WorldWideScience

Sample records for personalized stress detection

  1. Stress and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vukovic, O; Stepanovic, J

    2011-01-01

    Stress is an adaptation reaction of living organisms in response to internal or external threats to homeostasis. It is considered as a complex defence mechanism representing the final endpoint of numerous dynamic and interconnected factors of biological, psychological and social nature. Stress is not a simple, stimulus-response reaction, but the interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Specific inherited characteristics, early experience in life, and particular, learned cognitive predispositions make individuals more or less susceptible to the effects of stressors. Resilience and vulnerability to stressors as well as intensity of stress response are greatly dependable on age, gender, intelligence, and numerous characteristics of personality, such as hardiness,locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism, hostility (component of type A personality)and type D traits (negative affectivity and social inhibition). To understand the relation between personality and stress, it is essential to recognize the impact of individual differences in the following four aspects: (1) choice or avoidance of environments that are associated with specific stressors, challenges or benefits, (2) way of interpreting a stressful situation and evaluating one's own abilities and capacities for proactive behaviour so as to confront or avoid it, (3) intensity of response to a stressor,and (4) coping strategies employed by the individual facing a stressful situation. Studies have recorded considerable consistency in coping strategies employed to confront stressful situations, independentlyof situational factors and in connection with permanent personality and temperamental traits,such as neuroticism, extraversion, sense of humour, persistence, fatalism, conscientiousness, andopenness to experience. Positive affect has been associated with positive reappraisal

  2. Occupational stress, burnout and personality in anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Raymond A B; Wallage, Jacqueline; Bucx, Martin J L

    2018-06-01

    There is a growing awareness of the problem of occupational stress and burnout among anesthesiologists. Occupational stress was found to be related to burnout, a process that is supposed to be moderated by personality. This article will discuss the topic of stress and burnout in relationship to anesthesiologists' personality based on recent literature. Studies among anesthesiologists are in concordance with the broader body of literature on this topic. Personality consistently influences stress appraisal and coping and consequently the development of burnout. Neuroticism, negative affectivity and cooperativeness all contribute to burnout. Strategies to alleviate stress and hence the development of burnout should not only be directed at adapting occupational or organizational factors but also at equipping anesthesiologists with psychological tools to deal with occupational stress. Furthermore, personality traits that predispose for development of burnout could be taken into consideration in resident selection procedures.

  3. Piping stress analysis with personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The growing market of the personal computers is providing an increasing number of professionals with unprecedented and surprisingly inexpensive computing capacity, which if using with powerful software, can enhance immensely the engineers capabilities. This paper focuses on the possibilities which opened in piping stress analysis by the widespread distribution of personal computers, on the necessary changes in the software and on the limitations of using personal computers for engineering design and analysis. Reliability and quality assurance aspects of using personal computers for nuclear applications are also mentioned. The paper resumes with personal views of the author and experiences gained during interactive graphic piping software development for personal computers. (orig./GL)

  4. Personal Approaches to Stress Reduction: A Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Rory

    1984-01-01

    Seven topic areas which may be variously combined to comprise a workshop in personal stress reduction are outlined. They include definitions and types of stress, life style planning, nutrition, exercise, networking/social support system, relaxation and other trophotropic interventions, and communication skills. Suggestions are included for…

  5. Stress alters personal moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George

    2012-04-01

    While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are

  6. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  7. Teacher Stress and Personal Values. An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachkirova, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the first stage of a small-scale research project into the relationship between teacher stress and personal values. It starts by outlining the problem of teacher stress and an overview of the literature investigating the sources of it. A particular combination of factors related to personal values that may increase…

  8. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both

  9. Personality and methods of coping with stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Cieślik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Good health and well-being are the natural desires of every human being. However, people have to cope with various kinds of stress in everyday life. Most people are under stress due to: the situation in the world, unemployment, traffic jam, their manager’s opinion, illness, divorce, etc. The level of stress increases particularly in situ ations when people sense danger of physical, social or psychological risks. This phenomenon is very common, and many people have come to think that this is something normal in modern life. Stress can cause depression and frustration, and it does not help in achieving goals and being successful. Ordinary people have a negative concept of stress, but stress response also helps one to rise to meet challenges. Some level of stress is recommended because it helps people to solve problems. While under stress one can function better and work faster, it sharpens concentration and increases brain efficiency. At the beginning of the third millennium, stress has become the people’s enemy, so they should learn how to cope with it. It is common knowledge that one cannot avoid stress, so it is important to learn how to control and deal with it.

  10. personality traits as predictors of stress among female teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    that the impact of stress on teachers‟ job performance and on other areas ... secondary schools in Osun State as at the end of the 2007/2008 academic session. ..... factor model of personality in depression: Assessing construct overlap.

  11. The Effect of Personality on Occupational Stress in Veterinary Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Briony F Y; Thompson, Neill J

    Statistics show that veterinary surgeons are in one of the professions with the highest suicide rates. This indicates the sector has significant well-being issues, with high levels of occupational stress and burnout. Previous research has focused on environmental factors in isolation, overlooking the influence of personality. This study aimed to establish that personality is a better predictor of occupational stress than environment. UK veterinary surgeons (n=311) completed an online survey composed of three questionnaires; the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Job Stress Survey. Multiple regression analysis revealed that personality is a better predictor of occupational stress than environment (poccupational stress (pstress are depression (p=.002) and anger hostility (p=.005). Demographic factors such as the number of years the veterinarian has been qualified acted as a mediator between depression and occupational stress (poccupational stress (p=.028). Overall findings suggest that newly qualified veterinarians are at greater risk of suffering from high levels of occupational stress than those well established in the profession, and that veterinarians with higher levels of depression and anger hostility are likely to experience greater levels of occupational stress. Implications highlight the need for greater awareness of potentially susceptible personality traits in the veterinary admissions process. This would allow for the identification of those at risk and the implementation of interventions.

  12. Current Status on Stress Diagnostic Kit and Detection Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Mi Hee; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-01

    The accurate measurement of a stress level is one of the most important issues in a stress diagnosis and its measurement could be of great value in clinical medicine. Stress has a potent effect on the spirit and physical condition of an individual. There are various methods available for its measurement. Some of the commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of a stress level include analysis of the body fluids, questionnaire assessments, psychophysiological evaluations and by determining heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects. However, the existing diagnostic methods have several defects like, a low sensitivity, inaccuracy and long of operation time. In this report, we present a diagnostic technology to detect a stress level which is the origin of various diseases. This method can be of great help in providing an early diagnosis through a biosensor and might play a vital role in preventing diseases like hypochondria and hypertension. Majority of the human population is exposed to stress in one way or another and hence developing a convenient stress diagnosis kit will be of great use to all. This stress diagnostic kit and detection technology dose not involve simple a mechanical measurement or questionnaires, but is based on developing a detection kit with a high sensitivity, which will mean an easy use for common man. Individuals can undergo regular check ups and can personally diagnose their present situation of health by determining their stress levels, thus enabling them to diagnose the early onset of several stress disorders. This might help them take precautionary measures and thereby lead to a healthy life

  13. Current Status on Stress Diagnostic Kit and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Mi Hee; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-15

    The accurate measurement of a stress level is one of the most important issues in a stress diagnosis and its measurement could be of great value in clinical medicine. Stress has a potent effect on the spirit and physical condition of an individual. There are various methods available for its measurement. Some of the commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of a stress level include analysis of the body fluids, questionnaire assessments, psychophysiological evaluations and by determining heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects. However, the existing diagnostic methods have several defects like, a low sensitivity, inaccuracy and long of operation time. In this report, we present a diagnostic technology to detect a stress level which is the origin of various diseases. This method can be of great help in providing an early diagnosis through a biosensor and might play a vital role in preventing diseases like hypochondria and hypertension. Majority of the human population is exposed to stress in one way or another and hence developing a convenient stress diagnosis kit will be of great use to all. This stress diagnostic kit and detection technology dose not involve simple a mechanical measurement or questionnaires, but is based on developing a detection kit with a high sensitivity, which will mean an easy use for common man. Individuals can undergo regular check ups and can personally diagnose their present situation of health by determining their stress levels, thus enabling them to diagnose the early onset of several stress disorders. This might help them take precautionary measures and thereby lead to a healthy life.

  14. Personalized stress management : enabling stress monitoring with LifelogExplorer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocielnik, R.D.; Sidorova, N.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is one of the major triggers for many diseases. Improving stress balance is therefore an important prevention step. With advances in wearable sensors, it becomes possible to continuously monitor and analyse user’s behavior and arousal in an unobtrusive way. In this paper, we report on a case

  15. Development of a bionanodevice for detecting stress levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, S; Handri, S; Honda, H

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular analysis techniques have enabled scientists to assess the tiny amounts of biochemical substances secreted in our bodies. This has revealed that the levels of various secretory hormones and immune substances vary sensitively with the mental state of a person. Such hormones and immune substances exhibit transient increases with various psychological stressors. They thus have the potential to be used as a novel biometric for monitoring stress. Biomarkers that occur in saliva can be monitored non-invasively and are thus potentially useful as practical indicators of mental stress. Stress biomarkers are considered to be released into the blood stream or other secretory fluids by physiological stress reactions. Stress biomarkers are expected to be detectable in sweat and other humoral fluids that are exuded from the skin surface. Based on this, we have developed a bionanodevice for detecting stress by capturing stress biomarkers on the skin surface in a non-invasive manner. A prototype bionanodevice is described in which a motor protein is introduced for molecular handling.

  16. Development of a bionanodevice for detecting stress levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S; Handri, S [Top Runner Incubation Center for Academia-Industry Fusion, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Honda, H, E-mail: nomura@kjs.nagaokaut.ac.jp, E-mail: hhonda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Recent advances in molecular analysis techniques have enabled scientists to assess the tiny amounts of biochemical substances secreted in our bodies. This has revealed that the levels of various secretory hormones and immune substances vary sensitively with the mental state of a person. Such hormones and immune substances exhibit transient increases with various psychological stressors. They thus have the potential to be used as a novel biometric for monitoring stress. Biomarkers that occur in saliva can be monitored non-invasively and are thus potentially useful as practical indicators of mental stress. Stress biomarkers are considered to be released into the blood stream or other secretory fluids by physiological stress reactions. Stress biomarkers are expected to be detectable in sweat and other humoral fluids that are exuded from the skin surface. Based on this, we have developed a bionanodevice for detecting stress by capturing stress biomarkers on the skin surface in a non-invasive manner. A prototype bionanodevice is described in which a motor protein is introduced for molecular handling.

  17. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  18. Personality Traits and Occupational Stress among Chinese Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the predictive power of personality traits for occupational stress among Chinese university academics. Two hundred and forty-six participants responded to the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised. Results indicated that the strongest predictor for occupational…

  19. PERSONALITY AS SUBJECT OF THE RELATION TO THE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Aleksandrovna Klenova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this scientific article results of the empirical research devoted to studying of the personality as the subject of the relation to a stress are presented. The understanding of a phenomenon of a stress not only taking into account social and psychological features of the personality, but also with inclusion of such category as representations of a stress and the relation towards him for the first time is considered by authors. In empirical research it is established that there are five types of the personality, as subjects of the relation to a stress according to their social and psychological features and ideas of a stress. «Destructive persons» – differ in the reduced level of social and psychological adaptation, they are motivated on failure, and the stress is perceived by them as emotional excitement. «Constructive persons» possess the high level of social and psychological adaptation, are focused on success, for them emotional burning out isn’t characteristic, and their representations and the relation to a stress is based on acceptance of existence of eustressor. «Emotional and intense persons» differ in uneasiness, high level of emotional burning out, and their ideas of a stress are based only on negative characteristics. «Sensitive persons» are characterized by the high level of sensitivity, and their relation to a stress can be defined as «mental anguish». For «rational persons» cognitive approach to a situation of a stress and idea of it as about response of an organism to negative emotions is peculiar. Thus, this scientific article represents results of original research of the personality from a position of its relation to a stress.Purpose: to study social and psychological features of the personality with inclusion of such category as «representations and the relation to a stress».Method or methodology of research it is based on the concept of social representations of S.Moskovichi, and also on the subject

  20. Method for radar detection of persons wearing wires

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, William P.

    2014-01-01

    8,730,098 B1 Methods are described for radar detection of persons wearing wires using radar spectra data including the vertical polarization (VV) radar cross section and the horizontal polarization (HH) radar cross section for a person. In one embodiment, the ratio of the vertical polarization (VV) radar cross section to the horizontal polarization (HH) radar cross section for a person is compared to a detection threshold to determine whether the person is wearing wire...

  1. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising 5min each of a Stroop task, mirror tracing, and a speech task. Participants subsequently completed the Big Five Inventory to assess neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Those with higher neuroticism scores exhibited smaller cortisol and cardiovascular stress reactions, whereas participants who were less agreeable and less open had smaller cortisol and cardiac reactions to stress. These associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Thus, a negative personality disposition would appear to be linked to diminished stress reactivity. These findings further support a growing body of evidence which suggests that blunted stress reactivity may be maladaptive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A System for Personality and Happiness Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yago Saez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a platform for estimating personality and happiness. Starting from Eysenck's theory about human's personality, authors seek to provide a platform for collecting text messages from social media (Whatsapp, and classifying them into different personality categories. Although there is not a clear link between personality features and happiness, some correlations between them could be found in the future. In this work, we describe the platform developed, and as a proof of concept, we have used different sources of messages to see if common machine learning algorithms can be used for classifying different personality features and happiness.

  3. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  4. Stress and decision making: the role of impulsive personality

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Richard Julian

    2017-01-01

    Stress, gender, and impulsive personality traits are each associated with altered decision making, but no studies have yet examined interactions between all of these factors. Impulsive personality can be parsed into five subtypes, consisting of Negative Urgency, the tendency to act rashly in the face of extreme negative emotion; Positive Urgency, the tendency to act rashly in the face of strong positive emotion; Lack of Premeditation, the tendency to insufficiently consider actions prior to t...

  5. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful sit...

  6. Personality as Correlate of Perceived Job Stress Among Electoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationship of personality (conscientiousness dimension) with electoral officers perceived job stress during election. The survey utilised the expost facto research design. A total of 346 participants responded to the questionnaires. In all, 254 (70.4%) were males and 101 (29.6%) were females.

  7. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  8. Insulin resistance and its possible personal stress moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Motovilin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, insulin resistance (IR has been actively investigated by experts in various fields. Here we aim to study the effect of stress on the development of IR. Objective. To study the associations between IR and personal stress moderators (self-attitude, locus of control and coping strategies as well as the related performance lifestyles. Methods. The study included 63 patients (16 men; mean age, 48.2 ± 11.7 years. Of these participants, 26 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 10 with impaired glucose tolerance, 6 with impaired fasting glucose and 21 with normal glucose tolerance. The levels of HbA1c and IR ratio were determined using HOMA. Well-known psychological assessment questionnaires were used to assess the effect of personal stress moderators. Results. There was a significant relationship between IR and personal stress moderators. A positive self-attitude was associated with a lower risk of IR (p < 0.05, which can be explained by a decrease in the risk of developing stress. Assertive coping strategies were most pronounced in subjects with a low level of IR (p < 0.05. Personal characteristics also determined an individual’s lifestyle, which may have an impact on the increase in IR. There was an association between high levels of IR and unhealthy alimentary preferences (p < 0.05. Such preferences were also associated with personal characteristics, such as external locus of control, less positive self-attitude and passive coping strategies (p < 0.05. People with high IR rarely engage in a regular physical activity; there was a direct correlation between the frequency of physical activity and assertive coping strategies (p < 0.01. Married participants had high levels of IR (p < 0.05. Conclusion. There were significant relationships between IR and personal stress moderators, such as self-attitude and coping strategies. Besides the direct effects on stress levels, personality traits may also indirectly increase the

  9. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik, Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova, C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, PSM-25 Scale by Lemyr-Tessier-Fillion. The regression analysis revealed that in subjects ongoing training in Psychology, basic predictor of positive emotions and stress experience is anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three types of subjects by their positive states experiences, which differ primarily by the level of baseline anxiety and related personality characteristics. The group of risk comprised Psychology students with a tendency to depression and negative emotions and specific personality profile.

  10. Detecting Differential Person Functioning in Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmadi, Yahia M.; Alsmadi, Abdalla A.

    2009-01-01

    Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is a widely used term in test development literature. It is very important to analyze test's data for DIF because It is a serious threat to validity. If the same data matrix was transposed, similar analysis can be carried for Differential Person Functioning (DPF). The purpose of this paper is to introduce and…

  11. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular

  12. Ionizing radiation source detection by personal TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Mirkov, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The Laboratory for personal dosimetry has about 3000 workers under control. The most of them work in medicine. Some institutions, as big health centers, have different ionizing radiation sources. It is usefull to analyze what has been the source of irradiation, special when appears a dosimeter with high dose. Personal dosimetry equipment is Harshaw TLD Reader Model 6600 and dosimeters consist of two chips LiF TLD-100 assembled in bar-coded cards which are wearing in holders with one tissue-equivalent filter (to determine H(10)) and skin-equivalent the other (to determine H(0.07)). The calibration dosimeters have been irradiated in holders by different sources: x-ray (for 80keV and 100keV), 6 0C o, 9 0S r (for different distances from beta source) and foton beem (at radiotherapy accelerator by 6MeV, 10MeV and 18MeV). The dose ratio for two LiF cristals was calculated and represented with graphs. So, it is possible to calculate the ratio H(10)/H(0.07) for a personal TLD and analyze what has been the source of irradiation. Also, there is the calibration for determination the time of irradiation, according to glow curve deconvolution

  13. The stress connection : neuroimaging studies of emotion circuits in social stress, personality, and stress-related psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, Ilya Milos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify the neural mechanisms that enable a person to adaptively respond to, and recover from stress, which was studied in healthy controls, in people with increased vulnerability or resilience to stress-related disorders, and in people with depression or PTSD, using

  14. Evaluating the interplay between spirituality, personality and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Elise E; Fobes, Ashley

    2010-06-01

    Spirituality and the big five personality traits may be risk or protective factors for coping with stress. We hypothesized young adults who reported higher spirituality ratings would demonstrate lower sympathetic nervous system arousal and better emotional coping when exposed to a laboratory stressor compared to those who rated themselves lower in spirituality. We also compared spirituality groups on trait anger, neuroticism, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and openness to experience. Eighty participants completed trait-state anger, personality and spirituality questionnaires and were grouped into low, average and high spirituality. Participants' physiological responses were monitored before and during a stressful event. Significant differences were found between low, average and high spirituality groups' respiration rate and emotional response to the stressor. Significant differences were also found between spirituality groups in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, trait anger and neuroticism. Females reported higher levels of spirituality and conscientiousness than males.

  15. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  16. Aberrant Learning Achievement Detection Based on Person-Fit Statistics in Personalized e-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Tsung; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2011-01-01

    A personalized e-learning service provides learning content to fit learners' individual differences. Learning achievements are influenced by cognitive as well as non-cognitive factors such as mood, motivation, interest, and personal styles. This paper proposes the Learning Caution Indexes (LCI) to detect aberrant learning patterns. The philosophy…

  17. Detection of person presence and its activity in the bathtub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujnowski, Adam; Palinski, Arkadiusz; Koscinski, Piotr; Skalski, Lukasz; Skurczynska, Anna; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    A practical application of a bioimpedance technique for a detection of a bathing person is presented in the paper. It addresses the possibility of supervising people in the bathtub without voiding of their intimacy. The measurement system installed in a fiber-glass or a plastic bathtub is able to detect a presence of the bathing person, to estimate its activity and thus to detect potentially dangerous events. In the paper a principle of measurement, working prototype and measurements are presented. The proposed method can be useful for supporting and supervising bathing of elders, partially disabled or people with some health state risk during the bath and living alone.

  18. Person detection, tracking and following using stereo camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lilian; Wang, Duo; Hu, Xiaoping

    2018-04-01

    Person detection, tracking and following is a key enabling technology for mobile robots in many human-robot interaction applications. In this article, we present a system which is composed of visual human detection, video tracking and following. The detection is based on YOLO(You only look once), which applies a single convolution neural network(CNN) to the full image, thus can predict bounding boxes and class probabilities directly in one evaluation. Then the bounding box provides initial person position in image to initialize and train the KCF(Kernelized Correlation Filter), which is a video tracker based on discriminative classifier. At last, by using a stereo 3D sparse reconstruction algorithm, not only the position of the person in the scene is determined, but also it can elegantly solve the problem of scale ambiguity in the video tracker. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our human detection and tracking system.

  19. A systematic exploration of the micro-blog feature space for teens stress detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Qi; Xue, Yuanyuan; Jia, Jia; Feng, Ling

    2016-01-01

    In the modern stressful society, growing teenagers experience severe stress from different aspects from school to friends, from self-cognition to inter-personal relationship, which negatively influences their smooth and healthy development. Being timely and accurately aware of teenagers psychological stress and providing effective measures to help immature teenagers to cope with stress are highly valuable to both teenagers and human society. Previous work demonstrates the feasibility to sense teenagers' stress from their tweeting contents and context on the open social media platform-micro-blog. However, a tweet is still too short for teens to express their stressful status in a comprehensive way. Considering the topic continuity from the tweeting content to the follow-up comments and responses between the teenager and his/her friends, we combine the content of comments and responses under the tweet to supplement the tweet content. Also, such friends' caring comments like "what happened?", "Don't worry!", "Cheer up!", etc. provide hints to teenager's stressful status. Hence, in this paper, we propose to systematically explore the micro-blog feature space, comprised of four kinds of features [tweeting content features (FW), posting features (FP), interaction features (FI), and comment-response features (FC) between teenagers and friends] for teenager' stress category and stress level detection. We extract and analyze these feature values and their impacts on teens stress detection. We evaluate the framework through a real user study of 36 high school students aged 17. Different classifiers are employed to detect potential stress categories and corresponding stress levels. Experimental results show that all the features in the feature space positively affect stress detection, and linguistic negative emotion, proportion of negative sentences, friends' caring comments and teen's reply rate play more significant roles than the rest features. Micro-blog platform provides

  20. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients' personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior - including suicide - and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  1. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Bourvis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  2. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD. PMID:29250007

  3. Effect of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The majority of studies to date have focused on the effects of work stress in the nursing environment, with the effect of personal stress in nursing being less explored. This study sought to determine whether personal stress is a more significant predictor of burnout, job satisfaction and general health than work stress.

  4. Borderline Personality and the Detection of Angry Faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Hepp

    Full Text Available Many studies have assessed emotion recognition in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and considerable evidence has been accumulated on patients' ability to categorize emotions. In contrast, their ability to detect emotions has been investigated sparsely. The only two studies that assessed emotion detection abilities found contradictory evidence on patients' ability to detect angry faces.To clarify whether patients with Borderline Personality Disorder show enhanced detection of angry faces, we conducted three experiments: a laboratory study (n = 53 with a clinical sample and two highly powered web studies that measured Borderline features (n1 = 342, n2 = 220. Participants in all studies completed a visual search paradigm, and the reaction times for the detection of angry vs. happy faces were measured.Consistently, data spoke against enhanced detection of angry faces in the Borderline groups, indicated by non-significant group (Borderline vs. healthy control × target (angry vs. happy interactions, despite highly satisfactory statistical power to detect even small effects.In contrast to emotion categorization, emotion detection appears to be intact in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and individuals high in Borderline features. The importance of distinguishing between these two processes in future studies is discussed.

  5. Using Person Fit Statistics to Detect Outliers in Survey Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Felt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: When working with health-related questionnaires, outlier detection is important. However, traditional methods of outlier detection (e.g., boxplots can miss participants with “atypical” responses to the questions that otherwise have similar total (subscale scores. In addition to detecting outliers, it can be of clinical importance to determine the reason for the outlier status or “atypical” response.Objective: The aim of the current study was to illustrate how to derive person fit statistics for outlier detection through a statistical method examining person fit with a health-based questionnaire.Design and Participants: Patients treated for Cushing's syndrome (n = 394 were recruited from the Cushing's Support and Research Foundation's (CSRF listserv and Facebook page.Main Outcome Measure: Patients were directed to an online survey containing the CushingQoL (English version. A two-dimensional graded response model was estimated, and person fit statistics were generated using the Zh statistic.Results: Conventional outlier detections methods revealed no outliers reflecting extreme scores on the subscales of the CushingQoL. However, person fit statistics identified 18 patients with “atypical” response patterns, which would have been otherwise missed (Zh > |±2.00|.Conclusion: While the conventional methods of outlier detection indicated no outliers, person fit statistics identified several patients with “atypical” response patterns who otherwise appeared average. Person fit statistics allow researchers to delve further into the underlying problems experienced by these “atypical” patients treated for Cushing's syndrome. Annotated code is provided to aid other researchers in using this method.

  6. Personality predictors of injury-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauerbach, J A; Lawrence, J W; Schmidt, C W; Munster, A M; Costa, P T

    2000-08-01

    This longitudinal, cohort study examined the effect of personality traits on the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a recently traumatized, civilian, mixed-gender sample with significant injuries. Burn survivors (N = 70) were administered the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID) at hospital discharge and readministered the SCID 4 and 12 months later. Overall, the sample of burn survivors scored significantly higher on neuroticism and extraversion and lower on openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness relative to a normative national sample. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance revealed that PTSD symptom severity groups (i.e., single symptom, multiple symptoms, subthreshold PTSD, PTSD) were differentially related to neuroticism and extraversion. Planned comparisons indicated that neuroticism was higher and extraversion was lower in those who developed PTSD compared with those who did not develop PTSD.

  7. School environments and obesity: The mediating role of personal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Adam J; Jones, Chandria D; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2017-01-01

    Youth spend a large amount of time in the school environment. Given the multiple influences of teachers, peers, and food and physical activity options, youth are likely to experience stressors that can influence their weight. This study examines the association between school climate and weight status. Students ( n = 28,582; 58 schools) completed an online, anonymous school climate survey as part of the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Project. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to explore the association between school climate, personal stress, and obesity. Analyses were stratified by gender. At the individual level, poor school climate (bullying, physical safety, and lack of whole-school connectedness) was associated with an increased likelihood of being overweight among females ( β =.115, p = .019) but not males ( β = .138; p =.244), after controlling for age, race, and physical activity. There was no association between school climate at the school level and being overweight among males or females. A second model included stress as a potential mediator; stress attenuated the relationship between poor school-related climate and being overweight ( β = .039; p = .048) among females. Findings suggest that stress related to school climate can play a role in the health and weight status of youth.

  8. Association among stress, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, Junia M; Paiva, Saul M; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen E; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association among stress levels, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in children. A population-based case control study (proportion=1:2) was conducted involving 120 7- to 11-year-olds with sleep bruxism and 240 children without sleep bruxism. The sample was randomly selected from schools in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following instruments were used for data collection: questionnaire administered to parents; child stress scale; and neuroticism and responsibility scales of the big five questionnaire for children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. Sleep bruxism was diagnosed from parents' reports. The chi-square test, as well as binary and multivariate logistic regression, was applied for statistical analysis. In the adjusted logistic model, children with a high level of stress, due to psychological reactions (odds ratio=1.8; confidence interval=1.1-2.9) and a high sense of responsibility (OR=1.6; CI=1.0-2.5) vs those with low levels of these psychological traits, presented a nearly 2-fold greater chance of exhibiting the habit of sleep bruxism. High levels of stress and responsibility are key factors in the development of sleep bruxism among children.

  9. Normal personality traits, rumination and stress generation among early adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Sosoo, Effua E.; Wilson, Sylia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between personality and stress generation. Expanding upon prior work, we examined (a) the role of Positive Emotionality (PE), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Constraint (CON), and their lower-order facets, as predictors of acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation; (b) whether personality moderated effects of rumination on stress generation; and (c) whether personality increased exposure to independent (uncontrollable) stress. These questions were exam...

  10. Person detection and tracking with a 360° lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Today it is easily possible to generate dense point clouds of the sensor environment using 360° LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensors which are available since a number of years. The interpretation of these data is much more challenging. For the automated data evaluation the detection and classification of objects is a fundamental task. Especially in urban scenarios moving objects like persons or vehicles are of particular interest, for instance in automatic collision avoidance, for mobile sensor platforms or surveillance tasks. In literature there are several approaches for automated person detection in point clouds. While most techniques show acceptable results in object detection, the computation time is often crucial. The runtime can be problematic, especially due to the amount of data in the panoramic 360° point clouds. On the other hand, for most applications an object detection and classification in real time is needed. The paper presents a proposal for a fast, real-time capable algorithm for person detection, classification and tracking in panoramic point clouds.

  11. Using Mouse and Keyboard Dynamics to Detect Cognitive Stress During Mental Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesh, Aladdin, 1972-; Stacey, Martin; Lim, Yee Mei

    2015-01-01

    To build a personalized e-learning system that can deliver adaptive learning content based on student’s cognitive effort and efficiency, it is important to develop a construct that can help measuring perceived mental state, such as stress and cognitive load. The construct must be able to be quantified, computerized and automated. Our research investigates how mouse and keyboard dynamics analyses could be used to detect cognitive stress, which is induced by high mental arithmetic demand with t...

  12. Exploring new methods to detect person misfit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be inaccurately estimated. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting response behavior for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive testing,

  13. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, André; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-12-04

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular reactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and subjective affect (including positive affect, negative affect and subjective controllability) in healthy individuals. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach was applied to account for the relationship between personality traits and stress responses. Results suggested that higher neuroticism predicted lower heart rate stress reactivity, lower cortisol stress response, more decline of positive affect and lower subjective controllability. Individuals higher in extraversion showed smaller cortisol activation to stress and less increase of negative affect. In addition, higher openness score was associated with lower cortisol stress response. These findings elucidate that neuroticism, extraversion and openness are important variables associated with the stress response and different dimensions of personality trait are associated with different aspects of the stress response.

  14. The detection of stress in pot plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbinson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Stress is considered to be major problem for plants, wether they are in cultivation or growing in natural settings. Consequently there is a need to have some means of identifying stress. Recently developed techniques for measuring photosynthetic processes using non-destructive biophysical

  15. Stress among Student Affairs Administrators: The Relationship of Personal Characteristics and Organizational Variables to Work-Related Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Kathleen R.

    1992-01-01

    Examined possible relationships between reported work-related stress and organizational and personal variables, hardiness of personality, exercise activity, and organizational culture of 240 student affairs administrators within Minnesota. Results revealed that job satisfaction and hardiness of personality were greatest predictors of lowered…

  16. Individualized Stress Detection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that stress-related behavioral...

  17. Individualized Stress Detection System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme and confined environments, there is the possibility that stress-related behavioral...

  18. Identifying the role of different personality traits on the relationship between stress and food choice

    OpenAIRE

    Trew, Marissa

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that high levels of stress correlate with higher consumption of high- fat and high-sugar snack-type foods, particularly amongst women. However, it has been observed that not all individuals are vulnerable to this pattern of ‘stress-related’ eating. Both stress and dietary habits have been strongly correlated with specific personality traits but previous research has neglected to observe whether personality traits significantly affect correlations between perceived stress and ty...

  19. Detection and Characterization of Stress Symptoms in Forest Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Techniques used at the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station to detect advanced and previsual symptoms of vegetative stress are discussed. Stresses caused by bark beetles in coniferous stands of timber are emphasized because beetles induce stress more rapidly than most other destructive agents. Bark beetles are also the most damaging forest insects in the United States. In the work on stress symptoms, there are two primary objectives: (1) to learn the best combination of films, scales, and filters to detect and locate injured trees from aircraft and spacecraft, and (2) to learn if stressed trees can be detected before visual symptoms of decline occur. Equipment and techniques used in a study of the epidemic of the Black Hills bark beetle are described.

  20. [Relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress risk in clinicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Dinglun; Yao, Yongcheng; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the job burnout and mental health status of clinicians and the relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress, and to investigate the direct or indirect effects of personality on psychological stress. Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale (EPQ-RSC), and Kessler 10 Scale were administered to 775 clinicians. Of all clinicians, 29.5% had mild burnout, with a score of 22.7 ± 8.18 for psychological stress risk. The effect of personality on emotional exhaustion and cynicism was greater than that on personal accomplishment. Clinicians with a personality of introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism suffered a higher risk of psychological stress. Personality had both direct and indirect effects on psychological stress. Neuroticism had the strongest effect on psychological stress, with an effect size of 0.55. Clinicians have a high level of both job burnout and mental psychological stress risk. Personality is significantly correlated with job burnout and psychological stress risk. Measures depending on personality should be taken for effective intervention.

  1. A Scalable Framework to Detect Personal Health Mentions on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhijun; Fabbri, Daniel; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Malin, Bradley

    2015-06-05

    Biomedical research has traditionally been conducted via surveys and the analysis of medical records. However, these resources are limited in their content, such that non-traditional domains (eg, online forums and social media) have an opportunity to supplement the view of an individual's health. The objective of this study was to develop a scalable framework to detect personal health status mentions on Twitter and assess the extent to which such information is disclosed. We collected more than 250 million tweets via the Twitter streaming API over a 2-month period in 2014. The corpus was filtered down to approximately 250,000 tweets, stratified across 34 high-impact health issues, based on guidance from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We created a labeled corpus of several thousand tweets via a survey, administered over Amazon Mechanical Turk, that documents when terms correspond to mentions of personal health issues or an alternative (eg, a metaphor). We engineered a scalable classifier for personal health mentions via feature selection and assessed its potential over the health issues. We further investigated the utility of the tweets by determining the extent to which Twitter users disclose personal health status. Our investigation yielded several notable findings. First, we find that tweets from a small subset of the health issues can train a scalable classifier to detect health mentions. Specifically, training on 2000 tweets from four health issues (cancer, depression, hypertension, and leukemia) yielded a classifier with precision of 0.77 on all 34 health issues. Second, Twitter users disclosed personal health status for all health issues. Notably, personal health status was disclosed over 50% of the time for 11 out of 34 (33%) investigated health issues. Third, the disclosure rate was dependent on the health issue in a statistically significant manner (P<.001). For instance, more than 80% of the tweets about migraines (83/100) and allergies (85

  2. Normal personality traits, rumination and stress generation among early adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Sosoo, Effua E.; Wilson, Sylia

    2017-01-01

    This study examined associations between personality and stress generation. Expanding upon prior work, we examined (a) the role of Positive Emotionality (PE), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Constraint (CON), and their lower-order facets, as predictors of acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation; (b) whether personality moderated effects of rumination on stress generation; and (c) whether personality increased exposure to independent (uncontrollable) stress. These questions were examined in a one-year study of 126 adolescent girls (M age = 12.39 years) using contextual stress interviews. NE predicted increases in acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation, but not independent stress. NE, CON and affiliative PE each moderated the effect of rumination on chronic interpersonal stress generation. These effects were driven by particular lower-order traits. PMID:28845067

  3. Evaluating personality as a moderator of the association between life events stress and cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; O'Riordan, Adam; McMahon, Grace; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the possible interaction between life events stress and personality in predicting cardiovascular stress responses. Participants (N = 184) completed psychometric measures of life event stress and personality styles and had cardiovascular responses monitored during a standardised stress testing protocol. In adjusted models, the observed blunted association between life event stress and SBP and DBP was moderated by openness; this was more evident at -1SD below the mean openness value. Further, the association between life event stress and TPR vascular resistance was found to be moderated by conscientiousness. In particular, we found conscientiousness at both the mean and 1SD above the mean buffered against the negative impact of life stress on TPR reactivity. The findings are discussed in relation to theory and future directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. It Is Not Just Stress: Parent Personality in Raising a Deaf Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Rachael M.; Brice, Patrick J.; Reesman, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact and predictive ability of parental personality and perceived stress on behavior problems of their deaf child. One hundred and fourteen parents with a deaf child completed measures of personality, parenting stress, and child behavioral functioning. Higher parental neuroticism, which reflects a susceptibility to…

  5. Job-Related Stress, Personality, Social Support and Burnout among College of Education Lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Samuel O.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of job stress, personality and social support to burnout among college of education lecturers. The second purpose was to examine the extent to which personality and social support can buffer the negative effects of stress on burnout. Design/methodology/approach--Survey methodology…

  6. Serendipity: Global Detection and Quantification of Plant Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, D.; Verma, M.; Drewry, D.

    2016-12-01

    Detecting and quantifying plant stress is a grand challenge for remote sensing, and is important for understanding climate impacts on ecosystems broadly and also for early warning systems supporting food security. The long record from moderate resolution sensors providing frequent data has allowed using phenology to detect stress in forest and agroecosystems, but can fail or give ambiguous results when stress occurs during later phases of growth and in high leaf area systems. The recent recognition that greenhouse gas satellites such as GOSAT and OCO-2 observe Solar-Induced Fluorescence has added a new and complementary tool for the quantification of stress but algorithms to detect and quantify stress using SIF are in their infancy. Here we report new results showing a more complex response of SIF to stress by evaluating spaceborne SIF against in situ eddy covariance data. The response observed is as predicted by theory, and shows that SIF, used in conjunction with moderate resolution remote sensing, can detect and likely quantify stress by indexing the nonlinear part of the SIF-GPP relationship using the photochemical reflectance index and remotely observed light absorption. There are several exciting opportunities on the near horizon for the implementation of SIF, together with syngeristic measurements such as PRI and evapotranspiration that suggest the next few years will be a golden age for global ecology. Adancing the science and associated algorithms now is essential to fully exploiting the next wave of missions.

  7. Pro-active data breach detection: examining accuracy and applicability on personal information detected

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available breaches but does not provide a clear indication of the level of personal information available on the internet since only reported incidents are taken into account. The possibility of pro-active automated breach detection has previously been discussed as a...

  8. Personality factors and posttraumatic stress: associations in civilians one year after air attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Knezevic, Goran; Priebe, Stefan

    2003-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate on which risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress symptoms are more important--personality traits reflecting vulnerability, previous stressful experiences or characteristics of the traumatic event. In this study, posttraumatic stress symptoms and their relationship with personality traits, previous stressful experiences and exposure to stressful events during air attacks in Yugoslavia were investigated. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI; Millon, 1983), Impact of Events Scale (IES; Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979), Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSCL-R; Wolfe & Kimerling, 1997), and List of Stressors were administered to a homogeneous group of medical students 1 year after the attacks. In multiple regression analyses, compulsive and passive-aggressive personality traits and a higher level of exposure to stressors during air attacks independently predicted the degree of intrusion symptoms. Avoidance symptoms were predicted by avoidant personality traits and a higher exposure to stressors both previously in life and during the attacks. In the next step, we tested in analyses of variance whether personality traits, previous stressful experiences, and stressful events during attacks as independent variables interact in predicting intrusion and avoidance symptoms. For this, students were clustered into three groups depending on their predominant personality traits. In addition to direct predictive effects, there were significant interaction effects in predicting both intrusion and avoidance. The findings suggest that each of the tested factors, i.e., personality traits, previous stressful experiences, and exposure to traumatic events may have an independent and direct influence on developing posttraumatic stress. However, the effect of these factors cannot just be added up. Rather, the factors interact in their impact on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Bigger samples and longitudinal designs will be required to

  9. Personality, stress and coping in intensive care nurses: a descriptive exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Lorraine; Irvine, Fiona; Wallymahmed, Akhtar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, perception of workplace stress and coping among intensive care unit (ICU) nurses. Research has indicated that ICUs are stressful environments. There is a tendency for research studies to investigate causes of stress and ways of coping, but few studies, particularly in recent years, have considered the personality traits of the staff who thrive in this challenging environment, the work stress they perceive and the coping strategies they use. A convenience sample of critical care nurses (n = 46) completed three standardised questionnaires during September 2007: the revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R); the nurses stress scale (NSI) and the Brief Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced (COPE) scale. ICU nurses did not perceive their workplaces to be stressful. Certain personality traits, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, were associated with problem-solving coping strategies such as active planning and reframing. Openness and extraversion were associated with less perceived stress from the 'patients and relatives' dimension of the NSI; there were also negative correlations between conscientiousness and the 'workload stress' and stress from lack of 'confidence and competence' dimensions of the NSI. Certain personality traits may have a buffering effect on workplace stress. Pre-employment screening to identify staff that exhibit personality and coping traits associated with low perceived stress may be considered as part of the recruitment strategy to address problems relating to stress, sickness and retention. The retention and recruitment of staff who have lower perceived workplace stress and who utilise problem-focused coping may result in less reported absences and fewer critical incidents and errors.

  10. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley M.; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A. [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States); Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas [Fraunhofer USA – CCL, 1449 Engineering Research Ct., East Lansing 48824, MI (United States); Dweik, Badawi M., E-mail: bdweik@ginerinc.com [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium.

  11. Stress cine MRI for detection of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, T.; Hofer, U.; Schild, H.

    2002-01-01

    Stress testing is the cornerstone in the diagnosis of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Stress echocardiography has become a well-established modality for the detection of ischemia-induced wall motion abnormalities. However, display and reliable interpretation of stress echocardiography studies are user-dependent, the test reproducibility is low, and 10 to 15% of patients yield suboptimal or non-diagnostic images. Due to its high spatial and contrast resolution, MRI is known to permit an accurate determination of left ventricular function and wall thickness at rest. Early stress MRI studies provided promising results with respect to the detection of CAD. However, the clinical impact was limited due to long imaging time and problematic patient monitoring in the MRI environment. Recent technical improvements - namely ultrafast MR image acquisition - led to a significant reduction of imaging time and improved patient safety. Stress can be induced by physical exercise or pharmacologically by administration of a beta 1 -agonist (dobutamine) or vasodilatator (dipyridamole and adenosine). The best developed and most promising stress MRI technique is a high-dose dobutamine/atropine stress protocol (10, 20, 30, 40 μg/kg/min; optionally 0.25-mg fractions of atropine up to maximal dose 1 mg). Severe complications (myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation and sustained tachycardia, cardiogenic shock) may be expected in 0.25% of patients. Currently, data of three high-dose dobutamine stress MRI studies are available, revealing a good sensitivity (83 - 87%) and specificity (83 - 86%) in the assessment of CAD. The direct comparison between echocardiography and MRI for the detection of stress-induced wall motion abnormalities yielded better results for dobutamine-MRI in terms of sensitivity (86.2% vs. 74.3%; p [de

  12. Work-related stress and role of personality in a sample of Italian bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomi, Margherita; Modenese, Alberto; Ferretti, Enrica; Ferrari, Angela; Licitra, Giuseppe; Vivoli, Roberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that professional drivers are at risk of developing work-related stress. Stress may be responsible for a variety of adverse effects and may also be associated with an increased number of accidents. Perform an integrated, objective and subjective evaluation of work-related stress in bus drivers, that also considered the role of personality traits. Salivary α-amylase and cortisol were measured in 42 bus drivers. Subjective stress evaluation was performed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Driver Stress Inventory (DSI). To evaluate personality traits, we administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and the Impulsivity Inventory (IVE). Salivary biomarkers showed no associations with PSS-10 and personality traits. Cortisol levels were positively correlated with fatigue (r = 0.44) at the middle of the work-shift and with aggression (r = 0.51) at the end of a day off. At the end of the work-shift, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with hazard monitoring (r = -0.37) and salivary α-amylase was positively correlated with thrill-seeking (r = 0.36). Neuroticism (β= 0.44) and impulsiveness (β= 0.38) were predictors of perceived stress by multiple regression. An integrated method, considering both objective and subjective indicators, seems adequate to evaluate work-related stress in professional drivers. Personality traits are relevant in determining perception of stress.

  13. Mindfulness as a personal resource to reduce work stress in the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Steven L; Teo, Stephen T T; Pick, David; Roche, Maree

    2017-10-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study examines the different ways that the personal resource of mindfulness reduces stress. Structural equation modeling based on data from 415 Australian nurses shows that mindfulness relates directly and negatively to work stress and perceptions of emotional demands as well as buffering the relation of emotional demands on psychological stress. This study contributes to the literature by employing empirical analysis to the task of unravelling how personal resources function within the JD-R model. It also introduces mindfulness as a personal resource in the JD-R model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Work-related stress, work/life balance and personal life coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksley, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Work-related stress adversely affects personal performance, organizational efficiency and patient care as well as costing the NHS millions of pounds each year. Reducing the effects of work-related stress is a legal duty for all employers. There are a number of resources available to help both employees and employers, such as the Health and Safety Executive stress management standards. Personal life coaching is one approach to reducing work-related stress, which is well established amongst business and management executives as well as some public sector organizations.

  15. Behavior of Personality Type Toward Stress and Job Performance: A Study of Healthcare Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Janjhua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present paper has examined the sources of stress among the healthcare professionals and the difference between responses of personality type A and type B healthcare professionals toward stressful situations. Further, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress and performance among the healthcare professionals in general and with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals in particular has also been investigated. Methods: A total of 160 healthcare professionals of Post Graduate Institute (PGI, Chandigarh, were subjects of this study. Results: Identification with patients, deterioration and complication in the patient condition, and job criticism emerged to be the sources of stress. Significant difference between personality type A and personality type B professionals′ response pertaining to identification with the patients only has been reported. However, type A individuals showed slightly higher inclination as compared to type B individuals on majority of stressful situations. It was further noted that type A individuals had scored higher on almost all the performance indicators as compared to personality type B individuals. The mean difference between the personality types was found to be significant for two performance dimensions, i.e., relationship with colleagues, and teaching and training. Conclusions: The stressful situation relationship with patients was found to have significantly negative impact on the performance factors such as good clinical care and rapport with patients. Daily work was also found to be negatively related to good medical practice.

  16. Behavior of personality type toward stress and job performance: a study of healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjhua, Yasmin; Chandrakanta

    2012-07-01

    The present paper has examined the sources of stress among the healthcare professionals and the difference between responses of personality type A and type B healthcare professionals toward stressful situations. Further, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress and performance among the healthcare professionals in general and with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals in particular has also been investigated. A total of 160 healthcare professionals of Post Graduate Institute (PGI), Chandigarh, were subjects of this study. Identification with patients, deterioration and complication in the patient condition, and job criticism emerged to be the sources of stress. Significant difference between personality type A and personality type B professionals' response pertaining to identification with the patients only has been reported. However, type A individuals showed slightly higher inclination as compared to type B individuals on majority of stressful situations. It was further noted that type A individuals had scored higher on almost all the performance indicators as compared to personality type B individuals. The mean difference between the personality types was found to be significant for two performance dimensions, i.e., relationship with colleagues, and teaching and training. The stressful situation relationship with patients was found to have significantly negative impact on the performance factors such as good clinical care and rapport with patients. Daily work was also found to be negatively related to good medical practice.

  17. [Personality and occupation stress of workers in processing line in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiu-hong; Zhang, Wei-sen; Zhou, Jing-dong; Fan, Yuan-yu; Liu, Li-fen; Li, Jian-lin; Liu, Wei-wei

    2009-12-01

    To study relationships between personality and occupational stress of workers in processing line in Guangzhou. 452 workers in processing line in Guangzhou were investigated by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). N scores and P scores of EPQ were positively correlated with the occupational stress and the poor physical fitness status (r value was 0.196, 0.128, 0.202, 0.218, respectively) (P stress coping ability(r value was -0.146, -0.140, respectively) (P stress coping ability (r = 0.176, P stress, the poor physical fitness status and the explanation to vicinity event (r value was -0.139, -0.140, -0.111, respectively) (P related to the occupational stress, the sense of job satisfaction and unhealthy mental reaction.

  18. For whom does mindfulness-based stress reduction work? : An examination of moderating effects of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Irrmischer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling forsociodemographicactors.Meditation-naïvearticipants from the general

  19. TOWARDS HEALTHY ORGANISATIONIN CORRECTIONAL SETTING: CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS’WELLNESS, OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ahmad Marzuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Correctional officers always confronted with two interrelated issues: wellness andstress at work. Correctional officers’ wellness wasirrefutable due to intensepressure conditions at the workplace that continuously faltered their wellness.Gradual wellness fluctuation due to excessive stress would severely tarnishperformance of correctional officers and prison department. Nevertheless, theirpersonality played an important role in conservingtheir wellness level despitecontinuous overrun of stress during work. Thereforethis paper elaborated oncorrectional officers’ personality and occupationalstress in order to maintain theirwellness at work. This research examined the relationship between correctionalofficers’ wellness, their personality and occupational stress in Prison Departmentof Malaysia. Pertinent question of the study was tolook at influence ofcorrectional officers’ personality and occupationalstress on their wellness degree.These findings were significant since correctionalofficers’ wellness, theirpersonality and occupational stress remained looseissue particularly in Malaysia.Findings revealed that personality and occupationalstress influenced correctionalofficers’ health and wellbeing.

  20. The Relationship Between Personality Traits, Stress and Job Satisfaction of Employees of Iran Telecom Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zamanian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Job satisfaction is affected by several factors including personality characteristics and job stress. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits, job satisfaction, and stress-related. Materials and Methods: This analytical study was performed among the telecommunications industry workers. 254 persons were randomly selected as the population of the study . Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and job satisfaction and stress questionnaires were applied to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Results: There was an inverse relationship between job satisfaction and job stress. The results of job stress questionnaires showed that 176, 37, and 8 employees were under high, moderate, and low stress, respectively. Overall job satisfaction scores were 14.25 + 10.95. The relationship between job stress and scale E showed a significant positive correlation between two variables so that as the level of introspection increases, people will feel more jop stress. The two scale N and L have meaningful relationship with job satisfaction so that the more stable the character, the higher the job satisfaction . Conclusion: It can be concluded that in order for promoting the job satisfaction and reducing the job stress, self-confidence enhancing skills should be trained to the employees.

  1. Personality traits predict job stress, depression and anxiety among junior physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramstad, Thomas Olsen; Gjestad, Rolf; Haver, Brit

    2013-11-09

    High levels of stress and deteriorating mental health among medical students are commonly reported. In Bergen, Norway, we explored the impact of personality traits measured early in their curriculum on stress reactions and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms as junior physicians following graduation. Medical students (n = 201) from two classes participated in a study on personality traits and mental health early in the curriculum. A questionnaire measuring personality traits (Basic Character Inventory (BCI)) was used during their third undergraduate year. BCI assesses four personality traits: neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness and reality weakness. Questionnaires measuring mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Symptom Checklist 25 (SCL-25)), and stress (Perceived Medical School Stress (PMSS)) were used during their third and sixth undergraduate year. During postgraduate internship, Cooper's Job Stress Questionnaire (CJSQ) was used to measure perceived job stress, while mental health and stress reactions were reassessed using HADS and SCL-25. Extroversion had the highest mean value (5.11) among the total group of participants, while reality weakness had the lowest (1.51). Neuroticism and reality weakness were related to high levels of perceived job stress (neuroticism r = .19, reality weakness r = .17) as well as higher levels of anxiety symptoms (neuroticism r = .23, reality weakness r = .33) and symptoms of depression (neuroticism r = .21, reality weakness r = .36) during internship. Neuroticism indirectly predicted stress reactions and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. These relations were mediated by perceived job stress, while reality weakness predicted these mental health measures directly. Extroversion, on the other hand, protected against symptoms of depression (r = -.20). Furthermore, females reported higher levels of job stress than males (difference = 7.52). Certain personality traits measured early in

  2. Stress Detection for PTSD via the StartleMart Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgård, Christoffer; Yannakakis, Georgios; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2013-01-01

    Computer games have recently shown promise as a diagnostic and treatment tool for psychiatric rehabilitation. This paper examines the positive impact of affect detection and advanced game technology on the treatment of mental diagnoses such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). For that purpo...

  3. Personality change at the intersection of autonomic arousal and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    We hypothesized that personality change in children can be predicted by the interaction of family risk with susceptibility to autonomic arousal and that children characterized by both high-risk families and highly reactive autonomic nervous systems tend to show maladaptive change. This hypothesis was tested in a 6-year longitudinal study in which personality-type prototypicality, problem behavior, and negative emotional intensity were measured at 2-year intervals. The results indicated that children who both had exaggerated skin conductance responses (a measure of autonomic reactivity) and were living in families with multiple risk factors were most likely to develop an undercontrolled personality type and to exhibit increases in problem behavior and negative emotional intensity. The implications of the results for understanding personality change are discussed.

  4. Personal Risk and Resilience Factors in the Context of Daily Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Chui, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role that personal risk and resilience factors play as adults of all ages cope with the stressors encountered in everyday life. Theorists have suggested that researchers should focus on the effects of daily stress and coping rather than focusing exclusively on major life events and chronic stress and have proposed that understanding how adults cope with daily stress is a key aspect of understanding long-term well-being and adaptation in adulthood. After presenting a conceptual model outlining the major components of the daily stress process, the chapter reviews the existing empirical literature on personal risk and resilience factors in the context of daily stress. This research clearly suggests that there is no universal generalization that can be made regarding whether chronological age, in and of itself, confers greater vulnerability or resilience onto adults. Instead, we argue that researchers should ask when and under what conditions is age associated with greater vulnerability to daily stress and when and under what conditions is age associated with greater resilience to daily stress. Age differences in reactivity to daily stress are clearly embedded within a complex system of factors—structural, individual, and situational—that influence stress reactivity and stress recovery in several ways. This complexity should not be taken to mean that stress reactivity and recovery cannot be charted or understood. Researchers, however, will need to approach this complexity with a great deal of theoretical, methodological, and statistical rigor to move our understanding of the importance of age in shaping risk and resilience to daily stress forward. The final section of the chapter outlines several directions for future research in the area of aging and resilience. In particular, we argue that a focus on personal risk and resilience factors in the context of daily stress, in combination with the application of sophisticated statistical

  5. Role stress and personal resources in nursing: a cross-sectional study of burnout and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrosa, Eva; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel

    2011-04-01

    The experience of role stress has been linked to burnout as an important job stressor, but the impact of this stressor in the context of engagement (characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption) has not yet been sufficiently studied among nurses. Personal resources also appear to influence the process of burnout and engagement. This study examines the influence of role stress and personal resources (optimism, hardy personality and emotional competence) in nursing on burnout and engagement dimensions. Cross-sectional data from 508 nurses from general hospitals in Madrid (Spain) showed that both role stress and personal resources were related to burnout and engagement dimensions, although role stress was more closely related to nursing burnout, whereas personal resources were more closely related to nursing engagement. In addition, optimism as a personal resource, showed a moderator effect on exhaustion and the three dimensions of engagement. The study provides additional support about role stress as an important predictor of burnout and engagement in nursing, even after controlling for personal resources and socio-demographic variables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance

  7. The Role of Personality in Stress Perception across Different Vocational Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksvik, Ingvild Berg; Hetland, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between personality (measured by the subscales of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]; Costa & McCrae, 1992) and stress (measured by the Overall Job Satisfaction scale [Warr, Cook, & Wall, 1979], and Cooper's Job Stress Scale [Cooper, 1981]) across different vocational types as…

  8. EAP's Response to Personal Stress and Productivity: Implications for Occupational Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Chathapuram S.

    1992-01-01

    Used pretest-posttest design to investigate influence of employee assistance program (EAP) on employee stress and productivity at time of initial contact with EAP and two and four months later. Findings from 47 employees who used EAP services revealed that, although personal stress and employee productivity were related, employee assistance…

  9. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Alternative Stress Management Interventions in Persons with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Nancy L.; Gray, D. Patricia; Elswick, R. K., Jr.; Robins, Jolynne W.; Tuck, Inez; Walter, Jeanne M.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Ketchum, Jessica McKinney

    2008-01-01

    Research in psychoneuroimmunology suggests that immunosuppression associated with perceived stress may contribute to disease progression in persons with HIV infection. While stress management interventions may enhance immune function, few alternative approaches have yet been tested. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to test effects of…

  10. The effect of stress and personality on dangerous driving behavior among Chinese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Qu, Weina; Jiang, Caihong; Du, Feng; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between stress and road safety has been studied for many years, but the effect of global stress and its joint effect with personality on driving behavior have received little attention in previous studies. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of global stress and various personality traits on driving behavior. 242 drivers completed the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI), and several personality trait scales related to anger, sensation seeking, and altruism. The results showed that perceived stress and sensation seeking were significantly correlated with the four subcategories of dangerous driving behavior, namely, negative cognitive/emotional driving (NCED), aggressive driving (AD), risky driving (RD), and drunk driving (DD). Moreover, anger was positively correlated with negative cognitive/emotional driving, aggressive driving, and risky driving, and altruism was negatively correlated with aggressive driving and drunk driving. Hierarchical multiple regressions were applied to analyze the mediating effect of personality traits, and the results showed that anger mediated the relationship between stress and dangerous driving behavior and that this mediating role was especially strong for negative cognitive/emotional driving and aggressive driving. Collectively, the results showed that stress is an important factor that can affect people's driving behavior but that personality traits mediate the effect of stress on driving behavior. The findings from this study regarding the relationship among stress, anger, and dangerous driving behavior could be applied in the development of intervention programs for stress and anger management in order to improve drivers' ability to manage emotional thoughts and adjust their behavior on the road. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PERSONALITY TRAITS AND STRESS LEVELS AMONG SENIOR DENTAL STUDENTS: EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA AND SINGAPORE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Zamros Y M; Hassan, Wan Nurazreena Wan; Razak, Ishak A; Hashim, Siti Marini N; Tahir, Mohd Khairul A M; Keng, Siong Beng

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between dental students’ personality traits and stress levels in relation to dental education programs among senior dental students in University Malaya (UM) in Malaysia and National University of Singapore (NUS). A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on UM and NUS senior dental students. The questionnaire comprised items on demographic background, the Big Five Inventory Personality Traits (BFIPT) test and a modified Dental Environment Stress (DES) scale. Rasch analysis was used to convert raw data to interval scores. Analyses were done by t-test, Pearson correlation, and Hierarchical regression statistics. The response rate was 100% (UM=132, NUS=76). Personality trait Agreeableness (mean=0.30) was significantly more prevalent among UM than NUS students (mean=0.15, p=0.016). In NUS, Neuroticism (mean=0.36) was significantly more prevalent than in UM (mean=0.14, p=0.002). The DES mean score was higher among NUS (mean=0.23) than UM students (mean=0.07). In UM, Neuroticism was significantly correlated with stress levels (r=0.338, ppersonality traits. The correlation was strongest for personality trait Neuroticism in both schools. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that gender and Neuroticism were significant predictors for students’ stress levels (ppersonality trait were significant predictors for stress levels among selected groups of dental students in Southeast Asia. Information on students’ personality may be useful in new students’ intake, stress management counseling and future program reviews.

  12. Personality and Career Concomitants of Life Stress in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence J.; Dearing, Nancy

    The Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI) has been shown to discriminate between college students seeking help in the college counseling center from non-help seekers, between depressed and non-depressed students, and between students' global self-appraisals of high versus low stress. A study was conducted to investigate concurrent validity for…

  13. Conforming and nonconforming personality and stress coping styles in combat athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernacka Ryszarda Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the personality dimension of conformism/nonconformism was a predictor of stress coping styles in athletes training combat sports, and to present the characteristics of this personality dimension in the context of the competitors’ adaptive/innovative sport performance. Scores of 346 males practising combat sports such as kick boxing, MMA, thai boxing, boxing and wrestling were analyzed. The participants completed the Creative Behaviour Questionnaire (KANH III measuring the conformity/nonconformity personality dimension and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS measuring stress coping styles. The comparative analyses were conducted only for the groups of conformists and nonconformists. Differences in stress coping styles between conformists and nonconformists training combat sports were found as nonconformists tended to prefer the task-oriented coping style. Conclusively, a higher rate of nonconformity was associated with increasingly frequent occurrence of task-oriented coping and decreasingly frequent emotion-oriented coping.

  14. Perceived work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives, and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian Li

    2006-07-01

    Occupational mental health research has been focusing on the relationship between work stress and depression. However, the impacts of work stress on anxiety disorders and of imbalance between work and family life on workers' mental health have not been well studied. This analysis investigated the association between levels of perceived work stress and of imbalance between work and family/personal lives and current mood/anxiety disorders. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS-1.2) (n=36,984). Mood and anxiety disorders were measured using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among those with a work stress score at the 75th percentile value and above was 3.6% and 4.0%. Among those who reported that their work and family/personal lives "never" balanced in the past month, the 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was 21.2% and 17.9%. In multivariate analyses, work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives were independently associated with mood and anxiety disorders. There was no evidence that perceived work stress interacted with imbalance between work and family/personal lives to increase the likelihood of having mental disorders. Gender was associated with anxiety disorders, but not with major depressive disorder and mood disorders. Work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives may be part of the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders in the working population. Community based longitudinal studies are needed to delineate the causal relationships among work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives and mental disorders.

  15. THE STRESS RESISTANCE OF STUDENTS. THE PARADIGM OF SUBJECT PERSONALITY SELF- ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Dyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider a problem of stress resistance of students in the context of subject self-organization of the personality. Methods. The following methods of research are used: questioning; psychological and diagnostic tests «Tolerance of Uncertainty» (NTN and «Personal Factors of Decisions» (PFD by T. V. Kornilova; original experimental experiences – «Coding», a technique of a self-assessment (scaling and «A locus control». While data processing the methods of mathematical statistics (SPSS 12 package – the correlation analysis of Pearson and the factorial analysis with rotation use a component by «verimax» method are applied. Results and scientific novelty. Types of subjectivity and strategy of stress resistance are allocated. The nature and a role of the emotional and stressful mechanism having information and semantic properties in its basis are disclosed. Communication of irresponsible mechanisms of mentality with the sphere of consciousness in the context of subjectivity of the personality is shown. Mechanisms of emotional and rational self-control of system of mental self-organization of the person are presented. The statistical and qualitative data opening communications between properties of subjectivity and stress resistance of the personality are empirically obtained. Variation of the relations and also types of subjectivity and stress resistance emphasized based on the results of the presented research. Original (author’s methods of studying of subjectivity and factors of stress resistance are presented. Practical significance. The revealed factors of subject self-organization reveal the stress-producing directions of the environment and the relation of the personality to situations of changes and uncertainty: and also indicate subject properties of resistance to stress which need to be developed to increase the level of health of students, to reduce risk of deviance and delinquency of

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONALITY EFFECTS ON MANAGERS’ JOB STRESS: Is It Different for Malaysian Men and Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of organizational variables (conflict, blocked career, alienation, work overload, and unfavorable work environment and personality variables (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness on job stress among managers working in the electronics sector in 4Malaysia and whether this relationship varies according to their gender. Analyses of 285 responses using hierarchical regression revealed that four of five organizational variables (blocked career, alienation, work overload, and conflict had significant positive effects on job stress. In terms of the personality traits, neuroticism and conscientiousness were found to be significantly and positively related to stress. Extraversion and agreeableness, on the other hand, had significant negative effects on job stress. Gender was found to moderate the effects of all the independent variables on job stress at the 0.01 level. Implications for managerial practice and future research are discussed.

  17. ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONALITY FACTORS OF STRESS IN ACCOUNTING AND CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS ON HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Stager

    2017-01-01

    Stress in accounting is popular in the area of research for many researchers in the fields of Psychology, Organizational Behavior, Health and Medicine. A significant part of empirical research has been focused on the analysis of the relationships between different individual and organizational stress factors on the job, including the effects of stress on the job. In the paper, we are showing an overview of the key concepts in the field of stress in accounting, covering organizational and pers...

  18. Perceived stress in first year medical students - associations with personal resources and emotional distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Ines; Bullinger, Monika; Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela

    2017-01-06

    Medical students have been found to report high levels of perceived stress, yet there is a lack of theoretical frameworks examining possible reasons. This cross-sectional study examines correlates of perceived stress in medical students on the basis of a conceptual stress model originally developed for and applied to the general population. The aim was to identify via structural equation modeling the associations between perceived stress and emotional distress (anxiety and depression), taking into account the activation of personal resources (optimism, self-efficacy and resilient coping). Within this cross-sectional study, 321 first year medical students (age 22 ± 4 years, 39.3% men) completed the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20), the Self-Efficacy Optimism Scale (SWOP) and the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) as well as the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4). The statistical analyses used t-tests, ANOVA, Spearman Rho correlation and multiple regression analysis as well as structural equation modeling. Medical students reported higher levels of perceived stress and higher levels of anxiety and depression than reference samples. No statistically significant differences in stress levels were found within the sample according to gender, migration background or employment status. Students reported more self-efficacy, optimism, and resilient coping and higher emotional distress compared to validation samples and results in other studies. Structural equation analysis revealed a satisfactory fit between empirical data and the proposed stress model indicating that personal resources modulated perceived stress, which in turn had an impact on emotional distress. Medical students' perceived stress and emotional distress levels are generally high, with personal resources acting as a buffer, thus supporting the population-based general stress model. Results suggest providing individual interventions for those students, who need support in dealing with the

  19. The role of personality traits in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Nenad; Brajković, Lovorka; Ivezić, Ena; Topić, Radmila; Jakovljević, Miro

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies have shown that although exposure to potentially traumatic events is common, development of PTSD is relatively rare, which is one of the reasons PTSD still remains a controversial psychiatric entity. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research on the role of personality traits in the vulnerability, resilience, posttraumatic growth and expressions associated with PTSD. Personality based approach represents a dimensional aspect of the transdisciplinary integrative model of PTSD. We conducted a systematic search on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Academic Search Complete from 1980 (the year PTSD was first included in the DSM) and 2012 (the year the literature search was performed). Manual examination of secondary sources such as the reference sections of selected articles and book chapters were also conducted. Most of the reviewed studies dealing with personality traits as vulnerability and protective factors for PTSD examined the relationship between basic personality dimensions and severity of symptoms of PTSD. These studies have applied three types of methodological designs: cross-sectional, post-trauma and pre-trauma longitudinal studies, with latter being the least common option. Finding that appears relatively consistent is that PTSD is positively related to negative emotionality, neuroticism, harm avoidance, novelty-seeking and self-transcendence, as well as to trait hostility/anger and trait anxiety. On the other hand, PTSD symptoms are negatively associated with extraversion, conscientiousness, self-directedness, the combination of high positive and low negative emotionality, as well as with hardiness and optimism, while posttraumatic growth shows inverse relation to most of these traits. Furthermore, a number of studies have confirmed the existence of three distinct personality-based subtypes of PTSD: internalizing, externalizing and low pathology PTSD. These findings may help in further uncovering etiological mechanisms and

  20. Personality, organizational stress, and attitudes toward work as prospective predictors of professional burnout in hospital nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudek-Knežević, Jasna; Kalebić Maglica, Barbara; Krapić, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Aim To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. Methods The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Results Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R2 = 0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (βNRCWO = -0.30; ßcRCWO = -0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (β = 0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (β = -0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Conclusion Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout. PMID:21853549

  1. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604 of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress.

  2. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: a six-year longitudinal and nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Dolatowski, Filip C; Røvik, Jan Ole; Thorkildsen, Ruth F; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Grønvold, Nina T; Vaglum, Per

    2007-08-01

    Personality types (combinations of traits) that take into account the interplay between traits give a more detailed picture of an individual's character than do single traits. This study examines whether both personality types and traits predict stress during medical school training. We surveyed Norwegian medical students (n = 421) 1 month after they began medical school (T1), at the mid-point of undergraduate Year 3 (T2), and at the end of undergraduate Year 6 (T3). A total of 236 medical students (56%) responded at all time-points. They were categorised according to Torgersen's personality typology by their combination of high and low scores on the 'Big Three' personality traits of extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. We studied the effects of both personality types (spectator, insecure, sceptic, brooder, hedonist, impulsive, entrepreneur and complicated) and traits on stress during medical school. There was a higher level of stress among female students. The traits of neuroticism (P = 0.002) and conscientiousness (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of stress, whereas female gender was absorbed by neuroticism in the multivariate model. When controlled for age and gender, 'brooders' (low extroversion, high neuroticism, high conscientiousness) were at risk of experiencing more stress (P = 0.02), whereas 'hedonists' (high extroversion, low neuroticism, low conscientiousness) were more protected against stress (P = 0.001). This is the first study to show that a specific combination of personality traits can predict medical school stress. The combination of high neuroticism and high conscientiousness is considered to be particularly high risk.

  3. Joint Multi-person Detection and Tracking from Overlapping Cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a system to track the positions of multiple persons in a scene from overlapping cameras. The distinguishing aspect of our method is a novel, two-step approach that jointly estimates person position and track assignment. The proposed approach keeps solving the assignment problem tractable,

  4. Incision and stress regulation in borderline personality disorder: neurobiological mechanisms of self-injurious behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Sarah; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Niedtfeld, Inga; Knorz, Teresa; Lis, Stefanie; Paret, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder frequently show non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In these patients, NSSI often serves to reduce high levels of stress. Investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of NSSI in borderline personality disorder. In total, 21 women with borderline personality disorder and 17 healthy controls underwent a stress induction, followed by either an incision into the forearm or a sham treatment. Afterwards participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging while aversive tension, heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed. We found a significant influence of incision on subjective and objective stress levels with a stronger decrease of aversive tension in the borderline personality disorder group following incision than sham. Amygdala activity decreased more and functional connectivity with superior frontal gyrus normalised after incision in the borderline personality disorder group. Decreased stress levels and amygdala activity after incision support the assumption of an influence of NSSI on emotion regulation in individuals with borderline personality disorder and aids in understanding why these patients use self-inflicted pain to reduce inner tension. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. The role of maternal care in borderline personality disorder and dependent life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball Cooper, Ericka; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2018-01-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) affects 0.9%-3.2% of adolescents, and more than 20% of inpatient adolescents. Life stress has been linked to BPD across the lifespan, and previous research in adults has linked BPD to dependent stress (i.e., stress induced by the individual). However, prior research has not examined dependent stress alongside BPD in adolescents. Additionally, the potential protective effect of maternal care has not been considered in this relation. This study tested a moderation model expecting that (1) BPD would be positively associated with dependent life stress, (2) maternal care would be negatively associated with BPD, and (3) maternal care would moderate the relation between BPD and dependent life stress. The sample consisted of 184 adolescents recruited from an inpatient psychiatric facility serving a diverse population in the Southwestern United States. Dependent life stress, BPD, and maternal care were measured using the UCLA Life Stress Interview, DSM-IV Childhood Interview for BPD, and Kerns Security Scale, respectively. Results supported the first two hypotheses; BPD diagnosis was significantly, positively associated with dependent life stress, and negatively associated with maternal availability and dependability. Contrary to the third hypothesis, no significant evidence that maternal care acts as a buffer in the relation between BPD and dependent life stress was found. Although maternal care was not found to moderate the association between BPD and dependent life stress, results supported previously found relations between BPD, dependent life stress, and maternal care, and did so within a diverse inpatient adolescent sample.

  6. Personal traits and a sense of job-related stress in a military aviation crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accelerated technological and organizational changes in numerous professions lead to increase in jobrelated stress. Since these changes are particularly common in military aviation, this study examined the way military aviation crew experiences job-related stress during a regular aviation drill, depending on particular social-demographic factors and personal traits. Methods. The modified Cooper questionnaire was used to examine the stress related factors at work. The questionnaire was adapted for the aviation crew in the army environment. Personal characteristics were examined using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory. The study included 50 examinees (37 pilots and 13 other crew members employed in the Serbian Army. The studies were performed during routine physical examinations at the Institute for Aviation Medicine during the year 2007. Statistical analysis of the study results contained descriptive analysis, one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Results. It was shown that army aviation crew works under high stress. The highest stress value had the intrinsic factor (AS = 40.94 and role in organisation (AS = 39.92, while the lowest one had the interpersonal relationship factor (AS = 29.98. The results also showed that some social-demographic variables (such as younger examinees, shorter working experience and neuroticism as a personality trait, were in correlation with job-related stress. Conclusion. Stress evaluation and certain personality characteristics examination can be used for the devalopment of the basic anti-stress programs and measures in order to achieve better psychological selection, adaptation career leadership and organization of military pilots and other crew members.

  7. [Personal traits and a sense of job-related stress in a military aviation crew].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarkapa, Milanko; Korica, Vesna; Rodjenkov, Sanja

    2011-02-01

    Accelerated technological and organizational changes in numerous professions lead to increase in job-related stress. Since these changes are particularly common in military aviation, this study examined the way military aviation crew experiences job-related stress during a regular aviation drill, depending on particular social-demographic factors and personal traits. The modified Cooper questionnaire was used to examine the stress related factors at work. The questionnaire was adapted for the aviation crew in the army environment. Personal characteristics were examined using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory. The study included 50 examinees (37 pilots and 13 other crew members) employed in the Serbian Army. The studies were performed during routine physical examinations at the Institute for Aviation Medicine during the year 2007. Statistical analysis of the study results contained descriptive analysis, one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis. It was shown that army aviation crew works under high stress. The highest stress value had the intrinsic factor (AS = 40.94) and role in organisation (AS = 39.92), while the lowest one had the interpersonal relationship factor (AS = 29.98). The results also showed that some social-demographic variables (such as younger examinees, shorter working experience) and neuroticism as a personality trait, were in correlation with job-related stress. Stress evaluation and certain personality characteristics examination can be used for the development of the basic anti-stress programs and measures in order to achieve better psychological selection, adaptation career leadership and organization of military pilots and other crew members.

  8. Social exclusion, personal control, self-regulation, and stress among substance abuse treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K; Walker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of social exclusion, personal control, and self-regulation to perceived stress among individuals who participated in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. Participants entered treatment between June 2006 and July 2007 and completed a 12-month follow-up survey by telephone (n=787). The results of the OLS regression analysis indicate that individuals with greater social exclusion factors (e.g. greater economic hardship, lower subjective social standing, greater perceived discrimination), lower perceived control of one's life, and lower self-regulation had higher perceived stress. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found suggesting a stress-buffering effect of personal control between subjective social standing and perceived stress. Interestingly, income status was not significantly related to perceived stress, while economic hardship, which assesses participants' inability to meet basic expenses, was significantly associated with perceived stress. Future research should examine how to integrate the AA/NA teaching about powerlessness and its role in recovery with the importance of increased personal control and self-control in decreasing perceived stress. Implications for future research and substance abuse treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An experimental study of UWB device-free person detection and ranging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Y.; Wymeersch, Henk; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Scanlon, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Passive person detection and localization is an emerging area in UWB localization systems, whereby people are not required to carry any UWB ranging device. Based on experimental data, we propose a novel method to detect static persons in the absence of template waveforms, and to compute distances to

  10. Face, Body, and Center of Gravity Mediate Person Detection in Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindemann, Markus; Scheepers, Christoph; Ferguson, Heather J.; Burton, A. Mike

    2010-01-01

    Person detection is an important prerequisite of social interaction, but is not well understood. Following suggestions that people in the visual field can capture a viewer's attention, this study examines the role of the face and the body for person detection in natural scenes. We observed that viewers tend first to look at the center of a scene,…

  11. Pre-visual detection of stress in pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-visual, or early, detection of forest stress with particular reference to detection of attacks by pine bark beetles is discussed. Preliminary efforts to obtain early detection of attacks by pine bark beetles, using MSS data from the ERIM M-7 scanner, were not sufficiently successful to demonstrate an operational capability, but indicate that joint processing of the 0.71 to 0.73, 2.00 to 2.60, and 9.3 to 11.7 micrometer bands holds some promise. Ratio processing of transformed data from the 0.45 to 0.52, 1.55 to 2.60, and 4.5 to 5.5 or 9.3 to 11.7 micrometer regions appears even more promising.

  12. Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahin soheili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results showed that rejecting/neglecting parenting style and emotional warmth were positively and negatively correlated with addiction potential, respectively. Conclusion: The child-parent relationship and also the relationship between stress and type D personality can be considered as predictive factors in addiction potential.

  13. Monitoring of lipoxygenase-related plant emission for early detection of drought stress in greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takayama, K.; Jansen, R.M.C.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Early detection of plant stress is a key to effective plant management for crop production. Drought stress is a common abiotic stress in crop production and early detection of drought stress allows us to improve water usage effi ciency and crop quality by demandbased irrigation. This study

  14. Academic stress and personality interact to increase the neural response to high-calorie food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neseliler, Selin; Tannenbaum, Beth; Zacchia, Maria; Larcher, Kevin; Coulter, Kirsty; Lamarche, Marie; Marliss, Errol B; Pruessner, Jens; Dagher, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Psychosocial stress is associated with an increased intake of palatable foods and weight gain in stress-reactive individuals. Personality traits have been shown to predict stress-reactivity. However, it is not known if personality traits influence brain activity in regions implicated in appetite control during psychosocial stress. The current study assessed whether Gray's Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) scale, a measure of stress-reactivity, was related to the activity of brain regions implicated in appetite control during a stressful period. Twenty-two undergraduate students participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment once during a non-exam period and once during final exams in a counter-balanced order. In the scanner, they viewed food and scenery pictures. In the exam compared with the non-exam condition, BIS scores related to increased perceived stress and correlated with increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response to high-calorie food images in regions implicated in food reward and subjective value, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, (vmPFC) and the amygdala. BIS scores negatively related to the functional connectivity between the vmPFC and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The results demonstrate that the BIS trait influences stress reactivity. This is observed both as an increased activity in brain regions implicated in computing the value of food cues and decreased connectivity of these regions to prefrontal regions implicated in self-control. This suggests that the effects of real life stress on appetitive brain function and self-control is modulated by a personality trait. This may help to explain why stressful periods can lead to overeating in vulnerable individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress strengthens memory of first impressions of others' positive personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-01-26

    Encounters with strangers bear potential for social conflict and stress, but also allow the formation of alliances. First impressions of other people play a critical role in the formation of alliances, since they provide a learned base to infer the other's future social attitude. Stress can facilitate emotional memories but it is unknown whether stress strengthens our memory for newly acquired impressions of other people's personality traits. To answer this question, we subjected 60 students (37 females, 23 males) to an impression-formation task, viewing portraits together with brief positive vs. negative behavior descriptions, followed by a 3-min cold pressor stress test or a non-stressful control procedure. The next day, novel and old portraits were paired with single trait adjectives, the old portraits with a trait adjective matching the previous day's behavior description. After a filler task, portraits were presented again and subjects were asked to recall the trait adjective. Cued recall was higher for old (previously implied) than the novel portraits' trait adjectives, indicating validity of the applied test procedures. Overall, recall rate of implied trait adjectives did not differ between the stress and the control group. However, while the control group showed a better memory performance for others' implied negative personality traits, the stress group showed enhanced recall for others' implied positive personality traits. This result indicates that post-learning stress affects consolidation of first impressions in a valence-specific manner. We propose that the stress-induced strengthening of memory of others' positive traits forms an important cue for the formation of alliances in stressful conditions.

  16. Stress strengthens memory of first impressions of others' positive personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lass-Hennemann

    Full Text Available Encounters with strangers bear potential for social conflict and stress, but also allow the formation of alliances. First impressions of other people play a critical role in the formation of alliances, since they provide a learned base to infer the other's future social attitude. Stress can facilitate emotional memories but it is unknown whether stress strengthens our memory for newly acquired impressions of other people's personality traits. To answer this question, we subjected 60 students (37 females, 23 males to an impression-formation task, viewing portraits together with brief positive vs. negative behavior descriptions, followed by a 3-min cold pressor stress test or a non-stressful control procedure. The next day, novel and old portraits were paired with single trait adjectives, the old portraits with a trait adjective matching the previous day's behavior description. After a filler task, portraits were presented again and subjects were asked to recall the trait adjective. Cued recall was higher for old (previously implied than the novel portraits' trait adjectives, indicating validity of the applied test procedures. Overall, recall rate of implied trait adjectives did not differ between the stress and the control group. However, while the control group showed a better memory performance for others' implied negative personality traits, the stress group showed enhanced recall for others' implied positive personality traits. This result indicates that post-learning stress affects consolidation of first impressions in a valence-specific manner. We propose that the stress-induced strengthening of memory of others' positive traits forms an important cue for the formation of alliances in stressful conditions.

  17. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, G; Bruffaerts, R; Nock, M K; Van de Ven, M; Witteman, C; Mortier, P; Demyttenaere, K; Claes, L

    2015-09-01

    This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perceived stress and coping. A total of 946 Flemish (46%) and Dutch (54%) non-institutionalized adolescents (Mean age=15.52; SD=1.34, 44% females) were surveyed. Measures included the NSSI subscale of the Self-Harm-Inventory, the Dutch Quick Big Five Personality questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents. Examination of zero-order correlations was used to reveal associations, and hierarchical regression analysis was used to reveal potential mediators which were further examined within parallel mediation models by using a bootstrapping-corrected procedure. Lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 24.31%. Neuroticism; perceived stress; and distractive, avoidant, depressive, and emotional coping were positively associated with NSSI engagement, whereas Agreeableness, Conscientiousness; and active, social, and optimistic coping were negatively associated with NSSI engagement. Observed relationships between personality traits and NSSI engagement were consistently explained by perceived stress and depressive coping. A higher versatility of NSSI was not associated with any Big Five personality trait, but was associated with higher scores on perceived stress and depressive coping and with lower scores on active and optimistic coping. Our study suggests that a specific personality constellation is associated with NSSI engagement via high stress levels and a typical depressive reaction pattern to handle stressful life events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Linking perceptions of role stress and incivility to workplace aggression: the moderating role of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shannon G; Kluemper, Donald H

    2012-07-01

    Although research on workplace aggression has long recognized job stressors as antecedents, little is known about the process through which employee responses to stressful workplace demands escalate from relatively mild interactions into more intense behaviors. This study investigates the influence that employees' perceptions of role stress (ambiguity, conflict, overload) have on their aggressive behavior by affecting their perceptions of incivility, and whether these downstream effects depend on personality traits (neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness). Results supported moderated mediation, such that the indirect effects of perceived role ambiguity and role conflict on enacted aggression through experienced incivility varied according to individual differences in personality.

  19. The Relationship between Personality, Sense of Efficacy, and Stress in Korean Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Yul-Mai; Ko, Guy-Nueo; Jhung, Kyungun; Ha, Kyooseob; Lee, Young-Ryeol; Kim, Yeni

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have linked teachers' personality characteristics and sense of efficacy to stress. However, investigating the relationship between these three constructs in this context was limited. This study aims to investigate the relationship between personality, sense of efficacy and perceived stress among Korean teachers. A total of 137 teachers working in elementary, middle, and high schools located in Seoul, South Korea were recruited for the study. The participants were administered Temperament and Character Inventory, Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), and Perceived Stress Scale. The TSES was negatively correlated with harm avoidance and positively correlated with persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. Perceived stress was positively correlated with harm avoidance and negatively correlated with persistence and self-directedness. The path analysis showed that harm avoidance directly predicted perceived stress (β=0.37, 95% CI=0.21-0.53, p=0.002), and self-directedness and persistence predicted one's sense of efficacy (β=0.18, 95% CI=0.01-0.39 and β=0.31, 95% CI=0.10-0.47), which predicted perceived stress (β=-0.21, 95% CI=-0.39 to -0.02). The results of the present study indicate that harm avoidance might be associated with stress-proneness, while persistence, self-directedness, and sense of efficacy might act as protective resources against stress in Korean teachers.

  20. The Relationship between Personality, Sense of Efficacy, and Stress in Korean Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Yul-Mai; Ko, Guy-Nueo; Jhung, Kyungun; Ha, Kyooseob; Lee, Young-Ryeol

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have linked teachers' personality characteristics and sense of efficacy to stress. However, investigating the relationship between these three constructs in this context was limited. This study aims to investigate the relationship between personality, sense of efficacy and perceived stress among Korean teachers. A total of 137 teachers working in elementary, middle, and high schools located in Seoul, South Korea were recruited for the study. The participants were administered Temperament and Character Inventory, Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), and Perceived Stress Scale. The TSES was negatively correlated with harm avoidance and positively correlated with persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. Perceived stress was positively correlated with harm avoidance and negatively correlated with persistence and self-directedness. The path analysis showed that harm avoidance directly predicted perceived stress (β=0.37, 95% CI=0.21–0.53, p=0.002), and self-directedness and persistence predicted one's sense of efficacy (β=0.18, 95% CI=0.01–0.39 and β=0.31, 95% CI=0.10–0.47), which predicted perceived stress (β=-0.21, 95% CI=-0.39 to -0.02). The results of the present study indicate that harm avoidance might be associated with stress-proneness, while persistence, self-directedness, and sense of efficacy might act as protective resources against stress in Korean teachers. PMID:27757136

  1. Penal stress and its manifestations in the convicts, suspects and accused persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova D.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to penal stress and its manifestations at the convicts, suspects and accused persons. This topic has been poorly studied. It is necessary to identify the groups of people especially most in need of prevention and correction of stress state and to define the target effects. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the concepts of biological and psychological stress. Our theoretical work is mainly devoted to phenomenon of penal stress and factors affecting its formation. We suggested the definition of penal stress concept on the basis of the analyzed literature. The sample included 69 male persons (31 from predetention center, 38 from penal colony, aged 19 to 47 years old. Experimental psychological method of research was mainly used. In the practical part of the paper presents data on the prevalence of the penal stress in predetention centers and penal colonies. In addition, we have studied the relationship of penal stress with punishment stage, the crime characteristics of subjects, individual psychological characteristics, current state. The study allows us to reveal the groups of people in need of the prevention and correction of the penal stress state. We identified some target corrective action also.

  2. Adolescent Personality: Associations With Basal, Awakening, and Stress-Induced Cortisol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ormel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between personality facets and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Previous studies have mainly focussed on stress-induced HPA-axis activation. We hypothesized that other characteristics of HPA-axis functioning would have a stronger association with personality based on the neuroendocrine literature. Data (n=343) were used from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large prospective...

  3. Infertility Stress: The Role of Coping Strategies, Personality Trait, and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Rashidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999, big five factor personality questionnaire (Farahani, 2009, multidimensional scale of perceived social support MSPS (Zimmet 1988, and multidimensional assessment of coping (Endler, 1990.The results were then analyzed using the Pearson Correlation and stepwise regression.Results: Infertility stress has negative and significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, perceived social support and bring extrovert. It has a positive, significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. The results of the stepwise regression showed that emotion-oriented coping method, OCD and being extrovert are suitable predictors of infertility stress.Conclusion: About 22% of the infertility stress variance was explained by coping strategies and personality trait. Therefore our result demonstrates the importance of social and psychological factors on experiencing the infertility stress.

  4. Interaction effect study on stress reaction and job burnout, personality, self-esteem in radiological medical personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linlin; Feng Liyun; Yang Yanyan; Wu Di

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore interaction effect between stress reaction and job burnout, personality, self-esteem in radiological medical personnel with path analysis. Methods: 728 radiological medical personnels were investigated with Maslach burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Self-esteem Scale. Results: Multiple regression and path analysis revealed that there were statistically significant relation between stress reaction and job burnout, Personality and self-esteem. Conclusion: Psychological stress is a complicated and multiple interaction of psychological stress related factors. (authors)

  5. StressPhone: smartphone based platform for measurement of cortisol for stress detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aadhar; Rey, Elizabeth; Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Anxiety disorders are estimated to be the most common mental illness in US affecting around 40 million people and related job stress is estimated to cost US industry up to $300 billion due to lower productivity and absenteeism. A personal diagnostic device which could help identify stressed individuals would therefore be a huge boost for workforce productivity. We are therefore developing a point of care diagnostic device that can be integrated with smartphones or tablets for the measurement of cortisol - a stress related salivary biomarker, which is known to be strongly involved in body's fight-or-flight response to a stressor (physical or mental). The device is based around a competitive lateral flow assay whose results can then be read and quantified through an accessory compatible with the smartphone. In this presentation, we report the development and results of such an assay and the integrated device. We then present the results of a study relating the diurnal patterns of cortisol levels and the alertness of an individual based on the circadian rhythm and sleep patterns of the individual. We hope to use the insight provided by combining the information provided by levels of stress related to chemical biomarkers of the individual with the physical biomarkers to lead to a better informed and optimized activity schedule for maximized work output.

  6. Feigning combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder on the personality assessment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, P S; Earnst, K S; Tucker, D D; Kirby, A C; Beckham, J C

    2000-10-01

    This study examined whether individuals who were instructed on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could feign PTSD on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991). The study also investigated whether PAI indexes of symptom exaggeration, the Negative Impression Management (NIM) scale and the Malingering index, could identify individuals feigning PTSD. The diagnostic rule for PTSD (Morey, 1991, 1996) was applied to the profiles of a group of 23 veterans with combat-related PTSD and 23 male undergraduates instructed to malinger PTSD. Seventy percent of the student malingerers produced profiles that received diagnostic consideration for PTSD. The NIM cutting score (> or = 8) was highly effective in detecting simulation of PTSD but resulted in the misclassification of a large number of true PTSD cases. There were no significant differences in the overall efficiency of the test with various validity criteria. We discuss the implications of these findings for the use of the PAI in the diagnosis of combat-related PTSD.

  7. Event detection in athletics for personalized sports content delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarakis, N.; Pnevmatikakis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Broadcasting of athletics is nowadays biased towards running (sprint and longer distances) sports. Personalized content delivery can change that for users that wish to focus on different content. Using a combination of video signal processing algorithms and live information that accompanies the v...... algorithms needed for the extraction of the events that trigger both between and within sport camera selection, and describes a system that handles user preferences, live information andvideo-generated events to offer personalized content to the users.......Broadcasting of athletics is nowadays biased towards running (sprint and longer distances) sports. Personalized content delivery can change that for users that wish to focus on different content. Using a combination of video signal processing algorithms and live information that accompanies...... the video of large-scale sports like the Olympics, a system can attend to the preferences of users by selecting the most suitable camera view for them.There are two types of camera selection for personalized content delivery. According to the between sport camera selection, the view is changed between two...

  8. Association between the Five Factor personality traits and perceived stress: is the effect mediated by general self-efficacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Ill-health resulting from chronic stress is influenced by personality traits leading to different ways of appraising and coping with life's daily hassles. Using a large population sample the study aimed to investigate possible associations between perceived stress and the personality dimensions......-significant - whilst neuroticism had a positive association. The associations with agreeableness and openness became positive and significant, respectively, when GSE was included. All five personality-stress models were mediated by GSE, with extroversion and conscientiousness having the strongest mediating effect....... The strongest stress-association was found for neuroticism. GSE was shown to change the impact and interpretation of the personality dimensions on perceived stress. These results indicate that GSE is an important factor to consider in the link between personality and perceived stress....

  9. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  10. Work Stress, Burnout, and Social and Personal Resources among Direct Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A.; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope…

  11. For Whom Does Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Work? : Moderating Effects of Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; Irrmischer, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling for socio-demographic factors. Meditation-naïve participants from the

  12. Managing multiple roles - Personality, stress, and work-family interference in dual-earner couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda-Boer, H.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Today many parents have multiple roles. This study examined how personality, domain-specific stress, and work-family interference are interrelated. Questionnaire data of 276 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings demonstrated that job

  13. Origins of Early Adolescents' Hope: Personality, Parental Attachment, and Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychology has recently increased attention to identifying psychological qualities in individuals that indicate positive mental health, such as hope. In an effort to understand further the origins of hope, we examined the relations among parental attachment, stressful life events, personality variables, and hope in a sample of 647 middle school…

  14. The Impact of Occupational Stress on University Employees' Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nawaz; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This study is an effort to understand the impact of occupational stress which is classified into four constructs i.e. pressure at work, support at work, job satisfaction, and nature of job, on the personality of employees working in public as well as private sector universities. To conduct the study, a survey questionnaire was floated to six…

  15. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  16. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E.; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression. PMID:27120051

  17. Personality differences in the susceptibility to stress-eating: The influence of emotional control and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry; Lafrance, Adele; Emond, Michael; Kosmerly, Stacey; O'Connor, Megan; Chang, Felicia

    2016-12-01

    Stress has been associated with deviations from typical eating patterns, with respect to both food choice and overall caloric intake. Both increases and decreases in dietary intake have been previously noted in response to stress. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the affect regulation strategies of emotional control and impulsivity predict susceptibility to eating in response to stress. Specifically, it was anticipated that emotional suppression would predict decreases in caloric intake, whereas impulsivity would predict increases in caloric intake, in response to a stressor. Participants were randomly assigned to view either a video designed to elicit stress or a control video. Food was provided during the video and the amount and type of food consumed was measured. Participants' nutritional intake was greater in the stress condition than in the control condition. One aspect of affect regulation, impulsivity, moderated this relationship, with a tendency for greater impulsivity to be associated with greater caloric intake in the stress condition. The degree of negative affect that participants experienced in the stress condition predicted food choice and overall caloric intake. Both emotional control and impulsivity moderated the relationship between negative affect and both food choice and caloric intake in the stress condition. The present study highlights the importance of considering the personality attributes of both impulsivity and emotional suppression in understanding stress eating. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Computer-based versus in-person interventions for preventing and reducing stress in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Anootnara Talkul; Dalsbø, Therese K; Luong Thanh, Bao Yen; Agarwal, Arnav; Durand-Moreau, Quentin V; Kirkehei, Ingvild

    2017-08-30

    Chronic exposure to stress has been linked to several negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. Among employees, stress and its associated effects can also result in productivity losses and higher healthcare costs. In-person (face-to-face) and computer-based (web- and mobile-based) stress management interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress in employees compared to no intervention. However, it is unclear if one form of intervention delivery is more effective than the other. It is conceivable that computer-based interventions are more accessible, convenient, and cost-effective. To compare the effects of computer-based interventions versus in-person interventions for preventing and reducing stress in workers. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, NIOSHTIC, NIOSHTIC-2, HSELINE, CISDOC, and two trials registers up to February 2017. We included randomised controlled studies that compared the effectiveness of a computer-based stress management intervention (using any technique) with a face-to-face intervention that had the same content. We included studies that measured stress or burnout as an outcome, and used workers from any occupation as participants. Three authors independently screened and selected 75 unique studies for full-text review from 3431 unique reports identified from the search. We excluded 73 studies based on full-text assessment. We included two studies. Two review authors independently extracted stress outcome data from the two included studies. We contacted study authors to gather additional data. We used standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to report study results. We did not perform meta-analyses due to variability in the primary outcome and considerable statistical heterogeneity. We used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of the evidence. Two studies met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 159 participants in the included arms of the studies

  19. The Comparison between Conceived Stress and Personality traits, in People Suffering from Migraine and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Peymannia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Migraine is a common familial disease and is diagnosed with recurring throbbing headache. Investigation of biological and psychological factors in the initiation and aggravation of migraine headaches have shown that there is a relationship between the psychological factors, personality, and migraine headache. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the conceived stress and Personality traits between ill persons suffering from Migraine and healthy people. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which involves a sample including 30 migrainours and 30 healthy people. The migraine-suffering participants were chosen among the people who referred to specialized clinic of migraine in Ardabil in the first half of 2012. The study participants filled the Eysenck's personality questionnaire and Kohen' s Perceived stress scale. Descriptive statistics as well as MANOVA were utilized to analyze the research data. Results: The results showed that migraine-suffering participants conceived the stress negatively (P<0.01, F=11 compared to healthy participants. Moreover, migrainours scored significantly higher in regard to Neuroticism score compared to healthy people (P<0.05, F=5.91. Also, there was a significant difference between migrainours and healthy people in their extroversion score (P<0.05, F=6.57. Conclusion: According to the study findings, it appears that migraine patients are more vulnerable to the neurotic disease. Therefore, considering the psychological and personality characteristics may impact on the prognosis of disease.

  20. Temperament and Character Personality Profile and Illness-Related Stress in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is a risk factor as well as a consequence of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC. Impulsiveness, overachievement, emotional instability, and hard-driving competitiveness have been discussed as personality features in CSC patients. We investigated 57 consecutive CSC patients and 57 age- and gender-matched controls by means of the Symptom Checklist 90-R and the Temperament and Character Inventory. Somatic risk factors, illness characteristics, subjective assessment of severity of illness, and illness-related stress in different areas of life (work, private life were evaluated. CSC patients showed significantly higher emotional distress as measured by the Global Severity Index. The CSC personality was characterized by lower scoring on the character dimension cooperativeness and the temperament dimension reward dependence. Cooperativeness as well as subjective assessment of severity of CSC has been recognized as significant predictors of illness-related work stress accounting for 30% of variance. Implicating competitiveness, hostility and emotional detachment, lower level of cooperativeness, and reward dependence support the existence of specific aspects of type A behaviour in CSC patients. Low perceived social support and loss of control may explain the significant contribution of this personality dimension to illness-related work stress. Treatment of CSC should thus incorporate psychoeducation about factors contributing to illness-related stress.

  1. Effect of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and general health of hospital nurses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of studies to date have focused on the effects of work stress in the nursing environment, with the effect of personal stress in nursing being less explored. This study sought to determine whether personal stress is a more significant predictor of burnout, job satisfaction and general health than work stress. Of the 1200 nurses randomly selected to participate in the study, 895 agreed to complete six questionnaires over 3 weeks. Data was analysed using hierarchical multiple linear regression. Findings revealed that personal stress is a better predictor of burnout and general health than job satisfaction, which is better predicted by work stress. The findings of this study could inform potential solutions to reduce the impact of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and general health. Coping strategies and staffing strategies need to be evaluated within developing contexts such as South Africa to as certain their effectiveness.

  2. Personality traits as predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujičić Milena M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to examine the predictive power of personality traits, as defined by the Big five model of personality in expressing depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years. The research was conducted on a sample of 977 secondary school students in the third and fourth grade from ten secondary schools in Niš. The gender structure of the sample was as follows: 397 boys and 607 girls. The following instruments were used in the research: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995, Big Five Inventory - BFI (John, Donahue and Kentle, 1991. The results showed that the regression model constructed by personal traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to experience explain 26% of the criterion variable of Anxiety. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β=.34, p<0.01 . Other personal traits that contribute to the prediction of this variable at a statistically significant level are Extraversion (β =-.17, p<0.01, Agreeableness (β =-.14, p<0.01 and Conscientiousness (β =-.17, p<0.01. The same model explains 37% of the criterion variable Stress. The largest individual contribution to Stress prediction is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.57, p<0.01. The same model explains 27% of the criterion variable Anxiety as well. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.45, p<0.01, whereas a statistically significant correlation between personal traits Agreeableness (β =-.06, p<0.05 and Conscientious (β =-.12, p<0.01 exists. Results show that the difference between boys and girls in expressing Anxiety (t=-2.96, p<0.01 and Stress (t=-5.01, p<0.01 exists. These emotional states are more expressive with girls. However, there are no differences in expressing Depression

  3. Hyperspectral Based Skin Detection for Person of Interest Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    short-wave infrared VIS visible spectrum PCA principal component analysis FCBF Fast Correlation- Based Filter POI person of interest ANN artificial neural...an artificial neural network (ANN) that is created in MATLAB® using the Neural Network Toolbox to identify a POI based on their skin spectral data. A...identifying a POI based on skin spectral data. She identified an optimal feature subset to be used with the hyperspectral data she collected using a

  4. Relationship between stress coping and personality in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, T; Sakado, K; Sakado, M; Sato, T; Someya, T

    1999-01-01

    Stress coping is defined as a behavioral or cognitive response of an individual to uncomfortable or difficult situations. It has been suggested that coping, like personality, is related to the pathology and course of mental disorders. Accordingly, we here used a clinical sample to investigate the relationships between coping strategies and personality traits. Subjects were 60 outpatients who were in remission from major depressive disorder and who completed the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Munich Personality Test (MPT). Task-oriented coping showed a positive correlation with extraversion and frustration tolerance. Emotion-oriented coping was closely associated with neuroticism, esoteric tendencies and isolation tendency. Avoidance-oriented coping was related to extraversion. Principal component analysis indicated three corresponding factors between coping and personality; one was related to psychopathology (loading from the neuroticism, esoteric tendencies and isolation tendency scales of the MPT, and from the emotion-oriented coping scale of the CISS), a second was a social-adaptive ability component (loading from the frustration tolerance and extraversion scales of the MPT, and from the task-oriented coping and avoidance-oriented coping scales of the CISS), and a third was a passive-avoidance coping component (loaded from the emotion-oriented coping and avoidance-oriented coping scales of the CISS only). Some personality traits such as extraversion and frustration tolerance are significantly related to task-oriented coping, and psychopathological personality traits such as neuroticism are associated with emotional-oriented coping in major depressive disorder.

  5. Sex-Specificity of Oxidative Stress in Newborns Leading to a Personalized Antioxidant Nutritive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Lavoie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis. It appears essential to have a personalized approach that will take into account the age of gestation at birth and the sex of the infant. However, the link between sex and oxidative stress remains unclear. The aim of this study was to find a common denominator explaining the discrepancy between studies related to sex-specific effects of oxidative stress. Results highlight a specificity of sex in the levels of oxidative stress markers linked to the metabolism of glutathione, as measured in the intracellular compartments. Levels of all sex-dependent oxidative stress markers are greater and markers associated to a better antioxidant defense are lower in boys compared to girls during the neonatal period. This sex-specific discrepancy is likely to be related to estrogen metabolism, which is more active in baby-girls and promotes the activation of glutathione metabolism. Conclusion: our observations suggest that nutritive antioxidant strategies need to target glutathione metabolism and, therefore, should be personalized considering, among others, the sex specificity.

  6. Sex-Specificity of Oxidative Stress in Newborns Leading to a Personalized Antioxidant Nutritive Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jean-Claude; Tremblay, André

    2018-03-27

    Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis. It appears essential to have a personalized approach that will take into account the age of gestation at birth and the sex of the infant. However, the link between sex and oxidative stress remains unclear. The aim of this study was to find a common denominator explaining the discrepancy between studies related to sex-specific effects of oxidative stress. Results highlight a specificity of sex in the levels of oxidative stress markers linked to the metabolism of glutathione, as measured in the intracellular compartments. Levels of all sex-dependent oxidative stress markers are greater and markers associated to a better antioxidant defense are lower in boys compared to girls during the neonatal period. This sex-specific discrepancy is likely to be related to estrogen metabolism, which is more active in baby-girls and promotes the activation of glutathione metabolism. our observations suggest that nutritive antioxidant strategies need to target glutathione metabolism and, therefore, should be personalized considering, among others, the sex specificity.

  7. Toward a Personalized Real-Time Diagnosis in Neonatal Seizure Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temko, Andriy; Sarkar, Achintya Kumar; Boylan, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    The problem of creating a personalized seizure detection algorithm for newborns is tackled in this study. A probabilistic framework for semi-supervised adaptation of a generic patient-independent neonatal seizure detector is proposed. A system which is based on a combination of patient...... study to propose the use of online adaptation without clinical labels, to build a personalized diagnostic system for the detection of neonatal seizures....

  8. Coping, stress, and personality in Spanish nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Remote detection of stress corrosion cracking: Surface composition and crack detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Jovanovic, Igor; Motta, Arthur T.; Xiao, Xuan; Le Berre, Samuel; Fobar, David; Cho, Hwanjeong; Choi, Sungho

    2018-04-01

    Chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steel is a potential issue in long term dry storage of spent nuclear fuel canisters. In order for SCC to occur there must be a corrosive environment, a susceptible material, and a driving force. Because it is likely that the material in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of welded stainless steel structures has been sensitized as a result of chromium depletion at the grain boundaries and a thermal residual stress driving force is likely present if solution annealing is not performed, two issues are critical. Is the environment corrosive, i.e., are chlorides present in solution on the surface? And then, are there cracks that could propagate? Remote detection of chlorides on the surface can be accomplished by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), while cracks can be detected by shear horizontal guided waves generated by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). Both are noncontact methods that are amenable to robotic delivery systems and harsh environments. The sensitivity to chlorine on stainless steel of a LIBS system that employs optical fiber for pulse delivery is demonstrated. Likewise, the ability of the EMAT system to detect cracks of a prescribed size and orientation is shown. These results show the potential for remote detection of Cl and cracks in dry storage spent fuel canisters.

  10. Water stress detection in the Amazon using radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Paget, Aaron; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Bittencourt, Paulo R. L.; Barros, Fernanda de V.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest plays an important role in the global water and carbon cycle, and though it is predicted to continue drying in the future, the effect of drought remains uncertain. Developments in remote sensing missions now facilitate large-scale observations. The RapidScat scatterometer (Ku band) mounted on the International Space Station observes the Earth in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit, which allows for studying changes in the diurnal cycle of radar backscatter over the Amazon. Diurnal cycles in backscatter are significantly affected by the state of the canopy, especially during periods of increased water stress. We use RapidScat backscatter time series and water deficit measurements from dendrometers in 20 trees during a 9 month period to relate variations in backscatter to increased tree water deficit. Morning radar bacskcatter dropped significantly with increased tree water deficit measured with dendrometers. This provides unique observational evidence that demonstrates the sensitivity of radar backscatter to vegetation water stress, highlighting the potential of drought detection and monitoring using radar.

  11. Vitality detection in personal authentication systems using fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Coli, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Fingerprints are considered as the sign of each human being, and this has contributed the development of biometric applications based on such features. Since 2002, an important vulnerability has been shown: it is possible to deceive fingerprint scanners through artificial replicas of fingertips. In order to address this shortcoming it is need to recognize a spoofing attempt with artificial fingers looking for some “life signs” each time an user submit a fingerprint (vitality detection problem...

  12. Personality and posttraumatic stress disorder among directly exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Abbacchi, Anna; Cloninger, C Robert

    2012-01-01

    Few disaster studies have specifically examined personality in association with exposure to disaster and development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A study of survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing examined PTSD and personality measured after the disaster. In a random sample of 255 survivors from a bombing survivor registry, 151 (59%) completed both full PTSD and personality assessments using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. Postbombing PTSD was associated with low self-directedness and low cooperativeness, and also with high self-transcendence and harm avoidance in most configurations. Disorganized (schizotypal) character and explosive (borderline) temperament configurations were associated with PTSD; creative and autocratic character configurations were negatively associated with PTSD. Clinicians should be vigilant for PTSD among individuals with personality disorders and also be aware that personality disorders are likely to be overrepresented among people with PTSD. Treatment of PTSD may need to take into account comorbid personality disorders and personality features. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Does mobbing cause posttraumatic stress disorder? Impact of coping and personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Barbara; Sulyok, Christoph; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has documented that a variety of anxiety, depressive, and psychosomatic symptoms are present in a substantial portion of mobbing victims. This study aimed to explore the frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among mobbing victims, and to investigate how PTSD was linked to pertinent psychometric scales. We recruited 20 mobbing victims and conducted the Structural Clinical Interview (SCID) to assess PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria. The trauma criterion was homogeneously defined as mobbing. 55% of our entire sample had a current PTSD, and 70% suffered from severe posttraumatic stress symptoms according to the Impact of Event Scale. Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), we found that mobbing victims with a current PTSD tended to demonstrate higher levels of stress and depressive symptoms, and less quality of life (SF 36 Short-Form Health Survey), especially in terms of bodily pain, compared with those without a PTSD diagnosis. No significant differences in personality factors (Freiburg Personality Inventory) between mobbing-victims with and without PTSD were evident by multivariate analysis. Univariate statistics, however, revealed that mobbing-related PTSD showed a trend towards higher scores in social orientation and somatic complaints. There was no general evidence that mobbing victims with a PTSD used more often negative and positive coping strategies (SVF - Stress Coping Questionnaire). However, they showed a tendency to employ control strategies, avoidance, social withdrawal, and cognitive preoccupation. Posttraumatic stress disorder subsequent to mobbing can occur frequently. PTSD therefore should be specifically considered in routine care.

  14. Acute stress in residents during emergency care: a study of personal and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto

    2017-05-01

    Providing care for simulated emergency patients may induce considerable acute stress in physicians. However, the acute stress provoked in a real-life emergency room (ER) is not well known. Our aim was to assess acute stress responses in residents during real emergency care and investigate the related personal and situational factors. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at an emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital. All second-year internal medicine residents were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. Acute stress markers were assessed at baseline (T1), before residents started their ER shift, and immediately after an emergency situation (T2), using heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase activity, salivary interleukin-1 β, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s and STAI-t). Twenty-four residents were assessed during 40 emergency situations. All stress markers presented a statistically significant increase between T1 and T2. IL-1 β presented the highest percent increase (141.0%, p stress in residents. Resident experience, trait anxiety, and number of emergency procedures were independently associated with acute stress response.

  15. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Hengartner (Michael P.); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); L. Bohleber (Laura); A. von Wyl (Agnes)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the

  16. Thermal Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Plant Species and Stress Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlerf, M.; Rock, G.; Ullah, S.; Gerhards, M.; Udelhoven, T.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy offers a novel opportunity for measuring emissivity spectra of natural surfaces. Emissivity spectra are not directly measured, they first have to be retrieved from the raw measurements. Once retrieved, the spectra can be used, for example, to discriminate plant species or to detect plant stress. Knowledge of plant species distribution is essential for the sustainable management of ecosystems. Remote sensing of plant species has so far mostly been limited to data in the visible and near-infrared where, however, different species often reveal similar reflectance curves. Da Luz and Crowley showed in a recent paper that in the TIR plants indeed have distinct spectral features. Also with a certain species, subtle changes of emissivity in certain wavebands may occur, when biochemical compounds change due to osmotic adjustment induced by water stress. Here we show, that i) emissive imaging spectroscopy allows for reliable and accurate retrieval of plant emissivity spectra, ii) emissivity spectra are well suited to discriminate plant species, iii) a reduction in stomatal conductance (caused by stress) changes the thermal infrared signal. For 13 plant species in the laboratory and for 8 plant species in a field setup emissivity spectra were retrieved. A comparison shows, that for most species the shapes of the emissivity curves agree quite well, but that clear offsets between the two types of spectra exist. Discrimination analysis revealed that based on the lab spectra, 13 species could be distinguished with an average overall classification accuracy of 92% using the 6 best spectral bands. For the field spectra (8 species), a similar high OAA of 89% was achieved. Species discrimination is likely to be possible due to variations in the composition of the superficial epidermal layer of plant leaves and in internal chemical concentrations producing unique emissivity features. However, to date, which spectral feature is responsible for which

  17. Type D personality is associated with the development of stress cardiomyopathy following emotional triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare, Angelo; Bigi, Riccardo; Orrego, Pedro Silva; Proietti, Riccardo; Grossi, Enzo; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) can be triggered by emotional events. Recently, type D personality has been established as an independent predictor of acute cardiac adverse events. We sought to examine whether type D personality can be identified in SCM patients. A case-control study with 37 SCM patients, 37 myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, who both experienced emotional triggering, and 37 SCM patients without emotional triggers was performed. The DS14 and Interview for Recent Life Events were administered. Twenty-eight (76 %) SCM emotional trigger patients were categorized as type D compared with 13 (43 %) SCM patients without emotional trigger and 12 (32 %) AMI patients (p emotional triggers had higher scores on the social inhibition subscale than the other patient groups. The present study highlights the possible link between type D, with a specific key role for social inhibition component, and increased biological reactivity to acute emotional stress.

  18. Fusion of optical flow based motion pattern analysis and silhouette classification for person tracking and detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, J.W.H.; Lebert, E.; Burghouts, G.J.; Zon, K. van; Den Uyl, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to detect persons in video by combining optical flow based motion analysis and silhouette based recognition. A new fast optical flow computation method is described, and its application in a motion based analysis framework unifying human tracking and detection is

  19. Coca-Cola, cancers, and coronaries: personality and stress as mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossarth-Maticek, R; Eysenck, H J

    1991-06-01

    A theory is presented relating the consumption of stimulant and depressant drugs to cancer and coronary heart disease, with stress/personality acting as an intermediary. The predictions from the theory that large-scale consumption of Coca-Cola would prevent cancer and promote coronary heart disease was tested and found to be supported by the results of a long-scale prospective study. Results replicate those from an earlier study using coffee as a stimulant drug.

  20. Attitudes to emotional expression and personality in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, J; Williams, R M

    2000-09-01

    To test hypotheses derived from a suggestion of Williams (1989) that negative attitudes towards emotional expression act as a predisposing or maintaining factor for post-traumatic stress reactions following a traumatic event. The study employed a prospective design in which attitudes to emotional expression, the 'Big Five' personality factors (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) and initial symptoms and injury severity within 1 week of a road traffic accident were used to predict the development of post-traumatic stress disorder 6 weeks post-accident. Sixty victims of road traffic accidents randomly selected from attenders at a large A&E department were assessed by questionnaire and interview. Measures comprised a 4-item scale relating to emotional expression, standardized scales for intrusion and avoidance features of traumatic experiences, and for anxiety and depression and the NEO-FFI Five Factor Personality Inventory. Forty-five of these participants responded to a postal questionnaire follow-up. In this survey the battery was repeated and also included a self-report diagnostic measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The percentage of the sample meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD at 6 weeks post-trauma was 30.8%. A small but significant relationship was found for negative attitudes to emotional expression at 1 week to predict intrusive symptoms and diagnosis at 6 weeks, over and above the independent relationships of initial symptoms, initial injury severity, personality and coping. The emotional expression measure was largely stable between the two points of measurement. More negative attitudes to emotional expression were related to less openness, extraversion and agreeableness personality domains. Some support for the hypotheses was found in relation to the development of PTSD and for the status of attitudes to emotion as a stable trait related to personality factors. The potential importance of attitudes to emotional expression in therapy and other

  1. Does stress mediate the association between personal relative deprivation and gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep; Meadows, Tyler J S

    2018-04-01

    Evidence has linked subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation with general gambling involvement and problem gambling tendencies. In turn, problem gambling tendencies have been linked with a wide array of damaging physical and mental health consequences. It has been theorized that the deleterious effects of perceived inequality on mental and physical health operate at the individual level through the experience of personal relative deprivation leading to psychosocial stress. We empirically examined whether the experience of perceived stress contributes to explaining the deprivation-gambling link using cross-sectional, self-reported survey data collected from a crowdsourced population of adults (n = 565). Results indicate that personal relative deprivation is associated with problem gambling tendencies (but not general gambling involvement) and that this association is mediated by perceived stress. These associations were particularly strong among participants who reported non-zero levels of problem gambling tendencies. Together, our results further emphasize the importance of individual-level social comparison reactions in the context of health. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  3. Type D personality, stress, coping and performance on a novel sport task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Borkoles

    Full Text Available We investigated (1 the relationship between Type D personality, stress intensity appraisal of a self-selected stressor, coping, and perceived coping effectiveness and (2 the relationship between Type D personality and performance. In study one, 482 athletes completed the Type D personality questionnaire (DS14, stress thermometer and MCOPE in relation to a recently experienced sport stressor. Type D was associated with increased levels of perceived stress and selection of coping strategies (more emotion and avoidance coping as well as perceptions of their effectiveness. In study two, 32 participants completed a rugby league circuit task and were assessed on pre-performance anxiety, post-performance affect and coping. Type D was associated with poorer performance (reduced distance; more errors, decreases in pre-performance self-confidence and more use of maladaptive resignation/withdrawal coping. Findings suggest that Type D is associated with maladaptive coping and reduced performance. Type D individuals would benefit from interventions related to mood modification or enhancing interpersonal functioning.

  4. Design and Lab Experiment of a Stress Detection Service based on Mouse Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Kowatsch, Tobias; Wahle, Fabian; Filler, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Workplace stress can negatively affect the health condition of employees and with it, the performance of organizations. Although there exist approaches to measure work-related stress, two major limitations are the low resolution of stress data and its obtrusive measurement. The current work applies design science research with the goal to design, implement and evaluate a Stress Detection Service (SDS) that senses the degree of work-related stress solely based on mouse movements of knowledge w...

  5. Real-time person detection in low-resolution thermal infrared imagery with MSER and CNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christian; Müller, Thomas; Willersinn, Dieter; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    In many camera-based systems, person detection and localization is an important step for safety and security applications such as search and rescue, reconnaissance, surveillance, or driver assistance. Long-wave infrared (LWIR) imagery promises to simplify this task because it is less affected by background clutter or illumination changes. In contrast to a lot of related work, we make no assumptions about any movement of persons or the camera, i.e. persons may stand still and the camera may move or any combination thereof. Furthermore, persons may appear arbitrarily in near or far distances to the camera leading to low-resolution persons in far distances. To address this task, we propose a two-stage system, including a proposal generation method and a classifier to verify, if the detected proposals really are persons. In contradiction to use all possible proposals as with sliding window approaches, we apply Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER) and classify the detected proposals afterwards with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The MSER algorithm acts as a hot spot detector when applied to LWIR imagery. Because the body temperature of persons is usually higher than the background, they appear as hot spots in the image. However, the MSER algorithm is unable to distinguish between different kinds of hot spots. Thus, all further LWIR sources such as windows, animals or vehicles will be detected, too. Still by applying MSER, the number of proposals is reduced significantly in comparison to a sliding window approach which allows employing the high discriminative capabilities of deep neural networks classifiers that were recently shown in several applications such as face recognition or image content classification. We suggest using a CNN as classifier for the detected hot spots and train it to discriminate between person hot spots and all further hot spots. We specifically design a CNN that is suitable for the low-resolution person hot spots that are common with

  6. [The relationship between cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of type A personality pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisli Sahin, Nesrin; Güler, Murat; Basim, H Nejat

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationships between cognitive and emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of Type A personality pattern. The Raven Progressive Matrices, Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Inventory, Stress Symptoms Scale, and Type A Personality Scale were administered to 271 university students. Two groups, Type As and Type Bs were created according to the Type A Personality Scale scores and were compared in terms of their scores on the other scales that were administered. Our analyses showed that stress symptoms were negatively correlated with effective coping, stress management, and general mood dimensions of the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. They were also positively correlated with ineffective coping and Type A behaviors. Being female also significantly predicted stress symptoms. When the participants were grouped according to Type A Personality Scale scores as Type As and Type Bs, the regression analysis showed that the stress symptoms of Type As were significantly predicted by the insufficient use of effective coping styles and deficiencies in the general mood component of emotional intelligence, whereas the stress symptoms of Type Bs were predicted by the insufficient use of effective coping styles, overuse of ineffective coping styles, and increase in the intrapersonal abilities component of emotional intelligence. Stress symptoms can be related to the variables associated with personality styles. It is suggested that stress management programs for Type As should include exercises that increase emotional intelligence, especially the components of drawing pleasure from their life situation, being more positive, hopeful and optimistic.

  7. Exploiting Multiple Detections for Person Re-Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Bhuiyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Re-identification systems aim at recognizing the same individuals in multiple cameras, and one of the most relevant problems is that the appearance of same individual varies across cameras due to illumination and viewpoint changes. This paper proposes the use of cumulative weighted brightness transfer functions (CWBTFs to model these appearance variations. Different from recently proposed methods which only consider pairs of images to learn a brightness transfer function, we exploit such a multiple-frame-based learning approach that leverages consecutive detections of each individual to transfer the appearance. We first present a CWBTF framework for the task of transforming appearance from one camera to another. We then present a re-identification framework where we segment the pedestrian images into meaningful parts and extract features from such parts, as well as from the whole body. Jointly, both of these frameworks contribute to model the appearance variations more robustly. We tested our approach on standard multi-camera surveillance datasets, showing consistent and significant improvements over existing methods on three different datasets without any other additional cost. Our approach is general and can be applied to any appearance-based method.

  8. Presenteeism, stress resilience, and physical activity in older manual workers: a person-centred analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Black, Julie; Lindwall, Magnus; Whittaker, Anna; Balanos, George M

    2017-12-01

    This study used a person-centred approach to explore typologies of older manual workers based on presenteeism, stress resilience, and physical activity. Older manual workers ( n  = 217; 69.1% male; age range 50-77; M age = 57.11 years; SD = 5.62) from a range of UK-based organisations, representing different manual job roles, took part in the study. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Based on the three input variables: presenteeism, stress resilience and physical activity, four distinct profiles were identified on using Latent Profile Analysis. One group ('High sport/exercise and well-functioning'; 5.50%) engaged in high levels of sport/exercise and exhibited low levels of stress resilience and all types of presenteeism. Another profile ('Physically burdened'; 9.70%) reported high levels of work and leisure-time physical activity, low stress resilience, as well as high levels of presenteeism due to physical and time demands. A 'Moderately active and functioning' group (46.50%) exhibited moderate levels on all variables. Finally, the fourth profile ('Moderately active with high presenteeism'; 38.20%) reported engaging in moderate levels of physical activity and had relatively high levels of stress resilience, yet also high levels of presenteeism. The profiles differed on work affect and health perceptions largely in the expected directions. There were no differences between the profiles in socio-demographics. These results highlight complex within-person interactions between presenteeism, stress resilience, and physical activity in older manual workers. The identification of profiles of older manual workers who are at risk of poor health and functioning may inform targeted interventions to help retain them in the workforce for longer.

  9. Detecting work stress in offices by combining unobtrusive sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koldijk, S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Kraaij, W.

    2016-01-01

    Employees often report the experience of stress at work. In the SWELL project we investigate how new context aware pervasive systems can support knowledge workers to diminish stress. The focus of this paper is on developing automatic classiers to infer working conditions and stress related mental

  10. Ontology-based knowledge management for personalized adverse drug events detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Sun, Xingzhi; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Li, Bo; Li, Jing; Pan, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Since Adverse Drug Event (ADE) has become a leading cause of death around the world, there arises high demand for helping clinicians or patients to identify possible hazards from drug effects. Motivated by this, we present a personalized ADE detection system, with the focus on applying ontology-based knowledge management techniques to enhance ADE detection services. The development of electronic health records makes it possible to automate the personalized ADE detection, i.e., to take patient clinical conditions into account during ADE detection. Specifically, we define the ADE ontology to uniformly manage the ADE knowledge from multiple sources. We take advantage of the rich semantics from the terminology SNOMED-CT and apply it to ADE detection via the semantic query and reasoning.

  11. Effects of Adult Day Care on Daily Stress of Caregivers: A Within-Person Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Femia, Elia E.; Almeida, David M.; Savla, Jyoti; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This article examined exposure to and appraisal of care-related stressors associated with use of adult day services (ADS) by family caregivers of individuals with dementia. Methods. Using a within-person withdrawal design (A-B-A-B), we compared caregivers’ exposure to and appraisal of behavior problems on days their relative attended and did not attend ADS. Participants were 121 family caregivers enrolling a relative with dementia in an ADS program. Daily assessments were obtained prior to the person's attending ADS for the first time and after 1 and 2 months of attendance on days the person attended and did not attend ADS. Results. Total exposure to stressors and stress appraisals decreased significantly over time on ADS days compared with non-ADS days. Most of this difference was accounted by the time the person with dementia was away from the caregiver, but there were also significant reductions in behavioral problems during the evening and improved sleep immediately following ADS use. Discussion. ADS use lowered caregivers’ exposure to stressors and may improve behavior and sleep for people with dementia on days they have ADS. The study highlights how a within-person design can identify the effects of an intermittent intervention, such as ADS. PMID:21642593

  12. Clinical syndromes, personality and recovery from stress: A study in occupational samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Rodríguez Molina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stress manifests itself with different intensity and effects on different people. In many cases it leads to serious health problems or may worsen the prognosis of certain diseases. Stress has been linked to many conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and infectious diseases. The workplace can be a source of chronic stress. Many variables have been described that allegedly modulate stress response. Aim. To rank the relationship between some of these variables. A model is presented in this study whereby psychopathological personality traits should be related to one of those modulating variables and thus, with the subject's ability to recover from stress. Design. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Participants. The sample consisted of 108 volunteers: 15 drivers of Madrid city buses, 44 Iberia flight attendants and 49 waiters in bars in the Community of Madrid. Only 4 bus drivers refused to participate. All flight attendants and waiters consented to be included in the study. Intervention. Tests RESTQ-WORK of Kallus and Jiménez and MCMI of Millon were applied to a sample of 108 workers (bus drivers, bar tender and flight attendants. Outcomes. The hypothesis was verified through Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis for each dependant variable.

  13. Person-environment fit: using commensurate scales to predict student stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccio, G J; Talbot, R J; Joniak, A J

    1993-11-01

    The relationship between person-environment fit and stress was examined for two samples of university students (N = 55 and 79). The Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) was modified to assess the students' perceptions of the adaptor-innovator style required by their course, the styles they exhibited in the course, and their ideal style preferences. To ascertain fit, the KAI total scores and subscale scores (Originality, Efficiency, and Rule/Group Conformity) were used to classify students on three dimensions: (1) perception of what style their course required, adaptive or innovative; (2) congruence between the style the course required and the style they exhibited in the course; and (3) the magnitude of the difference, if any, between the required style and the exhibited style. Points two and three are measures of fit. The dependent variable was stress. Also the students' ideal style scores, KAI total and subscales, were substituted for the exhibited scores and the classification and analyses were repeated. Analysis of the total scores revealed that a course requiring adaptive behaviours was perceived as more stressful than a course requiring innovative behaviours. Similarly, an analysis of the Rule/Group Conformity scores revealed that the greater the conformity required the greater the stress. Also the less originality demanded in the course the greater was the perceived stress. For the KAI total scores and Rule/Group Conformity scores, the two measures of fit (incongruity and magnitude of the incongruity) were not related to stress. However, analyses of the Originality and Efficiency subscales supported the importance of the P-E fit position. For both subscales, stress was associated with the magnitude of the difference between what was required in the course and what students exhibited in the course. Educational implications derived from these findings as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.

  14. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H.M.; Albers, C.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  15. Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence : Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  16. The influence of personality traits and social support on male nursing student life stress: a cross-sectional research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Li, Ren-Hau; Yang, Cheng-I; Eng, Cheng-Joo

    2010-06-01

    Understanding how male nursing students alleviate life stress during their academic career is conducive to their development as successful nursing professionals. This study was designed to understand the personality traits, social support, and life stresses of male nursing students. The respective influences of personality traits and social support on life stress were also explored. The study used a cross-sectional research design. A college in central Taiwan was targeted as the site for data collection. A total of 158 questionnaires were dispatched, with 145 valid copies returned (valid response rate = 91.7%). Structured questionnaires were designed to collect data on participant demographics, personality traits, social support, and life stress. Statistical methods such as descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis were applied to data analysis. Major findings of this study revealed that (a) in general, the personality traits, social support, and life stress of male nursing students scored in the medium to high range. Participants reported encountering more stress from learning and life goals than from interpersonal stress. (b) Male nursing student demographic variables (e.g., parent [father and mother considered separately] education level) and the personality traits of conscientiousness and family support, respectively, were found to impact significantly on participant life stress perceptions. And (c) the only significant predictors of life stress were support from family and education level of participant fathers and mothers, accounting for about 23.7% of variability. It is suggested that nursing students in each year of their academic career should be exposed to courses geared to reduce the life stress perceptions (especially in the areas of learning and career development) of male nursing students. Increased family support is an effective way to decrease male nursing student life stress. This study could be a

  17. Oxidative stress detection by MEMS cantilever sensor array based electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anurag; Singh, T. Sonamani; Singh, Priyanka; Yadava, R. D. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with analyzing the role of polymer swelling induced surface stress in MEMS chemical sensors. The objective is to determine the impact of surface stress on the chemical discrimination ability of MEMS resonator sensors. We considered a case study of hypoxia detection by MEMS sensor array and performed several types of simulation experiments for detection of oxidative stress volatile organic markers in human breath. Both types of sensor response models that account for the surface stress effect and that did not were considered for the analyses in comparison. It is found that the surface stress (hence the polymer swelling) provides better chemical discrimination ability to polymer coated MEMS sensors.

  18. DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING. R Slade, J L McKee and G E Hatch. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.Reliable non-invasive markers for detecting oxidative stress in vivo are currently not available. We pr...

  19. [THE POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF COLORIMETRY TECHNIQUE OF DETECTION OF LEVELS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF SERUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapojnikova, M A; Strakhova, L A; Blinova, T V; Makarov, I A; Rakhmanov, R S; Umniagina, I A

    2015-11-01

    The analysis was implemented concerning indicators of oxidative status and antioxidant capacity of serum. The indicators were received by colorimetry technique based on detection of peroxides in blood serum in examined patients of different categories: healthy persons aged from 17 to 20 years and from 30 to 60 years and patients with bronchopulmonary pathology. The low level of oxidative stress and high antioxidant capacity of serum were established in individuals ofyounger age. With increasing of age, degree of expression of oxidative stress augmented and level of antioxidant defense lowered. Almost all patients with bronchopulmonary pathology had high level of oxidative stress and low level of antioxidant defense. The analysis of quantitative data of examined indicators their conformity with health condition was established

  20. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder, complex posttraumatic stress disorder, and borderline personality disorder from a network analytical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knefel, Matthias; Tran, Ulrich S; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) share etiological risk factors and an overlapping set of associated symptoms. Since the ICD-11 proposal for trauma-related disorders, the relationship of these disorders has to be clarified. A novel approach to psychopathology, network analysis, allows for a detailed analysis of comorbidity on symptom level. Symptoms were assessed in adult survivors of childhood abuse (N=219) using the newly developed ICD-11 Trauma-Questionnaire and the SCID-II. The psychopathological network was analyzed using the network approach. PTSD and Complex PTSD symptoms were strongly connected within disorders and to a lesser degree between disorders. Symptoms of BPD were weakly connected to others. Re-experiencing and dissociation were the most central symptoms. Mental disorders are no discrete entities, clear boundaries are unlikely to be found. The psychopathological network revealed central symptoms that might be important targets for specific first interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Crop stress detection and classification using hyperspectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Jon Trenton

    Agricultural production has observed many changes in technology over the last 20 years. Producers are able to utilize technologies such as site-specific applicators and remotely sensed data to assist with decision making for best management practices which can improve crop production and provide protection to the environment. It is known that plant stress can interfere with photosynthetic reactions within the plant and/or the physical structure of the plant. Common types of stress associated with agricultural crops include herbicide induced stress, nutrient stress, and drought stress from lack of water. Herbicide induced crop stress is not a new problem. However, with increased acreage being planting in varieties/hybrids that contain herbicide resistant traits, herbicide injury to non-target crops will continue to be problematic for producers. With rapid adoption of herbicide-tolerant cropping systems, it is likely that herbicide induced stress will continue to be a major concern. To date, commercially available herbicide-tolerant varieties/hybrids contain traits which allow herbicides like glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium to be applied as a broadcast application during the growing season. Both glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium are broad spectrum herbicides which have activity on a large number of plant species, including major crops like non-transgenic soybean, corn, and cotton. Therefore, it is possible for crop stress from herbicide applications to occur in neighboring fields that contain susceptible crop varieties/hybrids. Nutrient and moisture stress as well as stress caused by herbicide applications can interact to influence yields in agricultural fields. If remotely sensed data can be used to accurately identify specific levels of crop stress, it is possible that producers can use this information to better assist them in crop management to maximize yields and protect their investments. This research was conducted to evaluate classification of specific

  2. Comparison of stress-rest and rest-stress one day myocardial perfusion scintigraphies in detecting coronary artery diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Song, Ho Cheon; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium agents can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few hours. The purpose of this study was to compare the two protocols (stress-rest and rest-stress) in detecting coronary artery diseases. One hundred and sixty patients (101 males, 59 females, mean age 57±9 years) and 120 patients (79 males, 41 females, mean age 59±10 years) underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion SPECT and rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT, respectively. All of them underwent both myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within 1 month. A coronary stenosis was considered significant when it compromised the luminal diameter by ≥50%. The chi square test was used to compare differences in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the two groups. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of stress-rest protocol were 99%, 35% and 68%, respectively. Those of rest-stress protocol were 96%, 47% and 78%, respectively. There was no difference between the two protocols in identifying individual diseased coronary artery branches. Therefore, one day stress-rest and rest-stress myocardial SPECT using 99m Tc agents were comparable and were very sensitive tests in detecting coronary artery diseases

  3. Relationships of personality traits and stress to gingival status or soft-tissue oral pathology: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneman, M A; Cobb, C; Soriano, F; Burns, S; Schuchman, L

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of personality traits and stress with gingival inflammation and with soft-tissue oral pathology. Personality traits of psychoticism (P), extroversion and introversion (E), and neuroticism (N) were measured with Eysenck's personality questionnaire (EPQ). Stress was measured with a modified organizational and individual assessment survey (OIAS) developed by Hendrix. Military recruits from Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri, were examined for soft-tissue oral pathology and gingival status at weeks one (n = 241) and six (n = 61) of basic combat training (BCT). The EPQ and OIAS were administered to 217 recruits during week six of BCT. A discriminant analysis was used to determine correlations among study variables. Significant correlations (P personality traits and various measures of tolerance of stress. Little variance was found between groups originally presenting with or without disease. Only physical stress (P personality traits, stress variables, and gingival inflammation or soft-tissue pathology in recruits with extreme personality characteristics or perception of high physical stress levels in basic combat training.

  4. For Whom Does Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Work? Moderating Effects of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; Irrmischer, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling for socio-demographic factors. Meditation-naïve participants from the general population self-presenting with psychological stress complaints ( n  = 167 participants, 70% women, mean age 45.8 ± 9.3 years) were assessed in a longitudinal investigation of change in mood before and after the intervention and at a 3-month follow-up. Participants initially scoring high on neuroticism showed stronger decreases in both anxious and depressed mood (both p  moderating effects, when controlled for baseline mood. Only neuroticism showed to be associated with delayed benefit. Results are discussed in the context of findings from similar research using more traditional cognitive-behavioral interventions.

  5. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongjoon; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Soowon; Cho, Maeng Je; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual's personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants' history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11) was used to assess the participants' personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]). High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment.

  6. A review of the dissociative disorders: from multiple personality disorder to the posttraumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto J. Romero-López

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the idea of dissociation, dissociative disorders and their relationship with the processes of consciousness. We will deal specifically with multiple personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Both polarize the discussion of diagnostic categories with dissociative symptoms. This review compares the initial ideas (one century old with the current scenario and emerging trends in research, which are relating cognitive processes and dissociative phenomena and disorders from a neuroscientific approach. We discuss the ideas on dissociation, hypnosis and suicide associated with these disorders. There seems to be a lack of consensus as to the nature of dissociation with theoretical, empirical and clinical implications.

  7. Post-inflammatory fatigue in sarcoidosis: personality profiles, psychological symptoms and stress hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenromp, Ingrid H E; Grutters, Jan C; van den Bosch, Jules M M; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2012-02-01

    Chronic fatigue following inflammatory diseases has been well documented. However, little is known about possible risk factors of chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic post-inflammatory fatigue after clinical remission of the disease sarcoidosis is associated with specific dimensions of personality, psychological symptoms and baseline levels of stress hormones. Thirty-seven non-fatigued and 33 fatigued patients in clinical remission of sarcoidosis were evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-short form (TCI); the Symptom CheckList-90 (SCL), and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). Baseline levels of ACTH and cortisol were measured in plasma. Principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (varimax) was conducted on all personality, psychological and stress hormone data in order to obtain a smaller set of components. Logistic regression was performed to associate these components with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. Principal component analyses identified 5 components, of which two components were significantly associated with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The first component comprised the personality trait Harm Avoidance and all SCL-subscales except Sleep. The second component consisted of baseline levels ACTH and cortisol, and showed an inverse association with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The 3 other components, consisting of respectively SCL-Sleep, TCI-Novelty Seeking-Reward Dependence-Self Transcendence, and TCI-Persistence, were not significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronic post-inflammatory fatigue after clinical remission of sarcoidosis is associated with a triad of risk factors: a specific personality profile with profound neurotic characteristics in combination with high levels of psychological distress, and decreased baseline ACTH/cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Marital Stress and Extraversion Personality as Predicators of Job Satisfaction among Married Women Teachers in Enugu, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elom, Sampson Omena; Egba, Nwamaka A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated marital stress and extraversion personality as predictors of job satisfaction among married women teachers in Enugu, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty eight married women teachers in Enugu, Nigeria participated in the study. Three instruments were used to gather information in this study. They included marital stress inventory…

  9. The Role of Core Self-Evaluations in the Relationship between Stress and Depression in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Jesse B.; Yaghmaian, Rana; Smedema, Susan Miller

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of core self-evaluations (CSE) in the relationship between perceived stress and depression in persons with spinal cord injury. Method: Two hundred forty-seven adults with spinal cord injury completed an online survey measuring perceived stress, CSE, and depressive symptoms. Results: A multiple regression analysis…

  10. Basic stress-management in piano performance, composing and improvising : Based on personal experiences and self-reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Kushniruk, Tetyana

    2016-01-01

    There is a lot of information and it is not always easy to find the right bits, and to apply them. Therefore, stress-management in music world is underdeveloped. Musicians struggle in situations, where even basic psychophysical knowledge would already relieve the stress considerably. Thus, this paper aims to help musicians of all levels with as simple, universal, efficient stress-management tips as possible, without any medicine involved. The end aim is to help with the organization of person...

  11. Multi person detection and tracking based on hierarchical level-set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khraief, Chadia; Benzarti, Faouzi; Amiri, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient unsupervised method for mutli-person tracking based on hierarchical level-set approach. The proposed method uses both edge and region information in order to effectively detect objects. The persons are tracked on each frame of the sequence by minimizing an energy functional that combines color, texture and shape information. These features are enrolled in covariance matrix as region descriptor. The present method is fully automated without the need to manually specify the initial contour of Level-set. It is based on combined person detection and background subtraction methods. The edge-based is employed to maintain a stable evolution, guide the segmentation towards apparent boundaries and inhibit regions fusion. The computational cost of level-set is reduced by using narrow band technique. Many experimental results are performed on challenging video sequences and show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. A BML Based Embodied Conversational Agent for a Personality Detection Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solano Méndez, Guillermo; Reidsma, Dennis; Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni; Kopp, Stefan; Marsella, Stacy; Thórisson, Kristinn R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a project in which an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) attemtps to detect the personality of the user by asking him (or her) a series of questions. The project uses the Elckerlyc platform, a Behavior Markup Language (BML) compliant behavior realizer for ECAs [1]. BML allows

  13. Detection of person misfit in computerized adaptive tests with polytomous items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith; Meijer, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be estimated inaccurately. For computerized adaptive tests (CAT) with dichotomous items, several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting item score patterns have been proposed. Both for

  14. Stress lowers the detection threshold for foul-smelling 2-mercaptoethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacharra, Marlene; Schäper, Michael; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Wolf, Oliver T; van Thriel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported enhanced vigilance for threat-related information in response to acute stress. While it is known that acute stress modulates sensory systems in humans, its impact on olfaction and the olfactory detection of potential threats is less clear. Two psychophysical experiments examined, if acute stress lowers the detection threshold for foul-smelling 2-mercaptoethanol. Participants in Experiment 1 (N = 30) and Experiment 2 (N = 32) were randomly allocated to a control group or a stress group. Participants in the stress group underwent a purely psychosocial stressor (public mental arithmetic) in Experiment 1 and a stressor that combined a physically demanding task with social-evaluative threat in Experiment 2 (socially evaluated cold-pressor test). In both experiments, olfactory detection thresholds were repeatedly assessed by means of dynamic dilution olfactometry. Each threshold measurement consisted of three trials conducted using an ascending method of limits. Participants in the stress groups showed the expected changes in heart rate, salivary cortisol, and mood measures in response to stress. About 20 min after the stressor, participants in the stress groups could detect 2-mercaptoethanol at a lower concentration than participants in the corresponding control groups. Our results show that acute stress lowers the detection threshold for a malodor.

  15. Electromagnetic Detection of Stress Gradients at the Surfaces of Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, William F.; Zinke, Otto H.

    2004-01-01

    A general, integral expression is developed which relates measurements of the variations of the imaginary component of complex- reluctance with frequency to stress profiles near the surfaces of metals. The technique should yield either applied or residual stress profiles produced, for example, by heat-treating, metal-working, fatigue, or peening. It may even be applicable to carburizing. The technique of measurement cancels out the effects of any pre-treatment residual-stress profile (subject to the assumption of superposition). The general, integral expression is induced from the results of measurements on a steel bar which is subjected to both tensile tests and bending tests

  16. Stress generation in adolescence: Contributions from five-factor model (FFM) personality traits and childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Shauna C; Bagby, R Michael; Harkness, Kate L

    2017-04-01

    Youth with depression are theorized to generate stress in their lives because of a complex interaction between their personal characteristics and their chronic environmental context. Using a moderated regression approach, we provided a novel test of this hypothesis by examining whether adolescent 5-factor model personality traits moderate the associations between early emotional, physical, and sexual maltreatment and life events experienced in the past 6 months. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 110 adolescents (M = 16.24, SD = 1.53, age range = 13-17, 74.5% female) with major depressive disorder. The relation of physical maltreatment to dependent interpersonal life events was moderated by extraversion. Among physically maltreated youth, dependent interpersonal events were positively associated with extraversion. Further, the relation of sexual maltreatment to independent events were moderated by extraversion and agreeableness. Among sexually maltreated youth, independent events were negatively associated with extraversion and positively associated with agreeableness. The observed vulnerability-risk interactions are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the role of stress generation mechanisms in an integrated model of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Real-Time Personalized Monitoring to Estimate Occupational Heat Stress in Ambient Assisted Working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Assisted Working (AAW is a discipline aiming to provide comfort and safety in the workplace through customization and technology. Workers’ comfort may be compromised in many labor situations, including those depending on environmental conditions, like extremely hot weather conduces to heat stress. Occupational heat stress (OHS happens when a worker is in an uninterrupted physical activity and in a hot environment. OHS can produce strain on the body, which leads to discomfort and eventually to heat illness and even death. Related ISO standards contain methods to estimate OHS and to ensure the safety and health of workers, but they are subjective, impersonal, performed a posteriori and even invasive. This paper focuses on the design and development of real-time personalized monitoring for a more effective and objective estimation of OHS, taking into account the individual user profile, fusing data from environmental and unobtrusive body sensors. Formulas employed in this work were taken from different domains and joined in the method that we propose. It is based on calculations that enable continuous surveillance of physical activity performance in a comfortable and healthy manner. In this proposal, we found that OHS can be estimated by satisfying the following criteria: objective, personalized, in situ, in real time, just in time and in an unobtrusive way. This enables timely notice for workers to make decisions based on objective information to control OHS.

  18. The five-factor model of personality, work stress and professional quality of life in neonatal intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The study aim was to determine the direct and indirect relations of the five-factor model of personality traits and work stress with professional quality of life in neonatal nurses. Neonatal intensive care nursing has positive and negative effects on neonatal nurses' psychological well-being. Although individual and situational factors interact to influence professional quality of life, there have been few studies of these relationships in neonatal nurses. A cross-sectional study conducted in 2016. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure professional quality of life (burnout, secondary traumatic stress and compassion satisfaction), five-factor model of personality traits (neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness and openness) and work stress (role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload). One hundred and forty (34%) of 405 eligible neonatal nurses provided the data. After controlling for work stress, neuroticism and agreeableness were related to burnout, neuroticism was related to secondary traumatic stress, and extraversion was related to compassion satisfaction. Work stress controlled for personality traits was related to burnout and secondary traumatic stress, but not to compassion satisfaction. Neuroticism moderated the effect of work stress on secondary traumatic stress and agreeableness and openness moderated the effect of work stress on compassion satisfaction. Work stress mediated the effect of neuroticism and extraversion on burnout and the effects of extraversion and conscientiousness on compassion satisfaction. Strategies to reduce work stress may not lessen burnout and secondary traumatic stress or increase compassion satisfaction in neonatal nurses who are prone to high neuroticism, low agreeableness and low extraversion. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Detection of coronary artery disease - comparison of exercise stress radionuclide angiocardiography and thallium stress perfusion scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jengo, J.A.; Freeman, R.; Brizendine, M.; Mena, I.; St. Mary Medical Center, Long Beach, Calif.)

    1980-01-01

    Exercise thallium scanning and stress radionuclide angiography were compared in 16 normal subjects and 42 patients with more than 75% coronary arterial obstruction in studies using upright exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Studies at rest were subsequently obtained. Exercise thallium scans in the control group were normal in 15 and showed a defect in 1. Ejection fraction increased in all 16. During exercise, regional wall motion increased uniformly. In the group with coronary artery disease, thallium scanning revealed a new defect in the distribution of the involved arteries in 24 patients. In 15 who had a defect at rest, no new defect developed, but in 9 of the 15 new segmental wall motion defects were evident on radionuclide angiography. With exercise, ejection fraction decreased slightly. Regional wall motion abnormalities developed in the areas corresponding to thallium defects in all. Thallium scanning had a 93% and radionuclide angiography a 98% sensitivity value in detecting coronary artery disease. The respective specificity values were 94 and 100%. In patients with prior myocardial infarction who manifested new exercise abnormalities, 50% showed new thallium defects and 81% new wall motion defects

  20. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; van der Linden, Dimitri; Bohleber, Laura; von Wyl, Agnes

    2017-02-01

    We conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64 years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the emergency eventually turned out to be a false alarm, various witnesses showed pronounced distress owing to a vast police operation. The GFP structure was replicated using two alternative modelling approaches. Neuroticism related substantially to acute fear and traumatic distress as well as to more enduring maladaptive coping. Agreeableness was negatively associated with the coping strategy of medication use, whereas both agreeableness and conscientiousness related positively to social activity following the emergency. The GFP related moderately to peri-traumatic distress and showed a substantial negative association with medication use and a strong positive association with social activity. In conclusion, both the GFP and Big Five traits significantly moderate stress responses following a stressful life event. The GFP predominantly relates to socially adaptive coping, whereas in particular neuroticism accounts for acute stress reactions such as fear and traumatic distress. These findings support the notion that personality influences how persons react in the face of adversity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Persons with Chronic Pain: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Siqveland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo summarize evidence for the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among persons with chronic pain (CP.MethodsWe searched databases for studies published between January 1995 and December 2016, reporting the prevalence of PTSD in persons with CP. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We calculated the pooled prevalence using a random-effects model and performed subgroup analyses according to pain location, the population and assessment method.ResultsTwenty-one studies were included and the PTSD prevalence varied from 0–57%, with a pooled mean prevalence of 9.7%, 95% CI (5.2–17.1. In subgroup analysis, the PTSD prevalence was 20.5%, 95% CI (9.5–39.0 among persons with chronic widespread pain, 11.2%, 95% CI (5.7–22.8 among persons with headache, and 0.3%, 95% CI (0.0–2.4 among persons with back pain. The prevalence in clinical populations was 11.7%, 95% CI (6.0–21.5 and in non-clinical populations 5.1%, 95% CI (0.01–17.2. In studies of self-reported PTSD symptoms, PTSD prevalence was 20.4%, 95% CI (10.6–35.5, and in studies where structured clinical interviews had been used to assess PTSD its prevalence was 4.5%, 95% (CI 2.1–9.3. The risk of bias was medium for most studies and the heterogeneity was high (I2 = 98.6.ConclusionPTSD is overall more prevalent in clinical cohorts of persons with CP and particularly in those with widespread pain, but may not always be more prevalent in non-clinical samples of persons with CP, compared to the general population. There is a large heterogeneity in prevalence across studies. Future research should identify sources of heterogeneity and the mechanisms underlying the comorbidity of the two conditions.

  2. Multicultural personality and posttraumatic stress in U.S. service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Catherine J; Owens, Gina P

    2015-04-01

    Modern military missions place numerous demands on service members, including tactical, personal, and cultural challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore how domains of multicultural personality (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, and flexibility) and combat exposure relate to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in service members. Participants (N = 163) completed the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire, Combat Exposure Scale, and PTSD Checklist-Military as part of an online survey. The majority of participants were Caucasian (87%), mean age was 33 years, and all were deployed at least once to Iraq or Afghanistan Regression results indicated that higher levels of combat exposure and open-mindedness and lower levels of flexibility and emotional stability were significant predictors of higher PTSD severity. The interactions between combat exposure and flexibility and combat exposure and openness were also significant. Higher levels of flexibility and emotional stability seem particularly important in their association with lower PTSD severity for service members. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Type D personality, stress coping strategies and self-efficacy as predictors of Facebook intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Czuczwar, Stanisław Jerzy

    2017-07-01

    Recently, Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking sites. People use it more and more often. A number of studies have recently addressed the issue of excessive Facebook use, showing this phenomenon to be a spreading problem. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether Type D personality, self-efficacy and coping strategies are related to Facebook intrusion. The participants were 882 students of Polish universities, all of them Facebook users (72% women, mean age: 22.25 years, SD =2.06). We used the Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Facebook Intensity Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Type D Scale. We applied the pen-and-paper procedure. Our results indicate that emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented strategies of coping in stressful situations are predictors of Facebook intrusion and Facebook intensity. The relations between both Facebook intrusion and intensity and social inhibition are significant only when emotion-oriented coping strategy is controlled. The knowledge of whether coping strategies in stressful situations, such as focus on emotions or avoidance, are related to Facebook intrusion might be useful for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EXPLORING PERSONALITY DIAGNOSIS STABILITY FOLLOWING ACUTE PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR CHRONIC POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C; Petkova, Eva; Biyanova, Tatyana; Ding, Ke; Suh, Eun Jung; Neria, Yuval

    2015-12-01

    Axis I comorbidity complicates diagnosing axis II personality disorders (PDs). PDs might influence Axis I outcome. No research has examined psychotherapy effects on PDs of treating Axis I comorbidity. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial examined PD diagnostic stability after brief psychotherapy of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients with chronic PTSD were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of prolonged exposure, interpersonal psychotherapy, or relaxation therapy. Assessments included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Patient Version (SCID-P) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) at baseline, week 14, and for treatment responders (≥30% clinician-administered PTSD scale improvement, defined a priori) at week 26 follow-up. We hypothesized patients whose PTSD improved would retain fewer baseline PD diagnoses posttreatment, particularly with personality traits PTSD mimics, e.g. paranoid and avoidant. Forty-seven (47%) of 99 SCID-II patients evaluated at baseline received a SCID-II diagnosis: paranoid (28%), obsessive-compulsive (27%), and avoidant (23%) PDs were most prevalent. Among 78 patients who repeated SCID-II evaluations posttreatment, 45% (N = 35) had baseline PD diagnoses, of which 43% (N = 15/35) lost at week 14. Three (7%) patients without baseline PDs acquired diagnoses at week 14; 10 others shifted diagnoses. Treatment modality and PTSD response were unrelated to PD improvement. Of treatment responders reevaluated at follow-up (N = 44), 56% with any baseline Axis II diagnosis had none at week 26. This first evaluation of Axis I psychotherapy effects on personality disorder stability found that acutely treating a chronic state decreased apparent trait-across most PDs observed. These exploratory findings suggest personality diagnoses may have limited prognostic meaning in treating chronic PTSD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongjoon; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Soowon; Cho, Maeng Je; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual’s personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants’ history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11) was used to assess the participants’ personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]). High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment. PMID:29329352

  6. Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-08-05

    Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars.

  7. A Distributed Computing Framework for Real-Time Detection of Stress and of Its Propagation in a Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Parul; Lee, Eun Kyung; Pompili, Dario

    2016-11-01

    Stress is one of the key factor that impacts the quality of our daily life: From the productivity and efficiency in the production processes to the ability of (civilian and military) individuals in making rational decisions. Also, stress can propagate from one individual to other working in a close proximity or toward a common goal, e.g., in a military operation or workforce. Real-time assessment of the stress of individuals alone is, however, not sufficient, as understanding its source and direction in which it propagates in a group of people is equally-if not more-important. A continuous near real-time in situ personal stress monitoring system to quantify level of stress of individuals and its direction of propagation in a team is envisioned. However, stress monitoring of an individual via his/her mobile device may not always be possible for extended periods of time due to limited battery capacity of these devices. To overcome this challenge a novel distributed mobile computing framework is proposed to organize the resources in the vicinity and form a mobile device cloud that enables offloading of computation tasks in stress detection algorithm from resource constrained devices (low residual battery, limited CPU cycles) to resource rich devices. Our framework also supports computing parallelization and workflows, defining how the data and tasks divided/assigned among the entities of the framework are designed. The direction of propagation and magnitude of influence of stress in a group of individuals are studied by applying real-time, in situ analysis of Granger Causality. Tangible benefits (in terms of energy expenditure and execution time) of the proposed framework in comparison to a centralized framework are presented via thorough simulations and real experiments.

  8. Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability features for real-life stress detection. Case study: students under stress due to university examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-11-07

    This study investigates the variations of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) due to a real-life stressor and proposes a classifier based on nonlinear features of HRV for automatic stress detection. 42 students volunteered to participate to the study about HRV and stress. For each student, two recordings were performed: one during an on-going university examination, assumed as a real-life stressor, and one after holidays. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed by using Poincaré Plot, Approximate Entropy, Correlation dimension, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Recurrence Plot. For statistical comparison, we adopted the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and for development of a classifier we adopted the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the stress session. LDA generated a simple classifier based on the two Poincaré Plot parameters and Approximate Entropy, which enables stress detection with a total classification accuracy, a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 90%, 86%, and 95% respectively. The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear HRV analysis using short term ECG recording could be effective in automatically detecting real-life stress condition, such as a university examination.

  9. Do stress and support matter for caring? The role of perceived stress and social support on expressed emotion of carers of persons with first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadath, Anvar; Muralidhar, D; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N; Jose, Justin P

    2017-02-01

    Caring for a person with first episode psychosis (FEP) is a challenging and distressing task for the carers. The carers' stress in the early stage of psychosis can increase their expressed emotion (EE) while social support is hypothesized to decrease EE. However, the influence of stress and social support on carers' EE is not well understood in FEP. To examine how the stress and social support shape expressed emotion in the carers of FEP. Seventy one carers of the patients with non-affective FEP were recruited from the inpatient psychiatry ward of a tertiary mental health care center in South India. The family questionnaire, perceived stress scale and multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to measure their EE, stress and social support respectively. Carers experienced high level of perceived stress, EE and poor social support. Perceived stress significantly increased EE (β=0.834; psocial support did not significantly influence EE (β=-0.065; p>0.05). Perceived stress predicted 76 percent of the variance on EE (Adjusted R 2 =0.761). The results emphasize high level of stress and EE in carers of patients with FEP that implies the need for appropriate psychosocial interventions to manage their stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct Determination of a Small-Molecule Drug, Valproic Acid, by an Electrically-Detected Microcantilever Biosensor for Personalized Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Sun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct, small-molecule determination of the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid, was investigated by a label-free, nanomechanical biosensor. Valproic acid has long been used as an antiepileptic medication, which is administered through therapeutic drug monitoring and has a narrow therapeutic dosage range of 50–100 μg·mL−1 in blood or serum. Unlike labeled and clinically-used measurement techniques, the label-free, electrical detection microcantilever biosensor can be miniaturized and simplified for use in portable or hand-held point-of-care platforms or personal diagnostic tools. A micromachined microcantilever sensor was packaged into the micro-channel of a fluidic system. The measurement of the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid, in phosphate-buffered saline and serum used a single free-standing, piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor in a thermally-controlled system. The measured surface stresses showed a profile over a concentration range of 50–500 μg·mL−1, which covered the clinically therapeutic range of 50–100 μg·mL−1. The estimated limit of detection (LOD was calculated to be 45 μg·mL−1, and the binding affinity between the drug and the antibody was measured at around 90 ± 21 μg·mL−1. Lastly, the results of the proposed device showed a similar profile in valproic acid drug detection with those of the clinically-used fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

  11. Detection of feigned mental disorders on the personality assessment inventory: a discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R; Sewell, K W; Morey, L C; Ustad, K L

    1996-12-01

    Psychological assessment with multiscale inventories is largely dependent on the honesty and forthrightness of those persons evaluated. We investigated the effectiveness of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in detecting participants feigning three specific disorders: schizophrenia, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder. With a simulation design, we tested the PAI validity scales on 166 naive (undergraduates with minimal preparation) and 80 sophisticated (doctoral psychology students with 1 week preparation) participants. We compared their results to persons with the designated disorders: schizophrenia (n = 45), major depression (n = 136), and generalized anxiety disorder (n = 40). Although moderately effective with naive simulators, the validity scales evidenced only modest positive predictive power with their sophisticated counterparts. Therefore, we performed a two-stage discriminant analysis that yielded a moderately high hit rate (> 80%) that was maintained in the cross-validation sample, irrespective of the feigned disorder or the sophistication of the simulators.

  12. Early biotic stress detection in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) by BVOC emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasal-Slavik, Tina; Eschweiler, Julia; Kleist, Einhard; Mumm, Roland; Goldbach, Heiner E.; Schouten, Sander; Wildt, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We investigated impacts of early and mild biotic stress on Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emissions from tomato in order to test their potential for early (biotic) stress detection. Tomato plants were exposed to two common fungal pathogens, Botrytis cinerea and Oidium neolycopesici and

  13. Dopamine response to psychosocial stress in humans and its relationship to individual differences in personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suridjan, Ivonne; Boileau, Isabelle; Bagby, Michael; Rusjan, Pablo M; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Mizrahi, Romina

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have reported inter-individual variability in the dopamine (DA) response to stress. This variability might be related to individual differences in the vulnerability to experience the negative effect of stress. To investigate whether personality traits as measured by the revised NEO personality inventory explain variability in DA response to a psychosocial stress task. Eleven healthy adults, mean age of 26 ± 3.87 underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) scans using the dopamine D(2/3) agonist, [11C]-(+)-PHNO under a control and stress condition. The simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) was used to obtain [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding potential (BP(ND)). Stress-induced DA response was indexed as a percent change in [11C]-(+)-PHNO BP(ND) between control and stress conditions. The regions of interest were defined into D2-rich regions, which included the Associative and Sensorimotor Striatum (AST and SMST); D(2/3) mixed regions, which included the limbic striatum (LST) and globus pallidus (GP); and D3-rich region, which included the Substantia Nigra (SN). Several personality traits within the Neuroticism and Openness to Experience domain were significantly correlated with blunted DA response to stress. Specifically, the Angry-Hostility, Vulnerability, and Depression trait were associated with blunted DA stress response in the AST (r = -0.645, p = 0.032), LST (r = -0.677, p = 0.022) and GP (r = -0.736, p = 0.010), respectively. The Openness to Values was correlated with a decreased DA release in the SN (r = -0.706, p = 0.015). Variability in DA stress response might be related to individual differences in personality. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transmutation of Personal Glucose Meters into Portable and Highly Sensitive Microbial Pathogen Detection Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Zhaowei; Gao, Nan; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-10-07

    Herein, for the first time, we presented a simple and general approach by using personal glucose meters (PGM) for portable and ultrasensitive detection of microbial pathogens. Upon addition of pathogenic bacteria, glucoamylase-quaternized magnetic nanoparticles (GA-QMNPS) conjugates were disrupted by the competitive multivalent interactions between bacteria and QMNPS, resulting in the release of GA. After magnetic separation, the free GA could catalyze the hydrolysis of amylose into glucose for quantitative readout by PGM. In such way, PGM was transmuted into a bacterial detection device and extremely low detection limits down to 20 cells mL(-1) was achieved. More importantly, QMNPS could inhibit the growth of the bacteria and destroy its cellular structure, which enabled bacteria detection and inhibition simultaneously. The simplicity, portability, sensitivity and low cost of presented work make it attractive for clinical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Influence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boritz, Tali; Barnhart, Ryan; McMain, Shelley F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were 180 individuals diagnosed with BPD enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that compared the clinical and cost effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and general psychiatric management (GPM). Multilevel linear models and generalized linear models were used to compare clinical outcomes of BPD patients with and without PTSD. BPD patients with comorbid PTSD reported significantly higher levels of global psychological distress at baseline and end of treatment compared to their non-PTSD counterparts. Both groups evidenced comparable rates of change on suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), global psychological distress, and BPD symptoms over the course of treatment and post-treatment follow-up. DBT and GPM were effective for BPD patients with and without PTSD across a broad range of outcomes.

  16. Quantitative Ischemia Detection During Cardiac MR Stress Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraitchman, D

    2001-01-01

    .... During a second ischemic episode, conventional cine wall motion images were acquired. The time from occlusion to the detection of ischemia by each MR technique, as well as ECG ischemic alterations, was determined...

  17. Responses to stress in patients with psychotic disorders compared to persons with varying levels of vulnerability to psychosis, persons with depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Köther, Ulf; Hartmann, Maike; Kempkensteffen, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    An experimental design was used to test whether self-reported, psychophysiological and symptomatic stress-responses increase as a function of the underlying vulnerability to psychosis as proposed by vulnerability-stress-models. Stress-responses of participants with psychotic disorders (PSY, n = 35) were compared to those of participants with attenuated positive symptoms (AS, n = 29), first-degree relatives of persons with psychotic disorders (REL, n = 26), healthy controls (HC, n = 28) and controls with depression (DEP, n = 30). Using a repeated measures design, participants were assigned to a noise stressor, a social stressor and a no stress condition in random order. Stress-responses were assessed via self-report, salivary cortisol levels, heart rate and skin conductance levels. State-paranoia and depression were assessed with clinical scales. PSY reported to be significantly more stressed than HC, AS and REL across all conditions which went along with increased heart rate and decreased overall cortisol release. In contrast, AS showed elevated levels of cortisol. PSY showed a stronger response of self-reported stress to the noise condition compared to the no stress condition than HC, but no stronger response than the other samples. Furthermore, the stressors did not trigger stronger psychophysiological responses or symptom-increases in PSY. The social stressor was brief and not individualized and did not have an effect on cortisol. The findings support the notion that subjective stress-responsiveness increases with vulnerability, but not the assumption that symptoms arise directly as a function of stress and vulnerability. Also, the generally high levels of arousal seem to be more relevant to psychosis than the responsiveness to specific stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships of Personality, Affect, Emotional Intelligence and Coping with Student Stress and Academic Success: Different Patterns of Association for Stress and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklofske, Donald H.; Austin, Elizabeth J.; Mastoras, Sarah M.; Beaton, Laura; Osborne, Shona E.

    2012-01-01

    The associations of personality, affect, trait emotional intelligence (EI) and coping style measured at the start of the academic year with later academic performance were examined in a group of undergraduate students at the University of Edinburgh. The associations of the dispositional and affect measures with concurrent stress and life…

  19. The critical role of personality and organizational factors as determinants of reactions to restricted and stressful environments. [undersea habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Research into the impact of personality factors on groups in various settings is reviewed as an introduction to a brief discussion of personality and group behavior research needs relevant to the space program. Significant findings of some earlier research are summarized, and methodological problems are touched on. The study of intergroup and intragroup conflict in a stressful environment, as exemplified particularly by undersea habitats, is seen as being of consequence for long-term space missions. It is concluded that adequate research can only be conducted as an adjunct to data collection from operational stressful environments, and not from laboratory experiments.

  20. Detection of vegetation stress from laser-induced fluorescence signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, N.

    1995-01-01

    The in vivo laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signatures of UV irradiated Salvia splendens plants were measured using an Optical Multichannel Analyser (OMA) system with Nitrogen laser excitation. The LIF spectra which consisted of the blue-green and the red chlorophyll bands were analysed with a non-linear interactive procedure using Gaussian spectral functions. The fluorescence intensity ratios of the various bands obtained from curve fitted parameters were found to be more sensitive to changes in the photosynthetic activity of the plant. The variation in the intensity ratio for the chlorophyll bands for nutrient stressed sunflower, cotton and groundnut plants as well as the nutrient and water stressed rice plants are also presented. It is observed that vegetation stress not only changes the fluorescence intensity ratios and the vitality index of the plant but also changes the peak position of the emission bands, in some cases. It is also seen that analysis of the fluorescence spectra in vegetation remote sensing applications would require a deconvolution procedure to evaluate the exact contribution of each band in the total spectra. (author). 23 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  1. The assessment of Big Five Personality Factors and Temperament Domains as modifiers of cardiovascular response to occupational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, D; Makowska, Z; Makowiec-Dabrowska, T

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of Big Five Personality Factors and Temperament Domains as the factors influencing cardiovascular response to work, and their moderating effect on the relationship between occupational stress and cardiovascular reactivity. The self-reported data on occupational stress and filled in NEO-Five Factor Inventory by Costa, and McCrae and Pavlovian Temperament Survey by Strelau et al. were collected from 97 bank clerks employed in large bank branches. The subjects also responded to the questionnaire on personal and professional background factors. A 24 hour monitoring of cardiovascular reactivity (heart rate and blood pressure) was also provided. Conscientiousness was found to be the only modifier of cardiovascular response to occupational stress reflected by systolic blood pressure. Several main, independent of stress effects of personality and temperament domains were also found. The ratio of heart rate at work to heart rate during sleep was associated with the strength of excitatory process, the percentage of maximum heart rate index with Conscientiousness, and systolic blood pressure at work was influenced by the strength of inhibitory process. However, generally speaking, physiological indicators of the cardiovascular system functioning were not very sensitive to changes in values of personality and temperament variables at the level of occupational stress reported by the bank clerks who participated in the study.

  2. Stress reactivity and personality in extreme sport athletes: The psychobiology of BASE jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Erik; Mei-Dan, Omer; Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R; Zwir, Igor; Rozsa, Sandor; Cloninger, C Robert

    2016-12-01

    This is the first report of the psychobiology of stress in BASE jumpers, one of the most dangerous forms of extreme sport. We tested the hypotheses that indicators of emotional style (temperament) predict salivary cortisol reactivity, whereas indicators of intentional goal-setting (persistence and character) predict salivary alpha-amylase reactivity during BASE jumping. Ninety-eight subjects completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) the day before the jump, and 77 also gave salivary samples at baseline, pre-jump on the bridge over the New River Gorge, and post-jump upon landing. Overall BASE jumpers are highly resilient individuals who are highly self-directed, persistent, and risk-taking, but they are heterogeneous in their motives and stress reactivity in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) stress system (cortisol reactivity) and the sympathetic arousal system (alpha-amylase reactivity). Three classes of jumpers were identified using latent class analysis based on their personality profiles, prior jumping experience, and levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase at all three time points. "Masterful" jumpers (class 1) had a strong sense of self-directedness and mastery, extensive prior experience, and had little alpha-amylase reactivity and average cortisol reactivity. "Trustful" jumpers (class 2) were highly cooperative and trustful individuals who had little cortisol reactivity coincident with the social support they experienced prior to jumping. "Courageous" jumpers (class 3) were determined despite anxiety and inexperience, and they had high sympathetic reactivity but average cortisol activation. We conclude that trusting social attachment (Reward Dependence) and not jumping experience predicted low cortisol reactivity, whereas persistence (determination) and not jumping experience predicted high alpha-amylase reactivity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ebola Response: Modeling the Risk of Heat Stress from Personal Protective Clothing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Potter

    Full Text Available A significant number of healthcare workers have responded to aid in the relief and containment of the 2013 Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in West Africa. Healthcare workers are required to wear personal protective clothing (PPC to impede the transmission of the virus; however, the impermeable design and the hot humid environment lead to risk of heat stress.Provide healthcare workers quantitative modeling and analysis to aid in the prevention of heat stress while wearing PPC in West Africa.A sweating thermal manikin was used to measure the thermal (Rct and evaporative resistance (Ret of the five currently used levels of PPC for healthcare workers in the West Africa EVD response. Mathematical methods of predicting the rise in core body temperature (Tc in response to clothing, activity, and environment was used to simulate different responses to PPC levels, individual body sizes, and two hot humid conditions: morning/evening (air temperature: 25°C, relative humidity: 40%, mean radiant temperature: 35°C, wind velocity: 1 m/s and mid-day (30°C, 60%, 70°C, 1 m/s.Nearly still air (0.4 m/s measures of Rct ranged from 0.18 to 0.26 m2 K/W and Ret ranged from 25.53 to 340.26 m2 Pa/W.Biophysical assessments and modeling in this study provide quantitative guidance for prevention of heat stress of healthcare workers wearing PPC responding to the EVD outbreak in West Africa.

  4. Ebola Response: Modeling the Risk of Heat Stress from Personal Protective Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Adam W; Gonzalez, Julio A; Xu, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of healthcare workers have responded to aid in the relief and containment of the 2013 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. Healthcare workers are required to wear personal protective clothing (PPC) to impede the transmission of the virus; however, the impermeable design and the hot humid environment lead to risk of heat stress. Provide healthcare workers quantitative modeling and analysis to aid in the prevention of heat stress while wearing PPC in West Africa. A sweating thermal manikin was used to measure the thermal (Rct) and evaporative resistance (Ret) of the five currently used levels of PPC for healthcare workers in the West Africa EVD response. Mathematical methods of predicting the rise in core body temperature (Tc) in response to clothing, activity, and environment was used to simulate different responses to PPC levels, individual body sizes, and two hot humid conditions: morning/evening (air temperature: 25°C, relative humidity: 40%, mean radiant temperature: 35°C, wind velocity: 1 m/s) and mid-day (30°C, 60%, 70°C, 1 m/s). Nearly still air (0.4 m/s) measures of Rct ranged from 0.18 to 0.26 m2 K/W and Ret ranged from 25.53 to 340.26 m2 Pa/W. Biophysical assessments and modeling in this study provide quantitative guidance for prevention of heat stress of healthcare workers wearing PPC responding to the EVD outbreak in West Africa.

  5. Puffed and bothered: Personality, performance, and the effects of stress on checkered pufferfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleizier, Naomi; Wilson, Alexander D M; Shultz, Aaron D; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Although consistent individual-level differences in behaviour are widespread and potentially important in evolutionary and ecological processes, relatively few studies focus on the physiological mechanisms that might underlie and regulate these individual-level differences in wild populations. We conducted experiments to determine whether checkered pufferfish (Sphoeroides testudineus), which were collected from a dynamic (in terms of depth and water temperature) tidal mangrove creek environment in The Bahamas, have consistent individual-level differences in locomotor activity and the response to a simulated predator threat, as well as swimming performance and puffing in response to stressors. The relationships between personality and performance traits were evaluated to determine whether they represented stress-coping styles or syndromes. Subsequently, a displacement study was conducted to determine how personality and performance in the laboratory compared to movements in the field. In addition, we tested whether a physiological dose of the stress hormone cortisol would alter individual consistency in behavioural and performance traits. We found that pufferfish exhibited consistent individual differences in personality traits over time (e.g., activity and the duration of a response to a threat) and that performance was consistent between the lab and the natural enclosure. Locomotor activity and the duration of startled behaviour were not associated with swimming and puffing performance. Locomotor activity, puffing performance, and swimming performance were not related to whether fish returned to the tidal creek of capture after displacement. Similarly, a cortisol treatment did not modify behaviour or performance in the laboratory. The results reveal that consistent individual-level differences in behaviour and performance were present in a population from a fluctuating and physiologically challenging environment but that such traits are not necessarily correlated

  6. Stress and accidental defect detection on rolling mill rolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzas, J.-D.

    1999-01-01

    During the rolling mill process, rolls are submitted to high pressures that can lead to local decohesion or metallurgical changes. Both these cracks or softened areas must be detected as soon as they appear because of the risk of spalling, marks on the product, and mill wreck. These defects can be detected using the eddy current method, and particularly sensors specially developed for micro-defects detection. These sensors must be adapted to the environment of a roll grinding machine on which they must be installed. Users' schedule of conditions also require them to be attached to a wide range of eddy current generator and automatic computerized interpretation. Mill requirements for new high tech roll grades and quality lead to continuous development and improvement of the tools that will provide immediate 'go - no go' information. This paper is an update of these developments. (author)

  7. Magnetic resonance pharmacological stress for detecting coronary disease. Comparison with echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, F.M.; Crnac, J.; Jochims, M.; Schneider, C.; Erdmann, E.; Schmidt, M.; Theissen, P.; Schicha, H.

    2000-01-01

    Stress testing is the cornerstone in the diagnosis of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Although exercise ECG remains the primary approach for the detection of ischemia in patients with chest pain syndromes, its sensitivity and specificity is limited and exercise ECG does not provide detailed information about the localisation and extent of CAD. Stress echocardiography has been used for the detection of ischemia for more than a decade and has become an increasingly popular noninvasive method for the detection of CAD. In experienced hands wall motion analysis based on stress echocardiography has proved to be as sensitive and specific for the detection of myocardial ischemia as scintigraphic techniques. Recent technical improvements, namely the availability of ultrafast imaging sequences with a significant reduction of imaging time have initiated several studies which examined the combination of pharmacological stress and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of suspected CAD. The most well developed stress-MRI technique is wall motion imaging during dobutamine stress. This technique is analogous to stress echocardiography, but MRI has the inherent advantages of better resolution, higher reproducibility and true long and short axis imaging with contiguous parallel slices. However, the clinical impact of MRI for the diagnosis of CAD is still low. Further technical developments including real time imaging and a reliable automated quantitative analysis of left ventricular function are required before stress-MRI becomes a serious challenge to stressechocardiography in the clinical arena. Currently, only a few MRI facilities and physicians are dedicated to pharmacological stress testing with MRI and the future clinical impact of this promising technique will depend on its potential to provide information beyond myocardial function including perfusion, metabolism and coronary anatomy in form of a ''one-stop''-shop for the cardiac patient

  8. A Robust Method to Detect Zero Velocity for Improved 3D Personal Navigation Using Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengyi; Wei, Jianming; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust zero velocity (ZV) detector algorithm to accurately calculate stationary periods in a gait cycle. The proposed algorithm adopts an effective gait cycle segmentation method and introduces a Bayesian network (BN) model based on the measurements of inertial sensors and kinesiology knowledge to infer the ZV period. During the detected ZV period, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate the error states and calibrate the position error. The experiments reveal that the removal rate of ZV false detections by the proposed method increases 80% compared with traditional method at high walking speed. Furthermore, based on the detected ZV, the Personal Inertial Navigation System (PINS) algorithm aided by EKF performs better, especially in the altitude aspect. PMID:25831086

  9. [Emotional regulation in aspect of action vs. state orientation, stress and self - injurious behavior among people with borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Rabska, Ewelina; Jaworska-Andryszewska, Paulina; Laso, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    In the bordeline personality disorder a large role ascribe to biopsychosocial factors. Studies have shown that more than 70% patients BPD reported experiencing traumatic events in childhood. The findings are confirming that making self-harming is a frequent symptom of bordeline disorder and 70-75% patients show at least one act of self-harming. Selfharming can be a reaction to maladaptive emotional regulation. Moreover a lowered tolerance level is characteristic of them to the stress and determined course learning dysfunctional patterns of behavior. The aim of this study is to determine the level of emotional regulation through the variable action vs state orientation and to investigate their relation to stress, self-harming and suicidal behavior. In study participated 45 persons with emotionally unstable borderline personality diagnosis. In the group was 33 women and 12 men in age 19-43. A Polish adaptation of standardized questionnaires was used to measure stress and action vs state orientation (SSI-K), self-injurious behavior (SHI) and suicidal tendencies (RFL-I). By patients with borderline personality disorder the level of action control, reasons for living and stress are predictors of selfharming behavior. The mediation analyze showed, that stress and reasons for living are mediators between action vs. state control and the level of self-harming behavior. A high level of stress correlates positively with self-harming and negatively with action control in patients with borderline personality disorder, and a high level of reasons for living correlates positively with action control and negatively with self-harming in people with BPD. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  10. Hyperspectral detection of a subsurface CO2 leak in the presence of water stressed vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel J Bellante

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of vegetation stress has been posed as a possible large area monitoring tool for surface CO2 leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS sites since vegetation is adversely affected by elevated CO2 levels in soil. However, the extent to which remote sensing could be used for CO2 leak detection depends on the spectral separability of the plant stress signal caused by various factors, including elevated soil CO2 and water stress. This distinction is crucial to determining the seasonality and appropriateness of remote GCS site monitoring. A greenhouse experiment tested the degree to which plants stressed by elevated soil CO2 could be distinguished from plants that were water stressed. A randomized block design assigned Alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa to one of four possible treatment groups: 1 a CO2 injection group; 2 a water stress group; 3 an interaction group that was subjected to both water stress and CO2 injection; or 4 a group that received adequate water and no CO2 injection. Single date classification trees were developed to identify individual spectral bands that were significant in distinguishing between CO2 and water stress agents, in addition to a random forest classifier that was used to further understand and validate predictive accuracies. Overall peak classification accuracy was 90% (Kappa of 0.87 for the classification tree analysis and 83% (Kappa of 0.77 for the random forest classifier, demonstrating that vegetation stressed from an underground CO2 leak could be accurately discerned from healthy vegetation and areas of co-occurring water stressed vegetation at certain times. Plants appear to hit a stress threshold, however, that would render detection of a CO2 leak unlikely during severe drought conditions. Our findings suggest that early detection of a CO2 leak with an aerial or ground-based hyperspectral imaging system is possible and could be an important GCS monitoring tool.

  11. Hyperspectral detection of a subsurface CO2 leak in the presence of water stressed vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellante, Gabriel J; Powell, Scott L; Lawrence, Rick L; Repasky, Kevin S; Dougher, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of vegetation stress has been posed as a possible large area monitoring tool for surface CO2 leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites since vegetation is adversely affected by elevated CO2 levels in soil. However, the extent to which remote sensing could be used for CO2 leak detection depends on the spectral separability of the plant stress signal caused by various factors, including elevated soil CO2 and water stress. This distinction is crucial to determining the seasonality and appropriateness of remote GCS site monitoring. A greenhouse experiment tested the degree to which plants stressed by elevated soil CO2 could be distinguished from plants that were water stressed. A randomized block design assigned Alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa) to one of four possible treatment groups: 1) a CO2 injection group; 2) a water stress group; 3) an interaction group that was subjected to both water stress and CO2 injection; or 4) a group that received adequate water and no CO2 injection. Single date classification trees were developed to identify individual spectral bands that were significant in distinguishing between CO2 and water stress agents, in addition to a random forest classifier that was used to further understand and validate predictive accuracies. Overall peak classification accuracy was 90% (Kappa of 0.87) for the classification tree analysis and 83% (Kappa of 0.77) for the random forest classifier, demonstrating that vegetation stressed from an underground CO2 leak could be accurately discerned from healthy vegetation and areas of co-occurring water stressed vegetation at certain times. Plants appear to hit a stress threshold, however, that would render detection of a CO2 leak unlikely during severe drought conditions. Our findings suggest that early detection of a CO2 leak with an aerial or ground-based hyperspectral imaging system is possible and could be an important GCS monitoring tool.

  12. The Role of Familial Stress in Personality Development of Older Adolescents from Divorced and Non-Divorced Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Bailey, Patricia; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen

    This study examined the relationship of overall family conflict and stress to adult personality development in young adult college students from intact families, as compared to young adults who had experienced childhood parental divorce. Seventy-five students from divorced families and 78 students from intact families completed a screening…

  13. Family-Work Conflict and Type-E Personality as Stress Inducers in Married Female Nigerian University Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobola, A. A.; Nwoha, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This piece of article is culled from a larger study. The study investigated the relationship between family-work conflict, Type-E personality and stress in married female Nigerian University Administrators. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The sample consisted of 800 female administrators in the senior cadre of executive/administrative…

  14. A prospective study on personality and the cortisol awakening response to predict posttraumatic stress symptoms in response to military deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuiden, Mirjam; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Rademaker, Arthur R.; Vermetten, Eric; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-01-01

    Few prospective studies on pre-trauma predictors for subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been conducted. In this study we prospectively investigated whether pre-deployment personality and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) predicted development of PTSD symptoms in

  15. Type D personality is associated with low cardiovascular reactivity to acute mental stress in heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, N.; Denollet, J.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Kop, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The distressed (Type D) personality is associated with adverse coronary heart disease outcomes, but the mechanisms accounting for this association remain to be elucidated. We examined whether myocardial and hemodynamic responses to mental stress are disrupted in Type D patients with

  16. The relation of depression, anxiety and stress with personal characteristics of nurses in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Khodadadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current industrialized world and ever advancing technology has changed human life by a significant increase in the level of stress and anxiety. Nurses are among those professionals who experience an overwhelming level of stress, anxiety and depression due to work overload and subsequent burnout. The nature of nursing profession for a vulnerable human character increases the possibility of emotional setbacks. Hence, this study was designed to explore and identify the prevalence of anxiety, stress and depression among the Iranian nurses and investigate how these variables relate to personal characteristics and influence the quality of patient care. Using a correlational descriptive design and random cluster method, 242 nurses who worked at different hospital wards in Tabriz, Iran were assessed for anxiety, stress and depression, while their personal characteristics were identified. Data were collected by using a standard questionnaire for stress, anxiety and depression (DASS-21 and later analyzed by SPSS (ver.17.Results showed that Iranian nurses suffered from a moderate level of anxiety, stress and depression and gender influenced these variable rates (p<0.05. Hospital ward type had a relation with stress level (p<0.05, being interested in nursing had an inverse relation to anxiety, stress and depression (p<0.05, while the education level positively related to depression rate among nurses (p<0.05. Type of work at different shifts influenced stress (p<0.05 and marital status reduced depression among nurses (p<0.05. Prevalence of stress and anxiety among the Iranian nurses were at a significant level with susceptibility to experience psychological disorders and provide lower quality of patient care. Findings of this study can alarm the Iranian authorities in healthcare systems to adopt a new policy and improve the current state of health for nurses and patients.

  17. Emotionally Responsive Wearable Technology and Stress Detection for Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Jenny

    2017-09-01

    As humans, we are born with no knowledge of odour. Our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the emotional part of our brain responsible for memory and behaviour, and therefore, our individual sense of smell is based purely on life's deep experiences and impressions. The roots of "Aromatherapy" can be traced back more than 3,500 years, to a time when essential oils were first recorded in human history for their therapeutic and medicinal properties. However, in the 21 st century, it remains one of the most controversial complementary therapies applied in medicine because of its pseudoscience connotations and limited available data on health benefits, despite the importance of smell on human health. Here I introduce the concept of "eScent", an emotionally responsive wearable technology that picks up on your emotions and vital signs and sends a personalisable 'scent bubble' to your nose. It combines sensing and dispensing aromatics for immersive experiences and multiple health benefits. It presents an empowering, sensory intervention and resilience builder that emits mood-enhancing aromas in a controllable way, depending on biofeedback. The advantage of essential oils merged with biometric sensors and intelligent tracking devices (e.g. an Apple Watch), could lead to a new palette of scents that are bio-synchronized to an individual's emotional, mental, and/or physical state and in a real-time manner alleviate high levels of stress, thus preventing the risk of a serious mental ill health relapse. Closure of the loop with wearable scent delivery systems requires an innovative, creative and collaborative approach, crossing many disciplines in psychological related sciences, biotechnology and industrial design. Testing such hypotheses in translational human studies is a matter of future research which could not only lead to valuable "prodromal" interventions for psychiatry, but new stress management tools for people suffering from affective disorders.

  18. Fatigue stress detection of VIRTIS cryocoolers on board Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuppi, Stefano; Politi, Romolo; Capria, Maria Teresa; Piccioni, Giuseppe; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Erard, Stéphane; Tosi, Federico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico

    Rosetta is a planetary cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). It is devoted to the study of minor bodies of our solar system and it will be the first mission ever to land on a comet (the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko). VIRTIS-M is a sophisticated imaging spectrometer that combines two data channels in one compact instrument, respectively for the visible and the infrared range (0.25-5.0 μm). VIRTIS-H is devoted to infrared spectroscopy (2.5-5.0 μm) with high spectral resolution. Since the satellite will be inside the tail of the comet during one of the most important phases of the mission, it would not be appropriate to use a passive cooling system, due to the high flux of contaminants on the radiator. Therefore the IR sensors are cooled by two Stirling cycle cryocoolers produced by RICOR. Since RICOR operated life tests only on ground, it was decided to conduct an analysis on VIRTIS onboard Rosetta telemetries with the purpose of study possible differences in the cryocooler performancies. The analysis led to the conclusion that cryocoolers, when operating on board, are subject to a fatigue stress not present in the on ground life tests. The telemetries analysis shows a cyclic variation in cryocooler rotor angular velocity when -M or -H or both channel are operating (it has been also noted an influence of -M channel operations in -H cryocooler rotor angular velocity and vice versa) with frequencies mostly linked to operational parameters values. The frequencies have been calculated for each mission observation applying the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). In order to evaluate possible hedge effects it has been also applied the Hanning window to compare the results. For a more complete evaluation of cryocoolers fatigue stress, for each mission observation the angular acceleration and the angular jerk have been calculated.

  19. Disaggregating Within- and Between-Person Effects of Social Identification on Subjective and Endocrinological Stress Reactions in a Real-Life Stress Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketturat, Charlene; Frisch, Johanna U; Ullrich, Johannes; Häusser, Jan A; van Dick, Rolf; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Several experimental and cross-sectional studies have established the stress-buffering effect of social identification, yet few longitudinal studies have been conducted within this area of research. This study is the first to make use of a multilevel approach to disaggregate between- and within-person effects of social identification on subjective and endocrinological stress reactions. Specifically, we conducted a study with 85 prospective students during their 1-day aptitude test for a university sports program. Ad hoc groups were formed, in which students completed several tests in various disciplines together. At four points in time, salivary cortisol, subjective strain, and identification with their group were measured. Results of multilevel analyses show a significant within-person effect of social identification: The more students identified with their group, the less stress they experienced and the lower their cortisol response was. Between-person effects were not significant. Advantages of using multilevel approaches within this field of research are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction in clinical nurses: the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-04-01

    To test a hypothetical path model evaluating the influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction and to identify the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among clinical nurses in South Korea. Personalities susceptible to stress, compassion fatigue, and burnout in clinical nurses have negative effects on the job stress and job satisfaction. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 875 clinical nurses was recruited between December 2014 - February 2015. The structured questionnaires included the Type D personality scale-14, Professional Quality of Life, job stress, job satisfaction, and general characteristics. To test the hypothetical path model, we performed a path analysis by using the AMOS 18·0 program. Based on the path model, type D personality was significantly associated with compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in our study subjects. Type D personality was significantly associated with job stress and job satisfaction via the effect of burnout, compassion satisfaction, and job stress. Since type D personality is associated with job stress and job satisfaction, identifying personalities vulnerable to stress would help to address job stress and to enhance job satisfaction when nurses have a high level of compassion fatigue and burnout and a low level of compassion satisfaction. The development of interventions that can reduce negative affect and social inhibition of nurses with type D personality and investigation of methods to decrease their compassion fatigue and burnout and to increase compassion satisfaction should be encouraged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Detecting long-term low-irradiance stress and water stress of trees with laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, M.; Kurata, K.; Takahashi, K.; Mineuchi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find simple and objective methods of diagnosing the ailments of trees in indoor spaces, such as atriums. In this study, two simple diagnostics were compared. One was the analysis of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of leaves and the other was the analysis of the laser-induced chlorophyll-fluorescence induction kinetics (Kautsky effect). In the latter analysis, second time derivatives of the induction-kinetics curves were used. Cinnamomum camphora and Quercus myrsinifolia grown under different light conditions and Cinnamomum camphora under water stress were used in the experiments. The effects of low irradiance were detected in both the induction kinetics and the spectra; however, the effects of water stress were detected in the induction kinetics only. These results indicate the possibility of utilizing laser-induced-fluorescence induction-kinetics for diagnosing the ailments of trees. (author)

  2. The Impact of Stressful Life Events on Alcohol Relapse: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Christina Delos; Pagano, Maria Elizabeth; Ronis, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    Alcohol relapse is impacted by a variety of environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal factors. We examined the interaction between stressful life events, personality disorder subtype, and alcohol relapse among individuals enrolled in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Negative life events predicted relapse in all subjects. In individuals with a history of an alcohol use disorder prior to study entry, positive life events also predicted alcohol relapse. Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) were found to be twice as likely to relapse in response to life stressors compared to individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), who were half as likely to relapse in response to life stressors. Further analysis revealed that individuals with OCPD and no history of an alcohol use disorder were almost 10 times more likely to relapse in the face of a stressful romantic problem, while those with ASPD and a history of an alcohol use disorder were six times more likely to relapse in response to a stressful financial event. These findings have implications for both the assessment and the treatment of individuals who present with co-morbid personality and alcohol use disorders.

  3. [Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowska, Małlgorzata; Andysz, Aleksandra; Merecz, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit). The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) by Cohen et al. As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers.

  4. Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Waszkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit. The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. Material and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 by Cohen et al. Results: As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers. Med Pr 2014;65(2:219–228

  5. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  6. Risk assessment of chronic stress at work place and work environment of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation at work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, S.; Ilic, Z.; Spasojevic-Tisma, V.; Milanovic, S.)

    2007-01-01

    Interactions of factors at work and worker's health have been analyzed through indicators of chronic professional stress. The examinees have been persons working with sealed sources of radiation with various professional risks among which we have stressed exposure to different radiation doses. Health professionals (medical doctors, radiologist, technicians) working in radio diagnostic and radiotherapy of oncology deceases have been examined. It was concluded that examinees among the subgroup 'therapy' has higher values of stress indicators expressed through all examined indicators: work motivation, personal opinion of work load, behavioral dysfunctions (smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse), increase incidence of health dysfunctions and general neuroticism of examinees. Obtained results are values for which statistical significant have not been established, so they have certain theoretical and practical importance in the frame research with descriptive nature [sr

  7. Assessment of job stress factors and organizational personality types for procedure-based jobs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Lee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jung-Woon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the organizational types and the job stress factors that affect procedure-based job performances in nuclear power plants. We derived 24 organizational factors affecting job stress level in nuclear power plants from the job stress analysis models developed by NIOSH, JDI, and IOR. Considering the safety characteristics in the operating tasks of nuclear power plants, we identified the job contents and characteristics through the analyses of job assignments that appeared in the organizational chart and the results of an activity-based costing. By using questionnaire surveys and structured interviews with the plant personnel and expert panels, we assessed 70 jobs among the 777 jobs managed officially in accordance with the procedures. They consist of the representative jobs of each department and are directly related to safety. We utilized the organizational personality type indicators to characterize the personality types of each organization in nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Molecular markers for assessment of radiation-induced oxidant stress of occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankova, K.; Zaharieva, E.; Aneva, N.; Kazarska, O.; Boteva, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are mainly due to high creativity, oxygen - containing free radicals and molecules known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). After irradiation the cells accumulate ROS, which may induce destructive changes in all cell structures and macromolecules (membranes, DNA, RNA , proteins and enzymes) and result in abnormalities on cell and tissue level. The effects of ROS are particularly important in chronic oxidative stress induced by prolonged occupational exposure that can permanently disrupt cellular redox homeostasis, which increase the risk of oncogenic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and other diseases. This requires the study of the antioxidant status of the Kozloduy NPP personnel who are professionally exposed to low dose irradiation. Materials and methods: As an antioxidant status markers, changes in the levels of the ROS and the electrochemical potential at mitochondrial lymphocytes (both before and after their additional in vitro exposure to 3 Gy), as well as the antioxidant activity of blood plasma are analyzed. The study was conducted with spectral methods and includes 40 professionally exposed people from the Kozloduy NPP (mean age 44.3, and radiation exposure from 0,1 to 257,9 mSv) and 20 unexposed controls (mean age 46.5 years). Results: Statistical analysis of the data shows that chronic exposure to low doses IR as a result of occupation exposure does not lead to significant changes in the levels of the ROS, the antioxidant activity of plasma and mitochondrial electrochemical potential. More significant impact on these indicators proves the age of the respondents, which is explained by a decrease in the activity of the cellular reparative and antioxidant systems induced by the natural processes of aging. Results for occupational exposure and non-exposure persons were heterogeneous due to the individual radio sensitivity of the persons included in biomonitoring. Conclusion

  9. Nonevent stress contributes to mental health disparities based on sexual orientation: evidence from a personal projects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; LeBlanc, Allen J

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the role of nonevent stress--in the form of frustrated personal project pursuits in the arenas of relationships and work--as a contributing factor to mental health disparities between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. A purposive sample of 431 LGB (55%) and heterosexually identified (45%) individuals living in the United States and Canada completed the Personal Project Inventory by describing and rating core personal projects they were pursuing. The intensity of perceived barriers to the achievement of relationship- and work-related personal projects served as indicators nonevent stress. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the hypothesis that nonevent stress contributes to the association between sexual orientation and two indicators of mental health: depressive symptoms and psychological well-being. LGB individuals had significantly more depressive symptoms and lower levels of psychological well-being than heterosexuals. Indicators of nonevent stress were significantly associated with mental health outcomes and their inclusion in models attenuated sexual orientation differences in mental health. The critical indirect pathway leading from sexual minority status to mental health occurred via barriers to relationship projects from interpersonal sources. This research suggests that nonevent stress because of structural and interpersonal stigma may contribute to mental health disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals. The findings have important implications for policy reform around same-sex relationship recognition and workplace discrimination. Future research and clinical work will benefit by expanding existing foci on stress to include nonevent stressors to better understand and address mental health problems, particularly in LGB populations.

  10. [Psychological features of body integrity identity disorder (BIID): personality traits, interpersonal aspects, coping mechanisms regarding stress and conflicts, body perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, S; Möller, J; Skoruppa, S; Stirn, A

    2014-05-01

    In BIID a disorder of body identity, concerned subjects desire an amputation of a healthy limb. So far, no psychiatric comorbidity was found in the few studies on BIID-subjects. This study explored clinical symptoms, personality characteristics, interpersonal aspects and coping strategies in 15 BIID persons. Psychometric testing on the topics (1) clinical symptoms, (2) personality and interpersonal aspects, (3) coping strategies, (4) attitudes towards the body were used and statistically evaluated with the T-test for one sample. Some psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) could be excluded although an increased tendency of depressiveness was found. BIID subjects showed specific personality and interpersonal characteristics: high agreeableness, autonomy, autarky and restrained behaviour towards others. Stress and conflicts are managed by self-control and self-affirmation. Their subjective physical attractiveness was low. BIID persons do not exhibit psychopathological characteristics (such as anxiety, depression or OCD), but do show specifics in personality, relationships and coping mechanisms. In the future, further personality traits and personality disorders should be investigated to shed more light on the categorisation and treatment of BIID. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Emotional intelligence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Katrin; Driessen, Martin; Behnia, Behnoush; Wingenfeld, Katja; Roepke, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Emotional intelligence as a part of social cognition has, to our knowledge, never been investigated in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), though the disorder is characterized by aspects of emotional dysfunctioning. PTSD often occurs with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as a common comorbidity. Studies about social cognition and emotional intelligence in patients with BPD propose aberrant social cognition, but produced inconsistent results regarding emotional intelligence. The present study aims to assess emotional intelligence in patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, PTSD with comorbid BPD, and BPD patients without comorbid PTSD, as well as in healthy controls. 71 patients with PTSD (41 patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, 30 patients with PTSD with comorbid BPD), 56 patients with BPD without PTSD, and 63 healthy controls filled in the Test of Emotional Intelligence (TEMINT). Patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD showed impairments in emotional intelligence compared to patients with BPD without PTSD, and compared to healthy controls. These impairments were not restricted to specific emotions. Patients with BPD did not differ significantly from healthy controls. This study provides evidence for an impaired emotional intelligence in PTSD without comorbid BPD compared to BPD and healthy controls, affecting a wide range of emotions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Negative Affect Instability among Individuals with Comorbid Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiderer, Emily M.; Wang, Ting; Tomko, Rachel L.; Wood, Phillip K.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Stone & Shiffman, 1994) was utilized to examine affective instability (AI) in the daily lives of outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n=78) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A psychiatric control group (n=50) composed of outpatients with major depressive disorder/dysthymia (MDD/DYS) was employed to compare across subgroups: BPD-only, BPD+PTSD, MDD/DYS-only, and MDD/DYS+PTSD. Compared to the BPD-only group, the BPD+PTSD group had significantly greater instability of fear and sadness, but did not significantly differ in instability of hostility or aggregate negative affect. This pattern of elevated instability of fear and sadness was not present—and, in fact, was reversed—in the MDD/DYS group. Results emphasize the importance of examining AI within the context of specific comorbidities and affect types. Treatment and research addressing AI in the context of BPD-PTSD comorbidity may benefit from a focus on fear and sadness as separate from hostility or general negative affect. PMID:26904388

  13. Improvement of emotional healthcare system with stress detection from ECG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivatansakul, S; Ohkura, M

    2015-01-01

    Our emotional healthcare system is designed to cope with users' negative emotions in daily life. To make the system more intelligent, we integrated emotion recognition by facial expression to provide appropriate services based on user's current emotional state. Our emotion recognition by facial expression has confusion issue to recognize some positive, neutral and negative emotions that make the emotional healthcare system provide a relaxation service even though users don't have negative emotions. Therefore, to increase the effectiveness of the system to provide the relaxation service, we integrate stress detection from ECG signal. The stress detection might be able to address the confusion issue of emotion recognition by facial expression to provide the service. Indeed, our results show that integration of stress detection increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the emotional healthcare system to provide services.

  14. Detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belasque, J., Jr.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Marcassa, L. G.

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants (Citrus limonia [L.] Osbeck) using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Due to its economic importance we have chosen to investigate the citrus canker disease, which is caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. Mechanical stress was also studied because it plays an important role in the plant's infection by such bacteria. A laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy system, composed of a spectrometer and a 532 nm10 mW excitation laser was used to perform fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio of two chlorophyll fluorescence bands allows us to detect and discriminate between mechanical and disease stresses. This ability to discriminate may have an important application in the field to detect citrus canker infected trees.

  15. Detection of Stress Hormone in the Milk for Animal Welfare Using QCM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a rapid and sequential analysis system to determine stress marker in the milk. One of the famous stress markers, cortisol, was detected using our method. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM method with a twin sensor was used in this study. One channel detected stress marker corresponding to antigen-antibody interaction and the other channel was used as a reference to remove environmental influences. Although nonspecific adsorption was monitored on each channel, frequency difference between them was within a few Hz on the injection of sample solution. One determination cycle including regeneration step could be performed within 10 minutes. The system could detect the cortisol level from 0.1 pg/mL to 100 pg/mL. These results show that our system has a potential to check the daily feeding condition for cows in terms of animal welfare.

  16. Changes in Stress Perception and Coping during Adolescence: The Role of Situational and Personal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the interplay between developmental changes in stress and coping during early and late adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, stress perception and coping styles of 200 adolescents in 7 different stressful situations were investigated. Multilevel piecewise latent growth curve models showed that stress perception…

  17. FEM Techniques for High Stress Detection in Accelerated Fatigue Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, M.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the theory and a numerical validation study in support to a novel method for a priori identification of fatigue critical regions, with the aim to accelerate durability design in large FEM problems. The investigation is placed in the context of modern full-body structural durability analysis, where a computationally intensive dynamic solution could be required to identify areas with potential for fatigue damage initiation. The early detection of fatigue critical areas can drive a simplification of the problem size, leading to sensible improvement in solution time and model handling while allowing processing of the critical areas in higher detail. The proposed technique is applied to a real life industrial case in a comparative assessment with established practices. Synthetic damage prediction quantification and visualization techniques allow for a quick and efficient comparison between methods, outlining potential application benefits and boundaries.

  18. Symptoms of borderline personality disorder predict interpersonal (but not independent) stressful life events in a community sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail D; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often experience stressful life events at a higher frequency than those without BPD. It is less clear what specific types of events are involved in this effect, and it has not been determined whether some features of BPD are more important than others in accounting for this effect. The latter issue is important in light of the heterogeneous nature of this diagnostic construct. These issues were examined in a large, representative community sample of men and women, ages 55-64. Ten Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev., DSM-IV-TR, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders were assessed at baseline using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality: SIDP-IV (B. Pfohl, N. Blum, & M. Zimmerman, 1997, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press). Life events were measured at three sequential assessments following baseline at 6-month (N = 1,294), 12-month (N = 1,070), and 18-month (N = 837) follow-ups. Stressful life events were identified using a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q; List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire: A subset of prescribed life events with considerable long-term contextual threat by T. Brugha, C. Bebbington, P. Tennant, and J. Hurry, 1985, Psychological Medicine, Vol. 15, pp. 189-194.) followed by a telephone interview. Only borderline personality pathology was related to an increase in the frequency of interpersonal stressful life events. Three specific symptoms of BPD were largely responsible for this connection: unstable interpersonal relationships, impulsivity, and chronic feelings of emptiness (negative association). Symptoms of avoidant and schizoid personality disorders were associated with a reduced number of stressful life events that are considered to be outside a person's control (e.g., serious illness, injury, or death of a loved one). None of the personality disorders predicted an increase in the number of

  19. Isoproterenol stress thallium scintigraphy for detecting coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Masuoka, Takeshi; Iida, Kaname; Sugishita, Yasuro; Ito, Iwao; Takeda, Tohru; Toyama, Hinako; Akisada, Masayoshi

    1989-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the diagnostic value of isoproterenol (ISP) thallium scintigraphy. The findings were compared with those of ISP-ECG and exercise thallium scintigraphy. The study population consisted of 24 patients who had a history of chest pain without previous myocardial infarction. ISP was given at increasing doses of 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 μg/mg/min at 3-minutes intervals, and was terminated for any of the following reasons: angina, significant arrhythmia, significant ST segment depression, or target heart rate. Thallium scintigrams were obtained immediately after terminating ISP infusion, and after a 3-hour delay, redistribution scans were obtained. Scintigrams were considered positive when a reversible defect was present. After stress tests, coronary angiography was performed. According to the presence or absence of significant coronary artery stenosis, the patients were divided into coronary artery disease (CAD) group (n=12) and so-called normal coronary (NC) group (n=12). Among 12 patients in the CAD group, ISP induced anginal pain in six (50%), and ISP-ECT and ISP thallium scintigraphy were positive in 10 (83%) and in 11 (92%), compared with four(33%), four(33%) and two (17%) in the NC group. These data indicate that ISP-ECG had a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 67%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 75%; and the corresponding figures for ISP thallium scintigraphy were 92%, 83%, and 88%. Among nine patients who underwent both ISP thallium scintgraphy and exercise thallium scintigraphy, all patients, except for one false negative case on ISP thallium scintigraphy, were correctly diagnosed. No serious complications occurred in association with the ISP infusion test. ISP thallium scintigraphy was considered to be a safe, sensitive, and specific method for diagnosing CAD when exercise tests were intolerable. (N.K.)

  20. Cold-Rolled Strip Steel Stress Detection Technology Based on a Magnetoresistance Sensor and the Magnetoelastic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ben; Zang, Yong; Han, Xiaohui; Zheng, Kailun

    2018-05-21

    Driven by the demands for contactless stress detection, technologies are being used for shape control when producing cold-rolled strips. This paper presents a novel contactless stress detection technology based on a magnetoresistance sensor and the magnetoelastic effect, enabling the detection of internal stress in manufactured cold-rolled strips. An experimental device was designed and produced. Characteristics of this detection technology were investigated through experiments assisted by theoretical analysis. Theoretically, a linear correlation exists between the internal stress of strip steel and the voltage output of a magneto-resistive sensor. Therefore, for this stress detection system, the sensitivity of the stress detection was adjusted by adjusting the supply voltage of the magnetoresistance sensor, detection distance, and other relevant parameters. The stress detection experimental results showed that this detection system has good repeatability and linearity. The detection error was controlled within 1.5%. Moreover, the intrinsic factors of the detected strip steel, including thickness, carbon percentage, and crystal orientation, also affected the sensitivity of the detection system. The detection technology proposed in this research enables online contactless detection and meets the requirements for cold-rolled steel strips.

  1. Reliability and validity of the student stress inventory-stress manifestations questionnaire and its association with personal and academic factors in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli-Muñoz, Agustín J; Balanza, Serafín; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Vera-Catalán, Tomás; Lorente, Ana María; Gallego-Gómez, Juana I

    2018-05-01

    Stress affects us in every environment and it is also present in the educational sphere. Previous studies have reported a high prevalence of stress in university students. The Student Stress Inventory-Stress Manifestations (SSI-SM), identify stressors and evaluate stress manifestations in adolescents but its validity in university students remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the internal consistency and validity of an adapted version of the Student Stress Inventory-Stress Manifestations (SSI-SM) for university students and to investigate if high stress levels are associated with personal and academic factors. In this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study, we included 115 university students of the Nursing Degree during the second semester of the 2014/2015 academic year. Information about personal issues, lifestyle and academic performance was recorded and the stress was evaluated with the SSI-SM questionnaire. The internal consistency and homogeneity of the SSI-SM questionnaire was tested and a factorial analysis was performed. After the homogeneity analysis, the final version of the SSI-SM questionnaire included 19 items, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.924. In the factorial analysis, 4 factors were found ('Self-concept', 'Sociability', 'Uncertainty' and 'Somatization'; all Cronbach's alpha >0.700). Students with higher values on the SSI-SM were, in overall, women (41.0 ± 12.7 vs. 33.2 ± 9.5; p = 0.001) and had significantly more family conflicts (47.6 ± 13.8 vs. 35.2 ± 9.6; p < 0.001), consumed less alcohol (R = -0.184, p = 0.048), slept less hours (R = -0.193, p = 0.038) and had worse academic performance in Clinical Nursing (36.3 ± 10.4 vs. 41.2 ± 13.3, p = 0.039). After exclude three items of the original SSI-SM, higher scores in the SSI-SM are correlated with stress level in a cohort of university students of the Nursing Degree. Family conflicts, female gender, absence of alcohol

  2. Device for detecting imminent failure of high-dielectric stress capacitors. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, G.G.

    1980-11-05

    A device is described for detecting imminent failure of a high-dielectric stress capacitor utilizing circuitry for detecting pulse width variations and pulse magnitude variations. Inexpensive microprocessor circuitry is utilized to make numerical calculations of digital data supplied by detection circuitry for comparison of pulse width data and magnitude data to determine if preselected ranges have been exceeded, thereby indicating imminent failure of a capacitor. Detection circuitry may be incorporated in transmission lines, pulse power circuitry, including laser pulse circuitry or any circuitry where capacitors or capacitor banks are utilized.

  3. The clinical value of adenosine triphosphate stress myocardial perfusion tomography for detecting coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhiming; He Qing; Qu Wanying; Yu Xue; Han Lijun; Yu Zhiguo; Li Wei; Zeng Xuezhai; Zhu Ming; Zhao Hongshan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of adenosine triphosphate stress myocardial perfusion tomography imaging (ATP-MPI) in detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: There were 278 patients underwent ATP-MPI, 51 patients of them also underwent coronary angiography (CAG). Seventy-three patients underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion tomography imaging with multi-stage submaximal exercise test (ST-MPI) and CAG serving as control group. Results: 1) Side effects: there were 11 different symptoms and atrioventricular conduction block (10 patients), sinoatrial conduction block (2 patients) occurred during ATP stress. Allopathy or interruption of ATP stress did not happen. 2) The sensitivity and specificity of ATP-MPI in detection of CAD were 97.1% and 82.4%, respectively, and those in detection of ≥50% narrowing coronary artery were 91.0% and 94.7%, respectively. 3) In patients without myocardial infarction, the sensitivity and specificity of ATP-MPI in detection of myocardial ischemia were comparable to those of ST-MPI. Conclusion: ATP-MPI is an accurate, safe modality and is comparable to ST-MPI in the detection of CAD

  4. Does Stress Result in You Exercising Less? Or Does Exercising Result in You Being Less Stressed? Or Is It Both? Testing the Bi-directional Stress-Exercise Association at the Group and Person (N of 1) Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Schwartz, Joseph E; Kronish, Ian M; Diaz, Keith M; Alcantara, Carmela; Duer-Hefele, Joan; Davidson, Karina W

    2017-12-01

    Psychosocial stress contributes to heart disease in part by adversely affecting maintenance of health behaviors, while exercise can reduce stress. Assessing the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise has been limited by lack of real-time data and theoretical and statistical models. This lack may hinder efforts to promote exercise maintenance. We test the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise using real-time data for the average person and the variability-individual differences-in this relationship. An observational study was conducted within a single cohort randomized controlled experiment. Healthy young adults, (n = 79) who reported only intermittent exercise, completed 12 months of stress monitoring by ecological momentary assessment (at the beginning of, end of, and during the day) and continuous activity monitoring by Fitbit. A random coefficients linear mixed model was used to predict end-of-day stress from the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise that day; a logistic mixed model was used to predict the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise from ratings of anticipated stress. Separate regression analyses were also performed for each participant. Sensitivity analysis tested all models, restricted to the first 180 days of observation (prior to randomization). We found a significant average inverse (i.e., negative) effect of exercise on stress and of stress on exercise. There was significant between-person variability. Of N = 69, exercise was associated with a stress reduction for 15, a stress increase for 2, and no change for the remainder. We also found that an increase in anticipated stress reported the previous night or that morning was associated with a significant 20-22% decrease (OR = 0.78-0.80) in the odds of exercising that day. Of N = 69, this increase in stress reduced the likelihood of exercise for 17, increased the odds for 1, and had no effect for the remainder. We were unable to identify psychosocial

  5. What characterizes persons with high levels of perceived stress in Denmark? A national representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Curtis, Tine; Kristensen, Tage S; Rod Nielsen, Naja

    2008-06-01

    Stress is a growing public health problem, but there are only a few studies with national representative samples on the occurrence of stress. The aim of this study was to assess the level of stress, measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, in Denmark, and to identify and characterize the group with high levels of stress by factors measured at both the individual and neighbourhood levels in a national representative sample of the Danish population. The 10,022 participants in the National Health Interview Survey 2005 were asked about perceived stress and individual factors in a cross-sectional design. Information on neighbourhood factors was derived from a national registry. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression models. Low education, heavy smoking, physical inactivity, lack of social network and poor working conditions were associated with perceived stress. For women, living in a neighbourhood with low average education, and for men, living in a neighbourhood with a high rate of crime and a low degree of ethnic diversity, were associated with higher perceived stress. Perceived stress was also related to indicators of morbidity. The group with high perceived stress is characterized by individual and neighbourhood factors with negative impacts on quality of life and risk of illness. This knowledge can guide future stress prevention efforts. Additionally, the results suggest a negative social component where perceived stress, unhealthy lifestyle and low social status are accumulated, and perceived stress might be used as a measure to identify groups characterized by accumulation of risk factors.

  6. Using activity-related behavioural features towards more effective automatic stress detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Giakoumis

    Full Text Available This paper introduces activity-related behavioural features that can be automatically extracted from a computer system, with the aim to increase the effectiveness of automatic stress detection. The proposed features are based on processing of appropriate video and accelerometer recordings taken from the monitored subjects. For the purposes of the present study, an experiment was conducted that utilized a stress-induction protocol based on the stroop colour word test. Video, accelerometer and biosignal (Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response recordings were collected from nineteen participants. Then, an explorative study was conducted by following a methodology mainly based on spatiotemporal descriptors (Motion History Images that are extracted from video sequences. A large set of activity-related behavioural features, potentially useful for automatic stress detection, were proposed and examined. Experimental evaluation showed that several of these behavioural features significantly correlate to self-reported stress. Moreover, it was found that the use of the proposed features can significantly enhance the performance of typical automatic stress detection systems, commonly based on biosignal processing.

  7. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Efficient Personalized Mispronunciation Detection of Taiwanese-Accented English Speech Based on Unsupervised Model Adaptation and Dynamic Sentence Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Hsien; Su, Hung-Yu; Liu, Chao-Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an efficient approach to personalized mispronunciation detection of Taiwanese-accented English. The main goal of this study was to detect frequently occurring mispronunciation patterns of Taiwanese-accented English instead of scoring English pronunciations directly. The proposed approach quickly identifies personalized…

  9. Nondestructive detection of water stress in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] plants using microwave sensing, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomachi, T.; Takemasa, T.; Kurata, K.; Takakura, T.

    2004-01-01

    The physiological accommodation response to environmental stress of a plant can induce changes in physiological and physical conditions of the plant. These changes influence the dielectric properties of the plant, which can be detected by measuring microwave complex dielectric properties of plant materials such as leaves and stems. The objective of this research was to detect these responses of plants to water deficiency stress nondestructively. The complex dielectric properties of tomato leaves during water stress were measured with an Open-ended Coaxial Probe from 0.3 to 3 GHz, as well as changes in gravimetric moisture, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and water potential which reflect the physiological condition of the plants. Experimental results showed that the complex permittivity (both permittivity and loss factor) of tomato leaves increased during water stress. Of the parameters measured the highest correlation was observed between complex permittivity and water potential. In order to confirm these results, control and water deficient tomato leaves were crushed, and the complex permittivity was measured and compared. The results showed quite similar tendencies compared with the results from the nondestructive microwave measurements. A physiochemical model to describe the complex permittivity of crushed non-stressed and stressed tomato leaves was constructed with pure water, pulp, glycine, and KN03, and the complex dielectric measurements of crushed tomato leaves were reproduced quite accurately from 0.3 to 3 GHz

  10. What characterizes persons with high levels of perceived stress in Denmark? A national representative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Curtis, Tine; Kristensen, Tage S

    2008-01-01

    perceived stress is characterized by individual and neighbourhood factors with negative impacts on quality of life and risk of illness. This knowledge can guide future stress prevention efforts. Additionally, the results suggest a negative social component where perceived stress, unhealthy lifestyle and low...

  11. Allostatic Load Assessment for Early Detection of Stress in the Workplace in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Sayed Ali

    2016-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Female gender and the old age of the Egyptian workforce under study are at higher risk of chronic diseases. Using an alternative way -for example, the cut-point method- instead of the risk quartiles for dichotomization of markers used in ALI calculation could be more precise for early detection of stress among healthy individuals.

  12. Comparision the value of detecting myocardial viability between low dose dobutamine stress MRI and echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yi; Zhang Zhaoqi; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Zhao Yike; Yan Zixu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To Compare the diagnostic value between low dose dobutamine stress transthrotic echocardiography and low dose dobutamine stress MRI in detecting myocardial viability of chronic myocardial infarction. Methods: Rest and low dose dobutamine (5, 10 μg·kg -1 ·min -1 ) stress transthrotic echocardiography and cine-MRI were performed in 30 patients with chronic myocardial infarction. 24 patients underwent successful revascularization and 10 of them underwent another rest cine-MRI study to assess segmental myocardial functional recovery. Left ventricular were divided into 16 segments, the criteria of viability in different techniques is: MRI: dobutamine induced systolic wall thickening was ≥2 mm in akinetic or diskinetic segments at rest; Echocardiography: wall motion score reduced at least 1 after dobutamine stress in akinetic or' diskinetic segments at rest. Results: One hundren and eight segments showed wall motion abnormalities of 30 patients, 65 and 56 segments shows positive reaction, 43 and 52 segments shows negativereaction in MRI and echocardiography after dobutamine stress respectively. Kappa value of the two techniques is 0.75, concordance in both techniques is 88%. Twenty-four segments showed functional recovery, 14 segments remained dysfunction 3-6 months after revascularization, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of detecting myocardial viability in chronic myocardial infarction in MRI and echocardiography is 95.8% vs 79.2% (P>0.05), 85.7% vs 85.7% (P>0.05), 92.1% vs 81.6% (P>0.05) respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy of MRI is a little higher. Conclusion: The ability of detecting myocardial viability by both low dose dobutamine stress transthrotic echocardiography and low dose dobutamine stress MRI is similer, the sensitivity and accuracy of MRI is a little higher. (authors)

  13. Aromatherapy: Does It Help to Relieve Pain, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Community-Dwelling Older Persons?

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Shuk Kwan; Tse, M. Y. Mimi

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an aromatherapy programme for older persons with chronic pain. The community-dwelling elderly people who participated in this study underwent a four-week aromatherapy programme or were assigned to the control group, which did not receive any interventions. Their levels of pain, depression, anxiety, and stress were collected at the baseline and at the postintervention assessment after the conclusion of the four-week programme. Eighty-two participants took part i...

  14. Self-esteem and styles of coping with stress versus strategies of planning in people with psychopathic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Kaźmierczak, Maria; Błażek, Magdalena

    2012-02-01

    Psychopathy is a notion that has been difficult to define. The operational definition of psychopathy by Hare is one of the most commonly used in psychology and it is usually identified with the scale used to measure this type of personality, which is the Psychopathy Checklist - Revision (PCL-R). PCL-R is composed of two factors: Factor 1 describes a constellation of psychopathic traits considered by many clinicians to be basic for this type of personality, and Factor 2 describes types of behaviour indicating impulsiveness, lack of stability and antisocial lifestyle. The aim of the research was to verify a hypothesis that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. The group of participants included 30 people at the age of 22-36 convicted with a legally binding sentence. Methods were: 1. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revision (PCL-R); 2. Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ); 3. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS); 4. Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). The participants were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R), and more specifically - as primary psychopaths (APQ). They revealed a grandiose sense of self-worth, increased self-control, impulsive style of functioning, perceived high self-efficacy (which might be considered as a defence mechanism). Psychopaths prefer a coping style focused on emotions and avoidance. The hypothesis was confirmed, that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress.

  15. Physiological modeling for detecting degree of perception of a color-deficient person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, T; Prince, Shanthi

    2017-04-01

    Physiological modeling of retina plays a vital role in the development of high-performance image processing methods to produce better visual perception. People with normal vision have an ability to discern different colors. The situation is different in the case of people with color blindness. The aim of this work is to develop a human visual system model for detecting the level of perception of people with red, green and blue deficiency by considering properties like luminance, spatial and temporal frequencies. Simulation results show that in the photoreceptor, outer plexiform and inner plexiform layers, the energy and intensity level of the red, green and blue component for a normal person is proved to be significantly higher than for dichromats. The proposed method explains with appropriate results that red and blue color blindness people could not perceive red and blue color completely.

  16. Development of a Wireless Computer Vision Instrument to Detect Biotic Stress in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin J. Casanova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of crop abiotic and biotic stress is important for optimal irrigation management. While spectral reflectance and infrared thermometry provide a means to quantify crop stress remotely, these measurements can be cumbersome. Computer vision offers an inexpensive way to remotely detect crop stress independent of vegetation cover. This paper presents a technique using computer vision to detect disease stress in wheat. Digital images of differentially stressed wheat were segmented into soil and vegetation pixels using expectation maximization (EM. In the first season, the algorithm to segment vegetation from soil and distinguish between healthy and stressed wheat was developed and tested using digital images taken in the field and later processed on a desktop computer. In the second season, a wireless camera with near real-time computer vision capabilities was tested in conjunction with the conventional camera and desktop computer. For wheat irrigated at different levels and inoculated with wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, vegetation hue determined by the EM algorithm showed significant effects from irrigation level and infection. Unstressed wheat had a higher hue (118.32 than stressed wheat (111.34. In the second season, the hue and cover measured by the wireless computer vision sensor showed significant effects from infection (p = 0.0014, as did the conventional camera (p < 0.0001. Vegetation hue obtained through a wireless computer vision system in this study is a viable option for determining biotic crop stress in irrigation scheduling. Such a low-cost system could be suitable for use in the field in automated irrigation scheduling applications.

  17. The bereavement process of tissue donors' family members: responses of grief, posttraumatic stress, personal growth, and ongoing attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Nancy; Schmidt, Lee; Coolican, Maggie

    2014-09-01

    Donated tissues can save lives of critically burned patients and those needing a heart valve replacement. Tissues enhance the lives of a million recipients annually through transplants of corneas, bones, tendons, and vein grafts. Unfortunately, the need for some tissues exceeds their availability. The goal of the quantitative component of this mixed methods study was to identify the grief, posttraumatic stress, personal growth, and ongoing attachment response of tissue donors' family members during a 2-year period. Simultaneous mixed methods design. The sample for this study consisted of 52 tissue donors' family members, mostly widows (83%). Data were collected for 2 years to test changes in grief, posttraumatic stress, panic behavior, personal growth, and ongoing attachment. The bereaved participants experienced significantly fewer grief reactions, less posttraumatic stress, and greater personal growth. There was no significant difference in the ongoing attachment to their deceased loved ones. The results of this study may reinforce the positive meaning that tissue donors' family members can find in tissue donation. Findings also demonstrate that the bereavement process corroborates contemporary bereavement and attachment theories. Health professionals are encouraged to seek donations with less worry that tissue donors' family members will experience adverse outcomes during bereavement.

  18. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...... and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions.Return To Work (RTW), defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. RESULTS: The level of sick leave in the stress...... the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years, while gender and depression had no predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: The stress treatment programme showed a significant effect on the return to work rate...

  19. Work stress and quality of life in persons with disabilities from four European countries: the case of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Wahrendorf, Morten; Reinhardt, Jan D; Post, Marcel W M; Siegrist, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Evidence on the adverse effects of work stress on quality of life (QoL) is largely derived from general populations, while respective information is lacking for people with disabilities. We investigated associations between work stress and QoL and the potentially moderating role of socioeconomic circumstances in employed persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional data from 386 employed men and women with SCI (≥18 work h/week) from the Netherlands, Switzerland, Denmark, and Norway were analyzed. Work stress was assessed with the 'effort-reward imbalance' (ERI) model and the control component of the 'demand/control' model. QoL was operationalized with five WHOQoL BREF items. Socioeconomic circumstances were measured by years of formal education and perception of financial hardship. We applied ordinal and linear regressions to predict QoL and introduced interaction terms to assess a potential moderation of socioeconomic circumstances. Multivariate analyses showed consistent associations between increased ERI and decreased overall QoL (coefficient -1.55, p life satisfaction (health -1.32, p work stress and QoL among persons with SCI.

  20. Acculturative and Enculturative Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Warmth: Examining Within-Person Relations among Mexican-origin Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2016-01-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers face numerous social challenges during dual-cultural adaptation that are theorized to contribute to greater depressive symptoms. Alongside challenges, there are familial resources that may offer protection. As such, the current study examined the trajectories of depressive symptoms among 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (Mage = 16.80, SD = 1.00) across a 4-year period (3rd trimester of pregnancy, and 10, 24, and 36 months postpartum). Further, we examined the within-person relations of two unique sources of stress experienced during the dual-cultural adaptation process, acculturative and enculturative stress, and youths’ depressive symptoms; we also tested whether adolescent mothers’ perceptions of warmth from their own mothers emerged as protective. Adolescent mothers reported a decline in depressive symptoms after the transition to parenthood. Acculturative and enculturative stress emerged as significant positive within-person predictors of depressive symptoms. Maternal warmth emerged as a protective factor in the relation between enculturative stressors and depressive symptoms; however, for acculturative stressors, the protective effect of maternal warmth only emerged for U.S.-born youth. Findings illustrate the multi-dimensionality of stress experienced during the cultural adaptation process and a potential mechanism for resilience among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. PMID:25004391

  1. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H

    2015-06-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD.

  2. a Uav Based 3-D Positioning Framework for Detecting Locations of Buried Persons in Collapsed Disaster Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Kim, C.; Lee, W.

    2016-06-01

    Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle) system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  3. A UAV BASED 3-D POSITIONING FRAMEWORK FOR DETECTING LOCATIONS OF BURIED PERSONS IN COLLAPSED DISASTER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  4. Is the effect of alcohol on risk of stroke confined to highly stressed persons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Truelsen, T; Barefoot, J C

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and alcohol are both suggested as risk factors for stroke. Further, there appears to be a close relation between stress and alcohol consumption. Several experimental studies have found alcohol consumption to reduce the immediate effects of stress in a laboratory...... setting. We aimed to examine whether the association between alcohol and stroke depends on level of self-reported stress in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: The 5,373 men and 6,723 women participating in the second examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1981-1983 were asked at baseline...... about their self-reported level of stress and their weekly alcohol consumption. The participants were followed-up until 31st of December 1997 during which 880 first ever stroke events occurred. Data were analysed by means of Cox regression modelling. RESULTS: At a high stress level, weekly total...

  5. Health and safety matters! Associations between organizational practices and personal support workers' life and work stress in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Davies, Sharon; Sayin, Firat K

    2017-06-21

    The home and community care sector is one of the fastest growing sectors globally and most prominently in mature industrialized countries. Personal support workers (PSWs) are the largest occupational group in the sector. This paper focuses on the emotional health of PSWs working in the home and community care sector in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to present evidence on the associations between PSWs' life and work stress and organizational practices of full-time and guaranteed hours, and PSWs' perceptions of support at work and preference for hours. Data come from our 2015 survey of 1543 PSWs. Dependent variables are life and work stress. Independent variables are: objective organizational practices of full-time and guaranteed hours, and subjective organizational practices of perceived support at work, and preferred hours of work. Descriptive statistics, correlations and ordinary least square regression analyses with collinearity tests are conducted. Organizational practices of employing PSWs in full-time or guaranteed hours are not associated with their life and work stress. However, those who perceive support from their organizations are also the ones reporting lower life and work stress. In addition, those PSWs perceiving support from their supervisor report lower work stress. PSWs would like to work in their preferred hours, and those who prefer to work more hours report lower life and work stress, and conversely, those who prefer to work less hours report life and work stress. For PSWs in home and community care, perceived support from their organizations and supervisors, and employment in preferred hours are important factors related to their life and work stress.

  6. Effect of dexmedetomidine on the stress reaction caused by sevoflurance anesthesia in school-age children with different personality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of dexmedetomidine on the stress reaction caused by sevoflurance anesthesia during the perianesthesia period in school-age children with different personality characteristics. Methods: A total of 160 children who were admitted in our hospital for transumbilical single-port laparoscopic hernia inner ring ligation were included in the study and randomized into dexmedetomidine (D group and midazolam (M group. The children were performed with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire before operation (children edition. Children were divided into the emotion group (group I and stable group (group II. The operation was performed under sevoflurance inhalation anesthesia. Patients in DI and DII groups were given 1 毺g/kg DEX, MI and MII groups were given 0.05 mg/kg midazolam, for 15 min. MAP and HR one day before operation (T0, before anesthesia induction (T1, 1 min after pneumoperitoneum establishment (T2, the time after pulling out the laryngeal mask (T3, and the time after shifting from the recovery room (T4 were recorded. A volume of 6 mL venous blood 1 d before operation and 4 h after operation was collected. Blood sugar concentration, cortisol and IL-6 levels were detected. Results: MAP at T1, T2, T3, and T4 in DI and MI groups were significantly elevated when compared with at T0. MAP at T2 and T3 in DII group was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MII group was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. When compared with DI group, MAP at T1, T2, and T3 in DII group was significantly reduced; MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MI group was significantly elevated; MAP at T1 in MII group was significantly reduced. When compared with DII group, MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MI and MII groups was significantly elevated. HR at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. When compared with DI group, HR at T1, T2, and T3 in DII group was significantly reduced; HR at each

  7. Stress: Personal matter or family affair? Intra- and inter-individual relationships between stress, physical activity, sedentery behavior, and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner, Miriam; Niermann, Christina; Krapf, Fabian; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Individual health behavior, which is determined by individual motives, emotions, and cognitive processes, is embedded in a social environment. One of the most important social environments is the family. According to Family Reciprocal Determinism, stress perceived by one family member becomes part of the family environment and may affect interactions within the family, as well as the health behavior of all family members. This study investigated 214 families, each represented by a mother, a f...

  8. Exploring the Individual Contributory Personality Factors of Stress: A Survey of Washington State Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Effie J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged stress is shown to lead to low productivity, which is one of the leading causes of poor performance, and high absenteeism/turnover in occupational fields (Norton, 2002). The field of education is a prime example of low productivity resulting from prolonged stress (Norton, 2002). Currently, there are many existing studies on environmental…

  9. Academic Stress and Health: Exploring the Moderating Role of Personality Hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W.; Eid, Jarle; Laberg, Jon C.; Johnsen, Bjorn H.; Bartone, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Attending university is a pleasurable experience for many students. Yet for others it represents a highly stressful time of extensive studying and pressure to meet the requirements of academia. Academic stress is associated with a variety of negative outcomes such as physical illness and deteriorating mental health. This paper explores the…

  10. The effect of person-centred communication on parental stress in a NICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, J; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Greisen, G

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the Guided Family-Centred Care intervention, developed by the lead author, on parental stress in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).......To investigate the effect of the Guided Family-Centred Care intervention, developed by the lead author, on parental stress in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)....

  11. Predicting Secondary Agriculture Teachers' Job Stress from Selected Personal, Family, and Work-Related Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robert M.; Lambert, Misty D.; Lawver, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to describe the characteristics and explain the current level of job stress among secondary agriculture teachers. The sample consisted of 370 secondary agriculture teachers. Data were collected using the Job Stress Survey (Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). From the findings it was concluded that the average secondary agriculture teacher…

  12. [Relationship between personality organization and the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among university students in health careers in the Region of Coquimbo, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, René Barraza; Navarro, Nadia Muñoz; Astorga, Ana Contreras

    The literature reports a set of variables associated with depression, anxiety and stress in health career students. The only one of these that could have a constant input is the structure of personality organisation. The present study aims to determine the relationship between the dimensions of personality organization and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms reported by first-year university health career students. Under a non-experimental ex-post-facto design, the personality organisation was evaluated in 235 1st year university, medical, nursing, and kinesiology from three universities of La Serena and Coquimbo (Chile). Inventory of personality organization and scale of depression, anxiety and stress to sift participants was used. The relationship of personality with depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms was determined by multiple regression analysis. It was found that the primary and overall personality dimensions explained 28% of the variance of depression (Pstress 22%, with the use of primitive defenses and identity diffusion dimensions that largely contribute to the explanatory model. The dimensions of personality organization could have a significant relationship with the emergence of depression, anxiety and stress, as the explanatory burden dimension provides the primitive defenses and identity diffusion. These results may be useful for early recognition of aspects of personality of applicants, and to perform actions that strengthen them in order to improve efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of funding deadlines on personal workloads, stress and family relationships: a qualitative study of Australian researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Danielle L; Coveney, John; Clarke, Philip; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G

    2014-03-28

    To examine the impact of applying for funding on personal workloads, stress and family relationships. Qualitative study of researchers preparing grant proposals. Web-based survey on applying for the annual National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Project Grant scheme. Australian researchers (n=215). Almost all agreed that preparing their proposals always took top priority over other work (97%) and personal (87%) commitments. Almost all researchers agreed that they became stressed by the workload (93%) and restricted their holidays during the grant writing season (88%). Most researchers agreed that they submitted proposals because chance is involved in being successful (75%), due to performance requirements at their institution (60%) and pressure from their colleagues to submit proposals (53%). Almost all researchers supported changes to the current processes to submit proposals (95%) and peer review (90%). Most researchers (59%) provided extensive comments on the impact of writing proposals on their work life and home life. Six major work life themes were: (1) top priority; (2) career development; (3) stress at work; (4) benefits at work; (5) time spent at work and (6) pressure from colleagues. Six major home life themes were: (1) restricting family holidays; (2) time spent on work at home; (3) impact on children; (4) stress at home; (5) impact on family and friends and (6) impact on partner. Additional impacts on the mental health and well-being of researchers were identified. The process of preparing grant proposals for a single annual deadline is stressful, time consuming and conflicts with family responsibilities. The timing of the funding cycle could be shifted to minimise applicant burden, give Australian researchers more time to work on actual research and to be with their families.

  14. Multiple nutrient stresses at intersecting Pacific Ocean biomes detected by protein biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mak A; McIlvin, Matthew R; Moran, Dawn M; Goepfert, Tyler J; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Post, Anton F; Lamborg, Carl H

    2014-09-05

    Marine primary productivity is strongly influenced by the scarcity of required nutrients, yet our understanding of these nutrient limitations is informed by experimental observations with sparse geographical coverage and methodological limitations. We developed a quantitative proteomic method to directly assess nutrient stress in high-light ecotypes of the abundant cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus across a meridional transect in the central Pacific Ocean. Multiple peptide biomarkers detected widespread and overlapping regions of nutritional stress for nitrogen and phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and iron in the equatorial Pacific. Quantitative protein analyses demonstrated simultaneous stress for these nutrients at biome interfaces. This application of proteomic biomarkers to diagnose ocean metabolism demonstrated Prochlorococcus actively and simultaneously deploying multiple biochemical strategies for low-nutrient conditions in the oceans. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Confocal detection of Rayleigh scattering for residual stress measurement in chemically tempered glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hödemann, S., E-mail: siim.hodemann@ut.ee; Möls, P.; Kiisk, V.; Saar, R.; Kikas, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Wilhelm Ostwald st., Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Murata, T. [Nippon Electric Glass Co., 7-1 Seiran 2-chome, Otsu-shi, Shiga 520-8639 (Japan)

    2015-12-28

    A new optical method is presented for evaluation of the stress profile in chemically tempered (chemically strengthened) glass based on confocal detection of scattered laser beam. Theoretically, a lateral resolution of 0.2 μm and a depth resolution of 0.6 μm could be achieved by using a confocal microscope with high-NA immersion objective. The stress profile in the 250 μm thick surface layer of chemically tempered lithium aluminosilicate glass was measured with a high spatial resolution to illustrate the capability of the method. The confocal method is validated using transmission photoelastic and Na{sup +} ion concentration profile measurement. Compositional influence on the stress-optic coefficient is calculated and discussed. Our method opens up new possibilities for three-dimensional scattered light tomography of mechanical imaging in birefringent materials.

  16. Asymmetric split-ring resonator-based biosensor for detection of label-free stress biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Jo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Suji; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an asymmetric split-ring resonator, metamaterial element, is presented as a biosensing transducer for detection of highly sensitive and label-free stress biomarkers. In particular, the two biomarkers, cortisol and α-amylase, are used for evaluating the sensitivity of the proposed biosensor. In case of cortisol detection, the competitive reaction between cortisol-bovine serum albumin and free cortisol is employed, while alpha-amylase is directly detected by its antigen-antibody reaction. From the experimental results, we find that the limit of detection and sensitivity of the proposed sensing device are about 1 ng/ml and 1.155 MHz/ng ml-1, respectively.

  17. Detecting leaf pulvinar movements on NDVI time series of desert trees: a new approach for water stress detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto O Chávez

    Full Text Available Heliotropic leaf movement or leaf 'solar tracking' occurs for a wide variety of plants, including many desert species and some crops. This has an important effect on the canopy spectral reflectance as measured from satellites. For this reason, monitoring systems based on spectral vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, should account for heliotropic movements when evaluating the health condition of such species. In the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Northern Chile, we studied seasonal and diurnal variations of MODIS and Landsat NDVI time series of plantation stands of the endemic species Prosopis tamarugo Phil., subject to different levels of groundwater depletion. As solar irradiation increased during the day and also during the summer, the paraheliotropic leaves of Tamarugo moved to an erectophile position (parallel to the sun rays making the NDVI signal to drop. This way, Tamarugo stands with no water stress showed a positive NDVI difference between morning and midday (ΔNDVI mo-mi and between winter and summer (ΔNDVI W-S. In this paper, we showed that the ΔNDVI mo-mi of Tamarugo stands can be detected using MODIS Terra and Aqua images, and the ΔNDVI W-S using Landsat or MODIS Terra images. Because pulvinar movement is triggered by changes in cell turgor, the effects of water stress caused by groundwater depletion can be assessed and monitored using ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S. For an 11-year time series without rainfall events, Landsat ΔNDVI W-S of Tamarugo stands showed a positive linear relationship with cumulative groundwater depletion. We conclude that both ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S have potential to detect early water stress of paraheliotropic vegetation.

  18. Detecting leaf pulvinar movements on NDVI time series of desert trees: a new approach for water stress detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Roberto O; Clevers, Jan G P W; Verbesselt, Jan; Naulin, Paulette I; Herold, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Heliotropic leaf movement or leaf 'solar tracking' occurs for a wide variety of plants, including many desert species and some crops. This has an important effect on the canopy spectral reflectance as measured from satellites. For this reason, monitoring systems based on spectral vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), should account for heliotropic movements when evaluating the health condition of such species. In the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Northern Chile, we studied seasonal and diurnal variations of MODIS and Landsat NDVI time series of plantation stands of the endemic species Prosopis tamarugo Phil., subject to different levels of groundwater depletion. As solar irradiation increased during the day and also during the summer, the paraheliotropic leaves of Tamarugo moved to an erectophile position (parallel to the sun rays) making the NDVI signal to drop. This way, Tamarugo stands with no water stress showed a positive NDVI difference between morning and midday (ΔNDVI mo-mi) and between winter and summer (ΔNDVI W-S). In this paper, we showed that the ΔNDVI mo-mi of Tamarugo stands can be detected using MODIS Terra and Aqua images, and the ΔNDVI W-S using Landsat or MODIS Terra images. Because pulvinar movement is triggered by changes in cell turgor, the effects of water stress caused by groundwater depletion can be assessed and monitored using ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S. For an 11-year time series without rainfall events, Landsat ΔNDVI W-S of Tamarugo stands showed a positive linear relationship with cumulative groundwater depletion. We conclude that both ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S have potential to detect early water stress of paraheliotropic vegetation.

  19. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In recent years an increasing number of patients have been referred to the medical sector with stress symptoms. Moreover, these conditions imply increased sickness absence. This indicates a need for treatment programmes in general medical practice. The aim of this study...... was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...... indicated by depression test score.On average each patient attended six one-hour sessions over the course of four months.A group of 34 employees referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine by their general practitioners served as a control group. Each participant had a one-hour consultation at baseline...

  20. Improvement of detection of stress corrosion cracks with ultrasonic phased array probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustenberg, H.; Mohrle, W.; Wegner, W.; Schenk, G.; Erhard, A.

    1986-01-01

    Probes with linear arrays can be used for the detection of stress corrosion cracks especially if the variability of the sound field is used to change the skewing angle of angle beam probes. The phased array concept can be used to produce a variable skewing angle or a variable angle of incidence depending on the orientation of the linear array on the wedge. This helps to adapt the direction of the ultrasonic beam to probable crack orientations. It has been demonstrated with artificial reflectors as well as with corrosion cracks, that the detection of misoriented cracks can be improved by this approach. The experiences gained during the investigations are encouraging the application of phased array probes for stress corrosion phenomena close to the heat effected zone of welds. Probes with variable skewing angles may find some interesting applications on welds in tubular structures e.g., at off shore constructions and on some difficult geometries within the primary circuit of nuclear power plants

  1. Workplace bullying and its relation with work characteristics, personality, and post-traumatic stress symptoms: an integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Cristian; Fraccaroli, Franco; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2011-10-01

    Workplace bullying refers to prolonged exposure to frequent hostile behaviors at work, which can lead to severe stress reactions. Research in this area has not revealed a clear picture on how bullying escalates in organizations. Drawing on recent developments in work stress theory, this study tested a comprehensive model of bullying in which work environmental and personality factors were hypothesized to act as antecedents of bullying and post-traumatic stress symptoms as an outcome. Structural equation modeling on data provided by 609 public sector employees in Italy showed that job demands (workload and role conflict) and job resources (decision authority, co-worker support and salary/promotion prospects) were related to bullying over and above neuroticism, and that bullying mediated the relationship between job demands and PTSD symptoms. Evidence also emerged for a buffering effect of job resources on the job demands-bullying relationship. Overall results are compatible with a view of bullying as a strain phenomenon, initiated by both work environmental and personality factors.

  2. Relationships between mobbing at work and MMPI-2 personality profile, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and suicidal ideation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Cristian; Alfano, Vincenzo; Fraccaroli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between the experience of mobbing at work and personality traits and symptom patterns as assessed by means of the revised version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). Participants were 107 workers who had contacted mental health services because they perceived themselves as victims of mobbing. In line with previous research, the results showed that the MMPI-2 mean profile was characterized by a neurotic component as evidenced by elevations of Scales 1, 2, and 3 and a paranoid component as indicated by elevation of Scale 6. Contrary to previous research, a pattern of positive and significant correlations was found between the frequency of exposure to mobbing behaviors and the MMPI-2 clinical, supplementary, and content scales, including the posttraumatic stress scale. Only about half the participants showed a severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms indicative of a posttraumatic stress disorder. The frequency of exposure to mobbing predicted suicidal ideation and behavior, with depression only partially mediating this relationship.

  3. The big two personality traits and adolescents' complete mental health: The mediation role of perceived school stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Jiang, Siyi; Huebner, E Scott

    2018-05-24

    Based on Greenspoon and Saklofske's (2001) dual-factor model of mental health, we defined adolescents' mental health as comprised of two distinguishable factors: positive and negative mental health. We tested the direct relations between the Eysenck's (1967) Big Two personality traits (Extraversion and Neuroticism) and positive and negative mental health, and explored the mediation effects of perceived school stress in accounting for the relations. Direct and indirect relations were estimated by using structural equation modeling with data from 1,009 Chinese adolescents in a 3-wave study. Results indicated that (a) adolescents' levels of neuroticism showed a positive relation to negative mental health and a negative relation to positive mental health, whereas levels of extraversion showed a negative relation to negative mental health and a positive relation to positive mental health; and (b) adolescents' perceived school stress (PSS) mediated the relation between neuroticism and mental health but not the relation between extraversion and mental health. The findings suggest that school professionals should consider adolescents' personality traits and school-based stress when planning and delivering mental health services. The findings of the relations between extraversion and PSS are also discussed in light of the face culture in China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  5. Chemical Detection Based on Adsorption-Induced and Photo-Induced Stresses in MEMS Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, P.G.

    1999-04-05

    Recently there has been an increasing demand to perform real-time in-situ chemical detection of hazardous materials, contraband chemicals, and explosive chemicals. Currently, real-time chemical detection requires rather large analytical instrumentation that are expensive and complicated to use. The advent of inexpensive mass produced MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) devices opened-up new possibilities for chemical detection. For example, microcantilevers were found to respond to chemical stimuli by undergoing changes in their bending and resonance frequency even when a small number of molecules adsorb on their surface. In our present studies, we extended this concept by studying changes in both the adsorption-induced stress and photo-induced stress as target chemicals adsorb on the surface of microcantilevers. For example, microcantilevers that have adsorbed molecules will undergo photo-induced bending that depends on the number of absorbed molecules on the surface. However, microcantilevers that have undergone photo-induced bending will adsorb molecules on their surfaces in a distinctly different way. Depending on the photon wavelength and microcantilever material, the microcantilever can be made to bend by expanding or contracting the irradiated surface. This is important in cases where the photo-induced stresses can be used to counter any adsorption-induced stresses and increase the dynamic range. Coating the surface of the microstructure with a different material can provide chemical specificity for the target chemicals. However, by selecting appropriate photon wavelengths we can change the chemical selectivity due to the introduction of new surface states in the MEMS device. We will present and discuss our results on the use of adsorption-induced and photo-induced bending of microcantilevers for chemical detection.

  6. Working conditions, burnout and stress symptoms in university professors: validating a structural model of the mediating effect of perceived personal competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avargues Navarro, María Luisa; Borda Mas, Mercedes; López Jiménez, Ana María

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study has been to test, with a sample of 193 Professors of the University of Seville, a structural model on the mediating role of personal perceived competence in the appearance of burnout syndrome and stress symptoms under potentially stressful work conditions. The instruments used to evaluate were a socio-demographic and work-related data questionnaire, The Maslach Burnout Inventory (M.B.I.), The Labour Scale of Stress and the Magallanes Stress Scale. The model of strategy implementation and LISREL 8.71 were used. The estimated model was adjusted satisfactorily, ascertaining the mediating effect of perceived competence in the effect exerted by the work conditions studied on the depersonalization and personal fulfillment, as well as in the appearance of stress symptoms. The effect on the emotional exhaustion dimension was not confirmed. The latter also acted on the estimated model as a mediating variable, facilitating the negative impact of stressors on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment.

  7. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  8. Salivary cortisol and self-reported stress among persons with environmental annoyance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Frida; Persson, Roger; Karlson, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Increased vulnerability to stress has been suggested as a possible mechanism behind medically unexplained conditions such as sensitivity to electricity and common smells. This study examined whether subjective environmental annoyance among the general population is associated with increased physi...

  9. The benefits of personal strengths in mental health of stressed students: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie

    2016-11-01

    This study used a two-wave longitudinal research design to explore the role of individual strengths, including interpersonal strength, intellectual strength, and temperance strength, in affecting the mental health of stressed college students. A total of 404 stressed Chinese college students were screened to participate in this 12-month longitudinal study. At the beginning of the study (Time 1), students who had not experienced stressful events within the last 12 months were invited to assess their strengths, psychological well-being, and psychological symptoms. After 12 months (Time 2), 404 students who reported stressful experiences completed the scales again and were retained for the final analyses. Academics-related stressors were the most endorsed life events among college students, whose states of mental health showed downward trends from Time 1 to Time 2. Three strengths had weak to modest correlations to mental health at both Time 1 and Time 2. Although the additional variances of mental health explained by the three strengths were very modest, the mediational roles of the strengths were identified. The perceived stress completely mediated the relationship between the strengths and the psychological symptoms and partly mediated the relationship between the strengths and psychological well-being. Individual strengths may function as a defense against perceived stress and are protective factors of mental health. These strengths maintain mental health by enhancing the psychological well-being and reducing the psychological symptoms of individuals.

  10. Minimal detectable change of the Personal and Social Performance scale in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Chun; Tang, Shih-Fen; Lu, Wen-Shian; Huang, Sheau-Ling; Deng, Nai-Yu; Lue, Wen-Chyn; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2016-12-30

    The minimal detectable change (MDC) of the Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) has not yet been investigated, limiting its utility in data interpretation. The purpose of this study was to determine the MDCs of the PSP administered by the same rater or different raters in individuals with schizophrenia. Participants with schizophrenia were recruited from two psychiatric community rehabilitation centers to complete the PSP assessments twice, 2 weeks apart, by the same rater or 2 different raters. MDC values were calculated from the coefficients of intra- and inter-rater reliability (i.e., intraclass correlation coefficients). Forty patients (mean age 36.9 years, SD 9.7) from one center participated in the intra-rater reliability study. Another 40 patients (mean age 44.3 years, SD 11.1) from the other center participated in the inter-rater study. The MDCs (MDC%) of the PSP were 10.7 (17.1%) for the same rater and 16.2 (24.1%) for different raters. The MDCs of the PSP appeared appropriate for clinical trials aiming to determine whether a real change in social functioning has occurred in people with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Work engagement and occupational stress in nurses and other healthcare workers: the role of organisational and personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiabane, Elena; Giorgi, Ines; Sguazzin, Cinzia; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) identify the role of organisational and personal factors in predicting work engagement in healthcare workers and (2) compare work engagement and occupational stress perceptions of healthcare professional categories. Healthcare professionals, with particular regard to nurses, are exposed to several job stressors that can adversely affect both their mental and physical health and also decrease work engagement. Work engagement can be considered as the positive opposite of burnout, and it is characterised by energy, involvement and professional efficacy. A cross-sectional survey research was conducted with self-report questionnaires. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Areas of Worklife Scale and four scales from the Occupational Stress Indicator were administered to a sample of 198 hospital staff (registered nurses, nurse aides, physicians and physiotherapists), of which 110 participated in the study. The most significant predictors of energy were workload, mental health and job satisfaction; the best predictors of involvement were community, workload, mental health and job satisfaction; professional efficacy was best predicted by values and job satisfaction. In relation to the second aim, physiotherapists had the highest levels of occupational stress and disengagement from their work, while nurse aides were the most work-engaged and job-satisfied professional category, with positive perceptions of the work environment. Both organisational and personal factors were found to be significantly associated with work engagement. In this study, physiotherapists were the category with the highest risk of work-related psychological problems, whereas nurse aides had the lowest risk. Interventions aimed at improving clinical practice and psychological health of nurses and hospital staff should focus on workload, workers' personal expectations and job satisfaction. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Effects of platooning on signal-detection performance, workload, and stress: A driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikoop, Daniël D; de Winter, Joost C F; van Arem, Bart; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-04-01

    Platooning, whereby automated vehicles travel closely together in a group, is attractive in terms of safety and efficiency. However, concerns exist about the psychological state of the platooning driver, who is exempted from direct control, yet remains responsible for monitoring the outside environment to detect potential threats. By means of a driving simulator experiment, we investigated the effects on recorded and self-reported measures of workload and stress for three task-instruction conditions: (1) No Task, in which participants had to monitor the road, (2) Voluntary Task, in which participants could do whatever they wanted, and (3) Detection Task, in which participants had to detect red cars. Twenty-two participants performed three 40-min runs in a constant-speed platoon, one condition per run in counterbalanced order. Contrary to some classic literature suggesting that humans are poor monitors, in the Detection Task condition participants attained a high mean detection rate (94.7%) and a low mean false alarm rate (0.8%). Results of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire indicated that automated platooning was less distressing in the Voluntary Task than in the Detection Task and No Task conditions. In terms of heart rate variability, the Voluntary Task condition yielded a lower power in the low-frequency range relative to the high-frequency range (LF/HF ratio) than the Detection Task condition. Moreover, a strong time-on-task effect was found, whereby the mean heart rate dropped from the first to the third run. In conclusion, participants are able to remain attentive for a prolonged platooning drive, and the type of monitoring task has effects on the driver's psychological state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two Swedish screening instruments for exhaustion disorder: cross-sectional associations with burnout, work stress, private life stress, and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Österberg, Kai; Viborg, Njördur; Jönsson, Peter; Tenenbaum, Artur

    2017-06-01

    To examine the relationships of two screening instruments recently developed for assessment of exhaustion disorder (ED) with some other well-known inventories intended to assess ED-related concepts and self-reports of job demands, job control, job support, private life stressors, and personality factors. A cross-sectional population sample ( n = 1355) completed: the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning family-to-work interference and stress in private life. Compared to participants without any indication of ED, participants classified as having ED on KEDS or s-ED had higher scores on all four SMBQ subscales, lower scores on the UWES-9 subscales vigor and dedication, higher JCQ job demands scores, lower JCQ job support scores, higher degrees of family-to-work interference and stress in private life, and higher BFI neuroticism and openness scores. In addition, participants classified as having ED on KEDS had lower scores on the UWES-9 absorption subscale, the JCQ job control scale, and lower BFI extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness scores, compared to the subgroup not classified as having ED. As expected, we observed an overall pattern of associations between the ED screening inventories KEDS and s-ED and measures of burnout, work engagement, job demands-control-support, stress in private life, family-to-work interference, and personality factors. The results suggest that instruments designed to assess burnout, work engagement, and ED share common ground, despite their conceptual differences.

  14. A Pilot Study of Stress System Activation in Children Enrolled in a Targeted Prevention Program: Implications for Personalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirically validated interventions addressing childhood psychological problems are now readily available, but success likely depends in part on accurately identifying which children will benefit from which intervention. This pilot study examined the stress activation and response system, first as a way to differentiate high versus low-risk children, and second to explore indicators of the stress system associated with favorable intervention response. Method. Participants (N = 43, 58% male were school-aged children who qualified for inclusion in the Early Risers “Skills for Success” Prevention Program based on their elevated levels of aggressive and/or socially withdrawn behavior and a normally developing comparison group. Compared to the normally developing group, children who were participants in the intervention exhibited a more blunted cortisol response to the stress paradigm. However, for the children in the intervention group, elevated cortisol levels at the start of the stress paradigm were concurrently associated with internalizing problems and predictive of improvement in internalizing problems over time. These findings provide preliminary evidence that hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis biological variables may be helpful tools for identifying children who would benefit from intervention and personalizing interventions.

  15. Magnetic resonance pharmacological stress for detecting coronary disease. Comparison with echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.M.; Crnac, J.; Jochims, M.; Schneider, C.; Erdmann, E. [Clinic III of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Cologne (Germany); Schmidt, M.; Theissen, P.; Schicha, H. [Clinic und Ambulant Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    Stress testing is the cornerstone in the diagnosis of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Although exercise ECG remains the primary approach for the detection of ischemia in patients with chest pain syndromes, its sensitivity and specificity is limited and exercise ECG does not provide detailed information about the localisation and extent of CAD. Stress echocardiography has been used for the detection of ischemia for more than a decade and has become an increasingly popular noninvasive method for the detection of CAD. In experienced hands wall motion analysis based on stress echocardiography has proved to be as sensitive and specific for the detection of myocardial ischemia as scintigraphic techniques. Recent technical improvements, namely the availability of ultrafast imaging sequences with a significant reduction of imaging time have initiated several studies which examined the combination of pharmacological stress and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of suspected CAD. The most well developed stress-MRI technique is wall motion imaging during dobutamine stress. This technique is analogous to stress echocardiography, but MRI has the inherent advantages of better resolution, higher reproducibility and true long and short axis imaging with contiguous parallel slices. However, the clinical impact of MRI for the diagnosis of CAD is still low. Further technical developments including real time imaging and a reliable automated quantitative analysis of left ventricular function are required before stress-MRI becomes a serious challenge to stressechocardiography in the clinical arena. Currently, only a few MRI facilities and physicians are dedicated to pharmacological stress testing with MRI and the future clinical impact of this promising technique will depend on its potential to provide information beyond myocardial function including perfusion, metabolism and coronary anatomy in form of a ''one-stop''-shop for

  16. Preventing construction worker injury incidents through the management of personal stress and organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Mei-yung; Chan, Isabelle Yee Shan; Yu, Jingyu

    2012-09-01

    Construction workers (CWs) are positioned at the lowest level of an organization and thus have limited control over their work. For this reason, they are often deprived of their due rewards and training or sometimes are even compelled to focus on production at the expense of their own safety. These organizational stressors not only cause the CWs stress but also impair their safety behaviors. The impairment of safety behaviors is the major cause of CW injury incidents. Hence, to prevent injury incidents and enhance safety behaviors of CWs, the current study aimed to identify the impact of various organizational stressors and stress on CW safety behaviors and injury incidents. To achieve this aim, we surveyed 395 CWs. Using factor analysis, we identified five organizational stressors (unfair reward and treatment, inappropriate safety equipment, provision of training, lack of goal setting, and poor physical environment), two types of stress (emotional and physical), and safety behaviors. The results of correlation and regression analyses revealed the following: (1) injury incidents were minimized by safety behaviors but escalated by a lack of goal setting, (2) safety behaviors were maximized by moderate levels of emotional stress (i.e., an inverted U-shape relationship between these two variables) and increased in line with physical stress and inappropriate safety equipment, (3) emotional stress was positively predicted by the provision of training and inappropriate safety equipment, and (4) physical stress was predicted only by inappropriate safety equipment. Based on these results, we suggest various recommendations to construction stakeholders on how to prevent CW injury incidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations of Childhood Trauma, Trauma in Adulthood and Previous-Year Stress with Psychopathology in Patients with Major Depression and Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Schaffrath, Camille; Rullkoetter, Nina; Mensebach, Christoph; Schlosser, Nicole; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Meyer, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important possible outcome of exposure to traumatic events that occur in childhood. However, early traumatic experiences are also an important risk factor for several other mental disorders, such as borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, chronic stress, including daily…

  18. Differential effects of social stress on laboratory-based decision-making are related to both impulsive personality traits and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Richard J; Phung, Alissa L; Labuschagne, Izelle; Stout, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    Urgency is the tendency to make impulsive decisions under extreme positive or negative emotional states. Stress, gender and impulsive personality traits are all known to influence decision-making, but no studies have examined the interplay of all of these factors. We exposed 78 men and women to a stress or a non-stress condition, and then administered the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. We found that stress effects varied as a function of gender and urgency traits. Under stress, women low in negative urgency and men high in negative urgency made fewer risky decisions. Positive urgency yielded a similar pattern. Thus, decisions under stress depend on a complex interplay between gender and impulsive personality traits. These findings have implications for clinical disorders, such as substance use disorders, in which there are known deficits in decision-making and high levels of impulsive traits.

  19. Sensibility and specificity of the stress echocardiography with Dobutamine for the detection of coronary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Juan Manuel; Escobar, Carlos Ignacio; Jaramillo, Mario and others

    2001-01-01

    Dobutamine stress echocardiography has become a useful method for detecting coronary artery disease in the high prevalence population. The reported sensitivity varies between 76-90% and the specificity between 60-95%. 60-95% there have been few reports regarding sensitivity and specificity among our population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of dopamine stress echocardiography in a population with a high probability of coronary disease. This was a randomized retrospective-prospective study. Between February 1 of 1998 and February 1 of 1999. 409 patients underwent dopamine stress echocardiography and were analyzed according to established protocol. The Dobutamine stress echocardiography as well as the angiography was checked in a blind form by one of the participating researchers trained in those procedures. The diagnostic concordance was found to be greater than 90%. Significant coronary disease was considered to be present in those cases in which there was severe stenosis greater than 50% in a major epicardial artery or greater than 40 % in the left main artery. Coronary arteriography was performed within three months of Dobutamine stress echocardiography imaging. A sixteen-segment model was used as the index for the evaluation of systolic wall thickening and the results were classified as follows: normal (l), ischemia (ll), fixed abnormality (lll) and mixed (lV). 409 patients with an average age of 62.8 +/- 12) were included in the study at random. Six patients with mediocre technical examinations were excluded. 47 % were male. 29% had a history of myocardial infarction, 35 % had a history of arterial hypertension and 10% had diabetes mellitus. The average ejection fraction was 54 +/- 13%. The examination was prescribed in order to detect the presence of ischemia in 95.8% of the cases and as part of preoperative evaluation in 4.2 %. There were adverse effects in 40% of the cases; 15% of these were systemic and 25 % cardiac. The test was

  20. Stress management skills, neuroimmune processes and fatigue levels in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Penedo, Frank; Czaja, Sara; Lopez, Corina; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Klimas, Nancy

    2012-08-01

    Stressors and emotional distress responses impact chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptoms, including fatigue. Having better stress management skills might mitigate fatigue by decreasing emotional distress. Because CFS patients comprise a heterogeneous population, we hypothesized that the role of stress management skills in decreasing fatigue may be most pronounced in the subgroup manifesting the greatest neuroimmune dysfunction. In total, 117 individuals with CFS provided blood and saliva samples, and self-report measures of emotional distress, perceived stress management skills (PSMS), and fatigue. Plasma interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and diurnal salivary cortisol were analyzed. We examined relations among PSMS, emotional distress, and fatigue in CFS patients who did and did not evidence neuroimmune abnormalities. Having greater PSMS related to less fatigue (p=.019) and emotional distress (pfatigue levels most strongly in CFS patients in the top tercile of IL-6, and emotional distress mediated the relationship between PSMS and fatigue most strongly in patients with the greatest circulating levels of IL-6 and a greater inflammatory (IL-6):anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine ratio. CFS patients having greater PSMS show less emotional distress and fatigue, and the influence of stress management skills on distress and fatigue appear greatest among patients who have elevated IL-6 levels. These findings support the need for research examining the impact of stress management interventions in subgroups of CFS patients showing neuroimmune dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Two scales for job stress and psychological health investigation: type-A personality and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batigün, Ayşegül Durak; Sahin, Nesrin H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of two instruments developed to measure Type-A behaviors and job satisfaction, two important variables mentioned in the stress literature. The data were collected from two different samples, one composed of 426 bank personnel, the other composed of 94 adults working in a private company. The findings are presented separately under the titles Study I and Study II. In both of the studies the assessment instruments used were: Stress Audit (Symptoms), Stress Audit (Vulnerability), Stress Coping Behaviors, Job Satisfaction Scale, and Type-A Behaviors Inventory. For both of the instruments, the studies were based on factor analyses. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory the analyses revealed 4 factors, while for Job Satisfaction Scale they revealed 6 factors. The factor subscales developed from these factors were found to have satisfactory Cronbach's alphas. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory they ranged between .40 and .90; whereas for Job Satisfaction Inventory these values were between .53 and .94. Both studies also included correlational analyses to specify the criterion validity values of the two instruments. The findings revealed that both of the instruments had satisfactory psychometric values, indicating that they can be reliably used in health psychology and job stress studies.

  2. The Big Five personality and temperamental traits and its correlation with styles of coping with stress in the fire brigade officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szrajda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Selecting specific professional activities (e.g. a brigade officer and methods for coping with difficult situations may result from personal predispositions of a given person. Personality is founded on the innate temperament. The way of dealing with stress depends on personality traits whose influence is manifested, amongst other things, in the selection of specific coping styles. The current study aim to examine the level of correlation between personality and temperamental traits with manifested coping styles. The study covered 58 volunteers – male fire brigade officers. The following tools were used: Personality Inventory, NEO-FFI, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour: Temperament Inventory – Revised Version, FCZ-KT (R and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, CISS. Emotion-focused coping style for stressful situations correlates with the following traits: positively, with perseveration (r=0.5115 and with emotional reactivity (r=0.4927, and negatively, with briskness (r=-0.3926 and endurance (r=-0.5408. The task-oriented coping style for stressful situations correlates positively with extraversion (r=0.3236 and conscientiousness (r=0.3088, and negatively with neuroticism (r=-0.3368 in the NEO-FFI. The emotion-focused coping style for stressful situations is positively correlated with neuroticism (NEO-FFI (r=0.4150. In fire brigade officers, As far as personality traits were concerned, fire brigade officers scored relatively high in extraversion, conscientiousness and low in neuroticism and were likely to demonstrate the task-oriented coping style for stressful situations. Lower level of perseveration and high level of briskness and endurance were associated with emotion-focused coping style for stressful situations. Similarly, the tendency to focus on emotions experienced in stressful situations were associated with high level of neuroticism in the study group.

  3. Person-Specific Face Detection in a Scene with Optimum Composite Filtering and Colour-Shape Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokwon Yeom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face detection and recognition have wide applications in robot vision and intelligent surveillance. However, face identification at a distance is very challenging because long-distance images are often degraded by low resolution, blurring and noise. This paper introduces a person-specific face detection method that uses a nonlinear optimum composite filter and subsequent verification stages. The filter's optimum criterion minimizes the sum of the output energy generated by the input noise and the input image. The composite filter is trained with several training images under long-distance modelling. The candidate facial regions are provided by the filter's outputs of the input scene. False alarms are eliminated by subsequent testing stages, which comprise skin colour and edge mask filtering tests. In the experiments, images captured by a webcam and a CCTV camera are processed to show the effectiveness of the person-specific face detection system at a long distance.

  4. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, G.; Bruffaerts, R.; Nock, M.K.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.; Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Claes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by

  5. Stressful life events as predictors of functioning: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M. E.; Skodol, A. E.; Stout, R. L.; Shea, M. T.; Yen, S.; Grilo, C. M.; Sanislow, C. A.; Bender, D. S.; McGlashan, T. H.; Zanarini, M. C.; Gunderson, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Although much attention has been given to the effects of adverse childhood experiences on the development of personality disorders (PDs), we know far less about how recent life events influence the ongoing course of functioning. We examined the extent to which PD subjects differ in rates of life events and the extent to which life events impact psychosocial functioning. Method A total of 633 subjects were drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS), a multi-site study of four personality disorders – schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD), obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) – and a comparison group of major depressive disorders (MDD) without PD. Results Borderline personality disorder subjects reported significantly more total negative life events than other PDs or subjects with MDD. Negative events, especially interpersonal events, predicted decreased psychosocial functioning over time. Conclusion Our findings indicate higher rates of negative events in subjects with more severe PDs and suggest that negative life events adversely impact multiple areas of psychosocial functioning. PMID:15521826

  6. Personality, threat, and cognitive and emotional reactions to stressful intercultural situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, K; van Oudenhoven, JP; de Grijs, E

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in appraisal of and affective reactions to intercultural situations. A sample of 160 students filled out the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and participated in an experiment in which they received a description of an intercultural

  7. Personal characteristics and forms of religiosity involved in coping with stress. Empirical studies of policeman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Franczak

    2012-12-01

    associations with the methods of coping with stress measured by Folkman and Lazarus WCQ Questionnaire. However, in the case of how to deal with difficult situations diagnosed by Questionnaire WCQ religious dimensions play a role only in three cases: the confrontation, avoidance and positive revaluation. This ways of coping are supported by prayer and worship.

  8. Leaf water stress detection utilizing thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 in soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Schutt, J. B.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

    1983-01-01

    The total and diffuse radiance responses of Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns), and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) to water stress in a soybean canopy are compared. Polarization measurements were used to separate the total from the diffuse reflectance; the reflectances were compared statistically at a variety of look angles at 15 min intervals from about 09.00 until 14.00 hrs EST. The results suggest that remotely sensed data collected in the photographic infrared region (TM4) are sensitive to leaf water stress in a 100 percent canopy cover of soybeans, and that TM3 is less sensitive than TM4 for detection of reversible foliar water stress. The mean values of TM5 reflectance data show similar trends to TM4. The primary implication of this study is that remote sensing of water stress in green plant canopies is possible in TM4 from ground-based observations primarily through the indirect link of leaf geometry.

  9. Value of dipyridamole stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT in detecting dysfunction of coronary microcirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Ying; Jiang Jinqi; Xie Wenhui; Yuan Fang; Wang Tong; Yang Yiqing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of dipyridamole stress 201 Tl myocardial SPECT in detecting dysfunction of coronary microcirculation. Methods: Forty-eight patients diagnosed with cardiac syndrome X underwent dipyridamole stress 201 Tl myocardial SPECT. Dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) was intravenously injected over 4 min followed by 201 Tl (111 MBq) injection at 2 min after dipyridamole administration. Image was acquired at 10 min and 240 min post-injection and co-analyzed by over two experienced doctors in nuclear medicine after three-dimensional reconstruction. The patients with 'reverse redistribution' underwent repeated dipyridamole stress 201 Tl SPECT after medical therapy for 2 weeks. The clinical symptoms and results of the treadmill exercise test pre-and post-therapy were compared. Results: Forty two patients (42/48, 87.50%) showed segmental defects: 'reverse redistribution' on delayed (240 min) 201 Tl images. After medical treatment, 36 cases of the 42 'reverse redistribution' patients had improvement in both clinical symptoms and treadmill exercise test. Post-treatment 201 Tl imaging showed improvement in 45/49 (91.84%) defect segments. Six of the 42 patients had no improvement in clinical symptoms and/or treadmill exercise test. Post-treatment 201 Tl imaging showed no improvement in all the 7 defect segments on the first scan. Conclusion: Dipyridamole stress 201 Tl myocardial SPECT may be valuable in evaluation of impaired coronary microcirculation associated with cardiac syndrome X. (authors)

  10. Early biotic stress detection in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by BVOC emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasal-Slavik, Tina; Eschweiler, Julia; Kleist, Einhard; Mumm, Roland; Goldbach, Heiner E; Schouten, Alexander; Wildt, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    We investigated impacts of early and mild biotic stress on Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emissions from tomato in order to test their potential for early (biotic) stress detection. Tomato plants were exposed to two common fungal pathogens, Botrytis cinerea and Oidium neolycopesici and the sap-sucking aphid Myzus persicae. Furthermore, plants were exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in order to identify BVOC emissions related to activation of jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. These emissions where then used as a reference for identifying active JA signalling pathway in plants at early stages of biotic stress. After infection by the necrotrophic fungus B. cinerea, changes in BVOC emissions indicated that tomato plants had predominantly activated the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. The plants were able to modify their defence pathways in order to overcome fungal infection. When tomato plants were infected with the biotrophic fungus O. neolycopersici, only minor changes in BVOC emissions were observed with additional emissions of the sesquiterpene α-copaene. α-copaene emissions allowed the identification of general biotic stress in the plants, without pinpointing the actual triggered defence pathway. BVOC emissions during M. persicae attack had changed before the occurrence of visual symptoms. Despite low infestation rates, plants emitted methyl salicylate indicating activation of the SA-mediated defence pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A posture recognition based fall detection system for monitoring an elderly person in a smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Rhuma, Adel; Naqvi, Syed Mohsen; Wang, Liang; Chambers, Jonathon

    2012-11-01

    We propose a novel computer vision based fall detection system for monitoring an elderly person in a home care application. Background subtraction is applied to extract the foreground human body and the result is improved by using certain post-processing. Information from ellipse fitting and a projection histogram along the axes of the ellipse are used as the features for distinguishing different postures of the human. These features are then fed into a directed acyclic graph support vector machine (DAGSVM) for posture classification, the result of which is then combined with derived floor information to detect a fall. From a dataset of 15 people, we show that our fall detection system can achieve a high fall detection rate (97.08%) and a very low false detection rate (0.8%) in a simulated home environment.

  12. Unsupervised domain adaptation for early detection of drought stress in hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, P.; Steinrücken, J.; Römer, C.; Ballvora, A.; Léon, J.; Rascher, U.; Plümer, L.

    2017-09-01

    Hyperspectral images can be used to uncover physiological processes in plants if interpreted properly. Machine Learning methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forests have been applied to estimate development of biomass and detect and predict plant diseases and drought stress. One basic requirement of machine learning implies, that training and testing is done in the same domain and the same distribution. Different genotypes, environmental conditions, illumination and sensors violate this requirement in most practical circumstances. Here, we present an approach, which enables the detection of physiological processes by transferring the prior knowledge within an existing model into a related target domain, where no label information is available. We propose a two-step transformation of the target features, which enables a direct application of an existing model. The transformation is evaluated by an objective function including additional prior knowledge about classification and physiological processes in plants. We have applied the approach to three sets of hyperspectral images, which were acquired with different plant species in different environments observed with different sensors. It is shown, that a classification model, derived on one of the sets, delivers satisfying classification results on the transformed features of the other data sets. Furthermore, in all cases early non-invasive detection of drought stress was possible.

  13. Detection of infectivity in blood of persons with variant and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Jean Yves; Zafar, Saima; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Lacroux, Caroline; Lugan, Séverine; Aron, Naima; Cassard, Herve; Ponto, Claudia; Corbière, Fabien; Torres, Juan Maria; Zerr, Inga; Andreoletti, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    We report the presence of infectivity in erythrocytes, leukocytes, and plasma of 1 person with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in the plasma of 2 in 4 persons whose tests were positive for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The measured infectivity levels were comparable to those reported in various animals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

  14. Can Stress Echocardiography Compete with Perfusion Scintigraphy in the Detection of Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiac Risk Assessment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); A. Elhendy (Abdou)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAims: The aim of this review was to define the place of stress echocardiography in the context of perfusion scintigraphy for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the assessment of cardiac risk. Stress echocardiography has the benefits of widespread availability, relatively

  15. Personality, posttraumatic stress and trauma type: factors contributing to posttraumatic growth and its domains in a Turkish community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Nuray Karanci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic growth (PTG is conceptualized as a positive transformation resulting from coping with and processing traumatic life events. This study examined the contributory roles of personality traits, posttraumatic stress (PTS severity and their interactions on PTG and its domains, as assessed with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory Turkish form (PTGI-T. The study also examined the differences in PTG domains between survivors of accidents, natural disasters and unexpected loss of a loved one. Methods: The Basic Personality Traits Inventory, Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and PTGI-T were administered to a large stratified cluster community sample of 969 Turkish adults in their home settings. Results: The results showed that conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience significantly related to the total PTG and most of the domains. The effects of extraversion, neuroticism and openness to experience were moderated by the PTS severity for some domains. PTG in relating to others and appreciation of life domains was lower for the bereaved group. Conclusion: Further research should examine the mediating role of coping between personality and PTG using a longitudinal design.

  16. Detection of Free Polyamines in Plants Subjected to Abiotic Stresses by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoqing; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2017-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a sensitive, rapid, and accurate technique to detect and characterize various metabolites from plants. The metabolites are extracted with different solvents and eluted with appropriate mobile phases in a designed HPLC program. Polyamines are known to accumulate under abiotic stress conditions in various plant species and thought to provide protection against oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen species. Here, we describe a common method to detect the free polyamines in plant tissues both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  17. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Daneshvar, Bahram; Hansen, Max

    2003-01-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution assessed as outdoor concentrations of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micro m in diameter (PM(2.5)) in urban background has been associated with cardiovascular diseases at the population level. However, the significance of individual exposure...... and the involved mechanisms remain uncertain. We measured personal PM(2.5) and carbon black exposure in 50 students four times in 1 year and analyzed blood samples for markers of protein and lipid oxidation, for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts, and for concentrations of hemoglobin and fibrinogen. We...... analyzed protein oxidation in terms of gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBGGS) and 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBAAS) and plasma proteins (PLAAS), and lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma. Median exposures were 16.1 micro g/m(3) for personal PM(2.5...

  18. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mettte; Daneshvar, Bahram; Hansen, Max

    2003-01-01

    wAmbient particulate air pollution assessed as outdoor concentrations of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 mum in diameter (PM2.5) in urban background has been associated with cardiovascular diseases at the population level. However, the significance of individual exposure...... and the involved mechanisms remain uncertain. We measured personal PM2.5 and carbon black exposure in 50 students four times in 1 year and analyzed blood samples for markers of protein and lipid oxidation, for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts, and for concentrations of hemoglobin and fibrinogen. We...... analyzed protein oxidation in terms of gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBGGS) and 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBAAS) and plasma proteins (PLAAS), and lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma. Median exposures were 16.1 mug/m(3) for personal PM2.5 exposure...

  19. Comparison of exercise and pharmacological stress gated SPECT in detecting transient left ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Hakan; Tan, Yusuf Z.; Isgoren, Serkan; Gorur, Gozde D.; Kozdag, Guliz; Ural, Ertan; Berk, Fatma

    2008-01-01

    119 (39%) and 12 of 101 (12%) subjects, in patients with and without ischemia, respectively (P<0.0001). On the other hand, in group II, TLVD was detected in 35 of 104 (34%) and 8 of 115 (7%) patients with and without ischemia, respectively (P<0.0001). And also, we found significant good correlations between TID ratios and DLVEF values in four subgroups (r=-0.55, r=-0.62, r=-0.59, and r=-0.41; for groups IA, IB, IIA, and IIB, respectively, P<0.0001 for all). Dipyridamole is believed to be less likely than exercise to induce ischemia. However, in this study, TLVD after stress was observed following not only exercise but also pharmacological stress, consistent with ischemia. (author)

  20. Aromatherapy: does it help to relieve pain, depression, anxiety, and stress in community-dwelling older persons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuk Kwan; Tse, M Y Mimi

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an aromatherapy programme for older persons with chronic pain. The community-dwelling elderly people who participated in this study underwent a four-week aromatherapy programme or were assigned to the control group, which did not receive any interventions. Their levels of pain, depression, anxiety, and stress were collected at the baseline and at the postintervention assessment after the conclusion of the four-week programme. Eighty-two participants took part in the study. Forty-four participants (37 females, 7 males) were in the intervention group and 38 participants (30 females, 8 males) were in the control group. The pain scores were 4.75 (SD 2.32) on a 10-point scale for the intervention group and 5.24 (SD 2.14) for the control group before the programme. There was a slight reduction in the pain score of the intervention group. No significant differences were found in the same-group and between-group comparisons for the baseline and postintervention assessments. The depression, anxiety, and stress scores for the intervention group before the programme were 11.18 (SD 6.18), 9.64 (SD 7.05), and 12.91 (SD 7.70), respectively. A significant reduction in negative emotions was found in the intervention group (Paromatherapy programme can be an effective tool to reduce pain, depression, anxiety, and stress levels among community-dwelling older adults.

  1. Recognizing Academic Performance, Sleep Quality, Stress Level, and Mental Health using Personality Traits, Wearable Sensors and Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Akane; Phillips, Andrew J; Yu, Amy Z; McHill, Andrew W; Taylor, Sara; Jaques, Natasha; Czeisler, Charles A; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Picard, Rosalind W

    2015-06-01

    What can wearable sensors and usage of smart phones tell us about academic performance, self-reported sleep quality, stress and mental health condition? To answer this question, we collected extensive subjective and objective data using mobile phones, surveys, and wearable sensors worn day and night from 66 participants, for 30 days each, totaling 1,980 days of data. We analyzed daily and monthly behavioral and physiological patterns and identified factors that affect academic performance (GPA), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score, perceived stress scale (PSS), and mental health composite score (MCS) from SF-12, using these month-long data. We also examined how accurately the collected data classified the participants into groups of high/low GPA, good/poor sleep quality, high/low self-reported stress, high/low MCS using feature selection and machine learning techniques. We found associations among PSQI, PSS, MCS, and GPA and personality types. Classification accuracies using the objective data from wearable sensors and mobile phones ranged from 67-92%.

  2. A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hofmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B’. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B’ gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B’ promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

  3. Increased utilisation of primary healthcare in persons exposed to severe stress in prenatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Yang, Hu; Guldin, Mai-Britt

    2015-01-01

    Meget tyder på, at stress i graviditeten kan skade det ufødte barn. Dette studie viser, at sorg hos moderen under graviditeten kan betyde, at barnet senere i livet søger læge mere hyppigt sammenlignet med børn, hvor moderen ikke har været i sorg under graviditeten. Det er især, hvis moderen under...... menneskes liv, og at det kan påvirke det ufødte barn, når moderen bliver stresset under graviditeten. Vi ved dog ikke helt, om den øgede lægesøgning hos børnene kun skyldes stress i graviditeten, eller om de også påvirkes af, om moderen fx har mistet sin ægtefælle, og den betydning det kan have for barnets...

  4. The Influence of Daily Stress on Sedentary Behavior: Group and Person (N of 1) Level Results of a 1-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Parsons, Faith E; Yoon, Sunmoo; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Alcantara, Carmela; Duran, Andrea T; Ensari, Ipek; Krupka, David J; Schwartz, Joseph E; Burg, Matthew M; Davidson, Karina W

    2018-05-24

    The purpose of this study, which used mobile technologies to continuously collect data over 1 year, was to examine the association of psychological stress with objectively measured sedentary behavior in adults at both the group (e.g. nomothetic approach) and individual (e.g. idiographic approach) level. Data were collected in an observational study of healthy adults (n=79) residing in the New York City metro area who were studied for 365 days from 2014-2015. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured via accelerometry. A smartphone-based electronic diary was used to assess level of stress ("Overall, how stressful was your day?"; 0-10 scale) and sources of stress. The end-of-day stress rating was not associated with total sedentary time (B= -1.34, p=0.767) at the group-level. When specific sources of stress were evaluated at the group-level, argument-related stress was associated with increased sedentariness; while running late- and work-related stress were associated with decreased sedentariness. There was a substantial degree of inter-individual variability in the relationship of stress with sedentary behavior. Both the level and sources of stress were associated with increased sedentariness for some, decreased sedentariness for others, and had no effect for many (within-person variance p-value stress on sedentary behavior varies by source of stress and from person-to-person. A precision medicine approach may be warranted to target reductions in sedentary time; although further studies are needed to confirm the observed findings in light of study limitations including a small sample size and enrollment of participants from a single, urban metropolitan area.

  5. Sex determines cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Okamoto, Kana; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2016-08-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) has excessive and pervasive anxiety and discomfort in social situations. The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between AVPD and physical and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 93 AVPD patients and 355 nonpatient controls by salivary amylase and cortisol responses during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electrical stimulation stress. Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood State (POMS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were administered. Following electrical stimulation, salivary cortisol levels in female AVPD decreased significantly less than that in female's controls, but salivary cortisol levels did not show a difference between male AVPD patients and controls. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. Following TSST exposure, sAA levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. Salivary cortisol levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. In the AVPD patients, POMS scores were significantly higher compared with the controls. STAI, BDI, DACS scores, and CTQ significantly increased in the AVPD patients compared with the controls. LF in heart rate variability in AVPD significantly increased more compared with controls. These results suggest that heightened sympathetic reactivity in female AVPD co-occurs with attenuated salivary cortisol responses to electric stimulation stress and there is a significant difference between AVPD and controls in mood, anxiety, social cognition, and automatic nerve systems.

  6. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: a twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Keeling, A; Paice, E

    2004-08-18

    The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five). Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire) and personality. Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style.

  7. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: A twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paice E

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory, and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five. Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire and personality. Results Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Conclusions Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style.

  8. The relationship between Type D personality and physical health complaints is mediated by perceived stress and anxiety but not diurnal cortisol secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Riccalton, Victoria C; Kelly-Hughes, Denise H; Craw, Olivia A; Allen, Sarah F; O'Connor, Daryl B; Wetherell, Mark A

    2018-05-01

    Type D personality has been associated with minor health complaints in the general population and dysregulation of basal cortisol secretion in coronary patients. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) whether there is an association between Type D personality and basal cortisol secretion in the general population, and (ii) whether subjective measures of stress and anxiety, as well as indices of basal cortisol secretion, mediate the relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms in this group. Self-report measures of stress, trait anxiety and physical symptoms were provided by 101 individuals aged 18-45 years. Saliva samples were also provided over two consecutive "typical" days, to enable indices of the cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol profile to be determined. There was a significant relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms, which was fully mediated by subjective stress and anxiety. However, there were no significant relationships between Type D personality and the basal cortisol indices. These findings suggest that the association between Type D personality and minor health complaints in the general population can be explained by feelings of stress and anxiety, but a precise biological mechanism for this link is yet to be elucidated.

  9. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: A twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, IC; Keeling, A; Paice, E

    2004-01-01

    Background The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five). Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire) and personality. Results Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Conclusions Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style. PMID:15317650

  10. Assessment of NDE Technologies for Detection and Characterization of Stress Corrosion Cracking in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bond, Leonard J.; Montgomery, Robert O.

    2012-12-31

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in light water reactors (LWRs) has been a persistent form of degradation in the nuclear industry. Examples of SCC can be found for a range of materials in boiling and pressurized water reactor environments, including carbon steels, stainless steels, and nickel-base stainless alloys. The evolution of SCC is often characterized by a long initiation stage followed by a phase of more rapid crack growth to failure. This provides a relatively short window of opportunity to detect the start of observable SCC, and it is conceivable that SCC could progress from initiation to failure between subsequent examinations when managed by applying periodic in-service inspection techniques. Implementation of advanced aging management paradigms in the current fleet of LWRs will require adaptation of existing measurement technologies and development of new technologies to perform on-line measurements during reactor operation to ensure timely detection of material degradation and to support the implementation of advanced diagnostics and prognostics. This paper considers several non-destructive examination (NDE) technologies with known sensitivity to detection of indicators for SCC initiation and/or propagation, and assesses these technologies with respect to their ability to detect and accurately characterize the significance of an SCC flaw. Potential strategies to improve SCC inspection or monitoring performance are offered to benefit management of SCC degradation in LWRs.

  11. Assessment of NDE technologies for detection and characterization of stress corrosion cracking in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.M.; Ramuhalli, P.; Toloczko, M.B.; Bond, L.J.; Montgomery, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in light water reactors (LWRs) has been a persistent form of degradation in the nuclear industry. Examples of SCC can be found for a range of materials in boiling and pressurized water reactor environments, including carbon steels, stainless steels, and nickel-base alloys. The evolution of SCC is often characterized by a long initiation stage followed by a phase of more rapid crack growth to failure. This provides a relatively short window of opportunity to detect the start of observable SCC, and it is conceivable that SCC could progress from initiation to failure between subsequent examinations when managed by applying periodic in-service inspection techniques. Implementation of advanced aging management paradigms in the current fleet of LWRs will require adaptation of existing measurement technologies and development of new technologies to perform on-line measurements during reactor operation to ensure timely detection of material degradation and to support the implementation of advanced diagnostics and prognostics. This paper considers several non-destructive examination (NDE) technologies with known sensitivity to detection of indicators for SCC initiation and/or propagation, and assesses these technologies with respect to their ability to detect and accurately characterize the significance of an SCC flaw. Potential strategies to improve SCC inspection or monitoring performance are offered to benefit management of SCC degradation in LWRs. (author)

  12. Allostatic Load Assessment for Early Detection of Stress in the Workplace in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ola Sayed; Badawy, Nadia; Rizk, Sanaa; Gomaa, Hend; Saleh, Mai Sabry

    2016-09-15

    Workplace stress is hazardous for its harmful impact on employees' health and organizational productivity. The aim of the study is to apply the Allostatic Load Index (ALI) which is a multi-component measure for health risk assessment and early detection of stress among workers in Egypt. Sixty-two working adults randomly selected from two different working environments in Egypt were included in the study. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire for socio-demographic and work variables. Andrews and Withey test for Job Satisfaction was filled and 3 ml blood samples were collected. Markers assessed for Allostatic Load were serum cortisol, c-reactive protein, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate, total thyroxine, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, waist to hip ratio and body mass index. The risk quartile method was used for calculation of ALI. ALI value of four or more indicates high Allostatic Load. Job satisfaction scale defined about a quarter of the study population (24%) to be dissatisfied with Allostatic Load of 2.4 as the mean value. Population percentage with ALI ≥4 reached 12.9% with 100% of them females. A significant association was found between Allostatic Load of primary mediators and age, the presence of chronic diseases, place of work and female gender. Female gender and the old age of the Egyptian workforce under study are at higher risk of chronic diseases. Using an alternative way -for example, the cut-point method- instead of the risk quartiles for dichotomization of markers used in ALI calculation could be more precise for early detection of stress among healthy individuals.

  13. Remote Field Eddy Current Probes for the Detection of Stress Corrosion in Transmission Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Plamen Alexandroz [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) is a technique used widely in non-destructive testing (NDT) of natural gas and petroleum transmission pipelines. This inspection method relies on magnetizing the pipe-wall in axial direction. The MFL inspection tool is equipped with an array of Hall sensors located around the circumference of the pipe, which registers the flux leakage caused by any defects present in the pipe-wall. Currently, the tool magnetizes the pipewall in axial direction making it largely insensitive to axially oriented defects. One type of defect, which is of a growing concern in the gas and petroleum industry is the stress corrosion crack (SCC). The SCCs are a result of aging, corrosion, fatigue and thermal stresses. SCCs are predominantly axially oriented and are extremely tight, which makes them impossible to be detected using current inspection technology. A possible solution to this problem is to utilize the remote field eddy current (RFEC) effect to detect axially oriented defects. The RFEC method has been widely used in industry in the inspection of tubular products. The method uses a pair of excitation and pick-up coils. The pick-up coil located in the remote field region, usually two, three pipe-diameters away from the excitation coil. With RFEC the presence of defects is detected by the disturbance in the phase of the signal measured by the pick-up coil relative to that of the excitation coil. Unlike conventional eddy current testing the RFEC method is sensitive to defects on the exterior of the inspected product, which makes it a good candidate for the development of in-line inspection technology. This work focuses on the development of non-destructive testing technique, which uses remote field eddy currents induced by rotating magnetic field (RMF). A major advantage of the RMF is that it makes possible to not only detect a defect but also localize its position in circumferential direction. Also, it could potentially allow detection of defects

  14. Level of physical activity, well-being, stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda

    2017-01-01

    where questionnaires on physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health were completed by 148 persons with migraine and 100 healthy controls matched by sex and average age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess characteristics of migraine, tension......-existing tension-type headache and neck pain in a clinic-based sample, b) the level of physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain compared to healthy controls, c) the perceived ability of persons...... well-being, higher level of perceived stress and poorer self-rated health compared to healthy controls. They reported reduced ability to perform physical activity owing to migraine (high degree), tension-type headache (moderate degree) and neck pain (low degree). The most burdensome condition...

  15. Usefulness of type D personality in predicting five-year cardiac events above and beyond concurrent symptoms of stress in patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2006-01-01

    Psychological stress and type D personality have been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis, but little is known about their relative effect on the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). "Type D" refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit the expression...... of these emotions in social interactions. We investigated the relative effect of stress and type D personality on prognosis at 5-year follow-up. At baseline, 337 patients with CHD who participated in cardiac rehabilitation filled in the General Health Questionnaire (psychological stress) and the Type D personality.......001) were related to an increased risk of developing a major adverse cardiac event after adjusting for gender, age, and biomedical risk factors. Multivariate analysis yielded left ventricular ejection fraction...

  16. A within-person approach to risk for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior: Examining the roles of depression, stress, and abuse exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, Matteo; Hastings, Paul D; Rudolph, Karen D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-07-01

    This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 14.69 years, SD = 1.37; 61% White). At baseline, adolescents reported the presence or absence of prior abuse as part of a clinical interview. At baseline and every 3 months for 18 months, adolescents completed measures of suicidal ideation and behavior, depressive symptoms, and stress. Multilevel models examined within-person mean, deviations from within-person mean, depression, and stress and their interactions with abuse as predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. In addition to within-person mean depression, higher-than-usual depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99) and higher-than-usual stress (OR = 1.53) predicted greater risk of suicidal ideation at each follow-up assessment. Periods of higher-than-usual stress (1 SD increase) and periods of higher-than-usual depression (1 SD increase) were associated with an 82% and 57% increase in the odds of suicidal behavior, respectively, but only among those with abuse histories. Depression, stress, and abuse are well-known risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior; however, it has been unclear for whom, and when, these factors have their greatest impact. These results show that depression and stress are potent risk factors among those with a history of abuse and that within-person elevations in these risk factors signal increased short-term risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Daily diary study of personality disorder traits: Momentary affect and cognitive appraisals in response to stressful events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnecke, Amber M; Miller, Michelle L; South, Susan C

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in emotional expression and emotion regulation are core features of many personality disorders (PDs); yet, we know relatively little about how individuals with PDs affectively respond to stressful situations. The present study seeks to fill this gap in the literature by examining how PD traits are associated with emotional responses to subjective daily stressors, while accounting for cognition and type of stressor experienced (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal). PD features were measured with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2 (SNAP-2) diagnostic scores. Participants (N = 77) completed a 1-week experience sampling procedure that measured affect and cognition related to a current stressor 5 times per day. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine whether and how baseline PD features, momentary cognitions, and type of stressor predicted level of affect. Results demonstrated that paranoid, borderline, and avoidant PD traits predicted negative affect beyond what could be accounted for by cognitions and type of stressor. No PD traits predicted positive affect after accounting for the effects of cognitive appraisals and type of stressor. Findings have implications for validating the role of affect in PDs and understanding how individuals with PDs react in the presence of daily hassles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The current situation of personal dose monitoring in Chinese medicine radiation and undamaged detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liangan; Zhang Wenyi; Yuan Shuyu; Song Shijun; Chang Hexin; Sun Kai

    1993-01-01

    The situation of personal dose monitoring in γ(X) external exposure in China is mainly outlined. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) was adopted for personal dose measurement of the radiation workers. The computer software and data base for the work have been developed and applied. National intercomparison of TLD, monitoring control of personal dose monitoring in field, and technical training were carried out for quality control. In China, the dominant occupational exposures is X-ray diagnosis and it increases year by year, the highest values is about 22.6%. The highest values of annual collective dose and annual average of individual dose (AAID) are 272.8 man·Sv and 3.21 mSv respectively. This work shows that the fraction of the population receiving high dose is decreased with time rapidly. The situation for whole occupational exposures is also described. (3 tabs.)

  19. Gender determines cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Aimi; Ikeda, Rie; Ando, Tomoko; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2015-07-30

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, unstable relationships, and identity disturbance. We measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels in all participants during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and an electric stimulation stress. Seventy-two BPD patients were compared with 377 age- and gender- matched controls. The State and Trait versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test (STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively), the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to participants before electrical stimulation. Following TSST exposure, salivary cortisol levels significantly decreased in female patients and significantly increased in male patients compared with controls. POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores were significantly increased in BPD patients compared with controls. In contrast, vigor scores were significantly decreased in BPD patients relative to controls. Furthermore, STAI-T and STAI-S anxiety scores and BDI scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. DACS scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. Different stressors (e.g., psychological or physical) induced different responses in the HPA and SAM systems in female or male BPD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  1. Investigating the interactive role of stressful life events, reinforcement sensitivity and personality traits in prediction of the severity of Multiple Sclerosis (MS symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological condition recognized by demyelination in the central nervous system. The present study was conducted to investigate the interactive role of stressful life events, reinforcement sensitivity, and personality traits in prediction of the severity of symptoms of Multiple sclerosis (MS symptoms. Materials & Methods: This is a correlational study whose statistical population consisted of all the patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis in Shiraz in the first half of 1394, among whom 162 patients were included in this research by means of purposive sampling method. Five-Factor Personality Inventory, Jackson Personality Inventory, Stressful Life Events Scale, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS were utilised as research tools. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential methods were used. The data were analysed using Pearson correlation and hierarchical regression. Results: The findings revealed that stressful life events (β = 0.41, p <0.001, Behavioral Inhibition System (β = 0.26, p<0.05, and neuroticism index (β = 0.92, p <0.05 were able to predict variance of scores of the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis significantly. Conclusion: Stressful life events, Behavioral Inhibition System, and neuroticism showed a significant relationship with the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis; thus, it seems that interaction of personality traits and environmental conditions are among influential factors of the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis. This fact implies that individuals' personal traits play an eminent role in the progression of the disease.

  2. Corticosterone stress response shows long-term repeatability and links to personality in free-living Nazca boobies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Jacquelyn K; Anderson, David J

    2014-11-01

    The concept of "coping styles", or consistently different responses to stressors, is of broad interest in behavioral ecology and biomedicine. Two critical predictions of this concept are individual consistency of neurophysiological and behavioral responses (relative to population variability) and a negative relationship between aggression/proactivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Recent studies failed to provide strong support for these predictions, especially outside of strictly controlled conditions, and long-term measures to test the first prediction are rare. Here, we demonstrate individual repeatability across 2-3years of maximum circulating corticosterone concentration [CORT] and area under the [CORT] response curve (AUCI) during a standard capture-restraint test in wild, free-living adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti). We also show that the stress response predicts the personality traits aggression and anxiety in these birds (measured in the wild); however, the strength of these results was weak. Maximum [CORT] and AUCI showed higher repeatability between years than baseline [CORT]. After controlling breeding status, sex, mass, date sampled, and their interactions, baseline [CORT] was most closely related to personality traits, followed by AUCI, and then maximum [CORT]. The direction of these relationships depended on whether the testing context was social or non-social. [CORT] parameters had little to no relationship with cross-context plasticity in personality traits. Our results generally affirm two critical predictions of coping styles, but match the emerging trend that these relationships are weak in the wild, and may depend on testing context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Creating a Residency Application Personal Statement Writers Workshop: Fostering Narrative, Teamwork, and Insight at a Time of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce H; Havas, Nancy; Derse, Arthur R; Holloway, Richard L

    2016-03-01

    Every graduating medical student must write a personal statement for the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS), yet there are no widely available resources designed to aid the writing process, causing stress among applicants. The authors offered every Medical College of Wisconsin senior student in the Classes of 2014 and 2015 a voluntary self-contained two-hour Residency Application Personal Statement Writers Workshop. The session included the selection of writing prompts, speedwriting, and a peer-edit critique. Data were gathered before and after each workshop and at the time of ERAS submission. One hundred nine students elected to participate. Of the 96 participants completing a preworkshop questionnaire, only 28 (29%) were comfortable with creative and reflective writing. Fifty-four students completed a follow-up survey after submitting their ERAS application. Fifty-one (94%) found the session effective in getting their personal statement started, and 65 (70%) were surprised by the quality of their writing. Almost all could trace some of their final statement to the workshop. Forty-six (85%) found working with other students helpful, and 49 (91%) would recommend the session to future students; 47 (87%) agreed that the workshop was "fun." The full workshop will be repeated yearly. Workshops will also be offered to residents preparing fellowship applications. A shorter version (without the peer-edit critique) was used successfully with the entire Class of 2016 to help them reflect on their initial clinical encounters. The authors will seek further opportunities to enhance reflection for students, residents, and faculty with these techniques.

  4. The relationship between event-related potentials, stress perception and personality type in patients with multiple sclerosis without cognitive impairment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewska-Prosół, Marta; Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Kotas, Roman; Bańkowski, Tomasz; Pokryszko-Dragan, Anna; Podemski, Ryszard

    2018-06-08

    The clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) can vary significantly among patients and is affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Among these, stress and personality type have been gaining more attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters of event-related potentials (ERPs) with regards to stress perception and personality type, as well as cognitive performance in MS patients. The study group consisted of 30 MS patients and 26 healthy controls. Auditory ERPs were performed in both groups, including an analysis of P300 and N200 response parameters. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used in the MS group to measure the perception of stress. The D-type Scale (DS14) scale was used to determine the features of Type D personality, characterized by social inhibition and negative affectivity. The score on the PSS corresponded with a moderate or high level of stress perception in 63% of MS patients, while 23% of patients presented with a Type D personality. P300 latencies were significantly longer (p = 0.001), N200 amplitudes were significantly higher (p = 0.004), and N200 latencies were longer in MS patients than in the controls. Strong positive correlations were found between N200 and P300 amplitudes, as well as between the DS14 and PSS results. Most MS patients experience moderate to severe stress. ERP abnormalities were found in MS patients who did not have overt cognitive impairment and showed correlations with stress levels and negative affectivity. Event-related potentials may be useful in assessing the influence of stress and emotions on the course of MS.

  5. An examination of personality, emotional intelligence, coping, gender and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) in undergraduate students.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Shona Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This multivariate study aimed to further understand student stress. Associations between personality, emotional intelligence, coping and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) were examined in 238 undergraduate students, using self-report measures. Gender differences in these variables were also investigated. The results showed that students low in emotional stability, extraversion, emotional intelligence, subjective well-being and those with a tendency to use emotion...

  6. Detecting feigned postconcussional and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the structured inventory of malingered symptomatology (SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Adam C; Gfeller, Jeffrey; Emmert, Natalie; Lammert, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    The Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) is a standalone symptom validity test (SVT) designed as a screening measure to detect a variety of exaggerated psychological symptoms. A number of studies have explored the accuracy of the SIMS in litigious and clinical populations, yet few have examined the validity of the SIMS in detecting feigned symptoms of postconcussional disorder (PCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examined the sensitivity of the SIMS in detecting undergraduate simulators (N = 78) feigning symptoms of PCD, PTSD, and the comorbid presentation of both PCD and PTSD symptomatologies. Overall, the SIMS Total score produced the highest sensitivities for the PCD symptoms and PCD+PTSD symptoms groups (.89 and .85, respectively), and to a lesser extent, the PTSD symptoms group (.69). The Affective Disorders (AF) subscale was most sensitive to the PTSD symptoms group compared to the PCD and PCD+PTSD symptoms groups. Additional sensitivity values are presented and examined at multiple scale cutoff scores. These findings support the use of the SIMS as a SVT screening measure for PCD and PTSD symptom exaggeration in neuropsychological assessment.

  7. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Personalized Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Emerging Role of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Mokondjimobe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives were (i to evaluate the impact of acute pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and anti-TB therapy on the relationship between AST, ALT, and GGT levels in absence of conditions related to hepatotoxicity; (ii to evaluate the rate and the time of alterations of AST, ALT, and GGT. Design and Methods. A prospective followup of 40 adults (21 males; mean age of 34.7±5.8 years with active PTB on initial phase and continuation phase anti-TB. Results. Only 3% (n=1 developed a transient and benign ADR at day 30 without interruption of anti-TB treatment. Within normal ranges, GGT decreased significantly from day 0 to day 60, while AST and ALT increased significantly and respectively. During day 0–day 60, there was a significant, negative, and independent association between GGT and AST. Conclusion. The initial two months led to significant improvement of oxidative stress. Values of oxidative markers in normal ranges might predict low rate of ADR.

  8. TOWARDS A PERSONALIZED REAL-TIME DIAGNOSIS IN NEONATAL SEIZURE DETECTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temko, Andriy; Sarkar, Achintya Kumar; Boylan, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    recordings is achievable with on-the-fly incorporation of patient-specific EEG characteristics. In the clinical setting, the employment of the developed system will maintain a seizure detection rate at 70% while halving the number of false detections per hour, from 0.4 FD/h to 0.2 FD/h. This is the first...

  9. Convolutional neural networks for detecting and mapping crowds in first person vision applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olier Jauregui, J.S.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Marcenaro, L.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Rojas, I.; Joya, G.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest on the analysis of First Person Videos in the last few years due to the spread of low-cost wearable devices. Nevertheless, the understanding of the environment surrounding the wearer is a difficult task with many elements involved. In this work, a method for

  10. Prognostic implications of post-stress ejection fraction decrease detected by gated SPECT in the absence of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dona, Manjola; Massi, Lucia; Settimo, Leonardo; Bartolini, Matteo; Gianni, Gianluca; Pupi, Alberto; Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Florence (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The prognostic meaning of a post-stress ejection fraction (EF) decrease detected by perfusion gated SPECT is still unclear. We therefore followed up patients with post-stress EF decrease in the absence of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities. We prospectively enrolled 57 consecutive patients with post-stress EF drop {>=} 5 EF units and summed difference score (SDS) {<=} 1. They were followed up for more than 1 year and their outcome was compared with a group of sex- and age-matched controls with the same SDS but without EF decrease. During follow-up there were 13 events (1 cardiac death, 1 non-fatal myocardial infarction, 1 congestive heart failure and 10 late revascularizations). In the control group we registered six events. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the event-free survival curves of the two groups. The event rate of patients with post-stress EF decrease {>=} 5 EF units is relatively high and is significantly worse than that of a control group of patients with similarly normal SDS but without EF changes. Therefore, a post-stress EF decrease without stress-induced perfusion abnormalities should be cautiously interpreted. (orig.)

  11. First-Person Perspective Virtual Body Posture Influences Stress: A Virtual Reality Body Ownership Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Ilias; Kilteni, Konstantina; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    In immersive virtual reality (IVR) it is possible to replace a person’s real body by a life-sized virtual body that is seen from first person perspective to visually substitute their own. Multisensory feedback from the virtual to the real body (such as the correspondence of touch and also movement) can also be present. Under these conditions participants typically experience a subjective body ownership illusion (BOI) over the virtual body, even though they know that it is not their real one. In most studies and applications the posture of the real and virtual bodies are as similar as possible. Here we were interested in whether the BOI is diminished when there are gross discrepancies between the real and virtual body postures. We also explored whether a comfortable or uncomfortable virtual body posture would induce feelings and physiological responses commensurate with the posture. We carried out an experiment with 31 participants in IVR realized with a wide field-of-view head-mounted display. All participants were comfortably seated. Sixteen of them were embodied in a virtual body designed to be in a comfortable posture, and the remainder in an uncomfortable posture. The results suggest that the uncomfortable body posture led to lesser subjective BOI than the comfortable one, but that participants in the uncomfortable posture experienced greater awareness of their autonomic physiological responses. Moreover their heart rate, heart rate variability, and the number of mistakes in a cognitive task were associated with the strength of their BOI in the uncomfortable posture: greater heart rate, lower heart rate variability and more mistakes were associated with higher levels of the BOI. These findings point in a consistent direction—that the BOI over a body that is in an uncomfortable posture can lead to subjective, physiological and cognitive effects consistent with discomfort that do not occur with the BOI over a body in a comfortable posture. PMID:26828365

  12. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bech Per

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years an increasing number of patients have been referred to the medical sector with stress symptoms. Moreover, these conditions imply increased sickness absence. This indicates a need for treatment programmes in general medical practice. The aim of this study was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. Methods During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational Medicine completed a stress treatment programme consisted of the following: 1 Identification of relevant stressors. 2. Changing the coping strategies of the participants. 3. Evaluating/changes in participant workload and tasks. 4. Relaxation techniques. 5. Physical exercise. 6. Psychiatric evaluation when indicated by depression test score. On average each patient attended six one-hour sessions over the course of four months. A group of 34 employees referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine by their general practitioners served as a control group. Each participant had a one-hour consultation at baseline and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions. Return To Work (RTW, defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. Results The level of sick leave in the stress treatment group dropped from 52% to 16% during the first four months of follow-up and remained stable. In the control group, the reduction in sick leave was significantly smaller, ranging from 48% at baseline to 27% after four months and 24% after one year. No statistically significant difference between the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years

  13. Risky alcohol use in young persons with emerging bipolar disorder is associated with increased oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitty, Kate M; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hickie, Ian B; Hermens, Daniel F

    2013-09-25

    Alcohol misuse is highly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD) and has been associated with increased formation of reactive oxygen species in the CNS. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) is an in vivo tissue-based imaging modality that allows the investigation of changes in the brains primary antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), as a result of alcohol use in this population. Thirty-three patients with BD and 17 controls aged 18-30 years were recruited. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and underwent (1)H-MRS. Levels of GSH in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were determined. ANOVA was conducted to determine differences between high and low risk drinking bipolar participants and controls. ANOVA with all groups revealed a significant difference in GSH between bipolar high and low risk drinkers, with those in the high-risk group displaying reduced GSH levels. A significant negative correlation was found between total AUDIT score and GSH in bipolar (R=-0.478, p=0.005) which remained significant when controlling for age and medication status. Our participant sample consisted of a heterogeneous group of patients, most of whom were medicated at time of testing. Young people with emerging BD who drink at risky levels display reduced levels of ACC-GSH. Increased oxidative stress and its resulting neurotoxic effects may be especially detrimental in an emerging bipolar sample where the illness trajectory is unclear and the brain is still undergoing significant development. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection and significance of serum inflammatory factors and oxidative stress indicators in diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Jing Wang; Chao Zhang; Ping Qin

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To determine the serum inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress parameters of diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients to explore their possible role in the DR.Methods: 116 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were selected from June 2015 to June 2016 in our hospital as research subjects, divided into diabetic Diabetes without retinopathy (NDR group,n = 63) and diabetic with retinopathy patients (DR group,n = 53). And 60 cases of healthy check-ups of the same period in our hospital medical center were selected as normal control group (NC). The VEGF, IL-6, TNF-α , MDA and SOD levels of three groups of patients were detected. Results:The IL-6 levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The TNF-α levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The VEGF levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were decreased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: DR patients express high levels of IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF, and there exists significant oxidative stress in DR, which shows that the inflammation occurrence and oxidative stress state play an important role in the development of DR.

  15. Validation of automated detection of physical and mental stress during work in a Hühnermobil 225

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Quendler; Katharina Trieb; Alfred Nimmerichter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The effects of the use of mobile henhouses and their equipment on the physical and mental stress of farmers in the organic egg production, and the reliability of the sensor-based detection of these in work processes are insufficiently known. There are neither measurement results nor key figures, according to operation and gender especially, available in the literature. Objective The aim of this case study is to quantify the physical and mental stress of work processes o...

  16. The influence of perceived stress on work-family conflict and mental health: the moderating effect of person-environment fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2014-07-01

    This study examines whether higher perceived stress among female hospital workers can result in more serious work-family conflict (WFC) and poorer mental health, and also identifies the role that person-environment (P-E) fit plays in moderating these relationships. Female hospital workers with higher perceived stress tend to report greater WFC and worse mental health than others with less perceived stress. A better fit between a person and her environment may lead to lower perceived stress. As a result, she may experience less WFC and better mental health. This study adopts a longitudinal design with 273 participants, all of whom are employed by hospitals in Taiwan. All hypotheses are tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that perceived stress is an effective predictor of WFC and mental health status, whereas the P-E fit can moderate these relationships. Hospitals should pay more attention to the negative effects of perceived high stress on the WFC levels and mental health of their female employees. The P-E fit can buffer effectively the impact of perceived stress on both WFC and mental health. If hospitals can adopt appropriate human resource management practices as well as monitor and manage the P-E fit continuously, they can better help their employees to fit into the overall hospital environment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Personalized epilepsy seizure detection using random forest classification over one-dimension transformed EEG data

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana, Marco; Cerqueira, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a computational method for improving seizure detection for epilepsy diagnosis. Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disease impacting between 40 and 50 million of patients in the world and its proper diagnosis using electroencephalographic signals implies a long and expensive process which involves medical specialists. The proposed system is a patient-dependent offline system which performs an automatic detection of seizures in brainwaves applying a random forest...

  18. Detecting rater bias using a person-fit statistic: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, André-Sébastien; St-Onge, Christina; Renaud, Jean-Sébastien

    2018-04-01

    With the Standards voicing concern for the appropriateness of response processes, we need to explore strategies that would allow us to identify inappropriate rater response processes. Although certain statistics can be used to help detect rater bias, their use is complicated by either a lack of data about their actual power to detect rater bias or the difficulty related to their application in the context of health professions education. This exploratory study aimed to establish the worthiness of pursuing the use of l z to detect rater bias. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study to investigate the power of a specific detection statistic, that is: the standardized likelihood l z person-fit statistics (PFS). Our primary outcome was the detection rate of biased raters, namely: raters whom we manipulated into being either stringent (giving lower scores) or lenient (giving higher scores), using the l z statistic while controlling for the number of biased raters in a sample (6 levels) and the rate of bias per rater (6 levels). Overall, stringent raters (M = 0.84, SD = 0.23) were easier to detect than lenient raters (M = 0.31, SD = 0.28). More biased raters were easier to detect then less biased raters (60% bias: 62, SD = 0.37; 10% bias: 43, SD = 0.36). The PFS l z seems to offer an interesting potential to identify biased raters. We observed detection rates as high as 90% for stringent raters, for whom we manipulated more than half their checklist. Although we observed very interesting results, we cannot generalize these results to the use of PFS with estimated item/station parameters or real data. Such studies should be conducted to assess the feasibility of using PFS to identify rater bias.

  19. Development of the Family Stigma Stress Scale (FSSS) for Detecting Stigma Stress in Caregivers of People With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Jian-An; Chang, Kun-Chia; Lin, Chung-Ying; Koschorke, Mirja; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-01-01

    People with mental illness and their family caregivers often perceive public stigma, which may lead to stigma-related stress (or stigma stress). However, no instruments have been developed to measure this stress for family caregivers of people with mental illness. We modified an instrument that measures the stigma stress of people with mental illness (i.e., the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor) and examined the psychometric properties of the scores of the newly developed instrument: the Family Stigma Stress Scale (FSSS). Primary family caregivers of people with mental illness in Southern Taiwan ( n = 300; mean age = 53.08 ± 13.80; 136 males) completed the FSSS. An exploratory factor analysis showed that the FSSS score had two factors; both factor scores had excellent internal consistency (α = .913 and .814) and adequate test-retest reliability ( r = .627 and .533; n = 197). Significant correlations between FSSS factor scores and other instruments supported its concurrent validity and the ability of the FSSS to differentiate between clinical characteristics, for example, having been previously hospitalized or not. The FSSS is a brief and effective measure of the stigma stress of family caregivers of people with mental illness.

  20. Mediating Effects of Coping, Personal Belief, and Social Support on the Relationship among Stress, Depression, and Smoking Behaviour in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether university students' smoking behaviour is associated with higher levels of stress and depression directly, or indirectly, via the mediation of coping, personal beliefs and social support. Design/methodology/approach: The study design involves a cross-sectional survey. Structural equation…

  1. A within-person approach to risk for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior : Examining the roles of depression, stress, and abuse exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, M.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    Objective: This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. Method: This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between

  2. Risk and Resilience Factors in Coping with Daily Stress in Adulthood: The Role of Age, Self-Concept Incoherence, and Personal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    This study observed young, middle-aged, and older adults (N = 239; M[subscript age] = 49.6 years; range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect, taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience (i.e., age, perceived personal control) factors.…

  3. Exposure of natural rubber to personal lubricants--swelling and stress relaxation as potential indicators of reduced seal integrity of non-lubricated male condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar Das, Srilekha; Coburn, James C; Tack, Charles; Schwerin, Matthew R; Richardson, D Coleman

    2014-07-01

    Male condoms act as mechanical barriers to prevent passage of body fluids. For effective use of condoms the mechanical seal is also expected to remain intact under reasonable use conditions, including with personal lubricants. Absorption of low molecular weight lubricant components into the material of male condoms may initiate material changes leading to swelling and stress relaxation of the polymer network chains that could affect performance of the sealing function of the device. Swelling indicates both a rubber-solvent interaction and stress relaxation, the latter of which may indicate and/or result in a reduced seal pressure in the current context. Swelling and stress relaxation of natural rubber latex condoms were assessed in a laboratory model in the presence of silicone-, glycol-, and water-based lubricants. Within 15 minutes, significant swelling (≥6 %) and stress reduction (≥12 %) of condoms were observed with 2 out of 4 silicone-based lubricants tested, but neither was observed with glycol- or water-based lubricants tested. Under a given strain, reduction in stress was prominent during the swelling processes, but not after the process was complete. Lubricant induced swelling and stress relaxation may loosen the circumferential stress responsible for the mechanical seal. Swelling and stress relaxation behavior of latex condoms in the presence of personal lubricants may be useful tests to identify lubricant-rooted changes in condom-materials. For non-lubricated latex condoms, material characteristics--which are relevant to failure--may change in the presence of a few silicone-based personal lubricants. These changes may in turn induce a loss of condom seal during use, specifically at low strain conditions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Mark D; Houk, Ronald J T; Andruszkiewicz, Leanne; Talin, A Alec; Pikarsky, Joel; Choudhury, Arnab; Gall, Kenneth A; Hesketh, Peter J

    2008-11-05

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N2 or O2. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO2. Finally, we report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes.

  5. Detecting drawdowns masked by environmental stresses with water-level models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C.A.; Halford, K.J.; Fenelon, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying small drawdown at observation wells distant from the pumping well greatly expands the characterized aquifer volume. However, this detection is often obscured by water level fluctuations such as barometric and tidal effects. A reliable analytical approach for distinguishing drawdown from nonpumping water-level fluctuations is presented and tested here. Drawdown is distinguished by analytically simulating all pumping and nonpumping water-level stresses simultaneously during the period of record. Pumping signals are generated with Theis models, where the pumping schedule is translated into water-level change with the Theis solution. This approach closely matched drawdowns simulated with a complex three-dimensional, hypothetical model and reasonably estimated drawdowns from an aquifer test conducted in a complex hydrogeologic system. Pumping-induced changes generated with a numerical model and analytical Theis model agreed (RMS as low as 0.007 m) in cases where pumping signals traveled more than 1 km across confining units and fault structures. Maximum drawdowns of about 0.05 m were analytically estimated from field investigations where environmental fluctuations approached 0.2 m during the analysis period.

  6. Detection of stress corrosion cracks and wastage in reactor pressure vessels and primary coolant system studs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light, G.M.; Joshi, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last few years, nuclear plants have experienced stud bolt failures due to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion wastage. Many of these stud bolts were over 1 m long and had no heater hole. The use of conventional longitudinal wave inspection for bolts longer than 1 m has shown inconsistent results. A nondestructive testing technique was needed to inspect the stud bolts in place. The cylindrically guided wave technique was developed to inspect stud bolts of various lengths (up to 3 m) and various diameters. This technique is based on the fact that an ultrasonic wave traveling in a long cylinder becomes guided by the geometry of the cylinder. The wave begins to spread in the cylinder as interaction with the outer wall produces mode conversions. A large number of model stud bolts were tested to verify that the cylindrically guided wave technique could be used to detect crack-like defects and simulated corrosion wastage. This work shows that the cylindrically guided wave technique can be used on a wide variety of stud bolt configurations, and that the technique can be used to effectively detect the two most common modes of stud bolt failure (corrosion cracking and corrosion wastage) at early stages of development

  7. Psycho-trauma, psychosocial adjustment and symptomatic Post-traumatic stress disorder among internally displaced persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Lateef Sheikh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment.MethodsCross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose symptomatic PTSD, composite international diagnostic interview for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Results Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2% had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1% had poor living conditions, and only12 (4.7% had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%, been evacuated from their town (96% and witnessing violence (88%. More than half (58% of IDPs had experienced 11 – 15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were, having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR]3.5, 95% CI 1.7 – 7.5; p= 0.001 and witnessing death of a family member ( 3.7, 1.2 – 11.5; p=0.0259.ConclusionWe concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.Key words Post traumatic stress disorder, psychosocial adjustment

  8. Psycho-Trauma, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Symptomatic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Internally Displaced Persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Agunbiade, Samuel; Ike, Joseph; Ebiti, William N; Adekeye, Oluwatosin

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment. Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose "symptomatic PTSD," composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2%) had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1%) had poor living conditions, and only 12 (4.7%) had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%), been evacuated from their town (96%) and witnessing violence (88%). More than half (58%) of IDPs had experienced 11-15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (adjusted odds ratios 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7-7.5; p = 0.001) and witnessing death of a family member (3.7, 1.2-11.5; p = 0.0259). We concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.

  9. Parental attitudes and personality traits, self-efficacy, stress, and coping strategies among mothers of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Development of children with cerebral palsy (CP depends on the quality of parental care. The aim of the research was to compare parenting attitudes in mothers of children with CP to mothers of typically developing children, and to study the relationship between parenting attitudes and personality traits, stress, coping strategies and self-efficacy in mothers of children with CP. Participants and procedure Twenty-seven mothers of children with cerebral palsy (MCCP (mean age 35.50 years, SD = 4.83 and twenty-eight mothers (mean age 35.60 years, SD = 4.27 of typically developing children (MTDC participated in this study. Each parent had a child between the ages of two and seven years. A battery of tests was administered to both groups, which included the Parenting Attitudes Scale (SPR, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES, and the COPE Inventory. Also, maternal stress and the amount of social support received were assessed. Results Although acceptance was the most common parental attitude among all participants, mothers of children with CP presented with a stronger tendency towards overprotective and demanding attitudes. MCCP obtained higher scores in neuroticism and lower in openness compared to MTDC. Furthermore, MCCP declared a higher level of distress than MTDC. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of mothers regarding self-efficacy, the level of social support or the most often used coping strategies. Neuroticism was found to be the best predictor of overprotective and demanding parental attitudes. Conclusions The study emphasises the importance of parenting programmes for mothers with children with CP to promote the development of autonomy among children with developmental difficulties.

  10. Short Personality and Life Event scale for detection of suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Delgado-Gómez, David; Ruiz-Hernández, Diego; García-Vega, Juan Manuel; Berenguer, Nuria; Oquendo, Maria A; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario

    2015-01-01

    To develop a brief and reliable psychometric scale to identify individuals at risk for suicidal behaviour. Case-control study. 182 individuals (61 suicide attempters, 57 psychiatric controls, and 64 psychiatrically healthy controls) aged 18 or older, admitted to the Emergency Department at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital in Madrid, Spain. All participants completed a form including their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Personality and Life Events scale (27 items). To assess Axis I diagnoses, all psychiatric patients (including suicide attempters) were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Descriptive statistics were computed for the socio-demographic factors. Additionally, χ(2) independence tests were applied to evaluate differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables, and the Personality and Life Events scale between groups. A stepwise linear regression with backward variable selection was conducted to build the Short Personality Life Event (S-PLE) scale. In order to evaluate the accuracy, a ROC analysis was conducted. The internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α, and the external reliability was evaluated using a test-retest procedure. The S-PLE scale, composed of just 6 items, showed good performance in discriminating between medical controls, psychiatric controls and suicide attempters in an independent sample. For instance, the S-PLE scale discriminated between past suicide and past non-suicide attempters with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 75%. The area under the ROC curve was 88%. A factor analysis extracted only one factor, revealing a single dimension of the S-PLE scale. Furthermore, the S-PLE scale provides values of internal and external reliability between poor (test-retest: 0.55) and acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.65) ranges. Administration time is about one minute. The S-PLE scale is a useful and accurate instrument for estimating the risk of suicidal behaviour in

  11. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Hesketh, Peter J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Gall, Kenneth A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Choudhury, A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Pikarsky, J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Andruszkiewicz, Leanne (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Houk, Ronald J. T.; Talin, Albert Alec (National Institute of Standards & Technology, Gaithersburg, MD)

    2009-09-01

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be efficiently converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO{sub 2}. We also report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes. A force field model is described that successfully predicts changes in MOF properties and the uptake of gases. This model is used to predict adsorption isotherms for a number of representative compounds, including explosives, nerve agents, volatile organic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that, as a result of relatively large heats of adsorption (> 20 kcal mol{sup -1}) in most cases, we expect an onset of adsorption by MOF as low as 10{sup -6} kPa, suggesting the potential to detect compounds such as RDX at levels as low as 10 ppb at atmospheric pressure.

  12. myBlackBox: Blackbox Mobile Cloud Systems for Personalized Unusual Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Ahn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a novel and practical real-world mobile cloud system, called myBlackBox, that efficiently fuses multimodal smartphone sensor data to identify and log unusual personal events in mobile users’ daily lives. The system incorporates a hybrid architectural design that combines unsupervised classification of audio, accelerometer and location data with supervised joint fusion classification to achieve high accuracy, customization, convenience and scalability. We show the feasibility of myBlackBox by implementing and evaluating this end-to-end system that combines Android smartphones with cloud servers, deployed for 15 users over a one-month period.

  13. Personalized features for attention detection in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Fatemeh; Guan, Cuntai; Wooi Boon Goh; Kai Keng Ang; Choon Guan Lim; Tih Shih Lee

    2017-07-01

    Measuring attention from electroencephalogram (EEG) has found applications in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is of great interest to understand what features in EEG are most representative of attention. Intensive research has been done in the past and it has been proven that frequency band powers and their ratios are effective features in detecting attention. However, there are still unanswered questions, like, what features in EEG are most discriminative between attentive and non-attentive states? Are these features common among all subjects or are they subject-specific and must be optimized for each subject? Using Mutual Information (MI) to perform subject-specific feature selection on a large data set including 120 ADHD children, we found that besides theta beta ratio (TBR) which is commonly used in attention detection and neurofeedback, the relative beta power and theta/(alpha+beta) (TBAR) are also equally significant and informative for attention detection. Interestingly, we found that the relative theta power (which is also commonly used) may not have sufficient discriminative information itself (it is informative only for 3.26% of ADHD children). We have also demonstrated that although these features (relative beta power, TBR and TBAR) are the most important measures to detect attention on average, different subjects have different set of most discriminative features.

  14. Design of pulse oximetry signal based on personal computer for detection oxygen saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Salamah; Margi Sasono

    2015-01-01

    The lack or excess of oxygen in the blood will cause healthy and body system disorder. At certain level, the disease can lead to death. For that reason, the information about oxygen saturation in blood becomes important to be identified. One of the devices used to monitor the blood oxygen saturation is pulse oximetry. This research attempt to designed Pulse Oximetry based on personal computer using red LED and infrared as its light source, while the light sensor using photodiode. The designed Pulse Oximetry is a non-invasive instrumentation which LED drivers is placed on the fingertips. The LED light goes through the finger will be a signal that is fed to the photodiode and will be converted into digital signals by ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and will be processed further by a personal computer to display the pulse oximetry graphics. This study uses Delphi 7, Microsoft Excel, and Mt Lab as its software.This designed pulse oximetry has been tested in two peoples: sample A, male 38 years; and sample B, a woman 23 years old. Oxygen saturation of sample A is 80.75, while the sample B is 90.75. (author)

  15. Voxel-based morphometry in women with borderline personality disorder with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Niedtfeld

    Full Text Available Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD showed reduced volume of amygdala and hippocampus, but similar findings are evident in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Applying voxel-based morphometry (VBM in a larger cohort of patients with BPD, we sought to extend earlier findings of volume abnormalities in limbic regions and to evaluate the influence of co-occurring PTSD in BPD patients. We used voxel-based morphometry to study gray matter volume (GMV in 60 healthy controls (HC and 60 patients with BPD. Subgroup analyses on 53 patients concerning the role of co-occurring PTSD were conducted. Additionally, regression analyses were calculated to assess the relation between borderline symptom severity as well as dissociative experiences and GMV. Differences in local GMV between patients with BPD and HC were observed in the amygdale and hippocampus as well as in the fusiform and cingulate gyrus. Co-occurring PTSD was accompanied by increased GMV in the superior temporal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Independent of co-occurring PTSD, severity of BPD symptoms predicted smaller GMV in the amygdala and dorsal ACC. Dissociation was positively related to GMV in the middle temporal gyrus. We could replicate earlier findings of diminished limbic GMV in patients with BPD and additionally show that patients with co-morbid PTSD feature increased GMV in prefrontal regions associated with cognitive control.

  16. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  17. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica, as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Cussen

    Full Text Available Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica. We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can

  18. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  19. Frequency and Detection of Malingering in Homicide Defendants Undergoing Criminal Responsibility Evaluations Using the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade C. Myers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study reports on (a the prevalence of malingering in a sample of 20 homicide defendants seen in jail settings for criminal responsibility evaluations, and (b the feasibility of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP for malingering detection in this sample. Based on previous non-clinical simulation research, it was hypothesized that the SNAP validity scales would predict group membership for homicide defendants malingering psychopathology. Those with intellectual disabilities or psychotic disorders were excluded. Diagnostically, nearly one half of the sample had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR personality and substance use disorders. Point prevalence of malingering was 30%. Using the criterion of any SNAP validity scale score in the clinical range (T ≥ 65, a reasonable sensitivity was demonstrated in the detection of malingering (83%, yet this outcome was hindered by a high false positive rate (64%. This study suggests further exploration of the SNAP for assessing malingering in forensic populations is warranted.

  20. Preliminary study for the personal handheld device based snoring detection in ordinary sleep situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hangsik; Choi, Wangrim; Kim, Yi-gon; Cho, Jaegeol

    2014-01-01

    Snoring is one of the representative phenomena of the sleep disorder and detection of snoring is quite important for improving quality of daily human life. The purpose of this research is to define the noises of the ordinary sleep situation and to find its characteristics as a preliminary research of snoring detection. Differently from previous snoring researches, we use a built-in sound recording system of Smartphone for practical use in ordinary sleep condition, and recording was carried out in a general private bedroom. Especially, we designed the experimental protocol, including the various noises could be frequently occurred during sleep such as cough, music, talking, alarm, door open/close, fan, radio and footstep to make closer to the actual sleep circumstance. The sound data set was recorded during actual sleep from 10 normal subjects. Totally 44 snoring data set and 75-noise dataset is acquired and analyzed.

  1. Detecting the Presence of a Personality Disorder Using Interpersonal and Self-Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Hallquist, Michael N; Stepp, Stephanie D; Wright, Aidan G C; Scott, Lori N; Giertych, Rachel A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2018-03-05

    Calls have increased to place interpersonal and self-disturbance as defining features of personality disorders (PDs). Findings from a methodologically diverse set of studies suggest that a common factor undergirds all PDs. The nature of this core of PDs, however, is not clear. In the current study, interviews were completed for DSM-IV PD diagnosis and interpersonal dysfunction independently with 272 individuals (PD = 191, no-PD = 91). Specifically, we evaluated interpersonal dysfunction across social domains. In addition, we empirically assessed the structure of self-dysfunction in PDs. We found dysfunction in work and romantic domains, and unstable identity uniquely predicted variance in the presence of a PD. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, we found that the interpersonal dysfunction and self-dysfunction scales each predicted PDs with high accuracy. In combination, the scales resulted in excellent sensitivity (.90) and specificity (.88). The results support interpersonal and self-dysfunction as general factors of PD.

  2. Detection and impact on cancer causation of persons exhibiting abnormal susceptibility to carcinogenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    The so-called 'late biological effects', like cancer and genetic consequences and cytotoxic effects (cell killing, at higher doses), were once thought to be an inevitable consequence of a given level of exposure, whether to background radiation, to chemicals in our biosphere, or form spontaneous damage, the 'wear and tear' of living. The measurement of exposure, which results in living organisms in the formation of a related amount of DNA damage, became a surrogate for the end-effects that constitute risk. This may not be entirely appropriate. The concept of 'equal exposure -- equal risk' assumes a homogeneous response of individuals. However, there are subgroups within the human population of persons whose cultured cells exhibit abnormal sensitivity to specific carcinogenic agents and who may be at increased risk of cancer induced by these of similar agents. Modern molecular biology has shown that the majority of the damage in DNA is repaired by enzymatic DNA repair processes that restitute or ameliorate the lesions and restore normal DNA structure and function. In this view, it is not the initial damage that is of consequence but rather the residual damage left after the repair processes have acted. Since the vast majority of the initial DNA damage undergoes repair normally, variation in the efficiency of these processes in different persons may affect the actual risk of exposure. The human side of the cancer causation formula, that is, considerable importance. To understand how human DNA repair processes function, our laboratories at Chalk River have studied 'mutant' human cell strains in tissue culture. Generally, these DNA repair-defective cell strains are derived from individual donors with heritable disorders that are associated with carcinogen-hypersensitivity and cancer-proneness. Such studies, together with related epidemiological research, have highlighted the importance of this new 'human' factor in carcinogenesis

  3. Remote Sensing Plant Stress Using Combined Fluorescence and Reflectance Measurements for Early Detection of Defoliants within the Battlefield Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    Sensing Imagery, Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible, Córdoba, Spain Young, D.R. 2007. Leaf to landscape in a barrier island environment.” Workshop...on Vegetation Stress Detection with Remote Sensing Imagery, Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible, Córdoba, Spain Young, D.R. and J.C. Naumann. 2007

  4. Diagnostic value of stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging in detection of coronary disease in elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Pingping; Tian Yueqin; Fang Wei; Shen Rui; Yang Minfu; Wei Hongxing; Guo Xinhua; He Zuoxiang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Coronary artery disease is one of the most common causes of death in elderly people. Yet, definite diagnosis is a dilemma due to the variety of symptoms and signs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of nuclear stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging(MPI) in detection of coronary disease in the elderly. Methods: Two hundred and five elderly subjects (≥60 years old, average of 67 ± 5) who were suspected to have coronary disease, underwent both stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging (185 with exercise stress and 20 with adenosine stress) and coronary angiography (CAG). All had no pereutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Coronary angiography was used as a 'golden standard' to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging. χ 2 -test was used in data analysis with SPSS 15.0. Results: Among 205 patients. there were 57 patients with an abnormal CAG result and 148 patients with a normal result. Of the 57 patients, there were 30 one-, 19 two-, and 8 three-vessel stenosis. Fifteen were mild-, 17 were moderate-, 17 were severe stenosis, and 8 were totally occluded.About 63% (36/57) had positive stress-rest MPI. Of the 148 subjects who had a normal CAG, 135 had negative MPL. The sensitivity.specificity and accuracy of stress MPI were 63% (36/57), 91% (135/148) and 83% (171/205) in patient level.respectively. The di-agnostic sensitivities of stress-rest MPI for detection of one-, two-, and three-vessel stenosis were 57%(17/30), 58% (11/19) and 8/8, respectively. All 185 patients who underwent exemise stress MPI were divided into 2 groups according to whether the patients reached the target heart rate or not at the peak of the test. And 53 patients (29%) were group 1 (reached the target heart rate)and 132 patients (71%) were group 2 (did not reach the target heart rate). The sensitivity of group 1 wag higher than that of group 2, but with no

  5. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  6. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  7. Abnormal response to mental stress in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy detected by gated single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciagra, Roberto; Genovese, Sabrina; Pupi, Alberto; Parodi, Guido; Bellandi, Benedetta; Antoniucci, David; Del Pace, Stefano; Zampini, Linda; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2010-01-01

    Persistent abnormalities are usually not detected in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). Since sympathetically mediated myocardial damage has been proposed as a causative mechanism of TTC, we explored whether mental stress could evoke abnormalities in these patients. One month after an acute event, 22 patients fulfilling all TTC diagnostic criteria and 11 controls underwent resting and mental stress gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion, wall motion, transient ischaemic dilation (TID) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) were evaluated. None of the controls showed stress-induced abnormalities. Mental stress evoked regional changes (perfusion defects and/or wall motion abnormality) in 16 TTC subjects and global abnormalities (LVEF fall >5% and/or TID >1.10) in 13; 3 had a completely negative response. TID, delta LVEF and delta wall motion score were significantly different in TTC vs control patients: 1.08 ± 0.20 vs 0.95 ± 0.11 (p < 0.05), -1.7 ± 6% vs 4 ± 5% (p < 0.02) and 2.5 (0, 4.25) vs 0 (0, 0) (p < 0.002), respectively. Mental stress may evoke regional and/or global abnormalities in most TTC patients. The abnormal response to mental stress supports the role of sympathetic stimulation in TTC. Mental stress could thus be helpful for TTC evaluation. (orig.)

  8. Detection of endogenous cortisol in equine tears and blood at rest and after simulated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Caroline S; Hart, Kelsey A; Berghaus, Roy D; Norton, Natalie A; Moore, Phillip A; Myrna, Kathern E

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether cortisol is present in equine tears at rest and during simulated stress and compare tear cortisol to serum free and total cortisol. Fourteen healthy adult horses were included. Paired tear total cortisol and serum total and free cortisol concentrations were measured with ELISA, chemiluminescent immunoassay, and ultrafiltration methodology, respectively, in 10 horses at rest once daily for five consecutive days. In an additional four horses, paired tear and serum samples were collected for cortisol measurement before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation (cosyntropin, 1 μg/kg IV). Cortisol was detectable in equine tears at rest. Following ACTH stimulation, tear cortisol increased significantly from baseline at 60-120 min (P ≤ 0.001). Serum total and free cortisol also increased significantly at 30-180 min after ACTH stimulation (P ≤ 0.001). Both serum and tear cortisol returned to baseline concentrations by 360 min. Changes in tear cortisol were similarly associated with changes in serum total and free cortisol, although high tear cortisol concentrations suggest a portion of tear cortisol may be protein-bound. Cortisol is present in equine tears and increases in concert with serum cortisol following ACTH stimulation. Further study is needed to determine whether endogenous cortisol in tears contributes to ocular pathology. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Vegetation Detection in Stress of Moisture Shortage Based on Laser Speckle Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Tsukasa; Miki, Takashi

    This paper describes a new measuring method of plant vigor by using Laser speckle pattern. Furthermore, this proposes a practical application of this presented measurement system. The measuring instrument is consisted by a He-Ne Laser as the light source, and a set of optics, such as reflectors, a beam expander. The speckle pattern could be measured by a CCD camera through lenses. A Pothos (Epiremnum aureum) and Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) were used as the sample plant. Their intact leaves were measured the speckle pattern images. Visible but small vigor veins could be clearly observed in the images obtained by the speckle patterns. On the other hand, withered ones have shown different images. The relationship has been obtained between the feature of the images and the chlorophyll degradation. It would be expected that the symptom of plant against some stress could be detected by measuring the Laser speckle pattern. It could be used as the sensor of the field server system at every field monitoring site.

  10. Detecting the Use of Intentionally Transmitting Personal Electronic Devices Onboard Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Randy; Ely, Jay J.; Vahala, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The need to detect unauthorized usage of intentionally transmitting portable electronic devices (PEDs) onboard commercial aircraft is growing, while still allowing passengers to use selected unintentionally transmitting devices, such as laptop computers and CD players during non-critical stages of flight. The following paper presents an installed system for detecting PEDs over multiple frequency bands. Additionally, the advantages of a fixed verses mobile system are discussed. While data is presented to cover the frequency range of 20 MHz to 6.5 GHz, special attention was given to the Cellular/PCS bands as well as Bluetooth and the FRS radio bands. Measurement data from both the semi-anechoic and reverberation chambers are then analyzed and correlated with data collected onboard a commercial aircraft to determine the dominant mode of coupling inside the passenger cabin of the aircraft versus distance from the source. As a final check of system feasibility, several PEDs transmission signatures were recorded and compared with the expected levels.

  11. Detection of exercise induced ischemia in the asymptomatic recent post myocardial infarction patient: comparison of stress electrocardiography and radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jengo, J.A.; Brizendine, M.; Dykstra, L.; Sweet, J.; Bruno, M.; Garcia, A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the techniques of low level stress electrocardiography and radionuclide angiographic wall motion analysis for the detection of new areas of myocardial ischemia in the asymptomatic recent post-myocardial infarction patient. The protocol consisted of obtaining a resting, RAO upright first pass radionuclide angiocardiogram using 15 mCi of 99m technetium-DTPA. The study suggests that assessment of segmental wall motion during low level stress can detect areas of myocardium at high risk either intermixed with or in addition to recently infarcted areas in the asymptomatic post-infarction patient, which are not detected by ECG. This high risk subset of patients can then be observed or treated in a more vigorous manner. This technique allows for not only the identification of additional areas of myocardium at jeopardy but also provides information regarding the severity of ischemic dysfunction, an important prognostic and therapeutic factor

  12. Additional diagnostic value of systolic dysfunction induced by dipyridamole stress cardiac magnetic resonance used in detecting coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husser, Oliver; Bodí, Vicente; Sanchís, Juan; Mainar, Luis; Núñez, Julio; López-Lereu, María P; Monmeneu, José V; Ruiz, Vicente; Rumiz, Eva; Moratal, David; Chorro, Francisco J; Llácer, Angel

    2009-04-01

    Dipyridamole stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is used to detect coronary artery disease (CAD). However, few data are available on the diagnostic value of the systolic dysfunction induced by dipyridamole. This study investigated whether the induction of systolic dysfunction supplements the diagnostic information provided by perfusion imaging in the detection of CAD. Overall, 166 patients underwent dipyridamole CMR and quantitative coronary angiography, with CAD being defined as a stenosis > or =70%. Systolic dysfunction at rest, systolic dysfunction with dipyridamole, induced systolic dysfunction, and stress first-pass perfussion deficit (PD) and delayed enhancement were quantified. In the multivariate analysis, PD (hazard ratio [HR]=1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-1.91;Pstatistic for predicting CAD (0.81 vs. 0.87; P=.02). Combining induced systolic dysfunction with perfusion imaging increases the diagnostic accuracy of detecting CAD and enables patients with severe ischemia and a high probability of CAD to be identified.

  13. Extended prediction rule to optimise early detection of heart failure in older persons with non-acute shortness of breath : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riet, Evelien E S; Hoes, Arno W.; Limburg, Alexander; Landman, Marcel A J; Kemperman, Hans; Rutten, Frans H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is a need for a practical tool to aid general practitioners in early detection of heart failure in the elderly with shortness of breath. In this study, such a screening rule was developed based on an existing rule for detecting heart failure in older persons with a diagnosis of

  14. DOSEmanPRO - active electronic online personal air sampler for detection of radon progeny long lived alpha nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Using the micro system - technology we developed a online personal air sampler not bigger than a mobile phone, to open a new dimension in personal dosimetry of inhaled radioactive aerosols. The DOSEman PRO containing an internal pump with a continuous air flow of 0.15 I/min sample the radon progeny or other nuclides on a millipore filter with excellent spectroscopic resolution. A 1.5 cm 2 light protected ion-implanted silicon detector analyses the alpha radiation at the filter. This small detector head contains also the pre amplification and pulse processing. The alpha radiation of the radon progeny and the long lived alpha nuclides is analyzed by a 60 channel spectrometer. The energy resolution of the online analyzed filter spectra is in the order of 150 keV. Mechanical and electronic design enables one to distinguish the long lived alpha nuclides from the radon and thoron progeny very easily. Using a special algorithm we correct the influence of the tailing of the radon progeny to the long lived alpha nuclides and take into consideration possible interference in determining the long lived alpha nuclides. Because of the air sampling volume of nearly 10 I/h, the system has a high efficiency. The detection limit by 2 hours sampling time is 0.05 Bq/m 3 alpha nuclide concentration. In a modified device for air sampling especially of long-lived alpha nuclides like uranium, radium or plutonium, the flow rate is increased to 0,3 1/min e.g. during a 10 h sampling period we can detect 0.005 Bq/m 3 in a low radon atmosphere. Assuming increased radon progeny concentration, the statistical error for the long lived alpha nuclides will be higher, but in most of the cases for use in nuclear facilities low radon concentrations are ambient conditions. This concept of an electronic personal air sampler with an alpha spectroscopy offers some outstanding advantages compared to passive dosimeters or off-line alpha air filters: The dose value and the nuclide concentration is

  15. [Stress-ECG is adequate to detect myocardial ischemia: when are additional diagnostic tests needed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, F M

    2007-09-01

    The stress-ECG is the most often adopted and most cost effective initial diagnostic test for the assessment of myocardial ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Prerequisites for the diagnostic usefullness of stress-ECG are a clearly interpretable ST-segment, ability to reach the predicted work load, an intermediate pretest probability for CAD ranging between 10% and 90% and the absence of any contraindications for dynamic exercise. Because of the limited diagnostic sensitivity of about 70%, and a high percentage of patients, who are unable to exercise, a negative stress ECG can definitely not exclude hemodynamically significant CAD. Therefore, stress imaging techniques like myocardial scintigraphy, stress-echocardiography and stress magnetic resonance imaging play a major role in the stepwise diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CAD. These stress imaging techniques are basically interchangeable since no method is definitely superior to one of the others. However, each method has its specific pros and cons and inherent contraindications. Therefore the choice of the stress imaging method and the form of stress applied should be based on the individual patients characteristics to gain optimal image quality and diagnostic accuracy. Moreover, the decision for one method should take the local availability and institutional expertise of diagnostic centers into account. Although partly substituted by stress imaging techniques the stress-ECG still remains the workhorse for a stepwise diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CAD.

  16. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and perceived needs for psychological care in older persons affected by Hurricane Ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Southwick, Steven M.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro; Norris, Fran H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and correlates of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and needs for psychological care in older persons affected by Hurricane Ike. Method A total of 193 adults age 60 or older who resided in the Galveston Bay area were interviewed 2–5 months following Hurricane Ike. Pre-, peri-, and post-disaster variables hypothesized to be related to PTSD and depressive symptoms, and perceived needs for psychological care were assessed. Results Weighted prevalences of past-month Ike-related PTSD and depression were 7.6% and 8.6%, respectively. Risk factors for Ike-related PTSD symptoms were predominantly peri-disaster in nature, with greater hurricane exposure, and peri-event dissociative and autonomic activation symptoms associated positively with these symptoms. Risk factors for depressive symptoms were predominantly pre-disaster in nature, with being married/living with partner associated negatively, and prior disaster exposure and pre-disaster PTSD or depression associated positively with these symptoms. 27.2% of the sample endorsed at least one of the perceived needs for psychological care assessed. A history of PTSD or depression, greater peri-event autonomic activation, and Ike-related PTSD and depressive symptoms were associated with greater need for psychological care. Limitations This study is limited by its cross-sectional design and employment of psychiatric screening instruments. Conclusions A substantial proportion of older adults may have PTSD and depression, as well as perceived needs for psychological care, after a disaster. Assessment of disaster exposures, and peri-event dissociative and autonomic symptoms may help identify older adults at risk for disaster-related psychopathology. Older adults with a history of PTSD or depression, and greater peri-event autonomic activation and PTSD symptoms may be more likely to have needs for psychological care. PMID:22285792

  18. State dissociation moderates response to dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women with and without borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Görg, Nora; Dyer, Anne; Steil, Regina; Lyssenko, Lisa; Winter, Dorina; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prone to dissociation, which in theory should interfere with successful treatment. However, most empirical studies do not substantiate this assumption. The primary objective was to test whether state dissociation predicts the success of an adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy designed for the treatment of patients with PTSD after childhood sexual abuse (CSA) (DBT-PTSD). We further explored whether the operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference with respect to prediction of improvement. We present a hypothesis-driven post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy in patients with PTSD after CSA. Regression analyses relating pre-post improvements in the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) to dissociation were applied to the women who participated in the active treatment arm (DBT-PTSD). Multivariate models accounting for major confounders were used to relate improvements in both the CAPS and the PDS to (1) state dissociation as assessed after each treatment session and (2) trait dissociation as assessed at baseline. State dissociation during psychotherapy sessions predicted improvement after DBT-PTSD: patients with low state dissociation during treatment had a higher chance to show substantial improvement. This relation consistently emerged across subgroups of PTSD patients with and without borderline personality disorder. The operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference as improvement was not significantly predicted from trait dissociation. Dissociation during treatment sessions may reduce success with trauma-focused therapies such as DBT-PTSD. Accordingly, clinical studies aimed at improving ways to address dissociation are needed.

  19. State dissociation moderates response to dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women with and without borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kleindienst

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are prone to dissociation, which in theory should interfere with successful treatment. However, most empirical studies do not substantiate this assumption. Objective: The primary objective was to test whether state dissociation predicts the success of an adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy designed for the treatment of patients with PTSD after childhood sexual abuse (CSA (DBT-PTSD. We further explored whether the operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference with respect to prediction of improvement. Methods: We present a hypothesis-driven post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy in patients with PTSD after CSA. Regression analyses relating pre–post improvements in the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS to dissociation were applied to the women who participated in the active treatment arm (DBT-PTSD. Multivariate models accounting for major confounders were used to relate improvements in both the CAPS and the PDS to (1 state dissociation as assessed after each treatment session and (2 trait dissociation as assessed at baseline. Results: State dissociation during psychotherapy sessions predicted improvement after DBT-PTSD: patients with low state dissociation during treatment had a higher chance to show substantial improvement. This relation consistently emerged across subgroups of PTSD patients with and without borderline personality disorder. The operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference as improvement was not significantly predicted from trait dissociation. Conclusions: Dissociation during treatment sessions may reduce success with trauma-focused therapies such as DBT-PTSD. Accordingly, clinical studies aimed at improving ways to address dissociation are needed.

  20. Factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyok Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 20 year war in northern Uganda between the Lord's Resistance Army and the Ugandan government has resulted in the displacement of up to 2 million people within Uganda. The purpose of the study was to measure rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression amongst these internally displaced persons (IDPs, and investigate associated demographic and trauma exposure risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional multi-staged, random cluster survey with 1210 adult IDPs was conducted in November 2006 in Gulu and Amuru districts of northern Uganda. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version, and levels of depression were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association of demographic and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Results Over half (54% of the respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD, and over two thirds (67% of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. Over half (58% of respondents had experienced 8 or more of the 16 trauma events covered in the questionnaire. Factors strongly linked with PTSD and depression included gender, marital status, distance of displacement, experiencing ill health without medical care, experiencing rape or sexual abuse, experiencing lack of food or water, and experiencing higher rates of trauma exposure. Conclusion This study provides evidence of exposure to traumatic events and deprivation of essential goods and services suffered by IDPs, and the resultant effect this has upon their mental health. Protection and social and psychological assistance are urgently required to help IDPs in northern Uganda re-build their lives.

  1. FPGA-Based Smart Sensor for Drought Stress Detection in Tomato Plants Using Novel Physiological Variables and Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Duarte-Galvan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil drought represents one of the most dangerous stresses for plants. It impacts the yield and quality of crops, and if it remains undetected for a long time, the entire crop could be lost. However, for some plants a certain amount of drought stress improves specific characteristics. In such cases, a device capable of detecting and quantifying the impact of drought stress in plants is desirable. This article focuses on testing if the monitoring of physiological process through a gas exchange methodology provides enough information to detect drought stress conditions in plants. The experiment consists of using a set of smart sensors based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs to monitor a group of plants under controlled drought conditions. The main objective was to use different digital signal processing techniques such as the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT to explore the response of plant physiological processes to drought. Also, an index-based methodology was utilized to compensate the spatial variation inside the greenhouse. As a result, differences between treatments were determined to be independent of climate variations inside the greenhouse. Finally, after using the DWT as digital filter, results demonstrated that the proposed system is capable to reject high frequency noise and to detect drought conditions.

  2. Relevance of tissue Doppler in the quantification of stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicari Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present article we review the main published data on the application of Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI to stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia. TDI has been applied to stress echocardiography in order to overcome the limitations of visual analysis for myocardial ischemia. The introduction of a new technology for clinical routine use should pass through the different phases of scientific assessment from feasibility studies to large multicenter studies, from efficacy to effectiveness studies. Nonetheless the pro-technology bias plays a major role in medicine and expensive and sophisticated techniques are accepted before their real usefulness and incremental value to the available ones is assessed. Apparently, TDI is not exempted by this approach : its applications are not substantiated by strong and sound results. Nonetheless, conventional stress echocardiography for myocardial ischemia detection is heavily criticized on the basis of its subjectivity. Stress echocardiography has a long lasting history and the evidence collected over 20 years positioned it as an established tool for the detection and prognostication of coronary artery disease. The quantitative assessment of myocardial ischemia remains a scientific challenge and a clinical goal but time has not come for these newer ultrasonographic techniques which should be restricted to research laboratories.

  3. Work stress and satisfaction in relation to personality profiles in a sample of Dutch anaesthesiologists: A questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, R.A.B. van der; Bucx, M.J.L.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Prins, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working in anaesthesia is stressful, but also satisfying. Work-related stress can have a negative impact on mental health, whereas work-related satisfaction protects against these harmful effects. OBJECTIVE(S): How work stress and satisfaction are experienced may be related to

  4. Important parameters in the detection of left main trunk disease using stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Chie; Chikamori, Taishiro; Hida, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    We sought noninvasively to diagnose left main trunk (LMT) disease using myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Five hundred and eight patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent both stress MPI and coronary angiography. The extent and severity of perfusion abnormalities were assessed using a 20-segment model. In addition, perfusion defects in both left anterior descending and left circumflex arterial territories were defined as a left main (LM) pattern defect, and those in 3-coronary arterial territories as a 3-vessel pattern defect. In 42 patients with LMT disease, a summed stress score (19.4±10.0 vs. 13.5±10.0; p<0.0001) and a summed rest score (12.1±9.7 vs. 7.0±7.8; p=0.002) were greater than in 466 patients without LMT disease, while a summed difference score was similar (7.3±7.7 vs. 6.5±6.1; p=NS). The prevalence of an LM-pattern defect was low in both groups (12% vs. 8%; p=NS). However, a 3-vessel pattern defect (33% vs. 7%; p<0.0001), lung uptake of radiotracers (38% vs. 11%; p<0.0001), and transient ischemic dilation (31% vs. 13%; p=0.003) were more frequently observed in patients with LMT disease than in those without. Logistic regression analysis showed that a 3-vessel pattern defect (odds ratio (OR)=3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-8.8; p=0.007), lung uptake of radiotracers (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.1-5.7; p=0.03), and previous myocardial infarction (MI) (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0-5.7; p=0.05) were the most important parameters to detect LMT disease. After excluding 163 patients with previous MI, a repeat analysis revealed that lung uptake of radiotracers (OR=8.2, 95% CI=2.3-29.2; p=0.001) and an LM-pattern defect (OR=6.3, 95% CI=1.4-27.2; p<0.02) were independent predictors for LMT disease. In the identification of LMT disease, lung uptake of radiotracers was a single best parameter, which was independent of the presence or absence of previous MI. (author)

  5. One-hour protocol stress myocardial scintigraphy. Prospective study of diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Junko; Miyamoto, Nobuhide; Onitsuka, Hisamitsu; Ikushima, Ippei; Unoki, Toshihide; Takenaga, Makoto; Koiwaya, Yasushi; Eto, Tanenao

    1999-01-01

    A one-hour protocol for stress myocardial scintigraphy using technetium-99m-tetrofosmin (Tc-tetrofosmin) was compared with coronary arteriography for the detection of coronary artery stenosis in 90 consecutive patients without prior myocardial infarction, revascularization procedure or vasospastic angina. Tc-tetrofosmin stress myocardial scintigraphy acquired a rest image 20 min after intravenous administration of Tc-tetrofosmin (185 MBq, 1/5 vial) using a three-head gamma camera collecting 20-sec views over 360 deg. The stress test using bicycle ergometer was performed and administration of Tc-tetrofosmin (740 MBq, 4/5 vial) was repeated at the peak stress point. The stress image was acquired 15 min after the second injection with 5-sec views over 360 deg. Coronary arteriography revealed the presence of significant coronary artery stenosis (>75%) in 56 vessels of 45 patients, including 35 patients with single-vessel disease, 5 with two-vessel disease, 2 with three-vessel disease, and 3 with left main trunk disease. The overall sensitivity and specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease by visual analysis were 91.1% and 77.8%, respectively, and by quantitative analyses (using bull's-eye method) were 95.6% and 91.1%, respectively. The individual stenotic vessel sensitivities in the right coronary artery, left anterior descending artery, and left circumflex artery were 84.6%, 90.9%, and 78.6%, respectively. The specificities were 97.3%, 95.9%, and 100.0%, respectively. These results suggest that stress myocardial scintigraphy using the present new protocol is a promising approach for the detection of coronary artery stenosis. (author)

  6. Direct Detection of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products from Aqueous Samples with Thermally-Assisted Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian S.; Ton, Alain T.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2011-07-01

    An ambient mass spectrometric method based on desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) has been developed to allow rapid, direct analysis of contaminated water samples, and the technique was evaluated through analysis of a wide array of pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) contaminants. Incorporating direct infusion of aqueous sample and thermal assistance into the source design has allowed low ppt detection limits for the target analytes in drinking water matrices. With this methodology, mass spectral information can be collected in less than 1 min, consuming ~100 μL of total sample. Quantitative ability was also demonstrated without the use of an internal standard, yielding decent linearity and reproducibility. Initial results suggest that this source configuration is resistant to carryover effects and robust towards multi-component samples. The rapid, continuous analysis afforded by this method offers advantages in terms of sample analysis time and throughput over traditional hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques.

  7. A gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric test to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for improvement of personalized therapy of psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Alessandra; Valentini, Paola; Tarantino, Paolo; Congedo, Maurizio; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid and low-cost test, based on gold nanoparticles, for the naked-eye colorimetric detection of a signature of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relevant for the personalized medicine of psoriasis patients. We validated the colorimetric assay on real-world DNA samples from a cohort of 30 psoriasis patients and we compared the results, in double-blind, with those obtained with two state-of-the-art instrumental techniques, namely reverse dot blotting and direct sequencing, finding 100% agreement. We demonstrated high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the colorimetric test that can be easily adapted for the genotypization of different SNPs, important for the pharmacogenomics of various diseases, and in other fields, such as food traceability and population structure analysis.

  8. Task stressfulness moderates the effects of verbal person centeredness on cardiovascular reactivity: a dual-process account of the reactivity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the impact of person-centered comfort on cardiovascular reactivity and to test a recently developed dual-process theory of supportive message outcomes proposing that the impact of supportive communication is moderated by the motivation and ability to attend to message content. Participants (n = 179) completed a public speaking task that served to experimentally manipulate stress. During the preparation period, instant messages containing either low or high person-centered messages or containing no imbedded supportive message were sent. Results indicated that, in line with theoretical predictions, message content did influence mean arterial pressure and heart rate for participants exposed to moderate but not to low or high stress. Results are discussed in terms of the dual-process theory of supportive message outcomes, and the discussion offers both theoretical and practical implications of the research.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Soldiers 2.5 Years after Military Deployment in Afghanistan: The Role of Personality Traits as Predisposing Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Hellerup Nielsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N = 445. Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman¡'s rho significant relationships were identified between pre-existing personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness with development of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years after homecoming, however, a number of additional cofounders were identified.

  10. Stressed Out! A National Study of Women and Men Journalism and Mass Communication Faculty, Their Uses of Technology, and Levels of Professional and Personal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, Christine; Chung, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Examines gender differences as they manifest themselves when journalism educators use computers and computer-based technologies in their teaching and research. Notes that gender differences have been found in overall stress levels and for a variety of types of stress. Concludes that the strongest relationship in the study was not between…

  11. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  12. Neutral face classification using personalized appearance models for fast and robust emotion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiranjeevi, Pojala; Gopalakrishnan, Viswanath; Moogi, Pratibha

    2015-09-01

    Facial expression recognition is one of the open problems in computer vision. Robust neutral face recognition in real time is a major challenge for various supervised learning-based facial expression recognition methods. This is due to the fact that supervised methods cannot accommodate all appearance variability across the faces with respect to race, pose, lighting, facial biases, and so on, in the limited amount of training data. Moreover, processing each and every frame to classify emotions is not required, as user stays neutral for majority of the time in usual applications like video chat or photo album/web browsing. Detecting neutral state at an early stage, thereby bypassing those frames from emotion classification would save the computational power. In this paper, we propose a light-weight neutral versus emotion classification engine, which acts as a pre-processer to the traditional supervised emotion classification approaches. It dynamically learns neutral appearance at key emotion (KE) points using a statistical texture model, constructed by a set of reference neutral frames for each user. The proposed method is made robust to various types of user head motions by accounting for affine distortions based on a statistical texture model. Robustness to dynamic shift of KE points is achieved by evaluating the similarities on a subset of neighborhood patches around each KE point using the prior information regarding the directionality of specific facial action units acting on the respective KE point. The proposed method, as a result, improves emotion recognition (ER) accuracy and simultaneously reduces computational complexity of the ER system, as validated on multiple databases.

  13. Zoonotic and Non-Zoonotic Diseases in Relation to Human Personality and Societal Values: Support for the Parasite-Stress Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Thornhill

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The parasite-stress model of human sociality proposes that humans' ontogenetic experiences with infectious diseases as well as their evolutionary historical interactions with these diseases exert causal influences on human psychology and social behavior. This model has been supported by cross-national relationships between parasite prevalence and human personality traits, and between parasite prevalence and societal values. Importantly, the parasite-stress model emphasizes the causal role of non-zoonotic parasites (which have the capacity for human-to-human transmission, rather than zoonotic parasites (which do not, but previous studies failed to distinguish between these conceptually distinct categories. The present investigation directly tested the differential predictive effects of zoonotic and non-zoonotic (both human-specific and multihost parasite prevalence on personality traits and societal values. Supporting the parasite-stress model, cross-national differences in personality traits (unrestricted sexuality, extraversion, openness to experiences and in societal values (individualism, collectivism, gender equality, democratization are predicted specifically by non-zoonotic parasite prevalence.

  14. Oxidative stress/reactive metabolite gene expression signature in rat liver detects idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Angelique; Nie, Alex; Brandon Parker, J.; Sawant, Sharmilee; Piechta, Leigh-Anne; Kelley, Michael F., E-mail: mkelley2@its.jnj.com; Mark Kao, L.; Jim Proctor, S.; Verheyen, Geert; Johnson, Mark D.; Lord, Peter G.; McMillian, Michael K.

    2014-03-15

    Previously we reported a gene expression signature in rat liver for detecting a specific type of oxidative stress (OS) related to reactive metabolites (RM). High doses of the drugs disulfiram, ethinyl estradiol and nimesulide were used with another dozen paradigm OS/RM compounds, and three other drugs flutamide, phenacetin and sulindac were identified by this signature. In a second study, antiepileptic drugs were compared for covalent binding and their effects on OS/RM; felbamate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital produced robust OS/RM gene expression. In the present study, liver RNA samples from drug-treated rats from more recent experiments were examined for statistical fit to the OS/RM signature. Of all 97 drugs examined, in addition to the nine drugs noted above, 19 more were identified as OS/RM-producing compounds—chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyproterone acetate, dantrolene, dipyridamole, glibenclamide, isoniazid, ketoconazole, methapyrilene, naltrexone, nifedipine, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen, coumarin, ritonavir, amitriptyline, valproic acid, enalapril, and chloramphenicol. Importantly, all of the OS/RM drugs listed above have been linked to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, excepting chloramphenicol, which does not have a package label for hepatotoxicity, but does have a black box warning for idiosyncratic bone marrow suppression. Most of these drugs are not acutely toxic in the rat. The OS/RM signature should be useful to avoid idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of drug candidates. - Highlights: • 28 of 97 drugs gave a positive OS/RM gene expression signature in rat liver. • The specificity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 98%. • The sensitivity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 75%. • The signature can help eliminate hepatotoxicants from drug development.

  15. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  16. Risk and resilience factors in coping with daily stress in adulthood: the role of age, self-concept incoherence, and personal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L

    2010-09-01

    This study observed young, middle-aged, and older adults (N = 239; Mage = 49.6 years; range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect, taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience (i.e., age, perceived personal control) factors. Results indicated that younger individuals and individuals with a more incoherent self-concept showed higher average negative affect across the study. As well, individuals reported higher negative affect on days that they experienced more stress than usual and on days that they reported less control than usual. These main effects were qualified by significant interactions. In particular, the association between daily stress and negative affect was stronger on days on which adults reported low control compared with days on which they reported high control (i.e., perceptions of control buffered stress). Reactivity to daily stress did not differ for individuals of different ages or for individuals with different levels of self-concept incoherence. Although all individuals reported higher negative affect on days on which they reported less control than usual, this association was more pronounced among younger adults. The current study helps to elucidate the role of risk and resilience factors when adults are faced with daily stress.

  17. Resilience Training for Work-related Stress Among Health Care Workers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing In-person and Smartphone-delivered Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Erin G; Davis, Mary C; Temkit, M'hamed; Lorenz, Christopher; Darby, Betty; Stonnington, Cynthia M

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this study was to assess whether an in-person mindfulness-based resilience training (MBRT) program or a smartphone-delivered resiliency-based intervention improved stress, well-being, and burnout in employees at a major tertiary health care institution. Sixty participants were randomized to a 6-week MBRT, a resiliency-based smartphone intervention, or an active control group. Stress, well-being, and burnout were assessed at baseline, at program completion, and 3 months postintervention. Both the MBRT and the smartphone groups showed improvements in well-being, whereas only the MBRT group showed improvements in stress and emotional burnout over time. The control group did not demonstrate sustained improvement on any outcome. Findings suggest that brief, targeted interventions improve psychological outcomes and point to the need for larger scale studies comparing the individual and combined treatments that can inform development of tailored, effective, and low-cost programs for health care workers.

  18. [Evaluation of mental development of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected in screening test--personal observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Eugenia; Noczyńska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for a proper development of the central nervous system (CNS), skeleton and tooth buds. They are important from the early stages of fetal development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the mental development of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected in screening and to determine the effect of TSH, level of thyroid hormones during observation, perinatal factors as well as parental and environmental factors on the children's IQ. 44 children (28 girls and 16 boys) aged 3.5-18 years (mean age 7.3+/- 3.5) were enrolled in the study. The subjects' mental development was analyzed. General intelligence quotient was measured on verbal and non-verbal scale and chosen parameters of mental development were measured. The evaluation of mental development was performed in two age groups: group A - 20 patients in the age range 3.5-5.9 years (mean age 5.3+/-0.8) tested using the Columbus method, and group B - 24 patients in the age range 6-18 years (mean age 10.3+/-2.2) tested on the Wechsler Scale. The intelligence quotient (IQ) in both groups was within the average IQ range on Wechsler scale. Mean IQ values on verbal and non-verbal scale were comparable and within the average IQ range on Wechsler scale. The level of intelligence in group A correlated, on the brink of statistical significance (IS), with the education level of the parents (r=0.32; p=0.0934), while in the group B - IS correlated with birth weight (r=0.62; p=0.00247), it correlated on the brink of statistical significance with the education level of parents (r=0.4; p=0.0532) and mother's age (r=0.41; p=0.0514). The level of intelligence on verbal scale in group B, statistically significant, positively correlated with the body mass at birth (r=0.62; p=0.00147) and negatively with the mean value of TSH in 2-year follow-up period (r=-0.47; p=0.0381). The level of general intelligence and on verbal and non-verbal scale did not correlate with the time of commencement of therapy

  19. Detection of metal stress in boreal forest species using the 0.67-micron chlorophyll absorption band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhroy, Vernon H.; Kruse, Fred A.

    1991-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that a shift of the red-edge inflection near 0.70 micron in vegetation reflectance spectra is an indicator of metal stress, partially attributable to changes in chlorophyll concentration. This 'red-edge shift', however, is difficult to detect and has been reported both toward longer (red) and shorter (blue) wavelengths. Our work demonstrates that direct measurement of the depth and width of the chlorophyll absorption band at 0.67 micron using digital feature extraction and absorption band characterization procedures developed for the analysis of mineral spectra is a more consistent indicator of metal stress. Additionally, the magnitude of these parameters is generally greater than that of the red edge shift and thus should be more amenable to detection and mapping using field and aircraft spectrometers.

  20. Bipolar affective disorder and borderline personality disorder: Differentiation based on the history of early life stress and psychoneuroendocrine measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Angela Kaline; Cleare, Anthony J; Young, Allan H; Juruena, Mario F

    2018-04-24

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Bipolar Affective Disorder (BD) have clinical characteristics in common which often make their differential diagnosis difficult. The history of early life stress (ELS) may be a differentiating factor between BPD and BD, as well as its association with clinical manifestations and specific neuroendocrine responses in each of these diagnoses. Assessing and comparing patients with BD and BPD for factors related to symptomatology, etiopathogenesis and neuroendocrine markers. The study sample consisted of 51 women, divided into 3 groups: patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD (n = 20) and BD (n = 16) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). Standardized instruments were used for the clinical evaluation, while the history of ELS was quantified with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and classified according to the subtypes: emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect. The functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by measuring a single plasma cortisol sample. Patients with BPD presented with more severe psychiatric symptoms of: anxiety, impulsivity, depression, hopelessness and suicidal ideation than those with BD. The history of ELS was identified as significantly more prevalent and more severe in patients (BPD and BP) than in HC. Emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect also showed differences and were higher in BPD than BD patients. BPD patients had greater severity of ELS overall and in the subtypes of emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect than BD patients. The presence of ELS in patients with BPD and BP showed significant difference with lower cortisol levels when compared to HC. The endocrine evaluation showed no significant differences between the diagnoses of BPD and BD. Cortisol measured in patients with BPD was significantly lower compared to HC in the presence of emotional neglect and physical

  1. Level of physical activity, well-being, stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Nielsen, Trine; Sloth, Louise Bönsdorff; Jensen, Rigmor Højland; Gard, Gunvor

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain is high in the general population. However, there is very little literature on the characteristics of these combined conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate a) the prevalence of migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain in a clinic-based sample, b) the level of physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain compared to healthy controls, c) the perceived ability of persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain to perform physical activity, and d) which among the three conditions (migraine, tension-type headache or neck pain) is rated as the most burdensome condition. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral specialised headache centre where questionnaires on physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health were completed by 148 persons with migraine and 100 healthy controls matched by sex and average age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess characteristics of migraine, tension-type headache and neck pain. Out of 148 persons with migraine, 100 (67%) suffered from co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. Only 11% suffered from migraine only. Persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain had lower level of physical activity and psychological well-being, higher level of perceived stress and poorer self-rated health compared to healthy controls. They reported reduced ability to perform physical activity owing to migraine (high degree), tension-type headache (moderate degree) and neck pain (low degree). The most burdensome condition was migraine, followed by tension-type headache and neck pain. Migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain was highly prevalent in a clinic-based sample. Persons with migraine and co

  2. Dobutamine stress tetrofosmin SPECT. Evaluation of short rest-stress protocol and head to head comparison with MIBI in detection of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgut, B.; Unlu, M.; Cengel, A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of same day short rest-dobutamine stress Tetrofosmin (TF) SPECT imaging protocol and to compare TF SPECT results with methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) SPECT in the same subjects who were unable to perform treadmill exercise or were unsuitable for pharmacological vasodilator stress. The study group consisted of 19 patients (2 female and 17 male, with a mean age of 53.8±7.9 yrs) in whom coronary artery disease (CAD) had been proven or excluded at coronary angiography (CA). MIBI SPECT imaging was performed first. TF SPECT images were obtained one week after MIBI imaging. Immediately after the rest SPECT imaging in both of the MIBI and TF studies, patients underwent dobutamine stress tests. Rest-stress radiotracer doses and dobutamine doses were the same for both TF and MIBI studies. While 60 min waiting periods were applied for MIBI study, only 30 min waiting periods were applied for TF study after the rest and stress injections. Images were evaluated by visual and quantitative analysis. Dobutamine stress parameters were similar for both studies. Although in TF study, the time between radiopharmaceutical injection and imaging was shorter than in MIBI study, there was no significant difference between heart-to-liver (H/Li) and heart-to-lung (H/Lu) ratios. According to CA results, diagnostic accuracy was similar for TF and MIBI. While sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for TF study were calculated as 82%, 84% and 82%, respectively, the corresponding values for MIBI were 82%, 88% and 84%, respectively. This clinical study has shown comparable diagnostic performance for the detection of CAD between MIBI and TF. Good correlation was found between segmental analysis for both studies. MIBI and TF showed similar perfusion defects and good segmental correlation during dobutamine stress with the same quality images. Both radiopharmaceuticals may be acceptable with this imaging protocol

  3. Validation of automated detection of physical and mental stress during work in a Hühnermobil 225.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quendler, Elisabeth; Trieb, Katharina; Nimmerichter, Alfred

    2017-05-11

    Introduction. The effects of the use of mobile henhouses and their equipment on the physical and mental stress of farmers in the organic egg production, and the reliability of the sensor-based detection of these in work processes are insufficiently known. There are neither measurement results nor key figures, according to operation and gender especially, available in the literature. Objective. The aim of this case study is to quantify the physical and mental stress of work processes on the basis of heart rate and the Baevsky Stress Index, as measured by the ECG- and activity sensor Movisens®, which is used mainly in the sports and rehabilitation sectors. To analyse the impact, daily routine work was divided into operations and the data collected for this purpose analysed descriptively and analytically. Conclusions. In summary, it can be concluded that measurement technology has the potential to capture the activity-related exceedances of the endurance limit of the work severity by means of the heart rate reliably, to identify risk areas of employment and to quantify stress situations. The accuracy and reliability of data acquisition with Movisens® should be validated by a larger sample size and further measurements. In particular, the algorithm for calculating the data to quantify the mental and physical stress without movement needs to be improved significantly through further development.

  4. The effects of compressive stress and contamination liquids on the ultrasonic detection of fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooldridge, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of compressive stress on the reflection and transmission of ultrasound has been investigated for fatigue cracks. An examination has been made of the shear wave corner echoes from surface breaking fatigue cracks which were grown at constant stress intensity factor to control the roughness of the faces. In this way a correlation has been established between the roughness of the surfaces and the ultrasonic response at both zero load and under stress. The effect of liquids in the cracks has also been studied and the results compared with theoretical predictions for a thin sided parallel gap. (author)

  5. Comparison of exercise and pharmacological stress gated SPECT in detecting transient left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hakan; Tan, Yusuf Z; Isgoren, Serkan; Gorur, Gozde D; Kozdag, Guliz; Ural, Ertan; Berk, Fatma

    2008-06-01

    Transient left ventricular contractile dysfunction (TLVD) is observed owing to post-exercise stunning in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Pharmacological stimulation differs from exercise stress because it does not cause demand ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether TLVD could also be seen after pharmacological stress (dipyridamole). Of the patients in whom gated single-photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) was performed in our institution from January 2004 to April 2007, 439 subjects with known or suspected CAD were included in the study. GSPECT was performed for all patients following exercise (group I, n = 220) or pharmacological stress (group II, n = 219) according to a 2-day (stress-rest) protocol after injection of Tc-99m methoxyisobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI). Stress, rest, and difference (stress-rest value) left ventricular ejection fractions (SLVEF, RLVEF, and DLVEF) and transient ischemic dilatation (TID) ratio were derived automatically. Summed stress score, summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) for myocardial perfusion were calculated using a 20-segment model and a five-point scoring system. An SDS > 3 was considered as ischemic. On the basis of the perfusion findings, patients were subdivided into a normal (group A, n = 216) and ischemia group (group B, n = 223). DLVEF and perfusion scores of all groups were compared. Relationships between DLVEF and perfusion, and between TID ratio and DLVEF were also evaluated. Stress-induced ischemia was observed in 223 of 439 patients (50.8%). In group A, the difference between stress and rest LVEF values was not significant (P = 0.670 and P = 0.200 for groups IA and IIA, respectively). However, LVEF was significantly decreased after stress compared with rest values for group B (P good correlations between TID ratios and DLVEF values in four subgroups (r = -0.55, r = -0.62, r = -0.59, and r = -0.41; for groups IA, IB, IIA, and IIB, respectively, P stress was observed

  6. Exploring the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and deliberate self-harm: the moderating roles of borderline and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T

    2012-08-30

    Despite increasing evidence for an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and deliberate self-harm (DSH), few studies have examined the factors that moderate this association or the impact of co-occurring personality disorders among individuals with PTSD on DSH frequency. Given the high rates of co-occurrence between PTSD and two personality disorders of particular relevance to DSH, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), this study examined the moderating role of these personality disorders in the association between PTSD and DSH frequency among a sample of substance use disorder patients (N=61). Patients completed structured clinical interviews assessing PTSD, BPD, and AVPD and a questionnaire assessing DSH. Results revealed more frequent DSH among patients with (vs. without) PTSD and provided evidence for the moderating role of AVPD in this association. Specifically, results revealed heightened levels of DSH only among PTSD patients with co-occurring AVPD. Findings are consistent with past research demonstrating that the presence of co-occurring AVPD among patients with other Axis I and II disorders is associated with worse outcomes, and highlight the importance of continuing to examine the moderating role of AVPD in the association between PTSD and a variety of health-risk behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mental stress as consequence and cause of vision loss: the dawn of psychosomatic ophthalmology for preventive and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Wang, Jiaqi; Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Faiq, Muneeb; Heim, Christine

    2018-06-01

    The loss of vision after damage to the retina, optic nerve, or brain has often grave consequences in everyday life such as problems with recognizing faces, reading, or mobility. Because vision loss is considered to be irreversible and often progressive, patients experience continuous mental stress due to worries, anxiety, or fear with secondary consequences such as depression and social isolation. While prolonged mental stress is clearly a consequence of vision loss, it may also aggravate the situation. In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy. Although stress is a known risk factor, its causal role in the development or progression of certain visual system disorders is not widely appreciated. This review of the literature discusses the relationship of stress and ophthalmological diseases. We conclude that stress is both consequence and cause of vision loss. This creates a vicious cycle of a downward spiral, in which initial vision loss creates stress which further accelerates vision loss, creating even more stress and so forth. This new psychosomatic perspective has several implications for clinical practice. Firstly, stress reduction and relaxation techniques (e.g., meditation, autogenic training, stress management training, and psychotherapy to learn to cope) should be recommended not only as complementary to traditional treatments of vision loss but possibly as preventive means to reduce progression of vision loss. Secondly, doctors should try their best to inculcate positivity and optimism in their patients while giving them the information the patients are entitled to, especially regarding the important value of stress reduction. In this way, the vicious cycle could be interrupted. More clinical studies are now

  8. Emotion detection deficits and changes in personality traits linked to loss of white matter integrity in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Multani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-cognitive features including personality changes are increasingly recognized in the three PPA variants (semantic-svPPA, non fluent-nfvPPA, and logopenic-lvPPA. However, differences in emotion processing among the PPA variants and its association with white matter tracts are unknown. We compared emotion detection across the three PPA variants and healthy controls (HC, and related them to white matter tract integrity and cortical degeneration. Personality traits in the PPA group were also examined in relation to white matter tracts. Thirty-three patients with svPPA, nfvPPA, lvPPA, and 32 HC underwent neuropsychological assessment, emotion evaluation task (EET, and MRI scan. Patients' study partners were interviewed on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR and completed an interpersonal traits assessment, the Interpersonal Adjective Scale (IAS. Diffusion tensor imaging of uncinate fasciculus (UF, superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, and voxel-based morphometry to derive gray matter volumes for orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, anterior temporal lobe (ATL regions were performed. In addition, gray matter volumes of white matter tract-associated regions were also calculated: inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, posterior temporal lobe (PTL, inferior parietal lobe (IPL and occipital lobe (OL. ANCOVA was used to compare EET performance. Partial correlation and multivariate linear regression were conducted to examine association between EET and neuroanatomical regions affected in PPA. All three variants of PPA performed significantly worse than HC on EET, and the svPPA group was least accurate at recognizing emotions. Performance on EET was related to the right UF, SLF, and ILF integrity. Regression analysis revealed EET performance primarily relates to the right UF integrity. The IAS subdomain, cold-hearted, was also associated with right UF integrity. Disease-specific emotion recognition and personality changes occur

  9. Detection and explore the noise stress by running technology lines of haylage.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTANGL, Josef

    2009-01-01

    The tendency of this works was measure and explore noise stress by running lines of haylage. It was plumbed noise applied on service of machines, outside natural scene and human residence. Results were be compared with permitted norms.

  10. Manufacturing inspection of electrical steels using Magnetic Barkhausen Noise: residual stress detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samimi, A.A., E-mail: 9aa8@queensu.ca [Queen' s Univ., Applied Magnetics Group, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Krause, T.W. [Royal Military College of Canada, NDE Lab., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Clapham, L. [Queen' s Univ., Applied Magnetics Group, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Gallaugher, M.; Ding, Y.; Chromik, R. [McGill Univ., Dept. of Mining and Materials Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Non-oriented Electrical Steel (NOES) is the magnetic core lamination material used for flux transfer in rotary machines. The presence of residual stress associated with material processing may be detrimental to magnetic domain structure refinement and as a result, magnetic performance of NOES. Therefore, manufacturing inspection of NOES that identifies the presence of residual stress could contribute to the production of more energy efficient cores. However, standard materials evaluation is limited to destructive and off-line techniques. The present work employed Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) for nondestructive identification of local residual stress associated with stages in material processing. Analysis of MBN from single strips of NOES demonstrated clear response to applied tensile stress, mechanical shearing, the presence of an insulating coating and punching. The results establish the potential of MBN as a nondestructive testing technology for quality control of electrical steels at various stages of manufacture. (author)

  11. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  12. Neuroticism-related personality traits are associated with posttraumatic stress after abortion: findings from a Swedish multi-center cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin Lundell, Inger; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Ekselius, Lisa; Georgsson, Susanne; Frans, Örjan; Helström, Lotti; Högberg, Ulf; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2017-10-02

    Most women who choose to terminate a pregnancy cope well following an abortion, although some women experience severe psychological distress. The general interpretation in the field is that the most consistent predictor of mental disorders after induced abortion is the mental health issues that women present with prior to the abortion. We have previously demonstrated that few women develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after induced abortion. Neuroticism is one predictor of importance for PTSD, and may thus be relevant as a risk factor for the development of PTSD or PTSS after abortion. We therefore compared Neuroticism-related personality trait scores of women who developed PTSD or PTSS after abortion to those of women with no evidence of PTSD or PTSS before or after the abortion. A Swedish multi-center cohort study including six Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments, where 1294 abortion-seeking women were included. The Screen Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD) was used to evaluate PTSD and PTSS. Measurements were made at the first visit and at three and six month after the abortion. The Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) was used for assessment of Neuroticism-related personality traits. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the risk factors for development of PTSD or PTSS post abortion. Women who developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion had higher scores than the comparison group on several of the personality traits associated with Neuroticism, specifically Somatic Trait Anxiety, Psychic Trait Anxiety, Stress Susceptibility and Embitterment. Women who reported high, or very high, scores on Neuroticism had adjusted odds ratios for PTSD/PTSS development of 2.6 (CI 95% 1.2-5.6) and 2.9 (CI 95% 1.3-6.6), respectively. High scores on Neuroticism-related personality traits influence the risk of PTSD or PTSS post abortion. This finding supports the argument

  13. Noninvasive detection of regional myocardial ischemia using rubidium-81 and scintillation camera. Comparison with stress electrocardiography in patients with arteriographically documented coronary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, D.S.; Salel, A.F.; DeNardo, G.L.; Mason, D.T.

    1975-01-01

    The sensitivity of rest and stress myocardial perfusion studies using scintillation camera imaging of intravenously administered rubidium-81 ( 81 Rb) in the detection of myocardial ischemia was compared to that of stress electrocardiography by relating results in 40 patients to the degree of stenosis delineated by coronary arteriography. Of 33 patients with greater than 75 percent stenosis of at least one of the three major coronary vessels (significant stenosis), rest and stress 81 Rb imaging detected ventricular ischemia in 29 (88 percent), whereas simultaneous stress electrocardiography was positive (1 mm or greater horizontal ST-segment depression) in only 19 (58 percent) of the same patients. Five of the 29 patients who developed stress-induced scintigraphic evidence of ischemia did not develop angina or a positive electrocardiogram with stress. In 31 of the 33 patients with significant coronary stenosis, either the stress scintigram or the stress electrocardiogram was positive. In seven patients with less than 50 percent narrowing of a major coronary vessel on coronary arteriography, the stress scintigrams were negative, whereas the stress electrocardiograms were positive in the two of these patients with the syndrome of angina with normal coronary arteriograms. It is concluded that high resolution images of the myocardium can be obtained with 81 Rb using the scintillation camera with special shielding, and that rest and stress 81 Rb scintigraphy appears to provide greater sensitivity and specificity when compared to stress electrocardiography in the noninvasive identification of significant coronary stenosis

  14. Personal Activity Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Sérgio Daniel Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como partes dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Informática, ramo de Computação Móvel Vivemos numa era em que a esperança média de vida tem aumentado, traduzindo-se diretamente num crescimento cada vez mais significativo da população na faixa etária da terceira idade. Este fenómeno faz com que cada vez mais pessoas idosas vivam sozinhas em casa e tenham dificuldade em encontrar pessoas que as possam acompanha...

  15. he effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction in depression and blood sugar reduction diabetic patients with BIS type of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohammadi Shirmahaleh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in depression reduction and blood sugar control in diabetic patients with Behavioral Inhibition type of personality. It was a quasi-experimental study with pretest/posttest design employing one experimental and one control group. The participants were 225 patients in Tehran. First, 30 patients with diabetes Type 2 were selected on the basis of interview and then randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups (n=15 in each group. Then, Wilson’s personality questionnaire and beck’s depression inventory were used to collect data. After conducting the pretest and measuring blood sugar level, the experimental group received an intervention in eight sessions of 120 minutes while the control group received no intervention. Finally, the posttest was administered to both groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the results of the pretest and posttest, indicating that mindfulness-based training had a positive effect on the reduction of stress as well as reduction of blood sugar among patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the mindfulness-based educational method can be used in clinics and healthcare centers to reduce stress and blood sugar levels among patients suffering from diabetes Type 2.

  16. On the Role of Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity in the Evolution of Animal Personalities and Stress Coping Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overli, Oyvind; Sorensen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    and neurogenesis have received recent attention. This work reveals that brain cell proliferation and neurogenesis are associated with heritable variation in stress coping style, and they are also differentially affected by short- and long-term stress in a biphasic manner. Routine-dependent and inflexible behavior...... are conserved throughout the vertebrate subphylum, including factors affecting perception, learning, and memory of stimuli and events. Here we review conserved aspects of the contribution of neurogenesis and other aspects of neural plasticity to stress coping. In teleost fish, brain cell proliferation...

  17. Stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging to detect coronary artery lesions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok; Noga, Michelle; Schantz, Daryl; Pepelassis, Dion; Tham, Edythe B

    2017-05-01

    Stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is used widely in adult ischemic heart disease, but data in children is limited. We sought to evaluate feasibility, accuracy and prognostic value of stress CMR in children with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Stress CMR was reviewed from two pediatric centers over 5 years using a standard pharmacologic protocol. Wall motion abnormalities, perfusion deficits and late enhancement were correlated with coronary angiogram (CAG) when available, and clinical status at 1 year follow-up for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; coronary revascularization, non-fatal myocardial infarction and death due to CAD) was recorded. Sixty-four stress perfusion CMR studies in 48 children (10.9 ± 4.8 years) using adenosine; 59 (92%) and dipyridamole; 5 (8%), were reviewed. Indications were Kawasaki disease (39%), post arterial switch operation (12.5%), post heart transplantation (12.5%), post anomalous coronary artery repair (11%), chest pain (11%), suspected myocarditis or CAD (3%), post coronary revascularization (3%), and others (8%). Twenty-six studies were performed under sedation. Of all studies performed, 66% showed no evidence of ischemia or infarction, 28% had perfusion deficits and 6% had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) without perfusion deficit. Compared to CAG, the positive predictive value (PPV) of stress CMR was 80% with negative predictive value (NPV) of 88%. At 1 year clinical follow-up, the PPV and NPV of stress CMR to predict MACE were 78 and 98%. Stress-perfusion CMR, in combination with LGE and wall motion-analysis is a feasible and an accurate method of diagnosing CAD in children. In difficult cases, it also helps guide clinical intervention by complementing conventional CAG with functional information.

  18. Stress-induced light scattering method for the detection of latent flaws on fine polished glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Y; Sakai, K; Nonaka, K

    2014-08-01

    Fine polishing techniques, such as the chemical mechanical polishing treatment, are one of the most important technique to glass substrate manufacturing. Mechanical interaction in the form of friction occurs between the abrasive and the substrate surface during polishing, which may cause formation of latent flaws on the glass substrate surface. Fine polishing-induced latent flaws may become obvious during a subsequent cleaning process if glass surfaces are corroded away by chemical interaction with the cleaning liquid. Latent flaws thus reduce product yield. In general, non-destructive inspection techniques, such as the light-scattering methods, used to detect foreign matters on the glass substrate surface. However, it is difficult to detect latent flaws by these methods because the flaws remain closed. Authors propose a novel inspection technique for fine polishing-induced latent flaws by combining the light scattering method with stress effects, referred to as the stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM). SILSM is able to distinguish between latent flaws and particles on the surface. In this method, samples are deformed by an actuator and stress effects are induced around the tips of latent flaws. Due to the photoelastic effect, the refractive index of the material around the tip of a latent flaw is changed. This changed refractive index is in turn detected by a cooled charge-coupled device camera as variations in light scattering intensity. In this report, surface latent flaws are detected non-destructively by applying SILSM to glass substrates, and the utility of SILSM evaluated as a novel inspection technique.

  19. Detecting Sulfuric and Nitric Acid Rain Stresses on Quercus glauca through Hyperspectral Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Xiuying; Ma, Yuandan; Li, Xinhui; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Lei

    2018-03-09

    Acid rain, which has become one of the most severe global environmental issues, is detrimental to plant growth. However, effective methods for monitoring plant responses to acid rain stress are currently lacking. The hyperspectral technique provides a cost-effective and nondestructive way to diagnose acid rain stresses. Taking a widely distributed species ( Quercus glauca ) in Southern China as an example, this study aims to monitor the hyperspectral responses of Q. glauca to simulated sulfuric acid rain (SAR) and nitric acid rain (NAR). A total of 15 periods of leaf hyperspectral data under four pH levels of SAR and NAR were obtained during the experiment. The results showed that hyperspectral information could be used to distinguish plant responses under acid rain stress. An index (green peak area index, GPAI) was proposed to indicate acid rain stresses, based on the significantly variations in the region of 500-660 nm. Light acid rain (pH 4.5 SAR and NAR) promoted Q. glauca growth relative to the control groups (pH 5.6 SAR and NAR); moderate acid rain (pH 3.0 SAR) firstly promoted and then inhibited plant growth, while pH 3.0 NAR showed mild inhibitory effects during the experiment; and heavy acid rain (pH 2.0) significantly inhibited plant growth. Compared with NAR, SAR induced more serious damages to Q. glauca . These results could help monitor acid rain stress on plants on a regional scale using remote sensing techniques.

  20. Comparative Metabolomics Approach Detects Stress-Specific Responses during Coral Bleaching in Soft Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Meyer, Achim; Ali, Sara E; Salem, Mohamed A; Giavalisco, Patrick; Westphal, Hildegard; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2018-06-01

    Chronic exposure to ocean acidification and elevated sea-surface temperatures pose significant stress to marine ecosystems. This in turn necessitates costly acclimation responses in corals in both the symbiont and host, with a reorganization of cell metabolism and structure. A large-scale untargeted metabolomics approach comprising gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was applied to profile the metabolite composition of the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi and its dinoflagellate symbiont. Metabolite profiling compared ambient conditions with response to simulated climate change stressors and with the sister species, S. glaucum. Among ∼300 monitored metabolites, 13 metabolites were modulated. Incubation experiments providing four selected upregulated metabolites (alanine, GABA, nicotinic acid, and proline) in the culturing water failed to subside the bleaching response at temperature-induced stress, despite their known ability to mitigate heat stress in plants or animals. Thus, the results hint to metabolite accumulation (marker) during heat stress. This study provides the first detailed map of metabolic pathways transition in corals in response to different environmental stresses, accounting for the superior thermal tolerance of S. ehrenbergi versus S. glaucum, which can ultimately help maintain a viable symbiosis and mitigate against coral bleaching.

  1. Colorimetric Detection of Caspase 3 Activity and Reactive Oxygen Derivatives: Potential Early Indicators of Thermal Stress in Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Ros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop and implement rapid assessments of coral health to allow effective adaptive management in response to coastal development and global change. There is now increasing evidence that activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis plays a key role during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this study, a “clinical” approach was used to assess coral health by measuring the activity of caspase 3 using a commercial kit. This method was first applied while inducing thermal bleaching in two coral species, Acropora millepora and Pocillopora damicornis. The latter species was then chosen to undergo further studies combining the detection of oxidative stress-related compounds (catalase activity and glutathione concentrations as well as caspase activity during both stress and recovery phases. Zooxanthellae photosystem II (PSII efficiency and cell density were measured in parallel to assess symbiont health. Our results demonstrate that the increased caspase 3 activity in the coral host could be detected before observing any significant decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the algal symbionts and/or their expulsion from the host. This study highlights the potential of host caspase 3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities as early indicators of stress in individual coral colonies.

  2. The performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in a population of depressed or anxious persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it

  3. Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

  4. Experimental Research of Reliability of Plant Stress State Detection by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Fedotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental laboratory investigations of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of watercress and lawn grass were conducted. The fluorescence spectra were excited by YAG:Nd laser emitting at 532 nm. It was established that the influence of stress caused by mechanical damage, overwatering, and soil pollution is manifested in changes of the spectra shapes. The mean values and confidence intervals for the ratio of two fluorescence maxima near 685 and 740 nm were estimated. It is presented that the fluorescence ratio could be considered a reliable characteristic of plant stress state.

  5. Stress and burnout in psychiatric professionals when starting to use dialectical behavioural therapy in the work with young self-harming women showing borderline personality symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseius, K-I; Kåver, A; Ekdahl, S; Asberg, M; Samuelsson, M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how starting to use dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) in the work with young self-harming women showing symptoms of borderline personality disorder affected the psychiatric professionals (n = 22) experience of occupational stress and levels of professional burnout. The study was carried out in relation to an 18-month clinical psychiatric development project, and used a mix of quantitative and qualitative research methods [a burnout inventory, the Maslach burnout inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), free format questionnaires and group interviews]. The result confirms previous reports that psychiatric health professionals experience treatment of self-harming patients as very stressful. DBT was seen as stressful in terms of learning demands, but decreased the experience of stress in the actual treatment of the patients. The teamwork and supervision were felt to be supportive, as was one particular facet of DBT, namely mindfulness training which some therapists felt also improved their handling of other work stressors not related to DBT. The inventory for professional burnout, the MBI-GS, showed no significant changes over the 18-month period, although there was a tendency for increased burnout levels at the 6-month assessment, which had returned to baseline levels at 18 months.

  6. Oxidative stress and pathogenic attack in plants, studied by laser based photoacoustic trace gas detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santosa, Ignatius Edi

    2002-01-01

    Photoacoustic detection has proven to be a sensitive method, which is suitable for trace gas measurement. In this thesis, we improved the photoacoustic detection system to measure new biologically interesting gases, ethane (C2H6) and nitric oxide (NO). A new design of grating holder is incorporated

  7. Relationships between stress, social adaptation, personality traits, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol plasma concentrations in employees at a publishing company in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Kanae; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Hori, Hikaru; Hayashi, Kenji; Katsuki, Asuka; Chen, Hsin-I; Nakamura, Jun

    2011-04-30

    There is growing evidence that blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), a major metabolite of noradrenaline, are related to depression-associated personality traits as well as to depressive, suicidal and anxious states. Psychological job stress is well known to lead to symptoms of depression, anxiety and suicide. We have recently reported that psychological job stress among hospital employees altered blood levels of BDNF and MHPG (Mitoma et al., 2008). In the present study, we re-examined the effects of social adaptation and personality traits, as well as those of psychological job stress, on plasma levels of BDNF and MHPG in healthy employees (n=269, male/female=210/59, age=49 ± 10years) working in a publishing company in Japan. The values (mean ± SD) of scores on the Stress and Arousal Check Lists (s-SACL and a-SACL), Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale (SASS), plasma MHPG levels and plasma BDNF levels were 6.0 ± 3.4, 5.7 ± 2.3, 33.7 ± 6.8, 5.8 ± 4.3 and 4.6 ± 3.1ngml(-1), respectively. A positive correlation was found between plasma MHPG levels and scores on the s-SACL, but not the a-SACL. A positive correlation was also found between SASS scores and plasma MHPG levels and between SASS scores and plasma BDNF levels. A negative correlation was found between plasma BDNF levels and s-SACL scores. Furthermore, a positive correlation between NEO-Five factor Inventory (Openness) scores and plasma MHPG levels was observed, as well as between NEO-Five factor Inventory (Extroversion) scores and plasma BDNF levels. These results suggest that levels of plasma BDNF and plasma MHPG might be associated with psychological job stress and certain personality traits among employees in the publishing industry in Japan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance with variable-density spiral pulse sequences accurately detects coronary artery disease: initial clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Michael; Taylor, Angela; Yang, Yang; Kuruvilla, Sujith; Ragosta, Michael; Meyer, Craig H; Kramer, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    Adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion imaging can be limited by motion-induced dark-rim artifacts, which may be mistaken for true perfusion abnormalities. A high-resolution variable-density spiral pulse sequence with a novel density compensation strategy has been shown to reduce dark-rim artifacts in first-pass perfusion imaging. We aimed to assess the clinical performance of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance using this new perfusion sequence to detect obstructive coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion imaging was performed during adenosine stress (140 μg/kg per minute) and at rest on a Siemens 1.5-T Avanto scanner in 41 subjects with chest pain scheduled for coronary angiography. Perfusion images were acquired during injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentacetate at 3 short-axis locations using a saturation recovery interleaved variable-density spiral pulse sequence. Significant stenosis was defined as >50% by quantitative coronary angiography. Two blinded reviewers evaluated the perfusion images for the presence of adenosine-induced perfusion abnormalities and assessed image quality using a 5-point scale (1 [poor] to 5 [excellent]). The prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease by quantitative coronary angiography was 68%. The average sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 89%, 85%, and 88%, respectively, with a positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 93% and 79%, respectively. The average image quality score was 4.4±0.7, with only 1 study with more than mild dark-rim artifacts. There was good inter-reader reliability with a κ statistic of 0.67. Spiral adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance results in high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease with excellent image quality and minimal dark-rim artifacts. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kenkre, V.D.; Verlecar, X.N.

    usefulfordeterminingmetabolicallyactivebacterialcells [7,8]. It is a proven method to understand the hetero- trophicpotentialofmicrobialassemblagesinthemarine environment[9].Itiseasytoperformandyieldshighly reproducibleresults.DVChasbeenthemostemployed techniquetoassessbacterialmetabolicactivitystate... stress on microbial communities. From the extensive fieldandlaboratoryanalyses,wereportonthereliability of DVC for sensing risks in the marine environment causedbyindustrialactivities. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Sampling locations...

  10. DETECTING FOREST STRESS AND DECLINE IN RESPONSE TO INCREASING RIVER FLOW IN SOUTHWEST FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest stress and decline resulting from increased river flows were investigated in Myakka River State Park (MRSP), Florida, USA. Since 1977, land-use changes around the upper Myakka River watershed have resulted in significant increases in water entering the river, which have...

  11. Detection of Ultrasonic Stress Waves in Structures Using 3D Shaped Optic Fiber Based on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chengming; Zhou, Wensong; Xie, Yawen

    2018-04-16

    This work proposes a 3D shaped optic fiber sensor for ultrasonic stress waves detection based on the principle of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. This sensor can be used to receive acoustic emission signals in the passive damage detection methods and other types of ultrasonic signals propagating in the active damage detection methods, such as guided wave-based methods. The sensitivity of an ultrasonic fiber sensor based on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer mainly depends on the length of the sensing optical fiber; therefore, the proposed sensor achieves the maximum possible sensitivity by wrapping an optical fiber on a hollow cylinder with a base. The deformation of the optical fiber is produced by the displacement field of guided waves in the hollow cylinder. The sensor was first analyzed using the finite element method, which demonstrated its basic sensing capacity, and the simulation signals have the same characteristics in the frequency domain as the excitation signal. Subsequently, the primary investigations were conducted via a series of experiments. The sensor was used to detect guided wave signals excited by a piezoelectric wafer in an aluminum plate, and subsequently it was tested on a reinforced concrete beam, which produced acoustic emission signals via impact loading and crack extension when it was loaded to failure. The signals obtained from a piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor were used for comparison, and the results indicated that the proposed 3D fiber optic sensor can detect ultrasonic signals in the specific frequency response range.

  12. Detection of Ultrasonic Stress Waves in Structures Using 3D Shaped Optic Fiber Based on a Mach–Zehnder Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yawen

    2018-01-01

    This work proposes a 3D shaped optic fiber sensor for ultrasonic stress waves detection based on the principle of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. This sensor can be used to receive acoustic emission signals in the passive damage detection methods and other types of ultrasonic signals propagating in the active damage detection methods, such as guided wave-based methods. The sensitivity of an ultrasonic fiber sensor based on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer mainly depends on the length of the sensing optical fiber; therefore, the proposed sensor achieves the maximum possible sensitivity by wrapping an optical fiber on a hollow cylinder with a base. The deformation of the optical fiber is produced by the displacement field of guided waves in the hollow cylinder. The sensor was first analyzed using the finite element method, which demonstrated its basic sensing capacity, and the simulation signals have the same characteristics in the frequency domain as the excitation signal. Subsequently, the primary investigations were conducted via a series of experiments. The sensor was used to detect guided wave signals excited by a piezoelectric wafer in an aluminum plate, and subsequently it was tested on a reinforced concrete beam, which produced acoustic emission signals via impact loading and crack extension when it was loaded to failure. The signals obtained from a piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor were used for comparison, and the results indicated that the proposed 3D fiber optic sensor can detect ultrasonic signals in the specific frequency response range. PMID:29659540

  13. Inventory of forest and rangeland and detection of forest stress. [Colorado and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Disturbances in a forest environment that cause reductions in forest area, timber volume, and timber growth can be detected on ERTS-1 combined color composites. However, detection depends on comparing a conventional aerial photograph taken at some base year with an ERTS-1 image taken in some subsequent year. In a test made on the Atlanta site, 1:63,360 scale aerial photo index sheets made in 1966 were compared with ERTS-1 image 1264-15445 (April 1973). Five factors were found important to detection reliability: (1) the quality of the imagery; (2) the season of the imagery; (3) the size of the disturbed area; (4) the number of years since the disturbances; and (5) the type of cutting treatment. Of 209 disturbances verified on aerial photography, 165 (or approximately 80%) were detected on the ERTS-1 image by one independent interpreter. Improved training and additional experience in using this low resolution imagery should improve detection. Of the two seasons of data studies (fall and early spring), early spring is the best for detecting land use changes. Generally speaking, winter, early spring, and early summer are the best times of year for detecting forest disturbances.

  14. Detecting the differences in responses of stomatal conductance to moisture stresses between deciduous shrubs and Artemisia subshrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei; Zhou, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Shrubs and subshrubs can tolerate wider ranges of moisture stresses in both soil and air than other plant life forms, and thus represent greater nonlinearity and uncertainty in ecosystem physiology. The objectives of this paper are to model shrub/subshrub stomatal conductance by synthesizing the field leaf gas exchanges data of 24 species in China, in order to detect the differences between deciduous shrubs and Artemisia subshrubs in their responses of stomatal conductance to changes in the moisture stresses. We revised a model of stomatal conductance by incorporating the tradeoff between xylem hydraulic efficiency and cavitation loss risk. We then fit the model at the three hierarchical levels: global (pooling all data as a single group), three functional groups (deciduous non-legume shrubs, deciduous legume shrubs, and subshrubs in Artemisia genus), and individual observations (species × sites). Bayesian inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was applied to obtain the model parameters at the three levels. We found that the model at the level of functional groups is a significant improvement over that at the global level, indicating the significant differences in the stomatal behavior among the three functional groups. The differences in tolerance and sensitivities to changes in moisture stresses are the most evident between the shrubs and the subshrubs: The two shrub groups can tolerate much higher soil water stress than the subshrubs. The analysis at the observation level is also a significant improvement over that at the functional group level, indicating great variations within each group. Our analysis offered a clue for the equivocal issue of shrub encroachment into grasslands: While the invasion by the shrubs may be irreversible, the dominance of subshrubs, due to their lower resistance and tolerance to moisture stresses, may be put down by appropriate grassland management.

  15. Application of eddy currents for identification of dimensional variations in PWR steam generator tubes and detection of stress corrosion cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, R.; Gourmelon, A.

    1985-01-01

    To avoid the risk of cracking on the secondary side of the roll expansion transition zone in steam generator (SG) tubes, tube profile at the upper face of the tube sheet must comply with specifications laid down by the manufacturer and EDF. EDF has developed an eddy current (EC) signal identification method, used for pre-service testing to detect any deviation in tube profile. Nevertheless, circumferential or longitudinal stress corrosion cracks (SCC), initiated on the primary side, have appeared on some SGs. A special rotating probe was used on these generators. The results of these checks have been correlated with metallurgical examination of the extracted tubes

  16. Self-esteem and styles of coping with stress versus strategies of planning in people with psychopathic personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Ka?mierczak, Maria; B?a?ek, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Psychopathy is a notion that has been difficult to define. The operational definition of psychopathy by Hare is one of the most commonly used in psychology and it is usually identified with the scale used to measure this type of personality, which is the Psychopathy Checklist - Revision (PCL-R). PCL-R is composed of two factors: Factor 1 describes a constellation of psychopathic traits considered by many clinicians to be basic for this type of personality, and Factor 2 desc...

  17. Well-being among persons at risk of psychosis: the role of self-labeling, shame, and stigma stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Metzler, Sibylle; Müller, Mario; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-04-01

    When young people at risk of psychosis experience early signs of the disorder or early intervention, they may label themselves as "mentally ill." However, empirical data related to the potentially harmful effects of self-labeling and stigma among young people at risk of psychosis are lacking. This study used a stress-coping model to examine mechanisms by which stigma may exert an impact on young people at risk of psychosis. The authors assessed self-reports of perceived public stigma, shame about having a mental illness, self-labeling, and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor (stigma stress) as predictors of well-being among 172 residents of Zürich, Switzerland, who were between 13 and 35 years old. All participants were at high risk or ultra-high risk of psychosis or at risk of bipolar disorder. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and well-being was measured by instruments that assessed quality of life, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Perceived public stigma, shame, and self-labeling were independently associated with increased stigma stress. More stigma stress, in turn, predicted reduced well-being, independent of age, gender, symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity. Stigma stress partly mediated the effects of perceived public stigma, shame, and self-labeling on well-being. Perceived public stigma, shame, and self-labeling appear to be associated with stigma stress and reduced well-being among young people at risk of psychosis. With early intervention programs gaining traction worldwide, effective strategies to address the shame and stigma associated with at-risk states and early psychosis are needed.

  18. Source-specific sewage pollution detection in urban river waters using pharmaceuticals and personal care products as molecular indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, Osamu; Sato, Go; Kobayashi, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Source-specific elucidation of domestic sewage pollution caused by various effluent sources in an urban river water, as conducted for this study, demands knowledge of the relation between concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as molecular indicators (caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan) and water quality concentrations of total nitrogen (T-N) and total phosphorous (T-P). River water and wastewater samples from the Asahikawa River Basin in northern Japan were analyzed using derivatization-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Caffeine, used as an indicator of domestic sewage in the Asahikawa River Basin, was more ubiquitous than either carbamazepine or triclosan (92-100 %). Its concentration was higher than any target compound used to assess the basin: caffeine, caffeine concentrations detected in wastewater effluents and the strongly positive mutual linear correlation between caffeine and T-N or T-P (R 2  > 0.759) reflect the contribution of septic tank system effluents to the lower Asahikawa River Basin. Results of relative molecular indicators in combination with different molecular indicators (caffeine/carbamazepine and triclosan/carbamazepine) and cluster analysis better reflect the contribution of sewage than results obtained using concentrations of respective molecular indicators and cluster analysis. Relative molecular indicators used with water quality parameters (e.g., caffeine/T-N ratio) in this study provide results more clearly, relatively, and quantitatively than results obtained using molecular indicators alone. Moreover, the caffeine/T-N ratio reflects variations of caffeine flux from effluent sources. These results suggest strongly relative molecular indicators are also useful indicators, reflecting differences in spatial contributions of domestic sources for PPCPs in urban areas.

  19. Detecting Cognitive Stress from Keyboard and Mouse Dynamics during Mental Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yee Mei; Ayesh, Aladdin, 1972-; Stacey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been done to detect human emotion using various computational methods, such as physiological measures and facial expression recognition. These methods are effective but they could be expensive or intrusive as special setups of equipment are needed. Some researchers have utilized nonintrusive methods by using mouse or keyboard analyses and presented comparable effectiveness in detecting human emotion. This paper investigates how both keyboard and mouse features can be combine...

  20. Content analysis to detect high stress in oral interviews and text documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system of interrogation to estimate whether a subject of interrogation is likely experiencing high stress, emotional volatility and/or internal conflict in the subject's responses to an interviewer's questions. The system applies one or more of four procedures, a first statistical analysis, a second statistical analysis, a third analysis and a heat map analysis, to identify one or more documents containing the subject's responses for which further examination is recommended. Words in the documents are characterized in terms of dimensions representing different classes of emotions and states of mind, in which the subject's responses that manifest high stress, emotional volatility and/or internal conflict are identified. A heat map visually displays the dimensions manifested by the subject's responses in different colors, textures, geometric shapes or other visually distinguishable indicia.

  1. Turning shy on a winter's day : Effects of season on personality and stress response in Microtus arvalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracceva, Giulia; Herde, Antje; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Palme, Rupert; Eccard, Jana A.

    Animal personalities are by definition stable over time, but to what extent they may change during development and in adulthood to adjust to environmental change is unclear. Animals of temperate environments have evolved physiological and behavioural adaptations to cope with the cyclic seasonal

  2. Whose "Storm and Stress" Is It? Parent and Child Reports of Personality Development in the Transition to Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllner, Richard; Roberts, Brent W; Damian, Rodica I; Lüdtke, Oliver; Jonkmann, Kathrin; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated Big Five personality trait development in the transition to early adolescence (from the fifth to eighth grade). Personality traits were assessed in 2,761 (47% female) students over a 3-year period of time. Youths' self-reports and parent ratings were used to test for cross-informant agreement. Acquiescent responding and measurement invariance were established with latent variable modeling. Growth curve models revealed three main findings: (a) Normative mean-level changes occurred for youths' self-report data and parent ratings with modest effects in both cases. (b) Agreeableness and Openness decreased for self-reports and parent ratings, whereas data source differences were found for Conscientiousness (decreased for self-reports and remained stable for parent ratings), Extraversion (increased for self-reports and decreased for parent ratings), and Neuroticism (remained stable for self-reports and decreased for parent ratings). (c) Girls showed a more mature personality overall (self-reports and parent ratings revealed higher levels of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness) and became more extraverted in the middle of adolescence (self-reports). Personality changes modestly during early adolescence whereby change does not occur in the direction of maturation, and substantial differences exist between parent ratings and self-reports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Detection of stress corrosion cracks in reactor pressure vessel and primary coolant system anchor studs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light, G.M.; Joshi, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    Under Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) contract No. 2179-2, southwest Research Institute is continuing work on the use of the cylindrically guided wave technique (CGWT) for inspecting stud bolts. Also being evaluated is the application of the CGWT to the inspection of reactor coolant pump shafts. Data have been collected for stud bolts ranging from 16 to 112 inches (40.6 to 285 cm) in length, and from 1 to 4.5 inches (2.54 to 11.4 cm) in diameter. For each bolt size, tests were conducted to determine the smallest detectable notch, the effect of thread noise, and the amount of detectable simulated corrosion. The ratio of reflected longitudinal signals to mode-converted signals was analyzed with respect to bolt diameter, bolt length, and frequency parameters. The results of these test showed the following: (1) The minimum detectable notch in the threaded region was approximately 0.05 inch (1.3 mm) for all stud bolts evaluated. (2) Thread noise could easily be detected, but the level of noise was below the minimum detectable notch signal. (3) For carbon steel, optimum transducer frequency was 5 MHz, using a transducer whose face had an impedance that matched the steel surface. (4) Simulated corrosion of 15% reduced diameter could be detected

  4. "Yes, I Can": the protective role of personal self-efficacy in hindering counterproductive work behavior under stressful conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Roberta; Paciello, Marinella; Tramontano, Carlo; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Farnese, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Within the stressor-emotion model, counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is considered a possible result of stress. It is well-known that self-efficacy mitigates the detrimental effects of stress and the stressor-strain relation. We aim to extend the stressor-emotion model of CWB by examining the additive and moderating role of work and regulatory emotional self-efficacy dimensions. A structural equation model and a set of hierarchical regressions were conducted on a convenience sample of 1147 Italian workers. Individuals who believed in their capabilities to manage work activities had a lower propensity to act counterproductively. Workers who believed in their capabilities to cope with negative feelings had a lower propensity to react with negative emotions under stressful conditions. Finally, results showed that self-efficacy moderates at least some of the relationships between stressors and negative emotions, and also between stressors and CWB, but did not moderate the relationship between negative emotions and these types of conduct. Self-efficacy beliefs proved to be a protective factor that can reduce the impact of stressful working conditions.

  5. Effects of social conditions during early development on stress response and personality traits in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naguib, M.; Floercke, C.; Oers, van K.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental conditions during early development play a crucial role in shaping an organism's phenotype. To test how social group size affects stress response and behavioral characteristics, we used great tits (Parus major) from selection lines for exploratory behavior, a proxy for an avian

  6. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes