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Sample records for personnel protection interlock

  1. National synchrotron light source medical personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, S.; Gmur, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-01-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated

  2. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  3. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source medical personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buda, S.; Gmuer, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-11-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated. This MPPI report is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system. The general overview is presented in Section 1.0, MPPI Operational Mode and Procedures. The various MPPI components are described in detail in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 presents some simplified logic diagrams and accompanying text. This section was written to allow readers to become familiar with the logic system without having to work through the entire set of detailed engineering drawings listed in the Appendix. Detailed logic specifications are given in Section 4.0. The Appendix also contains copies of the current MPPI interlock test procedures for Setup and Patient Modes.

  6. Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.; Agostini, R.C.; Barker, L.; Cherkassky, R.; Constant, T.; Matheson, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System, DSPI, is under development at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for requirements in the areas of personnel protection, beam containment and equipment protection interlocks. The DSPI system, distributed over the application site, consists of segments with microprocessor-based controller and I/O modules, local area networks for communication, and a global supervisor computer. Segments are implemented with commercially available controller and I/O modules arranged in local interlock clusters, and associated software. Segments provide local interlock data acquisition, processing and control. Local area networks provide the communication backbone between segments and a global supervisor processor. The supervisor processor monitors the overall system, reports detail status and provides human interfaces. Details of an R and D test system, which will implement the requirements for personnel protection of 4 typical linear accelerator sectors, will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs

  7. Protection, interlocks and diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, S A; White, C; Theed, J E

    2006-01-01

    When designing any power converter it is essential to assess and incorporate adequate protection. The main objective is to offer a solution which is safe, reliable and repairable and that achieves its specification within budget. The level of protection found within each converter varies widely and will depend on the topology employed, its application and rating. This document is a guide to the types of protection engineers should consider mainly when designing power converters, as protection added during construction or after installation will always be expensive.

  8. Coastal protection using topological interlocking blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The coastal protection systems mainly rely on the self-weight of armour blocks to ensure its stability. We propose a system of interlocking armour blocks, which form plate-shape assemblies. The shape and the position of the blocks are chosen in such a way as to impose kinematic constraints that prevent the blocks from being removed from the assembly. The topological interlocking shapes include simple convex blocks such as platonic solids, the most practical being tetrahedra, cubes and octahedra. Another class of topological interlocking blocks is so-called osteomorphic blocks, which form plate-like assemblies tolerant to random block removal (almost 25% of blocks need to be removed for the assembly to loose integrity). Both classes require peripheral constraint, which can be provided either by the weight of the blocks or post-tensioned internal cables. The interlocking assemblies provide increased stability because lifting one block involves lifting (and bending) the whole assembly. We model the effect of interlocking by introducing an equivalent additional self-weight of the armour blocks. This additional self-weight is proportional to the critical pressure needed to cause bending of the interlocking assembly when it loses stability. Using beam approximation we find an equivalent stability coefficient for interlocking. It is found to be greater than the stability coefficient of a structure with similar blocks without interlocking. In the case when the peripheral constraint is provided by the weight of the blocks and for the slope angle of 45o, the effective stability coefficient for a structure of 100 blocks is 33% higher than the one for a similar structure without interlocking. Further increase in the stability coefficient can be reached by a specially constructed peripheral constraint system, for instance by using post-tension cables.

  9. Programmable controllers replace relays in MFTF-B personnel-safety interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for implementing personnel safety interlocks logic using industrial-type programmable controllers. The logic for all personnel safety interlocks except those totally internal to a subsystem is implemented in two non-redundant controllers. A high degree of fail-safe reliability is achieved by augmenting the protective features intrinsic to each controller with those provided by a small amount of external support hardware. The controllers are interfaced to the host computer system via fiber optic data links to enable display of interlock and overall system status on the control room graphic displays. When fully implemented, the controllers will perform the equivalent of over 2000 discreet relay functions

  10. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-B personnel safety and interlocks system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the field-side of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-B Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software

  11. The laser Megajoule facility personnel security and safety interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, J.C.; Arnoul, J.P.; Hurst, A.; Manson, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LMJ (Laser Megajoule) is designed to deliver about 1.4 MJ of 0.35 μm light to targets for high energy density physics experiments. Such an installation entails specific hazards related to the presence of intense laser beams, and high voltage power laser amplifiers. Furthermore, the thermonuclear fusion reactions induced by the experiment also produce different radiations and neutrons burst, and also activate various materials in the chamber environment. All these hazards could be lethal. The SSP (Personnel Safety System) was designed to prevent accidents and protect personnel working in the LMJ. To satisfy at the lowest cost the requirements of safety regulations and those of the operation management, the choice was made to implement a functional architecture built around two independent technological barriers when required by the risk level. Each technical barrier is composed of two subsets, one dedicated to hazard sources management, and the other one dedicated to worker presence management. The two completely independent barriers, even at the sensor or actuator level, are designed with different technologies adapted to the required Safety Integrity Level. The combination of these 2 barriers is equivalent to a unique barrier with a rate of dangerous failure of about 10 -6 per year

  12. Interlocks for the LEP Radio-Frequency System

    CERN Document Server

    Livesley, S

    2000-01-01

    Interlocks for the LEP RF system totalled more than 7000. They provided protection for the personnel and a wide range of equipment: copper cavities, superconducting cavities, klystrons and high voltage equipment. The interlock system layout, functionality and components are described.

  13. PLC-based search and secure interlock system for the personnel safety in folded tandem ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumar, Sapna; Subramanyum, N.B.V.; Bhatt, Jignesh P.; Ware, Shailaja V.; Kansara, M.J.; Gupta, S.K.; Singh, P.

    2006-01-01

    Safety of the personnel is one of the key issues addressed in any accelerator project. The FOTIA facility at BARC is capable of operating under standard operation conditions without any radiation hazard. Even then for a safe and reliable operation of FOTIA a PLC (Programmable logic controller) based interlock system has been implemented. This interlocking system is compact, modular, flexible, robust and easy for troubleshooting. These advantages led to the popularity of PLC rather than using a relay-based system. This paper highlights the salient features of the search and secure interlock for the personal safety of FOTIA. (author)

  14. Individual protection of NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshcheev, V.S.; Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Chetverikova, Z.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features of NPP personnel individual protection are considered, mainly with respect to maintenance and repair works on various type reactors. The major concern is given to the selection and application reglamentations of the individual protection system (IPS), employment of sanitary locks, the organization of individual protection under the conditions of a heating microclimate. The ways are specified to the development and introduction of the most effective IPS and improvement of the entire NPP personnel individual protection system with respect to providing the necessary protection effect for maintaining high working capability of the personnel and minimizing the IPS impact on human organism functional systems. The accumulated experience in the personnel individual protection can be applied during construction and operation of NPP's in CMEA member-countries [ru

  15. Design of the interlock and protection system for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomaro, N.; Grando, L.; Luchetta, A.; Paolucci, F.; Sartori, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A custom designed interlock and protection system for SPIDER experiment is described. •It includes two subsystems implementing slow and fast protection functions. •High reliability PLCs are adopted for slow protection. •Fiber-optic based, custom designed fast logic circuitry is proposed for fast protection. •Accelerators breakdown events are also managed by the fast subsystem. -- Abstract: Unprecedented levels of beam energy and power are required for ITER Neutral Beam Heating systems. SPIDER experiment is an experimental device aimed to test and optimize a full size beam source satisfying ITER requirements. SPIDER experiment operation involves high power, voltage, temperature, and gas pressure. All these critical conditions are present simultaneously, so that any failure if not properly detected and managed is likely to cause severe damage. The Interlock and Protection System is a high-reliability system devoted to the investment protection of SPIDER. Its main purpose is to manage abnormal events occurring in one or more plants in order to minimize adverse consequences. The Interlock System also manages the SPIDER Operating Modes, defining the set and status of the Plants used in the various possible experimental configurations. In addition, the Interlock and Protection System takes care of particular events occurring during normal SPIDER operation, i.e. electrical arcs between accelerator grids, named breakdowns. Their treatment is committed to the Interlock and Protection System, as they need to be managed timely and with absolute reliability like actual faults. To perform the required functions, the Interlock and Protection System is interfaced with most SPIDER plants and with the SPIDER Control and Data Acquisition System. The paper describes the rationale of the protection functions, their implementation in the design and the technical specifications of the system

  16. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ''active'' protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated

  17. NSTX Protection And Interlock Systems For Coil And Powers Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Lawson, J.; Neumeyer, C.; Marsala, R.; Schneider, H.

    2009-01-01

    NSTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) requires sophisticated plasma positioning control system for stable plasma operation. TF magnetic coils and PF magnetic coils provide electromagnetic fields to position and shape the plasma vertically and horizontally respectively. NSTX utilizes twenty six coil power supplies to establish and initiate electromagnetic fields through the coil system for plasma control. A power protection and interlock system is utilized to detect power system faults and protect the TF coils and PF coils against excessive electromechanical forces, overheating, and over current. Upon detecting any fault condition the power system is restricted, and it is either prevented from initializing or suppressed to de-energize coil power during pulsing. Power fault status is immediately reported to the computer system. This paper describes the design and operation of NSTX's protection and interlocking system and possible future expansion.

  18. Design of test JIG for centralized interlock and protection module of ITER-India Gyrotron Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, Vipal; Rao, S.L.; Edappala, Praveenlal; Rajpal, Rachana

    2017-01-01

    Fast Interlock and protection system plays very crucial role in ensuring the safe and reliable operation of high power RF sources such as a Gyrotron system. Critical Protection Interlocks are generally implemented using hardwired components and are required to have a response time as fast as < 10 μs. In this context, an Industrial grade prototype Centralized Interlock and Protection Module (CIM) based on ITER-India design has been developed successfully with the help of local industry. This paper presents the complete requirements, approach, detailed design concept and current status of Test JIG in detail

  19. Machine interlock and protection system based on PLC for the SSRF linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Wenjun; Zhou Dayong; Chen Jianfeng; Shen Liren; Liu Yajuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a machine interlock and protection system used for accelerators based on EPICS (Experimental physics and industrial control system). The system is composed of a front-end computer and an FM-3R logic controller PLC. The alarm signal is passed by the hardware directly, and would be deal with PLC. The reporting, recording and analyst of the event are accomplished by EPICS control software. And PLC is linked to the EPICS by Internet. (authors)

  20. Personnel protection and beam containment systems for the 3 GeV Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotam, R.; Cerino, J.; Garoutte, R.; Hettel, R.; Horton, M.; Sebek, J.; Benson, E.; Crook, K.; Fitch, J.; Ipe, N.; Nelson, G.; Smith, H.

    1991-01-01

    The 3 GeV Injector is the electron beam source for the SPEAR Storage Ring, and its personnel safety system was designed to protect personnel from both radiation exposure and electrical hazards. The Personnel Protection System (PPS) was designed and implemented with complete redundancy and is a relay based interlock system completely independent from the machine protection system. A comprehensive monitoring of the system status, and control of the Injector PPS from the SPEAR Control Room via the control computer is a feature. The Beam Containment System (BCS) is based on beam current measurements along the Linac and on Beam Shut Off Ion Chambers (BSOIC) installed outside the Linac, at several locations around the Booster, and around the SPEAR storage ring. An outline of the design criteria is presented with more detailed description of the philosophy of the PPS logic and the BCS

  1. D0 Central Tracking Solenoid Energization, Controls, Interlocks and Quench Protection Initial Validation Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.; Hance, R.

    1998-01-01

    This note presents the inspection and tests to be performed on the DZERO solenoid energization, controls, interlocks and quench protection system before it is energized for the first time. This test is to be performed with a 5000A jumper at the end of the bus instead of the solenoid. This system is based in DZERO room 511. A copy of this note shall be annotated, signed and dated by the person coordinating the procedure; and filed with the system maintenance records. Annotations shall include comments about any aspect of the procedure that is abnormal or unsuccessful. The following inspections and tests shall be performed by persons knowledgeable about the system. Each individual test step should be reviewed and understood before proceeding with that step.

  2. CAMAC-based interlock system for power-supply-hardware protection on MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauch, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    This interlock module accepts 16 inputs and generates, in conjunction with an internal PROM map, 8 outputs. This decision process is autonomous of the CAMAC dataway and host computer. The map is generated, burned and verified by a user interactive program written to accept input/output equations in Boolean algebra. The interlock module requires the host computer to periodically interrogate it to verify proper operation of the module, host computer and date link; otherwise, permissives are dropped. An internal mask register may be used to override interlock inputs. This mask is perishable and must be constantly refreshed. Output drivers may be operated in a latch/no latch mode. This prevents outputs, once dropped, from being reasserted even if the proper input sequence is reestablished. A first-out register may be utilized to determine which input has dropped first in the event that chain reactions are developed among the interlock inputs

  3. Tune resonance phenomena in the SPS and machine protection via fast position interlocking

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bogey, T; Wenninger, J

    2010-01-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN with a peak energy of 450GeV is at the top of the LHC preaccelerator-complex. Apart from LHC, SPS is with Tevatron the accelerator with the largest stored beam energy, up to 2.5MJ. The SPS has a known vulnerability to fast equipment failures that led to an uncontrolled loss of a high intensity beam in 2008, which resulted in major damage of a main dipole. The beam loss was caused by a fast tune decrease towards an integer resonance. Simulations and distinct experimental studies provide clear understanding of the beam dynamics at different SPS tune resonances. Diverging closed orbit oscillations, dispersion explosion and abrupt increased beta-beating are the driving effects leading to a complete beam loss in as little as 3 turns (70us). Dedicated experiments of fast failures of the main power converters reveal that the current interlock systems are much too slow for an adequate machine protection. To counteract the vulnerability of the SPS, current research focuses on...

  4. Radiological protection of service and civilian personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Since the United Kingdom's defence nuclear industry was founded in the late 1940s, Service and civilian personnel have been exposed to ionising radiation. During the last forty years, as knowledge about the effects of radiation exposure has grown, concern to ensure adequate protection against exposure has also increased,. As part of our continuing scrutiny of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), we have undertaken a short inquiry to examine MoD's current and future policy and practice on radiological protection. The principal work involving exposure of Service and civilian personnel to significant levels of radiation falls into two discrete areas: the nuclear weapons programme and the nuclear propulsion programme. The nuclear weapons programme involves research, the production of nuclear warheads and their deployment with Her Majesty's Forces. The nuclear propulsion programme involves research, production, operation, refitting and decommissioning of pressurised water reactors as a source of propulsion power in Royal Navy submarines. These two nuclear programmes are not the only sources of ionising radiation within MoD's responsibility: it also arises from research, non-destructive testing and medical applications, most notably conventional radiography. In this Report we have concentrated upon ionising radiation arising from the two defence nuclear programmes. (author)

  5. D0 Central Tracking Solenoid Energization, Controls, Interlocks and Quench Protection Operating Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hance, R.

    1998-01-01

    This procedure is used when it is necessary to operate the solenoid energization, controls, interlocks and quench detection system. Note that a separate procedure exists for operating the solenoid 'cryogenic' systems. Only D0 Control Room Operators or the Project Electrical Engineer are qualified to execute these procedures or operate the solenoid system. This procedure assumes that the operator is familiar with using the Distributed Manufacturing Automation and Control Software (DMACS).

  6. Training of fire protection personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, W.

    1980-01-01

    Training of fire protection personnel in nuclear power plants is divided up in three categories: training of fire protection commissioners which is mostly carried out externally; training of fire fighting personnel in the form of basic and repeated training usually by the fire protection commissioner; training of other employers with regard to behaviour in case of fire and during work involving a fire hazard. (orig.) [de

  7. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS's design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience

  8. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements

  9. The safety interlocking system at the NAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, K.; Mostert, H.

    1984-01-01

    The central safety interlocking system (CSIS) controls the higher level of interlocking between the various cyclotron subsystems. It ensures the safe operation of the entire cyclotron facility as regards personnel safety and proper instrument operation. The system consists of a micro-processor with a ROM-based safety interlocking program, relay output modules providing ''safety OK'' instructions to all interlocked apparatus, alarm input modules connected to transducers providing binary alarm status signals and an interface to the central control computer. All solid state electronic components of the system are situated in a low level radiation area and are interfaced to cyclotron equipment by means of 24 V relays

  10. Radiation protection personnel training in Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Carlos Dario; Lorenzo, Nestor Pedro de

    1996-01-01

    The RA-6 research reactor is considering the main laboratory in the training of different groups related with radiological protection. The methodology applied to several courses over 15 years of experience is shown in this work. The reactor is also involved in the construction, design, start-up and sell of different installation outside Argentina for this reason several theoretical and practical courses had been developed. The acquired experience obtained is shown in this paper and the main purpose is to show the requirements to be taken into account for every group (subjects, goals, on-job training, etc) (author)

  11. NASA Developments in Personnel Protective Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA has some unique and challenging PPE needs: there are credible threats to air quality (fire, ammonia leak, hydrazine leak)that require a contingency breathing apparatus that operates for many hours - but there is not enough space or up-mass to provide supplied air tanks. We cannot use "Scott Air Tanks" commonly used by firefighters and other first responders. NASA has developed a respirator based emergency breathing device. It uses a "one size fits everybody in the astronaut corps" hooded mask with excellent chemical permeability and fire resistance properties, and a filtering respirator cartridge that protects the wearer from ammonia leaks, hydrazine leaks, or products of combustion. If you need a small, lightweight emergency breathing system that lasts longer than a supplied air system, we should meet and learn if NASA sponsored technology development can help.

  12. The personnel protection system for a Synchrotron Radiation Accelerator Facility: Radiation safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    The Personnel Protection System (PPS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed from the radiation safety point of view. The PPS, which is designed to protect people from radiation exposure to beam operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS), The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the very high radiation level inside the shielding housing (also called a PPS area). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing and a standard entry module at every entrance. The BCS prevents people from being exposed to the radiation outside a PPS area due to normal and abnormal beam losses. The BCS consists of the shielding (shielding housing and metal shielding in local areas), beam stoppers, active current limiting devices, and an active radiation monitor system. The system elements for the ACS and BCS and the associated interlock network are described. The policies and practices in setting up the PPS are compared with some requirements in the US Department of Energy draft Order of Safety of Accelerator Facilities

  13. An overview of process instrumentation, protective safety interlocks and alarm system at the JET facilities active gas handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, N.; Brennan, P.; Brown, K.; Gibbons, C.; Jones, G.; Knipe, S.; Manning, C.; Perevezentsev, A.; Stagg, R.; Thomas, R.; Yorkshades, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) Facilities Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) comprises ten interconnected processing sub-systems that supply, process and recover tritium from gases used in the JET Machine. Operations require a diverse range of process instrumentation to carry out a multiplicity of monitoring and control tasks and approximately 500 process variables are measured. The different types and application of process instruments are presented with specially adapted or custom-built versions highlighted. Forming part of the Safety Case for tritium operations, a dedicated hardwired interlock and alarm system provides an essential safety function. In the event of failure modes, each hardwired interlock will back-up software interlocks and shutdown areas of plant to a failsafe condition. Design of the interlock and alarm system is outlined and general methodology described. Practical experience gained during plant operations is summarised and the methods employed for routine functional testing of essential instrument systems explained

  14. Machine Protection and Interlock Systems for Circular Machines - Example for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the protection of circular particle accelerators from accidental beam losses. Already the energy stored in the beams for accelerators such as the TEVATRON at Fermilab and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN could cause serious damage in case of uncontrolled beam loss. With the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the energy stored in particle beams has reached a value two orders of magnitude above previous accelerators and poses new threats with respect to hazards from the energy stored in the particle beams. A single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. Protection of equipment from beam accidents is mandatory. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. extraction of the beam towards a dedicated beam dump block o...

  15. Training in radiation protection for personnels in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constancis, J.; Gauthier, A.

    1980-01-01

    For more than 10 years, in order to meet the wishes of their members, the A.P.A.V.E. associations have organised training courses in personnel radiation protection, as a consequence of their activities in the inspection of ionizing radiation sources in industrial or medical environments. Because of their experience, the A.P.A.V.E. associations were asked to provide for the training of the film personnel likely to work in nuclear power stations, in the field of occupational radiation protection. For the last 3 years, nearly 5,000 people have attended these training sessions. The present report describes the approach, draws the first conclusions and state some considerations on this subject [fr

  16. Course in fire protection training for nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.L.; Bates, E.F.; Randall, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed Regulatory Guide 1.120, entitled ''Fire Protection Guidelines for Nuclear Power Plants,'' provides detailed requirements for the overall fire protection programs at nuclear power plant sites in the United States. An essential element in such a program in the training of plant fire brigade personnel is the use of proper firefighting techniques and equipment. The Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center (NSC) in conjunction with the Fire Protection Training Division of the Texas Engineering Extension Service has developed a one-week course to meet this training need. The program emphasizes hands-on exercises. The course is designed for up to 18 students with all protective clothing provided. Fire instructors are certified by the State of Texas, and registered nuclear engineers and certified health physicists supervise the radiological safety exercises. The first course was conducted during the week of January 8--12, 1979

  17. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  18. Radiation protection of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.; Pinter, I.; Liskova, A.

    2008-01-01

    For determination of radiation dose of aviation personnel we used the software EPCARD (European Program Package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) developed by National Research Center for Environmental Health - Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany) and the software CARI 6, developed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (USA). Both codes are accomplished by the Joint Aviation Authorities. Experimental measurement and estimation of radiation doses of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation were realised in the period of lowered solar activity. All-year effective dose of pilots, which worked off at least 11 months exceeds the value 1 mSv in 2007. The mean all-year effective dose of member of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation is 2.5 mSv and maximal all-year effective dose, which we measured in 2007 was 4 mSv. We assumed that in the period of increased solar activity the all-year effective doses may by higher

  19. Planning for fire control and protection of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Because nuclear installations are designed and built to high standards with segregation and fire barriers included, the risk from fires is not high. However, small fires can become large and nuclear sites present additional hazards to fire fighters because of radiation release and from metal fires (magnesium alloys and sodium) which require special techniques of firefighting. All sites have their own fire fighting force which would tackle a fire initially and these should train and work in close cooperation with the Local Authority fire service. The main points raised concern radiation protection for the fire fighters including the issuing of emergency dosemeters and potassium iodate tablets, decontamination of personnel, vehicles and equipment, communications, and the need for standardisation of plans at all installations throughout the country. (U.K.)

  20. Personnel Radiation Protection at the ITER Nuclear Fusion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coniglio, A.; Sandri, S. [ENEA, Radiation Protection Institute, Frascati (Italy); D' Arienzo, M. [RFX, Padova (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The hosting site for the ITER nuclear fusion experiment was finally chosen in France (Cadarache). The radiation protection program for the ITER personnel involved into operation and maintenance activities will be then tested in the near future. Related studies were mainly carried out during the last ten years and important assessments were performed at the Frascati ENEA Research Center in Italy. In this ambit individual and collective doses to the operators were calculated for different categories of working activities involving more and less critical systems. The radiation protection organization was outlined and the related program was proposed. A short review of the analyses performed in this field by the Italian investigators of the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute is shown here. The principal parameter taken into account in these evaluations was the collective dose due to the different working activities. This quantity has been assessed considering the following radiological source terms: a) the prompt radiation during the plasma burning phase, b) the gamma radiation due to the neutron activation of the solid structures, c) the activated corrosion products (ACPs) generated in the water cooling system (WCS) by corrosion of the inner wall of the piping under the neutron flux, d) tritium concentration in the atmosphere of the working premises. Individual doses have been integrated over the different worker typology, considering the design evolution for the different systems and the required person power. Ordinary, inspection and maintenance activities were taken into account to assess the person power, sometime also construction, plant modifications and unscheduled maintenance were included in the working activities list. The collective dose assessed for ITER fusion projects has been compared with that of the fission power stations and analogies and differences have been pointed out. In this review the dose assessment process is recalled starting from the

  1. Personnel Radiation Protection at the ITER Nuclear Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coniglio, A.; Sandri, S.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The hosting site for the ITER nuclear fusion experiment was finally chosen in France (Cadarache). The radiation protection program for the ITER personnel involved into operation and maintenance activities will be then tested in the near future. Related studies were mainly carried out during the last ten years and important assessments were performed at the Frascati ENEA Research Center in Italy. In this ambit individual and collective doses to the operators were calculated for different categories of working activities involving more and less critical systems. The radiation protection organization was outlined and the related program was proposed. A short review of the analyses performed in this field by the Italian investigators of the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute is shown here. The principal parameter taken into account in these evaluations was the collective dose due to the different working activities. This quantity has been assessed considering the following radiological source terms: a) the prompt radiation during the plasma burning phase, b) the gamma radiation due to the neutron activation of the solid structures, c) the activated corrosion products (ACPs) generated in the water cooling system (WCS) by corrosion of the inner wall of the piping under the neutron flux, d) tritium concentration in the atmosphere of the working premises. Individual doses have been integrated over the different worker typology, considering the design evolution for the different systems and the required person power. Ordinary, inspection and maintenance activities were taken into account to assess the person power, sometime also construction, plant modifications and unscheduled maintenance were included in the working activities list. The collective dose assessed for ITER fusion projects has been compared with that of the fission power stations and analogies and differences have been pointed out. In this review the dose assessment process is recalled starting from the

  2. Safety and interlock system for Tristan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Kudo, K.; Katoh, T.; Akiyama, A.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes alarm and interlock system of TRISTAN, concentrating on personnel safety. The basis of TRISTAN machine-control system (TMS) is an N-to-N computer network and KEK NODAL which offers high software productivity. TMC achieves high flexibility of operation both for normal operation and for the fast commissioning. However, to assure the safety of personnel and the TRISTAN machine operation, the safety system has to continue functioning during TMC failure as well. A distributed safety and interlock system (DSIS) is used for diversification of risks in TRISTAN system. DSIS is functionally subdivided along local system lines and has a hierarchical structure of 12 programmable sequence controllers (PSCs). Optical fiber links connect the PSCs at subsystem level and a PSC at the supervisory level of TRISTAN central control room (TCCR). The subsystem PSCs provide the interlock functions between their local devices. The local PSCs interact with the central system through a limited number of summarized signals. The central PSC provides the interlock functions between the subsystems and interacts with an operator's panel. Personnel safety is based on a system of electrical interlock keys, emergency push-buttons around the tunnel, at the entrance gates or in the control room

  3. Calibration of instrument and personnel monitoring in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamad Ramli; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    1987-01-01

    It is difficult to choose radioprotection equipments that are not too expensive and suit the purpose. Some of the dosimetric characteristics of good dosemeters outlined by ISO 4071-1978 (E) namely scale linearity, energy dependence, radiation quality dependence and angular dependence for some of the commercially available dosemeters are discussed. The calibration procedures practised at the National Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), of the Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) is also explained. The radiological equipments for personnel monitoring such as film badge and TLD are widely used to estimate the radiation dose delivered to the whole or partial body of a personnel. Both of the personnel monitoring procedures have been established at the NEU. The objective, use and maintenance of the devices are also discussed in detail. The evaluation of the monthly dose received by a personnel from various establishments in the country are also presented. (author). 17 figs

  4. New BEPC interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuming; Na Xiangyin; Chen Jiansong; Yu Yulan; Cai Guangyu; Wu Jingmin; Li Tiehui

    1998-01-01

    A new interlock system for BEPC (Beijing Electron Positron Collider) has been developed in order to improve the reliability of the personal safety and the subsystem's interlocks. Another role of the system is to update the BEPC TV status screen once every 6 seconds. The hardware for the new interlock system is based on industrial Programmable logic controllers (PLC). By means of the PC-links, the interlock system is composed as a distributed control system. One inexpensive multimedia IBM/486 PC is used as the host computer of the PLCs. The application programs dedicated for the system is written in visual C++ language under Chinese MS-Windows. In case there is a failure in a subsystem, the message is displayed visually, supplemented by a voice message, which causes the operators to pay attention

  5. Radiation protection and safety guide no. GRPB-G-1: qualification and certification of radiation protection personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Darko, O.; Yeboah, J.; Osei, E.K.; Asiamah, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A number of accidents with radiation sources are invariably due to human factors. The achievement and maintenance of proficiency in protection and safety in working with radiation devices is a necessary prerequisite. This guide specifies the national scheme and minimum requirements for qualification and certification of radiation protection personnel. The objective is to ensure adequate level of skilled personnel by continuous upgrading of knowledge and skill of personnel. The following sectors are covered by this guide: medicine, industry, research and training, nuclear facility operations, miscellaneous activities

  6. Clothing, equipment and devices for personnel protection: Its selection according to occupational risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Venezuelan standard establishes the selection of the type of clothing, equipment and devices for personnel protection, to be used by workers according to the occupational risk they deal with, in order to avoid or to reduce the factors that can, directly or indirectly, affect their physical integrity. For the risks not contemplated in this norm, the selection of the type of clothing, equipment and devices for personnel protection, must be done following the corresponding international standard [es

  7. Personnel selection and training for radiation protection and safe use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    For proper implementation of the radiation protection programs in the work place, several persons with different qualifications and training are involved. Among these persons are regulatory personnel managers, operators, workers, health professional, health physics technicians, health physicists, qualified experts, and emergency personnel. The current status of education and training of these persons is discussed in order to build competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources

  8. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Soni, Jignesh; Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli; Gahlaut, Agrajit; Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  9. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Himanshu, E-mail: htyagi@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Soni, Jignesh [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  10. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. 29 CFR 1910.335 - Safeguards for personnel protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices § 1910... body to be protected and for the work to be performed. Note: Personal protective equipment requirements... signs and tags. Safety signs, safety symbols, or accident prevention tags shall be used where necessary...

  13. Interlock System for the COMPASS Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hron, M.; Adamek, J.; Pisacka, J.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Sova, J.; Siba, J.; Kovarj, J. [Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The COMPASS tokamak (R=0.56 m, a=0.18 - 0.23 m) is starting operation presently at Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR in Prague. An important issue of the operation is the safety of the personnel and machine protection against faults, presented in this contribution. The personnel protection is based on a restricted access into the experimental hall during the operation of potentially dangerous systems. A tokamak hall access system, based on Honeywell WIN-PAK (tm) 2005, allows to set the status of the experimental area (open/closed) and to control the in and out movement of persons using access cards. On top of this, a check of the whole experimental area by the operator is enforced before the hall enclosure. A hardware interlock then interprets the experimental hall status and controls the operation of key systems accordingly. The permit for operation is granted and the real status of the systems is reported by hard wired potential less contacts. The control procedure is based on a PLC MicroPEL M66. This PLC provides HW interface between Actuators (Relays and switches) and it is connected on PESNET bus. Its programming is done using language Simple v.2 in Winstudio IDE. Second site of personnel protection system is created on PC where runs a .NET application on MSWindows XP or 2000. This PC is connected with PLC via PESNET bus (on RS485 layer) and it generates all control signals to PLC from the operator. Simultaneously, the PC receives all warning and alarm signals from the PLC. This signals are displayed on a screen of the PC in real-time, this way the GUI provides visualization of the controlled process. Except for this fact the operator is informed about the status of the system and individual subsystems on a PC via an operator's panel. Further we will describe the machine protection which uses similar system for checking conditions for the start of a shot. Fast key processes which have to be checked during the shot are

  14. The use of protective gloves by medical personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garus-Pakowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To minimize the risk of cross-infection between the patient and the medical staff, it is necessary to use individual protective measures such as gloves. According to the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and the World Health Organization (WHO, protective gloves should always be used upon contact with blood, mucosa, injured skin or other potentially infectious material. Materials and Methods: The aim of the study was to evaluate, through quasi-observation, the use of protective gloves by medical staff according to the guidelines issued by the CDC and WHO. The results were subject to statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: During 1544 hours of observations, 3498 situations were recorded in which wearing protective gloves is demanded from the medical staff. The overall percentage of the observance of using gloves was 50%. The use of gloves depended significantly on the type of ward, profession, performed activity, number of situations that require wearing gloves during the observation unit and the real workload. During the entire study, as many as 718 contacts with patients were observed in which the same gloves were used several times. Conclusion: Wearing disposable protective gloves by the medical staff is insufficient.

  15. Biomedical Enhancement of Warfighters and the Legal Protection of Military Medical Personnel in Armed Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liivoja, Rain

    2017-10-24

    Under international law, military medical personnel and facilities must be respected and protected in the event of an armed conflict. This special status only applies to personnel and facilities exclusively engaged in certain enumerated medical duties, especially the treatment of the wounded and sick, and the prevention of disease. Military medical personnel have, however, been called upon to engage in the biomedical enhancement of warfighters, as exemplified by the supply of central nervous system stimulants as a fatigue countermeasure. This article argues that international law of armed conflict does not recognise human enhancement as a medical duty, and that engaging in enhancement that is harmful to the enemy results in the loss of special protection normally enjoyed by military medical personnel and units. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The use of protective gloves by medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Sobala, Wojciech; Szatko, Franciszek

    2013-06-01

    To minimize the risk of cross-infection between the patient and the medical staff, it is necessary to use individual protective measures such as gloves. According to the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), protective gloves should always be used upon contact with blood, mucosa, injured skin or other potentially infectious material. The aim of the study was to evaluate, through quasi-observation, the use of protective gloves by medical staff according to the guidelines issued by the CDC and WHO. The results were subject to statistical analysis (p gloves is demanded from the medical staff. The overall percentage of the observance of using gloves was 50%. The use of gloves depended significantly on the type of ward, profession, performed activity, number of situations that require wearing gloves during the observation unit and the real workload. During the entire study, as many as 718 contacts with patients were observed in which the same gloves were used several times. Wearing disposable protective gloves by the medical staff is insufficient.

  17. Interlocked systems in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Catia; Becher, Tiago B; Megiatto, Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Nanomedicine emerged along with the new millennium, and it is expected to provide solutions to some of modern medicine's unsolved problems. Nanomedicine offers new hopes in several critical areas such as cancer treatment, viral and bacterial infections, medical imaging, tissue regeneration, and theranostics. To explore all these applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials have been developed which include liposomes, dendrimers, nanohydrogels and polymeric, metallic and inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, interlocked systems, namely rotaxanes and catenanes, have been incorporated into some of these chemical platforms in an attempt to improve their performance. This review focus on the nanomedicine applications of nanomaterials containing interlocked structures. The introduction gives an overview on the significance of interdisciplinary science in the progress of the nanomedicine field, and it explains the evolution of interlocked molecules until their application in nanomedicine. The following sections are organized by the type of interlocked structure, and it comprises details of the in vitro and/or in vivo experiments involving each material: rotaxanes as imaging agents, rotaxanes as cytotoxic agents, rotaxanes as peptide transporters, mechanized silica nanoparticles as stimuli responsive drug delivery systems, and polyrotaxanes as drug and gene delivery systems.

  18. Radiation protection for medical and allied health personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this new report is to update the material to include new radiation sources used in medicine. In addition, an attempt has been made to reflect current practice in medicine and present the material in terms readily understood by an audience, most of whom have limited expertise in radiation protection terminology and principles. This report is intended to cover those sources of ionizing radiation encountered commonly in the clinical environment

  19. The vacuum interlock system for the PETRA III beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, Markus; Hahn, Ulrich; Hesse, Mathias; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The storage ring PETRA at DESY in Hamburg is being reconstructed into the third generation source for synchrotron radiation, PETRA III. The up to 100 m long beamlines are large UHV-systems that guide the synchrotron radiation from the storage ring to the experiments. Each beamline will be equipped with a vacuum interlock system to ensure the safe operation of the vacuum components. In particular the task of the vacuum interlock is to prevent faulty operations that can cause a ventilation of the vacuum system or a damage of vacuum components by the high power synchrotron radiation beam. The interlock system will be implemented as a PLC that is connected to a distributed input/output layer via a field bus system. As a specialty, the PLC will be realised as a soft-PLC running on a PC with a real time windows operating system. Another specialty is the visualisation and remote control of the vacuum interlock system by means of a website. At the beamline the interlock will be operated via a touch panel that displays the visualisation website. Additionally, the interlock can be remotely operated from any location by opening the visualisation website with a browser. The interlock is protected against unauthorised operation by a login page. All relevant interlock data will be fed into the existing network-based archive system.

  20. Radiation protection training for personnel employed in medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, N.L.; Brodsky, A.

    1985-05-01

    This report provides information useful for planning and conducting radiation safety training in medical facilities to keep exposures as low as reasonably achievable, and to meet other regulatory, safety and loss prevention requirements in today's hospitals. A brief discussion of the elements and basic considerations of radation safety training programs is followed by a short bibliography of selected references and sample lecture (or session) outlines for various job categories. This information is intended for use by a professional who is thoroughly acquainted with the science and practice of radiation protection as well as the specific procedures and circumstances of the particular hospital's operations. Topics can be added or substracted, amplified or condensed as appropriate. 8 refs

  1. Radiation protection and personnel safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Due to availability of a variety of radioisotopes from BRIT, a considerable number of industrial organizations have come up in India which employ radiation sources in one form or the other. More such organizations may come up in the near future due to the 'Make in India' policy of the Government. All ionizing radiations, whether electromagnetic (gamma- ã ) or corpuscular (particles of alpha-á, or beta-â-), and neutrons (0n1) are harmful to the human body. The damage done by radiations is sinister as human senses are not capable of detecting even lethal doses of radiation. The dose of radiations absorbed by human body which take into account the biological effectiveness of different types of radiations as noted above. The overall outcome of exposure to radiation is initiated by damage to the cells of the organism. The effects of radiation may be deterministic or stochastic, early or late, of somatic or genetic type. The somatic effects (physical) can either be immediate or delayed when the whole body is acutely irradiated with radiation doses. All countries including India have brought their national laws/standards on ionizing radiation in line with the ICRP codes. The conditions for registration, transport, storage, protection and use of radiation sources have been laid down in regulations. The purpose of practical protection against radiation is to prevent any individual receiving a harmful dose. Radiation measurement Instruments like dose meter, pocket dosimeter, NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and recording instruments such as film/TLD badge have been briefly described

  2. Personnel protective equipment total-encapsulating suit decontamination study using shower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menkhaus, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents an experimental evaluation, conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, of a shower-based decontamination station for personnel wearing a Level A, total- encapsulating, chemical-protective suit. The decontamination station is used by personnel when egressing a dry, dusty environment contaminated with transuranic radionuclides. This system has the potential to minimize the risk of spreading the contaminants to clean areas. Two types of shower systems were evaluated, a drench shower and a multi-nozzle shower. A total-encapsulating suit, worn by personnel. was contaminated with soil containing 239 Pu. Pre- shower and post-shower contamination samples were collected and visual observations were made to evaluate the ability of the shower system to remove the contaminated dust and to obtain baseline data useful in designing a shower-based personnel decontamination system. 12 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Workplace victimization risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior among active duty military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Laurel L; Williams, Jason; Lattimore, Pamela K; Morgan, Jessica K; Hopkinson, Susan G; Jenkins, Linda; Cartwright, Joel

    2018-04-22

    Workplace victimization is a potential risk factor for suicidal behaviors (SB) among military personnel that has been largely overlooked. This paper examines both the impact of workplace victimization on reported SB and several potential protective factors associated with such suicidal behaviors in a large sample of active duty soldiers. A case-control study was conducted with 71 soldiers who reported SB in the past 12 months, each matched on sociodemographic characteristics to two others without reported suicidal behaviors. A multiple regression model was estimated to assess the effects of risk and protective factors while controlling for other variables. SB was associated with several aspects of victimization, mental health and substance abuse conditions, pain, impulsivity, stressors, negative life events, work-family conflict, active coping behaviors and positive military-related factors. Controlling for other variables, those with SB were more likely to have sought mental health or substance abuse services, to be depressed, anxious, impulsive, and less resilient than non-SB personnel. Study limitations included the use of retrospective self-report data, absence of some known SB predictors, and a population restricted to active duty Army personnel. SB among active duty personnel is associated with victimization since joining the military and is protected by resiliency. These findings suggest that in addition to the usual mental health factors, these additional predictors should be accounted for in SB intervention and prevention planning for active duty personnel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective benefits of mindfulness in emergency room personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maren; Bingisser, Martina-Barbara; Feng, Tianshu; Wall, Melanie; Blakley, Emily; Bingisser, Roland; Kleim, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    Recent meta-analyses have found that mindfulness practice may reduce anxiety and depression in clinical populations and there is growing evidence that mindfulness may also improve well-being and quality of care in health professionals. This study examined whether mindfulness protects against the impact of work-related stress on mental health and burnout in emergency room (ER) nurses. ER nurses (N=50) were recruited from an urban teaching hospital in Switzerland and completed a survey on work-related stressors, mindfulness, burnout, depression, and anxiety. The most frequently reported work-related stressor was interpersonal conflict. Nurses working more consecutive days since last taking time off were at greater risk for depression and those reporting more work-related interpersonal conflicts were at greater risk for burnout. Mindfulness was associated with reduced anxiety, depression, and burnout. Mindfulness was a significant predictor of anxiety, depression, and burnout and moderated the impact of work-related stressors on mental health and burnout. The sample is limited to nurses and results need to be replicated in other groups (e.g., medical staff or ambulance workers). We assessed clinical symptoms with questionnaires and it would be desirable to repeat this assessment with clinical diagnostic interviews. The findings have implications for stress management in ER nurses and health professionals working in comparable settings (e.g., urgent care). The robust associations between mindfulness and multiple indices of psychological well-being suggest that ER staff exposed to high levels of occupational stress may benefit from mindfulness practice to increase resistance to mental health problems and burnout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Control development of radiation protection and safety on personnel eye lens of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titik Kartika; Ishak

    2013-01-01

    The review on radiation protection and safety to the lens of personnel especially in interventional radiology activities has been carried out. The use of radiation in interventional radiology installations provide significant exposure to the lens of the eye, especially personnel. The results of the latest various surveys and researches on the effects of low dose radiation to the eye lens indicates that the eye lens dose threshold is less than the preconceived values. Based on these facts, recently, ICRP and IAEA provides recommendations regarding the reduction of the value of the eye lens dose limit for personnel. BAPETEN have adopted the value of the eye lens dose limit in the development of new regulations on radiation protection and safety. However, the application of this provision has various challenges that BAPETEN provide 3 (three) years transitional period. These challenges include the problem of monitoring the eye lens dose, the eye lens protective equipment which is not adequate, the lack of understanding of personnel related to the risk of low radiation to the eye lens, as well as the proper procedures to mitigate those risks. BAPETEN as a regulatory agency is expected to provide solutions to the problems faced by the stake holders. Therefore, to answer the challenge, it is necessary to develop better monitoring of radiation protection and safety. (author)

  6. 76 FR 54700 - Protecting the Public and Our Personnel to Ensure Operational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... protection we provide. We expect that this rule will result in a safer environment for our personnel and... jargon that is not clear? Would a different format make the rule easier to understand, e.g. grouping and... Administrative Procedure Act (APA) rulemaking procedures specified in 5 U.S.C. 553 when developing regulations...

  7. Ordinance of 30 August 1978 on personnel training in radiation protection and furtherance of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Ordinance sets up a system of federal subsidies which are granted for training expenses and for furthering knowledge in the radiation protection field. The courses are organised either by private institutes or by the Confederation. They are intended for technical assistants in medical radiology (ATRM) and for personnel in undertakings governed by the Federal Act on Sickness and Accident Insurance. (NEA) [fr

  8. Optimization of the personnel radiation protection during the treatment by antibodies labelled by yttrium 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.; Prangere, T.; Cougnenc, O.; Leleu, C.; Huglo, D.; Morschhauser, F.

    2007-01-01

    Beyond the acquired experience limiting the exposure time, measures of adequate radiation protection allow to reduce the doses of surface received to extremities by the personnel participating to the preparation of treatments by antibodies labelled by yttrium 90. (N.C.)

  9. Technical qualification requirements and training programs for radiation protection personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.; Butler, H.M. Jr.; Bogard, J.S.; Fair, M.F.; Haynes, C.E.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    This document deals with the policies and practices of the Environmental and Occupational Safety Division (EOSD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in regard to the selection, training, qualification, and requalification of radiation protection staff assigned to reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities. Included are personnel at facilities that: (1) operate reactors or particle accelerators; (2) produce, process, or store radioactive liquid or solid waste; (3) conduct separations operations; (4) engage in research with radioactive materials and radiation sources; and (5) conduct irradiated materials inspection, fuel fabrication, deconamination, or recovery operations. The EOSD personnel also have environmental surveillance and operational and industrial safety responsibilities related to the total Laboratory

  10. Application software for new BEPC interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuming; Na Xiangyin; Chen Jiansong; Yu Yulan

    1997-01-01

    New BEPC (Beijing electron Positron collider) interlock system has been built in order to improve the reliability of personnel safety and interlock functions. Moreover, the system updates BEPC operation message once every 6 seconds, which are displayed on TV screens at the major entrances. Since March of 1996, new BEPC interlock system has been operating reliably. The hardware of the system is based on Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). A multimedia IBM/PC-586 as the host computer of the PLCs, monitors the PLC system via serial port COM2. The PC communicates with the central computer VAX-4500 of BEPC control system and gets operating massage of the accelerator through serial port COM3. The application software on the host computer has been developed. Visual C++ for MS-Windows 3.2 TM is selected as the work bench. It provides nice tools for building programs, such as APP STUDIO, CLASS WIZARD, APP WIZARD and debugger tool. The author describes the design idea and the structure of the application software. Error tolerance is taken into consideration. The author also presents a small database and its data structure for the application

  11. The protection of on-site personnel in the event of a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Simister, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NPRB) is responsible in the UK for advising Government and other responsible bodies on the principles for responding to radiological emergencies. NRPB has published appropriate advice on the off-site protection of the public and on the protection of workers involved in taking mitigating actions to reduce the exposure of others. This paper puts forward a suggested framework for the protection of on-site personnel in the event of a radiological emergency which might include a criticality accident. This framework both dovetails with existing planning for the protection of members of the public off-site, and also takes account of specific differences between the situations on and off-site. (author)

  12. FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS: INTERLOCKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kaladagi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of humeral fracture has significantly increased during the present years due to the population growth and road traffic, domestic, industrial, automobile accidents & disasters like tsunami, earthquakes, head-on collisions, polytrauma etc. In order to achieve a stable fixation followed by early mobilization, numerous surgical implants have been devised. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of intramedullary fixation of proximal 2/3rd humeral shaft fractures using an unreamed interlocking intramedullary nail. INTRODUCTION: In 40 skeletally matured patients with fracture shaft of humerus admitted in our hospital, we used unreamed antegrade interlocking nails. MATERIAL: We carried out a prospective analysis of 40 patients randomly selected between 2001 to 2014 who were operated at JNMC Belgaum, MMC Mysore & Navodaya Medical College, Raichur. All cases were either RTAs, Domestic, Industrial, automobile accidents & also other modes of injury. METHOD: Routine investigations with pre-anaesthetic check-up & good quality X-rays of both sides of humerus was taken. Time of surgery ranged from 5-10 days from the time of admission. Only upper 1/3rd & middle 1/3rd humeral shaft fractures were included in the study. In all the cases antegrade locked unreamed humeral nails were inserted under C-arm. Patient was placed in supine position & the shoulder was kept elevated by placing a sandbag under the scapula. In all patients incision taken from tip of acromion to 3cm over deltoid longitudinally. Postoperatively sling applied with wrist & shoulder movements started after 24 hours. All the patients ranged between the age of 21-50 years. RESULTS: Total 40 patients were operated. Maximum fracture site were in the middle third- 76%, 14% upper 1/3rd. All 40 patients achieved union. The average time of union was 8-10 weeks. All patients regained full range of movements except in few cases, where there was shoulder

  13. JET neutral beam duct Optical Interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ash, A.D.; Jones, T.T.C.; Surrey, E.; Ćirić, D.; Hall, S.I.; Young, D.; Afzal, M.; Hackett, L.; Day, I.E.; King, R.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Optical Interlocks were installed on the JET NBI system as part of the EP2 upgrade. • The system protects the JET tokamak and NBI systems from thermal load damage. • Balmer-α beam emission is used to monitor the neutral beam-line pressure. • We demonstrate an improved trip delay of 2 ms compared to 50 ms before EP2. - Abstract: The JET Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system is the most powerful neutral beam plasma heating system currently operating. Optical Interlocks were installed on the beam lines in 2011 for the JET Enhancement Project 2 (EP2), when the heating power was increased from 23 MW to 34 MW. JET NBI has two beam lines. Each has eight positive ion injectors operating in deuterium at 80 kV–125 kV (accelerator voltage) and up to 65 A (beam current). Heating power is delivered through two ducts where the central power density can be more than 100 MW/m{sup 2}. In order to deliver this safely, the beam line pressure should be below 2 × 10{sup −5} mbar otherwise the power load on the duct from the re-ionised fraction of the beam is excessive. The new Optical Interlock monitors the duct pressure by measuring the Balmer-α beam emission (656 nm). This is proportional to the instantaneous beam flux and the duct pressure. Light is collected from a diagnostic window and focused into 1-mm diameter fibres. The Doppler shifted signal is selected using an angle-tuned interference filter. The light is measured by a photo-multiplier module with a logarithmic amplifier. The interlock activation time of 2 ms is sufficient to protect the system from a fully re-ionised beam—a significant improvement on the previous interlock. The dynamic range is sufficient to see bremsstrahlung emission from JET plasma and not saturate during plasma disruptions. For high neutron flux operations the optical fibres within the biological shield can be annealed to 350 °C. A self-test is possible by illuminating the diagnostic window with a test lamp and measuring

  14. Personnel protection during the operation of Thomson scattering laser system on COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, Petr; Hron, Martin; Kovar, J.; Sova, J.; Zvolanek, M.; Aftanas, Milan; Bílková, Petra; Pánek, Radomír; Walsh, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 699-702 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology, SOFT-26/26th./. Porto, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1467; GA ČR GD202/08/H057; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * Thomson scattering * Laser safety * Personnel protection * PLC Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379611002432

  15. Vertical interlocks of executives and performance of affiliated firms in state owned Chinese business groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Na, Chaohong

    . Further, the positive effects of vertically interlocking chairmen decrease as the number of pyramidal layers increases or regional marketization index improves. Such positive effects of interlocks, however, become greater as the divergence between cash flow rights and control rights of business groups...... increases. Our findings are consistent with the hypotheses that vertically interlocking executives can increase firm value by providing better protection against political interference and expropriation by the ultimate controllers of business groups. Our study sheds new light in the role and function...... of interlocks and adds to a small body of literature on the dynamics of state owned business groups in emerging markets generally and China particularly....

  16. Fail-safe ion chamber errant beam detector tailored for personnel protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, M.A.; Browman, A.A.; Brown, D.; Lee, D.M.; McCabe, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    This fail-safe ion chamber system is designed to be part of the personnel safety system (PSS) for the Los Alamos neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its job is to protect the occupants of the experimental areas from large radiation doses caused by errant beam conditions during beam transport from the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) to the LANSCE neutron spallation target. Due to limited shielding between the beam transport line and the experimental area only if the beam losses in the transport line are very low. The worst case beam spill scenario is calculated to result in a personnel exposure of about 0.01 Gys/s (1 rad/s). Although the preferred solution is to increase the bulk shielding between the beam line and the experimental area, the physical dimensions of the site do not permit an adequate amount of shielding to be added. The solution adopted is a layered system of three types of highly reliable detector systems: a current limiter system located in the beam line, a neutron detector system located in the experimental areas, and an ion chamber system located on the walls of the beam line tunnels. The ion chamber system is capable of shutting off the beam in less than 0.5 s, resulting in a worst case personnel exposure of 0.005 Gys (0.5 rad). 4 figs

  17. LIPAc personnel protection system for realizing radiation licensing conditions on injector commissioning with deuteron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroki, E-mail: takahashi.hiroki@jaea.go.jp [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Narita, Takahiro; Kasugai, Atsushi [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Kojima, Toshiyuki [Gitec Co. Ltd., Hachinohe, Aomori (Japan); Marqueta, Alvaro; Nishiyama, Koichi [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sakaki, Hironao [Quantum Beam Science Center, JAEA, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan); Gobin, Raphael [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, Gif/Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Personnel Protection System (PPS) is developed to adapt the radiation licensing. • PPS achieves the target performance to secure the personnel safety. • Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) is developed to manage the beam-operation-time. • Satisfying performance of PDMS is confirmed by injector operation with H+ beam. • By the result of PPS and PDMS tests, the radiation license was successfully obtained. - Abstract: The performance validation of the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), up to the energy of 9 MeV deuteron beam with 125 mA continuous wave (CW), is planned in Rokkasho, Japan. There are three main phases of LIPAc performance validation: Injector commissioning, RFQ commissioning and LIPAc commissioning. Injector commissioning was started by H{sup +} and D{sup +} beam. To apply the radiation licensing for the Injector commissioning, the entering/leaving to/from accelerator vault should be under control, and access to the accelerator vault has to be prohibited for any person during the beam operation. The Personnel Protection System (PPS) was developed to adapt the radiation licensing conditions. The licensing requests that PPS must manage the accumulated D{sup +} current. So, to manage the overall D{sup +} beam time during injector operation, Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) was developed as a configurable subsystem as part of the PPS. The PDMS was tested during H{sup +} beam (as simulated D{sup +}) operation, to confirm that it can handle the beam inhibit from Injector before the beam accumulation is above the threshold value specified in the radiation licensing condition. In this paper, the design and configuration of these systems and the result of the tests are presented.

  18. A Retrospective View to the Magnet Interlock Systems at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Romera, I; Mompo, R; Puccio, B; Zerlauth, M

    2014-01-01

    Several thousands of both, superconducting and normal conducting magnets are in charge of guiding the particle beams in CERN’s accelerator complex. In order to protect the magnet and powering equipment from damage, dedicated magnet interlock and protection systems are deployed throughout the various accelerators and transfer lines. These systems have worked extremely well during the first years of LHC operation, providing highly dependable interlocking of magnet powering based on industrial COTS components. This paper reviews the performance and experience with more than 70 individual installations during the first LHC running period and compares the operational experience with the initial expectations of dependability. Additional improvements required to address specific operational needs and observed shortcomings are presented. Finally, we review the existing magnet interlock infrastructure in the LHC injector complex and the ongoing renovation works during the first long shutdown.

  19. An intelligent interlock design support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshifumi; Kamiyama, Masahiko

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent interlock design support system, called Handy. BWR plant interlocks have been designed on a conventional CAD system operating on a mini-computer based time sharing system. However, its ability to support interlock designers is limited, mainly due to the system not being capable of manipulating the interlock logic. Handy improves the design efficiency with consistent manipulation of the logic and drawings, interlock simulation, versatile database management, object oriented user interface, high resolution high speed graphics, and automatic interlock outlining with a design support expert system. Handy is now being tested by designers, and is expected to greatly contribute to their efficiency. (author)

  20. A protection system for picosecond accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hongping; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Chen Huanguang; Xu Ruinian; Tang Junlong; Li Deming

    2006-01-01

    A personnel and machine protection system for the picosecond accelerator has been built. The key of the system is to send on/off of three triggering signals which are those of electron gun, 2856 MHz and 476 MHz, respectively, to ensure the safety of users and the accelerator. This paper describes the emergencies interlocked by ADAM5511 and timing trigger processor, and some secondary functions which improve the efficiency of the protection system completed in upper layer software. (authors)

  1. Personnel contamination protection techniques applied during the TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2] cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The severe damage to the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) core and the subsequent discharge of reactor coolant to the reactor and auxiliary buildings resulted in extremely hostile radiological environments in the TMI-2 plant. High fission product surface contamination and radiation levels necessitated the implementation of innovative techniques and methods in performing cleanup operations while assuring effective as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) practices. The approach utilized by GPU Nuclear throughout the cleanup in applying protective clothing requirements was to consider the overall health risk to the worker including factors such as cardiopulmonary stress, visual and hearing acuity, and heat stress. In applying protective clothing requirements, trade-off considerations had to be made between preventing skin contaminations and possibly overprotecting the worker, thus impacting his ability to perform his intended task at maximum efficiency and in accordance with ALARA principles. The paper discusses the following topics: protective clothing-general use, beta protection, skin contamination, training, personnel access facility, and heat stress

  2. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Personnel in Operating Room, ERCP, and ESWL Towards Radiation Hazards and Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Moshfegh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, X-rays radiation hazards rise with the exposure of patients and personnel. Exposure of people to radiation in the operating rooms is an important problem to study the safety of personnel and patients. To date, few studies are accomplished to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP among personnel in hospitals. The current study aimed at evaluating KAP level of radiation hazards and protection amongst personnel in the operating room. Methods A questionnaire-based, cross sectional study was conducted in 11 provinces of Iran from 2014 to 2015. Respondents in the current study were 332 personnel of operating room, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. Demographic characteristics, as well as knowledge, attitude, and practice levels of operating room personnel were collected. The selected hospitals were 3 types (educational, non-educational, and private clinics located in 5 different regions of Iran (Tehran, Center, East, North, and West. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and statistical analyses were accomplished with the one-way ANOVA. Results The current study results showed no statistically significant difference in the KAP level of operating room personnel towards radiation protection for both genders (P = 0.1, time since graduation (P = 0.4, and work experience (P = 0.1. According to the analyses, the highest level of KAP concerning radiation protection was observed in the personnel of private clinics (mean score = 53.60 and the lowest value was observed in non-educational hospitals (mean score = 45.61. Besides, the KAP level was significantly higher in the Northern region (P < 0.0001 and the lowest was observed in the hospital personnel of the Central region (mean score = 34.27. Conclusions The current study findings showed that the level of KAP regarding radiation protection among operating room personnel was inadequate and it is necessary to pay

  3. Program of training and technical expertise in radiation protection for personnel of medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Sergio R. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to verify the actual conditions for the training of technicians in Radiology, in relation to the knowledge of radiation protection in the field of Medical Diagnostic Radiology. To evaluate the knowledge of professionals was prepared a questionnaire on the topic, having been answered by workers with varied experience. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, being the initial self-evaluation, followed by closed and open issues, all specific knowledge. With a total of 55 questionnaires answered, it was found that 85% of respondents consider themselves able to work in the area performing the function, but when questioned about the technical details regarding the exposure to ionizing radiation, it was found that only 15% of respondents had some knowledge about the subject. In relation to Radiological Protection, was found that little more than 10% of the respondents know about the subject. The results found in this survey outlined the creation of a technical specialization course in radiation protection, which is part of the permanent staff of course of the Polytechnical School of Health of FIOCRUZ, solving, partially, one of the problems pointed out today by health bodies, that is the lack of trained personnel

  4. PLC-based interlock system for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, R.C.; Barker, L.; Hodgers, J.; Reagan, D.; Walz, H.V.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional interlock systems rely heavily on hard-wired electromagnetic relays. Although this approach is well understood and has proven to be reliable, several drawbacks plague the designer as well as the repairman. If larger systems have to be implemented in relay logic, the complexity limit is soon reached; the systems become too bulky, and wiring expenses sky-rocket; moreover, the intelligence of those designs is limited in such a way that desirable features such as self-tests have to be left out. Additionally, relay interlocks are inherently inflexible: if the configuration of the system they protect has to change, a disproportional amount of time, work and money has to be invested in order to adapt the hard-wiring of the interlock system to the new requirements. Repair work is often unnecessarily delayed due to the lack of adequate documentation

  5. Radiation interlocks - The choice between conventional hard-wired logic and computer-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the past few years, the use of computers in radiation safety systems has become more widespread. This is not surprising given the ubiquitous nature of computers in the modern technological world. But is a computer a good choice for the central logic element of a personnel safety system? Recent accidents at computer controlled medical accelerators would indicate that extreme care must be exercised if malfunctions are to be avoided. The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently established a sub-committee to formulate recommendations on the use of computers in safety systems for accelerators. This paper reviews the status of the committee's recommendations, and describes radiation protection interlock systems as applied to both accelerators and to irradiation facilities. Comparisons are made between the conventional (relay) approach and designs using computers

  6. Radiation interlocks: The choice between conventional hard-wired logic and computer-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.F.

    1986-11-01

    During the past few years, the use of computers in radiation safety systems has become more widespread. This is not surprising given the ubiquitous nature of computers in the modern technological world. But is a computer a good choice for the central logic element of a personnel safety system. Recent accidents at computer controlled medical accelerators would indicate that extreme care must be exercised if malfunctions are to be avoided. The Department of Energy has recently established a sub-committee to formulate recommendations on the use of computers in safety systems for accelerators. This paper will review the status of the committee's recommendations, and describe radiation protection interlock systems as applied to both accelerators and to irradiation facilities. Comparisons are made between the conventional relay approach and designs using computers. 6 refs., 6 figs

  7. Problems with regard to occupational exposure of external personnel (section 15 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, W.

    2002-01-01

    The annual radiation dose to the group of external personnel working in nuclear facilities accounts for more than 39% of the total annual collective dose of all occupationally exposed persons in Germany. This is a fact causing problems for plant operators employing external personnel as well as the sending companies, with respect to compliance with the radiation protection regulations. The amended German Radiation Protection Ordinance does not really make things easier in this respect, but in fact is expected to aggravate the situation in the course of increasing globalisation in the industrial sector. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Evaluation of conditions of radiation protection of medical personnel in intracavitary neutron therapy of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostromina, K.N.; Korenkov, I.P.; Bocharov, A.L.; Gladkikh, N.N.

    1991-01-01

    Combined radiation therapy was provided to cervical cancer patients. Working conditions of personnel were examined, the rate of exposure doses and flows of neutrons at working places were measured, dose exposures of the personnel were evaluated. It has been concluded that occupational conditions for the medical personnel are considered to be relatively safe

  9. Central system of Interlock of ITER, high integrity architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, I.; Martinez, G.; Lopez, C.

    2014-01-01

    The CIS (Central Interlock System), along with the CODAC system and CSS (Central Safety System), form the central I and C systems of ITER. The CIS is responsible for implementing the core functions of protection (Central Interlock Functions) through different systems of plant (Plant Systems) within the overall strategy of investment protection for ITER. IBERDROLA supports engineering to define and develop the control architecture of CIS according to the stringent requirements of integrity, availability and response time. For functions with response times of the order of half a second is selected PLC High availability of industrial range. However, due to the nature of the machine itself, certain functions must be able to act under the millisecond, so it has had to develop a solution based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) capable of meeting the requirements architecture. In this article CIS architecture is described, as well as the process for the development and validation of the selected platforms. (Author)

  10. Interlock system for the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hron, Martin; Sova, J.; Šíba, J.; Kovář, J.; Adámek, Jiří; Pánek, Radomír; Havlíček, Josef; Písačka, Jan; Mlynář, Jan; Stöckel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, 3-4 (2010), s. 505-508 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/7th./. Aix – en – Provence, 15.06.2009-19.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G09042; GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak operation * Interlock * Personnel safety Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V3C-5003BXW-1&_user=6542793&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=ef5794d05cc6530a905d1de43aa0ac6a&searchtype=a

  11. The LHC personnel safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninin, P.; Valentini, F.; Ladzinski, T.

    2011-01-01

    Large particle physics installations such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider require specific Personnel Safety Systems (PSS) to protect the personnel against the radiological and industrial hazards. In order to fulfill the French regulation in matter of nuclear installations, the principles of IEC 61508 and IEC 61513 standard are used as a methodology framework to evaluate the criticality of the installation, to design and to implement the PSS.The LHC PSS deals with the implementation of all physical barriers, access controls and interlock devices around the 27 km of underground tunnel, service zones and experimental caverns of the LHC. The system shall guarantee the absence of personnel in the LHC controlled areas during the machine operations and, on the other hand, ensure the automatic accelerator shutdown in case of any safety condition violation, such as an intrusion during beam circulation. The LHC PSS has been conceived as two separate and independent systems: the LHC Access Control System (LACS) and the LHC Access Safety System (LASS). The LACS, using off the shelf technologies, realizes all physical barriers and regulates all accesses to the underground areas by identifying users and checking their authorizations.The LASS has been designed according to the principles of the IEC 61508 and 61513 standards, starting from a risk analysis conducted on the LHC facility equipped with a standard access control system. It consists in a set of safety functions realized by a dedicated fail-safe and redundant hardware guaranteed to be of SIL3 class. The integration of various technologies combining electronics, sensors, video and operational procedures adopted to establish an efficient personnel safety system for the CERN LHC accelerator is presented in this paper. (authors)

  12. Risk assessments for exposure of deployed military personnel to insecticides and personal protective measures used for disease-vector management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D; Davis, Ryan S

    2007-10-01

    Infectious diseases are problematic for deployed military forces throughout the world, and, historically, more military service days have been lost to insect-vectored diseases than to combat. Because of the limitations in efficacy and availability of both vaccines and therapeutic drugs, vector management often is the best tool that military personnel have against most vector-borne pathogens. However, the use of insecticides may raise concerns about the safety of their effects on the health of the military personnel exposed to them. Therefore, our objective was to use risk assessment methodologies to evaluate health risks to deployed U.S. military personnel from vector management tactics. Our conservative tier-1, quantitative risk assessment focused on acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures and cancer risks to military personnel after insecticide application and use of personal protective measures in different scenarios. Exposures were estimated for every scenario, chemical, and pathway. Acute, subchronic, and chronic risks were assessed using a margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Our MOE was the ratio of a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to an estimated exposure. MOEs were greater than the levels of concern (LOCs) for all surface residual and indoor space spraying exposures, except acute dermal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. MOEs were greater than the LOCs for all chemicals in the truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) exposure scenario. The aggregate cancer risk for permethrin exceeded 1 x 10(-6), but more realistic exposure refinements would reduce the cancer risk below that value. Overall, results indicate that health risks from exposures to insecticides and personal protective measures used by military personnel are low.

  13. Improved airline-type supplied-air plastic suit. [For personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, L. Jr.; Zippler, D.B.; Cofer, C.H.; Harper, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    Two piece supplied-air plastic suits are used extensively at the Savannah River Plant for personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium. Worker comfort and noise level problems gave impetus to development of an improved suit and aid distribution system. The resulting plastic suit and development work are discussed. The plastic suit unit cost is less than $20, the hearing zone noise level is less than 75 dBA, protection factors exceed 10,000, and user comfort is approved. This suit is expected to meet performance requirements for unrestricted use.

  14. 77 FR 13206 - Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... reduction in exposure to potential injuries associated with physical readiness qualification running tests... personnel to perform the running tasks required in the current regulation. Furthermore, this shift in... reduce the exposure of the PF population to injuries related to physical readiness testing. They would...

  15. From the LHC Reference Database to the Powering Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Dehavay, C; Schmidt, R; Veyrunes, E; Zerlauth, M

    2003-01-01

    The protection of the magnet powering system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) currently being built at CERN is a major challenge due to the unprecedented complexity of the accelerator. The Powering Interlock System of the LHC will have to manage more than 1600 DC circuits for magnet powering, different in their structure, complexity and importance to the accelerator. For the coherent description of such complex system, a Reference Database as unique source of the parameters of the electrical circuits has been developed. The information, introduced via a generic circuit description language, is first used for installing the accelerator and making all electrical connections. The data is then used for tests and commissioning. During operation, the Powering Interlock System manages all critical functions. It consists of 36 PLC based controllers dis tributed around the machine and requires a flexible and transparent way of configuration, since each controller manages different numbers and types of electrical ci...

  16. Patients and personnel radiation protection in interventional radiology and in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menechal, P.; Valero, M.; Godet, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The development of the interventional radiology and acts realised under radiological guiding is a real benefit for patients. The doses delivered can however, generate important detriments (determinist effects). the patients and the personnel are exposed to important doses, heterogeneous and very different doses according the operator, the patient morphology and the treated pathology. This theme is considered by the the nuclear safety Authority as a priority in the medical medium. (N.C.)

  17. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs

  18. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements

  19. Radiation protection training for personnel at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Section 19.12 Instructions to Workers, of 10 CFR Part 19, Notices, Instructions, and Reports to Workers; Inspections, requires that individuals be given instruction in radiation protection that is commensurate with the potential radiation protection problems they may encounter in restricted areas as defined in para. 19.3(e) of 10 CFR Part 19. Para. 20.1(c) of 10 CFR Part 20, Standards for Protection Against Radiation, states that occupational radiation exposure should be kept as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). Appropriate training is an essential aspect of an ALARA program. This guide describes a radiation protection training program consistent with the ALARA objective and acceptable to the NRC staff for meeting the training requirements of 10 CFR Part 19 with respect to individuals that enter restricted areas at nuclear power plants

  20. Protective clothing[Occupational safety of personnel in the event of a sodium fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C; Regnier, J [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    The present operational and intervention suits are described. Research work is currently in progress to improve the performance of the existing suits and to develop more resistant protective clothing. (author)

  1. L-042: EPR-First Responders: Guidelines for protection of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference is about the guidelines of personal protection actions in a radiological emergency. The main aspect to considered are: dosimetry levels, pregnant women careful , radioactive sources, food, clothing, time spent in the accident site and contamination risk

  2. Notification: Assessment of the Qualifications of Environmental Protection Agency Personnel With Significant Security Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OMS-FY12-0006, February 15, 2012. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research for the subject project, which will be performed by a contractor.

  3. New generation radioprotectors for personnel radiation protection in today 'Ukrytie' object conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyuk, O.F.; Gorovoj, L.F.; Danilov, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    The peculiarities of radiation protection in conditions of modern 'Ukryttia' object depending on radiation situation are analyzed. It is underlined that the works inside the object are connected with high risk of radionuclide inhalation, especially of transuranium isotopes. It is shown the expedience of pharmacological protection of the persons working in extraordinary conditions of 'Ukryttia' object. The home-made biological preparation Mycoton is proposed as a remedy with simultaneous redistribution, antioxidant and adaptogenous properties

  4. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements

  5. Basic radiation protection training for nurses and paramedical personnel: Belgian experience and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarijs, T.; Coeck, M.; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Fremout, An

    2015-01-01

    When using ionising radiation for medical diagnosis or treatment of patients, understanding of relevant radiation protection principles and issues is indispensable. In Belgium, nurses and paramedical staff are required to acquire knowledge for protecting the patient against the detrimental effects of ionising radiation by means of a vocational training course. The experience with and challenges for this training course are presented here from a lecturer's point of view, together with a proposal for a future approach that harmonises the training content, its level and quality, according to European recommended standards. (authors)

  6. Organ-specific external dose coefficients and protective apron transmission factors for historical dose reconstruction for medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L

    2011-07-01

    ICRP/ICRU mono-energetic DCCs and the functions integrated over the air-kerma weighted photon fluence of the 12 defined x-ray spectra. The air kerma-weighted DCCs in this work were developed specifically for an irradiation geometry of anterior to posterior (AP) and for the following tissues: thyroid, breast, ovary, lens of eye, lung, colon, testes, heart, skin (anterior side only), red bone marrow (RBM), and brain. In addition, a series of functional relationships to predict DT Ka-1 values for RBM dependent on body mass index [BMI (kg m-2) ≡ weight per height] and average photon energy were derived from a published analysis. Factors to account for attenuation of radiation by protective lead aprons were also developed. Because lead protective aprons often worn by radiology personnel not only reduce the intensity of x-ray exposure but also appreciably harden the transmitted fluence of bremsstrahlung x-rays, DCCs were separately calculated for organs possibly protected by lead aprons by considering three cases: no apron, 0.25 mm Pb apron, and 0.5 mm Pb apron. For estimation of organ doses from conducting procedures with radioisotopes, continuous functions of the reported mono-energetic values were developed, and DCCs were derived by estimation of the function at relevant energies. By considering the temporal changes in primary exposure-related parameters (e.g., energy distribution), the derived DCCs and transmission factors presented here allow for more realistic historical dose reconstructions for medical personnel when monitoring badge readings are the primary data on which estimation of an individual's organ doses are based.

  7. RF generator interlock by plasma grid bias current - An alternate to Hα interlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Yadav, R. K.; Pandya, K.; Tyagi, H.; Vupugalla, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Bhagora, J.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    ROBIN is inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based negative hydrogen ion source, operated with a 100kW, 1MHz Tetrode based RF generator (RFG). Inductive plasma ignition by the RFG in ROBIN is associated with electron seeding by a hot filament and a gas puff. RFG is triggered by the control system to deliver power just at the peak pressure of the gas puff. Once plasma is ignited due to proper impedance matching, a bright light, dominated by Hα (˜656nm wavelength) radiation is available inside RF driver which is used as a feedback signal to the RFG to continue its operation. If impedance matching is not correct, plasma is not produced due to lack of power coupling and bright light is not available. During such condition, reflected RF power may damage the RFG. Therefore, to protect the RFG, it needs to be switched off automatically within 200ms by the control system in such cases. This plasma light based RFG interlock is adopted from BATMAN ion source. However, in case of vacuum immersed RF ion source in reactor grade NBI system, such plasma light based interlock may not be feasible due to lack of adequate optical fiber interfaces. In reactor grade NBI system, neutron and gamma radiations have impact on materials which may lead to frequent maintenance and machine down time. The present demonstration of RFG interlock by Bias Current (BC) in ROBIN testbed gives an alternate option in this regard. In ROBIN, a bias plate (BP) is placed in the plasma chamber near the plasma grid (PG). BP is electrically connected to the plasma chamber wall of the ion source and PG is isolated from the wall. A high current ˜85 A direct current (DC) power supply of voltage in the range of 0 - 33V is connected between the PG and the BP in such a way that PG can be biased positively with respect to the BP or plasma chamber. This arrangement is actually made to absorb electrons and correspondingly reduce co-extracted electron current during beam extraction. However, in case of normal plasma

  8. Influence of a carbohydrate drink on performance of military personnel in NBC protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Dijk, M.J. van; Boer, L.C.; Beek, E.J. van der

    1996-01-01

    Background: The increased threat of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) weapons underlines the need of protective clothing and gas masks, but this may impair performance. Thus, attention should be focused on the nutritional requirements. Hypothesis: Optimal performance is guaranteed if the supply

  9. The availability of appropriately fitting personal protective aprons and jackets for angiographic and interventional radiology personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremen, S.A.; McNulty, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the availability of personal protective equipment, lead or lead-free aprons or jackets, in angiographic and interventional radiology suites in the Republic of Ireland with a focus on the sizes available, appropriateness of fit and purchasing practices. Methods: All centres providing an angiographic or interventional radiology service in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate with data being collected by means of a postal questionnaire exploring the above issues. Results: The mean number of aprons or jackets available across the centres who responded to the survey was 18.4 with the majority of these, 72%, being medium or large in size. Clinical specialists in three centres identified that there were insufficient aprons or jackets sized extra small or extra large within their departments and only one centre had a purchasing policy in place where individual staff were assigned a personal apron or jacket. Conclusion: Ill-fitting aprons or jackets will reduce the shielding provided to certain body regions by personal protective equipment. The use of over-sized aprons or jackets by staff is of particular concern based on the potential for inadvertent exposure to tissues where cancers may potentially be induced due to poor armhole fit. It is important to carefully consider purchasing practices and range of personal protective equipment sizes available in order to ensure that all staff receive the greatest possible protection from occupational radiation exposure

  10. Macro-Micro Interlocked Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Simulation Science is now standing on a turning point. After the appearance of the Earth Simulator, HEC is struggling with several severe difficulties due to the physical limit of LSI technologies and the so-called latency problem. In this paper I would like to propose one clever way to overcome these difficulties from the simulation algorithm viewpoint. Nature and artificial products are usually organized with several nearly autonomously working internal systems (organizations, or layers). The Earth Simulator has gifted us with a really useful scientific tool that can deal with the entire evolution of one internal system with a sufficient soundness. In order to make a leap jump of Simulation Science, therefore, it is desired to design an innovative simulator that enables us to deal with simultaneously and as consistently as possible a real system that evolves cooperatively with several internal autonomous systems. Three years experience of the Earth Simulator Project has stimulated to come up with one innovative simulation algorithm to get rid of the technological barrier standing in front of us, which I would like to call 'Macro-Micro Interlocked Algorithm', or 'Macro-Micro Multiplying Algorithm', and present a couple of such examples to validate the proposed algorithm. The first example is an aurora-arc formation as a result of the mutual interaction between the macroscopic magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the microscopic field-aligned electron and ion system. The second example is the local heavy rain fall resulting from the interaction between the global climate evolution and the microscopic raindrop growth process. Based on this innovative feasible algorithm, I came up with a Macro-Micro Multiplying Simulator

  11. Training in radiation protection given to personnel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosson, M.; Lambinon, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Any action undertaken in technical training must aim at mastering the know-how appropriate to the work to be done. To develop a training program in radiation protection intended for persons who work in radioactive areas it is necessary to analyze the tasks corresponding to the work to be done then to install the means required to implement them. Evaluating the hazards (second stage training) is the sole responsibility of those in charge of work safety assisted where necessary by a specialist on specific hazard (specialized training). But all the staff, knowing the risks involved, must know how to protect themselves (first-stage training). Stage I and 2 trainings are given in site and call for specific teaching methods. It was necessary to create a further training course for them known as stage 3 training to prepare the instructors [fr

  12. Materials and means for protection of personnel performing liquidation of the Chernobyl' NPP acident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, Yu.N.; Sysoev, V.N.; Talachev, A.S.; Frid, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Composite materials (CM) on the basis of lead has been developed. Special polyethylene-polyisobutylene mixture or polyethylene were used as binding materials. This CM was made as plates with film pressed surface. Sheet of CM with 10 mm thickness may attenuate gamma radiation till 10 times. Cast polymer composition based on polyurethane has been developed for containment of the leed sheets. This composition was capable of hadening in operation process and having technical parameters needed for production of workpieces. Sn-50, Ce-58, Gd-64, W-74, Bi-83 were used for low-energy gamma radiation protection. They were introduced as powders of the elements or their mixtures in dissimilar polymer binders. The materials with high protective parameters were worked out. 1 fig

  13. Reinforce the radiation protection of the health personnel, patients and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    One of the missions of the IRSN is the public radiation protection. In this context and in order to inform the public, this press document presents the actions of the IRSN in the occupational safety, the patients and the public, with a special interest to the Chernobyl accident consequences in France. The prevention policy against the radon, implemented by the Institute is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  14. Role of the engineer in protecting personnel and the environment in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The engineer plays a key role in protecting both people and the environment from the adverse effects of radioactive materials. The nature of the hazards and some of the problems associated with plutonium and tritium operations are discussed and the solutions provided by sound engineering facility design are shown. Facility designs have been required for operations involving 239 Pu, 238 Pu and 3 H, and the different properties of these isotopes require differing solutions to design problems

  15. Optimization of the radiation protection: the value of Sv personnel for the occupational doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollet SaNudo, E.; Carmena Servet, P.

    1997-01-01

    Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) points out that most of the methods used in the optimization tend to emphasize the benefits and the detriment to society. The benefits and the detriments are unlikely to be distributed through the society in the same way. Optimization of protection may thus introduce a substantial inequity between one individual and another. To avoid this, the optimization principle is now formulated by ICRP as follows. The magnitude of the individual doses, the number of people exposed, and the likelihood of incurring exposures where are not certain to be received should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. This procedure should be constrained by restrictions on the doses to individuals or the risks to individuals, so as to limit the inequity likely to result from the inherent economic and social judgments. Beyond the optimal reduction of the collective exposure, now ICRP 60 recommends to reduce the number of persons exposed and the scatter of individual exposures. It is implicit in this recommendation that the high priority must be given to the highest individual exposures. Now the decision is made; in case of conflict, reduction of individual exposures should go first than reduction of collective exposures. In order to implement the optimization principle, this article suggests the introduction of a system to compute the reference monetary values of the person, sievert satisfying the new ICRP recommendations and ensuring a global coherence within the whole system of radiological protection. (Author) 13 refs

  16. Optimization of air distribution in a ventilated laboratory: applications to the personnel protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavasseur, C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals only with what occurs inside a ventilated room, that is to say with the evolution of air masses between the intake openings and the renewal openings. To understand the dynamics of this evolution, the inventory and the brief description of phenomena which are associated, are given: effect of an intake opening, free jet dynamics, effect of a renewal opening, renewal time, concept of homogenization, steady state or pulsed transfers, confinement principles, heat source influence. These notions are confronted with thoses of optimization of the protection [fr

  17. Formation in radiological protection of the personnel of sanitary installations in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina G, E.

    2006-01-01

    All the people that work with ionizing radiations should have a singular license according to that settled down in the effective legal standards in force in Peru. This authorization is granted by the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) after the postulant demonstrates that he can work in sure form in the application where it uses ionizing radiations. From 1972 the Superior Center of Nuclear Studies (CSEN) of the IPEN it has carried out diverse training courses on radiological safety and protection in medicine, industry and research, such it is so until the year 2005 it has organized 458 courses where 5872 people have been qualified in the country. 75% of people was qualified in the period 2000 - 2005. The courses are organized according to the specific work with radiations and in the one case of medical radiodiagnostic, dental radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy has been qualified 2337 people (doctors, medical technicians and technicians) by means of 174 courses made among the years 2000 at the 2005, corresponding 69,75% to people qualified in radiological protection in medical radiodiagnostic. (Author)

  18. The Diamond machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heron, M.T.; Lay, S.; Chernousko, Y.; Hamadyk, P.; Rotolo, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source Machine Protection System (MPS) manages the hazards from high power photon beams and other hazards to ensure equipment protection on the booster synchrotron and storage ring. The system has a shutdown requirement, on a beam mis-steer of under 1 msec and has to manage in excess of a thousand interlocks. This is realised using a combination of bespoke hardware and programmable logic controllers. The MPS monitors a large number of interlock signals from diagnostics instrumentation, vacuum instrumentation, photon front ends and plant monitoring subsystems. Based on logic it can then remove the source of the energy to ensure protection of equipment. Depending on requirements, interlocks are managed on a Local or a Global basis. The Global system is structured as two layers, and supports fast- and slow-response-time interlock requirements. A Global MPS module takes the interlock permits for a given interlock circuit from each of the cells of the accelerator, and, subject to all interlocks being good, produces a permit to operate the source of energy: the RF amplifier for vessel protection and the PSU for magnet protection. The Local MPS module takes fast Interlock inputs from one cell of the Storage Ring or one quadrant of the Booster. Fast interlocks are those that must drop the beam in under 400 μsec (the maximum speed of the interlock) in the event of failure. EPIC provides the user interface to the MPS system

  19. Tritium conversion and its influence on personnel protection at a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.; Phillips, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium gas is less hazardous than tritiated water. The difference appears to be on the order of 10 4 rather than the previously used figure of 10 2 . With an additional factor of 10 2 for protective clothing, a potential difference of 10 6 in the relative HTO to HT hazard results. The mechanisms for conversion of HT to HTO are not fully known but models presented strongly link the presence of H and OH radicals with the ultimate formation of water. Therefore a hindrance of this conversion may be possible by using specific quencher materials. The maintenance of tritium in the gaseous form then allows for a wider variety of tritium management schemes

  20. The Radiation Safety Interlock System for Top-Up Mode Operation at NSRRC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Chien Rong; Kao, Sheau-Ping; Liu, Joseph; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Wang, Jau-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The radiation safety interlock systems of NSRRC have been operated for more than a decade. Some modification actions have been implemented in the past to perfect the safe operation. The machine and its interlock system were originally designed to operate at the decay mode. Recently some improvement programs to make the machine injection from original decay mode to top-up mode at NSRRC has initiated. For users at experimental area the radiation dose resulted from top-up re-fill injections where safety shutters of beam-lines are opened will dominate. In addition to radiation safety action plans such as upgrading the shielding, enlarging the exclusion zones and improving the injection efficiency, the interlock system for top-up operation is the most important to make sure that injection efficiency is acceptable. To ensure the personnel radiation safety during the top-up mode, the safety interlock upgrade and action plans will be implemented. This paper will summarize the original design logic of the safety inter...

  1. Some aspects of operational reliability of the JET central interlock and safety system (CISS) in the period March 1984 to December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montfoort, Joop van.

    1987-01-01

    The Central Interlock and Safety System (CISS) provides basic safety functions for the JET plant. It monitors the status of emergency push buttons, access doors and plant equipment and takes corrective shutdown actions in the case that plant conditions are not compatible with safe operation. CISS consists of a hierarchical network of PLCs (programmable logic controllers) paralleling the CODAS architecture. It has been successfully in operation since June 1983 and has intervened many times and halted operation to protect JET from (further) damage or personnel against danger. The note will analyse genuine CISS failures only, and as will be shown, these failures are all due to malfunctioning of PLC hardware. All CISS failures have failed-safe and resulted in the expected shutdown action. Hence CISS failures have never resulted in a dangerous situation but they have restricted operational availability of JET. (author)

  2. Automated night/day standoff detection, tracking, and identification of personnel for installation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoff, Brian E.; Martin, Robert B.; Sluch, Mikhail; Kafka, Kristopher M.; McCormick, William; Ice, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The capability to positively and covertly identify people at a safe distance, 24-hours per day, could provide a valuable advantage in protecting installations, both domestically and in an asymmetric warfare environment. This capability would enable installation security officers to identify known bad actors from a safe distance, even if they are approaching under cover of darkness. We will describe an active-SWIR imaging system being developed to automatically detect, track, and identify people at long range using computer face recognition. The system illuminates the target with an eye-safe and invisible SWIR laser beam, to provide consistent high-resolution imagery night and day. SWIR facial imagery produced by the system is matched against a watch-list of mug shots using computer face recognition algorithms. The current system relies on an operator to point the camera and to review and interpret the face recognition results. Automation software is being developed that will allow the system to be cued to a location by an external system, automatically detect a person, track the person as they move, zoom in on the face, select good facial images, and process the face recognition results, producing alarms and sharing data with other systems when people are detected and identified. Progress on the automation of this system will be presented along with experimental night-time face recognition results at distance.

  3. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    ). Furthermore, the paper describes an interlocking table generator (ITG) that generates automatically a well-formed interlocking table from a well-formed railway network layout. Experiments with the DSL and ITG using the RAISE tools and the C++ implementation show that the use of the DSL and ITG can increase...... the productivity and significantly reduce errors in the specifications of railway interlocking systems....

  4. Automated generation of formal safety conditions from railway interlocking tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for extracting formal safety conditions from interlocking tables for railway interlocking systems. The tool has been applied to generate safety conditions for the interlocking system at Stenstrup station in Denmark, and the SAL model checker tool has been used to check...

  5. SaRDIn - A Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Gnesi, S.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Current computer-based interlocking systems most often have a centralized design, with all logic residing in a single computer. Centralized interlockings are complex to design. Following the general trend in Cyber-Physical Systems, the SaRDIn (Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlockings) concept...

  6. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal sounds...

  7. Administrative circular No.14 (Rev. 3) – Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and incapacity for work

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 3) entitled “Protection of members the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and incapacity for work”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 19 April 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department.   This circular is applicable to all members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 2) entitled “Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability” from July 2006. The circular was revised in order to improve the procedure before the Joint Advisory Rehabilitation and Disability Board (JARDB) and the management of long-term sick leave through a multidisciplinary approach launched upstream. The aim of this approach is to allow staff/fellows c...

  8. Development of rubberized geopolymer interlocking bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste tires contribute badly to the environment on a huge scale as they are bulky, non-biodegradable, and prone to fire and being a shelter for mosquitos and other insects. This paper reports on a novel approach towards the development of rubberized brick by utilizing crumb rubber as the sole fine aggregate in the production of geopolymer interlocking bricks. The response surface methodology (RSM from Design Experts software has been used to determine the numbers of trial mixes and their corresponding ingredients. A total of thirteen trial mixes were carried out and tested for compressive strength and the RSM model was developed to predict the design mix based on the targeted compressive strength. The mix design was obtained to be an 18 M for NaOH and 0.8 solution to fly ash ratio. The geopolymer interlocking rubberized bricks were then produced and tested for compressive strength, dimension, modulus of rupture, water absorption, initial rate of absorption, and efflorescence. The geopolymer interlocking rubberised bricks presented a low compressive and flexural strength and a high-water absorption capacity. The bricks were rated as non-effloresced and classified as 3rd class bricks which can be used as non-load bearing material. It is recommended to utilize nano silica in order to increase the strength of the brick. Keywords: Rubberized bricks, Crumb rubber, Interlocking bricks, Geopolymer, Response surface methodology

  9. Radiation safety interlocks at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, T.

    1985-07-01

    The function of the NSLS interlock systems is to insure that no one is in an area where there is hazardous radiation, and to turn off the radiation source if a person somehow gains access to such an area. The interlock systems for the high hazard areas meet the following design requirements: (1) The system is redundant, that is no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is done by providing 2 independent systems or circuits; (2) In so far as possible, the two circuits are physically different. This minimizes the possibility of related coincident failures; (3) The design is fail safe. This means that the most likely failure modes leave the system in a safe condition. For example, the following failures are safe: Loss of power in any part of the system, any combination of shorts to ground, and any combination of open circuits; and (4) The interlock system must be testable. Redundancy sometimes makes testing difficult, but testing schemes must be worked out, since an untested interlock is undependable

  10. Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Bliguet, Marie Le; Kjær, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways can be formally modelled and verified. Such systems are documented by circuit diagrams describing their static layout. It is explained how to derive a state transition system model for the dynamic behaviour...

  11. Lattice modeling of aggregate interlocking in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliáš, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    roughness, i.e.what is termed aggregate interlocking. We demonstrate this enhancement via the simulation of mixed-mode experiments on concrete performed at a laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark. Double notched concrete specimens were initially pre-cracked in tension. Then, various combinations...

  12. The Daresbury personnel safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.E.; Ring, T.

    1989-01-01

    The personnel safety system designed for the SRS at Daresbury is a unified system covering the three accelerators of the source itself, the beamlines and the experimental stations. The system has also been applied to the experimental areas of the Nuclear Structure Facility, and is therefore established as a site standard. A dual guardline interlock module forms a building block for a relay based interlock system completely independent of the machine control system, although comprehensive monitoring of the system status via the control system computer is a feature. An outline of the design criteria adopted for the system is presented together with a more detailed description of the philosophy of the guardline logic and the way this is implemented in a standard modular form. The emphasis is on the design features of a modern microprocessor based variant of the original SRS system. Experience with the original system during build-up and operation of the SRS facility is described. 2 refs., 4 figs

  13. Control and Interlocking System for Bending Magnet Front-end at Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sanjeev R.; Garg, Chander Kant; Nandedkar, R. V.

    2007-01-01

    We present control and interlock system developed for Indus-2 bending magnet front-end. The paper describes in detail the control of various signals associated with the front-end and the interlocking scheme implemented for the installed front-end. The number of signals associated with each front-end is ˜ 75. A control system is designed for monitoring temperature, pressure, airflow, water flow and control of vacuum gauges, fast shutter, water cooled shutter, safety shutter, pneumatic gate valves, sputter ion pump power supplies, beam position monitor etc. Two independent signals are generated for critical components that are used for software interlock and hard-wired interlock. The front-end control system is VME based and window 2000/XP workstation as an operator console. The CPU used is Motorola 68000-processor board of the VME bus having OS-9 real time operating system. One VME crate serves a cluster of 2-3 front ends. The communication between the VME and the workstation is linked over RS232 serial communication. The sputter ion power supplies are connected over isolated RS485 network. Critical protection features are implemented so that no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is implemented by providing two independent chains of protection (1) Hard wired in which relay logic is used and (2) Software. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed using Lab view Version 7.0.

  14. Control and Interlocking System for Bending Magnet Front-end at Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Sanjeev R.; Garg, Chander Kant; Nandedkar, R. V.

    2007-01-01

    We present control and interlock system developed for Indus-2 bending magnet front-end. The paper describes in detail the control of various signals associated with the front-end and the interlocking scheme implemented for the installed front-end. The number of signals associated with each front-end is ∼ 75. A control system is designed for monitoring temperature, pressure, airflow, water flow and control of vacuum gauges, fast shutter, water cooled shutter, safety shutter, pneumatic gate valves, sputter ion pump power supplies, beam position monitor etc. Two independent signals are generated for critical components that are used for software interlock and hard-wired interlock. The front-end control system is VME based and window 2000/XP workstation as an operator console. The CPU used is Motorola 68000-processor board of the VME bus having OS-9 real time operating system. One VME crate serves a cluster of 2-3 front ends. The communication between the VME and the workstation is linked over RS232 serial communication. The sputter ion power supplies are connected over isolated RS485 network. Critical protection features are implemented so that no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is implemented by providing two independent chains of protection (1) Hard wired in which relay logic is used and (2) Software. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed using Lab view Version 7.0

  15. Architecture for interlock systems: reliability analysis with regard to safety and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.; Apollonio, A.; Schmidt, R.; Zerlauth, M.; Vergara-Fernandez, A.

    2012-01-01

    For particle accelerators like LHC and other large experimental physics facilities like ITER, the machine protection relies on complex interlock systems. In the design of interlock loops for the signal exchange in machine protection systems, the choice of the hardware architecture impacts on machine safety and availability. The reliable performance of a machine stop (leaving the machine in a safe state) in case of an emergency, is an inherent requirement. The constraints in terms of machine availability on the other hand may differ from one facility to another. Spurious machine stops, lowering machine availability, may to a certain extent be tolerated in facilities where they do not cause undue equipment wear-out. In order to compare various interlock loop architectures in terms of safety and availability, the occurrence frequencies of related scenarios have been calculated in a reliability analysis, using a generic analytical model. This paper presents the results and illustrates the potential of the analysis method for supporting the choice of interlock system architectures. The results show the advantages of a 2003 (3 redundant lines with 2-out-of-3 voting) over the 6 architectures under consideration for systems with high requirements in both safety and availability

  16. The VICKSI monitor interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchardt, D.; Kluppak, B.

    1983-01-01

    Dose rate equivalents are monitored separately for all working areas and evaluated by a central unit. The accelerator is shut off automatically if the maximum permissible concentrations given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance are exceeded and if persons are endangered. However, the experimenter may, on his own responsibility, define certain areas as 'vacated' (no staff members inside). Operation can then proceed as desired. Entry of persons into these areas is checked by the central computer. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  18. INTERFIRM COOPERATION AND INFORMATION SHARING THROUGH INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belal UDDIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When firms engage in cooperative efforts, interfirm relations get particular interest to be studied. A direct interlock occurs when an executive or director of one firm sits on the board of another firm, and an indirect interlock occurs when two firms have directors or executives who sit on the board of a third firm. The three commonly used theoretical models such as social network theory, learning theory, and theory of strategic choice are more relevant for the formation and management of interlocking directorates. Uncertainty, resource scarcity, mutual trust, dependency, etc. influence the formation of interlocking directorates. Consequently, interlocking directorates allow sharing of information and overall cooperation between partners through learning, collaboration, networking, and effective relationship, etc. Proper management of interlocking directorates requires communication and collaboration among partners that enhance exchange of knowledge and cooperation.

  19. Development of the system for academic training of personnel engaged in nuclear material protection, control and accounting in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.

    2004-01-01

    educational problems in area of nuclear materials physical protection, control and accountability (MPC and A) in Russia. General scheme of Russian educational system is considered with main emphasis on the directions under implementation now, namely academic training system, re-training system and specialists qualification upgrade system in MPC and A area. Russian academic training system consists of the educational programs at various levels: Bachelor of Sciences, Master of Sciences, Specialist (also referred to as an Engineer Degree), and professional re-training of the personnel already working in the nuclear field. Currently, only the Master of Sciences Graduate Program is completely developed for the students training. This is taking place at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University, MEPhI), where the fourth generation of Masters has graduated from in May 2003. The graduates are now working at nuclear-related governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, and nuclear facilities. Development of the system to produce academically trained Russian MPC and A personnel is therefore well underway. MEPhI's MPC and A Engineering Degree Program which currently under development is considered in the paper. Analysis of MPC and A needs at Russian nuclear facilities has demonstrated the Engineering Degree Program is the best way to satisfy these needs and the resulting demands for MPC and A specialists at Russian nuclear enterprises. This paper discusses specific features of the Engineering Degree training required by Russian education legislation and the Russian system of quality control as applied to the training process. The paper summarizes the main joint actions undertaken during the past three years by MEPhI in collaboration with the US Department of Energy and US national laboratories to develop the MPC and A Engineering Degree Program in Russia. These actions include opening a new Engineering Degree specialty, Safeguards and Nonproliferation

  20. Formal modelling and verification of interlocking systems featuring sequential release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present a method and an associated toolchain for the formal verification of the new Danish railway interlocking systems that are compatible with the European Train Control System (ETCS) Level 2. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behaviour and generic...... safety properties. This model accommodates sequential release - a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. To verify the safety of an interlocking system, first a domain-specific description of interlocking configuration data is constructed and validated. Then the generic model and safety...

  1. Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1987-02-01

    This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Proposal for education. Education in radiation protection and equipment handling for personnel in X-ray applications that require permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Some stipulations are connected to the permits to use X-ray equipment for medical purposes, one of which is education of the personnel. At inspections SSI has found serious deficiencies in these educations. The quality of the education has large variations over the country, and at some hospitals it does not exist at all. In order to help the permit holders to increase the quality of the education, a proposal to a course has been worked out. The proposal contains advice on content and scope and disposition of the education for different categories of personnel

  3. A DUAL NETWORK MODEL OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphry Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an integrative framework for the study of interlocking directorates by using an approach that encompasses the concepts of multiple networks and resource endowment. This serves to integrate the traditional views of interorganizational linkages and intra-class cohesion. Through appropriate strategic analysis of relevant resource endowment of internal environment and external networks of organizations and corporate elites, this article argues that the selection of directors, if used effectively, can be adopted as a strategic device to enhance the corporation's overall performance.

  4. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification o...

  5. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    In this article the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification...

  6. Formal Verification of the Danish Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the new Danish interlocking systems. Instantiating the generic model with interlocking configuration data results in a concrete model and high-level safety properties. Using bounded model checking and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify safety properties for model instances corresponding to railway...

  7. Personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards

  8. Personnel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-31

    This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards

  9. PcInterlock: Implementation and Operational Experience with the Optics Interlock

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, Michaela; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Wenninger, Jorg

    2018-01-01

    In 2016 the luminosity reach of the LHC was increased by reducing the β-function in the main collision points below the design value to β∗ = 40 cm. This was possible due to a review of the margins in the collimation hierarchy followed by the implementation of additional measures to ensure the phase advance in defined ranges around the circumference. The risk of damaging the triplet or the tertiary collimators (TCTs) close to the interaction points in the event of an asynchronous beam dump is minimized by including margins in the collimation hierarchy, which define the β∗-reach. By guaranteeing the phase advance within an acceptable tolerance between the beam dump kicker and the TCTs, those margins can be reduced and operation at lower β∗ becomes possible. A new interlock system on the quadrupole magnet currents was put in place to safeguard the stability of the phase advance. This note describes the technical implementation of this power-converter interlock (PcInterlock) and the strategies used to...

  10. Radiation protection requirements for organizations practising mining activities which can bring about exposure of personnel, public, or the environment. Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The publication consists of the following articles: (1) Scope of State Office for Nuclear Safety recommendations; (2) Glossary of terms; (3) Radiation protection quantities; (4) General requirements for radiation protection and responsibilities of organizations; (5) Exposure limits; (6) Organizational and technical provisions of radiation protection; (7) Monitoring, measurement, evaluation, and recording of radiation protection-related quantities, parameters, and facts; (8) Utilization of monitoring data. Provisions to keep professional and public exposure within tolerable limits; (9) Decommissioning of workplaces handling ionizing radiation sources; (10) Waste handling; and (11) Transport of material arising from mining activities. The text is supplemented with 5 tabular annexes. (P.A)

  11. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (which will not allow someone with a positive BAC to drive) on their vehicles. While on the vehicle, interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism by two-thirds. Use of these devices has been growing at the rate of 10 to 15 percent a year, and there currently are more than 300,000 units in use. This expansion in the application of interlocks has benefited from the integration of other emerging technologies into interlock systems. Such technologies include data systems that record both driver actions and vehicle responses, miniature cameras and face recognition to identify the user, Wi-Fi systems to provide rapid reporting on offender performance and any attempt to circumvent the device, GPS tracking of the vehicle, and more rapid means for monitoring the integrity of the interlock system. This article describes how these health technologies are being applied in interlock programs and the outlook for new technologies and new court sanctioning programs that may influence the growth in the use of interlocks in the future.

  12. Analysis of interlocking performances on non-oriented electrical steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hsiang; Liu, Lee-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    In order to reduce energy loss in motor, applications of high-efficiency non-oriented electrical steel sheets and optimal laminating process are both important elements. The motor core loss deterioration is influenced by a number of factors, such as flux distribution, stress and strain, space harmonics, temperature, and short circuits between lamination. In conventional clamping method, steel sheets are laminated via interlocking or welding in general manner. The measured energy loss by welding was much larger than that by interlocking. Therefore, interlocking is well known and usually employed with benefit of easy conducting. The protuberance shapes affected the fastening strength. Generally, the intensity of rectangular type is stronger than the circular counterparts. However, the circular interlocking has better magnetic characteristics. To clarify the method effectiveness, interlocking performances regarding fastened strength and magnetic deterioration by lamination were investigated. The key parameters of protuberance shape and forming depth were designed. Precisely manufacturing operation was applied to avoid interlocking failure. Magnetic properties largely influenced by clamping method are crucial to minimizing the magnetic deterioration during laminating procedure. Several experiments for various processing conditions were undertaken, and the quantification results showed the rectangular interlocking had better fastened strength but worsened iron loss comparing with the circular arrangement. To acquire the comprehensive mechanical and electrical identities for electrical steel lamination, deliberate producing conditions regarding minimizing the magnetic deterioration should be adopted prudently.

  13. Reinforcing the role of the conventional C-arm - a novel method for simplified distal interlocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windolf Markus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The common practice for insertion of distal locking screws of intramedullary nails is a freehand technique under fluoroscopic control. The process is technically demanding, time-consuming and afflicted to considerable radiation exposure of the patient and the surgical personnel. A new concept is introduced utilizing information from within conventional radiographic images to help accurately guide the surgeon to place the interlocking bolt into the interlocking hole. The newly developed technique was compared to conventional freehand in an operating room (OR like setting on human cadaveric lower legs in terms of operating time and radiation exposure. Methods The proposed concept (guided freehand, generally based on the freehand gold standard, additionally guides the surgeon by means of visible landmarks projected into the C-arm image. A computer program plans the correct drilling trajectory by processing the lens-shaped hole projections of the interlocking holes from a single image. Holes can be drilled by visually aligning the drill to the planned trajectory. Besides a conventional C-arm, no additional tracking or navigation equipment is required. Ten fresh frozen human below-knee specimens were instrumented with an Expert Tibial Nail (Synthes GmbH, Switzerland. The implants were distally locked by performing the newly proposed technique as well as the conventional freehand technique on each specimen. An orthopedic resident surgeon inserted four distal screws per procedure. Operating time, number of images and radiation time were recorded and statistically compared between interlocking techniques using non-parametric tests. Results A 58% reduction in number of taken images per screw was found for the guided freehand technique (7.4 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD compared to the freehand technique (17.6 ± 10.3 (p p = 0.001. Operating time per screw (from first shot to screw tightened was on average 22% reduced by guided freehand (p = 0

  14. Reinforcing the role of the conventional C-arm--a novel method for simplified distal interlocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windolf, Markus; Schroeder, Josh; Fliri, Ladina; Dicht, Benno; Liebergall, Meir; Richards, R Geoff

    2012-01-25

    The common practice for insertion of distal locking screws of intramedullary nails is a freehand technique under fluoroscopic control. The process is technically demanding, time-consuming and afflicted to considerable radiation exposure of the patient and the surgical personnel. A new concept is introduced utilizing information from within conventional radiographic images to help accurately guide the surgeon to place the interlocking bolt into the interlocking hole. The newly developed technique was compared to conventional freehand in an operating room (OR) like setting on human cadaveric lower legs in terms of operating time and radiation exposure. The proposed concept (guided freehand), generally based on the freehand gold standard, additionally guides the surgeon by means of visible landmarks projected into the C-arm image. A computer program plans the correct drilling trajectory by processing the lens-shaped hole projections of the interlocking holes from a single image. Holes can be drilled by visually aligning the drill to the planned trajectory. Besides a conventional C-arm, no additional tracking or navigation equipment is required.Ten fresh frozen human below-knee specimens were instrumented with an Expert Tibial Nail (Synthes GmbH, Switzerland). The implants were distally locked by performing the newly proposed technique as well as the conventional freehand technique on each specimen. An orthopedic resident surgeon inserted four distal screws per procedure. Operating time, number of images and radiation time were recorded and statistically compared between interlocking techniques using non-parametric tests. A 58% reduction in number of taken images per screw was found for the guided freehand technique (7.4 ± 3.4) (mean ± SD) compared to the freehand technique (17.6 ± 10.3) (p < 0.001). Total radiation time (all 4 screws) was 55% lower for the guided freehand technique compared to conventional freehand (p = 0.001). Operating time per screw (from first

  15. Innovative Approaches to Enhance Safety and Radiation Protection on a PET RI/RF Producing Facility for Occupationally Exposed Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Sobarzo, M.J.; Tenreiro, C.; Sadeghi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The explosive demand for positron emission tomography (PET) and, recently introduced, fusion technology (PET/CT and soon commercially available PET/MRI) as non-invasive diagnostic tools of choice for clinical imaging, results on a world wide PET centers and PET RI/RF production facilities remarkably increment . A charged particle accelerator when operated for PET radionuclides production produces ionizing radiation. The multi curies radionuclides from the accelerator and the radiopharmaceuticals synthesized are ionizing radiations emitters open sources. Therefore, the probability of unexpected radiation exposure is always present along full production line, from target loading for irradiation to final dose dispensing.Improving safety working conditions requires permanent radiological risks assessment associated with the production process for accelerator operators, radio chemist and hot cell assistants as well as other occupationally exposed personnel.In this work we present some of the experimental improvements added to our Cyclone 18/9 operation and routinely 18 FDG production process to improve personnel radioprotection. These approaches apply for professionals working on other accelerator field such as non-destructive analytical and tracer technicians at research and industrial levels with charged particle accelerators

  16. A new interlock design for the TESLA RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, H.; Kahl, J.; Choroba, S.; Grevsmuehl, T.; Heidbrook, N.

    2001-01-01

    The RF system for TESLA requires a comprehensive interlock system. Usually interlock systems are organized in a hierarchical way. In order to react to different fault conditions in a fast and flexible manner a nonhierarchical organization seems to be the better solution. At the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) at DESY the authors will install a nonhierarchical interlock system that is based on user designed reprogrammable gate-arrays (FPGA's) which incorporate an embedded microcontroller system. This system could be used later for the TESLA linear collider replacing a strictly hierarchical design

  17. Beam interlock system and safe machine parameters system 2010 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, B

    2010-01-01

    The Beam Interlock System (BIS) and Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system are central to the protection of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine. The BIS has been critical for the safe operation of LHC from the first day of operation. It has been installed and commissioned, only minor enhancements are required in order to accommodate all future LHC machine protection requirements. At reduced intensity, the SMP system is less critical for LHC operation. As such, the current system satisfies the 2010 operational requirements. Further developments are required, both at the SMP Controller level, and at the system level, in order to accommodate the requirements of the LHC beyond 2010.

  18. Main radiation protection actions for medical personnel as primary responders front of an event with radiological dispersive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, Hildanielle Ramos

    2015-01-01

    After the terrorist attack in New York, USA, in 2001, there was a worldwide concern about possible attacks using radioactive material in conventional detonators, called as Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. Several studies have been and are being made to form a global knowledge about this type of event. As until now, fortunately, there has not been an event with RDD, the Goiania Radiological Accident in Brazil, 1987, is used as a reference for decision-making. Several teams with technical experts should act in an event with RDD, but the medical staffs who respond quickly to the event must be properly protected from the harmful effects of radiation. Based on the radiological protection experts performance during the Goiania accident and the knowledge from lessons learned of many radiological accidents worldwide, this work presents an adaptation of the radiation protection actions for an event with RDD that helps a medical team as primary responders. The following aspects are presented: the problem of radioactive contamination from the explosion of the device in underground environment, the actions of the first responders and evaluation of health radiation effects. This work was based on specialized articles and papers about radiological accidents and RDD; as well as personal communication and academic information of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The radiation protection actions, adapted to a terrorist attack event with RDD, have as a scenario a subway station in the capital. The main results are: the use of the basic radiation protection principle of time because there is no condition to take care of a patient keeping distance or using a shielding; the use of full appropriate protection cloths for contaminating materials ensuring the physical safety of professionals, and the medical team monitoring at the end of a medical procedure, checking for surface contamination. The main conclusion is that all medical actions

  19. Synthesis of interlocked molecules by olefin metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Paul Gregory

    A large body of work in the Grubbs group has focused on the development of functional-group tolerant ruthenium alkylidene catalysts that perform a number of olefin metathesis reactions. These catalysts have seen application in a wide range of fields, including classic total synthesis as well as polymer and materials chemistry. One particular family of compounds, interlocked molecules, has benefitted greatly from these advances in catalyst stability and activity. This thesis describes several elusive and challenging interlocked architectures whose syntheses have been realized through the utilization of different types of ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis reactions. Ring-closing olefin metathesis has enabled the synthesis of a [c2]daisy-chain dimer with the ammonium binding site near the cap of the dimer. A deprotonated DCD possessing such a structural attribute will more forcefully seek to restore coordinating interactions upon reprotonation, enhancing its utility as a synthetic molecular actuator. Dimer functionalization facilitated incorporation into linear polymers, with a 48% size increase of an unbound, extended analogue of the polymer demonstrating slippage of the dimer units. Ongoing work is directed at further materials studies, in particular, exploring the synthesis of macroscopic networks containing the DCD units and analyzing the correlation between molecular-scale extension-contraction manipulations and resulting macro-scale changes. A "clipping" approach to a polycatenated cyclic polymer, a structure that resembles a molecular "charm bracelet", has been described. The use of ring-opening metathesis polymerization of a carbamate monomer in the presence of a chain transfer agent allowed for the synthesis of a linear polymer that was subsequently functionalized and cyclized to the corresponding cyclic analogue. This cyclic polymer was characterized through a variety of techniques, and subjected to further functionalization reactions, affording a cyclic

  20. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format

  1. Refining the maintenance techniques for Interlocking Concrete Paver GIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface clogging adversely affects the performance of Interlocking Concrete Pavements (ICP) by reducing their ability to infiltrate stormwater runoff. The clogging rate is a function of pavement type, traffic loading, surrounding physical environment and maintenance treatments. ...

  2. Interlock system of electron beam machine GJ-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnada, Nada

    1999-01-01

    As an irradiation installation facility, the electron beam machine (EBM) irradiation facility which use radionuclide as radiation source. There are three safety aspects to be considered in the facility i.e the safeties for human, machines, and samples to be irradiated. The safety aspect for human is to the radiation hazard and the safety aspect for machine and sample is to the damage as the result of operating failure. In the EBM GJ-2 (made in China) twelve interlock system parameter are installed to keep all of the safety aspects. Each interlock system consist transducer that controls a certain switch, a magnetic relay, and visible and audible interlock indicators to improve the reliability of interlock systems a method called redundancy method is applied to the systems of operation of high voltage. (author)

  3. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications, reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  4. Results and prospects of personnel protection against radiation in a low and medium level waste storage center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, J.; Lasseur, C.

    1982-01-01

    The national low- and intermediate-level waste storage center (CM) located near the Channel is presented, together with its history, the various regulations governing it and their incidence on its operation. A description is given of the radiation sources and workplaces to be found in this kind of waste storage center. The radiation protection problems associated with the respective workplaces are analysed: organization, prevention, collective and individual protection, dosimetry. Occupational radiation exposures from 1970 to 1980 are presented. The various means of reducing operating workers' exposures are discussed, especially the incidence of transportation [fr

  5. Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety No. 146/1997 of 18 June 1997 specifying activities which have an immediate impact on nuclear safety, and activities which are particularly important with respect to radiation protection, requirements for qualification and professional training, procedures for examining special professional competence and for granting certificates to selected personnel, and the scope and structure of documentation to be approved for permitting the training of selected personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Decree specifies requirements in the following fields: (a) activities which have an immediate impact on nuclear safety and activities which are particularly important with respect to radiation protection; (b) requirements for the qualification of selected personnel; (c) requirements for professional training of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources who are to gain special professional competence; (d) examination commission; (e) examination of special professional competence of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources; (f) granting permission to perform activities of selected personnel; and (g) scope and structure of documentation required to permit professional training of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources. (P.A.)

  6. Historical accounts of the radiation protection- Dosimetric surveillance of L. Berard Center personnel from 1960 to 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, H.

    1990-09-01

    In this thesis, the author describes the discovery of radiations, their first medical applications and first accidents that have been in the beginning of radiation protection and of its development. The author explains how the dosimetric monitoring has been organized at L. Berard Centre in Lyon (France)

  7. The compliance with and knowledge about radiation protection in operating room personnel: a cross-sectional study with a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzsch, Thorsten; Pietsch, Christiane M; Stigler, Brigitte; Ramseier, Leonhard E; Seifert, Burkhardt; Werner, Clément M L

    2015-09-01

    Radiation protection is becoming more important with an ongoing increase in radiation exposure due to the use of X-rays in minimally invasive procedures in orthopaedic and trauma surgeries. However, sufficient education in medical physics and radiation protection can often be improved. A questionnaire consisting of four questions about personal data and ten questions about radiation protection was distributed to lead consultants, consultants, residents, medical students, and medical technical assistants at two institutions, a level 1 trauma center and a children's hospital. This study consisted of 83 participants. The compliance with radiation protection, i.e., usage of a dosimetry, an apron, and a thyroid shield on a regular basis was only seen in 54 %. Participants from the trauma center wore a dosimeter and thyroid shield significantly more often. The regular use of a thyroid shield differed significantly between job positions. It was observed in 80 % of students, but only 15 % of technical assistants. Only 65 % of all knowledge questions were answered correctly. There was a discrepancy between incorrectly answered knowledge questions (35 %) and those marked as uncertain (20 %). Different job positions did not have an impact on the answers to the questions in most instances. The compliance with and the knowledge about radiation protection seems to be unnecessarily low in trauma physicians and technical assistants. The discrepancy in falsely answered questions and those marked as uncertain may suggest that participants may overestimate their knowledge about radiation protection, which is potentially harmful due to the increased radiation exposure. Therefore, we advocate a quick and valuable training of trauma surgeons and medical staff addressing the important preventive measures, some of which are illustrated in the present study. These consist of wearing dosimetry and protection devices, reduction in X-ray duration, preferably antero-posterior C-arm positioning

  8. Artificial nanomachines based on interlocked molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Credi, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The extension of the concept of machine to the molecular level is of great interest for the growth of nanoscience and the development of nanotechnology. A molecular machine can be defined as an assembly of a discrete number of molecular components (that is, a supramolecular structure) designed to perform a function through the mechanical movements of its components, which occur under appropriate external stimulation. Hence, molecular machines contain a motor part, that is a device capable of converting energy into mechanical work. Molecular motors and machines operate via nuclear rearrangements and, like their macroscopic counterparts, are characterized by the kind of energy input supplied to make them work, the manner in which their operation can be monitored, the possibility to repeat the operation at will, i.e., establishing a cyclic process, the timescale needed to complete a cycle of operation, and the performed function. Owing to the progresses made in several branches of chemistry, and to the better understanding of the operation mechanisms of molecular machines of the biological world, it has become possible to design and construct simple prototypes of artificial molecular motors and machines. Some examples based on rotaxanes, catenanes, and related interlocked molecules will be described

  9. Abstracts of the first ORNL workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: characterization and measurement with a view toward personnel protection. [PAH from coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R.B. (comp.)

    1976-11-01

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at a workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as those produced by coal conversion technologies. Their often carcinogenic nature imposes the obligation of providing adequate protection and measurement devices for workers and for the general public. The primary questions are as follows: What should be measured. Where and how should it be measured. What are the maximum permissible concentrations. This workshop and future workshops are intended to bring these problems into better focus and to help establish a consensus on what needs to be done in order to provide a dosimetry effort that will ensure the adequate protection of personnel. There were 32 attendees of this one-day meeting. The papers and discussions included current industrial hygiene practices, the development of government agency guidelines for worker protection, and a wide range of analytical techniques for PAH detection, some of which are still in the research stage and are unproven. The workshop was held at ORNL on February 26, 1976.

  10. Program of training and technical expertise in radiation protection for personnel of medical radiology; Programa de capacitacao e especializacao tecnica em protecao radiologica para profissionais em radiologia medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio R. de, E-mail: oliveirasr@fiocruz.br [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (EPSJV/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica de Saude Joaquim Venancio

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to verify the actual conditions for the training of technicians in Radiology, in relation to the knowledge of radiation protection in the field of Medical Diagnostic Radiology. To evaluate the knowledge of professionals was prepared a questionnaire on the topic, having been answered by workers with varied experience. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, being the initial self-evaluation, followed by closed and open issues, all specific knowledge. With a total of 55 questionnaires answered, it was found that 85% of respondents consider themselves able to work in the area performing the function, but when questioned about the technical details regarding the exposure to ionizing radiation, it was found that only 15% of respondents had some knowledge about the subject. In relation to Radiological Protection, was found that little more than 10% of the respondents know about the subject. The results found in this survey outlined the creation of a technical specialization course in radiation protection, which is part of the permanent staff of course of the Polytechnical School of Health of FIOCRUZ, solving, partially, one of the problems pointed out today by health bodies, that is the lack of trained personnel.

  11. Personal Protective Equipment Guide for Military Medical Treatment Facility Personnel Handling Casualties From Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Ebola, and Marburg viruses may be particularly prone to aerosol nosocomial spread. Not all infected patients develop VHFs. 3. There must be...strict adherence to hand hygiene (Ref. 100): Health care workers should clean their hands prior to donning personal protective equipment for patient...good example of a nonstochastic effect of radiation (Ref. 103). Nosocomial infection Infection acquired in the hospital. Nucleocapsid In a

  12. Radiation protection in dentistry: analysis of Faculties of Dentistry from State of Rio de Janeiro in relation to personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha Filho, L.G.; Borges, J.C.; Raymundo Junior, R.; Koch, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work is to show the need and the importance of the training and formation of the dentist in radioprotection, in accordance with the recent proposal of Technical Regulation Guidelines of Radiation Protection in radiodiagnostic in Medicine and Odontology, from the ministry of Health, which established basic for radioprotection in medicine and odontology, including the principles, limits, obligations and basic controls for protection of man and the environment, against possible improper effects caused by the use of ionizing radiation sources. Departing from results obtained previously by a research about training and Formation of the dentist in Radioprotection, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a questionnaire was applied to know better the abilities of our dentist. Analysis of programs of disciplines in schools of dentist, in the sate of Rio de Janeiro indicate that they show little or no concern with radiological protection. This was confirmed through a first questionnaire applied to students, dentist teachers, which corroborates with results of the last questionnaire. This work suggests creation or adaptation of existent disciplines, involving radioprotection and quality of images in radiodiagnostic, to improve, complement, and make uniform the formation future dentists. (author)

  13. Significance and principles of the calculation of the effective dose equivalent for radiological protection of personnel and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.; Williams, G.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the effective dose equivalent, Hsub(E), concept for radiological protection assessments of occupationally exposed persons is justifiable by the practicability thus achieved with regard to the limiting principles. Nevertheless, it would be proper logic to further use as the basic limiting quantity the real physical dose equivalent of homogeneous whole-body exposure, and for inhomogeneous whole-body irradiation the Hsub(E) value, calculated by means of the concept of the effective dose equivalent. For then the required concepts, models and calculations would not be connected with a basic radiation protection quantity. Application of the effective dose equivalent for radiation protection assessments for patients is misleading and is not practical with regard to assessing an individual or collective radiation risk of patients. The quantity of expected harm would be better suited to this purpose. There is no need to express the radiation risk by a dose quantity, which means careless handling of good information. (orig./WU) [de

  14. Seasonal influenza vaccine and protection against pandemic (H1N1 2009-associated illness among US military personnel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Johns

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A novel A/H1N1 virus is the cause of the present influenza pandemic; vaccination is a key countermeasure, however, few data assessing prior seasonal vaccine effectiveness (VE against the pandemic strain of H1N1 (pH1N1 virus are available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveillance of influenza-related medical encounter data of active duty military service members stationed in the United States during the period of April-October 2009 with comparison of pH1N1-confirmed cases and location and date-matched controls. Crude odds ratios (OR and VE estimates for immunized versus non-immunized were calculated as well as adjusted OR (AOR controlling for sex, age group, and history of prior influenza vaccination. Separate stratified VE analyses by vaccine type (trivalent inactivated [TIV] or live attenuated [LAIV], age groups and hospitalization status were also performed. For the period of April 20 to October 15, 2009, a total of 1,205 cases of pH1N1-confirmed cases were reported, 966 (80% among males and over one-half (58% under 25 years of age. Overall VE for service members was found to be 45% (95% CI, 33 to 55%. Immunization with prior season's TIV (VE = 44%, 95% CI, 32 to 54% as well as LAIV (VE = 24%, 95% CI, 6 to 38% were both found to be associated with protection. Of significance, VE against a severe disease outcome was higher (VE = 62%, 95% CI, 14 to 84% than against milder outcomes (VE = 42%, 95% CI, 29 to 53%. CONCLUSION: A moderate association with protection against clinically apparent, laboratory-confirmed Pandemic (H1N1 2009-associated illness was found for immunization with either TIV or LAIV 2008-09 seasonal influenza vaccines. This association with protection was found to be especially apparent for severe disease as compared to milder outcome, as well as in the youngest and older populations. Prior vaccination with seasonal influenza vaccines in 2004-08 was also independently associated with protection.

  15. Personnel Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)

  16. The protection of labour against radioactivity in French uranium mines; Mesures prises dans les mines d'uranium de France pour assurer la protection du personnel contre les dangers de la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avril, R; Berger, Ch; Duhamel, F; Pradel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The exploration and working of radioactive mineral deposits expose those concerned to both external and internal irradiation. Special protective measures are therefore required. In French mines, systematic monitoring and the observation of safety rules are applied effectively in combating irradiation risk. The preventive measures, however, considerably affect the manner of working and consequently boost the cost of the ore. (author) [French] Les travaux de recherches et d'exploitation executes dans les gisements de substances radioactives exposent le personnel des irradiations internes et externes necessitant des mesures speciales de protection. Dans les mines fran ises, un controle systematique des conditions de travail permet de mener de fa n efficace la lutte contre ces irradiations en respectant certaines normes de securite. Les mesures de prevention ont des repercussions sensibles sur la conduite de l'exploitation et, par suite, sur le prix de revient du minerai extrait. (auteur)

  17. Development of a system for academic training of the personnel engaged in nuclear material protection, control and accounting in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onykiy, B.N.; Kryuchkov, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    The main attention in the present paper is focused on discussing the educational problems in the area of nuclear materials physical protection, control and accountability (MPC and A) in Russia. Currently, only the Master of Science Graduate Program has been completely developed for students training. This is taking place at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University, MEPhI), where the sixth generation of Masters has graduated in May 2004. The MPC and A Engineer Degree Program, currently under development at MEPhI, is considered in the paper. This paper discusses specific features of the Engineer Degree training required by the Russian educational legislation and the Russian quality control system as applied to the training process. The paper summarises the main joint actions undertaken during the past three years by MEPhI in collaboration with the US Department of Energy and US National Laboratories for developing the MPC and A Engineer Degree Program in Russia. (author)

  18. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Javed, S.; Khan, G.N.; Aziz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Methodology: Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Results: Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Conclusion: Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function. (author)

  19. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Shahzad; Khan, Gauhar Nawaz; Aziz, Amer

    2013-03-01

    To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Case series. Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function.

  20. Site security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    As required by 10 CFR Part 73, this training manual provides guidance to assist licensees in the development of security personnel training and qualifications programs. The information contained in the manual typifies the level and scope of training for personnel assigned to perform security related tasks and job duties associated with the protection of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors

  1. JACoW Versatile service for the protection of experimental areas at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Valentini, Francesco; Ninin, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    CERN hosts a number of other experimental areas with a rich research program ranging from fundamental physics to medical applications. The risk assessments have shown a large palette of potential hazards (radiological, electrical, chemical, laser, etc.) that need to be properly mitigated in order to ensure the safety of personnel working inside these areas. A Personnel Protection System, typically, accomplishes this goal by implementing a certain number of heterogeneous functionalities as interlocks of critical elements, management of a local HMI, data monitoring and interfacing with RFID badge readers. Given those requirements, reducing system complexity and costs are key parameters to be optimized in the solution. This paper is aimed at summarizing the findings, in terms of costs, complexity and maintenance reduction, offered by a technology from National Instruments® based on cRIO controllers and a new series of SIL-3 certified safety I/O modules. A use case based on a service for the protection of Class ...

  2. Poly[n]catenanes: Synthesis of molecular interlocked chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Rauscher, Phillip M.; Lang, Xiaolong; Wojtecki, Rudy J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Hore, Michael J. A.; Rowan, Stuart J.

    2017-12-01

    As the macromolecular version of mechanically interlocked molecules, mechanically interlocked polymers are promising candidates for the creation of sophisticated molecular machines and smart soft materials. Poly[n]catenanes, where the molecular chains consist solely of interlocked macrocycles, contain one of the highest concentrations of topological bonds. We report, herein, a synthetic approach toward this distinctive polymer architecture in high yield (~75%) via efficient ring closing of rationally designed metallosupramolecular polymers. Light-scattering, mass spectrometric, and nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of fractionated samples support assignment of the high-molar mass product (number-average molar mass ~21.4 kilograms per mole) to a mixture of linear poly[7-26]catenanes, branched poly[13-130]catenanes, and cyclic poly[4-7]catenanes. Increased hydrodynamic radius (in solution) and glass transition temperature (in bulk materials) were observed upon metallation with Zn2+.

  3. Transportation security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Objective of this manual is to train security personnel to protect special nuclear materials and nuclear facilities against theft and sabotage as required by 10 CFR Part 73. This volume contains the introduction and rationale

  4. Design review report for the hydrogen interlock preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the completion of a preliminary design review for the hydrogen interlock. The hydrogen interlock, a proposed addition to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system portable exhauster, is intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to validate basic design assumptions and concepts to support a path forward leading to a final design. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward a final design review

  5. Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates seque...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....

  6. Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates seque...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....

  7. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  8. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that mechanical... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking...

  9. Homodyne reflectometer for NBI interlock on Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenji; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kawahata, Kazuo; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Ejiri, Akira

    2001-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) under low density causes serious damage on vacuum vessel wall. It is necessary to stop NBI when electron density becomes lower than 1x10 19 m -3 . This needs reliable density monitor for NBI interlock. A three-channel homodyne reflectometer was installed on Large Helical Device (LHD) and was used for NBI interlock. 28.5, 34.9 and 40.2 GHz Gunn oscillators were used with O mode injection. Their O mode cut off density correspond to 1x10 19 , 1.5x10 19 and 2x10 19 m -3 respectively. The simple homodyne detection is presently used. When the density reaches to the cutoff density, the reflected signals are detected. The reflected signal consists of DC signal due to local and reflected power, and AC signal due to position of cut off layer and density fluctuation. Since the change of DC signal at lower and higher than cut off density was very small, root mean square (RMS) value of AC signal were used for interlock signal. This interlock system is successfully working from the beginning of the NBI experiments campaign on LHD. (author)

  10. Board and auditor interlocks and voluntary disclosure in annual reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Borghans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore whether interlock ties between the board of directors and the external auditors facilitate the cross-firm diffusion of voluntary disclosures in annual reports. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 149 non-financial companies publicly

  11. Protecting Healthcare Personnel in Outpatient Settings: The Influence of Mandatory Versus Nonmandatory Influenza Vaccination Policies on Workplace Absenteeism During Multiple Respiratory Virus Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John; Brown, Alexandria C; Cummings, Derek A; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Gibert, Cynthia L; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Los, Jenna G; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Perl, Trish M; Price, Connie S; Radonovich, Lewis J; Reich, Nicholas G; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Bessesen, Mary T; Simberkoff, Michael S

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of mandatory and nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies on vaccination rates and symptomatic absenteeism among healthcare personnel (HCP). DESIGN Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING This study took place at 3 university medical centers with mandatory influenza vaccination policies and 4 Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare systems with nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies. PARTICIPANTS The study included 2,304 outpatient HCP at mandatory vaccination sites and 1,759 outpatient HCP at nonmandatory vaccination sites. METHODS To determine the incidence and duration of absenteeism in outpatient settings, HCP participating in the Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Clinical Trial at both mandatory and nonmandatory vaccination sites over 3 viral respiratory illness (VRI) seasons (2012-2015) reported their influenza vaccination status and symptomatic days absent from work weekly throughout a 12-week period during the peak VRI season each year. The adjusted effects of vaccination and other modulating factors on absenteeism rates were estimated using multivariable regression models. RESULTS The proportion of participants who received influenza vaccination was lower each year at nonmandatory than at mandatory vaccination sites (odds ratio [OR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-0.11). Among HCP who reported at least 1 sick day, vaccinated HCP had lower symptomatic days absent compared to unvaccinated HCP (OR for 2012-2013 and 2013-2014, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72-0.93; OR for 2014-2015, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.95). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that mandatory HCP influenza vaccination policies increase influenza vaccination rates and that HCP symptomatic absenteeism diminishes as rates of influenza vaccination increase. These findings should be considered in formulating HCP influenza vaccination policies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:452-461.

  12. Enhanced Assessment of the Health Status of Vaccine Protected Personnel At-Risk to Multiple Biowarfare Agents Using a Novel, Web-Based Clinical Data Management System (CDMS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCreery, Michael J; Brown, J. E; Mayer, Susan C; Boudreau, Ellen; Kortepeter, Mark; Haller, Jeannine; Moynihan, Heidi; Goebel, Brad; Petitt, Patricia; Aldis, John

    2004-01-01

    ...) clinical research regulations. The program offers unique immunization and occupational health services for in-house laboratory staff, as well as for deployed military personnel and other Federal employees who are at...

  13. The vacuum interlock system for the CELSIUS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, K.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum interlock system has been designed and built for the CELSIUS storage ring. The ultrahigh-vacuum system of CELSIUS has a design pressure of 10 -11 mbar. This is achieved by using vacuum-fired stainless-steel chambers, baking the whole ring to 300degC and running some 50 sputter ion and titanium sublimation pumps. The turbopumps, combined with roughing pumps, are used during the pump-down and the bake-out. The pressure is monitored by Penning vacuum gauges. There is a number of programmable pressure thresholds set to trigger various events (like closing the sector valves, disabling the bake-out, etc.). The interlock system is based on the Mitsubishi programmable logic controller (PLC). An IBM PC is used as an operator's console. The operation and performance of the system is described. On the basis of present experience an upgrading of the system is suggested. (orig.)

  14. Metal-organic frameworks with dynamic interlocked components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukotic, V. Nicholas; Harris, Kristopher J.; Zhu, Kelong; Schurko, Robert W.; Loeb, Stephen J.

    2012-06-01

    The dynamics of mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes have been studied in solution as examples of rudimentary molecular switches and machines, but in this medium, the molecules are randomly dispersed and their motion incoherent. As a strategy for achieving a higher level of molecular organization, we have constructed a metal-organic framework material using a [2]rotaxane as the organic linker and binuclear Cu(II) units as the nodes. Activation of the as-synthesized material creates a void space inside the rigid framework that allows the soft macrocyclic ring of the [2]rotaxane to rotate rapidly, unimpeded by neighbouring molecular components. Variable-temperature 13C and 2H solid-state NMR experiments are used to characterize the nature and rate of the dynamic processes occurring inside this unique material. These results provide a blueprint for the future creation of solid-state molecular switches and molecular machines based on mechanically interlocked molecules.

  15. Design of responsive materials using topologically interlocked elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotnikov, A; Gerbrand, R; Qi, Y; Simon, G P; Estrin, Y

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a novel approach to designing responsive structures by segmentation of monolithic plates into an assembly of topologically interlocked building blocks. The particular example considered is an assembly of interlocking osteomorphic blocks. The results of this study demonstrate that the constraining force, which is required to hold the blocks together, can be viewed as a design parameter that governs the bending stiffness and the load bearing capacity of the segmented structure. In the case where the constraining forces are provided laterally using an external frame, the maximum load the assembly can sustain and its stiffness increase linearly with the magnitude of the lateral load applied. Furthermore, we show that the segmented plate with integrated shape memory wires employed as tensioning cables can act as a smart structure that changes its flexural stiffness and load bearing capacity in response to external stimuli, such as heat generated by the switching on and off an electric current. (paper)

  16. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  17. External jig in the placement of distal interlocking screws | Ikem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrograde (52.2%) was the commonest surgical approach used for femur. The main indication for SIGN interlocking surgery was recent fracture 77.8%. Open reduction 97.8% was the commonest method of reduction used. The mean±SD bone union time was 3.58±0.56 months and range 3-5 months. Distal screw insertion ...

  18. Automatic Verification of Railway Interlocking Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob Lyng

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experiences in applying formal verification to a large industrial piece of software. The are of application is railway interlocking systems. We try to prove requirements of the program controlling the Swedish railway Station Alingsås by using the decision procedure which...... express thoughts on what is needed in order to be able to successfully verify large real-life systems....

  19. Effects of Interlocking and Supporting Conditions on Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Geetimukta; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-02-01

    Concrete Block Paving (CBP) is widely used as wearing course in flexible pavements, preferably under light and medium vehicular loadings. Construction of CBP at site is quick and easy in quality control. Usually, flexible pavement design philosophy is followed in CBP construction, though it is structurally different in terms of small block elements with high strength concrete and their interlocking aspects, frequent joints and discontinuity, restrained edge etc. Analytical solution for such group action of concrete blocks under loading in a three dimensional multilayer structure is complex and thus, the need of conducting experimental studies is necessitated for extensive understanding of the load—deformation characteristics and behavior of concrete blocks in pavement. The present paper focuses on the experimental studies for load transfer characteristics of CBP under different interlocking and supporting conditions. It is observed that both interlocking and supporting conditions affect significantly on the load transfer behavior in CBP structures. Coro-lock block exhibits better performance in terms of load carrying capacity and distortion behavior under static loads. Plate load tests are performed over subgrade, granular sub-base (GSB), CBP with and without GSB using different block shapes. For an example case, the comparison of CBP with conventional flexible pavement section is also presented and it is found that CBP provides considerable benefit in terms of construction cost of the road structure.

  20. Determinants of Board Interlocking in the Brazilian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ribeiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this article was to identify the main determinants of Board Interlocking in the Brazilian capital market. As the theoretical structure, the Agency theory and Corporate Governance, the Resource Dependence theory and the Board of Administrators and the Characteristics of Board Interlocking. The sample consists of 58 Brazilian companies that participate in the Bovespa Index (Ibovespa. An empirical analytic study was undertaken. With regard to the objectives, it is characterized as exploratory and, with regard to the procedures, a documentary research was undertaken. The data on the Boards of Administrators were collected from the Reference Forms available on the website of the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA. The results found demonstrate the generalized presence of Board Interlocking in these companies, normally associated with four factors: (1 economic group formation; (2 governmental control; (3 formation of pension funds; and (4 presence of professionals with acknowledged market experience. The results also suggest that the first three factors give rise to long-lasting links and that these connections are hard to break. On the other hand, the links established through professionals with market experience tend to be more unstable because the presence of these professionals is highly demanded to serve on the board of different companies.

  1. Achieving interlocking nails without using an image intensifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Innocent C; Ogunlusi, Johnson D; Ine, Henry R

    2007-08-01

    Interlocking nails are commonly performed using an image intensifier. These are expensive and are not readily available in most resource-poor countries of the world. The aim of this study was to achieve interlocking nailing without the use of an image intensifier. This is a prospective descriptive analysis of 40 consecutive cases seen with shaft fractures of the humerus, femur, and tibia. Fracture fixation was done using Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) nails. Forty limbs in 34 patients were studied. There were 12 females and 22 males, giving a ratio of 1:2. The mean age (years) was 35.75+/-13.16 and the range was 17-70 years. The studied bones were: humerus 10%, femur 65%, and tibia 25%. The fracture lines were: transverse 40%, oblique 15%, and communited 45%. Fracture grades were: closed 90%, grade I, 5%, grade II, 2.5%, and grade IIIA, 2.5%. Surgical approaches were: antegrade 62.5% and retrograde 37.5%. Indications for fixation were: recent fracture 92.5%, non-union 5%, and malunion 3%. Methods of reductions were: open 85% and closed 15%. The mean follow-up period (years) was 1.50+/-0.78. The union time averaged 3 months. Complication was mainly screw loosening due to severe osteoporoses in one case. It is, therefore, concluded that, with the aid of external jigs and slot finders, interlocking can be achieved without an image intensifier.

  2. An active interlock system for the NSLS x-ray ring insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Biscardi, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Flannigan, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Rothman, J.; Smith, J.; So, I.; Thomas, M.; Decker, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of an active interlock system which has been installed in the NSLS X-ray electron storage ing to protect the vacuum chamber from thermal damage by mis-steered high power photon beams from insertion devices (IDs). the system employs active beam position detectors to monitor beam motion in the ID straight sections and solid state logic circuitry to ''dump'' the stored beam in the event of a fault condition by interrupting the rf. To ensure a high degree of reliability, redundancy and continuous automatic checking has been incorporated into the design. Overall system integrity is checked periodically with beam at safe levels of beam current. 2 refs., 3 figs

  3. Employment of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    If a company or institution hires personnel of a security service company to protect its premises, this kind of employment does not mean the company carries on temporary employment business. Within the purview of section 99, sub-section 1 of the BetrVG (Works Constitution Act), the security service personnel is not 'employed' in the proper sense even if the security tasks fulfilled by them are done at other times by regular employees of the company or institution. The court decision also decided that the Works Council need not give consent to employment of foreign security personnel. The court decision was taken for settlement of court proceedings commenced by Institute of Plasma Physics in Garching. In his comments, W. Hunold accedes to the court's decision and discusses the underlying reasons of this decision and of a previous ruling in the same matter by putting emphasis on the difference between a contract for services and a contract for work, and a contract for temporary employment. The author also discusses the basic features of an employment contract. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Bunker door interlock limit issues of K-130 cyclotron, VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srihari, K.; Ravishankar, R.; Mitra, M.S.; Mishra, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The K-130 cyclotron is in operation at VECC, Kolkata. Recently modernization of the cyclotron has taken place. Central region modification has increased reasonable internal beam current. During the tuning of the projectiles, loss of beam is unavoidable and projectiles hitting different parts of the machine inside the vacuum chamber . These interactions produce prompt radiation comprising neutron and gamma. However machine bunker is not accessible during the operation of the machine. The induced activity produced because of interactions of the primary and secondary radiation a radiation hazardous environment during the shut down for the related maintenance work. Area radiation monitors placed at machine bunker room have the interlock with massive shield door of the bunker. Area radiation monitors are set to specified limiting value, lower than that will allow to open the shield door in normal condition. As, the internal beam current being increased and the probability of beam spread being more. Consequently generation of induced activity is also high leading to delay in machine bunker door opening because of the interlock settings. Radiation dose mapping after a long operation of the machine was done for the different strategic points (The locations mainly people access immediate after shut down). Different consequences and remedial measures being presented in paper to raise the dose rate limit level for the interlocks between the area radiation monitors with machine bunker door, keeping in mind of the regulatory requirements. Raising the limit of dose rate limiting value will minimize the waiting time to access the machine bunker which will increase the duty factor of the machine. (author)

  5. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  6. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  7. Shutdown channels and fitted interlocks in atomic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Landauer, C.

    1968-01-01

    This catalogue consists of tables (one per reactor) giving the following information: number and type of detectors, range of the shutdown channels, nature of the associated electronics, thresholds setting off the alarms, fitted interlocks. These cards have been drawn up with a view to an examination of the reactors safety by the 'Reactor Safety Sub-Commission', they take into account the latest decisions. The reactors involved in this review are: Azur, Cabri, Castor-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, and Ulysse. (authors) [fr

  8. Controls and interlocks for a prototype 1MHz beam chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, G.; Bishop, D.; Barnes, M.J.; Wait, G.D.

    1991-05-01

    A prototype 1 MHz beam chopper for the proposed KAON Factory at TRIUMF has been constructed. The chopper is an electric field device, driven by a tetrode based pulser, for deflecting a charged particle beam. Associated with the tetrode used in the prototype design are high voltage power supplies for the electrodes. We use an FET based grid pulser and a sequencer capable of accurate digital control of pulse timing to 0.4 ns. A safety interlock and control system using a programmable controller with fibre optic links has been built. This has given us the versatility required in a prototype system. (Author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  9. The protection of operating personnel in nuclear power plants against the risk of nuclear incidents and ionizing radiation arising from normal operation of the plant. Rules and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortore, F.; Scalera, D.

    1980-03-01

    After an analysis of the nuclear third party liability insurance policy to be taken out in Italy in implementation of Act no. 1860 of 31 December 1962 and Decree No. 519 of 10 May 1979, the collective policy against radiation injuries taken out for operating personnel in nuclear installations is described. The author is in favour of further harmonization of the legal system presently in force in this respect. (NEA) [fr

  10. Patients and personnel radiation protection in interventional radiology and in surgery;La radioprotection des patients et des travailleurs en radiologie interventionnelle et au bloc operatoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menechal, P. [Centre de Recherches en Psychopathologie et Psychologie Clinique - CRPPC, 69 - Lyon (France); Valero, M.; Godet, J.L. [Lyon-3 Univ. Jean Moulin, 69 (France)

    2009-10-15

    The development of the interventional radiology and acts realised under radiological guiding is a real benefit for patients. The doses delivered can however, generate important detriments (determinist effects). the patients and the personnel are exposed to important doses, heterogeneous and very different doses according the operator, the patient morphology and the treated pathology. This theme is considered by the the nuclear safety Authority as a priority in the medical medium. (N.C.)

  11. Influence of interlocked transactions on gum arabic production and marketing in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Interlocked relationships are characterised by traders’ supply of inputs and cash to producers on credit, to be reimbursed at sale time based on a pre-defined price which is often lower than the prevailing market price. The study analyses determinants of choice of interlocking in the gum sector in

  12. Interlocking Boards and Firm Performance: Evidence from a New Panel Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Non (Marielle); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAn interlock between two firms occurs if the firms share one or more directors in their boards of directors. We explore the effect of interlocks on firm performance for 101 large Dutch firms using a large and new panel database. We use five different performance measures, and for each

  13. Formal Development of a Tool for Automated Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Kjær, Andreas A.; Le Bliguet, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for formal modelling relay interlocking systems and explains how it has been stepwise, formally developed using the RAISE method. The developed tool takes the circuit diagrams of a relay interlocking system as input and gives as result a state transition system modelling...

  14. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained in...

  15. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Femoral Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Sahu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fractures shaft femur is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity injuries. The objective of this study was to find out the outcome of Interlocking nail in fracture femur. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from July 2006 to November 2008. Seventy eight patients were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of femoral shaft. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. All patients were followed for nine months. RESULTS: Out of seventy eight patients, sixty nine patients underwent union in 90 to 150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Touch down weight bearing was started on 2nd post-operative day. Complications found in four patients who had non-union, and five patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization and bone graft. The results were excellent in 88.46% and good in 6.41% patients. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this technique is advantageous because of early mobilization (early weight bearing, less complication with good results and is economical. Keywords: close reamed interlocking nail, dynamization, femoral shaft fractures, union

  16. ROLES OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES IN AN EMERGING COUNTRY: CONTROL AND COORDINATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ataay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maman (1999 proposed that, in countries in which business groups are dominant forms for organizing economic activities, the interlocking directorate is a managerial tool that can be prioritized to control and coordinate activities of their affiliated firms within the same groups and align their business objectives. This organizational connection appears to be an intentional strategy on the part of the groups‟ headquarters. In order to study the interlocking ties in Turkish family business groups (FBG, this study focused on interlocking directorates among listed firms in Turkey. The findings of preliminary study reveal that almost all of the interlocking ties were within the business groups (BG in our sample. This is the result of assignment of familyaffiliated and/or professional inside directors to the various boards of companies in the BG. We also found that compare to vertical ties; business groups are using more horizontal interlocking connections to bond their affiliated companies together.

  17. 21 CFR 211.28 - Personnel responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... apparel, such as head, face, hand, and arm coverings, shall be worn as necessary to protect drug products... observation) to have an apparent illness or open lesions that may adversely affect the safety or quality of... medical personnel not to jeopardize the safety or quality of drug products. All personnel shall be...

  18. 14 August 1981 - Royal Order on the organization and administrative status of the personnel of the Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Order concerns the organization and the administrative structure of the Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiations. The Service, within the Ministry of Public Health and the Family, is responsible, inter alia, for controlling the application of legislation on radiation protection, for examining licensing applications for nuclear facilities and import and transport of radioactive substances. (NEA) [fr

  19. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YOUNG, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability. Further, requiring an alarm to actuate upon CAM failure is not necessary to maintain the availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability. However, if CAM failures were only detected by the 92-day functional tests required in the Authorization Basis (AB), CAM availability would be much less than that credited in the safety analysis. Therefore it is recommended that the current surveillance practice of daily simple system checks, 30-day source checks and 92-day functional tests be continued in order to maintain CAM availability

  20. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons.

  1. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons

  2. Compositional Verification of Multi-Station Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    pose a big challenge to current verification methodologies, due to the explosion of state space size as soon as large, if not medium sized, multi-station systems have to be controlled. For these reasons, verification techniques that exploit locality principles related to the topological layout...... of the controlled system to split in different ways the state space have been investigated. In particular, compositional approaches divide the controlled track network in regions that can be verified separately, once proper assumptions are considered on the way the pieces are glued together. Basing on a successful...... method to verify the size of rather large networks, we propose a compositional approach that is particularly suitable to address multi-station interlocking systems which control a whole line composed of stations linked by mainline tracks. Indeed, it turns out that for such networks, and for the adopted...

  3. Development and operation of fast protection for KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jaesic, E-mail: hjaesic@nfri.re.kr; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Han, Hyunsun; Han, Sang-Hee; Park, Kaprai

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The evolution of KSTAR machine interlock system. • The evolution of KSTAR fast interlock. • The fast interlock interface. • The operation results of the fast interlock. - Abstract: Protection for the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR) is somewhat more complicated than for the previous tokomak generation. External reasons for this increased complexity are the initial and maintenance costs, and internal reasons relate to various characteristics of the tokamak and long pulse operation. KSTAR has two protection mechanisms: the device protection system protects damage to superconducting coils etc. from events within the other systems, and the fast protection system protects the internal vacuum vessel components against damage from heating and the long pulse plasma. The fast protection system initially contained the plasma control system (PCS), central control system (CCS), and the heating devices. In 2012, a fast interlock interface was implemented for PCS fail-safe. This detected the absence of plasma current using the diagnostic signals and discharge operation gate windows of the timing synchronized system (TSS), and activates the operation gates and heating stop from the CCS. Additional fast interlock logic was implemented to reduce damage to the plasma facing components (PFC) and other materials by overheating and improper operational state of heating systems after starting the discharge sequence. However, the fast interlock interface system has failed to protect the heating during PCS malfunctions since 2013. This paper introduces the KSTAR protection system, and describes the fast protection interface, with testing and operational results, then discusses future plans for a more effective and safer protection system.

  4. Software Development for Auto-Generation of Interlocking Knowledge base using Artificial Intelligence Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Yun Seok [Nanseoul University (Korea); Kim, JOng Sun [Kwangwoon University (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    This paper proposes IIKBAG (Intelligent Interlocking Knowledge Base Generator) which can build automatically the interlocking knowledge base utilized as the real-time interlocking strategy of the electronic interlocking system in order to enhance it's reliability and expansion. The IIKBAG consists of the inference engine and the knowledge base. The former has an auto-learning function which searches all the train routes for the given station model based on heuristic search technique while dynamically searching the model, and then generates automatically the interlocking patterns obtained from the interlocking relations of signal facilities on the routes. The latter is designed as the structure which the real-time expert system embedded on IS (Interlocking System) can use directly in order to enhances the reliability and accuracy. The IIKBAG is implemented in C computer language for the purpose of the build and interface of the station structure database. And, a typical station model is simulated to prove the validity of the proposed IIKBAG. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Personnel dosimetry in fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, S.; Gardon, M.; Bochud, F.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F.R.; Trueb, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Physicians who frequently perform fluoroscopic examinations are exposed to high intensity radiation fields and should use protective equipment such as lead aprons, thyroid shields and lead glasses. Standard individual dosimeters are worn under the lead apron in order to measure a dose that is representative of effective dose. However, large parts of the body are not protected by the apron (e.g. arms, head). Given a protection factor for the apron of about 100, an important irradiation of a body part not under the apron could go undetected. A study was conducted to analyse this situation by measuring dose using two dosimeters, one over-apron and one under-apron, for radiologists performing frequent fluoroscopic examinations. Measurements made over six-month period show that, indeed, the use of a single under-apron dosimeter is inadequate for personnel monitoring. Large doses to the head and arms are going undetected by this technique. A method for weighting the doses measured by under- and over-apron dosimeters to obtain a value better representative of the effective dose will be proposed. (authors)

  6. Hardwired interlock system with fault latchability and annunciation panel for electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukesh Kumar; Roychoudhury, P.; Nimje, V.T.

    2011-01-01

    A hard-wired interlock system is designed, developed, installed and tested to ensure healthy status for interlock signals, coming from the various sub-systems of electron accelerators as digital inputs. Each electron accelerator has approximately ninety-six interlock signals. Hardwired Interlock system consists of twelve-channel 19 inches rack mountable hard-wired interlock module of 4U height. Digital inputs are fed to the hard-wired interlock module in the form of 24V dc for logic 'TRUE' and 0V for logic 'FALSE'. These signals are flow signals to ensure cooling of the various sub-systems, signals from the klystron modulator system in RF Linac to ensure its healthy state to start, signals from high voltage system of DC accelerator, vacuum signals from vacuum system to ensure proper vacuum in the electron accelerator, door interlock signals, air flow signals, and area search and secure signals. This hard-wired interlock system ensures the safe start-up, fault annunciation and alarm, fault latchablity, and fail-safe operation of the electron accelerators. Safe start-up feature ensures that beam generation system can be made ON only when cooling of all the electron accelerator sub-systems are confirmed, all the fault signals of high voltage generation system are attended, proper vacuum is achieved inside the beam transport system, all the doors are closed and various areas have been searched and secured manually. Fault annunciation and alarm feature ensures that during the start up and operation of the electron accelerators, if any fault is there, that fault signal window keeps on flashing with red colour and alarm is sounded till the operator acknowledges the fault. Once acknowledged, flashing and alarm stops but display of the window in red colour remains till the operator clears the fault. Fault latchability feature ensures that if any fault has happened, accelerator cannot be started again till the operator resets that interlock signal. Fail-safe feature ensures

  7. Communities detection as a tool to assess a reform of the Italian interlocking directorship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Carlo; Ricciuti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Interlocking directorships are important communication channels among companies and may have anticompetitive effect. A corporate governance reform was introduced in 2011 to prevent interlocking directorships in the financial sector. We apply community detection techniques to the analysis of the networks in 2009 and 2012 to ascertain the effect of such reform on the Italian directorship network. We find that, although the number of interlocking directorships decreases in 2012, the reduction takes place mainly at the periphery of the network. The network core is stable, allowing the most connected companies to keep their strategic position.

  8. Protection of Military Personnel Against Vector-Borne Diseases: A Review of Collaborative Work of the Australian and US Military Over the Last 30 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Stephen P; Edstein, Michael D; Debboun, Mustapha; Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Australian and US military medical services have collaborated since World War II to minimize vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and scrub typhus. In this review, collaboration over the last 30 years is discussed. The collaborative projects and exchange scientist programs have resulted in mutually beneficial outcomes in the fields of drug development and personal protection measures against vector-borne diseases.

  9. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments

  10. General aspects of radiological protection to consider for the licensing a hospital cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada Contardi, F.A.; Fruttero, N.H.; Bozzo, R.H.; Moschella, E.G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of PET/PET-CT studies for a variety of diagnoses has increased significantly on a global scale. Modern medical cyclotrons must be placed in or near hospitals on account of the short radioactive half-life of the pharmaceuticals used in such studies. Many countries in Latin America are now licensing cyclotrons and laboratories for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals for the first time, and most are expected to have installations within the near future. This report outlines the general aspects of radiological protection important to consideration during the licensing of these facilities, and includes the following: general operation of the cyclotron and laboratory for the production of radiopharmaceuticals, safety systems (shielding, interlocks, ventilation, manual safety systems, alarms and monitors), and general aspects for licensing an installation (monitoring, accidental and incidental events, activation of components, etc.) and personnel. (authors) [es

  11. Personnel Monitoring Department - DEMIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The activities and purposes of the Personnel Monitoring Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry of the Brazilian CNEN are presented. A summary of the personnel monitoring service is given, such as dosemeters supply, laboratorial inspections, and so on. The programs of working, publishing, courses and personnel interchange are also presented. (J.A.M.M.)

  12. Incorporation of safety interlocks in commercial robotics for handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    The adaptation of commercial robotic systems to applications in the manufacturing of nuclear fuel has required the addition of safety interlocks as to the handling and accountability of nuclear materials. Also, additional safety interlocks are required when the robots are operated in containment enclosures that are environmentally sealed. Interlocks have been incorporated in a commercial robot which was modified and with additional interlocks into the existing robotic control system. The robotic system has been installed in the containment enclosure as part of the pellet storage subsystem in the Secure Automated Fabrication facility currently being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. The system has been installed in the Fuel Cycle Plant and is scheduled for initial operational testing in 1986

  13. Governance of pension funds: interlocking and compensation of Australian superannuation fund boards

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Elizabeth Meishan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents the incidence and determinants of board interlocking (where directors simultaneously sit on multiple boards) in pension funds and examines its effect on fund performance. It also investigates the determinants of pension fund director compensation. The motivation to examine these issues stems from the distinctive interlocking and compensation practices in pension funds. Data on a sample of 249 Australian pension funds from 2004 to 2011 is collected from fund documents ...

  14. Radiation protection of medical staff: a coordinated action by EURADOS on extremely dosimetry and the use of active personnel dosemeters (CONRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of workers constitutes an integral part of any radiological protection program. However, unresolved issues in radiation protection of medical staff still remain. Research and establishment of guidelines are necessary on a variety of issues such as extremity dosimetry (fingers, eye lenses, etc), the use of double dosimetry above and below lead aprons, or the use of electronic personal dosimeters in interventional procedures. Medical practices are also evolving fast, and new techniques with ionising radiation emerge very regularly, thus implying the need of radiation protection measures for medical staff, and the implementation of new monitoring programs. In some medical applications of radiation there is an increased risk of high local exposures because of direct handling of sources or the use of beta-emitters. However, despite the large number of workers that are exposed in the medical field worldwide, only few measurements of extremity doses have been reported in the literature. Some activities of EURADOS Working Group 9 (WG9) were sponsored by the European Commission in the CONRAD project. This CONRAD project was aiming at the coordination of research on radiation protection at the workplace. Working group 9 has been involved in the coordination and promotion of European research in the field of Radiation Protection Dosimetry for Medical Staff. One of the objectives of this working group was to formulate the state of the art and to identify areas in which improvements were needed. For some of these medical applications the skin of the fingers is the limiting organ from the point of view of individual monitoring of external radiation. The wide variety of radiation field characteristics in a medical environment, and the difficulty of measuring a local dose that is representative for the maximum skin dose (usually with one single detector), makes it difficult to perform extremity dosimetry with an accuracy similar to whole-body dosimetry. Therefore a

  15. Supervision Software for the Integration of the Beam Interlock System with the CERN Accelerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Audrain, M; Dragu, M; Fuchsberger, K; Garnier, JC; Gorzawski, AA; Koza, M; Krol, K; Moscatelli, A; Puccio, B; Stamos, K; Zerlauth, M

    2014-01-01

    The Accelerator complex at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is composed of many systems which are required to function in a valid state to ensure safe beam operation. One key component of machine protection, the Beam Interlock System (BIS), was designed to interface critical systems around the accelerator chain, provide fast and reliable transmission of beam dump requests and trigger beam extraction in case of malfunctioning of equipment systems or beam losses. Numerous upgrades of accelerator and controls components during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are followed by subsequent software updates that need to be thoroughly validated before the restart of beam operation in 2015. In parallel, the ongoing deployments of the BIS hardware in the PS booster (PSB) and the future LINAC4 give rise to new requirements for the related controls and monitoring software due to their fast cycle times. This paper describes the current status and ongoing work as well as the long-term vision for the integratio...

  16. Active interlock system for high power insertion devices in the x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In modern synchrotron radiation rings photon beams generated by high power insertion devices (IDs) may be sufficiently intense to cause severe thermal damage to the machine vacuum chamber if mis-steered. Thus when operating a storage ring with the IDs, great care must be exercised to prevent mis-steering of the electron beam orbit. At present, the X-ray ring operates with three IDs, namely two hybrid wigglers (HBW) at X-21 and X-25,a nd a 5-Tesla superconducting wiggler at X-17. All wigglers are located in low-beta straight sections. In the straight sections. In the straight sections, beam orbit may be deflected by as much as ±8 mrad without scraping the chamber wall. For various reasons it was not possible to design the X-ray ring vacuum chamber to be safe under all possible operating conditions, however, the chamber is safe for i < 7 mA, all horizontal beam deflection angles and for vertical angles < ± 2.5 mrad. To protect the machine vacuum chamber from damage due to mis-steered beams, and interlock system has been developed and installed. This system utilizes active beam position detectors which continuously monitor beam motion in each of the ID straight sections and logic circuitry which interrupts the RF and dumps the stored beam in the case of a fault

  17. Personnel preferences in personnel planning and scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    van der Veen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Summary The personnel of an organization often has two conflicting goals. Individual employees like to have a good work-life balance, by having personal preferences taken into account, whereas there is also the common goal to work efficiently. By applying techniques and methods from Operations Research, a subfield of applied mathematics, we show that operational efficiency can be achieved while taking personnel preferences into account. In the design of optimization methods, we explicitly con...

  18. Air system in the hot cell for injectable radiopharmaceutical production: requirements for personnel and environment safety and protection of the product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Fabio E.; Araujo, Elaine B., E-mail: fecampos@ipen.b, E-mail: ebaraujo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are applied in Nuclear Medicine in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and must be manufactured in accordance with the basic principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for sterile pharmaceutical products. In order to prevent the uncontrolled spread of radioactive contamination, the processing of radioactive materials requires an exhausted and shielded special enclosure called hot cell. The quality of air inside the hot cell must be controlled in order to prevent the contamination of the product with particulate material or microorganisms. On the other hand, the hot cell must prevent external contamination with radioactive material. The aim of this work is to discuss the special requirements for hot cells taking in account the national rules for injectable pharmaceutical products and international standards available. Ventilation of radiopharmaceutical production facilities should meet the requirement to prevent the contamination of products and the exposure of working personnel to radioactivity. Positive pressure areas should be used to process sterile products. In general, any radioactivity should handle within specifically designed areas maintained under negative pressures. The production of sterile radioactive products should therefore be carried out under negative pressure surrounded by a positive pressure zone ensuring that appropriate air quality requirements are met. Some of the recent developments in the use of radioisotopes in medical field have also significantly impacted on the evolution of handling facilities. Application of pharmaceutical GMP requirements for air quality and processing conditions in the handling facilities of radioactive pharmaceuticals has led to significant improvements in the construction of isolator-like hot cells and clean rooms with HEPA filtered ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Clean grade A (class 100) air quality hot cells are now available commercially, but in a high cost

  19. Air system in the hot cell for injectable radiopharmaceutical production: requirements for personnel and environment safety and protection of the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Fabio E.; Araujo, Elaine B.

    2009-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are applied in Nuclear Medicine in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and must be manufactured in accordance with the basic principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for sterile pharmaceutical products. In order to prevent the uncontrolled spread of radioactive contamination, the processing of radioactive materials requires an exhausted and shielded special enclosure called hot cell. The quality of air inside the hot cell must be controlled in order to prevent the contamination of the product with particulate material or microorganisms. On the other hand, the hot cell must prevent external contamination with radioactive material. The aim of this work is to discuss the special requirements for hot cells taking in account the national rules for injectable pharmaceutical products and international standards available. Ventilation of radiopharmaceutical production facilities should meet the requirement to prevent the contamination of products and the exposure of working personnel to radioactivity. Positive pressure areas should be used to process sterile products. In general, any radioactivity should handle within specifically designed areas maintained under negative pressures. The production of sterile radioactive products should therefore be carried out under negative pressure surrounded by a positive pressure zone ensuring that appropriate air quality requirements are met. Some of the recent developments in the use of radioisotopes in medical field have also significantly impacted on the evolution of handling facilities. Application of pharmaceutical GMP requirements for air quality and processing conditions in the handling facilities of radioactive pharmaceuticals has led to significant improvements in the construction of isolator-like hot cells and clean rooms with HEPA filtered ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Clean grade A (class 100) air quality hot cells are now available commercially, but in a high cost

  20. Formation in radiological protection of the personnel of sanitary installations in Peru; Formacion en proteccion radiologica del personal de instituciones sanitarias en el Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina G, E. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, Lima 41 (Peru)]. e-mail: medina@ipen.gob.pe

    2006-07-01

    All the people that work with ionizing radiations should have a singular license according to that settled down in the effective legal standards in force in Peru. This authorization is granted by the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) after the postulant demonstrates that he can work in sure form in the application where it uses ionizing radiations. From 1972 the Superior Center of Nuclear Studies (CSEN) of the IPEN it has carried out diverse training courses on radiological safety and protection in medicine, industry and research, such it is so until the year 2005 it has organized 458 courses where 5872 people have been qualified in the country. 75% of people was qualified in the period 2000 - 2005. The courses are organized according to the specific work with radiations and in the one case of medical radiodiagnostic, dental radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy has been qualified 2337 people (doctors, medical technicians and technicians) by means of 174 courses made among the years 2000 at the 2005, corresponding 69,75% to people qualified in radiological protection in medical radiodiagnostic. (Author)

  1. Strength properties of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, S.; Bakar, B. H. Abu; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a laboratory investigation on the properties of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Compressive strength, which is one of the most important properties in masonry structures, is used to determine masonry performance. The compressive strength of the ICEB units was determined by applying a compressive strength test for 340 units from four types of ICEB. To analyze the strength of the ICEB units, each unit was capped by a steel plate at the top and bottom to create a flat surface, and then ICEB was loaded until failure. The average compressive strength of the corresponding ICEB units are as follows: wall brick, 19.15 N/mm2; beam brick, 16.99 N/mm2; column brick, 13.18 N/mm2; and half brick, 11.79 N/mm2. All the ICEB units had compressive strength of over 5 N/mm2, which is the minimum strength for a load-bearing brick. This study proves that ICEB units may be used as load-bearing bricks. The strength of ICEBs is equal to that of other common bricks and blocks that are currently available in the market.

  2. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with a curved, interlocking, intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnar, Vijaya M; Hepple, Steve; Harries, William G; Livingstone, James A; Winson, Ian

    2010-12-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with a straight rod has a risk of damaging the lateral plantar neurovascular structures and may interfere with maintaining normal heel valgus position.We report the results of a prospective study of tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis with a short, anatomically curved interlocking, intramedullary nail. Forty-five arthrodesis in 42 patients, performed between Jan 2003 and Oct 2008, were prospectively followed. The mean followup was 48 (range, 10 to 74) months. The main indications for the procedure were failed ankle arthrodesis with progressive subtalar arthritis, failed ankle arthroplasty and complex hindfoot deformity. The outcome was measured by a combination of pre and postoperative clinical examination, AOFAS hindfoot scores, SF-12 scores and radiological assessment. Union rate was 89% (40/45). Eighty-two percent (37/45) reported improvement in pain and 73% (33/45) had improved foot function. Satisfactory hindfoot alignment was achieved in 84% (38/45). Postoperatively there was a mean improvement in the AOFAS score of 37. Complications included a below knee amputation for persistent deep infection, five nonunions, and three delayed unions. Four nails, six proximal and six distal locking screws were removed for various causes. Other complications included two perioperative fractures, four superficial wound infections and one case of lateral plantar nerve irritation. With a short, anatomically curved intramedullary nail, we had a high rate of tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with minimal plantar neurovascular complications. We believe a short, curved intramedullary nail, with its more lateral entry point, helped maintain hindfoot alignment.

  3. Water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, B. H. Abu; Saari, S.; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Apart from compressive strength, water absorption is an important property in masonry. This property can affect the quality of the brick itself and the bond strength between the brick and mortar in masonry structures and can result in reducing its strength properties. The units were tested for 24 h water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption. A total of 170 ICEB units from four ICEB types underwent both tests. For the 24 h water absorption, the ICEB units were dried in the oven for 24 h and then cooled before being weighed. Thereafter, each brick was immersed in water for 24 h and weighed. The same specimens used for the 24 h water absorption test were re-used for the 5 h boiling water absorption test. After completing the 24 h water absorption test, the brick was boiled for 5-hours and weighed. The highest water absorption for the ICEBs in the 24-hour water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption tests are 15.09% and 17.18%, respectively. The half brick has the highest water absorption (15.87%), whereas the beam brick has the lowest (13.20%). The water absorption of an ICEB unit is higher than that of normal bricks, although the water absorption of the former remains below the maximum rate of the brick water absorption (21%).

  4. Shielding of the patient's gonads during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, L M; Johanson, P H; Zinar, D M; Lenihan, M R; Herman, M W

    1990-12-01

    Levels of exposure to radiation were recorded at sixty sites in fifteen patients during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing. Radiation film dosimeters were placed at four gonadal sites on each subject. A standard male-gonad cup or a pelvic drape of 0.5-millimeter-thick lead-equivalent was put in place to shield the gonads. A second set of four dosimeters was placed external to the shield to approximate unprotected exposure. The total duration of the fluoroscopy averaged five minutes (range, thirty seconds to fourteen minutes). The total exposure to radiation external to the shield was 35 +/- 34 millirems at the male gonadal sites and 17 +/- 11 millirems at the female gonadal sites. With use of the gonadal shield, exposure to radiation was not measurable in thirteen of the fifteen patients. The differences between the exposures of the shielded and unshielded sites to radiation were statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The highest level of gonadal exposure was found with the treatment of proximal femoral fractures and with the use of statically locked nails. Regardless of the conditions, and for all types of fractures and locations, our results demonstrated that gonadal shielding is justified.

  5. Shielding of the patient's gonads during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, L.M.; Johanson, P.H.; Zinar, D.M.; Lenihan, M.R.; Herman, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Levels of exposure to radiation were recorded at sixty sites in fifteen patients during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing. Radiation film dosimeters were placed at four gonadal sites on each subject. A standard male-gonad cup or a pelvic drape of 0.5-millimeter-thick lead-equivalent was put in place to shield the gonads. A second set of four dosimeters was placed external to the shield to approximate unprotected exposure. The total duration of the fluoroscopy averaged five minutes (range, thirty seconds to fourteen minutes). The total exposure to radiation external to the shield was 35 +/- 34 millirems at the male gonadal sites and 17 +/- 11 millirems at the female gonadal sites. With use of the gonadal shield, exposure to radiation was not measurable in thirteen of the fifteen patients. The differences between the exposures of the shielded and unshielded sites to radiation were statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The highest level of gonadal exposure was found with the treatment of proximal femoral fractures and with the use of statically locked nails. Regardless of the conditions, and for all types of fractures and locations, our results demonstrated that gonadal shielding is justified

  6. Interlocking Corporate Directorates and the Global City Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Kentor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the direct and indirect economic linkages of the most prominent cities in the world, those commonly referred to as “global cities”, in terms of the direct and indirect linkages of the boards of directors of Fortune Global 500 firms headquartered in a given city with boards of directors of other firms. Specifically, we identify the interlocks of corporate boards located within these major cities with other Fortune 500 boards of directors by degrees of separation, and present a new ranking for selected global cities based upon these direct and indirect ties. We find that New York clearly dominates these economic linkages, followed by London and Paris. This is most pronounced for financial companies. Contrary to other global city rankings, we locate Tokyo below Frankfurt and Chicago on this dimension. We argue that these multiple levels of indirect relationships reflect a significant, and until now unexplored, dimension of what it means to be a “global” city.

  7. Efficiency analysis and assessment of interlocking PVC sheet piling walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of PVC sheet piling in marine environments offers a number of unique advantages that include weight saving, corrosion resistance and environmentally safe material. In this study, one of the widely used classical methods as well as a finite element analysis are used to analyze such sheet piling walls. The analysis focuses on the effect of some important parameters on the wall global behavior, bending moments, stresses and deflections. The parameters include wall cross-section, wall height, embedment depth, number and spacing of anchor rods, and type of soil and loading conditions. Furthermore, the effect of the shape of the wall cross-section and the location of the interlocking joints has been studied by using plane frame and arch-like models. Results indicate that the finite element modeling is an effective tool for numerical approximation of soil-structure interaction problems. The required theoretical embedment depth is nearly 30 % of the clear wall height. Also, the modulus of subgrade reaction has a minor effect on both cantilever wall and one anchor sheet-pile wall. Finally, lateral (horizontal) action shows that deep sections tend to behave like an arch under radial loading which might increase normal stresses at some critical sections

  8. [Evaporation of selected cytotoxic drugs and permeation of protective gloves--research into the occupational risks of health care personnel handling hazardous cytotoxic drugs (CYTO project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalová, L; Odráska, P; Gorná, L; Prudilová, M; Vejpustková, R; Bláha, L

    2009-01-01

    The CYTO project studies an important aspect of healthcare provision -long-term occupational exposure, both threshold and below-threshold, to chemical agents with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, with the major focus on antineoplastic drugs.This contribution presents experimental results from the first stages of the project's experimental work, i.e. an evaluation of the physico-chemical characteristics of cytostatic agents (evaporation) and an investigation into protective glove permeation. In co-operation with IUTA (Institut für Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V., Duisburg, Germany), the vapour pressure of paclitaxel, doxorubicin and dacarbazine was measured following OECD guideline No. 104: Vapour pressure curve--vapour pressure balance. Furthermore, the evaporation of cytostatic drugs was examined in actual laboratory conditions by monitoring the airborne concentration using the passive sampling technique. Besides the evaporation of selected drugs, the permeation of cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and paclitaxel through different types of gloves (vinyl, latex, nitrile) was assessed. Although our experiments showed relatively slow evaporation of the evaluated cytostatic drugs (the highest pressure in paclitaxel was 0.024 Pa), equilibrium concentrations may go up to milligrams per cubic metre. Nevertheless, analytical measurements of airborne contamination did not confirm these concentration levels. The glove permeation experiments with cytostatics showed good resistance of nitrile gloves (which were impermeable to all five drugs). Other materials should be avoided while handling cytostatic agents (e.g. maximum permeation of cyclophosphamide through latex was 19 microg/sq cm/hr). Although the volatility of cytostatic agents is low, it cannot be neglected considering the chronic character of exposure. However, in order to estimate actual occupational exposure, future research should focus on the development of sensitive analytical

  9. Radio-contaminated patients intake at the Nancy teaching hospital: study of the resources and implication possibilities of radiation protection referent personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guionnet, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    In the events implying radioactive materials, the organization of care in the health facilities requires both the implementation of some skills, which go beyond the usual trade and professional duties of each of the partners, and the identification of the departments and referent staff that are likely to be most affected by these risks. This study, which was conducted within the Radiologie and Medecine Nucleaire Departments of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nancy, highlights the existence of reference material as means of detecting radiation, the conditions under which they will be developed remain to be defined. Human means can be called for for missions of information, detection, patient screening and decontamination. Volunteering persons, with competences in radiation protection (Personnes Competentes en Radioprotection), and radiographers can lead to the realization of their missions, after an practical training. (author) [fr

  10. Monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination wastes is considered. The devices used for this purpose are enumerated. In sanitary sluices through which the personnel leaving the repair zone it is recommended to particularly thoroughly control hand skin contamination and most contaminated parts of overalls (sleeves, breeches lower parts, pockets, stomack region). In sanitary check points during personnel leaving the operator zone monitoring of overalls and skin contamination is performed. The overalls and other individual protective clothing are subjected to control in a special loundry before and after washing (decontamination) [ru

  11. X-ray anatomy - radiological imaging, radiation protection. For auxiliary medical personnel, technicians, physicists. 3. rev. and enlarged ed. Roentgenanatomie - radiologische Darstellung, Strahlenschutz. Fuer aerztliches Hilfspersonal, Techniker, Physiker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frik, W; Goering, U

    1988-01-01

    This third edition as the result of a complete revision of the second edition reflects the current state of the art and includes topical information on a variety of advances hitherto achieved, as for instance information on novel imaging techniques in diagnostic radiology that have been included in the chapters on physical fundamentals or examination methods, as well as in all chapters discussing the anatomy and the relevant radiological imaging methods. As practice has shown that the application of the latest standards on radiation doses and units still poses problems, the authors decided to add a section explaining dose concepts, terminology and units. The two chapters dealing with contrast media and with radiological examination methods have been updated and supplemented. The anatomy chapters, written for readers who are not doctors, and the survey of the relevant diagnostic radiology still form the core of the book, but all in all this third edition now puts equal emphasis on all three aspects concerned, namely X-ray anatomy, radiological imaging, and radiation protection. (orig./MG) With 96 figs.

  12. Radiation protection aspects of a high flux, fast neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M.; Torti, R.P.; Chenevert, G.M.; Tesmer, J.R.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    During the development and operation of a gas target, DT neutron generator for use in cancer therapy, two radiation hazards were routinely encountered - personnel exposure to neutrons and to tritium. The principal hazard was irradiation by fast neutrons. By assembling the source below ground level, adding shielding and the use of a controlled access, key identification interlock, the neutron hazard has been reduced. With the present source strength of 2 x 10 12 n/sec, an average neutron dose rate in the control room of 20 mrem/hr was measured- a level compatible with a limited run schedule. The second hazard was exposure to tritium in both gaseous and solid forms. A target inventory of 90 Ci, and overall inventory of 500 Ci, and the need to modify and repair the generator present significant potential hazard due to tritium exposure. The use of protective gloves, wipe tests, urine assays, continuous room air monitoring, and equipment decontamination minimized personnel exposure and effectively confined contamination. The dose due to tritium has been ∼ 0.5 rem/year and negligible spread of contamination has occurred

  13. The calibration procedures in the Studsvik standardized personnel dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widell, C.O.

    1978-01-01

    Every large nuclear installation in Sweden reads its own personnel TLDs. In order to supervise this decentralized reading of dose meters, the TLD readers are connected by telephone lines to a central computer for dose registration. This computer is used both for registering the personnel doses and for checking the TLD readers. This checking is performed by the use of pre-irradiated calibration dose meters which are always used when a batch of personnel dose meters are read. The pre-irradiated dose meters are either irradiated using 137 Cs to various doses up to 100mSv(10000mrem) or using a 90 Sr source in a reference dose irradiator to a dose equal to 3mSv(300mrem) from a 137 Cs source. The results from the reading of the pre-irradiated dose meters are processed by the computer and a calibration factor is calculated. The calibration factor is automatically used to calculate the doses to the personnel TLD's. However, if the calibration factor deviates by more than 10% from the previously used factor, this fact is shown to the operator - who then has to decide what calibration factor is going to be used. This calibration and supervisory procedure together with the safety interlocks in the TLD readers has resulted in a very reliable and accurate dosimetry system. (author)

  14. Personnel preferences in personnel planning and scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Summary The personnel of an organization often has two conflicting goals. Individual employees like to have a good work-life balance, by having personal preferences taken into account, whereas there is also the common goal to work efficiently. By applying techniques and methods from Operations

  15. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...

  16. Organization of measures on protection of population and territories against weapons of mass destruction: brief analysis of laboratory control and conditions of personnel protective means of respiratory organs in the Republic of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, D.D.; Makhmadov, T.F.; Stotskiy, D.F.

    2010-01-01

    and territory protection from mass-destruction weapon. Organization of actions on population and territory protection is caused on geographical location of Tajikistan. There is a number of some states near Tajikistan that have nuclear weapon: India, China, Pakistan. The basic actions for protection of the population and territories from weapons of mass destruction are: maintenance and accumulation of means of an individual defense, creation of stocks; creation and restoration of protective constructions of a civil defense; evacuation actions planning; restoration of system of monitoring and the laboratory control of a civil defense of Republic Tajikistan; according to the Government Regulation N 527 and dated on 31"s"t of October, 2008 the 'Emergency situations and civil defense system development 2009-2014' Program was adopted. According to the Plan of the events within this Programme Committee of emergency situations and civil defense under the Government of Republic of Tajikistan provides a stage-by-stage realization of the actions for protection of population and territories from mass-destruction weapon. One of the important actions is provision and accumulation of the means of personal protection, keeping of this means. The means of personal protections are laboratory tested by the specialists of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense. Analytical data of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense allows making some conclusions concerning experienced storage of the means of personal protection. A general analysis of laboratory test indicates that: laboratory tests of filtering boxes indicate the preservation of air flow resistance and waterproof due to the adherence to the rules of keeping; laboratory tests of the front parts of the gas masks and their hardness and waterproof, and the waterproof of the valves show that the front part is dependent on meteorological character of the region of storage at long-term keeping. Conclusions

  17. Poly[ n ]catenanes: Synthesis of molecular interlocked chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Rauscher, Phillip M.; Lang, Xiaolong; Wojtecki, Rudy J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Hore, Michael J. A.; Rowan, Stuart J.

    2017-11-30

    As the macromolecular version of mechanically interlocked molecules, mechanically interlocked polymers are promising candidates for the creation of sophisticated molecular machines and smart soft materials. Poly[n]catenanes, where the molecular chains consist solely of interlocked macrocycles, contain one of the highest concentrations of topological bonds. We report, herein, a synthetic approach toward this distinctive polymer architecture in high yield (similar to 75%) via efficient ring closing of rationally designed metallosupramolecular polymers. Light-scattering, mass spectrometric, and nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of fractionated samples support assignment of the high-molar mass product (number-average molar mass similar to 21.4 kilograms per mole) to a mixture of linear poly[7-26]catenanes, branched poly[13-130]catenanes, and cyclic poly[4-7]catenanes. Increased hydrodynamic radius (in solution) and glass transition temperature (in bulk materials) were observed upon metallation with Zn2+.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KUNTSCHER’S NAIL VS. INTERLOCKING NAILING FOR FEMORAL ISTHMUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Roy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Interlocking intramedullary nailing is suitable for comminuted femoral isthmus fractures, but for non-comminuted fractures its benefit over unlocked nailing is debatable. This study was undertaken to compare outcomes of interlocking nailing versus k-nail in such fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS 40 cases of noncomminuted femoral isthmus fractures treated with interlocking nailing and K-nail from April 1, 2015, to December 1, 2016, were reviewed. Radiological and clinical union rates, bony alignment, complication and knee function were investigated. RESULTS There was no statistical significant difference with regard to union rate, implant failure, infection and fracture alignment in both study groups. Open fixation with K-nail is technically less demanding and requires less operating time; additionally, there is no exposure to radiation and cost of the implant is cheaper. CONCLUSION We therefore conclude that unlocked nailing is still useful for the management of noncomminuted isthmus fractures of the femur.

  19. Incorporation of safety interlocks in commercial robotics for handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Current robotic systems have been developed primarily for the automotive and electronic industry. The adaptation of these commercial robotic systems to applications in the manufacturing of nuclear fuel requires the addition of safety interlocks as to the handling and accountability of nuclear materials. Also, additional safety interlocks are required when the robots are operated in containment enclosures that are environmentally sealed. Interlocks have been incorporated into a commercial robot. The robotic system has been installed in the containment enclosure as part of the pellet storage subsystem into the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) facility currently being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The system has been installed in the Fuel Cycle Plant and is scheduled for initial operational testing in 1986

  20. Evaluation of a fast PLC module in prospect of the LHC beam interlock system

    CERN Document Server

    Zaera-Sanz, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of mseconds. Siemens has introduced a “so called” fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor) that provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This note publishes the results of this study. As well, this note could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  1. Evaluation and application of a fast module in a PLC based interlock and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaera-Sanz, M

    2009-01-01

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of μseconds. Siemens has introduced a 'so called' fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor). It provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This paper publishes the results of this study. As well, this paper could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  2. Personnel exposures in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, K.S.; Patel, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    The manifold increase in production, and ease of availability of radioisotopes in India have been responsible for a tremendous increase in use of radioisotopes in industrial radiography during past fifteen years. Among various applications of radioisotopes the industrial radiography involves a large potential risk of occupational radiation exposures. The dose records of past fifteen years in respect of all radiation workers maintained by the Personnel Monitoring Group of Division of Radiological Protection of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have been analysed. Analysis of excessive exposure (exceeding 400 mrem/fortnight) reveals that this figure is increasing at an alarming rate among the radiation workers of this category. In spite of various regulatory controls the dose per person per week has remained higher as compared to the same in other categories. This combined with the increase in number of radiation workers every year would soon contribute significantly to the per capita dose for radiation workers. Use of adequately shielded fool-proof remote control equipment and training of all personnel in safe handling of radiation sources seem to be the only solution to arrest the rate of increase in personnel exposures of this category. (auth.)

  3. The engineering project and reliability research of the safety interlock slow control system in BESIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yinhong; Zhao Jingwei; Li Xiaonan; Xie Xiaoxi; Gao Cuishan; Bai Jingzhi; Chen Xihui; Min Jian; Nie Zhendong

    2008-01-01

    The new safety interlock slow control system of BESIII is designed to ensure that the BESIII interior equipments and the accelerator control center to work in coordination, and to guarantee the safety of the operating staff and all the important equipments at the same time. This paper introduces the hardware and software design of safety interlock system from the engineering requirements angle, including a detailed research on the software implementation technique of the state machine on PLC and the reliability of the system. (authors)

  4. Cloning Nacre's 3D Interlocking Skeleton in Engineering Composites to Achieve Exceptional Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hewei; Yue, Yonghai; Guo, Lin; Wu, Juntao; Zhang, Youwei; Li, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic/polymer composite equipped with 3D interlocking skeleton (3D IL) is developed through a simple freeze-casting method, exhibiting exceptionally light weight, high strength, toughness, and shock resistance. Long-range crack energy dissipation enabled by 3D interlocking structure is considered as the primary reinforcing mechanism for such superior properties. The smart composite design strategy should hold a place in developing future structural engineering materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Innovative monitoring of 3D warp interlock fabric during forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, C.; Jerkovic, I.; Wang, P.; Boussu, F.; Koncar, V.; Soulat, D.; Grancaric, A. M.; Pineau, P.

    2017-10-01

    The final geometry of 3D warp interlock fabric needs to be check during the 3D forming step to ensure the right locations of warp and weft yarns inside the final structure. Thus, a new monitoring approach has been proposed based on sensor yarns located in the fabric thickness. To ensure the accuracy of measurements, the observation of the surface deformation of the 3D warp interlock fabric has been joined to the sensor yarns measurements. At the end, it has been revealed a good correlation between strain measurement done globally by camera and locally performed by sensor yarns.

  6. Online visual inspection of self-piercing riveting to determine the quality of the mechanical interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P; Cullen, J D; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Shaw, A

    2007-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has become a significant joining technique for the automotive applications of aluminium sheets. Quality control in this locale has progressed at an altogether more leisurely rate than other areas of mechanical joining (e.g. spotweld) and is underdeveloped. Testing the quality mechanical interlock is often achieved by destructive testing, which results in material and time wastage. The solution is online monitoring of the self-piercing riveting process to provide non-destructive testing of the mechanical interlock. Introducing sensors into the process facilitates real time data acquisition, which can be used to determine the quality of the joint

  7. Training of nonlicensed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetrick, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    The safety and efficiency with which a station operates is a function of the competence and proficiency of all personnel. This includes the nonlicensed personnel who make up the bulk of the station staff. Thus the training of these members of the station complement is an important function in overall station performance. Standards, regulations, regulatory guides, and codes provide guidance to the training requirements for such personnel. Training needs and objectives must be established, a plan prepared and then all incorporated into a training program. A well planned and operated training program will stimulate effective communications between the different groups within the station and between the station and off site support groups

  8. Radiation Physics for Personnel and Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory FERMILAB- TM- 1834 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. This manuscript has been authored by Universities Research Association, Inc. under con- tract No. DE- ACO% 76CH03000 with the U. S. Department of Energy. The United States Government and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a nonexclusive, paid- up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for This text is dedicated to my wife Claudia, and our children, Joe and Sally, who provided me with love, cheerfulness, and their support during the long hours spent in the preparation of various versions of this text. I acknowledge the opportunity provided by the Fermilab Director, John Peoples, Jr., to be a part of the U. S. Particle Accelerator School. Also, the encouragement of Mel Month and A. Lincoln Read to teach in the USPAS has been sincerely appreciated. Several members of the Fermilab Environment, Safety and Health Section have greatly assisted me during the preparation and revision of these materials. Alex Elwyn deserves special recognition for his helpful advice during the initial preparation of this work and, indeed, during his entire distinguished career at Fermilab in which he, in so many ways, has been my scientific mentor. Nancy Grossman, Kamran Vaziri, and Vernon Cupps have provided me with very constructive criticism in connection with their assistance in presenting these materials to students in the USPAS. Others whose comments have been very helpful are David Boehnlein, Kathy Graden, Paul Kesich, and Elaine Marshall. William Griffing has supported my efforts in producing the present revision. The original version of this text was presented as part of a course taught at the session of the U. S. Particle Accelerator School held at Florida State University in January 1993. Subsequently, the material was further refined and presented as a course at Fermilab in the spring of 1993 and autumn of 1994. Later, the course was presented at the USPAS sessions held at Duke University in January 1995, at the University of California in January 1997, and at Vanderbilt University in January 1999. This fourth revision represents a compilation of the work of numerous people and it is hoped that the reference citations lead the reader to the original work of those individuals who have developed this field of applied physics. Over the years, I have been greatly .enriched to have been acquainted personally with many of these fine scientists. The problems supplied with each chapter were developed with the goal of promoting better understanding of the text

  9. Soil contamination standards for protection of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to recommend soil contamination levels that will ensure that radionuclide intakes by unprotected workers are likely to give internal doses below selected dose limits during the working year. The three internal dose limits are 1, 100, and 500 mrem per year. In addition, photon, beta, and alpha instrument readings are estimated for these soil concentration limits. Two exposure pathways are considered: the first is inhalation of resuspended dust and the second is ingestion of trace amounts of soil. In addition, radioactive decay and ingrowth of progeny during the year of exposure is included. External dose from the soil contamination is not included because monitoring and control of external exposures is carried out independently from internal exposures, which are the focus of this report. The methods used are similar to those used by Carbaugh and Bihl (1993) to set bioassay criteria for such workers

  10. Soil contamination standards for protection of personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1998-04-16

    The objective of this report is to recommend soil contamination levels that will ensure that radionuclide intakes by unprotected workers are likely to give internal doses below selected dose limits during the working year. The three internal dose limits are 1, 100, and 500 mrem per year. In addition, photon, beta, and alpha instrument readings are estimated for these soil concentration limits. Two exposure pathways are considered: the first is inhalation of resuspended dust and the second is ingestion of trace amounts of soil. In addition, radioactive decay and ingrowth of progeny during the year of exposure is included. External dose from the soil contamination is not included because monitoring and control of external exposures is carried out independently from internal exposures, which are the focus of this report. The methods used are similar to those used by Carbaugh and Bihl (1993) to set bioassay criteria for such workers.

  11. Civilian Personnel: Career Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This revision; (1) Contains changes required by the establishment of a consolidated and realigned management structure for civilian personnel, manpower, and related functions in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army...

  12. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  13. Personnel dose assignment practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1993-04-01

    Implementation of DOE N 5480.6 Radiological Control Manual Article 511(3) requirements, to minimize the assignment of personnel dosimeters, should be done only under a broader context ensuring that capabilities are in place to monitor and record personnel exposure both for compliance and for potential litigation. As noted in NCRP Report No. 114, personnel dosimetry programs are conducted to meet four major objectives: radiation safety program control and evaluation; regulatory compliance; epidemiological research; and litigation. A change to Article 511(3) is proposed that would require that minimizing the assignment of personnel dosimeters take place only following full evaluation of overall capabilities (e.g., access control, area dosimetry, etc.) to meet the NCRP objectives

  14. Education and training for security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    It is said that Physical Protection (PP) has two purposes. One is to prevent from occurring risks of threat and terrorism and the other is to minimize damages which will be happened in case of unusual conditions or emergency situation. To achieve this goal, personnel who perform their duties should have professional knowledge and skills concerning security. However, since newcomers rarely satisfy their knowledge and skill for nuclear security in most cases. Therefore, we have to provide adequate education and training after they joined to our company. To this end, our company, located in Aomori Prefecture focused on security and physical protection for nuclear related facilities. In this paper, personnel training and challenges in order to bring up security personnel at our company will be introduced. (author)

  15. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  16. A system for measuring and processing personnel dosimetric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neetzel, C.R.; Rochetti, Luis

    1981-01-01

    An operative system for the measurement and on-line processing of personnel dosimetry data is described. The aim is to organize and rationalize the work involved in a personnel dosimetry service. The method considers the application to other areas of radiation protection, as well as the connection and exchange of files among the different personnel monitoring groups. The system can be interfaced with different computers (M.E.L.) [es

  17. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  18. The Utilisation of Shredded PET as Aggregate Replacement for Interlocking Concrete Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, M.; Kaamin, M.; Sahat, S.; Hamid, N. B.

    2018-03-01

    The consumption of plastic has grown substantially all over the world in recent years and this has created huge quantities of plastic-based waste. Plastic waste is now a serious environmental threat to the modern way of living, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. This creates substantial garbage every day, which is much unhealthy. Plastic bottles such as Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was use as the partially component in this making of interlocking blocks concrete. This project investigates the strength and workability of the interlocking block concrete by replacing course aggregate with % PET. The suitability of recycled plastics (PET) as course aggregate in interlocking block concrete and its advantages are discussed here. Moreover, there were more benefits when using interlocking block than using conventional block such as it easy for construction because they are aligning, easy to place, high speed stacking and they offer more resistance to shear and buildings would be even stronger. Based on the test perform, the failure parameter were discussed .From the compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with increased of PET used. From the results, it shows that higher compressive strength was found with 5% natural course aggregate replaced with PET compared to other percentages.

  19. Development of Interlocking Masonry Bricks and its’ Structural Behaviour: A Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Amin; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Nuruddin, Fadhil; Nikbakht, Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    Conventional bricks are the most elementary building materials for houses construction. However, the rapid growth in today’s construction industry has obliged the civil engineers in searching for a new building technique that may result in even greater economy, more efficient and durable as an alternative for the conventional brick. Moreover, the high demands for having a speedy and less labour and cost building systems is one of the factor that cause the changes of the masonry conventional systems. These changes have led to improved constructability, performance, and cost as well. Several interlocking bricks has been developed and implemented in building constructions and a number of researches had studied the manufacturing of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour as load bearing and non-load bearing element. This technical paper aims to review the development of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour. In conclusion, the concept of interlocking system has been widely used as a replacement of the conventional system where it has been utilized either as load bearing or non-load bearing masonry system.

  20. Experimental Investigation About Stamping Behaviour of 3D Warp Interlock Composite Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Clément; Wang, Peng; Boussu, François; Soulat, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Forming of continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled prepregs can be performed at room temperature due to its similar textile structure. The "cool" forming stage is better controlled and more economical. The increase of temperature and the resin consolidation phases after the forming can be carried out under the isothermal condition thanks to a closed system. It can avoid the manufacturing defects easily experienced in the non-isothermal thermoforming, in particular the wrinkling [1]. Glass/Polypropylene commingled yarns have been woven inside different three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics and then formed using a double-curved shape stamping tool. The present study investigates the in-plane and through-thickness behaviour of the 3D warp interlock fibrous reinforcements during forming with a hemispherical punch. Experimental data allow analysing the forming behaviour in the warp and weft directions and on the influence of warp interlock architectures. The results point out that the layer to layer warp interlock preform has a better stamping behaviour, in particular no forming defects and good homogeneity in thickness.

  1. Engineering Task Plan for Hepa Filter Differential Pressure (DP) Fan Interlock Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMONS, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a plan for installation of Differential Pressure (DP) fan interlocks on the primary ventilation systems in selected Tank Farm facilities. This plan contains the engineering tasks required for installation and is summarized by the Acceptance for Beneficial Use list. Individuals responsible for each task are identified and scheduled accordingly

  2. Custom sectional impression trays with interlocking type handle for microstomia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Aquaviva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Making impressions in microstomia patients is often cumbersome. A modification of standard impression procedure is often necessary while treating such patients. This article describes the fabrication of a custom sectional impression tray with interlocking type of a handle for definitive impression procedures in a microstomia patient.

  3. Binding of anions in triply interlocked coordination catenanes and dynamic allostery for dehalogenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linlin; Jing, Xu; An, Bowen; He, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Duan, Chunying

    2018-01-28

    By synergistic combination of multicomponent self-assembly and template-directed approaches, triply interlocked metal organic catenanes that consist of two isolated chirally identical tetrahedrons were constructed and stabilized as thermodynamic minima. In the presence of suitable template anions, the structural conversion from the isolated tetrahedral conformers into locked catenanes occurred via the cleavage of an intrinsically reversible coordination bond in each of the tetrahedrons, followed by the reengineering and interlocking of two fragments with the regeneration of the broken coordination bonds. The presence of several kinds of individual pocket that were attributed to the triply interlocked patterns enabled the possibility of encapsulating different anions, allowing the dynamic allostery between the unlocked/locked conformers to promote the dehalogenation reaction of 3-bromo-cyclohexene efficiently, as with the use of dehalogenase enzymes. The interlocked structures could be unlocked into two individual tetrahedrons through removal of the well-matched anion templates. The stability and reversibility of the locked/unlocked structures were further confirmed by the catching/releasing process that accompanied emission switching, providing opportunities for the system to be a dynamic molecular logic system.

  4. On the Use of Static Checking in the Verification of Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Østergaard, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    In the formal methods community, the correctness of interlocking tables is typically verified by model checking. This paper suggests to use a static checker for this purpose and it demonstrates for the RobustRailS verification tool set that the execution time and memory usage of its static checker...

  5. Towards a Framework for Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a framework currently under development for modelling, simulation, and verification of relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways. The framework is centred around a domain-specific language (DSL) for describing such systems, and provides (1) a graphical editor...

  6. Software Verification and Validation Test Report for the HEPA filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System PLC ladder logic software was tested using a Software Verification and Validation (VandV) Test Plan as required by the ''Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements''. The purpose of his document is to report on the results of the software qualification

  7. Towards a Framework for Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a framework currently under development for modelling, simulation, and verification of relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways. The framework is centred around a domain-specific language (DSL) for describing such systems, and provides (1) a graphical editor ...

  8. Compositional Model Checking of Interlocking Systems for Lines with Multiple Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In the railway domain safety is guaranteed by an interlocking system which translates operational decisions into commands leading to field operations. Such a system is safety critical and demands thorough formal verification during its development process. Within this context, our work has focused...

  9. Influence of Sawdust as an Aggregate in the Production of Interlocking Pavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayiwola Olaleye AJALA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating sawdust into the production of interlocking pavers. Sawdust, stone dust, cement and sharp-sand were combined in different mixing ratios of 2:4:2:0, 2:3:2:1, 2:2:2:2, 3:1:2:2 and 0:3:2:3 respectively with five replicates of each treatment. The interlocking pavers produced were tested for weight, density, hardness, compressive and impact strength. The Analysis of Variance was conducted to test the significance of the strength properties of the pavers produced. The results showed that pavers produced with mixing ratio 0:3:2:3 has the highest mean density and mean compressive strength at 1.58kg/m3 and 4.72N/mm2 respectively, closely followed by ratio 2:2:2:2 which has the highest mean impact strength at 4.39J, compressive strength of 3.26N/mm2 , hardness of 1.70kg and mean density of 1.20kg/m3 . However there is no significant difference in the interlocking pavers’ degree of resistance to abrasion (hardness. It can be concluded that optimum replacement of aggregates exists in ratio 2:2:2:2 where 25% of sawdust can be utilized in each unit of interlocking paver.

  10. 78 FR 26849 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... requirements, and asked whether the Model Specifications should limit sensor technology to alcohol-specific sensors (such as fuel cell technology based on electrochemical oxidation of alcohol) or other emerging... have demanded alcohol- specific sensor technology. [Interlocks that] are not alcohol-specific...

  11. The RF-Station Interlock for the European X-ray laser

    CERN Document Server

    Grevsmühl, T; Duval, P; Hensler, O; Kahl, J; Kaiser, F R; Kretzschmann, A; Rehlich, K; Schwendicke, U; Simrock, S; Weisse, S

    2004-01-01

    The RF-station interlock for the European X-ray laser will be based on a 19"- 3U crate incorporating a controller with the 32-bit RISC NIOS-processor (ALTERA). The main task of the interlock system is to prevent any damage from the components of the RF station and connected cavities. The interlock system must also guarantee a maximum time of operation of the RF stations which implies the implementation of self diagnostics and repair strategies on a module basis. Additional tasks are: collection and temporary storage of status information of the individual channels of the interlock system, transfer of this information to the control system, slow control functions (e.g. HV setting and monitoring) and control of inputs and outputs from and to other subsystems. In this paper we present the implementation using an ALTERA-FPGA running a 32-bit RISC NIOS-processor. Connection to the accelerator main control is provided by Ethernet using BSD-style socket routines based on ALTERA's plugs-library. The layout o...

  12. Advanced interlocking systems to improve heavy-load-bearing characteristics of flexible intramedullary nailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Leopold, E-mail: leopold.berger@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Building Construction and Technology, TU Wien, Karlsplatz 13/206-4, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Eichler, Johannes [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5/6, 8036 Graz (Austria); Ryll, E. Jonathan S. [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Muenster, Westphalian-Wilhelms University, Muenster (Germany); Fischerauer, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5/6, 8036 Graz (Austria); Raschke, Michael J. [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Muenster, Westphalian-Wilhelms University, Muenster (Germany); Kolbitsch, Andreas [Institute of Building Construction and Technology, TU Wien, Karlsplatz 13/206-4, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Castellani, Christoph [Department of Pediatric and Adolescence Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 34, 8036 Graz (Austria); Weinberg, Annelie-Martina [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5/6, 8036 Graz (Austria)

    2016-11-01

    Flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) is a minimally invasive and widespread standard method for osteosynthesis of pediatric long bone fractures. In the case of unstable fractures of the lower extremity, interlocking systems need to be used to prevent axial shortening and subsequent perforation of the nail at its insertion site. In the present study, four different screw-fixed interlocking systems for FINs (Hofer TwinPlug with two 3-mm titanium interlocking screws, Hofer FixPlug with 3-mm titanium interlocking screw, Hofer Plug with 3.5-mm titanium interlocking screw, and Hofer Plug with 3-mm titanium interlocking screw) in comparison with the commonly used Ender stainless steel nails (locked with 3.5-mm screw) were experimentally investigated in cadaveric lamb tibiae, regarding their load characteristics and failure modes in the case of heavy loading. The specimens were subjected to sequential axial cyclic loading of 5000cycles with stepwise increase of the load amplitude until failure. Migration of locking screws and internal damage of bone tissue was quantified by micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. Ender nails failed on average at a peak load of 800 N, TwinPlugs at 1367 N, FixPlugs at 1222 N, Plugs 3.5mm at 1225 N and Plugs 3.0mm at 971 N. TwinPlugs, FixPlugs, and Plugs 3.5mm failed in a slow manner over several hundred loading cycles, whereas Ender nails and Plugs 3.0mm exhibited abrupt failure without any prior indication. Our results confirm that axial stability of FIN can be further improved by screw-fixed plugs by simultaneously avoiding shortcomings of an eye-locked system, which the Ender nails are. Considering biomechanical results, plug interlocking systems with 3.5-mm screws should be favored over conventional Ender nails and plugs with 3-mm screws. - Highlights: • Locked flexible intramedullary nails in lamb tibiae were cyclically loaded. • Strongly different failure modes of locking systems were detected. • Novel screw-fixed plugs are

  13. Towards harmonized qualifications for radiation exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso, Hugo A.

    2008-01-01

    The accelerated process of globalization affecting mankind doesn't exclude safety matters. Indeed, some trans national corporations are increasingly offering specialized engineering services such as industrial radiography or well lodging. As well, a growing scientific exchange involves the mobility of nuclear researchers in different areas, for instance radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Such a breakdown in the technological frontiers must necessarily be reflected by the regulatory solutions. Particularly, diverse levels of theoretical-practical training for radiation exposed personnel coexist in the Latin-American Region, being an especially sensitive problem for radiation protection matters. The spectrum goes from post-graduate courses required for radiation protection officers in some countries, while in others only basic recommendations are required for the operating personnel. Another scheme consists of medium level course for the operating personnel, while radiation protection officers don't have special requirements. Many educational private institutions teach non standardized courses which only give broad concepts of radiation protection. On the other hand, usually nothing is said about the operational training, or else its certification is entrusted to the employer itself. In some countries multiple Regulatory Authorities apply dissimilar criteria to assess safety matters, including the evaluation of workers applications. The necessary regional integration makes indispensable to establish common standards for granting authorizations. Having similar or homogeneous requirements for the universe of radiation exposed personnel, i.e. source operators, radiation protection officers, qualified experts and technical support people would be easier for the Regulatory Authorities to have common methodologies of evaluation for the applicants. An IAEA supported technical cooperation project related to this paper seeks to establish standardized

  14. PAMTRAK: A personnel and material tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspach, D.A.; Anspach, J.P.; Crain, B. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    There is a need for an automated system for protecting and monitoring sensitive or classified parts and material. Sandia has developed a real-time personnel and material tracking system (PAMTRAK) that has been installed at selected DOE facilities. It safeguards sensitive parts and material by tracking tags worn by personnel and by monitoring sensors attached to the parts or material. It includes remote control and alarm display capabilities and a complementary program in Keyhole to display measured material attributes remotely. This paper describes the design goals, the system components, current installations, and the benefits a site can expect when using PAMTRAK

  15. Training of maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture precises the method and means developed by EDF to ensure the training of maintenance personnel according to their initial educational background and their experience. The following points are treated: General organization of the training for maintenance personnel in PWR and GCR nuclear power stations and in Creys Malville fast breeder reactor; Basic nuclear training and pedagogical aids developed for this purpose; Specific training and training provided by contractors; complementary training taking into account the operation experience and feedback; Improvement of velocity, competence and safety during shut-down operations by adapted training. (orig.)

  16. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C W [Radiological and Safety Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  17. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  18. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  19. Harmonious personnel scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn van Draat, Laurens; Post, Gerhard F.; Veltman, Bart; Winkelhuijzen, Wessel

    2006-01-01

    The area of personnel scheduling is very broad. Here we focus on the ‘shift assignment problem’. Our aim is to discuss how ORTEC HARMONY handles this planning problem. In particular we go into the structure of the optimization engine in ORTEC HARMONY, which uses techniques from genetic algorithms,

  20. Nuclear Test Personnel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOIA Electronic Reading Room Privacy Impact Assessment DTRA No Fear Act Reporting Nuclear Test Personnel Review NTPR Fact Sheets NTPR Radiation Dose Assessment Documents US Atmospheric Nuclear Test History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak

  1. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, the LHC, will operate with about 3 × 10 14 protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This article provides an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces the various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC, SNS and ESS

  2. El prestigi empresarial: Anàlisi a través de les conselleries creuades The business prestige: A preliminary study based on interlocks within companies The business prestige: A preliminary study based on interlocks within companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The literature on interlocked directorate or interlocks has proposed the presence of cross-directors as an influential factor in the prestige of a firm (Mizruchi, 1996. This theory is based on the fact that, by having multiple companies with interlocks within them, major stakeholders of the company ought to have a higher perception of prestige. The aim of this preliminary study is to present an exploratory study and suggest future research lines on this issue. Design/methodology/approach: In a first preliminary study, we evaluate the interlocks network comprising companies belonging to the ranking established by the MERCO report in Spain for the year 2010. This is a well-known ranking of corporate reputation in Spain used in recent articles (Luna & Fernandez, 2010. For further analysis, other variables are considered as being quoted in the Spanish market benchmark index, IBEX 35, and the location of the headquarters.Findings: Significant positive relationship was obtained between the number of directorships shared with other public companies and the perceived prestige that stakeholders perceive from the firm. Similarly, we obtain significant positive correlation between the prestige and being listed on the IBEX 35. Finally, we identified banking, construction and energy sectors as the ones that use interlocking directorates more intensively.Research limitations: The results of this preliminary study show the viability of future studies about prestige and interlocks (Mizruchi, 1996. For the validation of the theory described in this study, it should be replicated in different regions and, with larger samples, to observe the effect that interlocks have on the perception of prestige of the company.Practical implications / Originality/value: This is among the first studies showing the existence of a relationship between interlocks and business prestige. It highlights the importance of the composition of the boards for the perceived prestige

  3. The multi-interlock and check of logical system for 5 MW low power reactor automatic rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjian; Zhao Zengqiao

    1992-01-01

    The safety and reliability of the logical system for 5 MW LPR automatic rod are improved, because of using multi-interlock and manual check on line. The design character and function of the logical system are introduced

  4. Quality assurance for external personnel monitoring in nuclear industrial facilities, CNNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yansheng; Dai Jun; Li Taosheng

    1993-01-01

    More than 6000 personnel are currently being monitored for occupational exposure in CNNC, China. Personnel monitoring is one of the important items of radiation protection. The data of individual dose are not only indispensable for radiation safety assessment but also the basis for radiation protection measures to be taken. Possibly, it could provide basic information for epidemiological studies, optimization procedure of radiation protection (risk/benefit analyses) and medical or legal purposes. Obviously, personnel monitoring and its quality assurance are very significant

  5. Strategy and tactics of the radiological protection of the Shelter personnel in connection with the coming works on stabilization and reorganization of the Shelter object into the radioactive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyuk, O.F.; Danilov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The research aim is to analyze the Shelter personnel work conditions and to estimate how these conditions specify radiological defence. It is shown that the synergetic influence of radiofactor Shelter object microclimate is very dangerous because of its ability to deteriorate significantly the personnel health up to acute stress reaction. In these cases there appear the episodes of the short disorders of orientation in the surrounding situation, paroxysmal consciousness disturbances which may become the nondirect reason of the overirradiation and growth of work traumatic injury. That is why the methods of the stress-reaction prophylaxis and improvement of the individual defence become extremely improvement for the shelter object personnel. It was shown that the following medicines are perspective due to their adaptogenic and radioprotective abilities, such as: α-2-recombinant interferon, antiinflammatory, steroid, antioxidant and enterosorptive preparations of biological nature [ru

  6. 49 CFR 1242.17 - Signals and interlockers (accounts XX-17-19 and XX-18-19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals and interlockers (accounts XX-17-19 and XX... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.17 Signals and interlockers (accounts XX-17-19 and XX-18-19). Separate common expenses on the basis of the total train-hours in running service, and/or...

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Absorbable Sheath to Prevent Stress Shielding of Tibial Interlocking Intramedullary Nail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yansheng; Wang, Yongqing; Dong, Limin; Jia, Peng; Lu, Fengcheng

    2017-07-01

    The nail with absorbable sheath (AS nail) is designed to reduce the stress shielding effect of internal fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail. In order to verify its feasibility, two types of the finite element models of internal fixation of tibia with the AS nail and the common metal nail (CM nail) are established using the Softwares of Mimics, Geomagic, SolidWorks and ANSYS according to the CT scanning data of tibia. The result of the finite element analysis shows that the AS nail has great advantages compared with the CM nail in reducing the stress shielding effect in different periods of fracture healing. The conclusion is that the AS nail can realize the static fixation to the dynamic fixation from the early to the later automatically to shorten the time of fracture healing, which also provides a new technique to the interlocking intramedullary nail.

  8. The use of interlocking prostheses for both temporary and definitive management of infected periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Sujith; Rayan, Faizal; Manketelow, Andrew R J; Haddad, Fares S

    2011-12-01

    Infected periprosthetic fractures around total hip arthroplasties are an extremely challenging problem. We describe our experience of managing infected periprosthetic femoral fractures using interlocking long-stem femoral prostheses either as temporary functional spacers or as definitive implants. The Cannulock (Orthodesign, Christchurch, United Kingdom) uncoated stem was used in 12 cases, and the Kent hip prosthesis (Biomet Merck, Bridgend, United Kingdom), in 5 cases. Satisfactory outcome was noted in all cases, and in 11 cases, revision to a definitive stem has been undertaken after successful control of infection and fracture union. The use of interlocking stems offers a relatively appealing solution for a complex problem and avoids the complications that would be associated with resection of the entire femur or the use of large quantities of bone cement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel Repair Concept for Composite Materials by Repetitive Geometrical Interlock Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zaremba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Material adapted repair technologies for fiber-reinforced polymers with thermosetting matrix systems are currently characterized by requiring major efforts for repair preparation and accomplishment in all industrial areas of application. In order to allow for a uniform distribution of material and geometrical parameters over the repair zone, a novel composite interlock repair concept is introduced, which is based on a repair zone with undercuts prepared by water-jet technology. The presented numerical and experimental sensitivity analyses make a contribution to the systematic development of the interlock repair technology with respect to material and geometrical factors of influence. The results show the ability of the novel concept for a reproducible and automatable composite repair.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS IN ADULTS TREATED WITH DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATING AND INTERLOCKING NAILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Desai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opti m al m ethod of hu m eral shaft f r acture f i xation remains in debate till date. Two techniq u es under study include i n tra m edullary nailing and dyna m ic co m pression plate fixation. Plating provides satisfactory results but requires extensive dissection and m eticulous radial nerve protection. Theoretical advantage of intra m ed u llary nailing included less invasive surgery, undisturbed fractu r e hemato m a and use of load sharing device support. Purpose of this study is to co m p are o u tco m es of each m ethod of fixation for fracture shaft of humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: P atients with diaphyseal fractures of the hu m erus were divided in two groups of 20 treated with dynam i c co m pression plate or w i th i n tra m edullary interlocking nail. Postoperatively both groups received sa m e type of physiotherapy. They were followed up regularly . T i me taken for radiological union in two groups was co m pared. After satisfactory radiological un i on, functional out c o m e was assessed by “Disabilities of Hand, Shoulder and Elbow (DASH Questionnaire”. RESULTS: F unctional outco m e was better in DCP group co m pared to int e rloc ki ng nailing group which was statistically significant ( P = 0.062. Rate of healing was marginally better in DCP group as compared to I.M nail. CONCLUSION: W e are of opi n i on that when s u r ge r y is opted as a c h oice of treat m ent, both modalities of treat m ent i.e. dyn a m i c co m pression plating and interlocking nailing are good as far as union of fracture is concerned, but considering number of co m plications and functional outco m e, we opine that d y na m i c co m p ression plating o f f ers bett e r result than anteg r ade i n te r l ocking nailing with respect to pain and function of shoulder joint

  11. Modular reliability modeling of the TJNAF personnel safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinnamon, J.; Mahoney, K.

    1997-01-01

    A reliability model for the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (formerly CEBAF) personnel safety system has been developed. The model, which was implemented using an Excel spreadsheet, allows simulation of all or parts of the system. Modularity os the model's implementation allows rapid open-quotes what if open-quotes case studies to simulate change in safety system parameters such as redundancy, diversity, and failure rates. Particular emphasis is given to the prediction of failure modes which would result in the failure of both of the redundant safety interlock systems. In addition to the calculation of the predicted reliability of the safety system, the model also calculates availability of the same system. Such calculations allow the user to make tradeoff studies between reliability and availability, and to target resources to improving those parts of the system which would most benefit from redesign or upgrade. The model includes calculated, manufacturer's data, and Jefferson Lab field data. This paper describes the model, methods used, and comparison of calculated to actual data for the Jefferson Lab personnel safety system. Examples are given to illustrate the model's utility and ease of use

  12. Experimental and numerical analysis of interlocking rib formation at sheet metal blanking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolka, Špela; Bratuš, Vitoslav; Starman, Bojan; Mole, Nikolaj

    2018-05-01

    Cores for electrical motors are typically produced by blanking of laminations and then stacking them together, with, for instance, interlocking ribs or welding. Strict geometrical tolerances, both on the lamination and on the stack, combined with complex part geometry and harder steel strip material, call for use of predictive methods to optimize the process before actual blanking to reduce the costs and speed up the process. One of the major influences on the final stack geometry is the quality of the interlocking ribs. A rib is formed in one step and joined with the rib of the preceding lamination in the next. The quality of the joint determines the firmness of the stack and also influences its. The geometrical and positional accuracy is thus crucial in rib formation process. In this study, a complex experimental and numerical analysis of interlocking rib formation has been performed. The aim of the analysis is to numerically predict the shape of the rib in order to perform a numerical simulation of the stack formation in the next step of the process. A detailed experimental research has been performed in order to characterize influential parameters on the rib formation and the geometry of the ribs itself, using classical and 3D laser microscopy. The formation of the interlocking rib is then simulated using Abaqus Explicit. The Hilll 48 constitutive material model is based on extensive and novel material characterization process, combining data from in-plane and out-of-plane material tests to perform a 3D analysis of both, rib formation and rib joining. The study shows good correlation between the experimental and numerical results.

  13. Coalescence of 3-phenyl-propynenitrile on Cu(111) into interlocking pinwheel chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Miaomiao; Lu, Wenhao; Kim, Daeho; Chu, Eric; Wyrick, Jon; Holzke, Connor; Salib, Daniel; Cohen, Kamelia D.; Cheng, Zhihai; Sun, Dezheng; Zhu, Yeming; Einstein, T. L.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2011-10-01

    3-phenyl-propynenitrile (PPN) adsorbs on Cu(111) in a hexagonal network of molecular trimers formed through intermolecular interaction of the cyano group of one molecule with the aromatic ring of its neighbor. Heptamers of trimers coalesce into interlocking pinwheel-shaped structures that, by percolating across islands of the original trimer coverage, create the appearance of gear chains. Density functional theory aids in identifying substrate stress associated with the chemisorption of PPN's acetylene group as the cause of this transition.

  14. Three-dimensional Interlocking Professional Management Mechanism of Agricultural Family-Owned Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-ming, Shen; Cheng-jun, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of the three-dimensional interlocking professional management mechanism of agricultural family-owned enterprise was studied through the following three mechanisms; the stimulation and restriction mechanism within the agricultural family-owned enterprises, the credit mechanism of professional manager and the social environment mechanism. The relationship between the agricultural family-owned enterprise, professional manager and the society was studied. In the first place, the...

  15. Modernization of personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferburg, M.; Rehn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Personnel training in German nuclear power plants adheres to high standards complying with government regulations. The development of PC technology allows the introduction of new training methods, e.g. computer based training (CBT), as well as their integration into existing systems. In Germany, the operators of nuclear power plants have developed their own computer based standards with a screen design, a hardware platform and an assessment standard. 25% of the theoretical training of the shift personnel is covered by CBT. The CBT-Programmes offer multimedia features: videos, photographs, sound, graphs and switching diagrams of existing systems, practice oriented simulations and 3-D animations. Interaction is the most important attribute of an efficient self-learning-programme. A typical example of such an appropriate theme is the CBT-Lesson ''Pressure Surges in Pipes and Components of Power Plants''. (author)

  16. Control Logic for the Interlock system of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Riegel, Christian

    Part of the first upgrade program of the ATLAS detector is the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) as a fourth and innermost detector layer of the ATLAS pixel detector to prepare the tracking system for the expected increase of pile-up events. As with every sub-detector, the IBL and its components have to be monitored and controlled via a Detector Control System (DCS). A hardware-based interlock system is installed on-site to prevent detector and people working at the detector from serious harm and damage. For the IBL, the logical processing of interlock signals is realised in Interlock Matrix Crates (IMCs) using Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD). One part of this master thesis is the automatic implementation of the logical assignments from database information. A script was developed to generate the needed file to program the CPLD. The second part of this thesis is the design of a test setup to verify the functionality of the electrical components of each IMC and to confirm the correct proce...

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Interlocked Intramedullary Nailing for Open Fracture Shaft of Tibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Awan, A. S.; Sultan, S.; Saifullah, K.; Afridi, S. A.; Afridi, S. K.; Lodhi, F. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing population and changing human habits the number of accidents and high energy trauma is rising. Management of open fracture tibia is a complex problem and is a challenge for both orthopaedic and plastic surgeons. The study was carried out to ascertain the efficacy and safety of interlocked intra-medullary nailing for open shaft tibial fractures in patients presenting at or after 24 hr of injury. Methods: In this descriptive case series, over a period of 6 moths, 163 consecutive cases of open fracture of tibial shaft were reviewed in terms of clinical profile, time of presentation, and gender distribution. Results: In this study mean age was 30±0.02 years. Males comprised 85 percent of study population while 15 percent were females. Gustilo-I type fracture and Gustilo-II type fracture was diagnosed in 90 percent and 10 percent patients respectively. Thirty three percent patients had wound infection while fracture union was found in 15 percent cases. Moreover interlocked intramedullary nailing for open fracture shaft of tibia was safe in 80 percent patients while this procedure was effective in 85 percent. Conclusion: Un-reamed, interlocked intra-medullary nailing may be considered as a suitable option for treatment of open fractures of tibia. (author)

  18. Outcomes in closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, T.; Sawati, A.; Ahmed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fracture is one of the common fractures seen in accident and emergency department of our hospital. Violent forces are required to break this and strongest of human bones. There are various treatment modalities for femoral shaft fractures in adults like traction, brace, platting, intramedullary nail (IMN), external fixators and inter locking nails. The study was done with an objective to evaluate the results of closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur. Methods: A prospective study of 114 cases of femoral shaft fractures was carried out at orthopaedic unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad during 1 year. All these cases were treated with statically locked nails under spinal or general anaesthesia. These cases were followed up for up to one year and Results of the interlocking nail were observed in terms of union and complications. Results: Out of 114 patients, 95 underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Ten patients had dynamization within six weeks because of obvious fracture gap in radiograph. There were 3 patients who had non-union, and 6 patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization. Conclusion: Close reamed interlocking intramedullary nail in femoral shaft fractures is the treatment of choice. Patient rehabilitation is early, hospitalization is short, and fracture healing response is good. (author)

  19. Economic aspects of interlocking hollow brick system designed for industrialized building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mahmood Md.; Saggaff, Anis; Ngian, Shek Poi; Sulaiman, Arizu

    2017-11-01

    Construction industry has moved forward into a technology driven where a transition is in progress from conventional method to a more advanced and mechanised system known as the Industrialised Building System (IBS). However, the need to implement the IBS should be well understood by all construction players such as designer, architect, contraction, erectors and construction workers. Therefore, there is a need to educate all these construction players which should be spearheaded by authorities such as Construction Industrial Development Board where enforcement trough building by laws as well as initiative to those that adopt the IBS in their construction. This paper reports on economic aspects of using interlocking hollow brick system in construction as an alternative method offered for Industrialized Building System. The main objective is to address the economic aspects of using interlocking block system in terms of time, costs, and utilization of manpower and to present some of the experimental tests results related to Interlocking Hollow Brick System (IHBS). Example of savings from the use of IHBS is presented in this paper by comparing the construction of two storey terrace house with build-up area of about 200 square meter with conventional construction method of typical reinforced concrete construction (RCC) compared to IHBS. The comparison shows that the implementation of IHBS can reduce construction time, cost, and utilization of man power up to 26.6% compared to the conventional method. Moreover, the construction time using IHBS can also be reduced by up to 50% as compared to the conventional construction.

  20. Composites reinforced via mechanical interlocking of surface-roughened microplatelets within ductile and brittle matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libanori, R; Carnelli, D; Rothfuchs, N; Binelli, M R; Zanini, M; Nicoleau, L; Feichtenschlager, B; Albrecht, G; Studart, A R

    2016-04-12

    Load-bearing reinforcing elements in a continuous matrix allow for improved mechanical properties and can reduce the weight of structural composites. As the mechanical performance of composite systems are heavily affected by the interfacial properties, tailoring the interactions between matrices and reinforcing elements is a crucial problem. Recently, several studies using bio-inspired model systems suggested that interfacial mechanical interlocking is an efficient mechanism for energy dissipation in platelet-reinforced composites. While cheap and effective solutions are available at the macroscale, the modification of surface topography in micron-sized reinforcing elements still represents a challenging task. Here, we report a simple method to create nanoasperities with tailored sizes and densities on the surface of alumina platelets and investigate their micromechanical effect on the energy dissipation mechanisms of nacre-like materials. Composites reinforced with roughened platelets exhibit improved mechanical properties for both organic ductile epoxy and inorganic brittle cement matrices. Mechanical interlocking increases the modulus of toughness (area under the stress-strain curve) by 110% and 56% in epoxy and cement matrices, respectively, as compared to those reinforced with flat platelets. This interlocking mechanism can potentially lead to a significant reduction in the weight of mechanical components while retaining the structural performance required in the application field.

  1. A STUDY OF THE MANAGEMENT OF OPEN FRACTURES OF TIBIA BY UNREAMED INTERLOCKING NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppa Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in the treatment of open fractures of t he tibial shaft and study the difficulties (complications encountered during the operative study. To compare the efficacy of interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in treating open fractures of tibia, Time required for the union of fracture, Range of motion of ankle and knee joint, Rate of malunion and mal rotation and Pain at the knee joint. RESULTS: The average age of patient is 32 years,83.33% are males, road traffic accidents account for majority(79.16%,right side involved in 58.33%,gustillo type II and type I compound fractures are common, full range of movements is seen in 66.67% by 12 weeks and union occurred in 95.83% by 9 months. Thirteen (54.17% patients had excellent results, six (25% patients had good results, four (1 6.67% patients had fair results and one (4.16 patient had poor result. CONCLUSION: Unreamed interlocking intramedullary nailing with the help of image intensifier seems feasible in open diaphyseal fractures of tibia with the advantages of minimal blood l oss, low risk of infection, early mobilisation , earlier soft tissue coverage , Promotes early union , minimal hospital stay and early returns to activities

  2. The Impact of Board Interlocks on Auditor Choice and Audit Fees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riise Johansen, Thomas; Pettersson, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research Question/Issue This paper uses unique Danish data to examine whether non-executive directors draw on both direct and indirect ties in the network of interlocking directorates to impact auditor choice, and whether this impact has consequences for audit fees. Research Findings/Insight The ......Research Question/Issue This paper uses unique Danish data to examine whether non-executive directors draw on both direct and indirect ties in the network of interlocking directorates to impact auditor choice, and whether this impact has consequences for audit fees. Research Findings....../Insight The paper finds clear evidence that non-executive directors draw on their networks to impact auditor choice, and evidence that clients pay an audit fee premium when non-executive directors are connected to audit firms outside the focal company. The relationship between non-executive directors and auditors...... of the non-executive director–auditor relationship and the role that board networks have in governing auditor choice decisions. The study identifies interlocks as an infrastructure for differentiation in the audit market and determines that such differentiation is associated with an audit fee premium...

  3. Bio-inspired design of geometrically interlocked 3D printed joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Oliva, Noel; Kumar's Lab Team

    The morphology of the adhesive-adherend interface significantly affects the mechanical behavior of adhesive joints. As seen in some biocomposites like human skull, or the nacre of some bivalve molluscs' shells, a geometrically interlocking architecture of interfaces creates toughening and strengthening mechanisms enhancing the mechanical properties of the joint. In an attempt to characterize this mechanical interlocking mechanism, this study is focused on computational and experimental investigation of a single-lap joint with a very simple geometrically interlocked interface design in which both adherends have a square waveform configuration of the joining surfaces. This square waveform configuration contains a positive and a negative rectangular teeth per cycle in such a way that the joint is symmetric about the mid-bondlength. Both physical tests performed on 3D printed prototypes of joints and computational results indicate that the joints with square waveform design have higher strength and damage tolerance than those of joints with flat interface. In order to identify an optimal design configuration of this interface, a systematic parametric study is conducted by varying the geometric and material properties of the non-flat interface. This work was supported by Lockheed Martin (Award No: 12NZZ1).

  4. Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Chu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of open-joint inter-locking pavers in a permeable pavement in cold (winter conditions. A field-scale inter-locking paver cell (UNI Eco-Optiloc® was built to evaluate the hydraulic performance and water quality improvements experienced during freeze-thaw and frozen conditions in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Hydraulic performance was assessed using stormwater runoff reduction (peaks and volumes and surface infiltration capacity. Water quality performance for removal of total suspended solids (TSS, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorous (TP and three heavy metals: copper, lead and zinc, was assessed. Results from the study demonstrated that the inter-locking pavers were effective in attenuating stormwater runoff peak volumes. The surface infiltration capacity decreased significantly due to the deposition of sanding and de-icing materials on the pavement surface during winter operation. Infiltrated stormwater was stored and treated within the pavement structure, which showed removal rates of 91% for TSS, 78% for TP, 6% for TN, 68% for zinc, 69% for copper and 55% for lead.

  5. Automatic generation and verification of railway interlocking control tables using FSM and NuSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. YAZDI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their important role in providing safe conditions for train movements, railway interlocking systems are considered as safety critical systems. The reliability, safety and integrity of these systems, relies on reliability and integrity of all stages in their lifecycle including the design, verification, manufacture, test, operation and maintenance.In this paper, the Automatic generation and verification of interlocking control tables, as one of the most important stages in the interlocking design process has been focused on, by the safety critical research group in the School of Railway Engineering, SRE. Three different subsystems including a graphical signalling layout planner, a Control table generator and a Control table verifier, have been introduced. Using NuSMV model checker, the control table verifier analyses the contents of control table besides the safe train movement conditions and checks for any conflicting settings in the table. This includes settings for conflicting routes, signals, points and also settings for route isolation and single and multiple overlap situations. The latest two settings, as route isolation and multiple overlap situations are from new outcomes of the work comparing to works represented on the subject recently.

  6. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  7. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  8. Electronic Official Personnel Folder System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The eOPF is a digital recreation of paper personnel folder that stores electronic personnel data spanning an individual's Federal career. eOPF allows employees to...

  9. Application of programmable controllers to vacuum system interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.; Moore, D.

    1979-11-01

    This paper describes the Doublet III Vacuum Control System in which all input signals and output loads are connected to a programmable controller (PC) for logical interfacing. Input signals derived from CAMAC, control panels, limit switches, etc., are implemented as output signals to CAMAC, vacuum valves, pump motors, etc., according to a logic program stored in the PC memory. The memory can be easily programmed by anyone familar with either Boolean algebra or relay-ladder network diagrams. The program data is entered with the aid of a calculator like, keyboard instrument with LED readout displays. The PC system contains a 1024 word RAM memory with a battery backup system to provide 72 hours protection of contents in case of power failure

  10. Qualification of NPP operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiao.

    1987-01-01

    Competence of personnel is one of the important problems for safety operation of nuclear power plant. This paper gives a description of some aspects, such as the administration of NPP, posts, competence of personnel, training, assessing the competence and personnel management

  11. A Beam Interlock System for CERN High Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Schmidt, R

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (The European Organisation for Nuclear Research) is one of the largest and most complicated machines envisaged to date. The LHC has been conceived and designed over the course of the last 25 years and represents the cutting edge of accelerator technology with a collision energy of 14TeV, having a stored beam energy over 100 times more powerful than the nearest competitor. Commissioning of the machine is already nderway and operation with beam is intended for Autumn 2007, with 7TeV operation expected in 2008. The LHC is set to answer some of the fundemental questions in theoretical physics, colliding particles with such high energy that the inner workings of the quantum world can be revealed. Colliding particles together at such high energy makes very high demands on machine operation and protection. The specified beam energy requires strong magnetic fields that are made in superconducting dipole magnets, these magnets are kept only around two degrees above absolute zero...

  12. Personnel ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A dosimeter and method for use by personnel working in an area of mixed ionizing radiation fields for measuring and/or determining the effective energy of x- and gamma radiation; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent to the surface of the body; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent at a depth in the body; the presence of slow neutron, fast neutron dose equivalent; and orientation of the person wearing the dosimeter to the source of radiation is disclosed. Optionally integrated into this device and method are improved means for determining neutron energy spectrum and absorbed dose from fission gamma and neutron radiation resulting from accidental criticality

  13. Personnel policy and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmaier, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of personnel policy and management two main points must be considered and fitted together: the aspects of the applicant and the aspects of the utility. The applicant wishes a position which suits to his abilities, education, training, experience and self-evaluation. The enterprise has beside these qualification criteria to look to some additional points: reliability - not only in the profession of the applicant but also in his daily life. In this examination licensing authorities are involved too; responsibility in a very broad sense and the ability to make correct decisions sometimes under stress situations. (orig.)

  14. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange functions: standards for Navigators and non-Navigator assistance personnel; consumer assistance tools and programs of an Exchange and certified application counselors. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to Navigators and non-Navigator assistance personnel in Federally-facilitated Exchanges, including State Partnership Exchanges, and to non-Navigator assistance personnel in State Exchanges that are funded through federal Exchange Establishment grants. It finalizes the requirement that Exchanges must have a certified application counselor program. It creates conflict-of-interest, training and certification, and meaningful access standards; clarifies that any licensing, certification, or other standards prescribed by a state or Exchange must not prevent application of the provisions of title I of the Affordable Care Act; adds entities with relationships to issuers of stop loss insurance to the list of entities that are ineligible to become Navigators; and clarifies that the same ineligibility criteria that apply to Navigators apply to certain non-Navigator assistance personnel. The final rule also directs that each Exchange designate organizations which will then certify their staff members and volunteers to be application counselors that assist consumers and facilitate enrollment in qualified health plans and insurance affordability programs, and provides standards for that designation.

  15. Energy response study of modified CR-39 neutron personnel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathian, Deepa; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.; Nair, Sreejith S.; Sathian, V.; Mishra, Jitendra; Sen, Meghnath

    2018-01-01

    Personnel neutron dosimetry is an integral part of radiation protection. No single dosimeter provides the satisfactory energy response, sensitivity, angular dependence characteristics and accuracy necessary to meet the requirement of an ideal personnel neutron dosimeter. The response of a personnel neutron dosimeter is critically dependent upon the energy distribution of the neutron field. CR-39 personnel neutron dosimeters were typically calibrated in the standard neutron field of 252 Cf and 241 Am-Be in our laboratory, although actual neutron fields may vary from the calibration neutron spectrum. Recently the badge cassette of the personnel neutron dosimeter was changed due to frequent damage of the PVC badge used earlier. This paper discusses energy response of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector loaded in this modified badge cassette as per latest ISO recommendation

  16. Training of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Selected staffs (in the area of NPPs) are examined by the State Examining Committee established by Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR's) chairman. The committee consists of representatives of NRA SR , Bohunice NPPs, Mochovce NPP, Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and experts from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology of the Slovak Technical University. The review of selected personnel of NPP V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPP which passed exams in 1996 is given. NRA SR paid attention to the upgrading training process of individual categories of staff for V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPPs, simulator training and training with computerized simulation system according to the United criteria of nuclear installation personnel training that started in 1992. During the year, an inspection was performed focused on examination of technical equipment of the simulator of Mochovce NPP, professional eligibility and overall preparation of simulator training including simulator software. Throughout the year launching works continued at the simulator with the deadline of commissioning to trial use operation in the first half of 1997

  17. Quo vadis, personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1975-01-01

    With the increasing use of nuclear power and radiation sources, the selection of optimum systems for personnel monitoring is becoming a matter of worldwide concern. The present status of personnel dosimetry, sometimes characterized by unstable and inaccurate detectors and oversimplified interpretation of the results, leaves much to be desired. In particular, photographic film, although having certain advantages with regard to economics and information content, undergoes rapid changes in warm and humid climates. Careful sealing reduces, but does not prevent, these problems. The replacement of film by solid-state dosimeters, primarily thermoluminescence dosimeters, is in progress or being considered by an increasing number of institutions and requires a number of decisions concerning the choice of the optimum detector(s), badge design, and evaluation system; organizational matters, such as the desirability of automation and computerized bookkeeping; etc. The change also implies the potential use of such advanced concepts as different detectors and monitoring periods for the large number of low-risk persons and the small number of high-risk radiation workers. (auth)

  18. Personnel training and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    In order to make the full benefits of neutron radiography available in the nondestructive test (NDT) field, it has been necessary to formalize its application. A group under the Penetrating Radiation Committee of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) was organized to prepare a recommended practice for neutron radiography. The recommended practices require the establishment of an appropriate certification program. The requirements on the employer to establish and maintain a qualification and certification program are outlined. To conduct a program of nondestructive testing using neutron radiography requires the usual three levels of qualified and certified personnel. The program is administered by a Level III person. Routine exposure, reviews, and reporting of test results are the responsibilities of Level I and Level II personnal. The amount of training and nature of the required practical examination are also specified. The recommended practices document assures users that NDT work in the field of neutron radiography is performed by qualified personnel. Although no training courses are available to provide experience in the depth required by the recommended practices document, SNT-TC-1A, short courses are provided at a number of locations to familarize user's representatives with the interpretation of neutron radiographs and capabilities and limitations of the technique

  19. LANSCE personnel access control system (PACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  20. Personnel Selection Method Based on Personnel-Job Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Li Wang; Xilin Hou; Lili Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The existing personnel selection decisions in practice are based on the evaluation of job seeker's human capital, and it may be difficult to make personnel-job matching and make each party satisfy. Therefore, this paper puts forward a new personnel selection method by consideration of bilateral matching. Starting from the employment thoughts of ¡°satisfy¡±, the satisfaction evaluation indicator system of each party are constructed. The multi-objective optimization model is given according to ...

  1. A comparative study of interlocking directorates at the end of the import-substituting industrialization period in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Salvaj, Andrea Lluch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on interlocking directorates has been conducted primarily in the United States and European countries. Little work of either theoretical or empirical nature has been done to study the characteristics and the factors that affect this important business network in peripheral and turbulent economies. In this comparative and historical study, we focus on the effect of the political and economic turbulence and the ownership composition of the largest firms on shaping the structure of interlocking directorates in Argentina and Chile by the end of the sixties. Four main findings result from this analysis: 1 the interlocking directorate in Argentina is more fragmented than in Chile; 2 most relevant actors in the directorship interlock in Argentina are firms in industries considered strategic by the government; 3 multinational subsidiaries occupy a central position in Argentina; 4 banks and firms owned by local business groups played a central role in the interlocking directorates in Chile. This study shows how the institutional and economic factors shape the structure of relations between companies.

  2. Performance of the Protection System for Superconducting Circuits during LHC Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Denz, R; Charifoulline, Z; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Steckert, J

    2011-01-01

    The protection system for superconducting magnets and bus-bars is an essential part of the LHC machine protection and ensures the integrity of substantial elements of the accelerator. Due to the large amount of hardwired and software interlock channels the dependability of the system is a critical parameter for the successful operation of the LHC.

  3. Personnel radiation monitoring by thermoluminescence dosimetry (2000-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi-Cho-Cho, Daw; Hla-Hla-Win, Daw; Thin-Thin-Kraing

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry service was introduced in 1991. Personnel who exposed directly or indirectly to radiation is monitored by thermoluminescent dosimeter. TL materials used for thermoluminescent dosimeter are in the form of thin disc. Personnel whole-body and extremity doses are measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. The Harshaw Model 4500 TLD reader and Vinten 654E TLD reader are used for TLD evaluation. At present about 600 radiation workers are provided with TLD for routine monitoring. It was found that most personnel had received within permissible dose recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). (author)

  4. Radiological protection Program of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiological protection program of CDTN, its purposes and rules, responsabilities, physical control, monitoring, personnel radiation protection, radiation sources and radioactive wastes control, emergency and accidents and siting are described. (C.M.) [pt

  5. Radiation protection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper deals with the following topics: - Radiological quantities and units - Principles of radiological protection - Limits of doses and activity uptake - Activity discharges and monitoring - Radiation exposure and its calculation - Environmental monitoring - Personnel dosimetry. (orig./RW)

  6. The Use of UML to Development of a Railway Interlocking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of using the Unifield Modeling Lanfuage (UML in developmentt of new railway interlocking and signalling systems. A simplifield example of the control circuit of a point machine is used to demonstrate an object-oriented approach to specifying the functional safety requirements. An informal specification given by the relevant technical standart is used as a starting point and results in semi-formal specification based on UML model. Advantages of the presented approach are discussed and new trends of increasing formality of UML models are indicated within conclusions.

  7. Residual Heat Removal System qualitative probabilistic safety analysis before and after auto closure interlock removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulicic, V.; Simic, Z.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis evaluates the consequences of the removal of the auto closure interlock (ACI) on the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) suction/isolation valves at the nuclear power plant. The deletion of the RHRS ACI is in part based on a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) which justifies the removal based on a criterion of increased availability and reliability. Three different areas to be examined in PSA: the likelihood of an interfacing system LOCA; RHRS availability and reliability; and low temperature overpressurization control. The paper emphasizes particularly the RHRS unavailability and reliability evaluation utilizing the current control circuitry configuration and then with the proposed modification to the control circuitry. (author)

  8. Testing the permeability and corrosion resistance of micro-mechanically interlocked joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov-Nielsen, Jeppe; Holm, Allan Hjarbæk; Højsholt, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Micro-mechanical interlocking (MMI) can be applied to create new and interesting composite materials. We have employed laser structuring to achieve MMI between stainless steel and plastic with extremely high joint strength. However, the water permeability and corrosion resistance of the joint must...... is conducted. The permeability seems to be consistent with the Hagen–Poiseuille equation independent of the laser structuring technique and is orders of magnitudes larger than the diffusion rate through the plastic. Two different types of corrosion tests have been undertaken, and we show that care must...... be taken in order not to degrade the corrosion resistance of the sample to an unacceptable level....

  9. A Nonfullerene Small Molecule Acceptor with 3D Interlocking Geometry Enabling Efficient Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Singh, Ranbir; Sin, Dong Hun; Kim, Heung Gyu; Song, Kyu Chan; Cho, Kilwon

    2016-01-06

    A new 3D nonfullerene small-molecule acceptor is reported. The 3D interlocking geometry of the small-molecule acceptor enables uniform molecular conformation and strong intermolecular connectivity, facilitating favorable nanoscale phase separation and electron charge transfer. By employing both a novel polymer donor and a nonfullerene small-molecule acceptor in the solution-processed organic solar cells, a high-power conversion efficiency of close to 6% is demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Influence of Fabric Parameters on Thermal Comfort Performance of Double Layer Knitted Interlock Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Ali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of various fabric parameters on the thermal resistance, thermal conductivity, thermal transmittance, thermal absorptivity and thermal insulation of polyester/cotton double layer knitted interlock fabrics. It was found that by increasing fibre content with higher specific heat increases the thermal insulation while decreases the thermal transmittance and absorptivity of the fabric. It was concluded that double layer knitted fabrics developed with higher specific heat fibres, coarser yarn linear densities, higher knitting loop length and fabric thickness could be adequately used for winter clothing purposes.

  11. Ground-state kinetics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Li, Hao; Trabolsi, Ali; Coskun, Ali; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-02-18

    The ability to design and confer control over the kinetics of theprocesses involved in the mechanisms of artificial molecular machines is at the heart of the challenge to create ones that can carry out useful work on their environment, just as Nature is wont to do. As one of the more promising forerunners of prototypical artificial molecular machines, chemists have developed bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) over the past couple of decades. These bistable MIMs generally come in the form of [2]rotaxanes, molecular compounds that constitute a ring mechanically interlocked around a dumbbell-shaped component, or [2]catenanes, which are composed of two mechanically interlocked rings. As a result of their interlocked nature, bistable MIMs possess the inherent propensity to express controllable intramolecular, large-amplitude, and reversible motions in response to redox stimuli. In this Account, we rationalize the kinetic behavior in the ground state for a large assortment of these types of bistable MIMs, including both rotaxanes and catenanes. These structures have proven useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular electronic devices. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs can switch between two different isomeric states. The favored isomer, known as the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) is in equilibrium with the less favored metastable state co-conformation (MSCC). The forward (kf) and backward (kb) rate constants associated with this ground-state equilibrium are intimately connected to each other through the ground-state distribution constant, KGS. Knowing the rate constants that govern the kinetics and bring about the equilibration between the MSCC and GSCC, allows researchers to understand the operation of these bistable MIMs in a device setting and apply them toward the construction of artificial molecular machines. The three biggest influences on the ground-state rate constants arise from

  12. Interlocking-induced stiffness in stochastically microcracked materials beyond the transport percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picu, R. C.; Pal, A.; Lupulescu, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    We study the mechanical behavior of two-dimensional, stochastically microcracked continua in the range of crack densities close to, and above, the transport percolation threshold. We show that these materials retain stiffness up to crack densities much larger than the transport percolation threshold due to topological interlocking of sample subdomains. Even with a linear constitutive law for the continuum, the mechanical behavior becomes nonlinear in the range of crack densities bounded by the transport and stiffness percolation thresholds. The effect is due to the fractal nature of the fragmentation process and is not linked to the roughness of individual cracks.

  13. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked...... graphene-Prussian Blue hybrid composites as high-performance materials for biosensors and supercapacitor electrodes. Given the fact that graphene oxide (GO) can act as an electron acceptor, we used iron(II) and glucose as co-reducing agents to reduce GO under mild reaction conditions without introducing...

  14. Authorization gives the personnel he/she gives the center he/she gives Isotopes for the acting he/she gives tied functions with the security and the radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Pijuan, S.; Hernandez Alvarez, R.; Peres Reyes, Y.; Venegas Bernal, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    The conception is described used in a center production labelled compound and radiopharmaceuticals for the authorization to the support, operation and supervision personnel The approaches are exposed used to define the excellent positions for the security the installation. The are described the training programs, designed starting from the indentification the specific competitions for each duty station and with particular emphasis in the development gives abilities you practice. It is used for the administration and evaluation gives the programs training the Automated System Administration Programs Training (GESAT)

  15. Radiation. Protection. Health. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, Michael; Maringer, Franz Josef; Steurer, Andreas; Schwaiger, Martina; Timal, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    The topics of the meeting are the diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionizing radiations, the application of radiation in research, industry and engineering and radiation protection. The volume includes the following chapters: Radiation protection and society, radiation protection infrastructure, population and environment, metrology and measuring techniques, 1. Workshop on population and environment, NORM and radon, 2. Update: dose - extent of damage - limiting value definition, radiation protection for personnel (except medicine), radiation protection in medicine.

  16. The Layer of Kevlar Angle-interlock Woven Fabric Effect on the Tensile Properties of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Chen; Guo, Xu-Yi; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Shang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    This article is based on the structure of three-dimensional angle-interlock longitudinal.The 3-layer, 5-layer, 7-layer and 9-layer of angle-interlock 3D fabrics are woven on sample weaving machine respectively with the 1500D Kevlar fiber twist filament produced by United States DuPont. At the same time, Kevlar plain weave fabric is woven, and three, five, seven and nine layers’ fabric are to be compared. In the process of VARTM composite technology, epoxy resin is matrix material, acetone is diluent, triethylene tetramine is curing agent and the five different fabrics are the reinforced materials respectively. Finally, eight different three-dimensional woven fabric composites were prepared. In this paper, the tensile properties of eight kinds of three-dimensional woven fabric composites were tested respectively.Finally, it is concluded that the five-layer angle-interlock woven fabric prepared by Kevlar fiber shows the best tensile property.

  17. Control interlock and monitoring system for 80 KW IOT based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Gautam; Deo, R.K.; Jain, M.K.; Bagre, Sunil; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    For 80 kW inductive output tube (IOT) based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2, a control, interlock and monitoring system is realized. This is to facilitate proper start-up and shutdown of the amplifier system, monitor various parameters to detect any malfunction during its operation and to bring the system in a safe stage, thereby assuring reliable operation of the amplifier system. This high power amplifier system incorporates interlocks such as cooling interlocks, various voltage and current interlocks and time critical RF interlocks. Processing of operation sequence, cooling interlocks and various voltage and current interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make S7-CPU-315-2DP (CPU) based programmable logic controller (PLC) system. While time critical or fast interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make FPGA based Boolean Co-processor FM-352-5 which operates in standalone mode. Siemens make operating panel OP277 6'' is being used as a human machine interface (HMI) device for command, data, alarm generation and process parameter monitoring. (author)

  18. TLD personnel dosimetry and its relationship with the radiodiagnostic training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G.; Gaona C, E.

    2002-01-01

    The personnel dosimetry and the training in radiological protection in radiodiagnostic in Mexico before 1997 were almost nonexistent except few services of public and private radiology, we can to say that the personnel dosimetry and the obligatory training was born in the year 1997, together with the present Mexican Official Standards in radiology. This study has the purpose to make an evaluation of the personnel dosimetry of 110 radiology services distributed in the Mexican Republic for the year 2001 and to estimate the annual and bimonthly mean doses, as well as its trust intervals and its relationships with the personnel training in radiological protection by means of a sampling that was realized in two stages (1997 and 2000) in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The results show that the received doses by the medical and technical personnel in the participating radiology services are in the 0.03 mSv and 0.94 mSv interval and the mean is 0.25 mSv. The estimated annual personnel dose would be in the 0.18 mSv to 5.64 mSv interval, which are values very lower to the annual dose limit that is 50 mSv and its magnitude is similar to the effective annual dose by natural background radiation. In the first stage in training was found that there is not a significant difference in the response frequencies among the medical and technical personnel with a p < 0.05. The 52% of the occupational exposure personnel of radiology uses dosemeter, but only 17% of them know the dose reports. the 15.8% of personnel considers that dosemeter protects against radiation and only 16.5% knows the annual maximum permissible dose for stochastic effects. The second stage, the results shown that there is a significant difference in the response of frequencies among medical and technical personnel, the same results which are obtained for members and non members of a professional association with a p < 0.05. The 38% has personnel dosimetry, the 19% knows the principles of radiological

  19. Abating coal tar seepage into surface water bodies using sheet piles with sealed interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, B.I.; Boscardin, M.D.; Murdock, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A former coal tar processing facility processed crude coal tar supplied from manufactured gas plants in the area. Coal-tar-contaminated ground water from the site was observed seeping through an existing timber bulkhead along a tidal river and producing a multicolored sheen on the surface of the river. As part of a short-term measure to abate the seepage into the river, 64-m long anchored sheet pile wall with sheet pile wing walls at each end was constructed inland of the of the timber bulkhead. The sheet piles extended to low-permeability soils at depth and the interlocks of the sheet piles were provided with polyurethane rubber seals. Based on postconstruction observations for leakage and sheens related to leakage, the steel sheet piles with polyurethane rubber interlock seals appeared to provide a successful seal and abate coal-tar-contaminated ground water seepage into the river. The tie rod penetration sealing proved to be a more problematic detail, but through several postconstruction grouting episodes, an effective seal was produced

  20. Bacterial carbonate precipitation improves water absorption of interlocking compressed earth block (ICEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamer, M. M.; Irwan, J. M.; Othman, N.; Faisal, S. K.; Anneza, L. H.; Alshalif, A. F.; Teddy, T.

    2017-11-01

    Interlocking compressed earth blocks (ICEB) are soil based blocks that allows for mortarless construction. The addition of many alternative materials into interlocking block in order to improve the durability has been reported. However there are currently lack of report and evidence on the application of biocalcification or microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP) in improving the engineering properties of ICEB. This paper evaluate the effect of UB in improving the water absorption properties of ICEB. This paper also provide the results on SEM analysis of addition of 1%, 3% and 5% UB in ICEB. The bacteria were added as partial replacement of limestone water in ICEB. The results showed the reduction of 14.72% with 5% UB on initial water absorption followed by the results for water absorption by 24-hour soaking which also indicates reduction of 14.68% with 5% UB on 28th days of testing compared to control specimen. It was expected that the reduction of water absorption was due to the plugging of pores by the bacterial calcite which prevent ingression of water in ICEB samples. Therefore this study hopes that the positive results from the UB as improving in water absorption of ICEB will lead to improve others ICEB properties and others construction materials.

  1. A review on past and present development on the interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosro, M. Z. M.; Samad, A. A. A.; Mohamad, N.; Goh, W. I.; Tambichik, M. A.; Iman, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Massive migration and increasing population in Malaysia has contributed to the increasing demand of quality and affordable housing. Over the past 50 years, the Malaysian housing industry has seen the growth of using conventional construction system such as reinforced concrete frame structures and bricks. The conventional system, as agreed by many researchers, causes delays and other disadvantages in some of the construction projects. Thus, the utilization of interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system is needed to address these issues. This system has been identified as an alternative and sustainable building system for the construction industry in Malaysia which the PUTRA block system is the latest example of the ILHB developed. The system offers various advantages in terms of speed and cost in construction, strength, environmentally friendly and aesthetic qualities. Despite these advantages, this system has not been practically applied and develop in Malaysia. Therefore, this paper aims to review the past and present development of the interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system that available locally and globally.

  2. Patología de pavimentos articulados Pathology of interlocking pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernando Higuera Sandoval

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un proyecto de grado sobre patología de pavimentos articulados, el cual fue elaborado con el propósito de hacer una recolección de los deterioros típicos de los pavimentos articulados construidos con adoquines de concreto o de ladrillo; y de esta forma, elaborar un catálogo de deterioros para este tipo de estructuras que facilitará la identificación y cuantificación de los deterioros en una inspección visual. El segundo propósito de este proyecto, es la formulación para Colombia de una metodología que permita determinar el Índice de Condición de las estructuras de pavimentos articulados.This article presents the results of a thesis on pathology of interlocking pavements, which objective was to make a compilation of typical damages of interlocking pavements constructed with concrete or brick pavers and, in this way, to elaborate a catalogue of damages for this kind of structures which will make the identification and quantification of deteriorations possible in a visual inspection. The second purpose of this project is the formulation of a methodology which allows determining the Index of pavement conditions for Colombia.

  3. Bio-inspired ``jigsaw''-like interlocking sutures: Modeling, optimization, 3D printing and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, I. A.; Mirkhalaf, M.; Barthelat, F.

    2017-05-01

    Structural biological materials such as bone, teeth or mollusk shells draw their remarkable performance from a sophisticated interplay of architectures and weak interfaces. Pushed to the extreme, this concept leads to sutured materials, which contain thin lines with complex geometries. Sutured materials are prominent in nature, and have recently served as bioinspiration for toughened ceramics and glasses. Sutures can generate large deformations, toughness and damping in otherwise all brittle systems and materials. In this study we examine the design and optimization of sutures with a jigsaw puzzle-like geometry, focusing on the non-linear traction behavior generated by the frictional pullout of the jigsaw tabs. We present analytical models which accurately predict the entire pullout response. Pullout strength and energy absorption increase with higher interlocking angles and for higher coefficients of friction, but the associated high stresses in the solid may fracture the tabs. Systematic optimization reveals a counter-intuitive result: the best pullout performance is achieved with interfaces with low coefficient of friction and high interlocking angle. We finally use 3D printing and mechanical testing to verify the accuracy of the models and of the optimization. The models and guidelines we present here can be extended to other types of geometries and sutured materials subjected to other loading/boundary conditions. The nonlinear responses of sutures are particularly attractive to augment the properties and functionalities of inherently brittle materials such as ceramics and glasses.

  4. Personnel Officers: Judging Their Qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gisela

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the backgrounds and qualifications appropriate for a library personnel administrator, including (1) a master's degree in library science; (2) library work experience; (3) additional training in administration, personnel management, organizational development, and psychology; and (4) personal attributes such as good communication skills,…

  5. Personnel Practices for Small Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Ronald A.

    Personnel administration in higher education is the focus of this "hands-on, how-to-do-it" guide that provides fundamental materials for developing and maintaining a sound personnel program. Part One (Employment) examines government regulations, employee recruitment and selection, pre-employment inquiries and screening, post-employment process,…

  6. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of neutron exposures to personnel is an issue that has received increased attention in the last few years. It is important to consider key aspects of the whole dosimetry system when developing dose estimates. This begins with selection of proper dosimeters and survey instruments, and extends through the calibration methods. One must match the spectral response and sensitivity of the dosimeter to the spectral characteristics of the neutron fields. Threshold detectors that are insensitive to large fractions of neutrons in the lower energy portion of reactor spectra should be avoided. Use of two or more detectors with responses that complement each other will improve measurement quality. It is important to understand the spectral response of survey instruments, so that spectra which result in significant overresponse do not lead to overestimation of dose. Calibration sources that do not match operational field spectra can contribute to highly erroneous results. In those situations, in-field calibration techniques should be employed. Although some detection developments have been made in recent years, a lot can be done with existing technology until fully satisfactory, long term solutions are obtained

  7. An analytical hierarchical model explaining the robustness and flaw-tolerance of the interlocking barb-barbule structure of bird feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Gorb, Stanislav; Kovalev, Alexander; Li, Zhiyong; Pugno, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    Feathers can fulfill their aerodynamic function only if the pennaceous vane forms an airfoil stabilized by robust interlocking between barbules. Thus, revealing the robustness of the interlocking mechanical behavior of the barbules is very important to understand the function and long-term resilience of bird feathers. This paper, basing on the small- and large-beam deflection solutions, presents a hierarchical mechanical model for deriving the critical delamination conditions of the interlocking barbules between two adjacent barbs in bird feathers. The results indicate a high robustness and flaw-tolerant design of the structure. This work contributes to the understanding of the mechanical behavior of the robust interlocking barb-barbule structure of the bird feather, and provides a basis for design of feather-inspired materials with robust interlocking mechanism, such as advanced bio-inspired micro-zipping devices.

  8. Special training of shift personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The first step of on-the-job training is practical observation phase in an operating Nuclear Plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists give the practical feeling for Nuclear Power Plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own Nuclear Power Plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and assisted during their process of practical learning by special instructors. The preparation for the licensing exams is vitally important for shift personnel and special courses are provided after the first non-nuclear trial operation of the plant. Personnel training also includes performance of programmes and material for retraining, training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well as training centers. (orig./RW)

  9. Main radiation protection actions for medical personnel as primary responders front of an event with radiological dispersive device; Principais acoes de protecao radiologica para equipe medica como primeiros respondedores frente a um evento com dispositivo de dispersao radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Hildanielle Ramos

    2015-07-01

    After the terrorist attack in New York, USA, in 2001, there was a worldwide concern about possible attacks using radioactive material in conventional detonators, called as Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. Several studies have been and are being made to form a global knowledge about this type of event. As until now, fortunately, there has not been an event with RDD, the Goiania Radiological Accident in Brazil, 1987, is used as a reference for decision-making. Several teams with technical experts should act in an event with RDD, but the medical staffs who respond quickly to the event must be properly protected from the harmful effects of radiation. Based on the radiological protection experts performance during the Goiania accident and the knowledge from lessons learned of many radiological accidents worldwide, this work presents an adaptation of the radiation protection actions for an event with RDD that helps a medical team as primary responders. The following aspects are presented: the problem of radioactive contamination from the explosion of the device in underground environment, the actions of the first responders and evaluation of health radiation effects. This work was based on specialized articles and papers about radiological accidents and RDD; as well as personal communication and academic information of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The radiation protection actions, adapted to a terrorist attack event with RDD, have as a scenario a subway station in the capital. The main results are: the use of the basic radiation protection principle of time because there is no condition to take care of a patient keeping distance or using a shielding; the use of full appropriate protection cloths for contaminating materials ensuring the physical safety of professionals, and the medical team monitoring at the end of a medical procedure, checking for surface contamination. The main conclusion is that all medical actions

  10. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myre, W.C.; DeMontmollin, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Serious concern about physical protection of nuclear facilities began around 1972. R and D was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories which had developed techniques to protect weapons for many years. Special vehicles, convoy procedures, and a communications system previously developed for weapons shipments were improved and extended for shipments of other sensitive materials. Barriers, perimeter alarms, portal and internal control systems were developed, tested, and published in handbooks and presented at symposia. Training programs were initiated for U.S. and foreign personnel. Containment and surveillance techniques were developed for the IAEA. Presently emphasis is on computer security, active barriers, and techniques to prevent theft or sabotage by ''insiders''

  11. Radiological response training for law enforcement personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maixner, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A specialized training course for Nevada's law enforcement personnel has been conducted by Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. for the US Department of Energy since February 1981. This course is designed for those persons who are first to arrive at a transportation accident scene. The course provides a basic understanding of radiation protection, the prevention of contamination spread from the accident site, use of radiation detection equipment, and decontamination procedures. The Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office provides the training at no cost to Nevada agencies. Each agency selects its attendees. Details of the course are given

  12. The Seibersdorf TL Personnel Dosimetry Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    Since 1976 the Department for Radiation Protection of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been operating a TLD Personnel Monitoring Service, which presently covers about 18,000 radiation workers in Austria, with monthly monitoring periods. We have been the first accredited monitoring service in Europe, which fully converted from film dosimetry to TLD. From the beginning up to 1991 the service was based on three automated TLD systems Model 2271 from HARSHAW, USA. After extensive testing and comparisons, since almost four years now, the monitoring service has been operating on two HARSHAW 8800 systems, which are described in more detail below. (author)

  13. The Seibersdorf TL Personnel Dosimetry Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duftschmid, K E [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH (Austria)

    1994-11-01

    Since 1976 the Department for Radiation Protection of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been operating a TLD Personnel Monitoring Service, which presently covers about 18,000 radiation workers in Austria, with monthly monitoring periods. We have been the first accredited monitoring service in Europe, which fully converted from film dosimetry to TLD. From the beginning up to 1991 the service was based on three automated TLD systems Model 2271 from HARSHAW, USA. After extensive testing and comparisons, since almost four years now, the monitoring service has been operating on two HARSHAW 8800 systems, which are described in more detail below. (author).

  14. A relational database for personnel radiation exposure management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.; Miller, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In-house utility personnel developed a relational data base for personnel radiation exposure management computer system during a 2 1/2 year period. The (PREM) Personnel Radiation Exposure Management System was designed to meet current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements related to radiological access control, Radiation Work Permits (RWP) management, automated personnel dosimetry reporting, ALARA planning and repetitive job history dose archiving. The system has been operational for the past 18 months which includes a full refueling outage at Clinton Power Station. The Radiation Protection Department designed PREM to establish a software platform for implementing future revisions to 10CFR20 in 1993. Workers acceptance of the system has been excellent. Regulatory officials have given the system high marks as a radiological tool because of the system's ability to track the entire job from start to finish

  15. Radiation protection in radio-oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartz, Juliane Marie; Joost, Sophie; Hildebrandt, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Based on the high technical status of radiation protection the occupational exposure of radiological personnel is no more of predominant importance. No defined dose limits exist for patients in the frame of therapeutic applications in contrary to the radiological personnel. As a consequence walk-downs radiotherapeutic institutions twice the year have been initiated in order to guarantee a maximum of radiation protection for patient's treatment. An actualization of radiation protection knowledge of the radiological personnel is required.

  16. Production and Testing of Kiln-cast Glass Components for an Interlocking, Dry-assembled Transparent Bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.; Veer, F.A.; Snijder, A.H.; Nijsse, R.

    A pedestrian glass bridge, located at the TU Delft campus site, is being designed by the TU Delft Glass & Transparency Lab. Specifically, the arch-formed bridge consists of cast glass, dry-assembled, interlocking components. To validate the shape of the components, glass mock-ups in 1:2 scale

  17. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.401 Automatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other Regulations...

  18. Three-dimensional iron sulfide-carbon interlocked graphene composites for high-performance sodium-ion storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Wei; Sun, Hongyu; Shangguan, Huihui

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) carbon-wrapped iron sulfide interlocked graphene (Fe7S8@C-G) composites for high-performance sodium-ion storage are designed and produced through electrostatic interactions and subsequent sulfurization. The iron-based metal–organic frameworks (MOFs, MIL-88-Fe) interact with...

  19. Interlocking Toy Building Blocks as Hands-On Learning Modules for Blind and Visually Impaired Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Schreck, James O.; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2016-01-01

    Interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., Lego) as chemistry learning modules for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students in high school and undergraduate introductory or general chemistry courses are presented. Building blocks were assembled on a baseplate to depict the relative changes in the periodic properties of elements. Modules depicting…

  20. Board interlocking in Brazil: Director participation in multiple companies and its effect on the value of firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Di Miceli da Silveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the simultaneous participation of directors in different companies from 320 Brazilian listed firms in 2003 and 2005. We identify which firms are connected through a network of directors, which corporate characteristics contribute to this phenomenon, and if board interlocking influences firm value and operational performance. The results show that interlocking directorates are a common practice in Brazil. Besides, larger boards, more dispersed ownership structures, and larger firm size are factors associated with a high level of board interlocking. Moreover, we find that firm value is, on average, negatively impacted by higher levels of board interlocking, especially on firms with board of directors considered too busy (those in which a majority of directors hold three or more directorships or on firms where their CEO hold directorships in other companies. Besides being a pioneer work on this field in Latin America, the paper provides subsides for the preparation of good corporate governance practices from regulators regarding the effectiveness of multiple directorships and its consequences for corporate value.

  1. Analysis of operator support method based on intelligent dynamic interlock in lead-cooled fast reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Jianye; Yang, Minghan; Wang, Weitian; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We development an operator support method based on intelligent dynamic interlock. • We offer an integrated aid system to reduce the working strength of operators. • The method can help operators avoid dangerous, irreversible operation. • This method can be used in the fusion research reactor in the further. - Abstract: In nuclear systems, operators have to carry out corrective actions when abnormal situations occur. However, operators might make mistakes under pressure. In order to avoid serious consequences of the human errors, a new method for operators support based on intelligent dynamic interlock was proposed. The new method based on full digital instrumentation and control system, contains real-time alarm analysis process, decision support process and automatic safety interlock process. Once abnormal conditions occur, necessary safety interlock parameter based on analysis of real-time alarm and decision support process can be loaded into human-machine interfaces and controllers automatically, and avoid human errors effectively. Furthermore, the new method can make recommendations for further use and development of this technique in nuclear power plant or fusion research reactor.

  2. Institutional Conflict of Interest: The Role of Interlocking Directorates in the Scientific Relationships between Universities and the Corporate Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Sheila; Thomas, Scott L.; Johnson, David R.; Barringer, Sondra N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential for institutional conflict of interest between the 26 private universities belonging to the Association of American Universities and the corporations to which they are tied through their boards of trustees. We were interested in the degree to which interlocks may have tightened over three points across an 11-year period…

  3. Some problems of NPP personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajshnis, P.P.; Kumkov, L.P.; Omel'chuk, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Shortcomings of NPP personnel training are discussed. Development of full-scale training systems is necessary for qualitative training operative personnel. Primary problems that should be necessarily solved for ensuring effective training NPP personnel are considered

  4. Personnel Investigations and Clearance Tracking (OPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Security file-related information for the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM)'s employee and contractor personnel. The data is OPM-specific, not government-wide.

  5. Radiation protection planning and management during revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewehr, K.

    1984-01-01

    During the operation of nuclear power plants it is normally possible for the in-house personnel to take care of arising radiation protection problems. However, in the comparatively short revision phases, the duties of radiation protection become much more varied. Additional trained radiation protection crews are needed at short notice. This is also the time in which the largest contributions are made to the annual cumulated doses of the personnel. Recent guidelines and rules trying to reduce the radiation exposure of personnel concentrate on this very point. The article outlines the radiation protection activities performed by the service personnel in the course of a steam generator check. (orig.) [de

  6. Reuse of mining dams waste for the processing of interlocking blocks for paving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Raissa Ribeiro Lima; Ribeiro, Guilherme Borges; Silva, Sidney Nicodemos da

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of mining dam residues can be mitigated by their reuse in the production of interlocking blocks for pavements with a mechanical strength greater than 50 MPa. From the mixture of cement CPV-ARI, sand and gravel, the characterization of the mechanical and physicochemical properties was performed by the following procedures: SEM, FRX, XRD, compression tests and thermal analysis (DSC). These blocks produced from these residues can be considered an economical alternative for the mining depletion cycle in the State of Minas Gerais. This work sought to improve the traces with the replacement the sand of the rivers bed by residues of mining dams that can represent an opportunity for generation of employment and income

  7. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke M Heemskerk

    Full Text Available The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  8. An SEU-hardened latch with a triple-interlocked structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanqing; Yao Suying; Xu Jiangtao; Gao Jing

    2012-01-01

    A single event upset (SEU) tolerant latch with a triple-interlocked structure is presented. Its self-recovery mechanism is implemented by using three pairs of guard-gates and inverters to construct feedback lines inside the structure. This latch effectively suppresses the effects of charge deposition at any single internal node caused by particle strikes. Three recently reported SEU-hardened latches are chosen and compared with this latch in terms of reliability. The potential problems that these three latches could still get flipped due to single event effects or single event effects plus crosstalk coupling are pointed out, which can be mitigated by this proposed latch. The SEU tolerance of each latch design is evaluated through circuit-level SEU injection simulation. Furthermore, discussions on the crosstalk robustness and some other characteristics of these latches are also presented. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  10. The New Control and Interlock System for the SPS Main Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Denis, B; Mugnier, C; Varas, J

    1999-01-01

    The Control and Interlock System (CIS) of the SPS main power converters was designed in the mid-70s and became increasingly difficult to maintain. A new system based on Programmable Logic Controllers has been developed by an external contractor in close collaboration with CERN. The system is now operational and fully integrated in the SPS/LEP control infrastructure. The CIS is the first major contracted industrial solution used to control accelerator equipment directly involved in the production of particle beams at CERN. This paper gives an overview of the SPS main power converter installation and describes both the contractual and technical solution adopted for the CIS. It first explains how the system was specified and how the contractual relationship was defined to respect CERN’s purchasing rules and the operational requirements of the SPS accelerator. The architectural design of the new system is presented with special emphasis on how the conflict between safety and availability has been addressed.

  11. The Community Structure of the European Network of Interlocking Directorates 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M.; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  12. The use of microprocessors at TRIUMF in the control of radiation safety interlock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.

    1988-01-01

    At TRIUMF the cyclotron vault, all primary beam lines, and each experimental area has a dedicated control unit to manage the safety interlock control of the area lockup sequence, beam blocker drive and area access. Typically each area has 24 devices which are monitored to control 16 outputs. These control units (Area Safety Units) were first implemented through the use of relay logic. The relay logic was reliable but difficult to modify to incorporate changes to the areas. In 1979 it was decided to use microprocessors in the form of single board computers to control the Area Safety Units. The details of the hardware and software is discussed as well as the advantages of microprocessor control

  13. Topological interlocking provides stiffness to stochastically micro-cracked materials beyond the transport percolation limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Anirban; Picu, Catalin; Lupulescu, Marian V.

    We study the mechanical behavior of two-dimensional, stochastically microcracked continua in the range of crack densities close to, and above the transport percolation threshold. We show that these materials retain stiffness up to crack densities much larger than the transport percolation threshold, due to topological interlocking of sample sub-domains. Even with a linear constitutive law for the continuum, the mechanical behavior becomes non-linear in the range of crack densities bounded by the transport and stiffness percolation thresholds. The effect is due to the fractal nature of the fragmentation process and is not linked to the roughness of individual cracks. We associate this behavior to that of itacolumite, a sandstone that exhibits unusual flexibility.

  14. Metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws XMCP™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Parra, C N; Montaner-Alonso, D; Morales-Rodríguez, J

    2017-09-04

    The study objective was to assess the results of a thumb metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws at 25°, XMCP ™ (Extremity Medical, Parsippany, NJ). Radiographs evaluated the angle of arthrodesis, time of fusion and fixation of the implant. Clinical and functional outcomes were assessed using the DASH questionnaire and the VAS scale. Any complications found during surgery or the follow-up period were noted. We studied 9 patients. The mean follow-up was 27.6 months. Patients showed clinical and radiological evidence of fusion in an average of 8 weeks, the angle of fusion was 25°. There were no complications and no implant had to be removed. The XMCP™ system provides a reliable method for MCPJ arthrodesis for several indications and can be used with other procedures in the complex hand. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Control/interlock/display system for EBT-P using commercially-available hardware and firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    For the EBT-P project, alternative commercially-available hardware, software and firmware have been employed for control, interlock and data display functions. This paper describes the criteria and rationale used to select that commercial equipment and discusses the important features of the equipment chosen, especially programmable controllers. Additional discussion is centered on interface problems which are encountered upon attempts to integrate equipment from several vendors. Some solutions to these problems are discussed. Details of software and hardware performance during tests are presented. The extent to which the EBT-P hardware and software configuration addresses and resolves various issues is discussed. Several areas have been uncovered in which relatively slight improvements/modifications of commercial programmable controller firmware would significantly improve the capability of this type of hardware in fusion control applications. These improvements are discussed in detail

  16. Energy Requirements of Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Baker-Fulco, Carol J

    2005-01-01

    ...) have been measured while training under various conditions. Group mean total energy expenditures for 424 male military personnel from various units engaged in diverse missions ranged from 13.0 to 29.8 MJ per day...

  17. Personnel monitoring in geologic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, I.N.; Seredin, Yu.V.

    1981-01-01

    State of radiation safety for the personnel of geologic crews carrying out neutron logging of wells using Po-Be sources has been evaluated. Given are results of development of methods for the evaluation of individual radiation loads for personnel when working with Po-Be neutron sources useful for the application in practice by a geologic logging crew as well as a quantitative evaluation of profissional radiation loads during this kind of work. The following methods are recommended for personnel monitoring: 1) calculation of whole-body irradiation doses and hands from averaged values of radiation dose rate; 2) calculational tabulated determination of irradiation doses during recharging of shanks of well instruments. Personnel monitoring by means of instrumental methods is not necessary in the considered case [ru

  18. Office of Personnel Management (OPM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for the Office of Personnel Management. OPM will use the SSN verifications in its investigative...

  19. Complications of close interlock nailing in the management of close tibial fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.; Inam, M.; Khan, I.; Satar, A.; Arif, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to find out the frequency of complications of locally made interlock nailing in tibia after nine months of surgery. Material and Method:. This case series study was done from March 2004 to February 14 in the Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Postgraduate Medical Institute Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar. A total of 58 adults ( after the closure of epiphysis) patients were randomly selected provided that they have; Close diaphysial fracture of tibia which is located 7 cm below the knee joint and 4 cm above the ankle joint and fracture less than one week old. Results: Total numbers of patients were 58. Anterior Knee pain was observed in 14(24.1%), delayed union in 10(17.2%), external of 100 rotation in 4(6.9%) and internal rotation of 50 in 1(1.7%), non union in 4(6.9%), intramedullay infection in 3(5.2%), shortening of 1 centimeter (cm) in 2(3.4), 2 cm in 1(1.7%) and 1.5 cm in 3(5.2%) cases, distal screw broken in 2(3.4%), proximal screw broken in 1(1.7%), Nail broken in 2(3.4), infection at proximal screw in 2(3.4%) and at distal screw was 2(3.4%), Restriction of knee flexion in 1(1.7%), Restricted ankle movements in 1(1.7%), varus angulation of 100 in 1(1.7%), valgus angulation of 100 in 1(1.7%), Ankle pain in 1(1.7%) and deep vein thrombosis in 1(1.7%). Conclusion: interlocking nail is considered to be the gold standard for management of tibial fracture but it is not free of complication especially knee pain and angular rotation. (author)

  20. Feasibility of a fast optical pressure interlock for the ITER neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, Andrew; Surrey, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of using Balmer-α emission for a high-speed pressure diagnostic and beam interlock for the ITER neutral beam heating system is investigated. An interlock is needed to prevent excessive re-ionisation of the neutral beam when rapid excursions of pressure occur in either the electrostatic residual ion dump (ERID), or the neutral beam duct (NBD). The re-ionised fraction of the beam, will be deflected by stray tokamak fields, potentially causing excessive thermal loads on beam line components. Experience from JET indicates that a response time of order 100 μs is required in order to prevent fast pressure excursions. Fast penning gauges have a time response of around 30-50 ms, however, a faster response (around 1 μs) is possible by monitoring the H α (656.3 nm)/D α (656.1 nm) emission from collisional excitation of the background gas and neutral beam. Published total cross-sections are used to calculate a signal of 3.5x10 13 -3.0x10 17 photons s -1 m -2 sr -1 for normal conditions. This signal must be distinguished from the background light of the tokamak plasma (line emission and bremsstrahlung). The beam emission is Doppler shifted by up to 21 nm (D operation) and up to 27 nm (H operation) depending on angle of observation and this can be used to help distinguish against background line emission. The distribution of background light along the beam line is calculated with a two-dimensional radiosity code, solving the equilibrium energy balance within the beam line enclosure. The Balmer-α signal and background signal due to bremsstrahlung are compared for a 500-MW reference plasma.

  1. Analysis of Specific Features of International Standards of Personnel Security of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article marks out components of personnel security of an enterprise, outlines processes of personnel management, which correspond with conditions of security of life and labour, competent, socially protected professional activity, availability of the acting system of motivation and stimulation, and possibilities for corporate conflicts resolution. The article presents basic standards, rules and legislative acts that regulate ensuring personnel security. It analyses specific features of application of standards with respect to: life security and labour protection culture at an enterprise, including managerial systems and practice, behaviour of personnel at working places and also intellectual component of personnel security, which envisages that personnel has knowledge and competences that assist in achievement of strategic goals of an enterprise.

  2. Comparative Study on the Cost of Building Public House Construction Using Red Brick and Interlock Brick Building Material in the City of Banda Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malahayati, Nurul; Hayati, Yulia; Nursaniah, Cut; Firsa, T.; Fachrurrazi; Munandar, Aris

    2018-05-01

    Red brick and interlocking brick are the building materials that are often used for wall installation work on houses construction. In the development of building materials technology and cost savings, interlocking brick can be alternative to replace red bricks. In Aceh Province, the use of interlocking bricks is less popular compared to other big cities in Indonesia. Interlocking brick is made from a mixture of clay, concrete sand and compacted cement and one of the environmentally friendly materials because it does not burn the process like red brick material. It is named interlocking brick because the installation method is locked together and it serves as a structural and partition wall of residential buildings. The aims of this study are to compare the cost of building a house in Banda Aceh City using red brick and interlock brick building materials. The data were obtained from interviews and questionnaires distributed to respondents who had built houses in Banda Aceh City. The results concluded that the house construction cost using interlock brick offer lower construction cost at comparable quality rather than using red brick.

  3. Personnel external dose monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengyuan

    1989-01-01

    The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given

  4. THEORETICAL BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT OF PERSONNEL RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Haliashova, Katsiaryna

    2017-01-01

    Necessity of personnel risks management is based on research results. The authors' approaches to the determination of personnel risks and to their management have been explored. The author's definition of the concept of "personnel risks" is proposed. A classification of personnel risks is developed depending on the stage of origin and the tasks of the personnel policy, as well as the methods of management personnel risks in the organization. The article presents a methodical approach to perso...

  5. NPP safety and personnel training. XII International conference. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The 12th International conference NPP Safety and Personnel Training took place in Obninsk, October 4-7, 2011. The issues of nuclear technologies safety are considered.The problems of life-cycle management of nuclear facilities are discussed. The criteria of assessment of physical protection systems of nuclear facilities are presented [ru

  6. Implementation of quality control systematics for personnel monitoring services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, J.O.A.

    1984-01-01

    The implementation of statistical quality control techniques used in industrial practise is proposed to dosimetric services. 'Control charts' and 'sampling inspection' are adapted respectively for control of measuring process and of dose results produced in routine. A chapter on Radiation Protection and Personnel Monitoring was included. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. The management of personnel records for accountability, good ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of personnel records for accountability, good governance and protection of human rights at the National University of Science and Technology in ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  8. Military radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Ministry of Defence and the military in particular have a very strong commitment to radiation protection of personnel in war and peace. MOD endeavours to do better all the time because it is essential that the armed forces have the confidence to fulfil their role and this is best achieved by providing them with the best possible protection irrespective of the hazard. (author)

  9. Experience from cooperation of medical surveillance personnel and hygiene services in North Moravian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillova, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surveillance in health car institutions with sources of ionizing radiation is discussed. A special group of workers who sat for examinations and were trained in special courses was selected. A number of special publications are put out in the field of radiation protection. Surveillance personnel visit the individual workplaces and point out any shortcomings in the observance of radiation protection principles. Demonstration dosimetry is carried out in the vicinity of radiation sources. Attention is also devoted to radiation technology, and significant exposures of personnel are examined. Also mentioned are the problems of radiaton protection in the region and possible improvement of the work of surveillance personnel. (M.D.)

  10. Developments in Decontamination Technologies of Military Personnel and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Utkarsh R.; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Individual protection is important for warfighters, first responders and civilians to meet the current threat of toxic chemicals and chemical warfare (CW) agents. Within the realm of individual protection, decontamination of warfare agents is not only required on the battlefield but also in laboratory, pilot plants, production and agent destruction sites. It is of high importance to evaluate various decontaminants and decontamination techniques for implementing the best practices in varying scenarios such as decontamination of personnel, sites and sensitive equipment.

  11. Directory of personnel responsible for radiological health programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a directory of professional personnel who administer the radiological health program activities in state and local governmental agencies. Included in the directory is a listing of each state health officer or the head of the agency responsible for the radiological health program. The name, address, and telephone number of the radiological health personnel are listed, followed by the alternate contact who, in many instances, may be chief of a larger administrative unit of which the radiological health program is a subunit. The address for the program is also included if it differs from the official health department or agency. Generally, the titles of the personnel listed will indicate the administrative status of the radiological health program. The directory also includes a list of key professional personnel in the Bureau of Radiological Health, Radiation Operations Staff, Regional Radiological Health Representatives, Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center, Food and Drug Administration; Office of Radiation Programs, Regional Radiation Representatives, National Environmental Research Center, and Eastern Environmental Radiation Laboratory, Environmental Protection Agency; selected personnel in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and selected personnel in the National Bureau of Standards

  12. Validation of the first step of the pilot project for the development of a software for the management of radiation protection of occupationally exposed personnel at Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha Filho, L.G.; Souza, A.N. de; Gonçalves, A. de O.; Padilha, C.M.L.; Belem, P.H.A.; Souza, S.A.L. de; Sousa, C.H.S

    2017-01-01

    UFRJ counts on the Coordination of Worker Health Policies for the implementation of the Workplace Risks Prevention Program, which evaluates the safety conditions for carrying out work activities, which includes the Advisory Committee for Rectorate for activities with Radiation (COTAR X). To assist in the management of radioprotection, software is being developed that intends to contribute significantly to the control of occupationally exposed individuals - IOEs. Objective: To present the first step of the validation of the pilot project for the development of software for the management of radiation protection of occupationally exposed individuals (IOEs). Methodology: It is based on a proposal for the development and implementation of an online system, as a model for the control of radioprotection and on the issue of skills and reports to meet UFRJ's demand, involving all occupationally exposed servers that use or have contact with some form of ionizing radiation. Results: Thirty-six professionals, who requested expertise directed at radioprotection, were evaluated. 80.6% (n = 29) were statutory servers and 19.4% (n = 7) CLT (Workers Law Consolidation). 36.1% were higher teaching profession; 19.4% physician; 19.4% nursing assistant; 8.3% nurse; 5.5% nursing technician and four other professions presented 2.8%. More than half (67%) of the servers' activities did not present a potential risk of exposure, 22% had minimal risk and 11% had maximum risk. Conclusions: The project will guarantee protection and permanent access to important information for the management of health control and evaluation of IOEs. Conclusions: The project will ensure the protection and permanent access of important information for the management of health control and evaluation of IOEs. The implementation of the software is contributing significantly to the optimization of the time in the production of information and systematization of behaviors

  13. Cytogenic Investigations in Flight Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.; Obe, G.; Bergau, L.

    1999-01-01

    During long-distance flights at high altitudes flight personnel are exposed to cosmic radiation. In order to determine whether there are biological effects of such low dose radiation exposure in aircrew, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in 59 female cabin attendants and a matched control group of 31 members of station personnel. The mean number of dicentric chromosomes amounts to 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6) per 1,000 cells in cabin attendants and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9) per 1,000 cells in controls. In an additional control group of 56 female clerks from Berlin the mean frequency of dicentric chromosomes was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6). Neither in dicentric frequency and distribution nor in other aberrations was a significant difference between the groups of flight and station personnel found. The high frequency of multi-aberrant cells was remarkable in flight personnel as well as in station personnel. The reason for this phenomenon is unknown and needs further investigation. (author)

  14. 76 FR 81359 - National Security Personnel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Security Personnel System AGENCY: Department of Defense; Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule... concerning the National Security Personnel System (NSPS). Section 1113 of the National Defense Authorization... National Security Personnel System (NSPS) in regulations jointly prescribed by DOD and OPM (Office of...

  15. Radiation protection in technical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, H.

    1980-01-01

    In on-site inspections, e.g. double-plate radiography of circumferential pipe welds Ir-192 is most frequently used. Methods, controlled area, possible personnel doses, and radiation protection measures for the inspection and construction personnel are briefly discussed. (HP) [de

  16. Training of research reactor personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherruau, F.

    1980-01-01

    Research reactor personnel operate the reactor and carry out the experiments. These two types of work entail different activities, and therefore different skills and competence, the number of relevant staff being basically a function of the size, complexity and versatility of the reactor. Training problems are often reactor-specific, but the present paper considers them from three different viewpoints: the training or retraining of new staff or of personnel already employed at an existing facility, and training of personnel responsible for the start-up and operation of a new reactor, according to whether local infrastructure and experience already exist or whether they have to be built up from scratch. On-the-spot experience seems to be an essential basis for sound training, but requires teaching abilities and aids often difficult to bring together, and the availability of instructors that does not always fit in smoothly with current operational and experimental tasks. (author)

  17. Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices : Policy and Implementing Implications [Mobile .MP4 (480x320/29.97fps/13.9MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to perform a systematic review of breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAIID or IID) to understand how other states have integrated such systems into administrative and judicial practice and to make recommendations f...

  18. Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices : Policy and Implementing Implications [SD .MP4 (640x424/29.97fps/22.6MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to perform a systematic review of breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAIID or IID) to understand how other states have integrated such systems into administrative and judicial practice and to make recommendations f...

  19. A Focus on Triazolium as a Multipurpose Molecular Station for pH-Sensitive Interlocked Crown-Ether-Based Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutrot, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The control of motion of one element with respect to others in an interlocked architecture allows for different co-conformational states of a molecule. This can result in variations of physical or chemical properties. The increase of knowledge in the field of molecular interactions led to the design, the synthesis, and the study of various systems of molecular machinery in a wide range of interlocked architectures. In this field, the discovery of new molecular stations for macrocycles is an attractive way to conceive original molecular machines. In the very recent past, the triazolium moiety proved to interact with crown ethers in interlocked molecules, so that it could be used as an ideal molecular station. It also served as a molecular barrier in order to lock interlaced structures or to compartmentalize interlocked molecular machines. This review describes the recently reported examples of pH-sensitive triazolium-containing molecular machines and their peculiar features.

  20. Personnel radiation protection. Situation of the dosimetry surveillance of external exposure in 2003; La radioprotection des travailleurs. Bilan de la surveillance dosimetrique de l'exposition externe en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The situation of external exposure of workers for the year 2003 has been realised according to the same method than this one of the year 2002. It does not show big variations of trends, both in term of workforce watched and collective doses alike associated in the different sectors of activity. Some differences observed between the two years can explain by real evolutions of situations. For example, the 2800 workers registered in the veterinary sector are the result of a better awareness of this profession for the radiation protection during the last months. Some variations can be the results of artefacts in the data processing. The centralization at I.R.S.N. of the whole of dosimetry data should allow to make easy the data treatment and to improve the statistics of occupational exposure. (N.C.)

  1. Major issues in the training of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, W.M.; Robertson, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of the response component of a physical protection system depends greatly upon the training received by the security personnel. The issues and problems in the area of training which were of greatest concern to the attendees of the 1980 and 1981 INMM sponsored Technical Workshops on Guard Training are discussed. The attendees were training supervisors of managers of security personnel and represented a variety of organizations and companies including DOE facilities, NRC licensees, the military, private security contractors, and governmental agencies. Major categories of concern include: professionalism in security, legal constraints and obligations, physical and psychological testing and standards, governmental requirements, morale and motivation, and tactical training techniques

  2. The run permit protection system for GTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.H.; Jones, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A Run Permit system has been designed for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The system implements mode-dependent software interlocks to ensure proper operation of the accelerator, enabling the ion source extractor and RF systems when proper conditions are met. The system is implemented using the GTA control system; thus all information available to the control system is also available for use in interlock logic. The logic is defined in terms of control system channels, which reflect accelerator parameters such as actuator positions, power supply values, temperatures, etc. A mode switch in the control room selects the accelerator operating mode, for example i njector only . The Run Permit software selects interlock logic as appropriate operating mode. This implementation easily accommodates logic changes as requirements evolve. To ensure reliable operation of a software-based system, a special circuit with a watch-dog timer is employed to produce the system's output signals. The software must periodically address the circuit, or the output signals are forced to a disabled state. For additional protection, there are self-test provisions for detecting and reacting to failures of the control system. (Author) 4 figs., ref

  3. Personnel Management theories and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanni Feng

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction Many new businesses are opened in the whole world every day.Unfortunately,only a minor part of them has success and continues its activity.There is a variety of reasons which determine the hankruptcy of companies.Most of them are included in running a business,and more and more people come to realize the significance of management,especially personnel management,as personnel represents the relationship between people in the company,which is a key point for the development of enterprise.

  4. Ethnic Minority Personnel Careers: Hindrances and Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Catharine

    2004-01-01

    Personnel departments often have particular responsibility for equal opportunities within their organizations. This paper explores equal opportunities within personnel departments themselves, in relation to the careers of ethnic minority personnel practitioners. Through primary research, it identifies a range of criteria which can affect personnel careers, of which ethnic origin is often one. However, although being categorized as of ethnic minority origin often hinders personnel careers, the...

  5. Basis scheme of personnel training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.; Odehnal, J.

    1998-01-01

    Basic scheme of the training system for NPP personnel of CEZ-EDU personnel training system is described in detail. This includes: specific training both basic and periodic, and professional training meaning specialized and continuous training. The following schemes are shown: licence acquisition and authorisation for PWR-440 Control Room Personnel; upgrade training for job positions of Control Room personnel; maintaining and refresh training; module training for certificate acquisition of servicing shift and operating personnel

  6. Unidirectional splitting and uniting of rays in the cambium of Platanus accompanying the formation of interlocked grain in wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyszyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental changes in the cambium producing interlocked grain wood of Platanus, were determined by an analysis of successive late xylem layers (TLX at the borders of the annual rings. Intensive splitting and uniting of rays were observed. These occured by intrusion of fusiform cells into the rays and by loss of the fusiform initials which formed the strands separating the rays, respectively. Uniting of rays was unidirectional within the large areas of cambium (domain, so was the splitting, too. There were domains of Z and S-type. Orientation of splitting and uniting of rays at a particular locality of the cambium was reversed at irregular time intervals. It appears that the reason for these reversals was slow movement of domain pattern. The occurrence of alternating Z and S domains brought about the alternation of the grain inclination from right to left and back again in the interlocked-grained wood.

  7. Metal-organic and supramolecular architectures based on mechanically interlocked molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Isurika Rosini

    The focus of this work is on mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), which have unusual physicochemical and mechanical properties with potential applications in nano-scale/molecular devices and high strength materials. Rotaxanes, for example, consist of an axle-like molecule threaded through a wheel-like molecule, with bulky groups at the two ends of the axle preventing the wheel from dissociating. The position of the wheel along the axle can be switched in a controllable and reversible manner by applying external stimuli, a feature that might lead to the next generation of computers. Molecularly woven materials (MWMs), another example of molecules with mechanically interlocked features, are predicted to be unprecedentedly strong while being lightweight and flexible. With the ultimate goal of achieving control over the functioning of molecular devices in the solid state, a variety of pseudorotaxane building blocks were prepared and characterized, including a novel, rare blue-colored motif. The temperature-dependent assembly/disassembly of pseudorotaxanes was exploited for the construction of single-wavelength colorimetric temperature sensors over a 100 °C window. Pseudorotaxanes based on aromatic crown ether wheels and disubstituted 4,4'-bipyridinium axles were converted into rotaxanes upon binding to metal complexes (zinc, cadmium, mercury, copper, cobalt), and the formation of ordered crystalline arrays was studied in the solid state. The columnar organization of pseudorotaxanes by Hg2X6 2-- complexes (X = Cl, Br, I), leading to unprecedented dichroic (blue/red) rotaxane crystals, was demonstrated for the first time. From the crystal structures studied it became apparent that negatively charged metal complexes are needed for successful assembly with the positively charged pseudorotaxane units. To be able to use the more common, positively charged metal ions for rotaxane framework construction, neutral and negatively charged pseudorotaxanes were synthesized

  8. Ground-state thermodynamics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Cao, Dennis; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-09-18

    Fashioned through billions of years of evolution, biological molecular machines, such as ATP synthase, myosin, and kinesin, use the intricate relative motions of their components to drive some of life's most essential processes. Having control over the motions in molecules is imperative for life to function, and many chemists have designed, synthesized, and investigated artificial molecular systems that also express controllable motions within molecules. Using bistable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), based on donor-acceptor recognition motifs, we have sought to imitate the sophisticated nanoscale machines present in living systems. In this Account, we analyze the thermodynamic characteristics of a series of redox-switchable [2]rotaxanes and [2]catenanes. Control and understanding of the relative intramolecular movements of components in MIMs have been vital in the development of a variety of applications of these compounds ranging from molecular electronic devices to drug delivery systems. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs undergo redox-activated switching between two isomeric states. Under ambient conditions, the dominant translational isomer, the ground-state coconformation (GSCC), is in equilibrium with the less favored translational isomer, the metastable-state coconformation (MSCC). By manipulating the redox state of the recognition site associated with the GSCC, we can stimulate the relative movements of the components in these bistable MIMs. The thermodynamic parameters of model host-guest complexes provide a good starting point to rationalize the ratio of GSCC to MSCC at equilibrium. The bistable [2]rotaxanes show a strong correlation between the relative free energies of model complexes and the ground-state distribution constants (K(GS)). This relationship does not always hold for bistable [2]catenanes, most likely because of the additional steric and electronic constraints present when the two rings are mechanically interlocked with each other

  9. Dosimetry of the Occupational Exposure Personnel and not exposure of the INNSZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz J, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, was measured the equivalent dose of all the personnel of Nuclear medicine and personnel of the Institute which by its activities remain in the Department, by time determined, through thermoluminescent dosemeters and the results were that the personnel presents variable equivalent dose and it is proportional to the time and radionuclide type which use for their work. By this it is allowed to secure what the work watched with respect to radiological protection to fulfil with the International Standards standing for personnel in the Institute. (Author)

  10. Radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.; Azorin V, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    This work is directed to all those people related with the exercise of the radiological protection and has the purpose of providing them a base of knowledge in this discipline so that they can make decisions documented on technical and scientist factors for the protection of the personnel occupationally exposed, the people in general and the environment during the work with ionizing radiations. Before de lack of a text on this matter, this work seeks to cover the specific necessities of our country, providing a solid presentation of the radiological protection, included the bases of the radiations physics, the detection and radiation dosimetry, the radiobiology, the normative and operational procedures associates, the radioactive wastes, the emergencies and the transport of the radioactive material through the medical and industrial applications of the radiations, making emphasis in the relative particular aspects to the radiological protection in Mexico. The book have 16 chapters and with the purpose of supplementing the given information, are included at the end four appendixes: 1) the radioactive waste management in Mexico, 2-3) the Mexican official standards related with the radiological protection, 4) a terms glossary used in radiological protection. We hope this book will be of utility for those people that work in the investigation and the applications of the ionizing radiations. (Author)

  11. LHC Orbit Correction Reproducibility and Related Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Schmidt, R; Wenninger, J

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has an unprecedented nominal stored beam energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In order to ensure an adequate machine protection by the collimation system, a high reproducibility of the beam position at collimators and special elements like the final focus quadrupoles is essential. This is realized by a combination of manual orbit corrections, feed forward and real time feedback. In order to protect the LHC against inconsistent orbit corrections, which could put the machine in a vulnerable state, a novel software-based interlock system for orbit corrector currents was developed. In this paper, the principle of the new interlock system is described and the reproducibility of the LHC orbit correction is discussed against the background of this system.

  12. Personnel and population exposure regulation questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    ICRP Recommendations-1990, Notice 60 was used as a basis for new NRBU-97 norms in Ukraine and also for Russian NRB-96 and reviewed NRB-99. These recommendations caused negative treatment among rather authoritative organizations and individual scientists of France, USA, Russia and other countries. Till 1988, norms NRB-76/87 were operated in Ukraine. ICRP Recommendations-1976, Notice 26 was used under their development, and dosage limits included into them surely provided radiation protection for Nuclear Power Units personnel and population during long-term period. But some leaders being affected by Chernobyl syndrome and radio phobia put strong pressure upon ICRP that resulted in Notice 60 appearance where dosage limits for personnel and population were sufficiently understated without any scientific ground. According to literary sources survey, it is shown that usage of dose-effect non threshold linear dependence concept essentially exaggerates the real danger. According to the concept, principles of regulation the exposure standards are suggested, which considered to be actual as large-scale works on dismantling the reactors and ChNPP Units equipment are expected soon on the phase of their decommissioning and also the conducting of works on Unit 'Shelter' transformation into ecologically safe system

  13. A systematic approach to personnel neutron monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Hankins, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    In selection, calibration and interpretation of personnel neutron dosimeters used in radiation protection, adequate attention is often not given to matching the characteristics of the dosimeter with the quality of the neutron field. A particular concern is the use of albedo detectors which have little energy response similarity to the neutron dose equivalent conversion curve. At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory we have developed a system for dosimeter calibration and neutron field characterization using Bonner spheres and remmeters. Rapid surveys of the work area with detectors in 3-in and 9-in polyethylene spheres establish a qualitative estimate of spectral variation found in the facility. We also use this data to determine the appropriate albedo dosimeter calibration factors. At several locations representing the spectral range, multisphere spectra measure-ments are made and the spectrum weighted dose equivalent rates calculated. These rates are compared with survey instrument results to establish correction factors for the relative over- or under-response expected from these instruments, particularly in highly moderated neutron fields where remmeters overrespond. We also use the spectral information to determine the appropriateness of dosimeters considered for future use. This technique has been applied at power reactors to provide information valuable to selection of proper personnel dosimeters. We find that the spectral range is sufficiently narrow that albedo detectors can be used with confidence. On the other hand, most of the dose occurs at energies below the effective threshold NTA film. (author)

  14. PLC based development of control, monitoring and interlock for 100 kW, 45.6 MHz ICRH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadav, Hiralal; Joshi, Rameshkumar; Mali, Aniruddh K.; Kadia; Bhavesh; Parmar; Maganbhai, Kiritkumar; Kulkarni, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents details of PLC based system development for 100KW at the rate 45.6 MHz. Presently in ICRH RF DAC (Data acquisition and control) system existing based on real time VME and linux operating system. The ICRH system consists of 1.5 MW RF generator operating at 22- 40MHz which is used for second harmonic heating and pre-ionization experiments on SST-1 Tokamak at 1.5T and 3T magnetic field operation respectively. The task of PLC system in RF ICRH is to control, monitoring and interlocks HVDC power supply signal. Voltage and current signal of 2 kW, 20 kW, tetrode for 100 kW RF tube electrode like Filament, Control grid, Plate, Screen grid, signal monitor and voltage set raised by PLC analog IO module. Acknowledgement of the HVDC supply Filament, Control grid, Plate, Screen grid power supply is monitor and interlocks by PLC Digital IO module to interlocks stop the RF pulse and off HV power supply. The RF pulse(shot) to trigger signal generator (5mw) RF power output feed to LPA then chain of 2 KW, 20 KW, 100 KW at the rate 45.6 MHz. The programming logic controller (PLC) software is written in ladder language for AH500 Delta make using ISP Soft 2.04 and GUI is in the table form to control and monitor the parameters. Communication of PLC to PC by ethernet LAN network. (author)

  15. Do biodegradable magnesium alloy intramedullary interlocking nails prematurely lose fixation stability in the treatment of tibial fracture? A numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haosen; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2017-01-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective technique used to treat long bone fractures. Recently, biodegradable metals have drawn increased attention as an intramedullary interlocking nailing material. In this study, numerical simulations were implemented to determine whether the degradation rate of magnesium alloy makes it a suitable material for manufacturing biodegradable intramedullary interlocking nails. Mechano-regulatory and bone-remodeling models were used to simulate the fracture healing process, and a surface corrosion model was used to simulate intramedullary rod degradation. The results showed that magnesium alloy intramedullary rods exhibited a satisfactory degradation rate; the fracture healed and callus enhancement was observed before complete dissolution of the intramedullary rod. Delayed magnesium degradation (using surface coating techniques) did not confer a significant advantage over the non-delayed degradation process; immediate degradation also achieved satisfactory healing outcomes. However, delayed degradation had no negative effect on callus enhancement, as it did not cause signs of stress shielding. To avoid risks of individual differences such as delayed union, delayed degradation is recommended. Although the magnesium intramedullary rod did not demonstrate rapid degradation, its ability to provide high fixation stiffness to achieve earlier load bearing was inferior to that of the conventional titanium alloy and stainless steel rods. Therefore, light physiological loads should be ensured during the early stages of healing to achieve bony healing; otherwise, with increased loading and degraded intramedullary rods, the fracture may ultimately fail to heal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative study of intramedullary interlocking nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in extra articular distal tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolagupu, Arup K; Mudgal, Ashwani; Agarwala, Vikash; Dutta, Kaushik K

    2017-01-01

    Extraarticular distal tibial fractures are among the most challenging fractures encountered by an orthopedician for treatment because of its subcutaneous location, poor blood supply and decreased muscular cover anteriorly, complications such as delayed union, nonunion, wound infection, and wound dehiscence are often seen as a great challenge to the surgeon. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) are two well-accepted and effective methods, but each has been historically related to complications. This study compares clinical and radiological outcome in extraarticular distal tibia fractures treated by intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). 42 patients included in this study, 21 underwent IMLN and 21 were treated with MIPO who met the inclusion criteria and operated between June 2014 and May 2015. Patients were followed up for clinical and radiological evaluation. In IMLN group, average union time was 18.26 weeks compared to 21.70 weeks in plating group which was significant ( P ankle stiffness, and infection, were seen in interlocking group as compared to plating group. Average functional outcome according to American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was measured which came out to be 96.67. IMLN group was associated with lesser duration of surgery, earlier weight bearing and union rate, lesser incidence of infection and implant irritation which makes it a preferable choice for fixation of extra-articular distal tibial fractures. However, larger randomized controlled trials are required for confirming the results.

  17. [Clinical application of blocking screws and rooting technique in the treatment of distal tibial fracture with interlocking intramedullary nail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-Bing; Wu, Li-Guo; Fang, Zhi-Song; Luo, Cong-Feng; Wang, Qing-Feng; Ma, Yi-Ping; Gao, Hong; Fu, Guo-Hai; Hu, Cheng-Ting

    2012-07-01

    To introduce the clinical method of blocking screws and rooting technique in the treatment of distal tibial fracture with interlocking intramedullary nails. From June 2006 to March 2011, 26 patients with distal tibial fracture were treated with interlocking intramedullary nails using blocking screws and rooting technique, included 18 males and 8 females with an average age of 46.2 years old ranging from 24 to 64 years. According to AO classification: 10 cases of type A1, 4 cases of type A2, 8 cases of type B1, 4 cases of type B2. The average distance of the fractures end to the ankle joint was 85 mm ranging from 55 to 125 mm, the mean time between injured and operation was 4.5 days. The patients were evaluated with pain, range of motion, walking. All cases were followed-up for 6 to 22 months (averaged 15 months). According to Iowa ankle joint grading system,the score was improved from preoperative (66.8 +/- 8.2) to postoperative (94.6 +/- 4.8). All fractures had united, and got satisfactory reduction and stable fixation with no complications had happen such as breakage of screw. Fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail using blocking screws and rooting technique in treating distal tibial fracture, is a safe and effective technique for the improvement of stability.

  18. Study of personnel monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Aline B.; Lorenzini, Fabiane; Carlos, Janaina; Bernasiuk, Maria E.B.; Rizzatti, Mara R.; Fuentefria, Jose L.B.

    1996-01-01

    Surveillance of several health institutions who use ionizing radiation sources, as well as data from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) are studied concerning the use of personnel dosimeters. The results show that several institutions do not provide them and those which provide do not know how to use them

  19. Rights & Responsibilities. Personnel Management Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gale; And Others

    This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  20. Personnel monitoring for beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Johns, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The practical considerations which have to be taken into account in the design of personnel monitors intended to measure doses resulting from exposure to beta rays are discussed. These include the measurement of doses in situations involving either fairly uniform or non-uniform irradiation and of doses to the male gonads. (UK)

  1. Project Management Personnel Competencies Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An important factor for the success management of IT projects is the human resource. People involved in the project management process have to be evaluated. In order to do that, same criteria has to be specified. This paper describes some aspects regarding the personnel evaluation.

  2. Hand-held personnel and vehicle monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, W.E.; Chambers, W.H.; Henry, C.N.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Hastings, R.D.; Worth, G.M.

    1976-05-01

    A light, rugged monitor has been developed for special nuclear materials (SNM) searches at material-access and protection-area exits. This monitor accepts gamma-ray pulses from a NaI(Tl) detector, integrates for a preset counting interval (typically 0.3 s), and produces an audible alarm whenever the counts in the interval exceed the trip level that is a preset multiple of the stored background count. Because the monitor is silent except when the alarm is operating, personnel with little special training can conduct more effective searches in a noisy and distracting environment than they can with conventional audible monitoring of individual radiation counts. The monitor is also more sensitive than conventional monitors that provide audible indication of the count rate

  3. Basic requirements for personnel monitoring. 1980 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Code of Practice sets forth the objectives of an adequate system of personnel monitoring for radiation workers. It covers individual dosimetry, including internal radiation monitoring, and area monitoring to the extent required for the assessment of individual radiation doses. The responsibilities of authorities for organizing monitoring of radiation workers are discussed, together with brief descriptions of monitoring methods and the rules governing their application. The general principles to be considered in selecting instrumentation and the appropriate monitoring techniques are described, as well as calibration techniques, methods of data handling and record keeping. Current concepts and recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, as presented in ICRP Publication No.26, have been incorporated. New developments in techniques and instruments have been reflected, and several sections such as calibration and record keeping have been elaborated. The bibliography has been updated and new annexes added.

  4. Development of Remote Control and Interlock System for the PEFP Microwave Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    The control system for a microwave ion source as an isolated high voltage device is a main part of the PEFP distributed control system. The system is used to control two sets of microwave ion sources, the remote control and the interlock system. A VME system with an embedded Power PC CPU is used as main computer. The VME system is dedicated to control and monitoring of the ion source operation. An isolated control system has been designed and developed for remote control and monitoring of a microwave generator and various power supplies. As the source is placed on high voltage platform, optical fiber isolation has been used between the serial to optical fiber VME I/O board and the control system on the high voltage platform. These are connected through RS232 serial interface. A fast Ethernet is used to communicate between the microwave ion source control system and other control stations in the PEFP control system. EPICS toolkit is adopted to provide network programming and user interface by using EPICS Channel Access (CA)

  5. Hindfoot Valgus following Interlocking Nail Treatment for Tibial Diaphysis Fractures: Can the Fibula Be Neglected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Uzun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We evaluated whether intramedullary nail fixation for tibial diaphysis fractures with concomitant fibula fractures (except at the distal one-third level managed conservatively with an associated fibula fracture resulted in ankle deformity and assessed the impact of the ankle deformity on lower extremity function. Methods. Sixty middle one-third tibial shaft fractures with associated fibular fractures, except the distal one-third level, were included in this study. All tibial shaft fractures were anatomically reduced and fixed with interlocking intramedullary nails. Fibular fractures were managed conservatively. Hindfoot alignment was assessed clinically. Tibia and fibular lengths were compared to contralateral measurements using radiographs. Functional results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS and the Foot and Ankle Disability Index Score (FADI. Results. Anatomic union, defined as equal length in operative and contralateral tibias, was achieved in 60 fractures (100%. Fibular shortening was identified in 42 fractures (68%. Mean fibular shortening was 1.2 cm (range, 0.5–2 cm. Clinical exams showed increased hindfoot valgus in 42 fractures (68%. The mean KOOS was 88.4, and the mean FADI score was 90. Conclusion. Fibular fractures in the middle or proximal one-third may need to be stabilized at the time of tibial intramedullary nail fixation to prevent development of hindfoot valgus due to fibular shortening.

  6. Biocalcification using Ureolytic Bacteria (UB) for strengthening Interlocking Compressed Earth Blocks (ICEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamer, M. M.; Irwan, J. M.; Othman, N.; Faisal, S. K.; Anneza, L. H.; Alshalif, A. F.; Teddy, T.

    2018-02-01

    Interlocking compressed earth blocks (ICEB) are soil based blocks that allows for mortarless construction. This characteristic resulted to faster the process of building walls and required less skilled labor as the blocks are laid dry and lock into place. Recently, implementation in using bacteria as construction material improvement is vigorously used in research in order pursuit the sustainable construction works. This paper provide the results of ureolytic bacteria (UB) throughout enrichment process in soil condition to acclimatize the ICEB environment, compressive strength of 1%, 3% and 5% UB and SEM analysis of ICEB. The bacteria were added as partial replacement of limestone water in ICEB. The results showed the optimal growth achieved based on the days and absorbance from optical density (OD) test which are in 12th days with absorbance of 0.55 whereas the results for strength shows the increment of 15.25% with 5% UB on 28th days of testing compared to control specimen. Therefore this study hopes that positive results from the UB as improving in strength of ICEB which will lead to improve others ICEB properties and others construction materials.

  7. Discontinuous Residue and Theme in Higher-Order Semiotic: A Case for Interlocking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Farahani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The fallacy persists in discourse analysis research to explore lexicogrammatical phenomena detached from any adjacent plane of the meaning potential. In an attempt to dispel this and toss out some preconceived notions about what a modern SFG vantage point should involve, this study homes in on one aspect of SFG within prose fiction in particular, which is very revealing in terms of how separate system networks are actually in synergistic simultaneity, and how SFG allows one , phenomenally well, to bring such synergies out, getting to the heart of the fact that language pervasively operates on multiple planes of textuality simultaneously. Thus, building upon Halliday’s 2004 work, the quest is if it is interpersonally significant when the Residue is split into two parts; more importantly, if it is also laced with some lexicogrammatical quality on the textual plane, in light of the fairly well-entrenched assumption that there is always Theme at work when the Residue is split. Halliday is the only scholar to touch upon the topic of Discontinuous Residue and its relationship to Marked Theme in the culmination of his groundbreaking career, i.e. his 2004 work. Having driven home the proposal to make into a watchword the ubiquity of interlocking macro-semantic system networks, some pedagogical and research implications and suggestions flowing from this are brought up.

  8. [The monorail system--bone segment transport over unreamed interlocking nails].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oedekoven, G; Jansen, D; Raschke, M; Claudi, B F

    1996-11-01

    A treatment protocol is demonstrated, consisting of an osteotomy, either proximal or distal, of the bone defect with subsequent segmental transport via an anteromedially (tibia) or laterally (femur) mounted AO external fixation over an unreamed interlocking nail (monorail system). Twenty patients were treated by this method with indications as follows: 13 had a segmental bone defect of the tibia, 3 of the femur. Three patients showed post-traumatic and postinfectious leg-length discrepancies and one was treated for hypertrophic non-union of the femur. Defect distance varied between 5 and 18.5 cm and average time for transport was 19,42 days/ cm for the tibial shaft, 15,93 days/cm for the femur. Two patients developed deep infection, which required change of treatment, removing the monorail system and application of an Ilizarov apparatus. Despite complications using the monorail system, all patients healed and no amputations were required. The monorail system can be used as an alternative to the Ilizarov method under certain criteria of patient selection; these criteria are shown by an algorithm for segmental bone defects without infection, respecting the soft-tissue status with or without neurovascular compromise.

  9. The Tight-interlocked Rhythm Section: Production and Perception of Synchronisation in Jazz Trio Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Alex; Wesolowski, Brian C; Goebl, Werner

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the production and perception of timing, synchronisation and dynamics in jazz trio performances. In a production experiment, six trio combinations of one saxophonist, two bassists, and three drummers were recorded while they performed three popular jazz songs. Onset timing and dynamics of each performer were extracted and analysed. Results showed that the tempo was significantly influenced by the timing of the drummers and all performers showed higher temporal precision on the backbeats. The drummers demonstrated individual swing-ratios, accentuations of beats and intrapersonal asynchronies between simultaneous hi-hat and ride cymbal onsets, which resulted in a hi-hat played 2-26 ms ahead of the pulse of the music. In a subsequent perception test, participants ([Formula: see text]) rated 12 excerpts of the jazz recordings. They selected their preferred version from a pool of stimuli containing the original version, but also manipulations with artificially increased or reduced asynchronies. Stimuli with reduced asynchronies smaller than 19 ms were preferred by the listeners over the original or the fully quantised timing. This suggests that listeners endorse a 'tight-interlocked' jazz rhythm section, with asynchronies smaller than the perceptual threshold (temporal masking), but with natural timing variabilities that makes it distinguishable from a computer-generated playback.

  10. Being present in action: a theoretical model about the interlocking between intentions and environmental affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eTriberti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuropsychological evidence suggest that a key role in linking perceptions and intentions is played by sense of presence. Despite this phenomenon having been studied primarily in the field of virtual reality (conceived as the illusion of being in the virtual space, recent research highlighted that it is a fundamental feature of everyday experience. Specifically, the function of presence as a cognitive process is to locate the Self in a physical space or situation, based on the perceived possibility to act in it; so, the variations in sense of presence allow one to continuously adapt his own action to the external environment. Indeed intentions, as the cognitive antecedents of action, are not static representations of the desired outcomes, but dynamic processes able to adjust their own representational content according to the opportunities/restrictions emerging in the environment. Focusing on the peculiar context of action mediated by interactive technologies, we here propose a theoretical model showing how each level of an intentional hierarchy (future-directed; present directed; and motor intentions can interlock with environmental affordances in order to promote a continuous stream of action and activity.

  11. Septum magnet MNP-23 for the CERN PS experimental area and its fast interlock system

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Prost, A; Zickler, T

    2004-01-01

    Two MNP-23 septum-like magnets are installed at CERN in the transfer line from the Proton Synchrotron (PS) to the East Hall Experimental Area. They are exposed to extremely high doses of ionizing radiation. In the past, the magnets experienced two catastrophic failures due to overheating of its coils and cannot be repaired. The magnets of improved design which is subject of this article are built as replacements for the magnets presently installed. The MNP-23 is a resistive C shaped iron-dominated magnet made of solid low carbon steel blocks. The excitation windings consist of two water-cooled coils wound from hollow copper conductor. The septum design of these magnets implies a high current density which requires an efficient water cooling system. The newly designed cooling circuit provides better cooling performance and more reliability. To avoid failures due to coil overheating, an elaborate interlock system was developed and installed. It consists of two parts: firstly a slow, more classic sensor, to dete...

  12. Shielding of the patient's gonads during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, L.M.; Johanson, P.H.; Zinar, D.M.; Lenihan, M.R.; Herman, M.W. (Harbor/Univ. of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Levels of exposure to radiation were recorded at sixty sites in fifteen patients during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing. Radiation film dosimeters were placed at four gonadal sites on each subject. A standard male-gonad cup or a pelvic drape of 0.5-millimeter-thick lead-equivalent was put in place to shield the gonads. A second set of four dosimeters was placed external to the shield to approximate unprotected exposure. The total duration of the fluoroscopy averaged five minutes (range, thirty seconds to fourteen minutes). The total exposure to radiation external to the shield was 35 +/- 34 millirems at the male gonadal sites and 17 +/- 11 millirems at the female gonadal sites. With use of the gonadal shield, exposure to radiation was not measurable in thirteen of the fifteen patients. The differences between the exposures of the shielded and unshielded sites to radiation were statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The highest level of gonadal exposure was found with the treatment of proximal femoral fractures and with the use of statically locked nails. Regardless of the conditions, and for all types of fractures and locations, our results demonstrated that gonadal shielding is justified.

  13. A bio-inspired swellable microneedle adhesive for mechanical interlocking with tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Yun; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D.; Sisk, Geoffroy C.; Park, Kyeng Min; Cho, Woo Kyung; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett E.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving significant adhesion to soft tissues while minimizing tissue damage poses a considerable clinical challenge. Chemical-based adhesives require tissue-specific reactive chemistry, typically inducing a significant inflammatory response. Staples are fraught with limitations including high-localized tissue stress and increased risk of infection, and nerve and blood vessel damage. Here inspired by the endoparasite Pomphorhynchus laevis, which swells its proboscis to attach to its host’s intestinal wall, we have developed a biphasic microneedle array that mechanically interlocks with tissue through swellable microneedle tips, achieving ~3.5-fold increase in adhesion strength compared with staples in skin graft fixation, and removal force of ~4.5 N cm-2 from intestinal mucosal tissue. Comprising a poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) swellable tip and non-swellable polystyrene core, conical microneedles penetrate tissue with minimal insertion force and depth, yet high adhesion strength in their swollen state. Uniquely, this design provides universal soft tissue adhesion with minimal damage, less traumatic removal, reduced risk of infection and delivery of bioactive therapeutics.

  14. A control system of radiation protection at HESYRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuxiong; Li Juexin; Ning Xinquan

    1990-01-01

    A control system for radiation protection at Hefei National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (HESYRL) consists of three parts. They are a personal radiation safety interlock system, an automatic environmental radiation monitoring system and a data logging and management system for area radiation monitoring. Two-year operating experiments have shown that this system is reasonably designed, reliable, high-sensitive and automatic. The design principle, construction and operating status of each part of the system are introduced

  15. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  16. Unique safety manual for experimental personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busick, D.D.; Warren, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Within a few months of the discovery of x-rays the first radiation injuries were reported (ta71). During the past thirty years both the number and complexity of x-ray analytical units have increased markedly. The world-wide number of incidents leading to severe injury has also increased. For analytical x-ray machines the need for engineered and administrative safeguards has long been recognized. At Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) the personnel protection system has been carefully designed to maximize safety and minimize experimental interference. However, all possible experimental configurations cannot be anticipated and some interference is to be expected. There are means by which safeguards can be substituted as long as these substitutions do not degrade the existing degree of safety. any substitutions must be evaluated by the Radiation Safety Committee, the SSRL staff and Operational Health Physics. Some studies have indicated that between fifty and ninety percent of serious radiation accidents are directly related to human errors, i.e., ignoring administrative proccedures, by-passing engineered safeguards or by inadequate training. Lindell has estimated the annual probability of serious injury to be about 1:100 per macchine. No matter what the real probability of serious injury is the personnel protection system should reduce this risk to a value that approaches zero. It is hoped that this manual will bring into sharper focus some of the more serious results of unnecessary risk taking. We also hope that it will convey the very real necessity for safeguards which may at times appear to be arbitrary and unnecessary impediments to experimental purposes

  17. Assuring the competence of nuclear power plant contractor personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    examples of typical means by which competence may be assured by Member States. Section 2 outlines some considerations for selecting a contractor organisation; Section 3 identifies categories of contractors and their duties; Section 4 deals with assuring competence; Section 5 discusses the specification of qualification requirements; Section 6 explains the principles of gap analysis and consequent compensatory actions; Section 7 explains the significance of site access requirements; Section 8 outlines the need for radiological protection qualification requirements; Section 9 considers specific qualification requirements; Section 10 discusses the maintenance of contractor personnel competence; Section 11 provides an analysis of a survey of Member States' involvement in assuring contractor personnel competence.

  18. Assuring the competence of nuclear power plant contractor personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    examples of typical means by which competence may be assured by Member States. Section 2 outlines some considerations for selecting a contractor organisation; Section 3 identifies categories of contractors and their duties; Section 4 deals with assuring competence; Section 5 discusses the specification of qualification requirements; Section 6 explains the principles of gap analysis and consequent compensatory actions; Section 7 explains the significance of site access requirements; Section 8 outlines the need for radiological protection qualification requirements; Section 9 considers specific qualification requirements; Section 10 discusses the maintenance of contractor personnel competence; Section 11 provides an analysis of a survey of Member States' involvement in assuring contractor personnel competence

  19. Essential themes in Personnel economics

    OpenAIRE

    Josheski, Dushko

    2014-01-01

    In this paper are presented essential themes in the subject of personnel economics. In the first part analysis has been conducted on the impact of peer pressure on workplace behaviour. Then again models for compensation structures within firms, and their influence on the utility of work by employees. In the final section of the paper the productivity spillover effect has been analyzed, and the causes of existence of spillovers and their impact on workers’ productivity

  20. Modern methods of personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.

    The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given

  1. Career path for operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper explains how selected personnel can now obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics with a Nuclear Power Operations option. The program went into effect the Fall of 1984. Another program was worked out in 1982 whereby students attending the Nuclear Operators Training Program could obtain an Associates of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering Technology at the end of two years of study. This paper presents tables and charts which describe these programs and outline the career path for operators

  2. Moral distress in nursing personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Barlem,Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi,Valéria Lerch; Lunardi,Guilherme Lerch; Tomaschewski-Barlem,Jamila Geri; Silveira,Rosemary Silva da; Dalmolin,Graziele de Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the frequency and intensity of moral distress experienced by nursing personnel in southern Brazil, covering elements of their professional practice. METHOD: a survey was undertaken in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with 247 nurses. Data was collected by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. RESULTS: the perception of situations that lead to moral distress is enhanced in nurses and in nursing staff working in institutions with greater openness to dialogu...

  3. National Finance Center Personnel/Payroll System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The NFC system is an USDA system used for processing transactions for payroll/personnel systems. Personnel processing is done through EPIC/HCUP, which is web-based....

  4. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2009-07-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  5. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  6. Elaboration of the configuration and programming of the interlocks system of the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia C, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The modernization of the TRIGA Mark III reactor interlock system requires a system that provides high reliability, flexibility and ease of operation during reactor operation. With this modernization of the system, is intended to prevent, control and mitigate the causes of probable accidents reported in the reactor accident analysis. On the other hand, is foreseen the ease reactor operation in a simple, safe and efficient way. The programmable logic controller can be programmed by programming instructions using simple language and easy to develop, these can be modified from a computer using the programming software. In addition, another of the advantages offered by the controller is that can be modified from a touch screen (human-machine interface) that allows adjustment, without the need to use programming software and diagnostic functions during the process. As a result of the present work, a situation of improvement in the reactor operation was generated, facilitating the handling of the bridge and increasing the efficiency of the system in the execution of the operating conditions of the installations external to the reactor. A modern, more reliable and much less expensive system was achieved than the previous one, avoiding that the maintenance to the system generates high expenses. With respect to the development of the application programming, a control was implemented that allows to select a zone of the five that have inside the pool to carry out the displacement of automatic way and later to be located in that zone, having in this way a greater efficiency and ease in bridge control. (Author)

  7. The personnel dosimetry record keeping system at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, D.W.

    1979-09-01

    Since May 1978 the exposure of personnel to external radiation has been assessed by Thermoluminescent Dosimetry, (TLD). The dosemeter consists of a TLD card similar to that used by the National Radiological Protection Board, held in a plastic badge designed at AEE Winfrith, and used in conjunction with a D A Pitman Ltd Type 605 Automatic Reader. The report describes the dosemeter, the operation of the dosimetry service and the system for maintaining a computerised record keeping system. (author)

  8. Mandatory influenza vaccination for all healthcare personnel: a review on justification, implementation and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiffany L; Jing, Ling; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2017-10-01

    As healthcare-associated influenza is a serious public health concern, this review examines legal and ethical arguments supporting mandatory influenza vaccination policies for healthcare personnel, implementation issues and evidence of effectiveness. Spread of influenza from healthcare personnel to patients can result in severe harm or death. Although most healthcare personnel believe that they should be vaccinated against seasonal influenza, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that only 79% of personnel were vaccinated during the 2015-2016 season. Vaccination rates were as low as 44.9% in institutions that did not promote or offer the vaccine, compared with rates of more than 90% in institutions with mandatory vaccination policies. Policies that mandate influenza vaccination for healthcare personnel have legal and ethical justifications. Implementing such policies require multipronged approaches that include education efforts, easy access to vaccines, vaccine promotion, leadership support and consistent communication emphasizing patient safety. Mandatory influenza vaccination for healthcare personnel is a necessary step in protecting patients. Patients who interact with healthcare personnel are often at an elevated risk of complications from influenza. Vaccination is the best available strategy for protecting against influenza and evidence shows that institutional policies and state laws can effectively increase healthcare personnel vaccination rates, decreasing the risk of transmission in healthcare settings. There are legal and ethical precedents for institutional mandatory influenza policies and state laws, although successful implementation requires addressing both administrative and attitudinal barriers.

  9. 10 CFR 36.55 - Personnel monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel monitoring. 36.55 Section 36.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Operation of Irradiators § 36.55 Personnel monitoring. (a) Irradiator operators shall wear a personnel dosimeter that is...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2711 - Personnel health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel health. 193.2711 Section 193.2711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2711 Personnel health. Each operator...

  11. Personnel Development Practices in Turkish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays everything develops and changes very quickly and sustainability of organizational goals will be possible only when personnel can keep up with these changes. From administrative aspect it is important to enhance personnel's potential and prompt them to achieve organizational goals. Personnel development is a process which influences and…

  12. Neutron personnel dosimetry considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The increasing development of fusion reactor technology warrants an evaluation of personnel neutron dosimetry systems to aid in the concurrent development of a radiation protection program. For this reason, current state of knowledge neutron dosimeters have been reviewed with emphasis placed on practical utilization and the problems inherent in each type of dosimetry system. Evaluations of salient parameters such as energy response, latent image instability, and minimum detectable dose equivalent are presented for nuclear emulsion films, track etch techniques, albedo and other thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques, electrical conductivity damage effects, lyoluminescence, thermocurrent, and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission. Brief summaries of dosimetry regulatory requirements and intercomparison study results help to establish compliance and recent trends, respectively. Spectrum modeling data generated by the Neutron Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Facility have been analyzed by both International Commission on Radiological Protection fluence to dose conversion factors and an adjoint technique of radiation dosimetry, in an attempt to determine the applicability of current neutron dosimetry systems to deuterium and tritium fusion reactor leakage spectra. Based on the modeling data, a wide range of neutron energies will probably be present in the leakage spectra of the TFTR facility, and no appreciable risk of somatic injury to occupationally exposed workers is expected. The relative dose contributions due to high energy and thermal neutrons indicate that neutron dosimetry will probably not be a serious limitation in the development of fusion power

  13. Electron microscopy - principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This 8 minute programme explains the nature of the possible radiation hazard in Electron Microscopy and outlines the ways in which modern equipment is designed and made so that in normal use the worker is not exposed to radiation. The interlock principle is explained and illustrated by an example from the field of X-ray crystallography. By filming machines while they were dismantled for servicing, details of several internal safety devices have been included. In this way workers who normally use the equipment as a 'black box' get some insight into the principles and practice of radiation protection in the field. (author)

  14. Basic legal provisions concerning the activities of industrial security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstein, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The author confines himself to sabotage and espionage. Necessary counter-measures are determined by the respective type of activities. Sect. 618 of the German Civil Code and Sect. 120 a of the Industrial Code give basic legal provisions for the protection of industrial personnel. The legal position held by owner or occupant forms the legal basis for 'vulnerable point protection'. The owner's rights are assigned to the industrial police and are exercised in correspondence with the service or employment contract set up according to Sect. 611 and the following sections of the German Civil Code. Outside guards work according to the performance contract given int the Sections 675, 611, 631 of the German Civil Code. The security personnel has the common right of self-help: self-defence, civil rights concerning the state of national emergency and self-defence under criminal law, rights derived from ownership and property. The author critically argues views held by Mr. Hoffmann-Riem who thinks that police powers have been assigned to private persons. He definitely answers in the negative to the execution of, or encroachment on, sovereign (police) powers by industrial security personnel. A special legal regulation is not necessary, since private protection in form of professional selfdefence is admissible under the law in force. (HSCH) [de

  15. Radiation protection in radio-oncology; Strahlenschutz in der Radioonkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartz, Juliane Marie; Joost, Sophie; Hildebrandt, Guido [Universitaetsmedizin Rostock (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    2017-07-01

    Based on the high technical status of radiation protection the occupational exposure of radiological personnel is no more of predominant importance. No defined dose limits exist for patients in the frame of therapeutic applications in contrary to the radiological personnel. As a consequence walk-downs radiotherapeutic institutions twice the year have been initiated in order to guarantee a maximum of radiation protection for patient's treatment. An actualization of radiation protection knowledge of the radiological personnel is required.

  16. Removal torque of nail interlocking screws is related to screw proximity to the fracture and screw breakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alexander A; Kubacki, Meghan R; Samona, Jason; Telehowski, Paul; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Studies have shown that titanium implants can be challenging to explant due to the material's excellent biocompatibility and resulting osseointegration. Clinically, titanium alloy nail interlocking screws may require removal to dynamize a construct or revise the nail due to nonunion, infection, pain, or periprosthetic fracture. This study was designed to determine what variables influence the removal torque for titanium alloy interlocking screws. An intramedullary nail with four interlocking screws was used to stabilize a 1-cm segmental femoral defect in a canine model for 16 weeks. The animals were observed to be active following a several-day recovery after surgery. In six animals, the femora and implanted nail/screws were first tested to failure in torsion to simulate periprosthetic fracture of an implant after which the screws were then removed. In four additional animals, the screws were removed without mechanical testing. Both intraoperative insertional and extraction torques were recorded for all screws. Mechanical testing to failure broke 10/24 screws. On average, the intact screws required 70% of the insertional torque during removal while broken screws only required 16% of the insertional torque (p torque than the outboard distal screw (p torque was ∼80°. The peak axial load did not significantly correlate with the torque required to remove the screws. On average, the removal torque was lower than at the time of insertion, and less torque was required to remove broken screws and screws remote to the fracture. However, broken screws will require additional time to retrieve the remaining screw fragment. This study suggests that broken screws and screws in prematurely active patients will require less torque to remove. © IMechE 2016.

  17. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  18. Tune Resonance Phenomena in the SPS and related Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Tobias; Elsen, E

    2010-01-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, with a peak energy of 450 GeV, is at the top of the LHC preaccelerator complex. SPS is at present the accelerator with the largest stored beam energy worldwide of up to 2.5 MJ. In 2008, a fast equipment failure led to an uncontrolled loss of a high intensity beam at an integer tune resonance, which resulted in major damage of a main dipole. Experimental studies and simulations provide clear understanding of the beam dynamics at different SPS tune resonances, that can lead to a complete beam loss in as little as 3 turns. Dedicated experiments of fast failures of the main power converters reveal that the current interlock systems are much too slow for an adequate machine protection. A new position interlock system, which is currently in the commissioning phase, will counteract the vulnerability of the SPS.

  19. WS-009: EPR-First Responders: Personnel protection guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this working session is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a laboratory explosion with radioactive material and a contamination risks by cobalt source. The first responder have to identify the incident commander, the type of response required, the risks of the emergency, the requirements for transporting the victims to the hospital and the actors involved in a radiological emergency

  20. Radiation protection instrumentation for personnel dosimetry, area and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    Several kinds of personal dosimeter exist and their performance is reviewed in the light of requirements for an ideal instrument. The requirements of portable instruments are reviewed and the extent to which they are met in one example is described. Where permitted environmental doses are larger than the fluctuations in natural backgrounds, certain types of thermoluminescent dosimeters provide a cheaper and reliable alternative measuring system

  1. Radiation protection of personnel during paediatric radiodiagnostic examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, C [Saint Mary' s Hospital, Manchester (UK)

    1980-07-01

    Practical experience in paediatric radiography is reported. Keeping young children immobile during irradiation is found to be the major problem and various solutions to this are discussed in detail especially with respect to the radiation dose received by both the patient and also the radiographer. The problem of X-raying newborn babies in incubators is also discussed. It is concluded that by using suitable lead rubber shielding, the child can be physically restrained by the radiographer without significant radiation dosage being incurred.

  2. Radiation protection of personnel during paediatric radiodiagnostic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, C.

    1980-01-01

    Practical experience in paediatric radiography is reported. Keeping young children immobile during irradiation is found to be the major problem and various solutions to this are discussed in detail especially with respect to the radiation dose received by both the patient and also the radiographer. The problem of X-raying newborn babies in incubators are also discussed. It is concluded that by using suitable lead rubber shielding, the child can be physically restrained by the radiographer without significant radiation dosage being incurred. (U.K.)

  3. Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THOMAS, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Process Vacuum Liquid Detection interlock systems prevent intrusion of process liquids into the HEPA filters downstream of demisters No.6 and No.7 during Process Vacuum System operation. This prevents liquid intrusion into the filters, which could cause a criticality. The Safety Envelope (SE) includes the equipment, which detects the presence of liquids in the vacuum headers; isolates the filters; shuts down the vacuum pumps; and alarms the condition. This report identifies the equipment in the SE operating, maintenance, and surveillance procedures needed to maintain the SE equipment; and rationale for exclusion of some equipment and testing from the SE

  4. Guideline related to training and re-training of research reactor personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The guideline, which entered into force on 1 July 1983, lays down training and re-training requirements to be met by research reactor personnel in the framework of the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 26 November 1969, the Regulation related to the Licensing of Nuclear Facilities of 21 June 1979, and the Regulation related to Further Education in the Field of Radiation Protection 27 January 1975. It contains the scope of application; the principles and objectives; the minimum requirements relating to technical qualification of plant managers, shift personnel, and responsible radiation protection officers; appointment and certification; the preservation of the technical qualification; and exceptional and transitional regulations

  5. The interventional radiology: means of reduction and optimization of medical personnel exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccia, C.; Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Guibelalde, E.

    1998-01-01

    The measures envisaged to make an optimization of the radiation protection are in the use of materials adapted to the situation, the use of dosemeters devoted to the doses evaluation for particularly sensitive organs , the introduction of ophthalmic examinations and finally, the information and training of every category of personnel in radiation protection. (N.C.)

  6. I: Hydrodynamic-focusing microreactor II: Mechanically interlocked molecules for functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coti, Karla Karina

    I: Microreactors, a class of microfluidics, offer numerous benefits -- such as small sample requirement, short analysis times and automations -- and have been used to study reactions of chemical and biological reagents. In order to understand the relationship between fast mixing, product regioselectivity, as well as the ability to separate, in time and space, the nanoparticle (NP) formation stages, a microreactor capable of fast and controllable mixing was developed (Chapter 1) based on multi-lamination and hydrodynamic-focusing. By taking advantage of the fast and controllable mixing properties of this novel microreactor one can control the time when chemical reactions commence inside the microchannels. These properties of the microreactor can be exploited to improve the product regioselectivity of a diazo-coupling reaction to attain a product distribution of monoazo to diazo product of ˜1:99, a selectivity unprecedented in both conventional, macroscopic reactors and other microfluidic systems. Additionally, the ability to separate different stages during the NP formation process inside the microreactor, allowed us to study the aggregation of polypyrrole NPs. II: Supramolecular actuators and molecular interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, have attracted considerable attention because of their sophisticated topology and their application in functional molecular devices. The blending of supramolecular and mechanostereochemistry with mesoporous silica NPs has proven to be a powerful combination, leading to the development of a new class of materials -- mechanized silica nanoparticles ( Chapter 2). These new hybrid materials are designed to release their content in response to an external stimuli and their development is being driven by the need to improve current drug delivery technologies. In an effort to explore how the stimuli-controlled mechanical movement of switchable, bistable [2]rotaxanes -- based on a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring

  7. Protecting detectors in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechman, M.; Augustinus, A.; Chochula, P.; Di Mauro, A.; Stig Jirden, L.; Rosinsky, P.; Schindler, H.; Cataldo, G. de; Pinazza, O.; Kurepin, A.; Moreno, A.

    2012-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related to beam safety. The gained experiences and conclusions from the individual safety projects are also presented. (authors)

  8. Peri-Implant Distribution of Polyethylene Debris in Postmortem-Retrieved Knee Arthroplasties: Can Polyethylene Debris Explain Loss of Cement-Bone Interlock in Successful Total Knee Arthroplasties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyndari, Karen I; Goodheart, Jacklyn R; Miller, Mark A; Oest, Megan E; Damron, Timothy A; Mann, Kenneth A

    2017-07-01

    Loss of mechanical interlock between cement and bone with in vivo service has been recently quantified for functioning, nonrevised, cemented total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). The cause of interlocking trabecular resorption is not known. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of PE debris at the cement-bone interface and determine if polyethylene (PE) debris is locally associated with loss of interlock. Fresh, nonrevised, postmortem-retrieved TKAs (n = 8) were obtained en bloc. Laboratory-prepared constructs (n = 2) served as negative controls. The intact cement-bone interface of each proximal tibia was embedded in Spurr's resin, sectioned, and imaged under polarized light to identify birefringent PE particles. PE wear particle number density was quantified at the cement-bone interface and distal to the interface, and then compared with local loss of cement-bone interlock. The average PE particle number density for postmortem-retrieved TKAs ranged from 8.6 (1.3) to 24.9 (3.1) particles/mm 2 (standard error) but was weakly correlated with years in service. The average particle number density was twice as high as distal (>5mm) to the interface compared to at the interface. The local loss of interlock at the interface was not related to the presence, absence, or particle density of PE. PE debris can migrate extensively along the cement-bone interface of well-fixed tibial components. However, the amount of local bone loss at the cement-bone interface was not correlated with the amount of PE debris at the interface, suggesting that the observed loss of trabecular interlock in these well-fixed TKAs may be due to alternative factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Organization of measures on protection of population and territories against weapons of mass destruction: brief analysis of laboratory control and conditions of personnel protective means of respiratory organs in the Republic of Tajikistan; Organizatsiya meropriyatiy po zashite naseleniya i territoriy ot oruzhiya massovogo unichtozheniya; kratkiy analiz laborotornogo kotrolya i sostoyaniya sredstv individual'noy zashiti organov dikhaniya v Respublike Tadzhikistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalov, D. D.; Makhmadov, T. F.; Stotskiy, D. F. [Committee of Emergency Situations and Civil Defence under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe (Tajikistan)

    2010-07-01

    population and territory protection from mass-destruction weapon. Organization of actions on population and territory protection is caused on geographical location of Tajikistan. There is a number of some states near Tajikistan that have nuclear weapon: India, China, Pakistan. The basic actions for protection of the population and territories from weapons of mass destruction are: maintenance and accumulation of means of an individual defense, creation of stocks; creation and restoration of protective constructions of a civil defense; evacuation actions planning; restoration of system of monitoring and the laboratory control of a civil defense of Republic Tajikistan; according to the Government Regulation N 527 and dated on 31{sup st} of October, 2008 the 'Emergency situations and civil defense system development 2009-2014' Program was adopted. According to the Plan of the events within this Programme Committee of emergency situations and civil defense under the Government of Republic of Tajikistan provides a stage-by-stage realization of the actions for protection of population and territories from mass-destruction weapon. One of the important actions is provision and accumulation of the means of personal protection, keeping of this means. The means of personal protections are laboratory tested by the specialists of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense. Analytical data of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense allows making some conclusions concerning experienced storage of the means of personal protection. A general analysis of laboratory test indicates that: laboratory tests of filtering boxes indicate the preservation of air flow resistance and waterproof due to the adherence to the rules of keeping; laboratory tests of the front parts of the gas masks and their hardness and waterproof, and the waterproof of the valves show that the front part is dependent on meteorological character of the region of storage at long-term keeping

  10. An extreme-halophile archaebacterium possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase characteristic of the Gram-positive eubacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. A.; d'Amato, T. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1988-01-01

    The focal point of phenylalanine biosynthesis is a dehydratase reaction which in different organisms may be prephenate dehydratase, arogenate dehydratase, or cyclohexadienyl dehydratase. Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and cyanobacterial divisions of the eubacterial kingdom exhibit different dehydratase patterns. A new extreme-halophile isolate, which grows on defined medium and is tentatively designated as Halobacterium vallismortis CH-1, possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase present in Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the conventional sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine, the phenomenon of metabolic interlock was exemplified by the sensitivity of prephenate dehydratase to allosteric effects produced by extra-pathway (remote) effectors. Thus, L-tryptophan inhibited activity while L-tyrosine, L-methionine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine activated the enzyme. L-Isoleucine and L-phenylalanine were effective at micromolar levels; other effectors operated at mM levels. A regulatory mutant selected for resistance to growth inhibition caused by beta-2-thienylalanine possessed an altered prephenate dehydratase in which a phenomenon of disproportionately low activity at low enzyme concentration was abolished. Inhibition by L-tryptophan was also lost, and activation by allosteric activators was diminished. Not only was sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine lost, but the mutant enzyme was now activated by this amino acid (a mutation type previously observed in Bacillus subtilis). It remains to be seen whether this type of prephenate dehydratase will prove to be characteristic of all archaebacteria or of some archaebacterial subgroup cluster.

  11. "Fabrication of arbitrarily shaped carbonate apatite foam based on the interlocking process of dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) foam with an interconnected porous structure is highly attractive as a scaffold for bone replacement. In this study, arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was formed from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) foam granules via a two-step process involving treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution, which is key to fabricating arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam, enables dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals to form on the α-TCP foam granules. The generated DCPD crystals cause the α-TCP granules to interlock with each other, inducing an α-TCP/DCPD foam. The interlocking structure containing DCPD crystals can survive hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was fabricated from the α-TCP/DCPD foam via hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C for 24 h in the presence of a large amount of NaHCO 3 .

  12. Radiation protection in the operating room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, B.; Stargardt, A.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of legally provided area dose measurements and time records of fluoroscopic examinations during the operation, radiation doses to medical personnel and patients are evaluated. Adequate radiation protection measures and a careful behaviour in the operating room keep the radiation exposure to the personnel below the maximum permissible exposure. Taking into account the continuous personnel radiation monitoring and medical supervision, radiation hazards in the operating room can be considered low

  13. Personnel radiation exposure in the Asse saltmine repository during 1967 to 2008. Health monitoring Asse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    The health monitoring Asse includes the following chapters: Introduction, background information including handling of radioactive materials and radiation protection issues, data on radiation exposure (personnel dosimetry, incorporation surveillance, local dose rate measurements, exhaust monitoring, radioactivity in the salt mine air and in the brine, contamination), concept of the data base, interrogation of the personnel, quantification of the individual radiation doses, results of the radiation exposure quantification; significance of the results and perspectives.

  14. Study of the radio-exposure of the personnel in diagnostic and interventional radio-cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musnier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The renewal of radiological materials has contributed to reduce significantly the doses received by the personnel. The installations of low shutters and lead windows give an important potential of reduction of doses received by the physicians. For the medical and para medical personnel, a modification of working habits must lead to an important exposure reduction. To summarize, the medical and para medical personnel in cardiology has at one s disposal all the means allowing to reach the objective of dose constraints. The radiation protection optimization now depends on every concerned actor. (N.C.)

  15. A microcontroller based readout unit for a smart personnel monitoring TLD badge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaonkar, U.P.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Kannan, S.

    1997-01-01

    An automated TLD personnel monitoring system is under development to cope up with the requirements of personnel monitoring of rapidly growing number of radiation workers. The core of the system is a smart TLD badge incorporating a memory device and a microcontroller based readout unit for reading the memory contents of the badge. The memory is used to store personnel data including the accumulated dose data. The reader unit has a serial RS 232C interface for connection to a PC for entering/modifying data in the memory. A password protected software has also been developed in C for entering/modifying the data in the single memory. 3 figs

  16. Burnout among Danish prison personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Raaby; Andersen, Lars Peter; Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this follow-up study was to investigate associations between individual, occupational and work environment factors and burnout among both uniformed and non-uniformed personnel working in the Danish Prison and Probation Service. Methods The participants (N = 4808......) with client contact received a questionnaire in 2010 and again in 2011. In 2010, 2843 participants responded to the questionnaire (59.1%), and in 2011, 1741 responded to the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 61.2% of the baseline population, and 36.2% of the invited population. Burnout and work...... characteristics were measured with validated scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, and data was analysed by logistic regression. Results Risk factors with the highest impact on burnout were work environmental factors: quantitative demands, emotional demands, involvement in and meaning of work...

  17. Director general presentation to personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Many important discussions are scheduled for the upcoming Council Week (13-17 June) on topics including the Medium-Term Plan, the Pension Fund and other matters of great relevance to us.   I would therefore like to share the main outcome of the week with you and I invite you to join me and the Directors in the Main Auditorium at 10 a.m. on Thursday 23 June. The meeting will last about one hour and a webcast will also be available. Best regards, Fabiola Gianotti DG presentation to personnel Thursday 23 June at 10 am Main Auditorium Retransmission in Council Chamber, IT Auditorium, Kjell Jonhsen Auditorium, Prevessin 864-1-C02 Webcast on cern.ch/webcast More information on the event page.

  18. Technical guidelines for personnel dosimetry calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Fox, R.A.; Hadley, R.T.; Holbrook, K.L.; Hooker, C.D.; McDonald, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A base of technical information has been acquire and used to evaluate the calibration, design, and performance of selected personnel systems in use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilites. A technical document was prepared to guide DOE and DOE contractors in selecting and evaluating personnel dosimetry systems and calibration. A parallel effort was initiated to intercompare the adiological calibrations standards used to calibrate DOE personnel dosimeters

  19. Certification of Canadian nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of Canadians and the environment, and to implement Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. As part of its mandate, the CNSC requires certification of those who work in positions with direct impact on the safety of Canadian nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors. Other positions, such as exposure device operators and radiation safety officers at other nuclear facilities, also require CNSC certification. In this paper, the certification process of Canadian NPP personnel will be examined. In keeping with the CNSC's regulatory philosophy and international practice, licensees bear the primary responsibility for the safe operation of their NPPs. They are therefore held entirely responsible for training and testing their workers, in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements, to ensure they are fully qualified to perform their duties. The CNSC obtains assurance that all persons it certifies are qualified to carry out their respective duties. It achieves this by overseeing a regime of licensee training programs and certification examinations, which are based on a combination of appropriate regulatory guidance and compliance activities. Reviews of the knowledge-based certification examination methodology and of lessons learned from Fukushima have generated initiatives to further strengthen the CNSC's certification programs for NPP workers. Two of those initiatives are discussed in this paper. (author)

  20. Asbestos exposure of building maintenance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarek, S; Corn, M; Blake, C

    1996-06-01

    The exposures of building maintenance personnel and occupants to airborne asbestos fibers, and the effects of operations and maintenance programs on those exposures, continue to be an important public health issue. The subject of this investigation was a large metropolitan county with numerous public buildings which routinely conducted air sampling for asbestos. A total of 302 personal air samples in nine task categories collected during maintenance worker activities in proximity to asbestos-containing materials were analyzed; 102 environmental air samples in four task categories were also analyzed. The arithmetic means of the 8-hr time weighted average exposures for personal sampling for each task category were all below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 fibers (f)/cc > 5 microm. The highest mean 8-hr time weighted average exposure was 0.030 f/cc > 5 microm for ceiling tile replacement. The maximum asbestos concentration during sample collection for environmental samples was 0.027 f/cc > 5 microm. All asbestos-related maintenance work was done within the framework of an Operations and Maintenance Program (OMP) which utilized both personal protective equipment and controls against fiber release/dispersion. Results are presented in association with specific OMP procedures or controls. These results support the effectiveness of using Operations and Maintenance Programs to manage asbestos in buildings without incurring unacceptable risk to maintenance workers performing maintenance tasks.