WHO. The survey results showed that loud noise is one of the most important workplace environmental factors (~70% of respondents feel a necessity to increase voice because of noise. A constant feeling of fatigue, headache, irritable feeling, and a desire to isolate oneself from others more often occurred in respondents exposed to increased noise, compared with those who noted that they were not exposed to increased noise. In general, loud noise was associated with increased subjective health complaints in preschool education institution personnel.
In the first period of the development of nuclear technology specialists received mainly theoretical training in brief study courses and training sessions. These courses did not place high demands on training methods. In the subsequent period long-term, well-conceived and costly systems of training were developed placing emphasis on specialized knowledge and especially on practical training. The third stage has now been launched which is characterized by the departure from classical control rooms to data collection and processing in centralized information systems, selective recording according to situation and choice, etc. This stage is passing on to the system of the minimization of the human factor error. A significant problem of the human factor in nuclear technology is the time aspect. Schools specializing in the education and training of specialists, technical personnel and workers for the nuclear programme have been established. Following such education personnel are selected for specialized training in training centres which have been equipped with costly training equipment including simulators. With regard to the importance of the human factor in nuclear installations, control computers are being introduced to an increasing extent and individuals and groups of workers and personnel are trained in operation. (E.S.)
Pribozic, F.; Krajnc, J.
Acquisition of a full scope replica simulator represents an important achievement for Nuclear power Plant Krsko. Operating nuclear power plant systems is definitely a set of demanding and complex tasks. The most important element in the goal of assuring capabilities for handling such tasks is efficient training of operations personnel who manipulate controls in the main control room. Use of a simulator during the training process is essential and can not be substituted by other techniques. This article gives an overview of NPP Krsko licensed personnel training historical background, current experience and plans for future training activities. Reactor operator initial training lasts approximately two and a half years. Training is divided into several phases, consisting of theoretical and practical segments, including simulator training. In the past, simulator initial training and annual simulator retraining was contracted, thus operators were trained on non-specific full scope simulators. Use of our own plant specific simulator and associated infrastructure will have a significant effect on the operations personnel training process and, in addition, will also support secondary uses, with the common goal to improve safe and reliable plant operation. A regular annual retraining program has successfully started. Use of the plant specific simulator assures consistent training and good management oversight, enhances conformity of operational practices and supports optimization of operating procedures. (author)
Jardin, Bianca F; Wulfert, Edelgard
The present study was an experimental analogue that examined the relationship between gambling-related irrational beliefs and risky gambling behavior. Eighty high-frequency gamblers were randomly assigned to four conditions and played a chance-based computer game in a laboratory setting. Depending on the condition, during the game a pop-up screen repeatedly displayed either accurate or inaccurate messages concerning the game, neutral messages, or no messages. Consistent with a cognitive-behavioral model of gambling, accurate messages that correctly described the random contingencies governing the game decreased risky gambling behavior. Contrary to predictions, inaccurate messages designed to mimic gamblers' irrational beliefs about their abilities to influence chance events did not lead to more risky gambling behavior than exposure to neutral or no messages. Participants in the latter three conditions did not differ significantly from one another and all showed riskier gambling behavior than participants in the accurate message condition. The results suggest that harm minimization strategies that help individuals maintain a rational perspective while gambling may protect them from unreasonable risk-taking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javadinia, Seyed Alireza; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sedghijalal, Homa
Risky sexual behavior (RSB), addiction, and aggression are three important personal and social factors which influence each other. To overview the potential relationship among RSB, addiction, and aggression to conduct an interactive model for the pathology and management of human behavior. This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Ebsco, IEEE, Scopus, Springer, MagIran, and IranMedex databases from the year 1993 to 2013. The search terms were violence, aggression, drug abuse, substance abuse, illicit drug, psychoactive drug, intravenous drug users, addiction and high-risk sexual relationships, unprotected sex, high risk sexual behavior, and sexual risk-taking. In this study, forty-nine studies were accepted for further screening, and met all our inclusion criteria (in English or Persian, full text, and included the search terms). Forty-nine articles were included; 17 out of 26 studies showed a significant correlation between addiction and risky sexual behavior, 15 out of 19 articles indicated a statistically significant correlation between aggression and addiction, and 9 out of 10 articles reported significant correlation between aggression and risky sexual behavior. According to the results, the triangle hypothesis of sex, addiction, and aggression led to the definition of the relationship among the variables of the hypothetical triangle based on the reviewed studies; and the proposed dual and triple relationship based on the conducted literature review was confirmed. This is not a meta-analysis, and there is no analysis of publication bias.
Lyerly, Jordan E; Brunner Huber, Larissa R
Family conflict is related to numerous risky behavioral outcomes during adolescence; however, few studies have examined how family conflict is associated with risky sexual behavior during adolescence. Data from 1104 adolescents aged 15 to 21 who completed the 2008 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed. Information on family conflict (family fighting and family criticizing) and sexual behavior (number of sexual partners in past year and use of contraception at last intercourse) was self-reported. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After adjustment, adolescents whose family members often fought had increased odds of not using contraception at last intercourse and having two or more sexual partners in the past year (OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.04-1.88] and OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.23-2.14], respectively). Adolescents whose family members often criticized each other also had increased odds of not using contraception at last intercourse and having two or more sexual partners in the past year (OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.12-1.90] and OR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.96-1.55], respectively). Family conflict was associated with risky sexual behaviors in this racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. If confirmed in other studies, adolescents who experience family conflict may be an important population to target with information regarding safer sex practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ursache, Alexandra; Raver, C. Cybele
This study examines preadolescents’ reports of risk-taking as predicted by two different, but related inhibitory control systems involving sensitivity to reward and loss on the one hand, and higher order processing in the context of cognitive conflict, known as executive functioning (EF), on the other. Importantly, this study examines these processes with a sample of inner-city, low-income preadolescents and as such examines the ways in which these processes may be related to risky behaviors as a function of children's levels of both concurrent and chronic exposure to household poverty. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 382 children (ages 9 -11) provided a self-report of risky behaviors and participated in the Iowa Gambling task, assessing bias for infrequent loss (preference for infrequent, high magnitude versus frequent, low magnitude loss) and the Hearts and Flowers task assessing executive functioning. Results demonstrated that a higher bias for infrequent loss was associated with higher risky behaviors for children who demonstrated lower EF. Furthermore, bias for infrequent loss was most strongly associated with higher risk-taking for children facing highest levels of poverty. Implications for early identification and prevention of risk-taking in inner-city preadolescents are discussed. PMID:26412918
Sohrabi, Ahmad; Smith, Andra M; West, Robert L; Cameron, Ian
The current study aimed to elucidate the role of preparatory cognitive control in decision making and its neural correlates using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). To this effect, by employing a series of new cognitive tasks, we assessed the role of preparatory cognitive control in monetary (risky) decision making. The participants had to decide between a risky and a safe gamble based on their chance of winning (high or low). In the 2-phase gambling task (similar to Cambridge gambling task), the chance and the gamble were presented at the same time (i.e. in a single phase), but in a new 3-phase gambling task, the chance is presented before the gamble. The tasks ended with a feedback phase. In the 3-phase task, holding the chance in memory to guide their decision enabled the participants to have more control on their risk taking behaviors as shown by activation in a network of brain areas involved in the control and conflict, including dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC), indexed by faster reaction times and better performance in the gambling task, and the temporal lobe, which has a role in holding contextual information. Holding information in memory to guide decision presumably enables the participants to have more control on their risk taking behaviors. The conflict and uncertainty resulting from this risky decision was indexed by the activation of dACC, known to be activated in conflict and cognitive control.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Gee, Dylan G; Lee, Steve S; Tottenham, Nim
Decision making in the context of risk is a complex and dynamic process that changes across development. Here, we assessed the influence of sensitivity to negative feedback (e.g., loss) and learning on age-related changes in risky decision making, both of which show unique developmental trajectories. In the present study, we examined risky decision making in 216 individuals, ranging in age from 3-26 years, using the balloon emotional learning task (BELT), a computerized task in which participants pump up a series of virtual balloons to earn points, but risk balloon explosion on each trial, which results in no points. It is important to note that there were 3 balloon conditions, signified by different balloon colors, ranging from quick- to slow-to-explode, and participants could learn the color-condition pairings through task experience. Overall, we found age-related increases in pumps made and points earned. However, in the quick-to-explode condition, there was a nonlinear adolescent peak for points earned. Follow-up analyses indicated that this adolescent phenotype occurred at the developmental intersection of linear age-related increases in learning and decreases in sensitivity to negative feedback. Adolescence was marked by intermediate values on both these processes. These findings show that a combination of linearly changing processes can result in nonlinear changes in risky decision making, the adolescent-specific nature of which is associated with developmental improvements in learning and reduced sensitivity to negative feedback. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Akehurst, Sally; Oliver, Emily J
Grounded in self-determination theory, obsessive passion for an activity has been associated with increased risky behaviour and rigid persistence, both symptomatic of dependence. However, it is unknown whether obsessive passion may predict the development of dependence, and furthermore, theoretically important relationships between basic need satisfaction, passion, exercise dependence and subsequent risky behaviour have not been fully explored. A sample of 100 professional dancers (50(fs); 50(ms); Mage = 20.88; SD = 2.69) completed self-ratings of risk-related behaviours (doctor visits; following treatment, and warming up), passion for dance and dance dependence. Findings supported the maladaptive nature of obsessive passion in relation to risky behaviour and as predicted dance dependence mediated this relationship. Interestingly, need satisfaction was positively related to both obsessive passion and harmonious passion. Results are discussed in the light of self-determination theory and dysfunctions of obsessive passion, suggesting that professional dancers are at risk of employing maladaptive behaviours if high in obsessive passion, which may be detectable via symptoms of dance dependence.
Bernard, Michael Lewis; Smith, Bruce W., 1959- (,University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM-)
Understanding the role of emotional states is critical for predicting the kind of decisions people will make in risky situations. Currently, there is little understanding as to how emotion influences decision-making in situations such as terrorist attacks, natural disasters, pandemics, and combat. To help address this, we used behavioral and neuroimaging methods to examine how emotion states and traits influence decisions. Specifically, this study used a wheel of fortune behavioral task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of emotional states and traits on decision-making pertaining to the degree of risk people are willing to make in specific situations. The behavioral results are reported here. The neural data requires additional time to analyze and will be reported at a future date. Biases caused by emotion states and traits were found regarding the likelihood of making risky decisions. The behavioral results will help provide a solid empirical foundation for modeling the effects of emotion on decision in risky situations.
Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena
Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.
Mylona, Lamprini; Huy, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Nguyen; Riggi, Emilia; Marrone, Gaetano
Alcohol consumption is of global concern. However, drinking patterns and associated factors remain under-investigated, especially among low socioeconomic groups such as street laborers. Using the social cognitive model as a framework for the study we aimed to identify factors associated with risky alcohol consumption. In a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires, 450 male street laborers searching for casual works in Hanoi, Vietnam were interviewed. A logistic regression was applied in order to detect predictors of risky alcohol drinking. During the last month, 45% of the participants reported daily consumption while the other 55% consumed weekly or less. Among the drinkers (416 out of 450, 92%), 27% were identified as high-risk drinkers who reported more than 14 standard drinks per week, while only 8% were lifetime abstainers. The multivariable logistic regression showed that older age, higher income were positively associated with a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol, while high school level negatively. The environmental predictor was the higher level of peer connection. The association between drinking and risky behavior was found positive with regards to the number of sexual partners. The study suggests that male street laborers are vulnerable to health risks. Decision makers should note that a significant proportion of this target group exceeds the guidelines for alcohol use and this should be included in future interventions or further research. A multisectoral approach together with an important strategy of education is needed to control alcohol use.
Di Rosa, Elisa; Mapelli, Daniela; Arcara, Giorgio; Amodio, Piero; Tamburin, Stefano; Schiff, Sami
Several pieces of evidence have highlighted the presence of an age-related decline in risky decision-making (DM), but the reason of this decline is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural correlates of feedback processing in risky DM. Twenty-one younger (age 50 years) adults were tested with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) during Event Related Potentials (ERP) recording. The analysis was focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3, two ERP components that represent different stages of feedback processing. Behavioral results revealed that older adults, despite showing a significant learning trend, completed the IGT with a gain of a smaller amount of money compared to the younger ones. ERP results revealed that while the FRN response was comparable in the two groups, the P3 amplitude was significantly reduced after negative feedback in older adults, compared with the younger ones. Furthermore, the difference in the P3 amplitude evoked by positive and negative feedback was significantly correlated with age. Hence, the present findings suggest that older adults seem to be less willing to shift attention from positive to negative information, and that this relevant change in the later stages of feedback processing could be the cause of a poor performance in risky DM contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baker, Erin; Adu-Bonnah, Kwame
We analyze how the socially optimal technology R and D investment changes with the risk-profile of the R and D program and with uncertainty about climate damages. We show that how technology is represented in the model is crucial to the results; and that uncertainty in damages interacts with uncertainty in the returns to R and D. We consider R and D that reduces the cost of abatement multiplicatively, and argue that this is a good representation of R and D into non-carbon technologies; and R and D that reduces the emissions-to-output ratio, and argue that this is a good representation of R and D into fossil fuel technologies. For R and D programs into non-carbon technologies, optimal investment is higher in riskier programs. Our empirical model indicates that the optimal investment in a risky program is about 3 1/2 times larger than in a program with certain returns. For R and D programs aimed at reducing emissions in fossil fuel based technologies, our results show that, qualitatively, investment is higher in less risky programs under most uncertain damage scenarios. Our empirical model shows, however, that the risk-profile of fossil fuel based R and D programs generally has little quantitative impact on optimal investment. The exception is that when the probability of a catastrophe inducing full abatement is very high, investment is about twice as high in risky programs compared to programs with certain returns. (author)
Westbrook, Andrew; Martins, Bruna S; Yarkoni, Tal; Braver, Todd S
Maximizing long-run gains often requires taking on some degree of risk, yet decision-makers often exhibit risk aversion (RA), rejecting risky prospects even when these have higher expected value (EV) than safer alternatives. We investigated whether explicit strategy instruction and practice can decrease prepotent RA, and whether aging impacts the efficacy of such an intervention. Participants performed a paired lottery task with options varying in risk and magnitude, both before and after practice with a similar task that encouraged maximization of EV and instruction to use this strategy in risky decisions. In both younger and older adults (OAs), strategy training reduced RA. Although RA was age-equivalent at baseline, larger training effects were observed in younger adults (YAs). These effects were not explained by risk-related (i.e., affective) interference effects or computation ability, but were consistent with a progressive, age-related neglect of the strategy across trials. Our findings suggest that strategy training can diminish RA, but that training efficacy is reduced among OAs, potentially due to goal neglect. We discuss implications for neural mechanisms that may distinguish older and YAs' risky decision-making.
Hatfield, Julie; Williamson, Ann; Kehoe, E James; Prabhakharan, Prasannah
The risky driving of young drivers may owe in part to youthful motivations (such as experience-seeking, authority rebellion, desire for peer approval) combined with incompletely developed impulse control. Although self-reported impulsiveness has been positively associated with self-reports of risky driving, results based on objective measures of response inhibition (e.g., Go/No-go tasks) have been inconclusive. The present study examined interrelationships between measures of response inhibition, self-report impulsiveness scales, and responses to events during a simulated drive that were designed to detect impulsive, unsafe behaviours (e.g., turning across on-coming traffic). Participants were 72 first-year Psychology students. More speeding and "Unsafe" responding to critical events during simulated driving were associated with poorer impulse control as assessed by commission errors during a Go/No-Go task. These results consolidate evidence for a relationship between impulse control and risky driving amongst young drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sani, Susan Raouf Hadadi; Tabibi, Zahra; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Stavrinos, Despina
The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD=9.39, age range 24-62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses showed that aggression and emotional regulation predicted risky driving behavior. Difficulties in emotion regulation, the obstinacy and revengeful component of aggression, attentional bias toward emotional stimuli, and cognitive inhibition predicted driving errors. Aggression was the only significant predictive factor for driving violations. In conclusion, aggression and difficulties in regulating emotions may exacerbate risky driving behaviors. Deficits in cognitive inhibition and attentional bias toward negative emotional stimuli can increase driving errors. Predisposition to aggression has strong effect on making one vulnerable to violation of traffic rules and crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further.
Salanova, Marisa; Lorente, Laura; Martínez, Isabel M
The objective of this study is to analyze the different role that efficacy beliefs play in the prediction of learning, innovative and risky performances. We hypothesize that high levels of efficacy beliefs in learning and innovative performances have positive consequences (i.e., better academic and innovative performance, respectively), whereas in risky performances they have negative consequences (i.e., less safety performance). To achieve this objective, three studies were conducted, 1) a two-wave longitudinal field study among 527 undergraduate students (learning setting), 2) a three-wave longitudinal lab study among 165 participants performing innovative group tasks (innovative setting), and 3) a field study among 228 construction workers (risky setting). As expected, high levels of efficacy beliefs have positive or negative consequences on performance depending on the specific settings. Unexpectedly, however, we found no time x self-efficacy interaction effect over time in learning and innovative settings. Theoretical and practical implications within the social cognitive theory of A. Bandura framework are discussed.
Personnel Recruitment and Retention Strategies in Lagos State Civil Service of Nigeria. ... The results show that the strategy for personnel recruitment into the CS is based on mixtures of merit and political ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Personnel management and job satisfaction in academic libraries: a case study of ... the level of staff development, identify the motivational factors of the library personnel, ... Questionnaire was used for this research as the main data collection ...
This bibliography contains references on: specific thermoluminescent dosemeters used for personnel dosimetry; comparisons of thermoluminescent and other dosemeters for personnel monitoring and read-out apparatus for thermoluminescent dosemeters. An appendix contains selected foreign language references. (author)
Ehsani, Johnathon P; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Xie, Yunlong; Klauer, Sheila G; Albert, Paul S
This study examined the driving behavior of 42 parent-teenager dyads for 18 months, under naturalistic driving conditions. At baseline participants' personality characteristics were assessed. Objective risky driving measures (kinematic risky driving) were captured by accelerometers for the duration of the study. To estimate teenage and parent correlations in kinematic risky driving, separate Poisson regression models were fit for teenagers and parents. Standardized residuals were computed for each trip for each individual. Correlations were obtained by estimating the Spearman rank correlations of the individual average residuals across teenagers and parents. The bootstrap technique was used to estimate the standard errors associated with the parent-teenager correlations. The overall correlation between teenage and parent kinematic risky driving for the 18-month study period was positive, but weak (r=0.18). When the association between parent and teenagers' risky driving was adjusted for shared personality characteristics, the correlation reduced to 0.09. Although interesting, the 95% confidence intervals on the difference between these two estimates overlapped zero. We conclude that the weak similarity in parent-teen kinematic risky driving was partly explained by shared personality characteristics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Barraco, Giancarlo; Pagano, Stefano; Lupoli, Grazia; Dolci, Alessandro; Colagrosso, Beniamino
Over the past 10-15 years, Italy has undergone a social transformation, and the class of employees and workers has become more economically stable with a higher buying power. Along with the increased expectations of patients on the quality of life, it has now become a priority to make health and social services ready to face users bearing new requirements and different needs. To provide a description of the state of health of the operating personnel of the Finance Police (Guardia di Finanza), including elements for planning the most appropriate interventions for health promotion and prevention. The study analyzed the health condition of a group of soldiers (178 subjects, divided into different age classes) by evaluating the effectiveness of a training and information program and subsequently the level of benefit. The study population showed a good state of health correlated to the quality of life. Although the population voluntarily submitted to health assessment, the rigour of the calls and briefings carried out in the military health unit and the attention of the group to follow instructions on prevention underlined a positive trend, even in behaviours considered as health-risky. Socio-cultural components and the work environment influence the quality of life. In the case of military health care, the specific military organization was useful to monitor the health condition of the population, maximizing the effectiveness of services, enhancing the information and carrying out prevention strategies and demand of care, which should be an example for the public health services.
A Personnel Utilization System has been designed at Broward Community College, which combines payroll, personnel, course, and function information in order to determine the actual duties performed by personnel for the amount of remuneration received. Objectives of the system are (1) to define the tasks being performed by faculty, staff, and…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term...
Iyer, V.S.; Alok, M.; Chandel, B.S.
The principle objective of personnel monitoring system is to prevent overexposure and avoid unnecessary exposure of personnel working with various sources of radiation. The adequate system of personnel monitoring must provide for the measurement. evaluation and recording of significant doses accumulated by individuals together with a recording of conditions under which these doses are received
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel merit system review. 201.11 Section 201... STATES FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Review and Audits § 201.11 Personnel merit system review. A personnel merit system review is carried out by the Office of State Merit Systems of the Office of the...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1542.217 Section 1542... Law enforcement personnel. (a) Each airport operator must ensure that law enforcement personnel used... the criminal laws of the State and local jurisdictions in which the airport is located— (1) A crime...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1544.217 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.217 Law enforcement personnel. (a) The following applies to... for law enforcement personnel meeting the qualifications and standards specified in §§ 1542.215 and...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel facilities...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personnel hoists and elevators. 77.1400 Section 77.1400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1400 Personnel...
Problems of the NPP personnel education are discussed during radical reorganization of the state regulation of energy production and distribution when nuclear energetics will appears in the market conditions. Effective methods of the NPP personnel training developed by the corporation GPU Nuclear are given. Potentials of the application of simulators and computerized programs for increasing the NPP personnel education efficiency are considered
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of personnel security information... SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Adjudication § 154.42 Evaluation of personnel security information. (a) The criteria and adjudicative policy to be used in applying the...
Data on annual individual doses for personnel of national economy enterprises, research institutes, high schools, medical establishments dealing with ionizing radiation sources are presented. It is shown that radiation dose for the personnel constitutes only shares of standards established by sanitary legislation. Numeral values of individual doses of the personnel are determined by the type, character and scope of using ionizing radiation sources
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of public school personnel. 76.659 Section 76.659... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Participation of Students Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.659 Use of public school personnel. A subgrantee may use program funds to make public personnel...
Streszczenie W artykule została podjęta problematyka zachowań ryzykownych przejawianych przez współczesną młodzież. Autorka tekstu dokonała zwięzłej charakterystyki najczęściej występujących wśród młodych ludzi zachowań problemowych, takich jak: palenie papierosów, nadużywanie alkoholu, narkotyków i dopalaczy; ryzykowna aktywność seksualna; okaleczanie własnego ciała (autoagresja; nadmierne opalanie się. Następnie, odwołując się do teorii czynników ryzyka i czynników chroniących, koncepcji resilience, modelu ekologicznego Bronfenbrennera oraz Teorii Zachowań Problemowych, zwróciła uwagę na czynniki, które intensyfikują prawdopodobieństwo występowania zachowań ryzykownych u adolescentów oraz na czynniki, które wzmacniają ogólny potencjał zdrowotny człowieka i tym samym jego odporność na działanie tych pierwszych. Opracowanie kończy ilustracja zadań, jakie stoją przed osobami prowadzącymi działania profilaktyczne, w związku z rozpowszechnianiem się wśród nastolatków zachowań problemowych. Słowa klucze: zachowanie ryzykowne, adolescenci, czynniki ryzyka, czynniki chroniące, profilaktyka. Summary The article touches upon risky behaviors manifested by contemporary teenagers. The article characterizes the most frequent types of risky behaviors among young people, such as: smoking cigarettes, alcohol, drugs and designer drugs abuse, risky sexual contacts, self-mutilation (self-injury and excessive sunbathing. The author also appeals to the theory of risk and protective factors, notion of resilience, ecologic model of Bronfenbrenner, and the theory of problem behavior in order to point out to the factors which intensify the probability of risky behaviors of adolescents as well as the factors which enhance the overall health potential of a person and thus his resistance to such factors. The research ends with a list of tasks that people responsible for preventive actions are facing due to the
Activities of IAEA concerning training and qualification of NPP personnel consider the availability of sufficient number of competent personnel which is one of the most critical requirements for safe and reliable NPP operation and maintenance. Competence of personnel is essential for reducing the frequency of events connected to human errors and equipment failures. The IAEA Guidebook on Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation incorporates the experience gained worldwide and provides recommendations on the use of SAT being the best practice for attaining and maintaining the qualification and competence of NPP personnel and for quality assurance of training
Gavrilov, S.L.; Kiselev, V.P.; Krasnoperov, S.N.; Kudeshov, E.V.; Maslov, S.Y.; Semin, N.N.; Sirotinskiy, S.E.; Yakovlev, V.Y. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (NSI RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation)
Currently, Web-GIS technologies are widely used to generate a reliable and intuitive web-based interface to monitor the current radiation situation in various regions of the Russian Federation. The developed 'Server Web-Monitoring' web-application is intended for duty personnel and can operate not only on desktop computers but also on mobile devices. The subsystem of duty personnel notification about any Off-Normal Situation (ONS) (such as: critical threshold exceedances or failures in operation of monitoring systems) is also considered in the paper. Three types of Automated Radiation Monitoring Systems (ARMS) are available for monitoring: - regional ARMS; - facility-level ARMS; - ARMS of nuclear power plant surveillance areas. Google Maps and Google Maps API toolbox are used as the cartographic basis. In the general-monitoring window only general information on each of the local systems is available. Next, the operator can move to monitoring of local ARMS he is interested in. The operator can either view a list of Radiation Situation Monitoring Posts (RSMP) showing the current data in the right frame or hide it and use the map only. Viewing the log of critical threshold exceedances for 24 hours and a report on all RSMPs of a given system over the last 7 days is also possible. The report contains maximum values of measurements for every day and for each RSMP. The developed web-application includes: - monitoring of the radiation situation and its changes on the general map of the Russian Federation and on maps of local ARMS; - displaying 7-day reports for all RSMPs of the selected ARMS; - displaying the log of critical threshold exceedances recorded over the past day. The notification subsystem informs duty personnel on all ONS, namely, on critical threshold exceedances in the incoming data and failures in operation of monitoring systems. The key features of the notification subsystem are: - round-the-clock functioning; - automatic notification in case of
One of the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident was that the nuclear industry was ineffective in learning from previous events at other plants. As training programs and methods have improved since TMI, the nuclear industry has searched for effective methods to teach the lessons learned from industry events. The case study method has great potential as a solution. By reviewing actual plant events in detail, trainees can be challenged with solving actual problems. When used in a seminar or discussion format, these case studies also help trainees compare their decision-making processes with other trainees, the instructor, and the personnel involved in the actual case study event
This paper briefly summarises the results of a survey of the health of Australian personnel who took part in the U.K. atomic weapons tests between 1952 and 1957. The study identified indications of radiation exposure among participants and examined their health in relation to the answers they gave. For example, the study compared the health of those participants who said they cleaned up radioactive areas after tests with the health of those who said they had not. There was no excess of disease or death for any disease group studied in those members of the workforce who had film badge evidence of exposure to radiation
McCall, R.C.; Jenkins, T.M.; Shore, R.A.; LaRiviere, P.D.
For medical accelerators, neutron penetration through the room entry door is the major personnel hazard. Most therapy accelerator rooms are designed with at least a rudimentary maze to avoid the use of massive doors. Often, however, the maze may be similar to those shown in scale outline drawings of some medical electron accelerator rooms where the authors have made neutron measurements outside the doors which were of different thicknesses and compositions. The results are tabulated. It should be noted that there can be significant dose equivalents (H) at the door when a maze is inadequate, and that all three components - fast neutron, thermal neutron, and neutron capture γ rays - can be equally important
The TLD system uses Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Mn, Si sintered tablets which are heated by hot nitrogen. The slide which holds the tablets is coded by a self adhesive polyester-aluminium tape. This tape is BCD coded in an ordinary tape punch. The information on the punched tape includes a ten digit social-security number and a two digit information on location and type of dosimetry. By this system dosimetric data is directly transfered into a central dose register for Sweden. All personnel doses are there stored on social-security numbers. (author)
A specialized training course for Nevada's law enforcement personnel has been conducted by Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. for the US Department of Energy since February 1981. This course is designed for those persons who are first to arrive at a transportation accident scene. The course provides a basic understanding of radiation protection, the prevention of contamination spread from the accident site, use of radiation detection equipment, and decontamination procedures. The Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office provides the training at no cost to Nevada agencies. Each agency selects its attendees. Details of the course are given
Since 1976 the Department for Radiation Protection of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been operating a TLD Personnel Monitoring Service, which presently covers about 18,000 radiation workers in Austria, with monthly monitoring periods. We have been the first accredited monitoring service in Europe, which fully converted from film dosimetry to TLD. From the beginning up to 1991 the service was based on three automated TLD systems Model 2271 from HARSHAW, USA. After extensive testing and comparisons, since almost four years now, the monitoring service has been operating on two HARSHAW 8800 systems, which are described in more detail below. (author)
The safe operation of a research reactor requires that reactor personnel be fully trained and certified by the relevant authorities. Reactor operators at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor underwent extensive training and are certified, ever since the reactor first started its operation in 1982. With the emphasis on enhancing reactor safety in recent years, reactor operator training and certification have also evolved. This paper discusses the changes that have to be implemented and the challenges encountered in developing a new training programme to be in line with the national standards. (author)
Duftschmid, K E [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH (Austria)
Since 1976 the Department for Radiation Protection of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been operating a TLD Personnel Monitoring Service, which presently covers about 18,000 radiation workers in Austria, with monthly monitoring periods. We have been the first accredited monitoring service in Europe, which fully converted from film dosimetry to TLD. From the beginning up to 1991 the service was based on three automated TLD systems Model 2271 from HARSHAW, USA. After extensive testing and comparisons, since almost four years now, the monitoring service has been operating on two HARSHAW 8800 systems, which are described in more detail below. (author).
Nantel, Marc; Fox, Bradley; Gelsthorpe, Leanne; Hamilton, Roxy; Marshall, Robert; Williamson, Guida
Employers clamour for more "Highly-Qualified Personnel" (HQP) to hire, and photonics is no exception. The challenge facing all new graduates lies in what actually constitutes a Highly-Qualified Person. Yesterday, an HQP was often understood to be a graduate with a Bachelor's, Master's or Ph.D. degree. Today, industry is demanding that an HQP be either a university or college graduate with strong academic standing AND a sound business and communications skill set. In this paper, we introduce the concept of "Value-Added Personnel" (VAP), which marries both scientific and "soft-skills" aspects, and we present a new program in Ontario to produce VAPs.
Laapotti, Sirkku; Keskinen, Esko
A range of situational and lifestyle-related factors in drink-driving fatal accidents were studied involving young adult and middle-aged male drivers in Finland. Fatal drink-driving accidents were compared to fatal accidents in which the driver had been sober. The study included all 18-to 59-year-old male drivers' fatal car and van accidents investigated by the Road Accident Investigation Teams in Finland between 2000 and 2002 (n = 366 accidents). The variables describing the situation included the time of the accident, the road condition, the speed, possession of a valid licence, seat-belt usage, and the presence of passengers. The study found that among young adult males most of the studied situational factors bore no relation to the state of the driver (sober or drink driver). Only the time of day, seat-belt, usage, and possession of a valid licence were related to the state of the driver. Among middle-aged male drivers, drink-driving and sober driving accidents differed more clearly. Further, when the social situation in the car was examined, it was found that accidents of sober and drink drivers differed from each other within the group of middle-aged drivers but not within the group of young adult drivers. Heavy alcohol usage was found to characterize the lifestyle of the studied middle-aged drink drivers. It was concluded that for young adult males drink-driving was a part of a more general risky driving style. Among middle-aged males drink-driving was more related to a risky lifestyle with drinking problems. Possible countermeasures are discussed with regard to drink-driving among young adult and middle-aged males.
Tarykin, V. [Operation Personnel Training Department, Khmelnitsky NPP, Training Center, Neteshin 30100, Khmelnitsky region (Ukraine)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Modern personnel training and retraining system is a guarantee of NPPs safe reliable operation. Since the time when independence of Ukraine was proclaimed personnel training system was created directly at NPPs. This system is based on the latest legislation framework, developed subject to IAEA recommendations, gained international experience in the field of personnel training in view of increased demands to personnel qualification. Training Centers, formed at each plant, form one of the main components of NPP personnel training. Personnel training at Training Centers is performed in accordance with standard programmes. Simulator training base was created by joint efforts of specialists from the USA, Russia and Ukraine. Establishing manager training system and replacement reserves for National Nuclear Energy Generating Company 'ENERGOATOM' (NNEGC 'ENERGOATOM') managerial personnel, including training programme and training materials development, teacher selection and training, is under way. (author)
Methods applied in the choice of personnel include: the assessment of personnel files, references, interviews, examinations, long-term observation of the respective person. Investment intents go hand in hand with the concept of labour demands. The planned employment of personnel takes place from the very beginning of the construction of the power plant. At the Bohunice V-1 nuclear power plant 23 university graduates, 29 secondary school graduates and 64 graduates of vocational schools were employed every year. Social measures and complex care are being implemented. Personnel is being selected also on the basis of an assessment of their psychic qualities which are very important in view of the high personal and social responsibility of nuclear power plant personnel. The high technical standard of the equipment places high demands on the education level of all personnel, high demands on training, high remuneration and high level of allround care of personnel. (M.D.)
ICRP Recommendations-1990, Notice 60 was used as a basis for new NRBU-97 norms in Ukraine and also for Russian NRB-96 and reviewed NRB-99. These recommendations caused negative treatment among rather authoritative organizations and individual scientists of France, USA, Russia and other countries. Till 1988, norms NRB-76/87 were operated in Ukraine. ICRP Recommendations-1976, Notice 26 was used under their development, and dosage limits included into them surely provided radiation protection for Nuclear Power Units personnel and population during long-term period. But some leaders being affected by Chernobyl syndrome and radio phobia put strong pressure upon ICRP that resulted in Notice 60 appearance where dosage limits for personnel and population were sufficiently understated without any scientific ground. According to literary sources survey, it is shown that usage of dose-effect non threshold linear dependence concept essentially exaggerates the real danger. According to the concept, principles of regulation the exposure standards are suggested, which considered to be actual as large-scale works on dismantling the reactors and ChNPP Units equipment are expected soon on the phase of their decommissioning and also the conducting of works on Unit 'Shelter' transformation into ecologically safe system
Since the United Kingdom's defence nuclear industry was founded in the late 1940s, Service and civilian personnel have been exposed to ionising radiation. During the last forty years, as knowledge about the effects of radiation exposure has grown, concern to ensure adequate protection against exposure has also increased,. As part of our continuing scrutiny of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), we have undertaken a short inquiry to examine MoD's current and future policy and practice on radiological protection. The principal work involving exposure of Service and civilian personnel to significant levels of radiation falls into two discrete areas: the nuclear weapons programme and the nuclear propulsion programme. The nuclear weapons programme involves research, the production of nuclear warheads and their deployment with Her Majesty's Forces. The nuclear propulsion programme involves research, production, operation, refitting and decommissioning of pressurised water reactors as a source of propulsion power in Royal Navy submarines. These two nuclear programmes are not the only sources of ionising radiation within MoD's responsibility: it also arises from research, non-destructive testing and medical applications, most notably conventional radiography. In this Report we have concentrated upon ionising radiation arising from the two defence nuclear programmes. (author)
Griffith, R.V.; Hankins, D.E.
In selection, calibration and interpretation of personnel neutron dosimeters used in radiation protection, adequate attention is often not given to matching the characteristics of the dosimeter with the quality of the neutron field. A particular concern is the use of albedo detectors which have little energy response similarity to the neutron dose equivalent conversion curve. At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory we have developed a system for dosimeter calibration and neutron field characterization using Bonner spheres and remmeters. Rapid surveys of the work area with detectors in 3-in and 9-in polyethylene spheres establish a qualitative estimate of spectral variation found in the facility. We also use this data to determine the appropriate albedo dosimeter calibration factors. At several locations representing the spectral range, multisphere spectra measure-ments are made and the spectrum weighted dose equivalent rates calculated. These rates are compared with survey instrument results to establish correction factors for the relative over- or under-response expected from these instruments, particularly in highly moderated neutron fields where remmeters overrespond. We also use the spectral information to determine the appropriateness of dosimeters considered for future use. This technique has been applied at power reactors to provide information valuable to selection of proper personnel dosimeters. We find that the spectral range is sufficiently narrow that albedo detectors can be used with confidence. On the other hand, most of the dose occurs at energies below the effective threshold NTA film. (author)
Summer work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 13 June to 16 September 2011 inclusive, there will be a limited number of jobs for summer work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature), which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of all contracts will be 4 weeks and the allowance will be 1717 CHF for this period. Candidates should apply via the HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_intranet/wd_pds?p_web_site_id=1&p_web_page_id=8886&p_no_apply=&p_show=N Completed application forms must be returned by 11 April 2011 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available by the end of May 2011. For further information, please con...
During the period mid-June to mid-September 2001, there will be a limited number of vacancies for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature) which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (that is, anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of vacancies available, no children previously appointed at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks, the allowance being CHF 1538.- net for this period. Application forms can be obtained via the Web at the following address: http://cern.web.cern.ch/CERN/Divisions/PE/ under the heading 'Other Useful Links' or from Paula Barriere, Personnel Management Group (by using the slip below or by electronic mail to Paula.Barriere@.cern.ch). Completed applic...
Koster, J.E.; Bounds, K.A.; Kerr, P.L.; Steadman, P.A.; Whitley, C.R.
A project between Fernald EMP and LANL is to field a monitor for the detection of alpha-emitting contamination on a human body. Traditional personnel monitoring for alpha emitters involves either frisking with a probe or pressing against large detectors in order to overcome the short range of alpha particles. These methods have a low alpha collection efficiency, and can miss contamination on less accessible surfaces. The authors have investigated the sensitivity and practicality of measuring the entire subject simultaneously using the technique of ionization monitoring. The goal is to create a booth that personnel step into quickly during egress from radiological facilities. The detection technique relies on a breeze of air passing over the subject. Alpha emission produces copious ions in the ambient air which are transported by the air current to an ion collector, resulting in a small electrical current proportional to the amount of contamination. Results indicate a conservative sensitivity of 3,000 disintegrations per minute localized to one of five areas of the body in a measurement lasting less than 2 minutes
Chiaro, P.J. Jr.
Due to recent technological advances, substantial improvements have been made in personnel contamination monitoring. In all likelihood, these advances will close out the days of manually frisking personnel for radioactive contamination. Unfortunately, as microprocessor-based monitors become more widely used, not only at commercial power reactors but also at government facilities, questions concerning their trustworthiness arise. Algorithms make decisions that were previously made by technicians. Trust is placed not in technicians but in machines. In doing this it is assumed that the machine never misses. Inevitably, this trust drops, due largely to open-quotes false alarms.close quotes This is especially true when monitoring for alpha contamination. What is a open-quotes false alarm?close quotes Do these machines and their algorithms that we put our trust in make mistakes? An analysis was performed on half-body and hand-and-foot monitors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in order to justify the suggested confidence level used for alarm point determination. Sources used in this analysis had activities approximating ORNL's contamination limits
Chiaro, P.J. Jr.
Due to recent technological advances, substantial improvements have been made in personnel contamination monitoring. In all likelihood, these advances will close out the days of manually frisking personnel for radioactive contamination. Unfortunately, as microprocessor-based monitors become more widely used, not only at commercial power reactors but also at government facilities, questions concerning their trustworthiness arise. Algorithms make decisions that were previously made by technicians. Trust is placed not in technicians but in machines. In doing this it is assumed that the machine never misses. Inevitably, this trust drops, due largely to ''false alarms''. This is especially true when monitoring for alpha contamination. What is a ''false alarm''? Do these machines and their algorithms that we put our trust in make mistakes? An analysis was performed on half-body and hand-and-foot monitors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in order to justify the suggested confidence level used for alarm point determination. Sources used in this analysis had activities approximating ORNL's contamination limits
Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alanko, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta
Methacrylates are important allergens in dentistry. The study aimed to analyse patch test reactivity to 36 acrylic monomers in dental personnel in relation to exposure. We reviewed the test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health from 1994 to 2006 for allergic reactions to acrylic monomers in dental personnel and analysed the clinical records of the sensitized patients. 32 patients had allergic reactions to acrylic monomers: 15 dental nurses, 9 dentists, and 8 dental technicians. The dentists and dental nurses were most commonly exposed to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA), and 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). 8 dentists and 12 dental nurses were allergic to 2-HEMA. The remaining dentist was positive to bis-GMA and other epoxy acrylates. The remaining 3 dental nurses reacted to diethyleneglycol diacrylate (DEGDA) or triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TREGDA), but not to monofunctional and multifunctional methacrylates. Our dental technicians were mainly exposed and sensitized to methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). 1 technician reacted only to 2-HEMA, and another to ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA). 2-HEMA was the most important allergen in dentists and dental nurses, and MMA and EGDMA in dental technicians. Reactions to bis-GMA, DEGDA, TREGDA, EMA and EA were relevant in some patients.
Full text: Renentech Laboratories is the first Private Enterprise in India to have been chosen to provide Personnel radiation monitoring services to radiation workers at different parts of the country. Since 1992 the Company has been manufacturing TLD phosphor powder of requisite quality and from 1995 commenced the production of TLD cards for radiation monitoring. After getting the necessary approval from the competent authorities in the country, the company undertook a rigorous quality assurance programme and received the accreditation in 1999 to carry out the personnel monitoring of radiation. Since then the trained staff of the Company is covering 1200 institutions in 16 states where radiation is being used. This translates to processing of 60,000 Till cards annually, the maximum limit permitted by BARC. Processing of exposure data is done strictly according well-laid guidelines. Any cases of overexposure are immediately referred to Calibration and Dose Record Section of BARC to meet the regulatory requirements. Necessary procedural guidelines are followed to handle such cases. In this lecture, learning, operation and implementation experience of a typical Private Company in a task, which, hitherto had been regarded as exclusive responsibility of state owned institution, is enumerated
Vazquez Lopez, C.; Saez, J.C.; Labarta, T.
Various tests carried out to characterize a Thermoluminiscence Personnel Dosimetry Automatic System, based on the optical heating of a multielement dosemeter are presented. The dosemeter consists of Lithium Borate (Copper) and Calcium Sulphate (Thallium) phosphors. The Dosimetric System shows some outstanding features, such as its simplicity (no aditional annealing procedures are required), its short reading cycle (160 TLD per hour and its data handling capabilities (RS-232C and Parallel Printer digital ports and four analigic outputs for Glow Curve Adquisition). The tests performed have been designed to conform with the different existing international Standards and Recommendations (ANSI: N13.11-1983; IEC:Draft 45B-1987, ISO:DP 8034-1984) The new radiological quantities (I.C.R.U.-19855) have been used for calibration. The results obtained (linearity, repeatibility, detection threshold, residue, stability of stored information, etc) show the optimum performance of this dosimetric system in its aplication to routine personnel dose monitoring. Based on the dosemeter energy discriminating response, an algorithm for dose assesment has been developed. The method allows personal dose calculations within 10% and gives valuable information on the quality and energy of incident radiation, for photons from 30 to 2000 keV and for Beta penetrating radiation (Sr/Y, U). (Author)
Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 15 June to 11 September 2009 inclusive, there will be a limited number of jobs for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature), which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks and the allowance will be CHF 1717. - for this period. Candidates should apply via HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=6970 Completed application forms must be returned by 10 April 2009 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available on 22 May 2009. For further information, please contact: mailto:Inger.Carriero@cern.c...
Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 15 June to 11 September 2009 inclusive, there will be a limited number of jobs for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature), which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks and the allowance will be CHF 1717. - for this period. Candidates should apply via the HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=6970 Completed application forms must be returned by 10 April 2009 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available on 22 May 2009. For further information, please contact: mailto:Inger.Carriero@...
Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 16 June to 12 September 2008 inclusive, there will be a limited number of jobs for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature), which will be open to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of appointments will be 4 weeks and the allowance for this period will be 1663.- CHF. Candidates should apply via the HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=6160 Completed application forms must be made on-line by 13 April 2008 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available on 18 May 2008. For further information, please contact: Geraldine.Ballet@cern.ch HR ...
Temporary work for children of members of the personnelDuring the period 12 June to 15 September 2006 included, there will be a limited number of jobs for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature) which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of jobs available, no children who have previously worked at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks, the allowance being CHF 1640.- for this period. Candidates should apply via HR department's electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=4691 Completed application forms must be returned to this service by 17 April 2006 at the latest. The results of t...
Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 16 June to 12 September 2008 inclusive, there will be a limited number of jobs for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature), which will be open to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of appointments will be 4 weeks and the allowance for this period will be 1663 CHF. Candidates should apply via the HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=6160 Completed application forms must be submitted on-line by 13 April 2008 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available on 18 May 2008. For further information, please contact: mailto:Geraldine.Ballet@cern....
Summer work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 14 June to 17 September 2010 inclusive, a limited number of jobs for summer work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature) will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of all contracts will be 4 weeks and the allowance will be 1717 CHF for this period. Candidates should apply via the HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=7716 Completed application forms must be returned by 9 April 2010 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available on 21 May 2010. For further information, please contact: Inger.Carriero@cern.ch Tel. 71372
Temporary work for children of members of the personnelDuring the period 12 June to 15 September 2006 included, there will be a limited number of jobs for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature) which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of jobs available, no children who have previously worked at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks, the allowance being CHF 1640.- for this period. Candidates should apply via HR department's electronic recruitment system (E-rt) : https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=4691 Completed application forms must be returned to this service by 17 April 2006 at the latest. The results of ...
Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 16 June to 12 September 2008 inclusive, there will be a limited number of jobs for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature), which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of appointments will be 4 weeks and the allowance for this period will be 1663.- CHF. Candidates should apply via HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=6160 Completed application forms must be made on-line by 13 April 2008 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available on 18 May 2008. For further information, please contact: mailto:Geraldine.Ballet@cer...
Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 15 June to 11 September 2009 inclusive, there will be a limited number of jobs for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature), which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks and the allowance will be CHF 1717. - for this period. Candidates should apply via the HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=6970 Completed application forms must be returned by 10 April 2009 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available on 22 May 2009. For further information, please contact: mailto:Inger.Carriero...
Chiaro, P.J. Jr.
Due to recent technological advances, substantial improvements have been made in personnel contamination monitoring. In all likelihood, these advances will close out the days of manually frisking personnel for radioactive contamination. Unfortunately, as microprocessor-based monitors become more widely used, not only at commercial power reactors but also at government facilities, questions concerning their trustworthiness arise. Algorithms make decisions that were previously made by technicians. Trust is placed not in technicians but in machines. In doing this it is assumed that the machine never misses. Inevitably, this trust drops, due largely to ''false alarms''. This is especially true when monitoring for alpha contamination. What is a ''false alarm''? Do these machines and their algorithms that they put their trust in make mistakes? An analysis was performed on half-body and hand-and-foot monitors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in order to justify the suggested confidence level used for alarm point determination. Sources used in this analysis had activities approximating ORNL's contamination limits
A survey is given about those essential aspects of qualification and organization of personnel in nuclear power plants, that are already regulated in laws or guidelines. The considerations of the BMI concerning further developments of these requirements are outlined. (orig.) [de
Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Haas, Ann C; Tucker, Joan S
Homeless young adults are at risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and risky sexual behavior. Interventions are needed to help these young people reduce their risky behavior, but this population is often difficult to engage and retain in services. We offered a four-session AOD and risky sex reduction program to 100 participants and examined if retention in the program was predicted by a number of factors: demographics, homelessness severity, other service use, AOD behaviors, mental health symptoms, sexual risk behaviors, and readiness to change AOD and condom use. Nearly half (48%) of participants completed all sessions. In bivariate analyses, participants were significantly less likely to be retained in the program if they had slept outdoors in the past month, engaged in more alcohol and marijuana use, experienced more alcohol-related consequences, and received the program in an urban drop-in center (as opposed to a drop-in center near the beach). When controlling for all significant bivariate relationships, only sleeping outdoors and receipt of the program in the urban setting predicted fewer sessions completed. The most endorsed reasons for program non-completion were being too busy to attend and inconvenient day/time of the program. Findings can help outreach staff and researchers better prepare methods to engage higher risk homeless youth and retain them in services. Finding unique ways to help youth overcome barriers related to location of services appears especially necessary, perhaps by bringing services to youth where they temporarily reside or offering meaningful incentives for program attendance.
Saddleson, M L; Kozlowski, L T; Giovino, G A; Hawk, L W; Murphy, J M; MacLean, M G; Goniewicz, M L; Homish, G G; Wrotniak, B H; Mahoney, M C
Since 2007, there has been a rise in the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). The present study uses cross-sectional data (2013) to examine prevalence, correlates and susceptibility to e-cigarettes among young adults. Data were collected using an Internet survey from a convenience sample of 1437, 18-23 year olds attending four colleges/universities in Upstate New York. Results were summarized using descriptive statistics; logistic regression models were analyzed to identify correlates of e-cigarette use and susceptibility to using e-cigarettes. Nearly all respondents (95.5%) reported awareness of e-cigarettes; 29.9% were ever users and 14.9% were current users. Younger students, males, non-Hispanic Whites, respondents reporting average/below average school ability, ever smokers and experimenters of tobacco cigarettes, and those with lower perceptions of harm regarding e-cigarettes demonstrated higher odds of ever use or current use. Risky behaviors (i.e., tobacco, marijuana or alcohol use) were associated with using e-cigarettes. Among never e-cigarette users, individuals involved in risky behaviors or, with lower harm perceptions for e-cigarettes, were more susceptible to future e-cigarette use. More e-cigarette users report use of another nicotine product besides e-cigarettes as the first nicotine product used; this should be considered when examining whether e-cigarette use is related to cigarette susceptibility. Involvement in risky behaviors is related to e-cigarette use and susceptibility to e-cigarette use. Among college students, e-cigarette use is more likely to occur in those who have also used other tobacco products, marijuana, and/or alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Tottenham, Nim; Lee, Steve S
Learning from past decisions can enhance successful decision-making. It is unclear whether difficulties in learning from experience may contribute to risky decision-making, which may be altered among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study follows 192 children with and without ADHD aged 5 to 10 years for approximately 2.5 years and examines their risky decision-making using the Balloon Emotional Learning Task (BELT), a computerized assessment of sequential risky decision-making in which participants pump up a series of virtual balloons for points. The BELT contains three task conditions: one with a variable explosion point, one with a stable and early explosion point, and one with a stable and late explosion point. These conditions may be learned via experience on the task. Contrary to expectations, ADHD status was not found to be related to greater risk-taking on the BELT, and among younger children ADHD status is in fact associated with reduced risk-taking. In addition, the typically-developing children without ADHD showed significant learning-related gains on both stable task conditions. However, the children with ADHD demonstrated learning on the condition with a stable and early explosion point, but not on the condition with the stable and late explosion point, in which more pumps are required before learning when the balloon will explode. Learning during decision-making may be more difficult for children with ADHD. Because adapting to changing environmental demands requires the use of feedback to guide future behavior, negative outcomes associated with childhood ADHD may partially reflect difficulties in learning from experience.
Shapiro, Gilla K; Tatar, Ovidiu; Sutton, Arielle; Fisher, William; Naz, Anila; Perez, Samara; Rosberger, Zeev
Tinder is a frequently used geosocial networking application that allows users to meet sexual partners in their geographical vicinity. Research examining Tinder use and its association with behavioral outcomes is scarce. The objectives of this study were to explore the correlates of Tinder use and risky sexual behaviors in young adults. Participants aged 18-26 were invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire between January and May 2016. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, Tinder use, health related behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and sexual attitudes. Associations among these variables were estimated using multivariate logistic regressions. The final sample consisted of 415 participants (n = 166 Tinder users; n = 249 nonusers). Greater likelihood of using Tinder was associated with a higher level of education (OR = 2.18) and greater reported need for sex (OR = 1.64), while decreased likelihood of using Tinder was associated with a higher level of academic achievement (OR = 0.63), lower sexual permissiveness (OR = 0.58), living with parents or relatives (OR = 0.38), and being in a serious relationship (OR = 0.24). Higher odds of reporting nonconsensual sex (OR = 3.22) and having five or more previous sexual partners (OR = 2.81) were found in Tinder users. Tinder use was not significantly associated with condom use. This study describes significant correlates of using Tinder and highlights a relationship between Tinder use with nonconsensual sex and number of previous sexual partners. These findings have salience for aiding public health interventions to effectively design interventions targeted at reducing risky sexual behaviors online.
Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schwabe, Lars
Acute stress may escalate risky decision-making in men, while there is no such effect in women. Although first evidence links these gender-specific effects of stress to stress-induced changes in cortisol, whether elevated cortisol is indeed sufficient to boost risk-taking, whether a potential cortisol effect depends on simultaneous noradrenergic activation, and whether cortisol and noradrenergic activation exert distinct effects on risk-taking in men and women is unknown. In this experiment, we therefore set out to elucidate the impact of cortisol and noradrenergic stimulation on risky decision-making in men and women. In a fully-crossed, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, male and female participants received orally either a placebo, hydrocortisone, yohimbine, an alpha-2-adrenoceptor-antagonist leading to increased noradrenergic stimulation, or both drugs before completing the balloon analogue risk task, a validated measure of risk-taking. Overall, participants' choice was risk-sensitive as reflected in reduced responding in high- compared to moderate- and low-risk conditions. Cortisol, however, led to a striking increase in risk-taking in men, whereas it had no effect on risk-taking behavior in women. Yohimbine had no such effect and the gender-specific effect of cortisol was not modulated by yohimbine. Our data show that cortisol boosts risk-taking behavior in men but not in women. This differential effect of cortisol on risk-taking may drive gender differences in risky decision-making under stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M
This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.