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Sample records for personality disorder symptoms

  1. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Personality Disorders Classification and Symptoms in Cocaine and Opioid Addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Robert M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined extent to which personality disorders and associated symptom criteria were found among 117 cocaine- and opioid-dependent men in drug dependence treatment unit. Drug groups were distinguished by higher rates of antisocial and borderline symptomatology rather than by features associated with other personality disorders. Different…

  3. Stability of the pregnancy obsessive compulsive personality disorder symptoms checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, K.E.M.; Karreman, A.; Hartman, E.E.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Because stability over time is central to the definition of personality disorder, aim of the current study was to determine the stability of the Pregnancy Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) Symptoms Checklist (N = 199 women). Strong positive correlations between assessments at 32 weeks

  4. School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

  5. Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression ...

  6. Transactional processes in the development of adult personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Elizabeth A; Ruiz, Sarah K

    2016-08-01

    The development of adult personality disorder symptoms, including transactional processes of relationship representational and behavioral experience from infancy to early adolescence, was examined using longitudinal data from a risk sample (N = 162). Significant preliminary correlations were found between early caregiving experience and adult personality disorder symptoms and between representational and behavioral indices across time and adult symptomatology. Significant correlations were also found among diverse representational assessments (e.g., interview, drawing, and projective narrative) and between concurrent representational and observational measures of relationship functioning. Path models were analyzed to investigate the combined relations of caregiving experience in infancy; relationship representation and experience in early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence; and personality disorder symptoms in adulthood. The hypothesized model representing interactive contributions of representational and behavioral experience represented the data significantly better than competing models representing noninteractive contributions. Representational and behavioral indicators mediated the link between early caregiving quality and personality disorder symptoms. The findings extend previous studies of normative development and support an organizational developmental view that early relationship experiences contribute to socioemotional maladaptation as well as adaptation through the progressive transaction of mutually informing expectations and experience.

  7. A parallel process growth model of avoidant personality disorder symptoms and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2013-07-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), like other personality disorders, has historically been construed as a highly stable disorder. However, results from a number of longitudinal studies have found that the symptoms of AVPD demonstrate marked change over time. Little is known about which other psychological systems are related to this change. Although cross-sectional research suggests a strong relationship between AVPD and personality traits, no work has examined the relationship of their change trajectories. The current study sought to establish the longitudinal relationship between AVPD and basic personality traits using parallel process growth curve modeling. Parallel process growth curve modeling was applied to the trajectories of AVPD and basic personality traits from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (Lenzenweger, M. F., 2006, The longitudinal study of personality disorders: History, design considerations, and initial findings. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20, 645-670. doi:10.1521/pedi.2006.20.6.645), a naturalistic, prospective, multiwave, longitudinal study of personality disorder, temperament, and normal personality. The focus of these analyses is on the relationship between the rates of change in both AVPD symptoms and basic personality traits. AVPD symptom trajectories demonstrated significant negative relationships with the trajectories of interpersonal dominance and affiliation, and a significant positive relationship to rates of change in neuroticism. These results provide some of the first compelling evidence that trajectories of change in PD symptoms and personality traits are linked. These results have important implications for the ways in which temporal stability is conceptualized in AVPD specifically, and PD in general.

  8. Dimensions of normal and abnormal personality: Elucidating DSM-IV personality disorder symptoms in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, N.B.; Koot, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate dimensions of normal and abnormal personality underlying DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) symptoms in 168 adolescents referred to mental health services. Dimensions derived from the Big Five of normal personality and from Livesley's (2006) conceptualization of

  9. A Parallel Process Growth Model of Avoidant Personality Disorder Symptoms and Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), like other personality disorders, has historically been construed as a highly stable disorder. However, results from a number of longitudinal studies have found that the symptoms of AVPD demonstrate marked change over time. Little is known about which other psychological systems are related to this change. Although cross-sectional research suggests a strong relationship between AVPD and personality traits, no work has examined the relationship of their change trajectories. The current study sought to establish the longitudinal relationship between AVPD and basic personality traits using parallel process growth curve modeling. Methods Parallel process growth curve modeling was applied to the trajectories of AVPD and basic personality traits from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (Lenzenweger, 2006), a naturalistic, prospective, multiwave, longitudinal study of personality disorder, temperament, and normal personality. The focus of these analyses is on the relationship between the rates of change in both AVPD symptoms and basic personality traits. Results AVPD symptom trajectories demonstrated significant negative relationships with the trajectories of interpersonal dominance and affiliation, and a significant positive relationship to rates of change in neuroticism. Conclusions These results provide some of the first compelling evidence that trajectories of change in PD symptoms and personality traits are linked. These results have important implications for the ways in which temporal stability is conceptualized in AVPD specifically, and PD in general. PMID:22506627

  10. Dimensions of personality pathology in adolescents: Relations to DSM-IV personality disorder symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Tromp, N.B.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate and compare two approaches to personality pathology in adolescents. Dimensions of personality pathology, assessed by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents (DAPP-BQ-A; Tromp & Koot, 2008), were related to DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) symptoms in 168 adolescents referred for mental health services. Correlational analyses revealed that the DAPP-BQ-A higher- and lower-order dimensions were related to ...

  11. Maternal borderline personality disorder symptoms and parenting of adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Stepp, Stephanie D; Scott, Lori N; Whalen, Diana J; Beeney, Joseph F; Hipwell, Alison E

    2014-08-01

    Maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms are associated with poorer parenting. However, most studies conducted are with young children. In the current study, the authors examined associations between maternal BPD symptoms and parenting in an urban community sample of 15-to 17-year-old girls (n = 1,598) and their biological mothers. Additionally, the authors tested the impact of adolescent temperament on these associations. Mothers reported on their own psychopathology and their daughters' temperament. Adolescent girls reported on mothers' parenting methods in terms of psychological and behavioral control. Results demonstrated that maternal BPD symptoms were associated with aspects of psychological and behavioral control, even after controlling for maternal depression and alcohol use severity. After examining specific BPD components that may account for these associations, the authors found that affective/behavioral dysregulation, but not interpersonal dysregulation or identity disturbance, uniquely accounted for parenting. Adolescent temperament did not moderate these associations. BPD symptoms, particularly affective/behavioral dysregulation, are important targets when conducting parenting interventions.

  12. Identifying Latent Trajectories of Personality Disorder Symptom Change: Growth Mixture Modeling in the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Michael N.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous reports have documented mean-level declines in personality disorder (PD) symptoms over time, little is known about whether personality pathology sometimes emerges among nonsymptomatic adults, or whether rates of change differ qualitatively among symptomatic persons. Our study sought to characterize heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of PD symptoms with the goal of testing for and describing latent trajectories. Participants were 250 young adults selected into two groups using a PD screening measure: those who met diagnostic criteria for a DSM-III-R PD (PPD, n = 129), and those with few PD symptoms (NoPD, n = 121). PD symptoms were assessed three times over a four-year study using semistructured interviews. Total PD symptom counts and symptoms of each DSM-III-R PD were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. In the NoPD group, latent trajectories were characterized by stable, minor symptoms; the rapid or gradual remission of subclinical symptoms; or the emergence of symptoms of Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Paranoid PD. In the PPD group, three latent trajectories were evident: rapid symptom remission, slow symptom decline, or a relative absence of symptoms. Rapid remission of PD symptoms was associated with fewer comorbid disorders, lower negative emotionality, and greater positive emotionality and constraint, whereas emergent personality dysfunction was associated with comorbid PD symptoms and lower positive emotionality. In most cases, symptom change for one PD was associated with concomitant changes in other PDs, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. These results indicate that the longitudinal course of PD symptoms is heterogeneous, with distinct trajectories evident for both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic individuals. The prognosis of PD symptoms may be informed by an assessment of personality and comorbid psychopathology. PMID:23231459

  13. Personality disorder features as predictors of symptoms five years post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Personality disorders are associated with dysfunction in a variety of areas. Recent longitudinal research has shown that personality disorders are also predictive of problems later in life, as well as of poor response to treatment of depression and anxiety. This study assessed whether personality disorder features were associated with psychiatric symptoms in a cohort of women treated for substance abuse in Sweden. Patients were diagnosed with personality disorders using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) personality questionnaire and SCID-II interview, and were then administered a self-report questionnaire designed to measure symptoms of psychiatric illness, the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90), during and five years after treatment. Concurrently, features of all personality disorders, except histrionic, were associated with SCL-90 score. At five-year follow-up, most personality disorders remained associated with SCL-90 score, with the exception of paranoid and schizoid personality disorder. After controlling for baseline score on the SCL-90, conduct disorder, borderline personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder remained significantly associated with symptoms at follow-up. After controlling for abstinence and baseline score, only borderline personality disorder features remained associated with SCL-90 score at follow-up. Patients with personality disorders should be monitored after treatment for psychiatric symptoms.

  14. Associations Between Changes in Normal Personality Traits and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms over 16 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been significant movement toward conceptualizing borderline personality disorder (BPD) with normal personality traits. However one critical assumption underlying this transition, that longitudinal trajectories of BPD symptoms and normal traits track together, has not been tested. We evaluated the prospective longitudinal associations of changes in five-factor model traits and BPD symptoms over the course of 16 years using parallel process latent growth curve models in 362 patients with BPD (N=290) or other PDs (N=72). Moderate to strong cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were observed between BPD symptoms and Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. This study is the first to demonstrate a longitudinal link between changes in BPD symptoms and changes in traits over an extended interval in a clinical sample. These findings imply that changes in BPD symptoms occur in concert with changes in normal traits, and support the proposed transition to conceptualizing BPD, at least in part, with trait dimensions. PMID:25364942

  15. Personality disorder features as predictors of symptoms 5 years post-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats

    2008-01-01

    disorders remained associated with SCL-90 score, with the exception of paranoid and schizoid personality disorder. After controlling for baseline score on the SCL-90, conduct disorder, borderline personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder remained significantly associated with symptoms......Personality disorders are associated with dysfunction in a variety of areas. Recent longitudinal research has shown that personality disorders are also predictive of problems later in life, as well as of poor response to treatment of depression and anxiety. This study assessed whether personality...... disorder features were associated with psychiatric symptoms in a cohort of women treated for substance abuse in Sweden. Patients were diagnosed with personality disorders using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) personality questionnaire and SCID-II interview, and were then administered...

  16. The Pregnancy Obsession-Compulsion-Personality Disorder Symptom Checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, K.; Hartman, E.; Spek, V.; Bergink, V.; van Son, M.J.M.; Karreman, A.; Pop, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Up until now, very little research has been undertaken on the possible role of personality traits, such as perfectionism and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), on pregnancy distress. This is possibly due to the fact that no appropriate instruments are available for use

  17. The pregnancy obsession-compulsion-personality disorder symptom checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, K.; Hartman, E.E.; Spek, V.R.M.; Bergink, V.; van Son, M.; Karreman, A.; Pop, V.J.M.

    Background: Up until now, very little research has been undertaken on the possible role of personality traits, such as perfectionism and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), on pregnancy distress. This is possibly due to the fact that no appropriate instruments are available for use

  18. Antisocial personality disorder and borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Interactions between characteristics of bipolar and Axis II cluster B disorders are clinically and diagnostically challenging. Characteristics associated with personality disorders may be dimensional aspects of bipolar disorder. We investigated relationships among antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, and course of illness in bipolar disorder. Subjects with bipolar disorder were recruited from the community. Diagnosis was by structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and -II), psychiatric symptom assessment by the change version of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia (SADS-C), severity of Axis II symptoms by ASPD and borderline personality disorder SCID-II symptoms, and impulsivity by the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS-11). ASPD and borderline symptoms were not related to clinical state or affective symptoms. Borderline symptoms correlated with BIS-11 impulsivity scores, and predicted history of suicide attempts independently of the relationship to impulsivity. ASPD symptoms were more strongly related to course of illness, including early onset, frequent episodes, and substance-related disorders. These effects persisted after allowance for gender and substance-use disorder history. Personality disorder symptoms appear to be dimensional, trait-like characteristics of bipolar disorder. ASPD and Borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Symptoms are Differentially Related to Impulsivity and Course of Illness in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C.; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D.; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background Interactions between characteristics of bipolar and Axis II cluster B disorders are clinically and diagnostically challenging. Characteristics associated with personality disorders may be dimensional aspects of bipolar disorder. We investigated relationships among antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, and course of illness in bipolar disorder. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder were recruited from the community. Diagnosis was by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and –II), psychiatric symptom assessment by the Change version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-C), severity of axis II symptoms by ASPD and borderline personality disorder SCID-II symptoms, and impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Results ASPD and borderline symptoms were not related to clinical state or affective symptoms. Borderline symptoms correlated with BIS-11 impulsivity scores, and predicted history of suicide attempts independently of the relationship to impulsivity. ASPD symptoms were more strongly related to course of illness, including early onset, frequent episodes, and substance-related disorders. These effects persisted after allowance for gender and substance-use disorder history. Conclusions Personality disorder symptoms appear to be dimensional, trait-like characteristics of bipolar disorder. ASPD and Borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness. PMID:22835849

  20. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD…

  1. The depressive personality disorder inventory and current depressive symptoms: implications for the assessment of depressive personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jude; Huprich, Steven K

    2011-10-01

    The Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996; see Appendix) was created to assess Depressive Personality Disorder in clinical and nonclinical samples. Since its creation, the DPDI has been used in multiple studies, and the psychometric properties of the measure have generally supported its reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity; however, evidence for the measure's discriminant validity has been mixed. Specifically, the DPDI tends to correlate highly with measures of current depressive symptoms, which limits its efficacy in differentiating current depressive symptoms from a depressive personality structure. A principal components analysis of 362 individuals who completed both the DPDI and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) found that 49% of the variance was accounted for in two components. Seven items from the DPDI loaded more strongly on the first component composed of many BDI-II items. These items were removed in order to create a measure believed to assess DPD without the confounding influence of current depressive symptomology. Principal components analysis of the revised measure yielded three components, accounting for 46% of the variance. The revised DPDI was used to calculate convergent, discriminant, and construct validity coefficients from measures used in former studies. Virtually no improvement in the validity coefficients was observed. It is concluded that assessing DPD via self-report is limited in its utility.

  2. Impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder symptoms in Internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Redden, Sarah A; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E

    2017-08-01

    Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet. Adult Internet users (N = 1,323) completed an online questionnaire quantifying OCPD symptoms, likely occurrence of select mental disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], problematic Internet use, generalized anxiety disorder), and personality questionnaires of impulsivity and compulsivity. Predictors of the presence of OCPD symptoms (endorsement of at least 4 of 8 DSM-5 criteria) were identified using binary logistic regression. In regression (P OCPD symptoms were significantly associated with (in order of decreasing effect size) lower non-planning impulsivity, higher ADHD symptoms, problematic Internet use, avoidant personality disorder, female sex, generalized anxiety disorder, and some types of compulsions (checking, dressing/washing). These data suggest that OCPD symptoms, defined in terms of at least 4 of 8 DSM criteria being met, are common in Internet users. OCPD symptoms were associated with considerably higher levels of psychopathology relating to both impulsive (ADHD) and compulsive (OCD-related and problematic Internet use) disorders. These data merit replication and extension using standard in-person clinical assessments, because the current study relied on self-report over the Internet.

  3. Impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptoms in Internet users

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric W.; Redden, Sarah A.; Stein, Dan J.; Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet. Method: 1323 adult Internet users completed an online questionnaire quantifying OCPD symptoms, likely occurrence of select mental disorders (OCD, ADHD, problematic Internet use, anxiety), and personality questionnaires of impulsivity (Barratt) and compulsivity (Pad...

  4. Social function in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: Associations with personality, symptoms and neurocognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysaker Paul H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that stable individual differences in personality exist among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders predating illness onset that are linked to symptoms and self appraised quality of life. Less is known about how closely individual differences in personality are uniquely related to levels of social relationships, a domain of dysfunction in schizophrenia more often linked in the literature with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits. This study tested the hypothesis that trait levels of personality as defined using the five-factor model of personality would be linked to social function in schizophrenia. Methods A self-report measure of the five factor model of personality was gathered along with ratings of social function, symptoms and assessments of neurocognition for 65 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Results Univariate correlations and stepwise multiple regression indicated that frequency of social interaction was predicted by higher levels of the trait of Agreeableness, fewer negative symptoms, better verbal memory and at the trend level, lesser Neuroticism (R2 = .42, p 2 = .67, p Conclusions Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that person-centered variables such as personality, may account for some of the broad differences seen in outcome in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including social outcomes. One interpretation of the results of this study is that differences in personality combine with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits to affect how persons with schizophrenia are able to form and sustain social connections with others.

  5. Impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptoms in Internet users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric W.; Redden, Sarah A.; Stein, Dan J.; Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet. Method 1323 adult Internet users completed an online questionnaire quantifying OCPD symptoms, likely occurrence of select mental disorders (OCD, ADHD, problematic Internet use, anxiety), and personality questionnaires of impulsivity (Barratt) and compulsivity (Padua). Predictors of presence of OCPD symptoms (endorsement of at least 4 of 8 DSM criteria) were identified using binary logistic regression. Results In regression (pOCPD symptoms were significantly associated with (in order of decreasing effect size): lower non-planning impulsivity, higher ADHD symptoms, problematic Internet use, avoidant personality disorder, female gender, generalized anxiety disorder, and some types of compulsions (checking, dressing/washing). Conclusions These data suggest that OCPD symptoms, defined in terms of at least 4 of 8 DSM tick-list criteria being met, are common in Internet users. OCPD symptoms were associated with considerably higher levels of psychopathology relating to both impulsive (ADHD) and compulsive (OC-related and problematic Internet use) disorders. These data merit replication and extension using gold-standard in-person clinical assessments, as the current study relied on self-report over the Internet. PMID:28738097

  6. Stability of the Pregnancy Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Symptoms Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhoven, Kiki E M; Karreman, Annemiek; Hartman, Esther E; Pop, Victor J M

    2018-02-01

    Because stability over time is central to the definition of personality disorder, aim of the current study was to determine the stability of the Pregnancy Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) Symptoms Checklist (N = 199 women). Strong positive correlations between assessments at 32 weeks of pregnancy and 2 and 3-3.5 years after childbirth were found (r between .62-.72), and the group mean score did not change over time. The Pregnancy OCPD Symptoms Checklist assesses stable, trait-like symptoms of OCPD.

  7. Comparing the symptoms and mechanisms of "dissociation" in dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F; Korzekwa, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity disorder (DID), and 100 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality as having borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both groups were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients had significantly higher MID scores than BPD patients, different distributions of MID scores, and different MID subscale profiles in 3 ranges of MID scores (0-15, 15-30, 30-45). The core MID symptoms-exhibited at all ranges of MID scores-for DID patients (the presence of alters, identity confusion, and memory problems) and BPD patients (flashbacks, identity confusion, and memory problems) were ostensibly similar but were considered to be mostly produced by different underlying processes. Multiple regression analyses showed that the core MID symptoms of DID patients had different predictors than did the core MID symptoms of BPD patients. Alter identities seemed to generate most-but not all-dissociative phenomena in DID patients, whereas only the 24% highest scoring BPD patients (MID ≥45) seemed to manifest alter-driven dissociative experiences. Most BPD dissociative experiences appeared to be due to 5 other mechanisms: (a) BPD-specific, stress-driven, rapid shifts of self-state; (b and c) nondefensive disruptions of the framework of perceptual organization with or without an accompanying BPD-specific, dissociation-like disintegration of affective/neurocognitive functioning; (d) a defensive distancing or detachment from distress (i.e., simple depersonalization); and (e) Allen, Console, and Lewis's (1999) severe absorptive detachment.

  8. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a genetic analysis of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Marijn A; Carlier, Angela; Middeldorp, Christel M; Derom, Catherine A; Lubke, Gitta H; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not yet at the genetic level. The present study investigates the genetic and environmental contributions to the association between borderline personality traits (BPT) and ADHD symptoms in a sample of 7,233 twins and siblings (aged 18-90 years) registered with the Netherlands Twin Register and the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS) . Participants completed the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS-S:SV) and the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale (PAI-BOR). A bivariate genetic analysis was performed to determine the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence variation in BPT and ADHD symptoms and the covariance between them. The heritability of BPT and ADHD symptoms was estimated at 45 and 36%, respectively. The remaining variance in BPT and ADHD symptoms was explained by unique environmental influences. The phenotypic correlation between BPT and ADHD symptoms was estimated at r = 0.59, and could be explained for 49% by genetic factors and 51% by environmental factors. The genetic and environmental correlations between BPT and ADHD symptoms were 0.72 and 0.51, respectively. The shared etiology between BPT and ADHD symptoms is thus a likely cause for the comorbidity of the two disorders. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine used by persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders to alleviate symptom distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake-Nilsson, Kerstin; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Unge, Peter; Wengström, Yvonne

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the complementary and alternative medicine methods most commonly used to alleviate symptom distress in persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders. People with functional gastrointestinal disorders face many challenges in their everyday lives, and each individual has his/her own way of dealing with this illness. The experience of illness often leads persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders to complementary and alternative medicine as a viable healthcare choice. Quantitative and describing design. A study-specific complementary and alternative medicine questionnaire was used, including questions about complementary and alternative medicine methods used and the perceived effects of each method. Efficacy assessments for each method were preventive effect, partial symptom relief, total symptom relief or no effect. A total of 137 persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders answered the questionnaire, 62% (n = 85) women and 38% (n = 52) men. A total of 28 different complementary and alternative medicine methods were identified and grouped into four categories: nutritional, drug/biological, psychological activity and physical activity. All persons had tried at least one method, and most methods provided partial symptom relief. Persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders commonly use complementary and alternative medicine methods to alleviate symptoms. Nurses have a unique opportunity to expand their roles in this group of patients. Increased knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine practices would enable a more comprehensive patient assessment and a better plan for meaningful interventions that meet the needs of individual patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics

  11. Temperament and personal character relationship with symptoms of schizophrenia disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abolghasemi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge is limited concerning the role of temperament and character factors on schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that dimensions of temperament and character influence symptoms and functions in schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between temperament and character with positive and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: The research sample consisted of 100 men which were randomly selected from schizophrenia patients with positive and negative symptoms at Razi hospital in Tabriz. Temperament and character inventory and positive and negative symptoms scale were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using t-test and discriminate analyses. Results: The research findings showed that patients with schizophrenia with negative symptoms had higher levels of self– transcendence and harm avoidance. However, patients with schizophrenia with positive symptoms had higher levels of cooperativeness. The results of discriminate analysis showed that explained 37 percent of variance of self– transcendence, harm avoidance and cooperativeness for only function between groups of schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms. Discriminate function obtained was classified correctly by stepwise method 68.3 percent schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms.Conclusion: It can be concluded that self– transcendence, harm avoidance and cooperativeness discriminated the patients with schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms. The study confirmed important implications about intensity of symptomology and early intervention for patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD share clinical features of impulsivity, poor self-regulation, and executive dysfunction, while ODD and BPD share features of anger and interpersonal turmoil. The study is based on annual, longitudinal data from the two oldest cohorts in the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 1233). We used piecewise latent growth curve models of ADHD and ODD scores from age 8–10 and 10–13 years to examine the prospective associations between dual trajectories of ADHD and ODD symptom severity and later BPD symptoms at age 14 in girls. To examine the specificity of these associations, we also included conduct disorder (CD) and depression symptom severity at age 14 as additional outcomes. We found that higher levels of ADHD and ODD scores at age 8 uniquely predicted BPD symptoms at age 14. Additionally, the rate of growth in ADHD scores from age 10–13 and the rate of growth in ODD scores from 8–10 uniquely predicted higher BPD symptoms at age 14. This study adds to the literature on the early development of BPD by providing the first longitudinal study to examine ADHD and ODD symptom trajectories as specific childhood precursors of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls. PMID:21671009

  13. White matter integrity and its association with affective and interpersonal symptoms in borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Whalley, Heather C; Nickson, Thomas; Pope, Merrick; Nicol, Katie; Romaniuk, Liana; Bastin, Mark E; Semple, Scott I; McIntosh, Andrew M; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: \\ud \\ud Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder involving a range of symptoms including marked affective instability and disturbances in interpersonal interactions. Neuroimaging studies are beginning to provide evidence of altered processing in fronto-limbic network deficits in the disorder, however, few studies directly examine structural connections within this circuitry together with their relation to proposed causative processes and clinical feat...

  14. Personality, Attentional Biases towards Emotional Faces and Symptoms of Mental Disorders in an Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Pihl, Robert O; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of personality factors and attentional biases towards emotional faces, in establishing concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorder diagnosis in adolescence. Data were obtained as part of the IMAGEN study, conducted across 8 European sites, with a community sample of 2257 adolescents. At 14 years, participants completed an emotional variant of the dot-probe task, as well two personality measures, namely the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. At 14 and 16 years, participants and their parents were interviewed to determine symptoms of mental disorders. Personality traits were general and specific risk indicators for mental disorders at 14 years. Increased specificity was obtained when investigating the likelihood of mental disorders over a 2-year period, with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale showing incremental validity over the NEO Personality Inventory. Attentional biases to emotional faces did not characterise or predict mental disorders examined in the current sample. Personality traits can indicate concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorders in a community youth sample, and identify at-risk youth beyond the impact of baseline symptoms. This study does not support the hypothesis that attentional biases mediate the relationship between personality and psychopathology in a community sample. Task and sample characteristics that contribute to differing results among studies are discussed.

  15. Hypomanic symptoms predict an increase in narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder features in suicidal young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Golan; Scotti, Margaret-Ann; Rudd, M David; Joiner, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with the "scar hypothesis", according to which mood depression might impact personality, we examined the effect of unipolar and hypomanic mood disturbances on cluster B (i.e., narcissistic, histrionic, and borderline) personality disorder features. Data from 113 suicidal young adults were utilized, and cross-lagged associations between unipolar and hypomanic mood disturbances and cluster B personality disorder features were examined using manifest-variable structural equation modeling (SEM). Hypomanic symptoms predicted an increase in narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder features over the Time 1-Time 2 period, as well as an increase in narcissistic personality disorder features over the Time 1-Time 3 period. Unipolar depressive symptoms and borderline features were reciprocally and longitudinally associated, albeit at different time periods. The sample distinct features restrict generalization of the findings. An exclusive use of self-report measures might have contributed to shared method variance. Results are consistent with the notion that hypomanic symptoms increase narcissistic personality disorder tendencies. Depression and Anxiety, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Premenstrual mood symptoms: study of familiality and personality correlates in mood disorder pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer L; Klein, Sarah R; Zamoiski, Rachel B; Zandi, Peter P; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Mackinnon, Dean F; Mondimore, Francis M; Schweizer, Barbara; Swartz, Karen L; Crowe, Raymond P; Scheftner, William A; Weissman, Myrna M; Levinson, Douglas F; DePaulo, J Raymond; Potash, James B

    2009-02-01

    We sought to determine whether premenstrual mood symptoms exhibit familial aggregation in bipolar disorder or major depression pedigrees. Two thousand eight hundred seventy-six women were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies as part of either the NIMH Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder Collaborative study or the Genetics of Early Onset Major Depression (GenRED) study and asked whether they had experienced severe mood symptoms premenstrually. In families with two or more female siblings with bipolar disorder (BP) or major depressive disorder (MDD), we examined the odds of having premenstrual mood symptoms given one or more siblings with these symptoms. For the GenRED MDD sample we also assessed the impact of personality as measured by the NEO-FFI. Premenstrual mood symptoms did not exhibit familial aggregation in families with BP or MDD. We unexpectedly found an association between high NEO openness scores and premenstrual mood symptoms, but neither this factor, nor NEO neuroticism influenced evidence for familial aggregation of symptoms. Limitations include the retrospective interview, the lack of data on premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and the inability to control for factors such as medication use.

  17. The Course and Psychosocial Correlates of Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence: Erikson's Developmental Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Thomas N.; Cohen, Patricia; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Sneed, Joel R.; Brook, Judith S.

    2004-01-01

    Personality disorder symptoms were investigated in a community sample of young people (n = 714) to assess their relationship over time with well-being during adolescence and the emergence of intimacy in early adulthood. Drawing on Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, changes in adolescent well-being were conceptualized as indirect…

  18. Prospective Associations among Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms, Interpersonal Problems, and Aggressive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Zalewski, Maureen; Hallquist, Michael N; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, major gains toward understanding the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) pathology, which is typically first noted during adolescence, have been made. Simultaneously, a profound shift has occurred in the adult personality pathology literature, in which empirical evidence rebuts the idea that personality disorders (PDs) are intractable disorders that do not develop or otherwise change over time, and therefore cannot be treated. The present study addresses a gap in our understanding of within-person change in BPD symptoms across adolescence and contributes to the limited literature on outcomes associated with adolescent BPD. Using an at-risk community sample of girls (N = 2,450), the authors used bivariate latent growth curve models to analyze the codevelopment of BPD symptoms with eight domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., academic achievement, social skills, sexual behavior) across ages 14-17. Findings revealed moderate to strong effect sizes for the associations between BPD symptoms and every domain of psychosocial functioning, suggesting that the development of BPD was coupled with poorer outcomes across development. Controlling for depression and conduct disorder features revealed unique associations between BPD and self-perception, social skills, and sexual behavior. These results highlight the increased need for extending advancements in the adult PD literature to research on PDs in adolescence, and for greater recognition of adolescent BPD in clinical settings.

  20. Relations among symptoms of social phobia subtypes, avoidant personality disorder, panic, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shawn A; Wu, Kevin D

    2010-03-01

    This study's primary goal was to examine relations between symptoms of specific social phobia (SSP), generalized social phobia (GSP), avoidant personality disorder (APD), and panic and depression. Past research has suggested a single social phobia continuum in which SSP displays less symptom severity than GSP or APD. We found SSP symptoms correlated less strongly with depression but more strongly with panic relative to both GSP and APD symptoms. These findings challenge a unidimensional model of social phobia, suggesting a multidimensional model may be more appropriate. These findings also inform current research aimed at classifying mood and anxiety disorders more broadly by identifying that the different factors of fear versus distress appear to underlie different subtypes of social phobia. 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on the codevelopment among borderline personality disorder traits, major depression symptoms, and substance use disorder symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Verhulst, Brad; Webber, Troy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Hicks, Brian M

    2018-02-01

    Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits decline from adolescence to adulthood, comorbid psychopathology such as symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug use disorders (DUDs) likely disrupt this normative decline. Using a longitudinal sample of female twins (N = 1,763), we examined if levels of BPD traits were correlated with changes in MDD, AUD, and DUD symptoms from ages 14 to 24. A parallel process biometric latent growth model examined the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the relationships between developmental components of these phenotypes. Higher BPD trait levels predicted a greater rate of increase in AUD and DUD symptoms, and higher AUD and DUD symptoms predicted a slower rate of decline of BPD traits from ages 14 to 24. Common genetic influences accounted for the associations between BPD traits and each disorder, as well as the interrelationships of AUD and DUD symptoms. Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for the correlated levels between BPD traits and MDD symptoms, but solely environmental influences accounted for the correlated changes between the two over time. Results indicate that higher levels of BPD traits may contribute to an earlier onset and faster escalation of AUD and DUD symptoms, and substance use problems slow the normative decline in BPD traits. Overall, our data suggests that primarily genetic influences contribute to the comorbidity between BPD features and substance use disorder symptoms. We discuss our data in the context of two major theories of developmental psychopathology and comorbidity.

  2. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Co-development between Borderline Personality Disorder Traits, Major Depression Symptoms, and Substance Use Disorder Symptoms from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Verhulst, Brad; Webber, Troy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Hicks, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits decline from adolescence to adulthood, comorbid psychopathology such as symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug use disorders (DUDs) likely disrupt this normative decline. Using a longitudinal sample of female twins (N = 1,763), we examined if levels of BPD traits were correlated with changes in MDD, AUD, and DUD symptoms from ages 14–24. A parallel process biometric latent growth model examined the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the relationships between developmental components of these phenotypes. Higher BPD trait-levels predicted a greater rate of increase in AUD and DUD symptoms, and higher AUD and DUD symptoms predicted a slower rate of decline of BPD traits from ages 14–24. Common genetic influences accounted for the associations between BPD traits and each disorder, as well as the interrelationships of AUD and DUD symptoms. Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for the correlated levels between BPD traits and MDD symptoms, but solely environmental influences accounted for the correlated changes between the two over time. Results indicate that higher levels of BPD traits may contribute to an earlier onset and faster escalation of AUD and DUD symptoms, and substance use problems slow the normative decline in BPD traits. Overall, our data suggests that primarily genetic influences contribute to the comorbidity between BPD features and substance use disorder symptoms. We discuss our data in the context of two major theories of developmental psychopathology and comorbidity. PMID:28420454

  3. Personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments....... Patient characteristics included measures of symptom severity, personality pathology, trauma and socio-demographic characteristics. Significance testing and binary regression analysis were applied to identify important predictors. RESULTS: Patient characteristics on fifteen variables differed...

  4. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders in Adults Data Sources Share Personality Disorders Definitions Personality disorders represent “an enduring pattern of inner ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  5. Exercise addiction: a study of eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinky

    2014-02-28

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms predict frontal EEG asymmetry in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Flasbeck, Vera; Schlegel, Uwe; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2018-03-15

    Frontal EEG asymmetry (FEA) has been studied as both state and trait parameter in emotion regulation and affective disorders. Its significance in borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains largely unknown. Twenty-six BPD patients and 26 healthy controls underwent EEG before and after mood induction using aversive images. A slight but significant shift from left- to right-sided asymmetry over prefrontal electrodes occurred across all subjects. In BPD baseline FEA over F7 and F8 correlated significantly with childhood trauma and functional neurological "conversion" symptoms as assessed by respective questionnaires. Regression analysis revealed a predictive role of both childhood trauma and dissociative neurological symptoms. FEA offers a relatively stable electrophysiological correlate of BPD psychopathology that responds only minimally to acute mood changes. Future studies should address whether this psychophysiological association is universal for trauma- and dissociation-related disorders, and whether it is responsive to psychotherapy.

  7. Stability and Change in Personality Disorder Symptoms in 1-Year Follow-up of Depressed Adolescent Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Pankakoski, Maiju; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2017-01-01

    We investigated stability and change in personality disorder (PD) symptoms and whether depression severity, comorbid clinical psychiatric disorders, and social support predict changes in personality pathology among adolescent outpatients. The 1-year outcome of PD symptoms among consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients with depressive disorders (N = 189) was investigated with symptom count of depression, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and perceived social support as predictors. An overall decrease in PD symptoms in most PD categories was observed. Decreases in depression severity and in number of comorbid diagnoses correlated positively with decreases in PD symptoms of most PD categories. Social support from close friends predicted a decrease in schizotypal and narcissistic, whereas support from family predicted a decrease in paranoid symptoms. Our results suggest that among depressed adolescent outpatients, PD symptoms are relatively unstable, changes co-occuring with changes/improvement in overall psychopathology. Social support seems a possibly effective point for intervention efforts regarding positive outcome of PD symptoms.

  8. A Contingency-Oriented Approach to Understanding Borderline Personality Disorder: Situational Triggers and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskewicz, Kelly; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Law, Mary Kate; Mneimne, Malek; Furr, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article tested a contingency-oriented perspective to examine the dynamic relationships between in-the-moment borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptom events and in-the-moment triggers. An experience sampling study with 282 adults, including 77 participants with BPD, obtained reports of situational triggers and BPD symptom events five times daily for two weeks. Triggers included being rejected, betrayed, abandoned, offended, disappointed, having one’s self-concept threatened, being in a boring situation, and being alone. BPD was associated with increased situational triggers. Multilevel models revealed significant within-person associations between situational triggers and BPD symptoms for the average participant in the study, with significant individual variance in the strength and direction of trigger-symptom contingencies. Most trigger-symptom contingencies were stronger for individuals with higher borderline symptomatology, suggesting that triggers are meaningfully related to BPD. These findings highlight possible proximal mechanisms that maintain BPD and help explain the course of a disorder often described as chaotic and unpredictable. PMID:26200848

  9. Links Among High EPDS Scores, State of Mind Regarding Attachment, and Symptoms of Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Steele, Howard; Mehlhase, Heike; Cordes, Katharina; Steele, Miriam; Harder, Susanne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard

    2015-12-01

    Underlying persistent psychological difficulties have been found to moderate potential adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) on parenting and infant development. The authors examined whether mothers presenting postpartum depressive symptoms showed higher levels of personality pathology and more insecure state of mind regarding attachment compared to nondepressed mothers. Participants (N = 85) were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Present State Examination, the Adult Attachment Interview, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II. Mothers with high EPDS scores were more likely to have a preoccupied insecure state of mind and to have personality disorder compared with mothers scoring below clinical cutoff. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that personality disorder and AAI classification were independently related to EPDS score, and that these two factors together accounted for 48% of the variance in EPDS score. Findings are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in PPD populations and underline the importance of examining potential coexisting psychological difficulties when studying PPD.

  10. Avoidant Personality Disorder Symptoms in First-Degree Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients Predict Performance on Neurocognitive Measures: The UCLA Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Asarnow, R. A.; Sugar, C. A.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K. C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.; Kuppinger, H.; Nuechterlein, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Whether avoidant personality disorder symptoms are related to neurocognitive impairments that aggregate in relatives of schizophrenics is unknown. We report the relationship between avoidant personality disorder symptoms and neurocognitive performance in the first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia.

  11. Reciprocal effects of parenting and borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Whalen, Diana J; Scott, Lori N; Zalewski, Maureen; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E

    2014-05-01

    Theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) postulate that high-risk transactions between caregiver and child are important for the development and maintenance of the disorder. Little empirical evidence exists regarding the reciprocal effects of parenting on the development of BPD symptoms in adolescence. The impact of child and caregiver characteristics on this reciprocal relationship is also unknown. Thus, the current study examines bidirectional effects of parenting, specifically harsh punishment practices and caregiver low warmth, and BPD symptoms in girls aged 14-17 years based on annual, longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 2,451) in the context of child and caregiver characteristics. We examined these associations through the use of autoregressive latent trajectory models to differentiate time-specific variations in BPD symptoms and parenting from the stable processes that steadily influence repeated measures within an individual. The developmental trajectories of BPD symptoms and parenting were moderately associated, suggesting a reciprocal relationship. There was some support for time-specific elevations in BPD symptoms predicting subsequent increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth. There was little support for increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth predicting subsequent elevations in BPD symptoms. Child impulsivity and negative affectivity, and caregiver psychopathology were related to parenting trajectories, while only child characteristics predicted BPD trajectories. The results highlight the stability of the reciprocal associations between parenting and BPD trajectories in adolescent girls and add to our understanding of the longitudinal course of BPD in youth.

  12. Reciprocal- effects of parenting and borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Whalen, Diana J.; Scott, Lori N.; Zalewski, Maureen; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    Theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) postulate that high-risk transactions between caregiver and child are important for the development and maintenance of the disorder. Little empirical evidence exists regarding the reciprocal effects of parenting on the development of BPD symptoms in adolescence. The impact of child and caregiver characteristics on this reciprocal relationship is also unknown. Thus, the current study examines bidirectional effects of parenting, specifically harsh punishment practices and caregiver low warmth, and BPD symptoms in girls aged 14–17 years based on annual, longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 2,451) in the context of child and caregiver characteristics. We examined these associations through the use of autoregressive latent trajectory models to differentiate time-specific variations in BPD symptoms and parenting from the stable processes that steadily influence repeated measures within an individual. The developmental trajectories of BPD symptoms and parenting were moderately associated, suggesting a reciprocal relationship. There was some support for time-specific elevations in BPD symptoms predicting subsequent increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth. There was little support for increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth predicting subsequent elevations in BPD symptoms. Child impulsivity and negative affectivity, and caregiver psychopathology were related to parenting trajectories, while only child characteristics predicted BPD trajectories. The results highlight the stability of the reciprocal associations between parenting and BPD trajectories in adolescent girls and add to our understanding of the longitudinal course of BPD in youth. PMID:24443951

  13. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A genetic analysis of comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Carlier, A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Derom, C.A.; Lubke, G.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not

  14. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a genetic analysis of comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, Marijn A.; Carlier, Angela; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not

  15. Negative emotional reactivity as a marker of vulnerability in the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Scott, Lori N; Jones, Neil P; Whalen, Diana J; Hipwell, Alison E

    2016-02-01

    Negative emotionality is a distinguishing feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, this person-level characteristic has not been examined as a marker of vulnerability in the development of this disorder. The current study utilized a multimethod approach to examine the interplay between negative emotional reactivity and cumulative exposure to family adversity on the development of BPD symptoms across 3 years (ages 16-18) in a diverse, at-risk sample of adolescent girls (N = 113). A latent variable of negative emotional reactivity was created from multiple assessments at age 16: self-report, emotion ratings to stressors from ecological assessments across 1 week, and observer-rated negative affectivity during a mother-daughter conflict discussion task. Exposure to family adversity was measured cumulatively between ages 5 and 16 from annual assessments of family poverty, single parent household, and difficult life circumstances. The results from latent growth curve models demonstrated a significant interaction between negative emotional reactivity and family adversity, such that exposure to adversity strengthened the association between negative emotional reactivity and BPD symptoms. In addition, family adversity predicted increasing BPD symptoms during late adolescence. These findings highlight negative emotional reactivity as a marker of vulnerability that ultimately increases risk for the development of BPD symptoms.

  16. Negative emotional reactivity as a marker of vulnerability in the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Scott, Lori N.; Jones, Neil P.; Whalen, Diana J.; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Negative emotionality is a distinguishing feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, this person-level characteristic has not been examined as a marker of vulnerability in the development of this disorder. The current study utilized a multi-method approach to examine the interplay between negative emotional reactivity and cumulative exposure to family adversity on the development of BPD symptoms across three years (ages 16–18) in a diverse, at-risk sample of adolescent girls (N=113). A latent variable of negative emotional reactivity was created from multiple assessments at age 16: (1) self-report, (2) emotion ratings to stressors from ecological assessments across one week, and (3) observer-rated negative affectivity during a mother-daughter conflict discussion task. Exposure to family adversity was measured cumulatively between ages 5 and 16 from annual assessments of family poverty, single parent household, and difficult life circumstances. Results from latent growth curve models demonstrated a significant interaction between negative emotional reactivity and family adversity, such that exposure to adversity strengthened the association between negative emotional reactivity and BPD symptoms. Additionally, family adversity predicted increasing BPD symptoms during late adolescence. These findings highlight negative emotional reactivity as a marker of vulnerability that ultimately increases risk for the development of BPD symptoms. PMID:25925083

  17. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  18. Emotional Awareness Moderates the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-07-01

    To examine pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD), focusing on childhood abuse and emotional attention and clarity. Among 293 community residents (mean age = 43.1; 53.9% female), measured associations between the BPD symptom factors of disturbed relatedness, affective dysregulation, and behavioral dysregulation and (a) childhood abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual); (b) emotional attention and clarity; and (c) negative affect, using structured interviews, the Schedule for Non-Adaptive and Adaptive Personality-2, the Trait Meta Mood Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, respectively. All forms of childhood abuse were associated with BPD symptom factors. Emotional attention and clarity moderated the effects of childhood physical and emotional abuse on behavioral dysregulation and disturbed relatedness. All results held when controlling for negative affect. The relations between childhood abuse and BPD are robust. Emotional attention and clarity may help elucidate the links between childhood abuse and BPD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Somatic symptom disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . ...

  20. Characterizing Positive and Negative Emotional Experiences in Young Adults With Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carol; Victor, Sarah E; Klonsky, E David

    2016-09-01

    Some researchers suggest that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by elevated negative emotion; others argue that BPD involves both reduced positive and increased negative emotion. This study characterizes the emotional experiences of individuals with BPD symptoms in a combined university and community sample. Participants (N = 150) completed a clinical interview assessing BPD symptoms and self-report measures of positive and negative emotion. A subset (n = 106) completed a measure of emotion daily for 2 weeks. Pearson's correlations and multilevel modeling were used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between BPD symptoms and emotions. BPD symptoms were robustly related to increased negative emotion; this relationship remained after accounting for positive emotion. BPD symptoms were weakly related to decreased positive emotion; this relationship was no longer significant after accounting for negative emotion. BPD symptoms predicted higher levels of negative and not positive emotion over 14 days. These patterns held for subscales assessing intensity, frequency, and duration of negative and positive emotions. Findings suggest that individuals with BPD features are chiefly distinguished by elevated negative emotional experience. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pupillary and affective responses to maternal feedback and the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E; Jones, Neil P; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2017-08-01

    Etiological models propose that a biological vulnerability to emotional reactivity plays an important role in the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the physiological and phenomenological components of emotional reactivity that predict the course of BPD symptoms in adolescence are poorly understood. This prospective study examines pupillary and affective responses to maternal feedback as predictors of BPD symptom development in adolescent girls over 18 months. Fifty-seven 16-year-old girls completed a laboratory task in which they heard recorded clips of their own mothers making critical or praising statements about them, as well as neutral statements that did not pertain to them. Changes in girls' pupil dilation and subjective affect were assessed throughout the task. The results demonstrated that greater pupillary response to maternal criticism predicted increases in BPD symptoms over time. In addition, greater pupillary and positive affective responses to maternal praise were associated with higher BPD symptoms at age 16 and faster decreases in BPD symptoms over time, but only among girls who heard clips that were rated by independent observers as less praising. The results suggest that emotional reactivity can serve as either a risk or a protective factor depending on context, with differential effects of reactivity to criticism versus praise.

  2. Predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescents from childhood physical and relational aggression, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Boylan, Khrista; Duku, Eric; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood physical and relational aggression with symptoms of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; assessed at ages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) to borderline personality disorder (BPD) features (assessed at age 14) were examined in a community sample of 484 youth. Results indicated that, when controlling for within-time covariance and across-time stability in the examination of cross-lagged relations among study variables, BPD features at age 14 were predicted by childhood relational aggression and symptoms of depression for boys, and physical and relational aggression, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of ADHD for girls. Moreover, for boys BPD features were predicted from age 10 ADHD through age 12 depression, whereas for girls the pathway to elevated BPD features at age 14 was from depression at age 10 through physical aggression symptoms at age 12. Controlling for earlier associations among variables, we found that for girls the strongest predictor of BPD features at age 14 was physical aggression, whereas for boys all the risk indicators shared a similar predictive impact. This study adds to the growing literature showing that physical and relational aggression ought to be considered when examining early precursors of BPD features.

  3. Childhood Familial Environment, Maltreatment and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Non-Clinical Sample: A Cognitive Behavioural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Steven; Francis, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to determine if cognitive beliefs and schemas mediated the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood events and adult borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and seventy-eight non-clinical participants completed questionnaires measuring BPD symptoms, core beliefs,…

  4. Dimensions of personality pathology in adolescents: Relations to DSM-IV personality disorder symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, N.B.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate and compare two approaches to personality pathology in adolescents. Dimensions of personality pathology, assessed by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents (DAPP-BQ-A; Tromp & Koot, 2008), were related to

  5. Longitudinal transmission pathways of borderline personality disorder symptoms: from mother to child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinelt, Eva; Stopsack, Malte; Aldinger, Maren; Ulrich, Ines; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Barnow, Sven

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that the borderline symptomatology of the mother longitudinally predicts the number of borderline criteria met by the children. However, possible underlying mechanisms have rarely been examined. In line with transactional models of borderline personality disorder (BPD), we analyzed a broad concept of maladaptive mother-child interactions of mothers with BPD symptoms towards their children, including insensitive parenting and mother-child discrepancies, in reporting the child's psychopathological behavior. SAMPLING/METHODS: The sample was drawn from the population-based Greifswald Family Study and consisted of 295 children and their biological mothers. Both were examined at two points in time, first when the children were about 15 years old (T0) and again 5 years later (T1), using path analyses. Maladaptive mother-child interactions (especially an overprotective and rejecting parenting style and high discrepancies regarding internalizing problems) mediate the longitudinal transmission of borderline symptoms from mother to child. Furthermore, our data revealed that this result is consistent for various youth symptoms which are associated with BPD such as impulsivity or dissociation. The data of the current study imply that the transmission of borderline symptoms from mother to child is mediated by maladaptive mother-child interactions. For this reason early and professional support may be useful to prevent these children from developing severe psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Significance of borderline personality-spectrum symptoms among adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, Trehani M; Swampillai, Brenda; Timmins, Vanessa; Scavone, Antonette; Mitchell, Rachel; Collinger, Katelyn A; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding correlates of borderline personality-spectrum symptoms (BPSS) among adolescents with bipolar disorder (BP). Participants were 90 adolescents, 13-19 years of age, who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria for BP using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. BPSS status was ascertained using the Life Problems Inventory which assessed identity confusion, interpersonal problems, impulsivity, and emotional lability. Analyses compared adolescents with "high" versus "low" BPSS based on a median split. Participants with high, relative to low, BPSS were younger, and had greater current and past depressive episode severity, greater current hypo/manic episode severity, younger age of depression onset, and reduced global functioning. High BPSS participants were more likely to have BP-II, and had higher rates of social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, homicidal ideation, assault of others, non-suicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation, and physical abuse. Despite greater illness burden, high BPSS participants reported lower rates of lithium use. The most robust independent predictors of high BPSS, identified in multivariate analyses, included lifetime social phobia, non-suicidal self-injury, reduced global functioning, and conduct and/or oppositional defiant disorder. The study design is cross-sectional and cannot determine causality. High BPSS were associated with greater mood symptom burden and functional impairment. Presence of high BPSS among BP adolescents may suggest the need to modify clinical monitoring and treatment practices. Future prospective studies are needed to examine the direction of observed associations, the effect of treatment on BPSS, and the effect of BPSS as a moderator or predictor of treatment response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality disorder symptom severity predicts onset of mood episodes and conversion to bipolar I disorder in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tommy H; Burke, Taylor A; Stange, Jonathan P; Walshaw, Patricia D; Weiss, Rachel B; Urosevic, Snezana; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-04-01

    Although personality disorders (PDs) are highly comorbid with bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs), little longitudinal research has been conducted to examine the prospective impact of PD symptoms on the course of BSDs. The aim of this study is to examine whether PD symptom severity predicts shorter time to onset of bipolar mood episodes and conversion to bipolar I disorder over time among individuals with less severe BSDs. Participants (n = 166) with bipolar II disorder, cyclothymia, or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified completed diagnostic interview assessments of PD symptoms and self-report measures of mood symptoms at baseline. They were followed prospectively with diagnostic interviews every 4 months for an average of 3.02 years. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses indicated that overall PD symptom severity significantly predicted shorter time to onset of hypomanic (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; p conversion to bipolar I disorder (HR = 2.51; p conversion to bipolar I disorder (HR = 2.77; p < .001), whereas cluster C severity (HR = 1.56; p < .001) predicted shorter time to onset of major depressive episodes. These results support predisposition models in suggesting that PD symptoms may act as a risk factor for a more severe course of BSDs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Insights Into Aspects Behind Internet-Related Disorders in Adolescents: The Interplay of Personality and Symptoms of Adjustment Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai W; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Stark, Birgit; Quiring, Oliver; Aufenanger, Stefan; Schemer, Christian; Weber, Mathias; Reinecke, Leonard

    2018-02-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) that has recently been referred to as Internet-related disorder is a growing health concern. Yet, it is unclear why some adolescents are developing problematic use, whereas others sustain control. Based on previous research, we hypothesize that personality traits (low conscientiousness and high neuroticism) act as predispositions for PIU. We further hypothesize that PIU can be understood as a maladaptive reaction toward critical life events and that these maladaptive reactions are exacerbated by dysfunctional personality traits. The study investigates the prevalence of distinct subtypes of PIU among a sample of adolescents (n = 1,489; 10-17 years). Personality traits (Big Five Inventory-10 [BFI-10]), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale 4 [PSS-4]), and their relations to PIU (Scale for the Assessment of Internet and Computer Game Addiction [AICA-S]) were examined. As novel research questions, associations between PIU and adjustment disorders (Adjustment Disorder-New Module [ADNM]-6) and the mediating role of personality were investigated. The prevalence of PIU was 2.5%; girls (3.0%) were more often affected than boys (1.9%). Social networking sites in girls and online games in boys were most often associated with PIU. Low conscientiousness and high neuroticism generally predicted PIU. Significantly more adolescents with PIU (70%) reported critical life events compared with those without PIU (42%). PIU was related to heightened stress and higher adjustment disorder symptoms. These associations were exacerbated by conscientiousness and neuroticism. Although the overall prevalence for PIU is in line with previous studies, it appeared unexpectedly that girls were affected more often than boys. Adjustment disorders and stress showed strong associations with PIU. This bears implications for adapting etiopathological assumptions and early intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

  9. Associations of emotional arousal, dissociation and symptom severity with operant conditioning in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Christian; Hoesterey, Steffen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-10-30

    Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display altered evaluations regarding reward and punishment compared to others. The processing of rewards is basal for operant conditioning. However, studies addressing operant conditioning in BPD patients are rare. In the current study, an operant conditioning task combining learning acquisition and reversal was used. BPD patients and matched healthy controls (HCs) were exposed to aversive and neutral stimuli to assess the influence of emotion on learning. Picture content, dissociation, aversive tension and symptom severity were rated. Error rates were measured. Results showed no group interactions between aversive versus neutral scenes. The higher emotional arousal, dissociation and tension, the worse the acquisition, but not reversal, scores were for BPD patients. Scores from the Borderline Symptom List were associated with more errors in the reversal, but not the acquisition phase. The results are preliminary evidence for impaired acquisition learning due to increased emotional arousal, dissociation and tension in BPD patients. A failure to process punishment in the reversal phase was associated with symptom severity and may be related to neuropsychological dysfunctioning involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conclusions are limited due to the correlational study design and the small sample size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining sex differences in DSM-IV-TR narcissistic personality disorder symptom expression using Item Response Theory (IRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertel, Nicolas; Peyre, Hugo; Lavaud, Pierre; Blanco, Carlos; Guerin-Langlois, Christophe; René, Margaux; Schuster, Jean-Pierre; Lemogne, Cédric; Delorme, Richard; Limosin, Frédéric

    2017-12-14

    The limited published literature on the subject suggests that there may be differences in how females and males experience narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) symptoms. The aim of this study was to use methods based on item response theory to examine whether, when equating for levels of NPD symptom severity, there are sex differences in the likelihood of reporting DSM-IV-TR NPD symptoms. We conducted these analyses using a large, nationally representative sample from the USA (n=34,653), the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). There were statistically and clinically significant sex differences for 2 out of the 9 DSM-IV-TR NPD symptoms. We found that males were more likely to endorse the item 'lack of empathy' at lower levels of narcissistic personality disorder severity than females. The item 'being envious' was a better indicator of NPD severity in males than in females. There were no clinically significant sex differences on the remaining NPD symptoms. Overall, our findings indicate substantial sex differences in narcissistic personality disorder symptom expression. Although our results may reflect sex-bias in diagnostic criteria, they are consistent with recent views suggesting that narcissistic personality disorder may be underpinned by shared and sex-specific mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Resilience linked to personality dimensions, alexithymia and affective symptoms in motor functional neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilianhasanpour, Rozita; Williams, Benjamin; Gilman, Isabelle; Burke, Matthew J; Glass, Sean; Fricchione, Gregory L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; LaFrance, W Curt; Perez, David L

    2018-04-01

    Reduced resilience, a construct associated with maladaptive stress coping and a predisposing vulnerability for Functional Neurological Disorders (FND), has been under-studied compared to other neuropsychiatric factors in FND. This prospective case-control study investigated self-reported resilience in patients with FND compared to controls and examined relationships between resilience and affective symptoms, personality traits, alexithymia, health status and adverse life event burden. 50 individuals with motor FND and 47 healthy controls participated. A univariate test followed by a logistic regression analysis investigated group-level differences in Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) scores. For within-group analyses performed separately in patients with FND and controls, univariate screening tests followed by multivariate linear regression analyses examined factors associated with self-reported resilience. Adjusting for age, gender, education status, ethnicity and lifetime adverse event burden, patients with FND reported reduced resilience compared to controls. Within-group analyses in patients with FND showed that individual-differences in mental health, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness positively correlated with CD-RISC scores; post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depression, anxiety, alexithymia and neuroticism scores negatively correlated with CD-RISC scores. Extraversion independently predicted resilience scores in patients with FND. In control subjects, univariate associations were appreciated between CD-RISC scores and gender, personality traits, anxiety, alexithymia and physical health; conscientiousness independently predicted resilience in controls. Patients with FND reported reduced resilience, and CD-RISC scores covaried with other important predisposing vulnerabilities for the development of FND. Future research should investigate if the CD-RISC is predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with FND. Copyright

  12. Characterizing adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and comorbid borderline personality disorder: ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, G K; McHugh, L; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize adults with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) with regard to ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors. A between-group design compared a group of individuals diagnosed with ADHD (n=40) with a group diagnosed with BPD and who also met the criteria for ADHD (ADHD+BPD) (n=20). Significant differences were observed for both childhood and current impulsivity symptoms, whereby ADHD+BPD exhibited increased impulsivity; no differences on self-report and cognitive measures of impulsivity were reported. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly higher on measures of depression, anxiety and numerous other axis I and II conditions. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly lower on most measures of intellectual functioning and attention, however largely not on those relating to response inhibition. Furthermore, group differences were observed for psychosocial factors, including education, substance use and criminal record. Comorbid ADHD and BPD is characterized by more symptoms of impulsivity, additional psychopathology, comparatively lower intellectual and attentional functioning and increased psychosocial difficulties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  14. Adolescent Disruptive Behavior and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have prospective information, especially regarding males, on the prediction of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adulthood from psychiatric disorders in childhood. Certain childhood disorders, however, have notably similar features in common with BPD. In particular, the affective dysfunction, hostility and interpersonal…

  15. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  16. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is

  17. Extending extant models of the pathogenesis of borderline personality disorder to childhood borderline personality symptoms: the roles of affective dysfunction, disinhibition, and self- and emotion-regulation deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Bagge, Courtney L; Latzman, Robert D; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, C W

    2009-01-01

    Although research has been conducted on the course, consequences, and correlates of borderline personality disorder (BPD), little is known about its emergence in childhood, and no studies have examined the extent to which theoretical models of the pathogenesis of BPD in adults are applicable to the correlates of borderline personality symptoms in children. The goal of this study was to examine the interrelationships between two BPD-relevant personality traits (affective dysfunction and disinhibition), self- and emotion-regulation deficits, and childhood borderline personality symptoms among 263 children aged 9 to 13. We predicted that affective dysfunction, disinhibition, and their interaction would be associated with childhood borderline personality symptoms, and that self- and emotion-regulation deficits would mediate these relationships. Results provided support for the roles of both affective dysfunction and disinhibition (in the form of sensation seeking) in childhood borderline personality symptoms, as well as their hypothesized interaction. Further, both self- and emotion-regulation deficits partially mediated the relationship between affective dysfunction and childhood borderline personality symptoms. Finally, results provided evidence of different gender-based pathways to childhood borderline personality symptoms, suggesting that models of BPD among adults are more relevant to understanding the factors associated with borderline personality symptoms among girls than boys.

  18. Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last…

  19. Relations of Personality to Substance Use Problems and Mental Health Disorder Symptoms in Two Clinical Samples of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Susan R.; Pencer, Alissa; McGonnell, Melissa; Durdle, Heather; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a high overlap between substance misuse and mental health disorders in adolescents. Certain personality traits (i.e., sensation seeking, impulsivity, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) may be related to increased risk for mental health symptoms and/or substance misuse. The current study examined the relationships between personality…

  20. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  1. Personality Correlates of the Common and Unique Variance across Conduct Disorder and Substance Misuse Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2011-01-01

    Externalising behaviours such as substance misuse (SM) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms highly co-ocurr in adolescence. While disinhibited personality traits have been consistently linked to externalising behaviours there is evidence that these traits may relate differentially to SM and CD. The current study aimed to assess whether this was the…

  2. Relations between behavioral inhibition, big five personality factors, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical and clinically anxious children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Vreeke (Leonie); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form,

  3. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Severity and Sexually Transmitted Infection and HIV Risk in African American Incarcerated Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Lejuez, Carl W; Golin, Carol E; Hobbs, Marcia M; Wohl, David A; Adimora, Adaora A; Khan, Maria R

    2016-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV rates are disproportionately high among men involved in the criminal justice system. Mental health disorders, including personality disorders, are also elevated among inmates. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be an important risk factor for STI/HIV, yet remains relatively understudied, particularly among inmates. We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study of African American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in heterosexual relationships at prison entry (n=189), to assess their STI/HIV risk in the 6 months before incarceration and BPD symptoms focused on emotional lability and relationship dysfunction. We created a continuous BPD symptom severity score and a dichotomous BPD indicator split at the top quartile of the score (BPD-TQ) to examine associations between BPD and STI/HIV outcomes using logistic regression. We also examined associations between individual symptoms and outcomes. After adjustment for sociodemographics and antisocial personality disorder, BPD-TQ was associated with sexual risk behaviors including multiple partnerships (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.36) and sex with nonmonogamous partners (adjusted odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.51). Prevalence of previous STI (47.5% vs. 29.6%) and prevalent chlamydial infection (6.9% vs. 3.1%) seemed higher in those in BPD-TQ, although the associations were not statistically significant. Associations were similar to those with the continuous score. Borderline personality disorder symptoms most associated with STI/HIV risk were abandonment worry, mood swings, and shifts in opinions. Borderline personality disorder is strongly associated with STI/HIV risk in this sample. Researchers should further evaluate the relationship between STI/HIV and BPD, in addition to mood disorders.

  4. The impact of childhood traumas, depressive and anxiety symptoms on the relationship between borderline personality features and symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that there is a significant association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of borderline personality features (BPF) and ADHD symptoms while controlling the effect of childhood traumas, symptoms of depression and anxiety in adulthood on this relationship in Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Turkish version of the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Correlation analyses have revealed that severity of BPF is related with adult ADHD symptoms, emotional, physical abuse and depression scores. Hierarchical regression analysis has indicated that depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse and the severity of ADHD symptoms are the predictors for severity of BPF. Findings of the present study suggests that clinicians must carefully evaluate these variables and the relationship between them to understand BPF and ADHD symptoms in university students better. Together with depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse may play a mediator role on this relationship. Further studies are needed to evaluate causal relationship between these variables in both clinical and non-clinical populations.

  5. Relationship between Chinese adjective descriptors of personality and emotional symptoms in young Chinese patients with bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Enyan; Li, Huihui; Fan, Hongying; Gao, Qianqian; Tan, Yunfei; Lou, Junyao; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether personality traits are related to emotional symptoms (mania, hypomania, and depression) in Chinese patients with bipolar disorders. Patients with bipolar I and II disorders, and healthy volunteers, were assessed using the Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality (CADP) questionnaire, Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), Hypomanic Checklist (HCL-32), and Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP). Seventy-three patients with bipolar I disorder, 35 with bipolar II disorder and 216 healthy controls were included. Bipolar I and II groups scored significantly higher on MDQ, HCL-32 and PVP scales than controls; the bipolar II group scored lower on the MDQ, but higher on the HCL-32 and PVP than bipolar I. In the bipolar I group, the CADP Intelligent trait (β, 0.25) predicted MDQ; Intelligent (β, -0.24), Agreeable (β, 0.22) and Emotional (β, 0.34) traits predicted PVP. In the bipolar II group, Intelligent (β, 0.22), Agreeable (β, -0.24) and Unsocial (β, 0.31) traits predicted MDQ; Intelligent (β, -0.20), Agreeable (β, -0.31) and Emotional (β, -0.26) traits predicted HCL-32. Four out of five Chinese personality traits were associated with emotional symptoms in patients with bipolar I or II disorder, but displayed different associations depending on disorder type. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Neurotic Personality Traits and Risk for Adverse Alcohol Outcomes: Chained Mediation through Emotional Disorder Symptoms and Drinking to Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinneck, A; Thompson, K; Dobson, K S; Stuart, H; Teehan, M; Stewart, S H

    2018-02-02

    Rates of alcohol abuse are high on Canadian postsecondary campuses. Individual trait differences have been linked to indices of alcohol use/misuse, including neurotic traits like anxiety sensitivity (AS) and hopelessness (HOP). We know little, though, about how these traits confer vulnerability. AS and HOP are related to anxiety and depression, respectively, and to drinking to cope with symptoms of those disorders. Neurotic personality may therefore increase risk of alcohol use/abuse via (1) emotional disorder symptoms and/or (2) coping drinking motives. Allan and colleagues (2014) found chained mediation through AS-generalized anxiety-coping motives-alcohol problems and AS-depression-coping motives-alcohol problems. We sought to expand their research by investigating how emotional disorder symptoms (anxiety, depression) and specific coping motives (drinking to cope with anxiety, depression) may sequentially mediate the AS/HOP-to-hazardous alcohol use/drinking harms relationships among university students. This study used cross-sectional data collected in Fall 2014 as part of the Movember-funded Caring Campus Project (N = 1,883). The survey included the SURPS, adapted DMQ-R SF, and AUDIT-3. AS and HOP were both related to hazardous alcohol and drinking harms via emotional disorder symptoms and, in turn, coping drinking motives. All indirect pathways incorporating both mediators were statistically significant, and additional evidence of partial specificity was found. Conclusions/Importance: The study's results have important implications for personality-matched interventions for addictive disorders.

  7. Brain structural anomalies in borderline and avoidant personality disorder patients and their associations with disorder-specific symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Bryan T; Fan, Jin; Liu, Xun; Guerreri, Stephanie; Mayson, Sarah Jo; Rimsky, Liza; McMaster, Antonia; Alexander, Heather; New, Antonia S; Goodman, Marianne; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes; Siever, Larry J; Koenigsberg, Harold W

    2016-08-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) are characterized by hyper-reactivity to negatively-perceived interpersonal cues, yet they differ in degree of affective instability. Recent work has begun to elucidate the neural (structural and functional) and cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of BPD, although some initial studies of brain structure have reached divergent conclusions. AvPD, however, has been almost unexamined in the cognitive neuroscience literature. In the present study we investigated group differences among 29 BPD patients, 27 AvPD patients, and 29 healthy controls (HC) in structural brain volumes using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in five anatomically-defined regions of interest: amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We also examined the relationship between individual differences in brain structure and self-reported anxiety and affective instability in each group. We observed reductions in MPFC and ACC volume in BPD relative to HC, with no significant difference among patient groups. No group differences in amygdala volume were found. However, BPD and AvPD patients each showed a positive relationship between right amygdala volume and state-related anxiety. By contrast, in HC there was an inverse relationship between MPFC volume and state and trait-related anxiety as well as between bilateral DLPFC volume and affective instability. Current sample sizes did not permit examination of gender effects upon structure-symptom correlations. These results shed light on potentially protective, or compensatory, aspects of brain structure in these populations-namely, relatively reduced amygdala volume or relatively enhanced MPFC and DLPFC volume. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. One year follow-up of post-partum-onset depression: the role of depressive symptom severity and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, Faruk; Akman, Cemal; Sahingoz, Mine; Kaya, Nazmiye; Kucur, Rahim

    2009-06-01

    Long-term follow-up and risk factors of persistent post-partum depression (PPD) are fairly unknown compared with its prevalence in the developing countries. In this study, we did a follow-up measure of PPD and examined the factors, which were associated with PPD 1-year post-partum. Our sample comprised of 34 women. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh post-natal depression scale (EPDS) 6 weeks post-partum, and women with scores >12 on this scale was categorised as depressed. Personality disorders were determined at the same occasion by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R personality disorders (SCID-II). One year post-partum EPDS was completed. The rate of PPD 1-year post-partum was 32.4%, and it was unrelated to age at assessment, primiparity, number of children, employment status, economical status and educational level. Women depressed 1-year post-partum had significantly higher basal scores of EPDS and more often also a diagnosis of any axis II disorder; and specifically dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. In our sample, the predictors of 1-year post-partum PPD were having higher basal score of EPDS and the existence of a personality disorder. This study suggests that women with PPD, scoring high in the EPDS scale 6 weeks post-partum and having a personality disorder, run a higher risk for depression at 1-year follow-up.

  9. Borderline personality disorder symptoms and affective responding to perceptions of rejection and acceptance from romantic versus nonromantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sophie A; Scott, Lori N; Beeney, Joseph E; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2018-05-01

    We examined event-contingent recording of daily interpersonal interactions in a diagnostically diverse sample of 101 psychiatric outpatients who were involved in a romantic relationship. We tested whether the unique effect of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms on affective responses (i.e., hostility, sadness, guilt, fear, and positive affect) to perceptions of rejection or acceptance differed with one's romantic partner compared with nonromantic partners. BPD symptoms were associated with more frequent perceptions of rejection and less frequent perceptions of acceptance across the study. For all participants, perceptions of rejecting behavior were associated with higher within-person negative affect and lower within-person positive affect. As predicted, in interactions with romantic partners only, those with high BPD symptoms reported heightened hostility and, to a lesser extent, attenuated sadness in response to perceptions of rejection. BPD symptoms did not moderate associations between perceptions of rejection and guilt, fear, or positive affect across romantic and nonromantic partners. For all participants, perceived acceptance was associated with lower within-person negative affect and higher within-person positive affect. However, BPD symptoms were associated with attenuated positive affect in response to perceptions of accepting behavior in interactions with romantic partners only. BPD symptoms did not moderate associations between perceptions of acceptance and any of the negative affects across romantic and nonromantic partners. This study highlights the specificity of affective responses characteristic of BPD when comparisons are made with patients with other personality and psychiatric disorders. Implications for romantic relationship dysfunction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Inhibition errors in borderline personality disorder with psychotic-like symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, K.P.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Laan, A. van der; Hummelen, J.W.; Verkes, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have deficits in cognitive inhibition as measured with an anti-saccade eye task similar to patients with schizophrenia (Sz). Furthermore, we investigated whether these inhibition errors were

  11. Incompleteness as a link between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and specific symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Willi; Kupfer, Jochen; Gönner, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs) to an understanding of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). It investigates the association of specific OCD symptom dimensions with OCPTs, conceptualized as continuous phenomena that are also observable below the diagnostic threshold. As empirical findings and clinical observation suggest that incompleteness feelings/NJREs may play a significant affective and motivational role for certain OCD subtypes, but also for patients with accentuated OCPTs, we hypothesized that OCPTs are selectively linked with incompleteness-associated OCD symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting). Moreover, we assumed that this selective relationship cannot be demonstrated any more after statistical control of incompleteness, whereas it is preserved after statistical control of anxiety, depression, pathological worry and harm avoidance. Results from a study with a large clinical sample (n = 185) partially support these hypotheses and suggest that NJREs may be an important connecting link between specific OCD symptom dimensions, in particular ordering and checking, and accentuated OCPTs. Obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) are positively related to obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting) hypothesized or found to be associated with incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs), but not to washing and obsessions. This positive relationship, which is strongest for ordering and checking, is eliminated when NJREs are statistically controlled. Ordering, checking and accentuated OCPTs may share NJREs as a common affective-motivational underpinning.Dysfunctional behaviour patterns of people with accentuated OCPTs or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) may be viewed as efforts to avoid or reduce subjectively intolerable NJREs

  12. Borderline but not Antisocial Personality Disorder Symptoms are Related to Self-Reported Partner Aggression in Late Middle-Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E. J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55–64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression towards one’s partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant’s personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression. PMID:22732005

  13. Borderline but not antisocial personality disorder symptoms are related to self-reported partner aggression in late middle-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Personality and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms among male collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Nick; A Petrie, Trent; Greenleaf, Christy; J Reel, Justine; E Carter, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Despite a proliferation of research on disordered eating in female athletes, few studies have included male athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine which of five personality and psychological variables of interest (i.e., perfectionism, self-esteem, optimism, reasons for exercise, and appearance orientation) best predicted eating disorder status (i.e., symptomatic or asymptomatic) in male athletes. Two hundred three male athletes (Mage=20.29, SD=1.64) from three National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions participated. More athletes were asymptomatic (80.8%) than symptomatic (19.2%). None of the variables significantly predicted symptomatic status. These findings contrast the literature on predictors of disordered eating symptomatology among female athletes, and suggest the need for further research to identify other potential predictors of eating disturbance among male athletes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jacques P.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive–compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last session. Alliance variables were patients’ first alliance rating and “rupture-repair” episodes, which are disruptions in the therapeutic relationship that c...

  16. The structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, text revision) personality disorder symptoms in a large national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Timothy J; Vergés, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K; Jahng, Seungmin; Sher, Kenneth J

    2012-10-01

    We examined the latent structure underlying the criteria for DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.) personality disorders in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Personality disorder symptom data were collected using a structured diagnostic interview from approximately 35,000 adults assessed over two waves of data collection in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Our analyses suggested that a seven-factor solution provided the best fit for the data, and these factors were marked primarily by one or at most two personality disorder criteria sets. A series of regression analyses that used external validators tapping Axis I psychopathology, treatment for mental health problems, functioning scores, interpersonal conflict, and suicidal ideation and behavior provided support for the seven-factor solution. We discuss these findings in the context of previous studies that have examined the structure underlying the personality disorder criteria as well as the current proposals for DSM-5 personality disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Symptoms of borderline personality disorder predict interpersonal (but not independent) stressful life events in a community sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail D; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often experience stressful life events at a higher frequency than those without BPD. It is less clear what specific types of events are involved in this effect, and it has not been determined whether some features of BPD are more important than others in accounting for this effect. The latter issue is important in light of the heterogeneous nature of this diagnostic construct. These issues were examined in a large, representative community sample of men and women, ages 55-64. Ten Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev., DSM-IV-TR, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders were assessed at baseline using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality: SIDP-IV (B. Pfohl, N. Blum, & M. Zimmerman, 1997, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press). Life events were measured at three sequential assessments following baseline at 6-month (N = 1,294), 12-month (N = 1,070), and 18-month (N = 837) follow-ups. Stressful life events were identified using a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q; List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire: A subset of prescribed life events with considerable long-term contextual threat by T. Brugha, C. Bebbington, P. Tennant, and J. Hurry, 1985, Psychological Medicine, Vol. 15, pp. 189-194.) followed by a telephone interview. Only borderline personality pathology was related to an increase in the frequency of interpersonal stressful life events. Three specific symptoms of BPD were largely responsible for this connection: unstable interpersonal relationships, impulsivity, and chronic feelings of emptiness (negative association). Symptoms of avoidant and schizoid personality disorders were associated with a reduced number of stressful life events that are considered to be outside a person's control (e.g., serious illness, injury, or death of a loved one). None of the personality disorders predicted an increase in the number of

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a mood disorder—not borderline personality disorder Self-harming behavior, such as cutting Recurring thoughts of suicidal ... symptoms and reduce the number of suicidal or self-harming behaviors. Read more on NIMH’s Psychotherapies health topic ...

  19. Relations of mindfulness facets with psychological symptoms among individuals with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, or borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didonna, Fabrizio; Rossi, Roberta; Ferrari, Clarissa; Iani, Luca; Pedrini, Laura; Rossi, Nicoletta; Xodo, Erica; Lanfredi, Mariangela

    2018-03-25

    To explore differences in mindfulness facets among patients with a diagnosis of either obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC), and their associations with clinical features. One hundred and fifty-three patients and 50 HC underwent a clinical assessment including measures of mindfulness (Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire - FFMQ), psychopathological symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-R), dissociation (Dissociative Experience Scale), alexithymia (Alexithymia Scale 20), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to assess differences in mindfulness scores and their associations with clinical features. The three diagnostic groups scored lower on all mindfulness facets (apart from FFMQobserving) compared to the HC group. OCD group had a significant higher FFMQ total score (FFMQ-TS) and FFMQacting with awareness compared to the BPD group, and scored higher on FFMQdescribing compared to BPD and MDD groups. The scores in non-judging facet were significantly lower in all the three diagnostic groups compared to the HC group. Interestingly, higher FFMQ-TS was inversely related to all psychological measures, regardless of diagnostic group. Deficits in mindfulness skills were present in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found disease-specific relationships between some mindfulness facets and specific psychological variables. Clinical implications are discussed. The study showed deficits in mindfulness scores in all diagnostic groups compared to a healthy control group. Overall, mindfulness construct has a significantly negative association with indexes of global distress, dissociative symptoms, alexithymia, and depression. Mindfulness-based interventions in clinical settings should take into account different patterns of mindfulness skills and their impact on disease-specific maladaptive

  20. The relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students; impact of negative affect and personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Dalbudak, Ercan; Ozen, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while controlling the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion, anxiety and depression symptoms in a sample of Turkish university students (n=455). Participants were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Severity of social anxiety, depression, anxiety and neuroticism were higher among those with probable ADHD, whereas extraversion score did not differ between the groups. The severity of ADHD score, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity score, was related with the "fear or anxiety" together with low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism dimensions of personality, whereas the severity of ADHD score, both inatentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores, was related with "avoidence" together with low extraversion (introversion) dimension of personality. These findings suggest that probable ADHD and severity of ADHD symptoms are related with both "fear or anxiety" and "avoidance" of social anxiety, while personality dimensions of low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism may have an effect on this relationships among young adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The role of interpersonal personality traits and reassurance seeking in eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms among women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Joiner, Thomas E; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Klein, Marjorie H; Le Grange, Daniel; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-01

    The role of interpersonal factors has been proposed in various models of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology and treatment. We examined the independent and interactive contributions of two interpersonal-focused personality traits (i.e., social avoidance and insecure attachment) and reassurance seeking in relation to global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms among women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Participants were 204 adult women with full or subclinical BN who completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple OLS regressions including main effects and interaction terms were used to analyze the data. Main effects were found for social avoidance and insecure attachment in association with global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. In addition, two-way interactions between social avoidance and reassurance seeking were observed for both global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. In general, reassurance seeking strengthened the association between social avoidance and global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. These results demonstrate the importance of reassurance seeking in psychopathology among women with BN who display personality features characterized by social avoidance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Role of Interpersonal Personality Traits and Reassurance Seeking in Eating Disorder Symptoms and Depressive Symptoms among Women with Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Le Grange, Daniel; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The role of interpersonal factors has been proposed in various models of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology and treatment. We examined the independent and interactive contributions of two interpersonal-focused personality traits (i.e., social avoidance and insecure attachment) and reassurance seeking in relation to global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms among women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Method Participants were 204 adult women with full or subclinical BN who completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple OLS regressions including main effects and interaction terms were used to analyze the data. Results Main effects were found for social avoidance and insecure attachment in association with global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. In addition, two-way interactions between social avoidance and reassurance seeking were observed for both global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. In general, reassurance seeking strengthened the association between social avoidance and global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. Conclusion These results demonstrate the importance of reassurance seeking in psychopathology among women with BN who display personality features characterized by social avoidance. PMID:27234198

  3. Multimodal assessment of emotional reactivity in borderline personality pathology: the moderating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T

    2013-08-01

    Emotional reactivity has been theorized to play a central role in borderline personality (BP) pathology. Although growing research provides evidence for subjective emotional reactivity in BP pathology, research on physiological or biological reactivity among people with BP pathology is less conclusive. With regard to biological reactivity in particular, research on cortisol reactivity (a neurobiological marker of emotional reactivity) in response to stressors among individuals with BP pathology has produced contradictory results and highlighted the potential moderating role of PTSD-related pathology. Thus, this study sought to examine the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the relation between BP pathology and both subjective (self-report) and biological (cortisol) emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor. Participants were 171 patients in a residential substance use disorder treatment center. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed a significant main effect of BP pathology on subjective emotional reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Furthermore, results revealed a significant interaction between BP pathology and PTSD symptoms in the prediction of cortisol reactivity, such that BP pathology was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity only among participants with low levels of PTSD symptoms. Similar findings were obtained when examining the interaction between BP pathology and the reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptoms of PTSD specifically. Results highlight the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the BP-reactivity relation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Shift, Interrupted: Strategies for Managing Difficult Patients Including Those with Personality Disorders and Somatic Symptoms in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukaddam, Nidal; AufderHeide, Erin; Flores, Araceli; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-11-01

    Difficult patients are often those who present with a mix of physical and psychiatric symptoms, and seem refractory to usual treatments or reassurance. such patients can include those with personality disorders, those with somatization symptoms; they can come across as entitled, drug-seeking, manipulative, or simply draining to the provider. Such patients are often frequent visitors to Emergency Departments. Other reasons for difficult encounters could be rooted in provider bias or countertransference, rather than sole patient factors. Emergency providers need to have high awareness of these possibilities, and be prepared to manage such situations, otherwise workup can be sub-standard and dangerous medical mistakes can be made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Child development and personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Patricia

    2008-09-01

    The evidence is surprisingly strong that even early adolescent personality disorders or elevated personality disorder symptoms have a broad range of negative effects well into adulthood, for the most part comparable to or even larger than those of Axis I disorders. Current evidence suggests that the most severe long-term prognosis is associated with borderline and schizotypal PDs and elevated symptoms. And of course, childhood conduct disorder is in a peculiar status, disappearing in adulthood to be manifest as a very severe disorder-antisocial PD-in a minority of those with the adolescent disorder.

  6. Interpersonal conflict strategies and their impact on positive symptom remission in persons aged 55 and older with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl I; Solanki, Dishal; Sodhi, Dimple

    2013-01-01

    Although interpersonal interactions are thought to affect psychopathology in schizophrenia, there is a paucity of data about how older adults with schizophrenia manage interpersonal conflicts. This paper examines interpersonal conflict strategies and their impact on positive symptom remission in older adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The schizophrenia group consisted of 198 persons aged 55 years and over living in the community who developed schizophrenia before age 45. A community comparison group (n = 113) was recruited using randomly selected block-groups. Straus' Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) was used to assess the ways that respondents handled interpersonal conflicts. Seven conflict management subscales were created based on a principal component analysis with equamax rotation of items from the CTS. The order of the frequency of the tactics that was used was similar for both the schizophrenia and community groups. Calm and Pray tactics were the most commonly used, and the Violent and Aggressive tactics were rarely utilized. In two separate logistic regression analysis, after controlling for confounding variables, positive symptom remission was found to be associated significantly with both the Calm and Pray subscales. The findings suggest that older persons with schizophrenia approximate normal distribution patterns of conflict management strategies and the most commonly used strategies are associated with positive symptom remission.

  7. Training emotional intelligence improves both emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms in inpatients with borderline personality disorder and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangard, Leila; Haghighi, Mohammad; Bajoghli, Hafez; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ghaleiha, Ali; Zarrabian, Mohammad Kazem; Brand, Serge

    2012-09-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined as a pervasive pattern of instability in emotion, mood and interpersonal relationships, with a comorbidity between PBD and depressive disorders (DD). A key competence for successful management of interpersonal relationships is emotional intelligence (EI). Given the low EI of patients suffering from BPD, the present study aimed at investigating the effect on both emotional intelligence and depression of training emotional intelligence in patients with BPD and DD. A total of 30 inpatients with BPD and DD (53% females; mean age 24.20 years) took part in the study. Patients were randomly assigned either to the treatment or to the control group. Pre- and post-testing 4 weeks later involved experts' rating of depressive disorder and self-reported EI. The treatment group received 12 sessions of training in components of emotional intelligence. Relative to the control group, EI increased significantly in the treatment group over time. Depressive symptoms decreased significantly over time in both groups, though improvement was greater in the treatment than the control group. For inpatients suffering from BPD and DD, regular skill training in EI can be successfully implemented and leads to improvements both in EI and depression. Results suggest an additive effect of EI training on both EI and depressive symptoms.

  8. Self- and informant-reported perspectives on symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Luke D; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-04-01

    Because narcissistic individuals tend to have an inflated view of themselves and their abilities, the reliance on self-reported information in the assessment and diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is problematic. Hence, the use of informants in the assessment of NPD may be necessary. In the current study we examined self- and informant-reported features of NPD using agreement, frequency, and discrepancy analyses. The results indicated that informants tended to report more NPD features than selves, and that there were either low or nonsignificant levels of self-informant agreement among the 9 NPD diagnostic criteria and its categorical diagnosis. Informants were increasingly more likely to report higher raw scores relative to selves, indicating that the discrepancy between self- and informant reports increases with the NPD scale. Informants also reported NPD features that selves often did not, suggesting that current prevalence estimates of NPD, which use only self-reported information, are most likely underestimates. These results highlight the importance of gathering informant-reported data in addition to self-reported data when assessing NPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Three year stability of Five-Factor Model personality traits in relation to changes in symptom levels in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyette, L.L.; Nederlof, J.; Meijer, C.; de Boer, F.; de Haan, L.

    2015-01-01

    Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits are related to a wide range of clinical outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. However, it is not sufficiently clear whether psychotic illness, particularly fluctuation in negative symptoms and psychotic relapse, affects personality. The current

  10. Affect dysregulation, psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and complex posttraumatic stress disorder independent of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijke, Annemiek; Hopman, Juliette A B; Ford, Julian D

    2018-01-01

    Objective : Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) as defined by the Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) formulation is associated with childhood relational trauma and involves relational impairment, affect dysregulation, and identity alterations. However, the distinct contributions of relational impairment (operationalized in the form fears of closeness or abandonment), affect dysregulation (operationalized in the form of overregulation and under-regulation of affect), and identity alterations (operationalized in the form of positive or negative psychoform or somatoform dissociation) to the relationship between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS have not been systematically tested. Method and Results : In a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with severe and chronic psychiatric and personality disorders ( n  = 472; M  = 34.7 years, SD  = 10.1), structural equation modelling with bootstrap 95% confidence intervals demonstrated that the association between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS symptoms in adulthood was partially mediated by under-regulation of affect, negative psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears of closeness and of abandonment. These results also were independent of the effects of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Conclusions : Some, but not all, hypothesized components of the DESNOS formulation of CPTSD statistically mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and adult CPTSD/DESNOS. These relationships appear specific to CPTSD/DESNOS and not to the effects of another potential sequelae of childhood trauma BPD. Replication with prospective longitudinal studies is needed.

  11. [Effects of inpatient treatment on eating disorder symptoms, health-related quality of life and personal resources in anorexia and bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagay, Sefik; Düllmann, Sonja; Schlegl, Sandra; Nater-Mewes, Ricarda; Repic, Nevena; Hampke, Christian; Brähler, Elmar; Gerlach, Gabriele; Senf, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present prospective-naturalistic study was the evaluation of psychosomatic inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). 128 patients with eating disorders (n=59 AN and n=69 BN) were investigated on admission and discharge using the following standardized questionnaires: eating disorder symptoms (EDI), general psychopathology (BSI), quality of life (SF-12), and personal resources (SOC-13, SWE). Moderate to large effect sizes were achieved for the eating disorder symptoms; in addition, general psychopathology was substantially reduced at the end of treatment, and quality of life as well as personal resources were enhanced. Personal resources were found to be the strongest predictors for therapy outcome. Based on our data, important insights and recommendations may be gained for the inpatient treatment of eating disorders, especially with regard to the potential influence of personal resources. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Hearing symptoms personal stereos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Tiara Santos; Borja, Ana Lúcia Vieira de Freitas

    2012-04-01

     Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time.  to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use  Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos.  The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%), auricular fullness (30.5%) and humming (27.5), being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p = 0,000) and direct with the prevalence of the humming.  Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young.

  13. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Santos da Luz1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use. Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%, auricular fullness (30.5% and humming (27.5, being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p=0,000 and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young.

  14. Investigating the Relationship between Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder and Experiences of Child Abuse among Students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Mohammadi Derakhshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between symptoms of histrionic personality disorder and experiences of child abuse among students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University in 2013-2014. The general aim of this study is to predict histrionic personality disorder in adulthood based on child abuse experiences during childhood. The population of this study include 19599 people among whom 377 were selected through simple random sampling. The instrument of this study includes Mil...

  15. Avoidant personality disorder symptoms in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients predict performance on neurocognitive measures: the UCLA family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, D L; Asarnow, R A; Sugar, C A; Subotnik, K L; Jacobson, K C; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S; Kuppinger, H; Nuechterlein, K H

    2010-07-01

    Whether avoidant personality disorder symptoms are related to neurocognitive impairments that aggregate in relatives of schizophrenics is unknown. We report the relationship between avoidant personality disorder symptoms and neurocognitive performance in the first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia. 367 first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia and 245 relatives of community controls were interviewed for the presence of avoidant personality symptoms and symptoms of paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders and administered neurocognitive measures. Relationships between neurocognitive measures and avoidant symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed models. Avoidant dimensional scores predicted performance on the span of apprehension (SPAN), 3-7 Continuous Performance Test (3-7 CPT), and Trail Making Test (TMT-B) in schizophrenia relatives. These relationships remained significant on the SPAN even after adjustment for paranoid or schizotypal dimensional scores and on the TMT-B after adjustment for paranoid dimensional scores. Moreover, in a second set of analyses comparing schizophrenia relatives to controls there were significant or trending differences in the degree of the relationship between avoidant symptoms and each of these neurocognitive measures even after adjustments for paranoid and schizotypal dimensional scores. The substantial correlation between avoidant and schizotypal symptoms suggests that these personality disorders are not independent. Avoidant and in some cases schizotypal dimensional scores are significant predictors of variability in these neurocognitive measures. In all analyses, higher levels of avoidant symptoms were associated with worse performance on the neurocognitive measures in relatives of schizophrenia probands. These results support the hypothesis that avoidant personality disorder may be a schizophrenia spectrum phenotype. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity.

  17. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E.; Vitale, Jennifer E.; Curtin, John J.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity. PMID:22886692

  18. Aetiological pathways to Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in early adolescence: childhood dysregulated behaviour, maladaptive parenting and bully victimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Hall, James; Strauss, Vicky Y; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories for the aetiology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that both individual features (e.g., childhood dysregulated behaviour) and negative environmental experiences (e.g., maladaptive parenting, peer victimisation) may lead to the development of BPD symptoms during adolescence. Few prospective studies have examined potential aetiological pathways involving these two factors. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We assessed mother-reported childhood dysregulated behaviour at 4, 7 and 8 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); maladaptive parenting (maternal hitting, punishment, and hostility) at 8 to 9 years; and bully victimisation (child and mother report) at 8, 9 and 10 years. BPD symptoms were assessed at 11 years using the UK Childhood Interview for DSM-IV BPD. Control variables included adolescent depression (assessed with the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-SMFQ) and psychotic symptoms (assessed with the Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview-PLIKS) at 11 to 14 years, and mother's exposure to family adversity during pregnancy (assessed with the Family Adversity Scale-FAI). In unadjusted logistic regression analyses, childhood dysregulated behaviour and all environmental risk factors (i.e., family adversity, maladaptive parenting, and bully victimisation) were significantly associated with BPD symptoms at 11 years. Within structural equation modelling controlling for all associations simultaneously, family adversity and male sex significantly predicted dysregulated behaviour across childhood, while bully victimisation significantly predicted BPD, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Children displaying dysregulated behaviour across childhood were significantly more likely to experience maladaptive parenting (β = 0.075, p  bullying (β = 0.097, p  < 0.001). While significant indirect associations

  19. Investigating the Relationship between Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder and Experiences of Child Abuse among Students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Mohammadi Derakhshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between symptoms of histrionic personality disorder and experiences of child abuse among students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University in 2013-2014. The general aim of this study is to predict histrionic personality disorder in adulthood based on child abuse experiences during childhood. The population of this study include 19599 people among whom 377 were selected through simple random sampling. The instrument of this study includes Millon-3 CASRS questionnaire and child abuse questionnaire. The data was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression. The obtained results revealed that there is significant relationship between histrionic personality disorder (independent variable and dimensions of child abuse (dependent variable that includes emotional, neglect, physical, and sexual child abuse. Considering different dimensions of child abuse, neglect of child and sexual child abuse have the most and the least contribution in predicting symptoms of histrionic personality disorder in adulthood. In addition, the results showed that all four dimensions of child abuse can predict symptoms of histrionic personality disorder in adulthood, but ignorance or neglecting child has the most effect and sexual dimension has the least effect in the prediction.

  20. Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van der Valk, Renate; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2015-01-01

    High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between

  1. Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van der Valk, Renate; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, Rene S.; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between

  2. [Personality disorders in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Tuula; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic assessment of old age personality disorders is challenging. Medical illnesses and cognitive impairment may influence the clinical symptoms. Common elements of effective approaches such as building a collaborative relationship and maintaining consistency as well as structured framework of treatment can be tailored to the problems of a patient. Pharmacological treatment guidelines of personality disorders need to be individually applied to elderly persons. Comorbid depression is often the primary symptom seen and needs to be treated. Psychiatry should take steps to promote effective treatments and provide support and clinical supervision to health staff treating these individuals.

  3. Shame on Me! Self-Conscious Emotions and Big Five Personality Traits and Their Relations to Anxiety Disorders Symptoms in Young, Non-Clinical Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; van Asseldonk, Mike

    2018-04-01

    This study explored the relations between self-conscious emotions, personality traits, and anxiety disorders symptoms in non-clinical youths. One-hundred-and-eighteen adolescents aged 12-15 years completed the brief shame and guilt questionnaire for children (BSGQ-C) and items of the youth self-report (YSR) to measure shame and guilt, the big five personality questionnaire for children, and the youth anxiety measure for DSM-5. Results for shame indicated that this self-conscious emotion-either measured by the BSGQ-C or the YSR-was uniquely and positively associated with a broad range of anxiety disorders symptoms, and correlated positively with neuroticism and negatively with extraversion. Guilt did not show significant associations with anxiety disorders symptoms once controlling for the influence of shame, and links with personality traits varied dependent on the assessment instrument that was used (BSGQ-C or YSR). Finally, when controlling for neuroticism and extraversion, shame consistently remained a significant correlate of anxiety disorders symptoms. Altogether, these results add to the growing body of evidence indicating that high levels of shame are clearly associated with anxiety pathology.

  4. The relationship of Internet addiction severity with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in Turkish University students; impact of personality traits, depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms while controlling the effect of personality traits, depression and anxiety symptoms in Turkish university students. A total of 271 university students participated in the present study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Wender Utah Rating Short Scale (WURS-25), the Turkish version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). According to IAS, participants were separated into three groups, namely, moderate/high, mild and without IA groups. The rates of groups were 19.9% (n=54), 38.7% (n=105) and 41.3% (n=112), respectively. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IAS is positively correlated with WURS-25, ASRS (total, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscales), neuroticism personality trait, depression and anxiety scores, whereas it is negatively correlated with extraversion personality trait. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that depression and anxiety symptoms, introversion and neuroticism personality traits and the severity of ADHD symptoms (particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms) are the predictors for IAS score, respectively. The severity of ADHD symptoms has predicted the severity of IA even after controlling the effect of personality traits, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. University students with severe ADHD symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms may be considered as a risk group for IA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Are Borderline Personality Symptoms Associated With Compulsive Sexual Behaviors Among Women in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders? An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-10-01

    Extant literature has documented a significant relationship between borderline symptoms and substance use disorders. As supported in past work, there is a significant theoretical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors because both disorders share common underlying behaviors and traits. There is no known research that has examined the empirical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors in a population with substance use disorders. To fill this important gap in the literature, this relationship was examined in the current study. Medical records from 120 women admitted to a private, residential treatment program for substance use disorders were reviewed for the current study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that borderline symptoms were significantly associated with compulsive sexual behaviors after controlling for alcohol use and problems, drug use and problems, age, and positive impression management. Results from this study provide potentially important research and clinical implications, which could ultimately aid treatment and reduce relapse. However, continued research is needed to further examine the relationship between symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Correlation between Personality and Mental Symptoms in Neurotic Disorders%神经症患者人格与心理症状相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永新

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation between personality and mental symptoms in neurosis. Methods: Eighty Patients with neurotic disorder were assessed with the Symptom Check List 90(SCL-90) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results: By stepwise regression analysis, the N score of EPQ was positively correlated with the mean score and factor scores on SCL-90, and their standard regression coefficients were 0.277~0.508. The P score of EPQ was positively correlated with the mean score and the scores of depression, hostility, paranoid idea on SCL-90, and their standard regression coefficients were 0.245~0.362. The E score of EPQ was negatively correlated with the scores of interpersonal sensitivity , depression on SCL-90 and their standard regression coefficients were-0.209 and -0.229. Conclusion: Personality played significant role in neurotic disorders.

  7. Three year stability of Five-Factor Model personality traits in relation to changes in symptom levels in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Nederlof, Jan; Meijer, Carin; de Boer, Froukje; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2015-09-30

    Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits are related to a wide range of clinical outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. However, it is not sufficiently clear whether psychotic illness, particularly fluctuation in negative symptoms and psychotic relapse, affects personality. The current study examined the 3-year temporal stability of FFM traits in 91 patients with non-affective psychotic disorders with a maximum duration of illness of 10 years and 32 control subjects without a (family member with) a diagnosis of psychotic illness. In patients, change in negative symptoms predicted changes in Neuroticism and (inversely) in Extraversion and Openness. However, when correcting for depressive symptoms, negative symptoms no longer predicted change in any FFM trait. Clinical characteristics, such as psychotic relapse, were also not found to be related to change in FFM traits. Patients showed a slight increase in Conscientiousness levels, the other FFM traits showed mean-level stability. Rank-order stability of the FFM traits was moderate to strong, although weaker for Neuroticism in patients. Our findings indicate that psychotic symptoms exert limited effect on the stability of FFM traits in patients with psychotic disorders. Consistent with general population findings, one should guard against state-trait confusion between Neuroticism/Extraversion and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of childhood temperament on the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms over the course of adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Krueger, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the development of BPD symptoms across adolescence by evaluating the fit of several latent variable growth models to annual assessments of symptoms obtained from girls when they were ages 14 through 19 years. After determining the best fitting model, we examined prospective associations between the temperament dimensions of emotionality, activity, low sociability, and shyness and BPD symptom development. We utilized longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study; one of the few large-scale, prospective studies of girls (N = 2,450) in the United States. Parent- and teacher-reports of girls' temperament were collected at Wave 1, when girls were ages 5-8 years. Child-reports of BPD symptoms were collected annually beginning at age 14 through 19 years. We found that a free curve slope intercept model provided the best model fit, with the course of BPD symptoms characterized by a large component of inter-individual stability and a smaller component representing within-individual changes across adolescence. Symptoms appeared to peak by age 15, decline through age 18, and remain steady between ages 18 and 19 years. Both parent- and teacher-reports of temperament emotionality, activity, low sociability, and shyness predicted the developmental course of symptoms. BPD symptoms in adolescence reflect trait-like differences between youth with less within-person variability across time. Childhood temperament dimensions of emotionality, activity, low sociability, and shyness predict adolescent BPD symptom development. Parent- and teacher-informants provide unique information about the course of BPD symptoms, underscoring the utility of collecting child assessments using multiple informants.

  9. Subtypes of Personality and 'Locus of Control' in Bariatric Patients and their Effect on Weight Loss, Eating Disorder and Depressive Symptoms, and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhänsel, Carolin; Linde, Katja; Wagner, Birgit; Dietrich, Arne; Kersting, Anette

    2017-09-01

    The present study subdivided personality types in a bariatric sample and investigated their impact on weight loss and psychopathology 6 and 12 months after surgery. One hundred thirty participants answered questionnaires on personality (NEO-FFI), 'locus of control' (IPC), depression severity (BDI-II), eating disorder psychopathology (EDE-Q), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; SF-12). K-means cluster analyses were used to identify subtypes. Two subtypes emerged: an 'emotionally dysregulated/undercontrolled' cluster defined by high neuroticism and external orientation and a 'resilient/high functioning' cluster with the reverse pattern. Prior to surgery, the first subtype reported more eating disorder and depressive symptoms and less HRQoL. Differences persisted regarding depression and mental HRQoL until 12 months after surgery, except in the areas weight loss and eating disorders. Personality seems to influence the improvement or maintenance of psychiatric symptoms after bariatric surgery. Future research could elucidate whether adapted treatment programmes could have an influence on the improvement of procedure outcomes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Group Treatment for Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Public Sector Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jane; Snowdon, Sharon; Gopold, Michelle; Guymer, Elise

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study of a brief group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention (12 two-hour sessions) was conducted with clients of public mental health services meeting four or more criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were randomly assigned to receive the ACT group intervention in addition to their current…

  11. Treatment of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony W; Gunderson, John; Mulder, Roger

    2015-02-21

    The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment. The amount of research about the underlying, abnormal, psychological or biological processes leading to the manifestation of a disordered personality is increasing, which could lead to more effective interventions. The synergistic or antagonistic interaction of psychotherapies and drugs for treating personality disorder should be studied in conjunction with their mechanisms of change throughout the development of each. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intelligence, temperament, and personality are related to over- or under-reporting of affective symptoms by patients with euthymic mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Yong Sik; Ahn, Yong Min

    2013-06-01

    Many patients with mood disorders report subjective indicators of depression that are inconsistent with clinicians' objective ratings. This study used the self-report Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) and the observer-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) to evaluate the extent to which temperament, personality traits, and clinical characteristics accounted for discrepancies between self-reports and clinician ratings of depressive symptoms in patients experiencing the euthymic period of a mood disorder. The sample consisted of 100 individuals with bipolar disorder (n=72) or major depressive disorder (n=28). The HAMD and Young Mania Rating Scale were administered, and participants completed the BDI and Barratt Impulsivity Scale. Intelligence was assessed with the Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire and the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory. The BDI and HAMD were significantly but modestly correlated with each other (r=0.319, pconscientious personality were independent contributors to differences between Z-scores for the BDI and the HAMD. Higher impulsivity and a more anxious temperament were also observed in the group that self-reported more symptoms than were noted by clinicians. Generalizability of results can be limited in ethnic difference. Subjective and objective assessments of the depressive symptoms of patients with mood disorders in a euthymic mood state are frequently discordant. Clinicians should consider the subjective aspects of depressive symptoms along with objective information about the influence of intelligence and personality on patients' self-reports. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The continuity between DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in adolescence: an item response theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, Elien; Rettew, David C; De Clercq, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    Various studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive symptoms exist as part of not only obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but also obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). Despite these shared characteristics, there is an ongoing debate on the inclusion of OCPD into the recently developed DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) category. The current study aims to clarify whether this inclusion can be justified from an item response theory approach. The validity of the continuity model for understanding the association between OCD and OCPD was explored in 787 Dutch community and referred adolescents (70% female, 12-20 years old, mean = 16.16, SD = 1.40) studied between July 2011 and January 2013, relying on item response theory (IRT) analyses of self-reported OCD symptoms (Youth Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Scale [YOCSS]) and OCPD traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]). The results support the continuity hypothesis, indicating that both OCD and OCPD can be represented along a single underlying spectrum. OCD, and especially the obsessive symptom domain, can be considered as the extreme end of OCPD traits. The current study empirically supports the classification of OCD and OCPD along a single dimension. This integrative perspective in OC-related pathology addresses the dimensional nature of traits and psychopathology and may improve the transparency and validity of assessment procedures. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Can the Five Factor Model of Personality Account for the Variability of Autism Symptom Expression? Multivariate Approaches to Behavioral Phenotyping in Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Benjamin C; Wood, Jeffrey J; Kapp, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to: determine the extent to which the five factor model of personality (FFM) accounts for variability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in adults, examine differences in average FFM personality traits of adults with and without ASD and identify distinct behavioral phenotypes within ASD. Adults (N = 828; nASD = 364) completed an online survey with an autism trait questionnaire and an FFM personality questionnaire. FFM facets accounted for 70 % of variance in autism trait scores. Neuroticism positively correlated with autism symptom severity, while extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness negatively correlated with autism symptom severity. Four FFM subtypes emerged within adults with ASD, with three subtypes characterized by high neuroticism and none characterized by lower-than-average neuroticism.

  15. The association between medically unexplained physical symptoms and health care use over two years and the influence of depressive and anxiety disorders and personality traits: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boeft, Madelon; Twisk, Jos W R; Terluin, Berend; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Numans, Mattijs E; van der Wouden, Johannes C; van der Horst, Henriette E

    2016-03-22

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are highly prevalent and are associated with frequent health care use (HCU). MUPS frequently co-occur with psychiatric disorders. With this study we examined the longitudinal association between MUPS and HCU over 2 years and the influence of depressive and anxiety disorders and personality traits on this association. We analysed follow-up data from 2045 to 2981 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), a multisite cohort study. The study population included participants with a current depressive and/or anxiety disorder, participants with a lifetime risk and/or subthreshold symptoms for depressive and/or anxiety disorders and healthy controls. HCU, measured with the Trimbos and iMTA questionnaire on Costs associated with Psychiatric illness (TIC-P), was operationalized as the number of used medical services and the number of associated contacts. MUPS were measured with the Four Dimensional Symptoms Questionnaire, depressive and anxiety disorders with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and personality traits with the NEO Five-Factory Inventory. Measurements were taken at baseline, 1 and 2 years follow-up. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE), using HCU at all three measurements as (multivariate) outcome. GEE also takes into account the dependency of observations within participants. MUPS were positively associated with HCU over 2 years (medical services: RR 1.020, 95 % CI 1.017-1.022; contacts: RR 1.037, 95 % CI 1.030-1.044). Neuroticism and depression had the strongest influence on the associations. After adjustment for these factors, the associations between MUPS and HCU weakened, but remained significant (services: RR 1.011, 95 % CI 1.008-1.014; contacts: RR 1.023, 95 % CI 1.015-1.032). Our results show that MUPS were positively associated with HCU over 2 years, even after adjusting for depressive and anxiety disorders and personality traits.

  16. Borderline personality disorder symptoms and criminal justice system involvement: The roles of emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly E; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

    2017-07-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with elevated risk for a variety of risky behaviors, including criminal behaviors. Yet, limited research has examined the relation of BPD to criminal justice (CJ) involvement, or the mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the role of two mechanisms, emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression, in the relation between BPD symptom severity and CJ involvement among 118 patients in residential substance abuse treatment (76% male; 62% African-American). Participants completed measures of BPD symptom severity, CJ contact, diversity of CJ charges, emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, physical aggression, and covariates (substance use severity and antisocial personality disorder symptoms). BPD symptom severity was associated with CJ contact through emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors, and with diversity of CJ charges through emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression; however, the indirect relations to diversity of CJ charges became non-significant when covariates were included. Results highlight the important role of emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors in criminal behaviors among individuals with BPD symptoms, as well as the potential clinical utility of targeting this mechanism to prevent CJ involvement and/or recidivism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antisocial personality disorder and anxiety disorder: a diagnostic variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone

    2010-06-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with co-morbid anxiety disorder may be a variant of ASPD with different etiology and treatment requirements. We investigated diagnostic co-morbidity, ASPD criteria, and anxiety/affective symptoms of ASPD/anxiety disorder. Weighted analyses were carried out using survey data from a representative British household sample. ASPD/anxiety disorder demonstrated differing patterns of antisocial criteria, co-morbidity with clinical syndromes, psychotic symptoms, and other personality disorders compared to ASPD alone. ASPD criteria demonstrated specific associations with CIS-R scores of anxiety and affective symptoms. Findings suggest ASPD/anxiety disorder is a variant of ASPD, determined by symptoms of anxiety. Although co-morbid anxiety and affective symptoms are the same as in anxiety disorder alone, associations with psychotic symptoms require further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative expe...

  19. From Narcissistic Personality Disorder to Frontotemporal Dementia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Poletti; Ubaldo Bonuccelli

    2011-01-01

    Premorbid personality characteristics could have a pathoplastic effect on behavioral symptoms and personality changes related to neurodegenerative diseases. Patients with personality disorders, in particular of the dramatic cluster, may present functional frontolimbic abnormalities. May these neurobiological vulnerabilities linked to a premorbid personality disorder predispose or represent a risk factor to subsequently develop a neurodegenerative disorder? Are subjects with personality disord...

  20. The mental health of preschoolers in a Norwegian population-based study when their parents have symptoms of borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders: at the mercy of unpredictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg-Nielsen Turid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical studies have shown that children of parents with mental health problems are most likely to develop psychiatric problems themselves when their parents have a Personality Disorder characterized by hostility. The Personality Disorders that appear most associated with hostility, with the potential to affect children, are Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The question addressed in this study is whether the risk to children’s mental health extends to the normal population of parents who have subclinical symptomlevels of these disorders. Methods This inquiry used data from a Trondheim, Norway community sample of 922 preschoolers and one parent for each child. The mean age of the children was 53 months (SD 2.1. Parents reported symptoms of Borderline, Antisocial and Narcissistic Personality Disorders on the DSM-IV ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire, and the children’s symptoms of DSM-IV behavioral and emotional diagnoses were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive interview. Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the effect of parents’ symptoms on their preschoolers’ behavioral and emotional problems. Results The analyses yielded strongly significant values for the effect of parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms on child problems, explaining 13.2% of the variance of the children’s behavioral symptoms and 2.9% of the variance of internalizing symptoms. Biological parents’ cohabitation status, i.e., whether they were living together, emerged as a strong moderator on the associations between parental variables and child emotional symptoms; when parents were not cohabiting, the variance of the children’s emotional problems explained by the parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms increased from 2.9% to 19.1%. Conclusions For the first time, it is documented that parents’ self

  1. The mental health of preschoolers in a Norwegian population-based study when their parents have symptoms of borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders: at the mercy of unpredictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Wichström, Lars

    2012-07-09

    Clinical studies have shown that children of parents with mental health problems are most likely to develop psychiatric problems themselves when their parents have a Personality Disorder characterized by hostility. The Personality Disorders that appear most associated with hostility, with the potential to affect children, are Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The question addressed in this study is whether the risk to children's mental health extends to the normal population of parents who have subclinical symptomlevels of these disorders. This inquiry used data from a Trondheim, Norway community sample of 922 preschoolers and one parent for each child. The mean age of the children was 53 months (SD 2.1). Parents reported symptoms of Borderline, Antisocial and Narcissistic Personality Disorders on the DSM-IV ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire, and the children's symptoms of DSM-IV behavioral and emotional diagnoses were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive interview. Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the effect of parents' symptoms on their preschoolers' behavioral and emotional problems. The analyses yielded strongly significant values for the effect of parents' Personality Disorder symptoms on child problems, explaining 13.2% of the variance of the children's behavioral symptoms and 2.9% of the variance of internalizing symptoms. Biological parents' cohabitation status, i.e., whether they were living together, emerged as a strong moderator on the associations between parental variables and child emotional symptoms; when parents were not cohabiting, the variance of the children's emotional problems explained by the parents' Personality Disorder symptoms increased from 2.9% to 19.1%. For the first time, it is documented that parents' self-reported symptoms of Borderline, Antisocial, and Narcissistic Personality Disorders at a

  2. The prevalence of personality disorders in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Reiko; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Nolido, Nyryan V; Barsky, Arthur J

    2010-01-01

    Although Axis I hypochondriasis is closely related to certain personality characteristics, the nature and extent of personality dysfunction in these patients still needs clarification. This study assessed the prevalence of personality disorders observed in hypochondriacal patients, described the types and comorbidity of personality disorders, and compared the psychological distress of patients with and without the most common comorbid personality disorder. One hundred fifteen patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for hypochondriasis completed self-administered assessments, including the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Whiteley Index, and the Somatic Symptom Inventory. These data were taken from a study conducted between September 1997 and November 2001. Eighty-eight patients (76.5%) had 1 or more personality disorders, whereas 27 patients (23.5%) had no personality disorders. Fifty-one patients (44.3%) had more than 3 personality disorders. The most common personality disorder in the hypochondriacal patients was obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD; 55.7%), followed by avoidant personality disorder (40.9%). The comorbidity of OCPD and avoidant personality disorder was 53.1% (34 of 64 patients with OCPD). The total PDQ-4+ score of the 64 patients with OCPD was significantly higher than that of the 51 patients without OCPD. On the SCL-90-R, the 64 patients with OCPD showed significantly higher scores on all of 3 global indices and 7 of 10 primary symptom dimensions (paranoid ideation, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, and psychoticism) on the SCL-90-R compared to the 51 patients without OCPD. The high prevalence of personality disorders, particularly OCPD, among patients with hypochondriasis suggests that consideration of personality features is important in assessment and

  3. Narcissistic personality disorder: effect on relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Sybil V

    Personality disorders, by definition, affect relationships. Narcissistic Personality Disorder can negatively impact relationships in all areas of life: the workplace, the community, and the family. A clear understanding of the types and extent of interpersonal impairment can assist nurses in establishing therapeutic relationships with those diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The purpose of this activity is to examine the negative impact of Narcissistic Personality Disorder on interpersonal relationships. A review of literature connecting Narcissistic Personality Disorder to impairment in relationships. Research findings show that Narcissistic Personality Disorder symptoms and behaviors will negatively impact interpersonal relationships across all areas of life. CONCLUSIONS AND COMMENT: Nurses interact with diverse populations in a variety of settings. Establishment of a therapeutic relationship with individuals who have Narcissistic Personality Disorder can be aided by a clear understanding of the associated relationship issues.

  4. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A headache may mean a brain tumor. Body dysmorphic disorder occurs when a person becomes obsessed with ... body. Common concerns for people who have body dysmorphic disorder include: wrinkles hair loss weight gain size ...

  5. Childhood antecedents of adolescent personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D P; Cohen, P; Skodol, A; Bezirganian, S; Brook, J S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the childhood antecedents of personality disorders that are diagnosed in adolescence. A randomly selected community sample of 641 youths was assessed initially in childhood and followed longitudinally over 10 years. Childhood behavior ratings were based on maternal report; diagnoses of adolescent personality disorders were based on data obtained from both maternal and youth informants. Four composite measures of childhood behavior problems were used: conduct problems, depressive symptoms, anxiety/fear, and immaturity. Adolescent personality disorders were considered present only if the disorders persisted over a 2-year period. For all analyses, personality disorders were grouped into the three clusters (A, B, and C) of DSM-III-R. Logistic regression analyses indicated that all four of the putative childhood antecedents were associated with greater odds of an adolescent personality disorder 10 years later. Childhood conduct problems remained an independent predictor of personality disorders in all three clusters, even when other childhood problems were included in the same regression model. Additionally, depressive symptoms emerged as an independent predictor of cluster A personality disorders in boys, while immaturity was an independent predictor of cluster B personality disorders in girls. No moderating effects of age at time of childhood assessment were found. These results support the view that personality disorders can be traced to childhood emotional and behavioral disturbances and suggest that these problems have both general and specific relationships to adolescent personality functioning.

  6. Personality and psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyette, L.L.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the current thesis is the contribution of normal personality traits as conceptualized by the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) to the manifestation of illness in patients with psychotic disorders. These studies were part of the Dutch national Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis

  7. [Narcissistic personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, C-H; Vater, A; Roepke, S

    2013-07-01

    Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions.

  8. Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, P N

    1991-01-01

    Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...

  9. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozkan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one

  10. Eating disorders and personality

    OpenAIRE

    Levallius, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious psychiatric conditions often demanding specialized psychiatric care. Several effective treatments have been developed and disseminated, but more needs to be done, as not all patients respond well to intervention, let alone achieve recovery. Obvious candidates such as eating disorder diagnosis, symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity have generally failed to explain variability in prognosis and outcome, warranting investigation of a wider range of relevant factors. Ac...

  11. [Comorbidity in patients with narcissistic personality disorder in comparison to patients with borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kathrin; Roepke, Stefan; Merkl, Angela; Heuser, Isabella; Fydrich, Thomas; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich

    2010-01-01

    Patients with a narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) do not often consult a psychotherapist or psychiatrist because of their NPD, but rather, because of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, or higher general symptom stress. Until now there is no actual data about rates of co-occurrence disorders and general symptom stress. Which axis I and axis II disorders occur typically in NPD in comparison to patients with a borderline personality disorder (BPD)? How are general symptom stress and depressive symptoms related? Prevalence of co-occurring disorders (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I and Axis II) and general symptom stress (SCL-90-R) and depression (BDI) were investigated in 62 patients with a NPD, 62 patients with a BPD and 59 patients with a double diagnosis NPD/BPD. Affective disorders (64.5%) and substance use disorders (35.5%) were the most comorbid psychiatric disorders in patients with NPD. Substance use disorders (pdisorder (PTSD) (pdisorders (ppersonality disorder (pdisorders and antisocial personality disorder. Patients with NPD showed lowest rates of co-occurring disorders and lowest scores in general symptom stress and depression than the other two groups. In general, patients with NPD showed similar co-occurring disorders as patients with BPD, or with the co-diagnosis NPD and BPD, but they showed lower scores for general symptom stress and depression. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  12. Developmental aspects of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, D B; Zanarini, M C

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether patients with borderline personality disorder and controls with other personality disorders remember their childhoods differently with respect to separation difficulties, evocative memory, temperamental factors such as frustration tolerance and mood reactivity, and onset of symptoms. Two hundred and ninety patients with borderline personality disorder and 72 with other personality disorders were assessed using an instrument to rate memories of separation difficulties, temperamental problems, and onset of symptoms before age 18. Patients with borderline personality disorder remembered more difficulties with separation between ages 6 and 17 years, more mood reactivity and poorer frustration tolerance between ages 6 and 17, and the onset of more symptoms (most prominently sadness, depression, anxiety, and suicidality) before age 18 than did patients with other personality disorders. The groups did not differ in reports of evocative memory before age 18. These results indicate that many of the features of adult patients with borderline personality disorder may initially appear during childhood and adolescence and that these features may be used to differentiate borderline from other personality disorders.

  13. Establishing the severity of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, P; Johnson, T

    1996-12-01

    The authors developed a simplified method of rating the severity of personality disorder. The new rating method is based on four levels of severity: no personality disorder, personality difficulty, simple personality disorder, and diffuse personality disorder. The new method was applied to different diagnostic systems and was then compared with an old rating system based on six severity levels. Data were derived from a longitudinal study in which 163 patients with anxiety and depressive disorders had initial assessments of personality status and were followed up over 2 years. Ratings of psychiatric symptoms were made by using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale over this period. The results were analyzed with special attention to linear and quadratic trends. The new system was clinically useful in separating patients' initial assessments and outcomes. Patients with no personality disorder had the lowest initial symptom scores and the best outcomes, and those with diffuse personality disorder had the highest initial levels of symptoms and improved least over the 2 years. When the patients were separated by the old classification system, 72% of the variation between groups was accounted for by linear and quadratic trends; the comparable percentage was 97% when the patients were categorized by the new system. The new system of rating severity of personality disturbance is an improvement on existing methods and allows ratings to be made easily from DSM-IV and ICD-10.

  14. Schizoid personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a lack of interest in close relationships, both in the family and in other interpersonal relationships, including intimate/sexual interactions, a superiority of introverted activities, emotional coldness, estrangement and flattened affect (DSM-5. This video lecture is devoted to the review of the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder. In addition, the lecture examines clinical cases and an example of managing such patients.

  15. Emotion Socialization Strategies of Mothers With Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms: The Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation and Interactions With Infant Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Viana, Andres G; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

    2017-06-01

    Although the interpersonal difficulties associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are well established, their manifestations within the context of parent-child relationships remain understudied. The current study investigated the relation of maternal BPD symptoms to nonsupportive emotion socialization (i.e., the extent to which mothers punish or minimize their young children's displays of negative emotions), as well as the mediating role of maternal emotion regulation difficulties in this relation. The authors also investigated the moderating role of maternal BPD symptoms in the relation between infant temperamental anger and fear and punitive/minimizing emotion socialization. Using a sample of 99 mother-infant dyads, the authors found that maternal BPD symptoms were significantly related to punitive/minimizing emotion socialization and that maternal emotion regulation difficulties mediated this relation. Moreover, maternal BPD symptoms strengthened the association between mother-reported infant anger and punitive/minimizing emotion socialization. These results extend the growing literature on the impact of maternal BPD on child development.

  16. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  17. Distinctions of bipolar disorder symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiene, Devika; Leskauskas, Darius; Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Klimavicius, Dalius; Adomaitiene, Virginija

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder in adolescents is a serious mental illness with problematic diagnosis that adversely affects social, academic, emotional, and family functioning. The objective of this study was to analyze features of premorbid and clinical symptoms, comorbidity, and course of bipolar disorder in adolescence. Data for analysis were collected from all case histories (N=6) of 14-18-year-old patients, hospitalized with diagnosis of bipolar disorder in the Unit of Children's and Adolescents' Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine, during the period from 2000 to 2005. Analysis of bipolar disorder course showed that five patients previously had been diagnosed with an episode of depression. The most frequent symptoms typical to bipolar disorder were disobedience and impulsive behavior, rapid changes of mood. The most common premorbid features were frequent changes of mood, being active in communication, hyperactive behavior. Adolescence-onset bipolar disorder was frequently comorbid with emotionally instable personality disorder, borderline type. Findings of the study confirm the notion that oppositional or impulsive behavior, rapid changes of mood without any reason, dysphoric mood and euphoric mood episodes with increased energy were cardinal symptoms of bipolar disorder with mania in adolescents. Most frequent premorbid features of these patients were quite similar to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder making differential diagnosis problematic.

  18. Studies of Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M

    2014-01-01

    The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy...

  19. Mood disorder history and personality assessment in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, D G; Bond, A J; Wingrove, J

    2001-09-01

    Menstrually related dysphoria is known to be associated with other affective disorders, notably major depressive disorder and puerperal depression. The relationship between premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and maladaptive personality disorders and traits, however, is less established, at least in part because of the methodological and nosologic difficulties in the diagnosis of both PMDD and personality disorders. This study seeks to address this problem to elucidate the relationship between PMDD, other affective disturbances commonly experienced by women, and maladaptive personality. Axis I and II disorders were examined using standardized instruments and stringent diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV and the International Personality Disorders Examination) in 34 women with DSM-IV PMDD and 22 healthy women without severe premenstrual mood changes. Seventy-seven percent of the PMDD group had suffered from a past Axis I disorder in comparison with 17% of the control group. Two thirds of the parous women with PMDD had suffered from major depressive disorder in the puerperium. Personality disorder diagnoses were not highly represented in either group of women. The women with PMDD had significantly more obsessional personality traits (p personality disorder diagnoses. Obsessional symptoms are known to cluster with the affective disorders and may reflect underlying temperamental and biological vulnerability. This study provides further evidence of the link between serotonergic dysregulation, personality vulnerability, and mood changes related to the female reproductive cycle.

  20. A pilot study on the Chinese Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders: Simulators classified by using the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Ting; Tam, Wai-Cheong C; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2017-09-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is often used in forensic psychological/psychiatric assessment. This was a pilot study on the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders. The sample consisted of 194 university students who were either simulators (informed or uninformed) or controls. All the participants were administered the Chinese MMPI-2 and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms-2 (SIRS-2). The results of the SIRS-2 were utilized to classify the participants into the feigning or control groups. The effectiveness of eight detection indices was investigated by using item analysis, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results indicated that informed-simulating participants with prior knowledge of mental disorders did not perform better in avoiding feigning detection than uninformed-simulating participants. In addition, the eight detection indices of the Chinese MMPI-2 were effective in discriminating participants in the feigning and control groups, and the best cut-off scores of three of the indices were higher than those obtained from the studies using the English MMPI-2. Thus, in this sample of university students, the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders was tentatively supported, and the Chinese Infrequency Scale (ICH), a scale developed specifically for the Chinese MMPI-2, was also supported as a valid scale for validity checking. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

  2. Elevated Monoamine Oxidase-A Distribution Volume in Borderline Personality Disorder Is Associated With Severity Across Mood Symptoms, Suicidality, and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Chiuccariello, Lina; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Links, Paul; Bagby, R Michael; McMain, Shelley; Kellow, Charis; Patel, Jalpa; Rekkas, Paraskevi V; Pasricha, Suvercha; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-15

    Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is a treatment target in neurodegenerative illness and mood disorders that increases oxidative stress and predisposition toward apoptosis. Increased MAO-A levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) occur in rodent models of depressive behavior and human studies of depressed moods. Extreme dysphoria is common in borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially when severe, and the molecular underpinnings of severe BPD are largely unknown. We hypothesized that MAO-A levels in PFC and ACC would be highest in severe BPD and would correlate with symptom magnitude. [(11)C] Harmine positron emission tomography measured MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in severe BPD subjects (n = 14), moderate BPD subjects (n = 14), subjects with a major depressive episode (MDE) only (n = 14), and healthy control subjects (n = 14). All subjects were female. Severe BPD was associated with greater PFC and ACC MAO-A VT compared with moderate BPD, MDE, and healthy control subjects (multivariate analysis of variance group effect: F6,102 = 5.6, p mood symptoms (PFC: r = .52, p = .005; ACC: r = .53, p = .004) and suicidality (PFC: r = .40, p = .037; ACC: r = .38, p = .046), while hippocampus MAO-A VT was negatively correlated with verbal memory (r = -.44, p = .023). These results suggest that elevated MAO-A VT is associated with multiple indicators of BPD severity, including BPD symptomatology, mood symptoms, suicidality, and neurocognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevated Monoamine Oxidase-A Distribution Volume in Borderline Personality Disorder Is Associated With Severity Across Mood Symptoms, Suicidality, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J.; Chiuccariello, Lina; Wilson, Alan A.; Houle, Sylvain; Links, Paul; Bagby, R. Michael; McMain, Shelley; Kellow, Charis; Patel, Jalpa; Rekkas, Paraskevi V.; Pasricha, Suvercha; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is a treatment target in neurodegenerative illness and mood disorders that increases oxidative stress and predisposition toward apoptosis. Increased MAO-A levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) occur in rodent models of depressive behavior and human studies of depressed moods. Extreme dysphoria is common in borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially when severe, and the molecular underpinnings of severe BPD are largely unknown. We hypothesized that MAO-A levels in PFC and ACC would be highest in severe BPD and would correlate with symptom magnitude. METHODS [11C] Harmine positron emission tomography measured MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in severe BPD subjects (n = 14), moderate BPD subjects (n = 14), subjects with a major depressive episode (MDE) only (n = 14), and healthy control subjects (n = 14). All subjects were female. RESULTS Severe BPD was associated with greater PFC and ACC MAO-A VT compared with moderate BPD, MDE, and healthy control subjects (multivariate analysis of variance group effect: F6,102 = 5.6, p MAO-A VT were positively correlated with mood symptoms (PFC: r = .52, p = .005; ACC: r = .53, p = .004) and suicidality (PFC: r = .40, p = .037; ACC: r = .38, p = .046), while hippocampus MAO-A VT was negatively correlated with verbal memory (r = −.44, p = .023). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that elevated MAO-A VT is associated with multiple indicators of BPD severity, including BPD symptomatology, mood symptoms, suicidality, and neurocognitive impairment. PMID:25698585

  4. Can personality traits predict increases in manic and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, B E; Johnson, S L

    2001-03-01

    There has been limited research investigating personality traits as predictors of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar individuals. The present study investigated the relation between personality traits and the course of bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify specific personality traits that predict the course of manic and depressive symptoms experienced by bipolar individuals. The sample consisted of 39 participants with bipolar I disorder assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality was assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale were used to assess symptom severity on a monthly basis. Consistent with previous research on unipolar depression, high Neuroticism predicted increases in depressive symptoms across time while controlling for baseline symptoms. Additionally, high Conscientiousness, particularly the Achievement Striving facet, predicted increases in manic symptoms across time. The current study was limited by the small number of participants, the reliance on a shortened version of a self-report personality measure, and the potential state-dependency of the personality measures. Specific personality traits may assist in predicting bipolar symptoms across time. Further studies are needed to tease apart the state-dependency of personality.

  5. Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This a video is one of the series of lectures about personality disorders. It covers the concept of narcissism and the concept of narcissism personality disorder.  The lecture is mainly focused on the differences between normal and pathological narcissism as well as etiology, diagnosis and practical recommendations on treatment of narcissism personality disorder.

  6. Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-01-01

    This a video is one of the series of lectures about personality disorders. It covers the concept of narcissism and the concept of narcissism personality disorder.  The lecture is mainly focused on the differences between normal and pathological narcissism as well as etiology, diagnosis and practical recommendations on treatment of narcissism personality disorder.

  7. The Relationship between Concurrent Substance Use Disorders and Eating Disorders with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Courbasson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current pilot study investigated whether patients with concurrent substance use disorders and eating disorders (SUD and ED who experienced a reduction in SUD and ED symptoms following treatment for SUD and ED also experienced a reduction in personality disorder (PD symptoms. Method: Twenty patients with SUD and ED and PD were assessed pre and post treatment using clinical interviews, self-report questionnaires, and a therapist questionnaire on DSM-IV-TR symptoms for PD. Results: Symptoms for the personality disorders were reduced following treatment. This reduction was correlated with a decrease in the number of symptoms of ED at post treatment. Discussion: Chronic concurrent SUD and ED may make it difficult to separate PD symptoms from co-occurring disorders. Many features attributed to PDs may be reduced when problematic substance use and disordered eating are addressed, a fact that may increase clinician and patients’optimism about therapeutic change.

  8. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER FOLLOWING CONVERSION AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER NOS : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jhingan, Harsh Prem; Aggarwal, Neeruj; Saxena, Shekhar; Gupta, Dhanesh K.

    2000-01-01

    A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria is being reported. The clinical implications are discussed.

  9. SCREENING FOR PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    A brief but valid self-report measure to screen for personality disorders (PDs) would be a valuable tool in making decisions about further assessment and in planning optimal treatments. In psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples, we compared the validity of three screening measures: the PD scales from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, a self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen, and the self-directedness scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Despite their different theoretical origins, the screeners were highly correlated in a range from .71 to .77. As a result, the use of multiple screeners was not a significant improvement over any individual screener, and no single screener stood out as clearly superior to the others. Each performed modestly in predicting the presence of any PD diagnosis in both the psychiatric and nonpsychiatric groups. Performance was best when predicting a more severe PD diagnosis in the psychiatric sample. The results also highlight the potential value of multiple assessments when relying on self-reports. PMID:17492920

  10. The Stigma of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lindsay; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Corrigan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the recent literature on the stigma of personality disorders, including an overview of general mental illness stigma and an examination of the personality-specific stigma. Overall, public knowledge of personality disorders is low, and people with personality disorders may be perceived as purposefully misbehaving rather than experiencing an illness. Health provider stigma seems particularly pernicious for those with borderline personality disorder. Most stigma research on personality disorders has been completed outside the USA, and few stigma-change interventions specific to personality disorder have been scientifically tested. Limited evidence suggests that health provider training can improve stigmatizing attitudes and that interventions combining positive messages of recovery potential with biological etiology will be most impactful to reduce stigma. Anti-stigma interventions designed specifically for health providers, family members, criminal justice personnel, and law enforcement seem particularly beneficial, given these sources of stigma.

  11. Comorbidity bipolar disorder and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Jana; Ociskova, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients can be affected by comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. We have much information about treating patients with uncomplicated bipolar disorder (BD) but much less knowledge about possibilities for patients with the comorbidity of BD and personality disorder. We conducted a series of literature searches using, as key words or as items in indexed fields, bipolar disorder and personality disorder or personality traits. Articles were obtained by searching MEDLINE from 1970 to 2012. In addition, we used other papers cited in articles from these searches, or cited in articles used in our own work. Tests of personality traits indicated that euthymic bipolar patients have higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, and novelty seeking than controls. Elevation of novelty seeking in bipolar patients is associated with substance abuse comorbidity. Comorbidity with personality disorders in BD patients is associated with a more difficult course of illness (such as longer episodes, shorter time euthymic, and earlier age at onset) and an increase in comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and aggression. These problems are particularly pronounced in comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Comorbidity with antisocial personality disorder elicits a similar spectrum of difficulties; some of the antisocial behavior exhibited by patients with this comorbidity is mediated by increased impulsivity.

  12. Clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms in perpetrators of severe crimes against persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the possibility of common signs and symptoms of childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders and personality disorders, especially psychopathy, in a cohort of violent offenders. A structured neuropsychiatric status comprising features recorded in childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders and adult personality disorders was assessed in 89 perpetrators of severe crimes against other persons, analysed for factor structure, and compared to clinical diagnostics of neuropsychiatric disorders and independent assessments of psychopathy rated by the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). One or several childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders [autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), tics and learning disability] affected the majority of adult offenders. A factor analysis yielded four higher-order problem constellations: Executive Dysfunction, Compulsivity, Social Interaction Problems and Superficiality. All four constellations were positively correlated with life histories of aggression, stressing the clinical importance of these problems in adult forensic psychiatry. Compulsivity and Social Interaction Problems were associated with autistic traits and tics, Executive Dysfunction with AD/HD, conduct disorder and psychopathic as well as autistic traits. Superficiality was a distinct aspect of AD/HD and psychopathic traits, especially the PCL-R factor reflecting interpersonal callousness. Neuropsychiatric disorders and personality disorders such as psychopathy share common symptoms. The various facets of psychopathy are associated with executive dysfunction and empathy deficits with superficial understanding of self, others and the rules of communication.

  13. Antipsychotic treatment of schizotypy and schizotypal personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Skyum, Eva; Hashemi, Nasseh

    2017-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is characterised by thought disorders, experiences of illusions, obsessive ruminations, bizarre or eccentric behaviour, cognitive problems and deficits in social functioning - symptoms that SPD shares with schizophrenia. Efforts have been undertaken...

  14. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can the Five Factor Model of Personality Account for the Variability of Autism Symptom Expression? Multivariate Approaches to Behavioral Phenotyping in Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Benjamin C.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Kapp, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to: determine the extent to which the five factor model of personality (FFM) accounts for variability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in adults, examine differences in average FFM personality traits of adults with and without ASD and identify distinct behavioral phenotypes within ASD. Adults (N = 828;…

  16. Therapeutic assessment promotes treatment readiness but does not affect symptom change in patients with personality disorders: Findings from a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Saeger, H.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Finn, S.E.; Smith, J.D.; Verheul, R.; van Busschbach, J.J.; Feenstra, D.J.; Dine, J.; Horn, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    The field of clinical personality assessment is lacking in published empirical evidence regarding its treatment and clinical utility. This article reports on a randomized controlled clinical trial (N = 74) allocating patients awaiting treatment in a specialized clinic for personality disorders to

  17. GENDER ROLE AND PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the persona...

  18. From narcissistic personality disorder to frontotemporal dementia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2011-01-01

    Premorbid personality characteristics could have a pathoplastic effect on behavioral symptoms and personality changes related to neurodegenerative diseases. Patients with personality disorders, in particular of the dramatic cluster, may present functional frontolimbic abnormalities. May these neurobiological vulnerabilities linked to a premorbid personality disorder predispose or represent a risk factor to subsequently develop a neurodegenerative disorder? Are subjects with personality disorders more at risk to develop a dementia than mentally healthy subjects? This topic is discussed presenting the clinical case of a patient who suffered of a probable Narcissistic Personality Disorder and subsequently developed a clinically diagnosed Frontotemporal Dementia.

  19. Avoidant Personality Disorder: a Current Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, Anna; Schulze, Lars; Boettcher, Johanna; Renneberg, Babette

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on recent research on diagnostic aspects, etiology, and treatment of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Current studies stress the close relation between AVPD and social anxiety disorder, the influence of genetic factors in the development of AVPD, and the relative stability of symptoms. Treatment approaches should target the pervasive patterns of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Empirical evidence for cognitive-behavior and schema therapy is promising. Few other therapeutic approaches have been developed, but until now, these have only been investigated in case studies. We conclude that AVPD qualifies as a neglected disorder and that more research specifically on avoidant personality disorder symptoms and its treatment is needed.

  20. Using personality neuroscience to study personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; DeYoung, Colin G

    2017-01-01

    Personality neuroscience integrates techniques from personality psychology and neuroscience to elucidate the neural basis of individual differences in cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. This endeavor is pertinent not only to our understanding of healthy personality variation, but also to the aberrant trait manifestations present in personality disorders and severe psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on the advances and limitations of neuroimaging methods with respect to personality neuroscience. We discuss the value of personality theory as a means to link specific neural mechanisms with various traits (e.g., the neural basis of the "Big Five"). Given the overlap between dimensional models of normal personality and psychopathology, we also describe how researchers can reconceptualize psychopathological disorders along key dimensions, and, in turn, formulate specific neural hypotheses, extended from personality theory. Examples from the borderline personality disorder literature are used to illustrate this approach. We provide recommendations for utilizing neuroimaging methods to capture the neural mechanisms that underlie continuous traits across the spectrum from healthy to maladaptive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Multiple Personality Disorder: Concepts and Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, Hope L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two case examples illustrating nature and etiology of multiple personality disorder in two clients and describing their entry into counseling and progress through treatment. Compares and contrasts cases in areas of diagnosis, symptoms, history, and treatment. Suggests that mental health counselors combine firmness with flexibility in…

  2. PERSONALITY TRAITS AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija TAHIROVIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD show pathological personality traits in three of the five domains (APA 2013. In addition to diagnostic criteria for BPD, described by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, the dimensional model of personality disorder, based on five-factor model of personality, seems to gain interest as it promisses to eliminate problems associated with poor-fit, co-morbidity and unclear diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to identify the personality traits by people who are already diagnosed with BPD using the DSM-5 categorical criteria. Based on the theoretical concepts and existing research findings as well as increased interest in the dimensional personality theory, we assume that people diagnosed with BPD will show high levels of pathology on three trait domains: negative affectivity, disinhibition and antagonism. This study was conducted in Germany in psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5 was used. The findings supported the assumptions that people with BPD show some degree of anxiousness, emotional lability, hostility, impulsivity, risk taking and separation anxiety. The study also found that traits such as distractibility, withdrawal and submissiveness were also present in this participant group. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants it has provided contribution to the already existing knowledge and understanding in regards to common personality treats for people diagnosed with BPD.

  3. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  4. GENDER ROLE AND PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the personality disorders except antisocial. Dependent traits were associated with higher femininity and lower masculinity. Antisocial traits were associated with masculinity. Both men and women who typically behaved consistent with their gender had more narcissistic and histrionic features, whereas participants who typically behaved unlike their gender had more features of the Cluster A personality disorders. PMID:12489312

  5. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Avoidant Personality Disorder is a Separable Schizophrenia Spectrum Personality Disorder even when Controlling for the Presence of Paranoid and Schizotypal Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Nuechterlein, K. H.; Asarnow, R. A.; Payne, D. L.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K. C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be a separable dimension of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs.

  7. The prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Shamohammadi, Morteza; Salmanian, Maryam

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in 16-18 year old adolescents. In this cross sectional - descriptive study, 422 high school students (211 boys, 211 girls) aged 16-18 were selected by cluster random sampling and simple random sampling in 2011-2012. The participants were assessed using the revised diagnostic interview for borderline questionnaire (DIB-R) and demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient. Of the participants, 0/9% (0/22 % of the 16 year olds, 0.45 % of the 17 year olds and 0/22% of the 18 year olds) were diagnosed with borderline personality symptoms. Also, the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in boys was 0/45 % of the total sample and it was 0/45 % of the total sample in girls. With respect to the relationship between demographic variables (age, sex, location, parents' occupation, parents' kinship, parents' education and birth order) and borderline personality symptoms, only parents' kinship showed a weak correlation with borderline personality symptoms. In the view of the prevalence of 0.9% of the borderline personality symptoms in adolescents, attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Furthermore, works need to be done to improve the mental health and quality of life of adolescents.

  8. The prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in 16-18 year old adolescents.In this cross sectional - descriptive study, 422 high school students (211 boys, 211 girls aged 16-18 were selected by cluster random sampling and simple random sampling in 2011-2012. The participants were assessed using the revised diagnostic interview for borderline questionnaire (DIB-R and demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient.Of the participants, 0/9% (0/22 % of the 16 year olds, 0.45 % of the 17 year olds and 0/22% of the 18 year olds were diagnosed with borderline personality symptoms. Also, the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in boys was 0/45 % of the total sample and it was 0/45 % of the total sample in girls. With respect to the relationship between demographic variables (age, sex, location, parents' occupation, parents' kinship, parents' education and birth order and borderline personality symptoms, only parents' kinship showed a weak correlation with borderline personality symptoms.In the view of the prevalence of 0.9% of the borderline personality symptoms in adolescents, attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Furthermore, works need to be done to improve the mental health and quality of life of adolescents.

  9. Alzheimer's disease camouflaged by histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Sabine; Dykierek, Petra; Hellwig, Bernhard; Zwernemann, Stefan; Meyer, Philipp T

    2012-02-01

    A common condition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unawareness of deficits. Different concepts try to elucidate the nature of this symptom. An essential question relates to the interaction of organic and psychogenic factors. Here we present a patient who displayed her cognitive deficits as attention-seeking behaviour. There was a history of histrionic personality disorder according to ICD-10 criteria. Unexpectedly, the final diagnosis after extensive diagnostic work-up was AD. The unusual coincidence of AD and a histrionic personality disorder hampered the clinical process of diagnosing dementia. We discuss unawareness as a complex concept incorporating neuroanatomical, psychiatric, and psychosocial aspects.

  10. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ozkan; Abdurrahman Altindag

    2003-01-01

    Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male), who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia). Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders...

  11. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe L

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD, schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. Keywords: avoidant personality disorder, social anxiety disorder, social cognition, psychotherapy, attachment

  12. Ethical aspects of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendelow, Gillian

    2010-11-01

    To review recent literature around the controversial diagnosis of personality disorder, and to assess the ethical aspects of its status as a medical disorder. The diagnostic currency of personality disorder as a psychiatric/medical disorder has a longstanding history of ethical and social challenges through critiques of the medicalization of deviance. More recently controversies by reflexive physicians around the inclusion of the category in the forthcoming revisions of International Classification of Diseases and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classifications reflect the problems of value-laden criteria, with the diagnostic category being severely challenged from within psychiatry as well as from without. The clinical diagnostic criteria for extremely value-laden psychiatric conditions such as personality disorder need to be analyzed through the lens of values-based medicine, as well as through clinical evidence, as the propensity for political and sociolegal appropriation of the categories can render their clinical and diagnostic value meaningless.

  13. Investigation of Personality Disordes and Personality Traits in Men with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Noorian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigation of personality disorders and personality traits in men who have gender identity disorder (GID. Identification of personality disorders can be useful for enhancement of the quality of help to the patients. Materials & Methods: This analytical and cross-sectional study was a comparative and case – control research. 40 men with gender identity disorder were selected by convenient sampling from individuals who have been referred to Tehran Navab Safavi welfare center. Also, 40 available individuals who have no any diagnostic criteria about gender identity disorder in DSM-IV-TR and worked in Islamic Azad University (Tehran Sciences and Researches Unit were selected as control group and matched with patients. Personality disorders and those frequencies were evaluated with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Data were analyzed using by Chi-square and Independent T tests. Results: The results showed that gender identity disorder patients get higher scores as compared to control group in scales “Dependent” (P=0/038, “Histrionic” (P<0/001, “Antisocial” (P=0/017, “Passive – aggressive” (P=0/007, “Borderline” (P<0/001 and “Paranoid” (P=0/021 and their difference was significant. Conclusion: Generally, the results of this study showed persons who have gender identity disorder also have some symptoms of personality disorders more than normal people.

  14. Personality disorders in persons with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duišin, Dragana; Batinić, Borjanka; Barišić, Jasmina; Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Vujović, Svetlana; Bizic, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID) have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs). The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth) heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II). Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women) persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) outcome.

  15. Personality Disorders in Persons with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Duišin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II. Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS outcome.

  16. Disentangling depressive personality disorder from avoidant, borderline, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have found that 3 personality disorders (PDs) tend to share moderate rates of comorbidity with depressive PD: avoidant, borderline, and obsessive-compulsive. This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic criteria of each disorder in an effort to understand where areas of overlap may occur and to modify criteria sets where reasonable to reduce any degree of overlap. One thousand two hundred psychiatric outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. The highest degree of comorbidity was observed between avoidant PD and depressive PD. Logistic regression analyses indicated that 2 criteria-avoidant criterion 5 and depressive criterion 2-could be removed from the diagnostic criteria sets and reduce the rates of overlap by as much as 15%. A factor analysis of the criteria of all 4 PDs indicated that there is a common clustering of many of the symptoms of avoidant, borderline, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive PDs and that borderline symptoms tend to cluster together most consistently. Avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality symptoms clustered in ways that may reflect a problem of how to engage with others, suggestive of an approach-avoidance conflict. Depressive PD symptoms clustered in a way suggestive of problems with anger that is directed toward oneself and others. The factor analysis results suggest that an organization of symptoms around themes of conflict may provide useful ways of understanding the personality patterns of these 4 disorders.

  17. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aches and pains Recurring thoughts of death or suicide Other resources: Symptom checklist Learn more about finding a mental health professional. Education Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring ...

  18. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe,Lisa; Malhi,Gin

    2018-01-01

    Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective t...

  19. The relationship between avoidant personality disorder and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2007-01-01

    The main explanatory hypothesis for the distinction between social phobia (SP) and avoidant personality disorder (APD) has been the severity continuum hypothesis, stating that APD only differs from SP in terms of severity of dysfunction and symptomatic distress, that is, social anxiety and depressive symptoms. This study aimed at a comprehensive evaluation of this hypothesis in a large sample (n = 2192) of thoroughly assessed patients, most of whom had a diagnosis of personality disorder. Social phobia was stronger associated with APD than with other personality disorders, and APD was stronger associated with SP than with other symptom disorders. Social phobia-pure patients had a higher level of global functioning and lower levels of general symptom distress and interpersonal problems than APD-pure patients. The 2 groups were similar on domains that pertain to social anxiety and introversion, but APD was associated with a broader array of symptoms and interpersonal problems and was substantially lower on the personality domain of conscientiousness. Avoidant personality disorder was stronger associated with eating disorders, and SP was stronger associated with panic disorder. The APD diagnosis seems to capture a broader constellation of symptoms and personality features pointing toward more severe personality dysfunction. Our findings suggest that the severity continuum hypothesis lacks specificity and exploratory power to account for both similarities and differences between SP and APD.

  20. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the "severity continuum hypothesis", in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment.

  1. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. PMID:29563846

  2. PTSD and depressive symptoms are linked to DHEAS via personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danka; Knezevic, Goran; Matic, Gordana; Damjanovic, Svetozar

    2018-06-01

    Research results on dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ester (DHEAS) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are inconsistent. We hypothesized that personality traits could be the confounders of DHEAS levels and disease symptoms, which could in part explain the discrepancy in findings. This study was a part of a broader project in which simultaneous psychological and biological investigations were carried out in hospital conditions. 380 male subjects were categorized in four groups: A) current PTSD (n = 132), B) lifetime PTSD (n = 66), C) trauma controls (n = 101), and D) healthy controls (n = 81), matched by age. The level of DHEAS is significantly lower in the current PTSD group than in trauma controls. All groups significantly differ in personality traits Disintegration and Neuroticism (current PTSD group having the highest scores). DHEAS is related to both PTSD and depressive symptoms; however, Structural Equation Model (SEM) shows that the relations are indirect, realized via their confounder - personality trait Disintegration. According to our project results, DHEAS is the second putative biomarker for trauma-related disorders that fails to fulfil this expectation. It appears to be more directly related to personality than to the disease symptoms (the first one being basal cortisol). Our data promote personality as a biologically based construct with seemingly important role in understanding the mental health status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

  4. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder, complex posttraumatic stress disorder, and borderline personality disorder from a network analytical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knefel, Matthias; Tran, Ulrich S; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) share etiological risk factors and an overlapping set of associated symptoms. Since the ICD-11 proposal for trauma-related disorders, the relationship of these disorders has to be clarified. A novel approach to psychopathology, network analysis, allows for a detailed analysis of comorbidity on symptom level. Symptoms were assessed in adult survivors of childhood abuse (N=219) using the newly developed ICD-11 Trauma-Questionnaire and the SCID-II. The psychopathological network was analyzed using the network approach. PTSD and Complex PTSD symptoms were strongly connected within disorders and to a lesser degree between disorders. Symptoms of BPD were weakly connected to others. Re-experiencing and dissociation were the most central symptoms. Mental disorders are no discrete entities, clear boundaries are unlikely to be found. The psychopathological network revealed central symptoms that might be important targets for specific first interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroimaging in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildirim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108

  6. [Differential diagnosis between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder remains controversial since in both conditions there are overlapping and similar symptomatic dimensions. Symptomatic dimensions suitable to subserve differential diagnosis are: mood, mood variability mode, and personal and family history. Characteristics of psychotic symptoms may also be useful in the differentiation. On the other hand, anxiety symptoms, neuropsychological profiles, neuro-imaging procedures and biomarkers seem not to contribute to differentiate between both diseases. The presentation of nonsuicidal self mutilation behavior can offer some differences between bipolar and borderline personality disorders, but both can coexist in clinical comorbid forms and do not significantly contribute to the differential diagnosis. Differential diagnosis is complicated by the fact that a low percentage of patients can experience comorbidity of both conditions. In this work we review all these issues, and particularly emphasize the importance of sitematically take into account the patient background, the course that follows his or her disorder, together with the outcome in response to medical decisions.

  7. Personality profiles in patients with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tomotake, Masahito; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2002-01-01

    The present review focused on the personality profiles of patients with eating disorders. Studies using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder showed high rates of diagnostic co-occurrence between eating disorders and personality disorders. The most commonly observed were histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent and borderline personality disorders. Studies using the Cloninger’s personality theory suggested that high Harm Avoidance might be relevant ...

  8. Psychotherapy for histrionic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, MJ

    1997-01-01

    The author uses a configurational analysis method for case formulation and to establish links between individualized formulation and treatment techniques. A prototype of formulation for the histrionic personality disorder is presented, using theories for formulation about states of mind, defensive control processes, and person schemas. A phase-oriented prototype of a treatment plan is linked to these levels of formulation. The result can provide a guideline for clinicians and a teaching document for trainees. PMID:9071660

  9. Psychotherapy for histrionic personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, MJ

    1997-01-01

    The author uses a configurational analysis method for case formulation and to establish links between individualized formulation and treatment techniques. A prototype of formulation for the histrionic personality disorder is presented, using theories for formulation about states of mind, defensive control processes, and person schemas. A phase-oriented prototype of a treatment plan is linked to these levels of formulation. The result can provide a guideline for clinicians an...

  10. The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, Sigridur B; Gersons, Berthold P R; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Disaster work has shown to cause PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in professional emergency personnel. However, very little is known about how disaster work affects community volunteers. This first time longitudinal study examined factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and subjective health complaints in volunteers working in an earthquake setting. At six and eighteen months post disaster, a sample of 506 Indonesian Red Cross volunteers were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory. Factors analyzed in relation to the outcomes included: peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness by the disaster, sleep quality and loss of resources as a consequence of the disaster. At 18 months post-disaster the findings showed high levels of PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints. Quality of sleep was related to both outcomes but resource loss only to PTSD symptoms. Neither peri-traumatic distress nor level of affectedness by the disaster (external versus directly affected volunteers), were predictive of symptoms. This study indicates that characteristics of disaster work e.g. low quality of sleep, may be an important contributor to PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in volunteers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nightmares: from anxiety symptom to sleep disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoormaker, Victor I; Schredl, Michael; van den Bout, Jan

    2006-02-01

    The DSM-IV-TR definition of nightmares-extremely frightening dreams from which the person wakes up directly-is unnecessarily narrow. Other emotions (anger, grief) have also been reported in nightmares, and direct awakening from a bad dream seems to be unrelated to increased distress. In addition, assessment of nightmares is problematic. Polysomnographic recordings have an ameliorating effect on nightmare frequency, retrospective measurements tend to underestimate nightmare frequency, and persons with frequent nightmares may feel reluctant to fill out (daily) prospective measurements. For studying nightmares, it is necessary to distinguish idiopathic nightmares from posttraumatic nightmares, which are part of a posttraumatic stress reaction or disorder that may result from experiencing a traumatic event. Both types of nightmares have been associated with an elevated level of periodic limb movements, although only posttraumatic nightmares seem to be related to more and longer nocturnal awakenings. Nightmares have also been repeatedly associated with the general level of psychopathology, or the so-called personality factor neuroticism. Nightmare distress, the impact on daily functioning caused by nightmares, may function as a mediating variable. Several studies in the last decades have shown that nightmares can be treated with several cognitive-behavioral techniques. The cognitive-restructuring technique imagery rehearsal therapy is the treatment of choice for nightmares, although a randomized controlled trial with an attention control-group has not yet been carried out. Nightmares are more than a symptom of a larger (anxiety) syndrome and need to be viewed from a sleep medicine perspective: nightmares are a highly prevalent and separate sleep disorder that can and should receive specific treatment.

  12. Evaluation of changes in prescription medication use after a residential treatment programme for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbear, Jillian H; Nesci, Julian; Thomas, Rosemary; Thompson, Katherine; Beatson, Josephine; Rao, Sathya

    2016-12-01

    Residential patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder were evaluated to determine whether borderline personality disorder-focused psychotherapy reduced prescribing, personality disorder and co-morbid symptom severity. Psychotropic prescriptions were measured at admission, discharge and 1 year later in 74 female participants with one or more personality disorder diagnosis and co-morbid mood disorders. Changes in pharmacotherapy were examined in the context of improvements in borderline personality disorder and/or co-morbid disorder symptom severity. Residential treatment included individual and group psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to confirm the borderline personality disorder diagnosis and associated co-morbid conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory was completed at each time point. A significant reduction in the incidence and severity of self-rated depression as well as clinician assessed personality disorder, including borderline personality disorder, was accompanied by a reduction in prescription of psychoactive medications. Three to six months of intensive borderline personality disorder-specific psychotherapy showed lasting benefit with regard to symptom severity of personality disorders (borderline personality disorder in particular) as well as depressive symptoms. This improvement corresponded with a reduction in prescriptions for psychoactive medications, which is consistent with current thinking regarding treatment for borderline personality disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  13. Ruminations on narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Comments on the original article by Paris (see record 2012-18549-001) which provides an interesting and provocative overview of the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). In this commentary, the author focuses on several assessment issues for narcissism, as well as NPD in particular. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. depressive and post- traumatic stress disorder symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alcohol disorder can both serve to initiate the other. ... (unlike that previously identified), and a J-shaped association between binge drinking frequency and depressive symptoms and ..... O'Donnell K, Wardle J, Dantzer C, Steptoe A. Alcohol.

  15. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar spectrum. This association may reflect

  16. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Nordem Sjåstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. METHODS: In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773, we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043 had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636. Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. RESULTS: More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than

  17. Affective Disorders among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W.; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. Methods In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. Results More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar

  18. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  19. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify e...

  20. Personality functioning in patients with avoidant personality disorder and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Hummelen, Benjamin; Abrahamsen, Gun; Andrea, Helene; Wilberg, Theresa

    2013-12-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP) are closely related, such that they are suggested to represent different severity levels of one social anxiety disorder. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patients with APD to patients with SP, with particular focus on personality dysfunction. Ninety-one adult patients were examined by diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including the Index of Self-Esteem and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems. Patients were categorized in three groups; SP without APD (n = 20), APD without SP (n = 15), and APD with SP (n = 56). Compared to patients with SP without APD, patients with APD reported more symptom disorders, psychosocial problems, criteria of personality disorders, and personality dysfunction regarding self-esteem, identity and relational problems. These results indicate that APD involves more severe and broader areas of personality dysfunction than SP, supporting the conceptualization of APD as a personality disorder as proposed for DSM-5.

  1. Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…

  2. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  3. [The efficacy and tolerability of pericyazine in the treatment of patients with schizotypal disorder, organic personality disorders and pathocharacterological changes within personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, D S

    To assess the efficacy and tolerability of pericyazine in the treatment of patients with mental disorders manifesting with psychopathic-like symptoms and correction of pathocharacterological disorders in patients with personality disorders during the short-term admission to the hospital or the long-term outpatient treatment. Sixty-three patients with schizotypal personality disorder and organic personality disorder with psychopathic-like symptoms and pathocharacterological changes within the diagnosis of dissocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder were examined. Patients received pericyazine during the short-term admission to the hospital (6 weeks) or the long-term outpatient treatment (6 month). Efficacy, tolerability and compliance were assessed in the study. Treatment with pricyazine was effective in all patients. The improvement was seen in patients with organic personality disorders and patients with personality disorders (psychopathy). The maximal effect was observed in inpatients and this effect remained during outpatient treatment. The improvement of mental state of patients with schizotypal personality disorder achieved during inpatient treatment with pericyazine continued during the long-term outpatient treatment. Side-effects were restricted to extrapyramidal symptoms, the frequency of metabolic syndrome was low. During outpatient treatment, the compliance was higher if the patient was managed by the same psychiatrist during inpatient- and outpatient treatment.

  4. Somatic symptom disorder treated with electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovskaya, Anna; Augsburger, Jay Alan

    2017-05-01

    Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is a challenging condition to treat with chronic pain, a common and disabling symptom. We present a patient who received electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for SSD with significant improvement in pain and gastrointestinal symptoms. We also present a brief literature review of similar cases treated with ECT. Preliminary evidence suggests that ECT should be considered for treatment of SSD comorbid with major depressive disorder, when standard treatments fail. Further research is needed to clarify whether ECT can be used for SSD without associated depression.

  5. [Personality disorders, violence and criminal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmstierna, Tom

    2016-12-06

    Personality disorders, violence and criminal behaviour The importance of personality disorders for violent and criminal behaviour is illustrated by their high prevalence in prison populations. Especially antisocial personality disorder and antisocial personality traits are linked to violence. During diagnostic assessment of personality disorders, violence risk screening is recommended. Cognitive behaviour treatment focused on violent behaviour has some effect in criminal populations, but the antisocial personality traits are resistant to treatment. Evidence for pharmacological treatment of repetitive aggressive behaviour is weak. But, bensodiazepines seem to increase the risk of violent behaviour among patients with personality disorders. Antisocial personality traits diminish over time. This spontaneous decrease can be delayed by comorbidity such as other personality disorder, substance use disorder, psychosis and attention deficit disorders. Therefore it is recommended to actively treat these comorbid conditions.

  6. Impact of ADHD symptoms on autism spectrum disorder symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Linda; Bühler, Eva; Poustka, Luise; Bach, Christiane; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Bachmann, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Despite the official exclusion criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the DSM-IV and ICD-10, patients with ASD often show ADHD symptoms. We aimed to examine the potential influence of ADHD symptoms on autistic psychopathology in a large sample of patients with ASD. We tested the hypothesis that patients with ASD and an additional ADHD (ASD+) would show a higher severity of autistic symptoms than those with ASD only (ASD-). We measured autistic symptoms using the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS-G), the autism diagnostic interview (ADI-R), and the social responsiveness scale (SRS). To measure overall psychopathology and ADHD symptoms, we used the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the ADHD rating scale (FBB-ADHS), respectively. Group differences between the ASD+ and the ASD- group (group division was conducted according to the results of the FBB-ADHS) were calculated using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ASD+ group showed a greater severity of autistic symptoms than the ASD- group, measured by the SRS and the ADI-R. Especially in the social interaction subscale (ADI-R), a significantly higher symptom severity was found in the ASD+ group. No significant group differences were found regarding autistic symptoms measured by the ADOS-G. Patients with ASD and an additional ADHD expressed a stronger severity of autistic symptoms than patients with ASD only. According to our results, the possibility of a co-diagnosis of ADS and ADHD, as is being planned in the DSM-5, is in line with earlier studies, is highly reasonable, will simplify research, and have therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Negative symptoms in patients with non schizophrenic psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnoli, Vicente F; Moroni, María V; Cohen, Diego; Chisari Rocha, Liliana; Marleta, María; Sepich Dalmeida, Tomás; Bonani, Matías; D'Alessio, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative symptoms (NS) in different clinical entities other than schizophrenia, with a dimensional approach of negative symptoms, was considered in this work. Determine the presence and distribution of NS, in a population of patients with non schizophrenic psychiatric disorders attending ambulatory treatment at public hospitals. Patients with define DSM IV diagnosis criteria for different disorders; affective, alimentary, substance abuse, anxiety, personality disorders and patients with ILAE diagnoses criteria for temporal lobe epilepsy were included. All patients underwent the subscale PANNS for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Student T test was calculated to determine the differences of frequency for NS among psychiatric disorders. 106 patients were included; 60 women, 46 men, 38 years +/- 12.1. The 90% of patients have a low score of NS. Media 11.6, Max/min 9.38 -14.29. Emotional withdrawal and passive social withdrawal were more frequent in alimentary disorders than in affective disorder and than in epilepsy. Emotional withdrawal was more frequent in substance disorders than epilepsy. According this study, negative symptoms are present in a low to moderate intensity in non schizophrenic psychiatry entities and in the temporal lobe epilepsy.

  8. Case study: Malingering or multiple personality disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba García-Cortés

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The dissociative identity disorder (DID can be considered a rare disorder because of its seemingly low prevalence. However, in recent years it points to the possible underdiagnosis because its complexity and confusion at the time of differential diagnosis. On the other hand, the malingering of mental psychopathology can have a major socio-economic and legal impact, particularly important in this type of disorder, given the inability it generates and its complex diagnostic. This paper refers the case of a patient admitted to the short-term hospitalization unit of Dr. Rodríguez Lafora Hospital (Madrid with depressive symptoms. Then the patient seemed to become a TID case. The evaluation consisted of a psychological history and the application of the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptoms (SIMS and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II. The results showed an altered personality profile as well as likely malingered symptoms, what prevented us from a DID diagnosis. In view of the results, possible implications of this case for the clinical setting are discussed.

  9. Impact of severity of personality disorder on the outcome of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D; Nur, Ula A; Tyrer, Peter; Casey, Patricia

    2009-06-01

    The influence of severity of personality disorder on outcome of depression is unclear. Four hundred and ten patients with depression in 9 urban and rural communities in Finland, Ireland, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom, were randomised to individual problem-solving treatment (n=121), group sessions on depression prevention (n=106) or treatment as usual (n=183). Depressive symptoms were recorded at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Personality assessment was performed using the Personality Assessment Schedule and analysed by severity (no personality disorder, personality difficulty, simple personality disorder, complex personality disorder). Complete personality assessments were performed on 301 individuals of whom 49.8% had no personality disorder; 19.3% had personality difficulties; 13.0% had simple personality disorder; and 17.9% had complex personality disorder. Severity of personality disorder was correlated with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores at baseline (Spearman's r=0.21; ppersonality disorder and treatment type for depression. While multi-variable analyses indicate that depressive symptoms at baseline are the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms at 6 and 12 months, the strong correlations between severity of personality disorder and depressive symptoms make it difficult to establish the independent effect of personality disorder on outcome of depression.

  10. Linking Career Counseling to Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Diane

    1995-01-01

    Relates personality disorders to career development issues and counseling interventions. Case examples suggesting career-focused treatment interventions for dependent, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and passive-aggressive personality disorders are presented. (Author/JBJ)

  11. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  12. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; Kalinina, Natallia; Winther Kestner, Kamma; Ettrup Andresen, Lærke

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between the term psychopathy formulated by Robert D. Hare, and the official diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In relation to this, the project discusses the development of moral judgment and empathy, and under which conditions one might develop psychopathy and ASPD - how it is sociologically and biologically wired. Furthermore, we will take into consideration the ethical issues of labeling. We will discuss difficulties and possibilities ...

  13. Personality Traits in Panic Disorder Patients With and Without Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugliani, Morena M; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Freire, Rafael Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is often correlated with high neuroticism and low extraversion. This study aims to ascertain whether PD patients differ from healthy controls in regard to personality traits and determine if these traits are correlated with comorbid disorders, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Personality traits of 69 PD patients and 42 controls were compared using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. In PD patients, comorbidities, anxiety, and depression symptoms were also evaluated. PD patients showed higher neuroticism and lower extraversion compared with healthy controls. Patients without comorbidities presented similar results to controls, whereas those with comorbidities presented higher neuroticism and lower extraversion scores. PD per se may be unrelated to deviant personality traits, although comorbidities with major depressive disorder and agoraphobia are probably associated with high neuroticism and low extraversion. These traits show a strong correlation with the accumulation and severity of these disorders.

  14. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study...

  15. Psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    The best available evidence for psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is outlined here. BPD is defined by disturbances in identity and interpersonal functioning, and patients report potential medication treatment targets such as impulsivity, aggression, transient psychotic and dissociative symptoms, and refractory affective instability Few randomized controlled trials of psychopharmacological treatments for BPD have been published recently, although multiple reviews have converged on the effectiveness of specific anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotic agents, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Stronger evidence exists for medication providing significant improvements in impulsive aggression than in affective or other interpersonal symptoms. Future research strategies will focus on the potential role of neuropeptide agents and medications with greater specificity for 2A serotonin receptors, as well as optimizing concomitant implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, in order to improve BPD patients' overall functioning. PMID:24174895

  16. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  17. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.

  18. Borderline personality disorder and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Slepecky, Milos; Kotianova, Antonia; Sedlackova, Zuzana; Zatkova, Marta; Kasalova, Petra; Kamaradova, Dana

    2017-08-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a disabling psychiatric condition with a chronic and challenging course. BPD is reflected as a disorder of self-regulation" and is associated with both psychological vulnerabilities and social relations that fail to support basic emotional needs. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BPD patients and their families. A computerized search of the literature printed between January 1990 and May 2017 was conducted in PubMed, and additional papers were extracted using keywords "borderline personality disorder,"needs," "pharmacotherapy," "psychotherapy," "CBT," and "family" in various combinations. According to the eligibility criteria, 57 articles were chosen. Secondary articles from the reference lists of primarily identified papers have been selected for the eligibility and added to the first list (N=151). The results were divided into three categories: the needs connected with (1) the symptom control; (2) the treatment; (3) the quality of life. The needs connected with symptoms were described issues such as emotional needs, social interactions, self-harm, parasuicide, suicidality, comorbidity, mentalization, identity disturbance, moreover, barriers to treatment. The needs connected with the treatment described are focused on needs for early diagnosis, early intervention, holding environment, therapeutic relation, assertive community treatment, destigmatization, hospitalization, and primary care. The needs connected with the quality of life involve family needs, physical health, spiritual needs, advocacy needs, and needs for the separation-individuation. The part focused on implications for the treatment presented several treatment approaches, focusing mostly on the their basics and efficacy. Observing the patients' needs may be essential to the treatment of the individuals suffering from BPD. However, many needs remain unmet in the areas linked to medical, personal, and social

  19. The DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning and Severity of Iranian Patients With Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Khodaie Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Lotfi, Mozhgan

    2015-08-01

    Fundamental problems with Personality Disorders (PD) diagnostic system in the previous version of DSM, led to the revision of DSM. Therefore, a multidimensional system has been proposed for diagnosis of personality disorder features in DSM-5. In the dimensional approach of DSM-5, personality disorders diagnosis is based on levels of personality functioning (Criteria A) and personality trait domains (Criteria B). The purpose of this study was firstly, to examine the DSM-5 levels of personality functioning in antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and second, to explore which levels of personality functioning in patients with antisocial and borderline personality disorders can better predicted severity than others. This study had a cross sectional design. The participants consisted of 252 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline personality disorders (n = 130). They were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry centers of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II and DSM-5 levels of personality functioning were used to diagnose and assess personality disorders. The data were analyzed by correlation and multiple regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Firstly, it was found that DSM-5 levels of personality functioning have a strong correlation with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms, specially intimacy and self-directedness (P antisocial personality disorder severity (P personality disorder severity, as well (P personality functioning are a significant predictor of personality disorders severity. The results partially confirm existing studies.

  20. Clinical status of comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; McClure, Georgia; Del Moral, Yolanda Romàn Ruiz; Stevenson, Janine

    2016-09-01

    The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification. To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions. We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition. Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  1. Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a trait-based disorder that can be understood as a pathological amplification of narcissistic traits. While temperamental vulnerability and psychological adversity are risk factors for NPD, sociocultural factors are also important. This review hypothesizes that increases in narcissistic traits and cultural narcissism could be associated with changes in the prevalence of NPD. These shifts seem to be a relatively recent phenomenon, driven by social changes associated with modernity. While the main treatment for NPD remains psychotherapy, that form of treatment is itself a product of modernity and individualism. The hypothesis is presented that psychological treatment, unless modified to address the specific problems associated with NPD, could run the risk of supporting narcissism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.

  3. Conscientiousness and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) ha...

  4. Personality disorders in women with severe premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C

    2011-06-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and its more severe form, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, affect up to 18% of women. Both are commonly associated with other mood-related disorders such as major depression, and cause significant life impairment, but their relationship with personality disorders is less clear. After completing the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR disorders, 33 women with severe PMS and 26 asymptomatic women, counterbalanced for menstrual cycle phase, were administered the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders, a diagnostic interview with low transparency, strong inter-rater reliability, and good diagnostic clarity. Women with severe PMS had a higher prevalence of personality disorders (p = 0.003) than asymptomatic women (27% versus 0%), and were more likely to have odd-eccentric, dramatic-erratic, and anxious-fearful personality disorder traits (p OCPD) was the most common character pathology in the PMS group (n = 6, 18%). OCPD, although not necessarily associated with greater severity of premenstrual symptoms, was related to poorer life functioning in women with PMS. The comorbidity of a personality disorder and severe PMS places an additive burden on general life functioning and may have implications for psychiatric treatment or medication given to those with severe premenstrual symptoms.

  5. [Hallucinations and borderline personality disorder: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, A; Amad, A; Thomas, P; Jardri, R

    2014-12-01

    Hallucinations constitute understudied symptoms in borderline personality disorders (BPD), which can be observed in about 30% of the patients, essentially in the auditory modality. Most of these experiences are transitory, triggered by intermittent stressors, but chronicity remains a major cause of concern. In order to better circumscribe hallucinations in BPD, we summarized the literature on this particular phenomenon. We conducted a review using Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar databases up to March 2013, using the following keywords combinations: "borderline personality disorder", "hallucinat*" and "psychotic symptoms". Papers were included in the review if they were published in an English or French language peer-reviewed journal; the study enrolled patients with BPD; and the diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) criteria. Fifteen studies published between 1985 and 2012, merging a total of 635 patients, were retained. The hallucinatory experiences observed in BPD appeared phenomenologically similar to those described in the schizophrenia spectrum in terms of vividness, duration, spatial localization, beliefs about malevolence or omnipotence. Conversely, the hallucinatory content appeared more negative and potentially more distressful. Crucially, this literature search also revealed that these symptoms have long been regarded as "pseudo-hallucinations" (or "hallucination-like symptoms"). This concept was judged of poor scientific validity, inducing stigma for BPD patients in that it casts doubt on the authenticity of these experiences while disqualifying the related distress. This situation points out that research should focus more on understanding hallucinations in BPD than questioning their existence. Interestingly, recent comorbidity studies reopened a 40-year debate on the potential links that may exist between BPD and psychosis. Initially considered as a para-psychotic disorder, BPD was effectively redefined as an

  6. Avoidant personality disorder and its relationship to social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, James

    2009-02-01

    This review summarizes past and recent findings in the empiric literature and the evolution of the concepts of avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP). APD is an internally consistent dimensional personality pathology that causes dysfunction that appears to be dimensional rather than a sudden jump in impairment after a certain number of criteria have been met. It has state and trait personality components. Evidence indicates that symptoms are at least partially treatable with psychological or pharmacologic interventions. APD and SP have similar symptoms and treatment response and identical genetics. We can conclude from the empiric evidence that no dividing line exists between APD and SP, with APD merely being the more severe form of the disorder. The best conceptualization is that APD is a dimensional personality pathology that in its attenuated form (SP) resembles an anxiety disorder.

  7. A functionalist perspective on social anxiety and avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafreniere, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A developmental-evolutionary perspective is used to synthesize basic research from the neurosciences, ethology, genetics, and developmental psychology into a unified framework for understanding the nature and origins of social anxiety and avoidant personality disorder. Evidence is presented that social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and avoidant personality disorder may be alternate conceptualizations of the same disorder because they have virtually the same symptoms and genetic basis, and respond to the same pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions. A functionalist perspective on social anxiety is formulated to (a) explain the origins of normative states of anxiety, (b) outline developmental pathways in the transition from normative anxiety to social anxiety and avoidant personality disorders, and (c) account for the processes leading to gender-differentiated patterns of anxiety-related disorders after puberty.

  8. Psychopathy/antisocial personality disorder conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloff, James R P

    2006-01-01

    Psychopathy has traditionally been characterised as a disorder primarily of personality (particularly affective deficits) and, to a lesser extent, behaviour. Although often used interchangeably, the diagnostic constructs of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are distinct. In this article, the relevant historical and contemporary literature concerning psychopathy is briefly reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are compared. Consideration is given to the assessment, prevalence, and implications of psychopathy for violence risk and treatment efficacy. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for antisocial personality disorder, in particular, are largely behaviourally based. The ICD criteria for dissocial personality disorder, while paying more attention to affective deficits, also do not represent the broad personality and behavioural components of psychopathy. Since 1980, a great deal of research on these disorders has been conducted, using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). The PCL-R assesses both personality (interpersonal and affective) and behavioural (lifestyle and antisocial) deficits. As such, the research and clinical implications of psychopathy, as operationalised by the PCL-R, cannot be readily extrapolated to the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder. As currently construed, the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder grossly over-identifies people, particularly those with offence histories, as meeting the criteria for the diagnosis. For example, research shows that between 50% and 80% of prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, yet only approximately 15% of prisoners would be expected to be psychopathic, as assessed by the PCL-R. As such, the characteristics and research findings drawn from the psychopathy research may not be relevant for those

  9. A metastructural model of mental disorders and pathological personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A G C; Simms, L J

    2015-08-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such co-morbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions - internalizing, externalizing and psychoticism - can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric out-patients. Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism and detachment. These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder.

  10. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Antisocial Personality disorder | Chinasa | Abia State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality disorders are mental disorders that are characterized by persistent maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience. These patterns develop early in life, are inflexible and associated with significant distress or disability. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a psychiatric condition ...

  12. Relationships among Personality Disorder Symptoms and Suicide Attitudes and Suicide Ideation in College Students%大学生人格障碍症状水平与自杀态度和自杀意念的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建人; 凌辉; 谢健; 熊恋; 马欣仪

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To research the relationships among personality disorder symptoms and suicide attitudes and suicide ideation in college students. Methods: A total of 230 college students were randomly sampled and evaluated by the personality diagnostic questionnaire(PDQ+4), the scale of public attitudes about suicide(SPAS) and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI-CV). Results: ①The group with suicide ideation get significantly higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, antisocial, borderline, dependent, passive-aggressive, and depressive sub-scales of PDQ+4 than the group without suicide ideation; ②The group with suicide ideation get significantly lower scores in the difficulty in preventing suicide and the extent to which suicide is outside the individual's personal control factor, and significantly higher score in the social importance of suicide to the community factor of SPAS than the group without suicide ideation; ③A11 subscale scores of PDQ+4 negatively correlated with the SPAS's factor scores of difficulty in preventing suicide and the extent to which suicide is outside the individual' s personal control, and positively correlated with the factor score of social importance of suicide to the community. Conclusion: Personality disorder symptoms were closely related with suicide ideation in college students, and some irrational suicide attitudes might have a mediating effect between personality disorder symptoms and suicide ideation.%目的:探讨大学生人格障碍症状水平与自杀态度及自杀意念的关系.方法:随机抽取230名大学生,采用人格诊断问卷、自杀态度问卷以及Beck自杀意念问卷进行测查.结果:①有自杀意念组在人格诊断问卷(PDQ-4+)的偏执型、分裂样型、反社会型、边缘型、依赖型、被动攻击型以及抑郁型等亚型上得分显著高于无自杀意念组;②有自杀意念组与无自杀意念组在自杀态度量表(SPAS)的预防自杀的难度、自杀行为自我不可控

  13. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in

  14. Normal personality, personality disorder and psychosis: current views and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaratnasingam, Sivasankaran; Janca, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent literature examining the occurrence of psychotic experiences in normal population and those with personality disorders. Up to 15% of individuals in the general population report some type or degree of psychotic experience. Most of these individuals function adequately, do not require psychiatric treatment and do not receive diagnosis of a psychotic illness. A significant number of individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (25-50%) also report psychotic symptoms. These are not easily differentiated from the psychotic symptoms reported by individuals with schizophrenia, nor are they always transient. However, emerging research has confirmed that individuals with schizotypal personality disorder are dimensionally related to those with schizophrenia and are at an increased risk of transition to psychosis. Psychotic symptoms are best considered as 'trans-diagnostic' entities on a continuum from normal to pathological. There is a large body of evidence for a dimensional relationship between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. There is also a significant amount of research showing that psychotic symptoms in borderline personality disorder are frequent, nontransient and represent a marker of illness severity. This review highlights the need to move beyond traditional assumptions and categorical boundaries when evaluating psychotic experiences and psychopathological phenomena.

  15. Autistic disorder symptoms in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A; Scholte, Evert M

    2009-11-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same level of functioning. To investigate, parents of 52 females with classical and atypical Rett syndrome (2.4-49.3 years) completed the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC), the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO) and the Dutch Vineland Screener 0-6 (VS 0-6). All participants had a severe to profound intellectual disability (ID) according to the VS 0-6. Behavior indicated an autistic disorder in 42 (DBC) to 58 percent (DISCO) of the Rett cases. Autistic behavior had decreased in 19 percent such that they no longer met the criteria for autistic disorder. Some participants were suspected of having a comorbid autistic disorder, though not more often than can be expected at their level of functioning. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of a comorbid autistic disorder as much as they should be in other people with this level of functioning.

  16. Major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in intermittent explosive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Gustavo C; Seger, Liliana; Grant, Jon E; Tavares, Hermano

    2018-04-01

    It is estimated that between 1.7 and 2.6 million people have had intermittent explosive disorder (IED) during their life in the United States alone. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are very common in IED, being major depressive disorder arguably the most common. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical correlates of IED and depressive manifestations in 74 treatment-seeking subjects. After controlling for confounders, there were associations between major depressive disorder and severity of depressive symptoms, and (a) higher assault scores, (b) more severe hostile behavior and (c) worse social adjustment. Management of depressive symptoms may be an important for IED treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comorbid personality disorders and violent behavior in psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Schizophrenia without any comorbidity confers a modest, but statistically significant elevation of the risk for violence. That risk is considerably increased by comorbid antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy as well as by comorbid substance use disorders. These comorbidities are frequent. Conduct disorder and conduct disorder symptoms elevate the risk for aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with premorbid conditions, including antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Aggressive behavior in bipolar disorder occurs mainly during manic episodes, but it remains elevated in euthymic patients in comparison with controls. The risk of violent behavior is increased by comorbidity with borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and substance use disorders. These comorbidities are frequent. Borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are related in their phenomenology and response to medication. These two disorders share a tendency to impulsiveness, and impulsive behavior, including impulsive aggression, is particularly expressed when they co-occur.

  18. Personality disorders and traits in patients with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, K A; McElroy, S L

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been postulated to have schizoid, narcissistic, and obsessional personality traits and to be sensitive, introverted, perfectionistic, and insecure. However, data on personality traits and disorders in BDD are limited. This study assessed 148 subjects with BDD, 26 of whom participated in a fluvoxamine treatment study; 74 subjects were assessed for personality disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIII-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), 100 subjects completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and 51 subjects completed the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. Forty-two subjects (57%) had one or more personality disorders, with avoidant personality disorder (43%) being most common, followed by dependent (15%), obsessive-compulsive (14%), and paranoid (14%) personality disorders. On the NEO-FFI, the mean scores were in the very high range for neuroticism, the low range for extraversion and conscientiousness, the low-average range for agreeableness, and the average range for openness to experience. On the Rathus Assertiveness Scale, the mean score was -17.1 +/- 32.0 for women and -17.0 +/- 32.3 for men. Among fluvoxamine responders, the number of personality disorders significantly decreased between the study baseline and endpoint. These findings suggest that the rate of personality disorders in BDD is relatively high, with avoidant personality disorder being most common. The high neuroticism scores and low extraversion scores are consistent with this finding.

  19. Dysfunctional internet behaviour symptoms in association with personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiolka, E; Bergiannaki, I D; Margariti, M; Malliori, M; Papageorgiou, Ch

    2017-01-01

    Internet addiction is a matter of great interest for researchers, taking into consideration Internet's rapid spread and its ever growing use in children, adolescents and adults. It has been associated with multiple psychological symptoms and social difficulties, therefore raising even greater concerns for its adverse consequences. The present study that consists part of a broader research, aims to investigate the association between excessive Internet use and personality traits in an adult population. Specifically, the research examined the relation between dysfunctional internet behaviour and personality traits as neuroticism and extraversion, the two personality dimensions that have arisen as the most important ones in all relevant research. Our main hypotheses are that dysfunctional internet behaviour would be positively associated with neuroticism but negatively linked to extraversion. The 1211 participants aged over 18 years, completed the IAT (Internet Addiction Test) by Kimberly Young and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and some other questionnaires detecting psychopathology. Additionally, part of the administered questionnaires concerned socio-demographic characteristics of the participant subjects: specifically sex, age, marital status, education (educational years), place of residence -urban, semi-urban and rural-, whether they suffer from somatic or mental health disorder and if they take medication for any of the above categories. All the questionnaires have been electronically completed by each participant. Results showed that 7.7% showed dysfunctional internet behaviour that concerns both medium and severe degree of dependence by the use of Internet, as measured by the use of IAT. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the individuals exhibiting symptoms of dysfunctional internet behaviour were more likely to suffer from a chronic mental health disorder, to use psychotropic medication and to score higher on neuroticism

  20. The continuum between Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisei, Sandro; Anastasi, Serena; Verdolini, Norma

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have been carried out regarding the possible overlap between Bipolar Disorder and borderline personality disorder. Up to now, it is not possible to provide a definitive picture. In fact, there is currently significant debate about the relationship between Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. MEDLINE searches were performed to identify the latest studies of these disorders, considering psychodynamic aspects. Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder share common clinical features, namely affective instability and impulsivity which however differ in quality. Consequently, to better understand these aspects, it is necessary to trace the stages of childhood psychological development. It has been claimed that Bipolar Disorder Type II can be divided into two subtypes: one stable and functional between episodes and one unstable between episodes which is related to Borderline Personality Disorder. However, better diagnostic theories, psychiatrist's empathy and patience remain the essential tool to understand and to face human suffering.

  1. Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Pålsson, Erik; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-05-03

    The aim was to investigate the personality profile of bipolar disorder I and II, and healthy controls, and to study whether personality influences the course of bipolar disorder. One hundred ten patients with bipolar disorder I, 85 patients with bipolar disorder II, and 86 healthy individuals had their personality profile assessed using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), an instrument developed to explore personality-related vulnerabilities and correlates of psychiatric disorders. Patients were followed prospectively for 2 years. To assess the impact of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition on illness course, we performed logistic regressions with the outcome variables mood episodes (depressive, hypo/manic, mixed), suicide attempts, violence, and the number of sick leave days. Bipolar disorder I and II demonstrated higher global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition as compared with healthy controls. A third of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population-based normative mean on the global neuroticism measure. The two subtypes of bipolar disorder were, however, undistinguishable on all of the personality traits. In the unadjusted model, higher neuroticism at baseline predicted future depressive episodes and suicide attempts/violent behavior, but this association disappeared when adjusting for baseline depressive symptoms as assessed with MADRS. A significant minority of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population mean on the global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness and Disinhibition; scores this high are usually evident clinically. Yet, the personality profile does not seem to have prognostic value over a 2-year period.

  2. Childhood adversity and borderline personality disorder: a focus on adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, Elizabeth A; Janca, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    This article explores recent research in the field of childhood exposure to trauma and the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Adolescence is a critical period of development. Exposure to trauma, specifically sexual abuse, prior to and during puberty has specific implications for personality development and heightens risk for borderline personality disorder. Elevated symptom levels in adolescence are likely to decline across adulthood, but social and vocational impairments remain. Impulsivity, difficulties in emotion regulation, and suicidality may characterize adolescent expression of borderline personality disorder, whereas negative affect and functional impairment are more stable features of the disorder. Preliminary findings in treatment models for adults have potential for benefit among adolescence. Further research is required to examine treatment effectiveness and efficiency. Greater attention to low-income and middle-income nations, which are disproportionately affected by adversity, is needed to determine cross-cultural validity and the impact of trauma in adolescent populations.

  3. [Time for cluster C personality disorders: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsebaut, J; Willemsen, E M C; Van, H L

    Compared to cluster B personality disorders, the assessment and treatment of people with obsessive-compulsive, dependent, and avoidant personality disorders (cluster C) is given little attention in the field of research and clinical practice. Presenting the current state of affairs in regard to cluster C personality disorders. A systematic literature search was conducted using the main data bases. Cluster C personality disorders are present in approximately 3-9% of the general population. In about half of the cases of mood, anxiety, and eating disorders, there is co-morbid cluster C pathology. This has a major influence on the progression of symptoms, treatment effectiveness and potential relapse. There are barely any well conducted randomized studies on the treatment of cluster-C in existence. Open cohort studies, however, show strong, lasting treatment effects. Given the frequent occurrence of cluster C personality disorders, the burden of disease, associated societal costs and the prognostic implications in case of a co-morbid cluster C personality disorder, early detection and treatment of these disorders is warranted.

  4. Personality disorder comorbidity and outcome: comparison of three age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Janine; Brodaty, Henry; Boyce, Philip; Byth, Karen

    2011-09-01

    Personality disorder comorbidity has been extensively studied in young adult populations, to a lesser extent in elderly populations, and not at all in an Australian population. This study examines PD comorbidity over the life span 18-100. The object of this study was to examine the interactions of comorbid personality disorder and age on outcome of Axis I disorders. A total of 238 consecutive consenting eligible psychiatric inpatients were assessed on admission, prior to discharge, and after 6 and 12 months as regards symptoms, function, well-being, relapse and readmission rates and social supports. Outcomes were compared for young (18-40 years old), middle-aged (41-64) and old (65+) patients. Patients improved over time symptomatically and functionally. Across all age groups patients with comorbid personality disorder had worse outcomes than those without, but improved though never to the same extent. Personality disorder was associated with increased rates of relapse and readmission in the whole sample and in the older group, but not increased length of stay. Severity of personality disorder was associated with poorer outcome. Personality disorder adversely affects outcomes, particularly for younger (and older) patients with psychiatric disorders independently of diagnosis and other factors.

  5. Borderline or Schizotypal? Differential Psychodynamic Assessment in Severe Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Riel, Laura; Ingenhoven, Theo J M; VAN Dam, Quin D; Polak, Marike G; Vollema, Meinte G; Willems, Anne E; Berghuis, Han; VAN Megen, Harold

    2017-03-01

    Considerable overlap in symptoms between patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) complicates personality diagnostics. Yet very little is known about the level of psychodynamic functioning of both personality disorders. Psychodynamic assessment procedures may specify personality characteristics relevant for differential diagnosis and treatment planning. In this cross-sectional study we explored the differences and similarities in level of personality functioning and psychodynamic features of patients with severe BPD or STPD. In total, 25 patients with BPD and 13 patients with STPD were compared regarding their level of personality functioning (General Assessment of Personality Disorder), current quasipsychotic features (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire), and psychodynamic functioning [Developmental Profile (DP) interview and Developmental Profile Inventory (DPI) questionnaire]. Both groups of patients showed equally severe impairments in the level of personality functioning and the presence of current quasipsychotic features. As assessed by the DP interview, significant differential psychodynamic patterns were found on the primitive levels of functioning. Moreover, subjects with BPD had significantly higher scores on the adaptive developmental levels. However, the self-questionnaire DPI was not able to elucidate all of these differences. In conclusion, our study found significant differences in psychodynamic functioning between patients with BPD and STPD as assessed with the DP interview. In complicated diagnostic cases, personality assessment by psychodynamic interviewing can enhance subtle but essential differentiation between BPD and STPD.

  6. [DSM-5 classification of personality disorders in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, S.P. van; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally agreed that personality disorders are an important topic in old-age psychiatry, DSM-5 has paid relatively little attention to older persons affected with this severe mental disorder. AIM: To look closely and carefully at several aspects of the way in which DSM-5

  7. Brief cognitive therapy for avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S; Pritchard, Rhian

    2015-03-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (APD) is associated with a high level of impairment in multiple areas of functioning. However, research on the treatment of APD is scarce, and there is an absence of empirically evaluated effective treatment approaches available. This study offers a preliminary investigation of the use of brief cognitive therapy to treat APD. Two individuals, both with a principal diagnosis of APD, but who also possessed a number of comorbidities, participated in 12 weekly sessions. A series of diagnostic symptom severity, global functioning, and self-report measures were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment and at 6-week follow-up. In addition, regular monitoring of each participant's strength of belief in 4 personally identified cognitions associated with APD was completed. Reductions in APD symptoms, associated negative affect, and increases to quality of life were observed for both participants at posttreatment and follow-up phases. Results suggest that brief cognitive therapy may be an effective treatment for APD and that further studies with larger samples are warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Relationship between Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Adulthood Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashhadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a risk factor for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD during adulthood. Studying the relationship between childhood ADHD disorder symptoms and depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms among students was the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 291 students, who were studying in Shiraz and Tabriz universities inThe academic year of 2010-2011, were selected from three groups of Humanities, Basic Sciences, and Technical-Engineering Sciences using simple sampling method. They participated in the study through completing Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS, Borderline Personality Scale (STB and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between childhood ADHD and borderline Personality Disorder (BPD in adulthood and childhood ADHD is able to predict BPD in adulthood (p<0.01. Similarly, the relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD and depression was positive and significant (p<0.01. Conclusion: There is a relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD, BPD and depression in students. It is recommended to pay due attention to the comorbidity disorders such as BPD and depression in the treatment of ADHD disorder.

  9. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...

  10. [Mentalization based treatment and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, C; Rahioui, H; Smadja, M; Gorsane, M A; Louppe, F

    2017-08-01

    The borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder that represents a high number of patients in a psychiatric adult service. Even if some therapies have shown to be effective in the therapeutic care of the borderline personality disorder they only target certain symptoms (e.g. anxiety, sadness, self-mutilation). The aim of this paper is to introduce a therapeutic model little known in France: the mentalization based therapy (MBT) developed in 2004 by Bateman and Fonagy. This therapeutic model apprehends the borderline personality disorder in all its complexity and is based on two main concepts: Bowlby's attachment theory and the concept of mentalization. The MBT is based on the hypothesis that a deficit of mentalization leads to the development of borderline disorder. The capacity of mentalization, also known as reflexive function, is acquired in infancy through interpersonal relationships, in particular those of attachment, and is the ability to understand the mental state (emotions, needs, thoughts, etc.) of oneself and others which underlies explicit behaviour. This reflexive capacity is of a better quality when the person has a secure attachment style. Indeed, borderline patients have, mainly, a deficit of mentalization capacity associated with an insecure attachment style. Thus, the main objective of the Bateman and Fonagy approach is to develop and reinforce the mentalization capacity through a therapeutic relationship as a secure base, a group therapy and the concept of insight. Classically, MBT is structured over a period of 18 months divided into 3 distinct phases distributed in two therapeutic axes: group and individual therapy. The initial phase aims to engage the patient in the therapy by evaluating attachment style, mentalization's ability, interpersonal functioning; providing psychoeducation about borderline disorder and establishing a therapeutic contract. To evaluate attachment style, the authors strongly recommend the use of the

  11. Modified crisis intervention for personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, A

    1998-01-01

    This study proposes that the goal of crisis intervention for persons with personality disorders should be to return them to their pre-crisis level of functioning, even though this is maladaptive. This is contrasted with standard crisis intervention, which aims to return normal or neurotic persons to their pre-crisis normal or neurotic functioning, usually by means of few and short-term therapeutic encounters. The modification proposed costs more time and resources in persons with personality disorders in crisis and fits the intervention to the personality type. This is illustrated by the case of Eve, a patient in crisis, whose pre-crisis functioning was maladaptive because of a dependent personality disorder. The goal of (modified) crisis intervention in this case was to return the patient to her dependent lifestyle, by means of pharmacotherapy combined with intensive supportive psychotherapy during 3-4 months of partial (day) hospitalization. The special nature of crisis in personality disorders is discussed.

  12. [Course of borderline personality disorder: literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaklic, D; Bungener, C

    2010-10-01

    to improve as they grew older, only 8% of the cohort still meeting criteria for BPD. Two recent carefully designed prospective studies showed that the majority of BPD patients experienced a substantial reduction in their symptoms far sooner than previously expected. After six years, 75% of patients diagnosed with BPD severe enough to be hospitalized achieve remission by standardized diagnostic criteria and after 10 years, the remission rate raises up to 88%. Recurrences are rare, no more than 6% over six years. The dramatic symptoms (suicidal behaviour, self-mutilation, queasy psychotic thoughts) resolve relatively quickly, but abandonment concerns, feeling of emptiness and vulnerability to dysphonic states is likely to remain in at least half the patients. This contrasts with the natural course of many Axis I disorders, such as mood disorders, where improvement rates may be somewhat higher and more rapid but recurrences are more frequent. The findings of longitudinal studies raise doubts about the validity of the definition in the DSM, which implies that personality disorders must necessarily be chronic. However, it should be noted that even the most encouraging findings do not show full recovery since the majority of patients seem to suffer from some residual symptoms. These findings have very important clinical implications and borderline patients should be told that they can expect improvement, no matter how intense their current emotional pain. However, we still lack evidence-based findings on mechanisms that lie behind the recovery process in BPD. Future research should explore the mechanisms of recovery in BPD. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Personality disorder: still the patients psychiatrists dislike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartonas, Dimitrios; Kyratsous, Michalis; Dracass, Sarah; Lee, Tennyson; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2017-02-01

    Aims and method In 1988, Lewis and Appleby demonstrated that psychiatrists hold negative attitudes towards patients with personality disorder. We assessed the attitudes of psychiatry trainees towards patients with borderline personality disorder and depression, expecting an improvement. 166 trainees were block randomised to receive one of four case vignettes that varied by diagnosis and ethnic group. We used Lewis and Appleby's original questionnaire and the Attitudes to Personality Disorder Questionnaire (APDQ). Results We received 76 responses. Lewis and Appleby's questionnaire showed more negative attitudes towards personality disorder than depression, with no significant patient ethnic group effects, and the APDQ also showed a (weak) trend towards more negative attitudes to personality disorder. In subgroup analysis, only in the White British patient group were there significantly more negative attitudes to personality disorder. Factor analysis showed significantly less sense of purpose when working with personality disorder. Clinical implications The perceived greater lack of purpose in working with personality disorder should be the target of clinical training and intervention. Targeted interventions that include training in managing personality disorder, supervision and practice in non-specialist, general psychiatry settings are important.

  14. Take charge: Personality as predictor of recovery from eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallius, Johanna; Roberts, Brent W; Clinton, David; Norring, Claes

    2016-12-30

    Many treatments for eating disorders (ED) have demonstrated success. However, not all patients respond the same to interventions nor achieve full recovery, and obvious candidates like ED diagnosis and symptoms have generally failed to explain this variability. The current study investigated the predictive utility of personality for outcome in ED treatment. One hundred and thirty adult patients with bulimia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified enrolled in an intensive multimodal treatment for 16 weeks. Personality was assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R). Outcome was defined as recovered versus still ill and also as symptom score at termination with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Personality significantly predicted both recovery (70% of patients) and symptom improvement. Patients who recovered reported significantly higher levels of Extraversion at baseline than the still ill, and Assertiveness emerged as the personality trait best predicting variance in outcome. This study indicates that personality might hold promise as predictor of recovery after treatment for ED. Future research might investigate if adding interventions to address personality features improves outcome for ED patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypersensitivity in borderline personality disorder during mindreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Frick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD is the instability in interpersonal relationships. This might be related to existent differences in mindreading between BPD patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: We examined the behavioural and neurophysiological (fMRI responses of BPD patients and healthy controls (HC during performance of the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET. RESULTS: Mental state discrimination was significantly better and faster for affective eye gazes in BPD patients than in HC. At the neurophysiological level, this was manifested in a stronger activation of the amygdala and greater activity of the medial frontal gyrus, the left temporal pole and the middle temporal gyrus during affective eye gazes. In contrast, HC subjects showed a greater activation in the insula and the superior temporal gyri. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that BPD patients are highly vigilant to social stimuli, maybe because they resonate intuitively with mental states of others.

  16. Antisocial personality disorder is on a continuum with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are different diagnostic constructs. It is unclear whether they are separate clinical syndromes or whether psychopathy is a severe form of ASPD. A representative sample of 496 prisoners in England and Wales was interviewed in the second phase of a survey carried out in 1997 using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis II personality disorders, and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Among those 18 years and older (n = 470), 211 (44.9%) received a diagnosis of ASPD, of whom 67 (31.8%) were classified as psychopaths, indicated by Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores of 25 and above. Symptoms of ASPD and psychopathy both demonstrated low diagnostic contrast when comparing subgroups of ASPD above and below the cutoff for psychopathy. There were no differences in demography, Axis I comorbidity, and treatment-seeking behavior. Psychopathic individuals with ASPD demonstrated comorbid schizoid and narcissistic personality disorder, more severe conduct disorder and adult antisocial symptoms, and more violent convictions. Psychopathy and ASPD are not separate diagnostic entities, but psychopathic ASPD is a more severe form than ASPD alone with greater risk of violence. Dimensional scores of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition personality disorders (other than ASPD) may be helpful in identifying this specific subgroup. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Symptoms of pseudoallergy and histamine metabolism disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kacik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine intolerance is a poorly investigated type of hypersensitivity responsible for a number of often serious symptoms, erroneously interpreted as food allergy. Endogenous histamine originates from the histidine amino acid with the help of the histidine decarboxylase enzyme. Apart from the endogenous production histamine may be supplied to the body with food. Slow-maturing and fermenting products are characterised by particularly high levels of histamine. Some food products stimulate excessive release of histamine from stores in the body as well as containing significant amounts of it. These products include spices, herbs, dried fruits and a large group of food additives. Histamine intolerance is considered to be a condition in which the amount of histamine in the body exceeds its tolerance threshold, which leads to the development of adverse reactions. These reactions primarily include skin symptoms (pruritus, urticaria, skin reddening, acne lesions, angioedema, respiratory symptoms (nasal obstruction and watery discharge, sneezing, coughing, wheezing, gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, bloating, nervous system symptoms (headaches, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, panic attacks, cardiovascular symptoms (tachycardia, hypotension, chest pain, primary dysmenorrhoea and many more. It is estimated that nearly 1% of society is susceptible to histamine intolerance. The diagnosis of this disorder is based on observing at least two characteristic symptoms and their disappearance or improvement following histamine-free diet. A new, although not easily accessible diagnostic tool is assay for serum diamine oxidase activity, which correlates to a significant extent with symptoms of histamine intolerance. Normal activity of diamine oxidase is considered to be the amount of >80 HDU/mL, decreased activity – 40–80 HDU/mL and severely decreased activity – <40 HDU/mL. Currently the option of diamine oxidase supplementation is

  18. Personality profiles in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Masahito; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2002-08-01

    The present review focused on the personality profiles of patients with eating disorders. Studies using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder showed high rates of diagnostic co-occurrence between eating disorders and personality disorders. The most commonly observed were histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent and borderline personality disorders. Studies using the Cloninger's personality theory suggested that high Harm Avoidance might be relevant to the pathology of anorexia nervosa and high Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance to bulimia nervosa. Moreover, high Self-Directedness was suggested to be associated with favorable outcome in bulimia nervosa. The assessment of personality in a cross-sectional study, however, might be influenced by the various states of the illness. Therefore, a sophisticated longitudinal study will be required to advance this area of research.

  19. Differentiating normal and disordered personality using the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Annett G; John Livesley, W

    2013-05-01

    Criteria to differentiate personality disorder from extremes of normal personality variations are important given growing interest in dimensional classification because an extreme level of a personality dimension does not necessarily indicate disorder. The DSM-5 proposed classification of personality disorder offers a definition of general personality disorder based on chronic interpersonal and self/identity pathology. The ability of this approach to differentiate personality disorder from other mental disorders was evaluated using a self-report questionnaire, the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD). This measure was administered to a sample of psychiatric patients (N = 149) from different clinical sub-sites. Patients were divided into personality disordered and non-personality disordered groups on the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II). The results showed a hit rate of 82% correct identified patients and a good accuracy of the predicted model. There was a substantial agreement between SCID-II interview and GAPD personality disorder diagnoses. The GAPD appears to predict personality disorder in general, which provides support of the DSM-5 general diagnostic criteria of personality disorder. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Interpersonal Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found...

  1. Eating disorders, substance use disorders and multiple symptoms: three clinical vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava Vizziello, Graziella; Bellin, Laura

    2018-04-01

    During the longitudinal study of three patients, referred to services at 3, 13, 15 years for eating disorders, reduced food intake and anorexia nervosa, other symptoms appeared depending on difficult development, relational and personality problems. The patients showed the interweaving of symptoms at different times: they were dealing with modified developmental needs and contexts, included new possibilities of attachment that might produce different internal organizations. These changes required different treatments. Anorexia started early in life for these girls, but presented different steps of organization. We wanted to start finding some aspects of a staging model to map the course of ED, because many patients arrived later in life, reported untreated early symptoms, actually personality traits. Mapping the evolution, could allow to take care of patients at the very early stage of problems when few symptoms are present, and better patients' evolution might be possible. Level V opinions of respected authorities based on clinical experience.

  2. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Alessandra; Luca, Antonina; Raciti, Loredana; Contrafatto, Donatella; Bruno, Elisa; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Mostile, Giovanni; Petralia, Antonio; Zappia, Mario

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in a group of healthy controls. Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II) has been performed to evaluate the presence of personality disorders. Presence of personality disorders, diagnosed according to the DSM-IV, was confirmed by a psychiatric interview. Clinical and pharmacological data were also recorded using a standardized questionnaire. 100 PD patients (57 men; mean age 59.0 ± 10.2 years) and 100 healthy subjects (52 men; mean age 58.1 ± 11.4 years) were enrolled in the study. The most common personality disorder was the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder diagnosed in 40 PD patients and in 10 controls subjects (p-valuepersonality disorder recorded in 14 PD patients and 4 control subjects (p-value 0.02). Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was also found in 8 out of 16 de novo PD patients with a short disease duration. PD patients presented a high frequency of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder that does not seem to be related with both disease duration and dopaminergic therapy.

  3. Personality disorder and treatment outcome in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Foulds, James

    2018-01-01

    As personality disorder impacts the outcome of most major mental disorders, it would be consistent for it to impact negatively on the outcome of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This update is to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent literature examining the impact of personality disorder and personality traits on the treatment outcome of AUDs. Comorbidity between personality disorder and AUD is significant and approaches 50%. Patients with AUD and comorbid personality disorder are substantially less likely to remain in treatment, drink more per drinking day and drink more frequently. If retained in treatment, comorbidity does not, however, lead to poorer outcomes. Relapse to drinking is more common in patient with high novelty seeking and lower reward dependence and persistence. Reporting from most studies is of moderate-to-poor quality and a single high-quality study may alter these findings. Landmark alcohol studies are notably quiet on the impact of personality on AUD treatment outcome. Both personality disorder and higher novelty seeking impact negatively on the treatment outcome of AUD. As personality disorder is common in this group, clinicians engaged in AUD treatment should screen for personality disturbance, either disorder or high novelty seeking.

  4. [A case of major depressive disorder barely distinguishable from narcissistic personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinnosuke; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The recent increase in cases of depression with a narcissistic tendency, especially among young individuals, has been pointed out. When the narcissistic tendency is conspicuous, patients may be treated for a personality disorder or pervasive developmental disorder, and not for a mood disorder. A case is described of a man in his late twenties who developed depression due to his failure in research work and job hunting, and, after a time, due to the break off of his engagement with his fiancée, manifested with narcissistic symptoms including an exaggerated opinion of himself, a sense of entitlement, interpersonal exploitation, lack of empathy, strong feelings of envy, and an extrapunitive tendency. He was regarded at the start of treatment as having narcissistic personality disorder. However, persevering treatment, mainly with supportive psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy including antidepressants (high dose of maprotiline combined with low dose of mirtazapine), sodium valprote and aripiprazole, finally improved not only his depressive symptoms, but also the symptoms regarded as a deriving from a personality disorder. He presented fierce anger and aggression regarded as a mixed state, and showed the rapid improvement in his depressive state after hospitalization, which we considered to show potential bipolarity. We diagnosed the patient with narcissistic depression, emphasizing the aspect which suggested a mood disorder, such as the episodic presence of narcissistic symptoms as long as a depressive state resided, his circular, recursive discourse, and his potential bipolarity. To accurately evaluate the aspect of mood disorders which patients appearing to show personality disorders have, it is considered useful to grasp a patient's condition from the viewpoint of a personality structure and viable dynamics. From a therapeutic standpoint, we suggest the importance of simple but persevering psychotherapy and a sufficient quantity of antidepressant medication for

  5. Relationships between Psychosocial Development and Personality Disorder Symptomatology in Late Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.

    1993-01-01

    Studied the extent to which psychosocial development thorough the first 5 stages of E. H. Erikson's theory of personality development is associated with personality disorder symptoms, using 106 undergraduates. Negative resolutions of stages one through five may predict the presence of personality disorder symptomatology during late adolescence.…

  6. Borderline personality disorder and emotional intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Schuurmans, H.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Smeets, G.; Verkoeijen, P.; Arntz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated emotional intelligence (EI) in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that patients with BPD (n = 61) compared with patients with other personality disorders (PDs; n = 69) and nonpatients (n = 248) would show higher scores on the ability to perceive

  7. Vulnerability, Borderline Personality Disorders. Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borderline personality disorder and vulnerability are difficult to assess and are rather elusive to define. A case study material is presented from a cognitive analytical model. An attempt of the dominant features of cognitive analytical therapy and discussion of vulnerability in relation to personality disorder is provided.

  8. [Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, Hilda C P; Stone, Michael H; Abdalla-Filho, Elias

    2006-10-01

    To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry) may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. Personality disorders, especially of the antisocial type, still represent a formidable challenge to forensic psychiatry today. Questions as yet unanswered include the best and most humane place for patients with this condition and the nature of a standardised treatment recommendation.

  9. Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Sebastian; Stöbi, Dominik; Sowislo, Julia; Ritzler, Franziska; Huber, Christian G; Lang, Undine E; Wrege, Johannes; Walter, Marc

    2018-02-21

    Little is known about narcissistic traits in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This exploratory study aimed to illustrate the associations between total, grandiose, and vulnerable narcissism and gender, diagnostic features of BPD and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), and psychopathology in BPD patients. The Pathological Narcissism Inventory and psychometric measures for impulsivity, anger, borderline symptom severity, personality organization, depression, and rejection sensitivity were completed by 65 BPD patients. Statistical analyses were conducted using the t test, Pearson correlation, and multivariate regression analyses. Male BPD patients displayed higher narcissistic scores than females (p personality disorders. Future studies are advised to apply complementary measures and take new diagnostic approaches of DSM-5 and ICD-11 into account. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. [Differential diagnosis between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.

  11. A review of the dissociative disorders: from multiple personality disorder to the posttraumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto J. Romero-López

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the idea of dissociation, dissociative disorders and their relationship with the processes of consciousness. We will deal specifically with multiple personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Both polarize the discussion of diagnostic categories with dissociative symptoms. This review compares the initial ideas (one century old with the current scenario and emerging trends in research, which are relating cognitive processes and dissociative phenomena and disorders from a neuroscientific approach. We discuss the ideas on dissociation, hypnosis and suicide associated with these disorders. There seems to be a lack of consensus as to the nature of dissociation with theoretical, empirical and clinical implications.

  12. Relationship between Comorbidity of Cluster Personality Disorders with Major Depression Disorder and Depression Relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Tamanaei-Far

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this research studied the relation between cluster B personality disorders and major depression disorder with relapse. Materials & Methods: In this analytical and comparative study, samples consisted of the major depressive disorders patients that had experienced major depression through 5 years ago and were experiencing partial remission in research time. Samples were selected by non probability sampling in outpatient centers. The patients with more than two relapses were assigned as case group and the patients without any relapse were assigned as control group (two groups on the base of demographic in formations were matched. They completed BDI_II and SCID_II to assess cluster B personality disorders, and a questionnaire made by researcher to gather information’s. Results: Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder (P<0.001 and narcissitic personality disorder (P=0.016 with depression in patient with relapse of the depression is more significantly than patients with first episode of depression, but comorbidity of exhibitive personality disorder with depression and relapse had no significant difference between two groups (P=0.401. Conclusion: according to the relationship between narcissistic and borderline personality disorders and the role of them in relapse of depression, for making an effective psychotherapy for depression, it is necessary to consider personality beside special symptoms.

  13. Borderline Personality Symptoms Differentiate Non-Suicidal and Suicidal Self-Injury in Ethnically Diverse Adolescent Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Ertelt, Troy W.; Miller, Alec L.; Claes, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little research on how specific borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms relate to suicide attempts or suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) within adolescent populations, which is important to know given the recent proposal of an NSSI disorder. Even less well known is whether specific BPD symptoms distinguish NSSI…

  14. Childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira

    2017-03-01

    This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Borderline personality symptoms and work performance: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juurlink, Trees T; Ten Have, Margreet; Lamers, Femke; van Marle, Hein J F; Anema, Johannes R; de Graaf, Ron; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2018-06-19

    This study aims to elucidate the interplay between borderline personality symptoms and working conditions as a pathway for impaired work performance among workers in the general population. Cross-sectional data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2) were used, including 3672 workers. Borderline personality symptoms were measured with the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) questionnaire. Working conditions (decision latitude, psychological job demands, job security and co-worker support) were assessed with the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Impaired work performance was assessed as total work loss days per month, defined as the sum of days of three types of impaired work performance (inability to work, cut-down to work, and diminished quality at work). These were assessed with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS). Common mental disorders (CMD) were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Number of borderline personality symptoms was consistently associated with impaired work performance, even after controlling for type or number of adverse working conditions and co-occurrence of CMD. Borderline personality symptoms were associated with low decision latitude, job insecurity and low co-worker support. The relationship between borderline personality symptoms and work performance diminished slightly after controlling for type or number of working conditions. The current study shows that having borderline personality symptoms is a unique determinant of work performance. This association seems partially explained through the impact of borderline personality symptoms on working conditions. Future studies are warranted to study causality and should aim at diminishing borderline personality symptoms and coping with working conditions.

  16. ['Histrionic personality disorder with regression and conversion': a meningioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Elberink, A M L; Oudijn, M S; Kwa, V I H; Van, H L

    2011-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman, who was believed to be suffering from histrionic personality disorder with regression and conversion, was finally diagnosed with a frontal meningioma. Patients with meningiomas can present with a variety of psychiatric symptoms, sometimes even before neurological symptoms occur. The diagnosis is often delayed because the symptoms are misleading and it is difficult to modify a psychiatric diagnosis once this has been made. Discussion focuses on the characteristic signs of a meningioma, the reasons for delays in diagnosis and the indications for brain-imaging on psychiatric patients.

  17. Co-occurrence of personality disorders in persons with kleptomania: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the co-occurrence of personality disorders in a group of persons with kleptomania. Twenty-eight subjects with DSM-IV kleptomania were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders and a semistructured interview to assess demographics and clinical characteristics. Twelve subjects with kleptomania (42.9%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. The most common were: paranoid (n = 5; 17.9%), schizoid (n = 3; 10.7%), and borderline (n = 3; 10.7%). Subjects with kleptomania combined with personality disorders had an earlier age of onset of stealing behavior (13.4 +/- 5.6 years compared with 27.4 +/- 14.2 years in those who had kleptomania only; t = 3.225; df = 26; p = .006). Severity of kleptomania symptoms did not differ among the Axis II comorbidities. Persons with kleptomania appear to have a high prevalence of personality disorders. Further studies are needed to understand the relationship of kleptomania to personality.

  18. Neuropsychological findings in personality disorders: A.R. Luria’s Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluzhnikov I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information concerning the features of cognitive processes in personality disorders, as well as the brain mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Luria’s neuropsychological approach demonstrated its heuristicity in estimating the cognitive status of patients with mental disorders and can be employed to identify the brain bases of non-psychotic mental disorders (including personality disorders. The objective of this research is to study the features of neurocognitive functioning in patients with schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder (against the norm, employing Luria’s neuropsychological methodology. Hypotheses: 1 While both types of personality disorders are related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the specificity of the neurocognitive functioning of each personality disorder will be observed in addition to general neuropsychological signs. Specific neuropsychological symptoms point to different brain deficits, which allows conclusion to be drawn regarding differences in the pathogenesis of each personality disorder; and 2 Luria’s methodology neuropsychology is adequate for the study of neurocognitive functioning in personality disorders. The study was conducted using qualitative and quantitative analyses (according to Luria of neuropsychological testing data in a group of fifty male patients aged 19,2±3,7 years with pathocharacteristic domain disorders. The group consisted of 30 schizoid personality disorder patients and 20 schizotypal personality disorder patients. Statistically significant differences (p <0,005 in neurocognitive function (regulatory processes, memory, spatial function between the healthy controls and patients with personality disorders were observed. Specific cognitive disorders pointing to the dysfunction of front-thalamoparietal connections were characteristic of both groups. Lateral differences were discovered for both patient groups. The

  19. Distinct ADHD Symptom Clusters Differentially Associated with Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ashley A.; Canu, Will H.; Schneider, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: ADHD has been linked to various constructs, yet there is a lack of focus on how its symptom clusters differentially associate with personality, which this study addresses. Method: The current study examines the relationship between impulsive and inattentive ADHD traits and personality, indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory…

  20. Personality disorders and normal personality dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, J; Nestadt, G; Bienvenu, O J; Costa, P T; Riddle, M A; Liang, K Y; Hoehn-Saric, R; Grados, M A; Cullen, B A

    2000-11-01

    Little is known about personality disorders and normal personality dimensions in relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To determine whether specific personality characteristics are part of a familial spectrum of OCD. Clinicians evaluated personality disorders in 72 OCD case and 72 control probands and 198 case and 207 control first-degree relatives. The selfcompleted Revised NEO Personality Inventory was used for assessment of normal personality dimensions. The prevalence of personality disorders and scores on normal personality dimensions were compared between case and control probands and between case and control relatives. Case probands and case relatives had a high prevalence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and high neuroticism scores. Neuroticism was associated with OCPD in case but not control relatives. Neuroticism and OCPD may share a common familial aetiology with OCD.

  1. Dependent personality features in a complex case of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirestean, Tudor; Lukacs, Emese; Nirestean, Aurel; Gabos Grecu, Iosif

    2016-11-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a complex disease model as it encompasses a diversity of pathological personality traits and psychopathological symptoms. It is not surprising, therefore, that it is often manifested by personality disorders across all three clusters and accompanied by other mental (Axis I) disorders. This melange makes both psychological treatment and pharmacotherapy especially challenging, and this paper describes the case of a particularly complex case of a 33-year-old Romanian patient, who has a history of severe deprivation in childhood, mood and substance use disorder in association with borderline pathology. In the course of treatment from many sources and interventions, it has become clear that dependence is a key component of the pathology and has been rewarded with a degree of success in management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Symptoms of Dry Eye Disease and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Sho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Daisuke; Ono, Masafumi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The essential targets of dry eye disease (DED) treatments include both objective signs and subjective symptoms. However, due to the numerous subjective symptoms, it is understandable why little association has been found between the signs and symptoms. Although psychological influences on the subjective symptoms have been reported, little is known about the influence of personality traits. The present study analyzed the relationship between the signs/symptoms of DED and the personality traits of patients using a cross-sectional design. We examined 56 DED patients (mean age; 62.4 ± 12.9, range 34-85 years) visiting the outpatient clinic of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Nippon Medical School Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Objective signs evaluated included the Schirmer I test, tear breakup time (BUT), fluorescein and lissamine green staining, and tear osmolality. Subjective symptoms were assessed by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score (DEQS) questionnaires. For personality traits, the Big Five personality traits model analysis was used. Correlations between the objective signs, subjective symptoms, and personality traits were analyzed. A significant correlation was found between the neuroticism in the Big Five Personality Inventory and the symptoms assessed by the DEQS (r = -0.35, p personality traits. The results of our current study suggest that the personality of the patient, which appears to be the basis of various psychological factors, can have some impact on the subjective symptoms. This may be one of the reasons why there has been little association noted between the signs and symptoms of DED.

  3. Are premorbid abnormal personality traits associated with behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jack; Abraham, Rajesh; Nicholas, Helen; Chan, Tom; Vanvlymen, Jeremy; Lovestone, Simon; Boothby, Harry

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to investigate associations between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and abnormal premorbid personality traits. Data were obtained from 217 patients with a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of late-onset dementia were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Premorbid personality traits were assessed using the Standardised Assessment of Personality. Abnormal premorbid personality traits were categorised with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10 diagnostic criteria for personality disorders. Abnormal premorbid personality traits were associated with increased behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia. Cluster A (solitary/paranoid) premorbid personality traits were associated with anxiety, depression and hallucinations. Cluster C (anxious/dependent) traits were associated with a syndrome of depression. The presence of Clusters A (solitary/paranoid) and C (anxious/dependent) abnormal premorbid personality traits seems to affect the expression of certain behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia, depression in particular. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Type D personality and the development of PTSD symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Arthur R; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-05-01

    Psychological trauma and prolonged stress may cause mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma personality is an important determinant of posttraumatic adjustment. Specifically, trait neuroticism has been identified as a risk factor for PTSD. Additionally, the combination of high negative affectivity or neuroticism with marked social inhibition or introversion, also called Type D personality (Denollet, 2000), may compose a risk factor for PTSD. There is no research available that examined pretrauma Type D personality in relation to PTSD. The present study examined the predictive validity of the Type D personality construct in a sample of Dutch soldiers. Data were collected prior to and 6 months after military deployment to Afghanistan. Separate multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the predictive validity of Type D personality. First, Type D personality was defined as the interaction between negative affect and social inhibition (Na × Si). In a second analysis, Type D was defined following cutoff criteria recommended by Denollet (2000). Results showed that negative affectivity was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms. Social inhibition and the interaction Na × Si did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, negative affectivity, and prior psychological symptoms. A second analysis showed that Type D personality (dichotomous) did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, and prior psychological symptoms. Therefore, Type D personality appears to be of limited value to explain development of combat-related PTSD symptoms.

  5. Narcissistic personality disorder: relations with distress and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) by examining the relations between NPD and measures of psychologic distress and functional impairment both concurrently and prospectively across 2 samples. In particular, the goal was to address whether NPD typically "meets" criterion C of the DSM-IV definition of Personality Disorder, which requires that the symptoms lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning. Sample 1 (n = 152) was composed of individuals receiving psychiatric treatment, whereas sample 2 (n = 151) was composed of both psychiatric patients (46%) and individuals from the community. Narcissistic personality disorder was linked to ratings of depression, anxiety, and several measures of impairment both concurrently and at 6-month follow-up. However, the relations between NPD and psychologic distress were (a) small, especially in concurrent measurements, and (b) largely mediated by impaired functioning. Narcissistic personality disorder was most strongly related to causing pain and suffering to others, and this relationship was significant even when other Cluster B personality disorders were controlled. These findings suggest that NPD is a maladaptive personality style which primarily causes dysfunction and distress in interpersonal domains. The behavior of narcissistic individuals ultimately leads to problems and distress for the narcissistic individuals and for those with whom they interact.

  6. The Impact of Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Olivia M; Salkovskis, Paul M; Bream, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    It is often suggested that, in general, co-morbid personality disorders are likely to interfere with CBT based treatment of Axis I disorders, given that personality disorders are regarded as dispositional and are therefore considered less amenable to change than axis I psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) on cognitive-behavioural treatment for OCD. 92 individuals with a diagnosis of OCD participated in this study. Data were drawn from measures taken at initial assessment and following cognitive-behavioural treatment at a specialist treatment centre for anxiety disorders. At assessment, participants with OCD and OCPD had greater overall OCD symptom severity, as well as doubting, ordering and hoarding symptoms relative to those without OCPD; however, participants with co-morbid OCD and OCPD demonstrated greater treatment gains in terms of OCD severity, checking and ordering than those without OCPD. Individuals with OCD and OCPD had higher levels of checking, ordering and overall OCD severity at initial assessment; however, at post-treatment they had similar scores to those without OCPD. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of research on axis I and II co-morbidity and the impact of axis II disorders on treatment for axis I disorders.

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Sensory Modulation Symptoms in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Hen, Liat; Fluss, Ronen; Cermak, Sharon A.; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gal, Eynat

    2009-01-01

    Sensory modulation symptoms are common in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however have a heterogeneous presentation. Results from 14 studies indicated a significant high difference between ASD and typical groups in the presence/frequency of sensory symptoms, with the greatest difference in under-responsivity, followed by…

  8. Avoidant personality disorder is a separable schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder even when controlling for the presence of paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders The UCLA family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, D L; Nuechterlein, K H; Asarnow, R A; Payne, D L; Subotnik, K L; Jacobson, K C; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S

    2007-03-01

    It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be separable dimensions of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs. Rates of APD among first-degree Rels of Sz probands, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) probands, and community control (CC) probands were examined. Further analyses examined rates when controlling for the presence of schizotypal (SPD) and paranoid (PPD) personality disorders, differences in APD Sxs between relative groups, and whether APD in Rels of Szs reflects a near miss for another Sz-spectrum PD. Three hundred sixty-two first-degree Rels of Sz probands, 201 relatives of ADHD probands, and 245 Rels of CC probands were interviewed for the presence of DSM-III-R Axis I and II disorders. Diagnoses, integrating family history, interview information, and medical records, were determined. APD occurred more frequently in Rels of Sz probands compared to CC probands (pavoids social or occupational activities..." and "exaggerates the potential difficulties..." 65% of the Rels of Sz probands who had diagnoses of APD were more than one criterion short of a DSM-III-R diagnosis of either SPD or PPD. This indicates that APD is a separate Sz-spectrum disorder, and not merely a sub-clinical form of SPD or PPD.

  9. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H.M.; Albers, C.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  10. Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence : Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  11. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given.

  12. A Twin Study of Normative Personality and DSM-IV Personality Disorder Criterion Counts: Evidence for Separate Genetic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Nikolai; Aggen, Steven H; Krueger, Robert F; Kendler, Kenneth S; Neale, Michael C; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Gillespie, Nathan A; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2018-03-21

    Both normative personality and DSM-IV personality disorders have been found to be heritable. However, there is limited knowledge about the extent to which the genetic and environmental influences underlying DSM personality disorders are shared with those of normative personality. The aims of this study were to assess the phenotypic similarity between normative and pathological personality and to investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences underlying individual differences in normative personality account for symptom variance across DSM-IV personality disorders. A large population-based sample of adult twins was assessed for DSM-IV personality disorder criteria with structured interviews at two waves spanning a 10-year interval. At the second assessment, participants also completed the Big Five Inventory, a self-report instrument assessing the five-factor normative personality model. The proportion of genetic and environmental liabilities unique to the individual personality disorder measures, and hence not shared with the five Big Five Inventory domains, were estimated by means of multivariate Cholesky twin decompositions. The median percentage of genetic liability to the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders assessed at wave 1 that was not shared with the Big Five domains was 64%, whereas for the six personality disorders that were assessed concurrently at wave 2, the median was 39%. Conversely, the median proportions of unique environmental liability in the personality disorders for wave 1 and wave 2 were 97% and 96%, respectively. The results indicate that a moderate-to-sizable proportion of the genetic influence underlying DSM-IV personality disorders is not shared with the domain constructs of the Big Five model of normative personality. Caution should be exercised in assuming that normative personality measures can serve as proxies for DSM personality disorders when investigating the etiology of these disorders.

  13. Personality Dimensions in Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol B.; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M.; Mitchell, James E.; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Pederson, Melissa W.; Crow, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity and a normal weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Method Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal weight comparison participants. Results Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other three groups, and lower well-being scores compared to the normal weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were re-analyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other three groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal weight comparison group. Conclusions The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and

  14. Personality dimensions in bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol B; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M; Mitchell, James E; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Pederson, Melissa W; Crow, Scott J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity, and a normal-weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal-weight comparison participants. Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other 3 groups and lower well-being scores compared to the normal-weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal-weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal-weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were reanalyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other 3 groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal-weight comparison group. The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality, and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both, is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

  15. Comparing Diagnostic Tools in Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel AKGUN AKTAS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Personality Disorder is defined as; continually self experience and behavioral pattern which has great variations of individual cultural normal expectations. Several diagnostic tools were developed for diagnosing personality disorders. In our study consistency of different diagnostic tools used for thhe diagnosis of personality disorders were evaluated. 39 inpatients diagnosed as personality disorder from Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Traning and Reseach Hospital were recruited into the study. Psychotic patients are excluded from the study. Sociodemographic Information Form, MMPI and PBQ scales were given all the patients. Both PBQ personality subscales and MMPI PD scales were compared with semi-structured SCID-II interview diagnoses. Findings suggest less correlation than expected. Relatively higher correlation was found between PBQ personality subscales and MMPI-PD. Most common psychiatric comorbid disorder was depression. These findings suggest that further studies are needed for the development of diagnostic tools which take the differences of self report scales and clinical evalution into consideration. Beside, the differences of the categorical and dimensional classification of personality disorders should be bear in mind in evaluation of this patient group. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 22-27

  16. Panic disorder: Psychobiological aspects of personality dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draganić-Gajić Saveta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to understand the underlying mechanisms of association between psychological factors and panic disorder have been mostly based on psychodynamic description. Evidence of the importance of serotonergic (5-HT system in panic disorder (PD, however, has substanti ally increased in recent years. OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to determine whether there was a specific personality profile of panic disorder patients and how it was related to possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying personality dimensions. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sample consisted of 14 inpatients with ICD-X diagnosis of panic disorder and 34 healthy control subjects. Personality dimensions were assessed by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ. To assess central 5-HT function, platelet monoamine-oxidase (MAO activity was measured. RESULTS In panic disorder group, higher scores of histrionic, depressive and hypochondriac subscales and significant increase of harm avoidance (HA scale as well as low MAO activity were found. Negative correlation was established between MAO activity and psychopathic deviance MMPI scale. CONCLUSION The obtained results might indicate a specific personality profile of patients with panic disorder, which is characterized by high neuroticism, fearfulness, inhibition, shyness and apprehensive worry. Low MAO activity and high HA scores possibly indicate underlying hyperserotonergic state. The observed correlation between personality traits and MAO activity provide additional support for the hypothesized functional relationship between underlying central monoaminergic activity and temperament traits associated with anxiety, depression and impulsivity.

  17. The DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning and Severity of Iranian Patients With Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Khodaie Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Lotfi, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fundamental problems with Personality Disorders (PD) diagnostic system in the previous version of DSM, led to the revision of DSM. Therefore, a multidimensional system has been proposed for diagnosis of personality disorder features in DSM-5. In the dimensional approach of DSM-5, personality disorders diagnosis is based on levels of personality functioning (Criteria A) and personality trait domains (Criteria B). Objectives: The purpose of this study was firstly, to examine the DSM-5 levels of personality functioning in antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and second, to explore which levels of personality functioning in patients with antisocial and borderline personality disorders can better predicted severity than others. Patients and Methods: This study had a cross sectional design. The participants consisted of 252 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline personality disorders (n = 130). They were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry centers of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II and DSM-5 levels of personality functioning were used to diagnose and assess personality disorders. The data were analyzed by correlation and multiple regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Results: Firstly, it was found that DSM-5 levels of personality functioning have a strong correlation with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms, specially intimacy and self-directedness (P antisocial personality disorder severity (P personality disorder severity, as well (P personality functioning are a significant predictor of personality disorders severity. The results partially confirm existing studies. PMID:26430521

  18. Do people with borderline personality disorder complicated by antisocial personality disorder benefit from the STEPPS treatment program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Simsek-Duran, Fatma; Blum, Nancee; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We describe results from two data sets on outcome in persons who participated in STEPPS with BPD alone or BPD plus antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In Study 1, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 65 persons with BPD who participated in a randomized controlled trial at an academic medical centre. In Study 2, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 64 offenders with BPD who participated in STEPPS in correctional settings. All subjects were assessed for the presence of BPD and ASPD. In Study 1, subjects with ASPD experienced greater improvement in BPD symptoms, impulsiveness and global symptoms. In Study 2, offenders with ASPD experienced greater improvement in positive and negative behaviours and positive affectivity. We conclude that persons with BPD plus ASPD benefit from STEPPS in community and correctional settings. The findings suggest that persons with BPD plus ASPD show greater improvement in some domains than persons with BPD only. People with ASPD should not be automatically excluded from participation in the program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive System Symptoms & Causes How to Prepare for Tests ... Part in Studies Resources Publications Library En Español Digestive Health Matters Medical Definitions Links Books of Interest ...

  20. In-depth study of personality disorders in first-admission patients with substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langås Anne-Marit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of comorbid personality disorders (PDs in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs is challenging due to symptom overlap, additional mental and physical disorders, and limitations of the assessment methods. Our in-depth study applied methods to overcome these difficulties. Method A complete catchment area sample of 61 consecutively admitted patients with SUDs, with no previous history of specialized treatment (addiction clinics, psychiatry were studied, addressing PDs and associated clinical and demographic variables. The thorough assessments included the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. Results Forty-six percent of the SUD patients had at least one PD (16% antisocial [males only]; 13% borderline; and 8% paranoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive, respectively. Cluster C disorders were as prevalent as Cluster B disorders. SUD patients with PDs were younger at the onset of their first SUD and at admission; used more illicit drugs; had more anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia; had more severe depressive symptoms; were more distressed; and less often attended work or school. Conclusion The psychiatric comorbidity and symptom load of SUD patients with PDs differed from those of SUD patients without PDs, suggesting different treatment needs, and stressing the value of the assessment of PDs in SUD patients.

  1. The role of positive and negative childhood events in the risk of developing personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, M

    2015-01-01

    Existing research has predominantly focused on a limited range of childhood events and personality disorders, such as childhood maltreatment and borderline personality disorder. Moreover, researchers rarely account for multiple risk factors within the same study, despite the reality that childhood events do not occur in isolation. Therefore, the current research aims to contribute to the knowledge on childhood events and personality disorder symptoms by investigating a wider range of risk and...

  2. Personality disorder: a new global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    TYRER, PETER; MULDER, ROGER; CRAWFORD, MIKE; NEWTON-HOWES, GILES; SIMONSEN, ERIK; NDETEI, DAVID; KOLDOBSKY, NESTOR; FOSSATI, ANDREA; MBATIA, JOSEPH; BARRETT, BARBARA

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task. PMID:20148162

  3. Personality disorder: a new global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry acreoss the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...... incerasing evidence that some teratments, manilyl psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  4. Historical Roots of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa eNovais

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states.Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women’s afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a neurosis with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined neurosis as a re-experience of past psychological trauma. Histerical personality disorder (HPD made its first official appearance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II (DSM-II and since the DSM-III, histrionic personality disorder is the only disorder that kept the term derived from the old concept of hysteria.The subject of hysteria has reflected positions about health, religion and relationships between the sexes in the last 4000 years, and the discussion is likely to continue.

  5. Psychosocial risk factors and personality disorders in outpatient cardiology setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Suárez-Bagnasco

    2015-01-01

    Psychological risk factors and personality disorders comorbidities are more frequent than psychological risk factors only or personality disorders only in outpatient cardiology setting without cardiovascular diseases.

  6. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. PMID:24174890

  7. Attachment insecurity, mentalization and their relation to symptoms in eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Greet S; van Loenhout, Zara; van der Ark, L Andries; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, psycho-neuroticism, autonomy problems and self-injurious behavior, using the Adult Attachment Interview, the SCID-I and II and several questionnaires. Compared with the controls, the eating disorder patients showed a higher prevalence of insecure attachment; eating disorder patients more often than controls received the AAI classification Unresolved for loss or abuse. They also had a lower level of mentalization and more autonomy problems. In the patient group eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, psycho-neuroticism and autonomy problems were neither related to attachment security nor to mentalization; self-injurious behavior was associated with lesser attachment security and lower mentalization; borderline personality disorder was related to lower mentalization. In the control group no relations were found between attachment, mentalization and psychopathologic variables. Eating disorder patients' low level of mentalization suggests the usefulness of Mentalization Based Treatment techniques for eating disorder treatment, especially in case of self-injurious behavior and/or co-morbid borderline personality disorder.

  8. Personality disorder across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Clark, Lee Anna; Chanen, Andrew

    2015-02-21

    The pervasive effect of personality disorder is often overlooked in clinical practice, both as an important moderator of mental state and physical disorders, and as a disorder that should be recognised and managed in its own right. Contemporary research has shown that maladaptive personality (when personality traits are extreme and associated with clinical distress or psychosocial impairment) is common, can be recognised early in life, evolves continuously across the lifespan, and is more plastic than previously believed. These new insights offer opportunities to intervene to support more adaptive development than before, and research shows that such intervention can be effective. Further research is needed to improve classification, assessment, and diagnosis of personality disorder across the lifespan; to understand the complex interplay between changes in personality traits and clinical presentation over time; and to promote more effective intervention at the earliest possible stage of the disorder than is done at present. Recognition of how personality disorder relates to age and developmental stage can improve care of all patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thormar, Sigridur B.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Disaster work has shown to cause PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in professional emergency personnel. However, very little is known about how disaster work affects community volunteers. This first time longitudinal study examined factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder

  10. Antisocial Personality as a Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian

    2018-05-07

    Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due to the failure to view APD as a neurodevelopmental disorder and to consider early interventions. After first defining what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, this review evaluates the extent to which APD meets neurodevelopmental criteria, covering structural and functional brain imaging, neurocognition, genetics and epigenetics, neurochemistry, and early health risk factors. Prevention and intervention strategies for APD are then outlined, focusing on addressing early biological and health systems, followed by forensic and clinical implications. It is argued both that APD meets criteria for consideration as a neurodevelopmental disorder and that consideration should be given both to the possibility that early onset conduct disorder is neurodevelopmental in nature, and also to the inclusion of psychopathy as a specifier in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual revisions of APD.

  11. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  12. Dysfunctional Affect Regulation : in borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijke, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to provide a systematic exploration of the nature and distribution of dysfunctional affect regulation, its associated phenomena, and retrospectively reported potentially traumatizing events in 475 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD),

  13. SOCIAL PHOBIA AND PERSONALITY-DISORDER - SEVERITY OF COMPLAINT AND TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERSCH, PPA; JANSEN, MA; ARNTZ, A

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-four patients meeting the DSM-III-R criteria for social phobia participated in a study on the relationship between personality disorder, symptom pattern, and treatment outcome. Eight patients (23.5%) were diagnosed with a personality disorder; 26 patients did not receive an Axis II diagnosis.

  14. Development of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Introduction to the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizable symptoms and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) appear during adolescence. However, there has been resistance to diagnose or research this disorder prior to adulthood because of clinical lore that BPD is a long-standing illness and that personality traits are not stable until adulthood. This has resulted in little…

  15. Reconceptualizing mental disorders: From symptoms to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Most mental pathologies are diagnosed on the sole basis of the symptoms reported by patients, such as "I'm feeling low." The thrust of this paper is the proposal to reconceptualize mental disorders as dysfunctions of brain subsystems. This shift from symptom to organ would bring psychiatry in line with the rest of medicine, and is analogous to the change in status of venereal infections from skin pathologies, such as chancres, to bacterial infections. The proposal in question is part of the reconceptualization of mental processes as brain processes, in line with the materialist conception of the mind as neural. A practical advantage of this conceptual change is that it suggests approaching mental disorders as brain dysfunctions treatable by biological and chemical means, in addition to social measures, such as accommodating mental patients in ordinary hospitals rather than in isolated "madhouses" at the mercy of amateurs or even charlatans. An additional advantage of the "embodiment" of mental diseases is that it suggests reframing some new research projects, such as explaining why the common cold causes mental fogginess, why hypertension can cause irritability, and why nicotine dependence can be even stronger than cocaine addiction. In other words, the present proposal is to complete the so-called "mapping of the mind onto the brain" by including the abnormal mental processes, which used to be treated by shamans at a time when the mind was conceived of as an immaterial entity detachable from the body. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Maturation in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallius, Johanna; Rydén, Göran; Norring, Claes

    2015-08-30

    Patients with borderline personality disorder have a characteristic and extreme personality associated with psychopathology. The aim was to investigate personality change in relation to suicidality following treatment. 21 patients were assessed before and after psychotherapy on personality (NEO PI-R) and suicidality (SUAS). At follow-up, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness normalized along with six lower-order facets; Depression, Impulsiveness, Competence, Achievement Striving, Self-Discipline and Deliberation. Thirteen patients showed a positive personality development paralleled by a lesser degree of suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Personality disorders: Can we capture different levels of pathology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    Background: Since 2010, the Danish Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark has organized treatment of patients with personality disorder (PD) into two main levels: Level 1, a time-restricted care package (TRP) and Level 2, a specialized treatment program (SP) for the most severely...... at intake. Method: The study is naturalistic and examines data collected from a web based quality assurance system. Patients symptoms are assessed by the Symptom check list-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64 (IIP). Psychosocial functioning is measured by the Global Assessment...... of Functioning (GAF). 61 Results: In this presentation the baseline characteristics of 388 patients allocated to treatment for PD between 2010 and October 2014 are presented. Results are discussed in regards to the need for offering personality disordered patients differentiated psychotherapy services according...

  18. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, S; Lin, C; Ji, G; Li, L

    2017-01-01

    Among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms associated with HIV diagnosis is a common problem. This study examined HIV diagnosis-related PTSD symptoms and its associated factors among PLHA in rural China. We used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui Province, China. Surveys of 522 PLHA were conducted via computer-assisted personal interview method. PTSD symptoms were measured based on re-experiencing...

  19. Monoamine Oxidase A in Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Vinette, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene and MAO-A enzyme levels have been linked to antisocial behavior and aggression in clinical and non-clinical populations. Here, we provide an overview of the genetic, epigenetic, and neuroimaging research that has examined MAO-A structure and function in antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). The low-activity MAO-A variable nucleotide tandem repeat genetic polymorphism has shown a robust association with large samples of violent and seriously violent offenders, many of whom had ASPD. A recent positron emission tomography (PET) study of ASPD similarly revealed low MAO-A density in brain regions thought to contribute to the psychopathology of the condition. By contrast, PET has also demonstrated that brain MAO-A levels are increased in BPD and that they relate to symptoms of low mood and suicidality. Candidate gene studies have produced the most compelling evidence connecting MAO-A genetic variants to both ASPD and BPD. Still, conflicting results abound in the literature, making it highly unlikely that ASPD or BPD is related to a specific MAO-A genetic variant. Future research should strive to examine how MAO-A genotypes interact with broad-spectrum environmental influences to produce brain endophenotypes that may ultimately become tractable targets for novel treatment strategies.

  20. Social cognition in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eRoepke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent, the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010. A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions, the deficits in attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention.

  1. Emotions and memory in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Elzinga, Bernet; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Memory processes such as encoding, storage, and retrieval of information are influenced by emotional content. Because patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are particularly susceptible to emotional information, it is relevant to understand whether such memory processes are altered in this patient group. This systematic literature review collects current evidence on this issue. Research suggests that emotional information interferes more strongly with information processing and learning in BPD patients than in healthy controls. In general, BPD patients do not seem to differ from healthy control subjects in their ability to memorize emotional information, but they tend to have specific difficulties forgetting negative information. Also, BPD patients seem to recall autobiographical, particularly negative events with stronger arousal than healthy controls, while BPD patients also show specific temporo-prefrontal alterations in neural correlates. No substantial evidence was found that the current affective state influences learning and memory in BPD patients any differently than in healthy control subjects. In general, a depressive mood seems to both deteriorate and negatively bias information processing and memories, while there is evidence that dissociative symptoms impair learning and memory independently of stimulus valence. This review discusses methodological challenges of studies on memory and emotions in BPD and makes suggestions for future research and clinical implications. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  3. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders.

  4. Clarifying the convergence between obsessive compulsive personality disorder criteria and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Jane L; Coles, Meredith E; Shea, M Tracie; Pagano, Maria E; Stout, Robert L; Yen, Shirley; Grilo, Carlos M; Rasmussen, Steven A

    2006-06-01

    In this study we examined the convergence between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Baseline assessments of 629 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study were used to examine the associations between OCPD criteria and diagnoses of OCD. Three of the eight OCPD criteria--hoarding, perfectionism, and preoccupation with details--were significantly more frequent in subjects with OCD (n = 89) than in subjects without OCD (n = 540). Logistic regressions were used to predict the probability of each OCPD criterion as a function of Axis I diagnoses (OCD, additional anxiety disorders, and major depressive disorder). Associations between OCD and these three OCPD criteria remained significant in the logistic regressions, showing unique associations with OCD and odds ratios ranging from 2.71 to 2.99. In addition, other anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder showed few associations with specific OCPD criteria. This study suggests variability in the strength of the relationships between specific OCPD criteria and OCD. The findings also support a unique relationship between OCPD symptoms and OCD, compared to other anxiety disorders or major depression. Future efforts to explore the link between Axis I and Axis II disorders may be enriched by conducting analyses at the symptom level.

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...

  6. Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... probably do not require sophisticated neurological skills or investigations, failure to recognise an underlying disorder or an ...

  7. Similarities and differences in borderline and organic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik; Soegaard, Ulf; Kvist, Kajsa

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that brain injury patients with Organic Personality Disorder (OPD) may display "borderline" traits due to prefrontal damage, and their personality structure may be unstable and close to a borderline personality organisation. They may have few general neuropsychological dysfunctions but specific executive deficits. Similar deficits have been found in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The objective of this study was to identify differences and similarities between the neuropsychological and personality profiles of BPD and OPD patients. Twenty BPD patients and 24 OPD patients were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II), the Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile (KAPP), and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Very few neuropsychological differences were found between the two patient groups. However, the verbal fluency, verbal intelligence, verbal memory, and immediate auditory memory/attention of the BPD patients were significantly poorer than the OPD patients'. The KAPP profiles of the BPD patients showed significantly poorer functioning in three areas: frustration tolerance, the body as a factor of self-esteem, and overall personality organisation. These results support our clinical experience and expectations concerning the severity of symptoms of both patient groups. We suggest considering in depth assessments of both neuropsychological and personality-related problems for each of these patients in order to inform treatment.

  8. Personality predictors of injury-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauerbach, J A; Lawrence, J W; Schmidt, C W; Munster, A M; Costa, P T

    2000-08-01

    This longitudinal, cohort study examined the effect of personality traits on the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a recently traumatized, civilian, mixed-gender sample with significant injuries. Burn survivors (N = 70) were administered the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID) at hospital discharge and readministered the SCID 4 and 12 months later. Overall, the sample of burn survivors scored significantly higher on neuroticism and extraversion and lower on openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness relative to a normative national sample. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance revealed that PTSD symptom severity groups (i.e., single symptom, multiple symptoms, subthreshold PTSD, PTSD) were differentially related to neuroticism and extraversion. Planned comparisons indicated that neuroticism was higher and extraversion was lower in those who developed PTSD compared with those who did not develop PTSD.

  9. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-08-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.

  10. Neurochemical alterations associated with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Karakoc, Tevfik; Mermi, Osman; Gurkan Gurok, M; Yildirim, Hanefi

    2015-01-01

    In neuroimaging on borderline personality disorder, prior studies focused on the hippocampus and amygdala, as mentioned above. However, no study investigated whether there were neurochemical changes in the patients with borderline personality disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate neurochemical change of patients diagnosed with borderline disorder and hypothesized that neurochemicals would change in the hippocampus region of these patients. Seventeen patients and the same number of healthy control subjects were analyzed by using a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa Imaging System. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (CHO), and creatine (CRE) values of hippocampal region were measured. The mean NAA/CRE ratio in the hippocampus region was significantly reduced in the patients with borderline personality disorder compared to that of healthy control subjects, In addition, NAA/CHO ratio of the patients with borderline personality disorder was also significantly reduced when compared to that of healthy subjects. There was no difference in the ratio of CHO/CRE. In summary, we present evidence for reduced NAA in the patients with borderline personality disorder. © 2015, The Author(s).

  11. Psychiatric symptoms of patients with primary mitochondrial DNA disorders

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    Inczedy-Farkas Gabriella

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to assess psychiatric symptoms in patients with genetically proven primary mutation of the mitochondrial DNA. Methods 19 adults with known mitochondrial mutation (MT have been assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire 20-item Disability Index (HAQ-DI, the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-SF, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the the DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II As control, 10 patients with hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy (HN, harboring the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22 mutation were examined with the same tools. Results The two groups did not differ significantly in gender, age or education. Mean HAQ-DI score was 0.82 in the MT (range: 0-1.625 and 0.71 in the HN group (range: 0-1.625. Level of disability between the two groups did not differ significantly (p = 0.6076. MT patients scored significantly higher on the BDI-SF and HDRS than HN patients (12.85 versus 4.40, p = 0.031, and 15.62 vs 7.30, p = 0.043, respectively. The Global Severity Index (GSI of SCL-90-R also showed significant difference (1.44 vs 0.46, p = 0.013 as well as the subscales except for somatization. SCID-I interview yielded a variety of mood disorders in both groups. Eight MT patient (42% had past, 6 (31% had current, 5 (26% had both past and current psychiatric diagnosis, yielding a lifetime prevalence of 9/19 (47% in the MT group. In the HN group, 3 patients had both past and current diagnosis showing a lifetime prevalence of 3/10 (30% in this group. SCID-II detected personality disorder in 8 MT cases (42%, yielding 3 avoidant, 2 obsessive-compulsive and 3 personality disorder not otherwise specified (NOS diagnosis. No personality disorder was identified in the HN group. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with

  12. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Hout, Hein P J; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2010-09-01

    Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In addition, the role of specific clinical characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in the association with cardiovascular disease was explored. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used, including persons with a current (i.e. past year) or remitted DSM-IV depressive or anxiety disorder (N=2315) and healthy controls (N=492). Additional clinical characteristics (subtype, duration, severity, and psychoactive medication) were assessed. Cardiovascular disease (stroke and coronary heart disease) was assessed using algorithms based on self-report and medication use. Persons with current anxiety disorders showed an about three-fold increased prevalence of coronary heart disease (OR anxiety only=2.70, 95%CI=1.31-5.56; OR comorbid anxiety/depression=3.54, 95%CI=1.79-6.98). No associations were found for persons with depressive disorders only or remitted disorders, nor for stroke. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms--but no other clinical characteristics--most strongly indicated increased prevalence of coronary heart disease. Cross-sectional design. Within this large psychopathology-based cohort study, prevalence of coronary heart disease was especially increased among persons with anxiety disorders. Increased prevalence of coronary heart disease among depressed persons was largely owing to comorbid anxiety. Anxiety-alone as well as comorbid to depressive disorders-as risk indicator of coronary heart disease deserves more attention in both research and clinical practice. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bi...

  14. The relevance of personality assessment in patients with hyperventilation symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Bolle, Marleen; Boone, Eva; De Fruyt, Filip

    2012-05-01

    Relatively few data are available concerning the relations between hyperventilation symptoms and general personality traits in clinical populations. A clear picture of the personality traits associated with hyperventilation symptoms could enhance early detection of those individuals who are at risk for developing hyperventilation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of general personality in hyperventilation syndrome. Patients (N = 364) with symptoms not explained by an organic disease and supposedly caused by hyperventilation completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the General Health Questionnaire--12, and the Nijmegen Questionnaire. Patients were also subjected to a hyperventilation provocation test and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcPCO(2)) values were registered. The results showed that patients with hyperventilation obtained mean Neuroticism scores above the normative mean. Moreover, only Neuroticism was positively linked with self-reported hyperventilation symptoms, and personality traits were more strongly related to self-reported complaints than to objective physical information. Neuroticism clearly differentiated between different diagnostic groups on the basis of Nijmegen Questionnaire and TcPCO(2) values, and an additional small effect of Agreeableness was observed. The present study contributes to the evidence that Neuroticism is strongly associated with self-reported hyperventilation symptoms, and provides substantial evidence that Neuroticism is a vulnerability factor in the development of hyperventilation. Therefore, personality assessment may be helpful in advancing the understanding and the early detection of hyperventilation symptoms.

  15. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodloo, Safa; Ghodousi, Arash; Karimzadeh, Taghi

    2012-06-01

    Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient's condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R) score. Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%), history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%), and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility) in patients (40%) were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25) in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  16. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Maghsoodloo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient′s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%, history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%, and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility in patients (40% were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25 in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  17. Clinical Components of Borderline Personality Disorder and Personality Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Marc; Andión, Óscar; Calvo, Natalia; Hörz, Susanne; Fischer-Kern, Melitta; Kapusta, Nestor D; Schneider, Gudrun; Clarkin, John F; Doering, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Impairment in personality functioning (PF) represents a salient criterion of the DSM-5 alternative diagnostic model for personality disorders (AMPD). The main goal of this study is to analyze the relationship of the borderline personality disorder (BPD) clinical components derived from the DSM-5 categorical diagnostic model (affective dysregulation, behavioral dysregulation, and disturbed relatedness) with personality organization (PO), i.e., PF, assessed by the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO). STIPO and the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV (SCID-I and -II) were administered to 206 BPD patients. The relationship between PO and BPD components were studied using Spearman correlations and independent linear regression analyses. Significant positive correlations were observed between STIPO scores and several DSM-5 BPD criteria and comorbid psychiatric disorders. STIPO dimensions mainly correlated with disturbed relatedness and, to a lesser extent, affective dysregulation components. Each BPD clinical component was associated with specific STIPO dimensions. Both diagnostic models, DSM-5 BPD criteria and PO, are not only related but complementary concepts. The results of this study particularly recommend STIPO for the assessment of relational functioning, which is a major domain of the Personality Functioning Scale Levels of the DSM-5 AMPD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Eating disorder symptoms in middle-aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Kummer, Kai K; Pope, Harrison G

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have assessed symptoms of eating disorders in older men. We administered anonymous questionnaires to 470 men, aged 40-75 years, in and around Innsbruck, Austria, to assess eating behavior, body image, and exercise activities. We defined current eating disorder symptoms (EDS) as (1) BMI men, 32 (6.8%) reported one of the four eating disorder symptoms. The 32 men with eating disorder symptoms, compared to the 438 men with normal eating, showed significantly greater pathology on scales assessing eating behavior, exercise addiction, satisfaction with body shape, and weight. However, the EDE-Q cutoff score for eating disturbance identified only three (9%) of the EDS men. Symptoms of disordered eating, sometimes involving purging via excessive exercise, do occur in older men, and may be missed by conventional instruments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:953-957). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Impulse control disorders in borderline and antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz, S

    2007-01-18

    A borderline personality disorder is associated with highly impulsive acts that cannot be controlled by cognitive inhibition. In a psychopathic/antisocial personality disorder emotional inhibition of hostile acts is lacking. The patient has a high proclivity for risk-seeking, and is incapable of responding appropriately to punishment. In both disorders, the result is (auto)aggressive behavior. The family doctor must refer such patients to a specialist, when there is an acute danger of self-harm or when a grave functional limitation in the areas of work or interpersonal relationship has persisted over a long period of time.

  20. Retrospectively evaluated preinjury personality traits influence postconcussion symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kit-Man; Tsai, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Chi; Yang, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Postconcussion symptoms (PCS) are not uncommon following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Personality traits have always been viewed as one of the most important explanations for persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS). Unfortunately, studies on the association between preinjury personality traits and the PPCS are still limited. This study thus aimed to examine the relationship between the preinjury personality and PCS in patients with mTBI. A total of 106 participants including 53 healthy participants were recruited. All participants complete the modified Checklist of Postconcussion Symptoms and the Health, Personality, & Habit Scale. Participants were evaluated within 4 weeks and at 4 months, respectively, after injury. The results showed patients reported significantly more PCS than healthy participants did within 4 weeks postinjury. A significant positive association between PCS and retrospectively evaluated preinjury personality was found. Specifically, patients who reported that their preinjury personality was depressive or anxious-related presented more PCS. This study might be the first to directly demonstrate that preinjury personality traits are closely linked to PCS reporting in patients with mTBI. Importantly, PCS reporting might be associated with different personality traits at different periods after injuries, and thus, a careful evaluation for personality characteristics is merited after mTBI.

  1. A structured interview for the assessment of the Five-Factor Model of personality: facet-level relations to the axis II personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, T J; Widiger, T A; Burr, R

    2001-04-01

    The Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model (SIFFM; Trull & Widiger, 1997) is an 120-item semistructured interview that assesses both adaptive and maladaptive features of the personality traits included in the five-factor model of personality, or "Big Five." In this article, we evaluate the ability of SIFFM scores to predict personality disorder symptomatology in a sample of 232 adults (46 outpatients and 186 nonclinical college students). Personality disorder symptoms were assessed using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R; Hyler & Rider, 1987). Results indicated that many of the predicted associations between lower-order personality traits and personality disorders were supported. Further, many of these associations held even after controlling for comorbid personality disorder symptoms. These findings may help inform conceptualizations of the personality disorders, as well as etiological theories and treatment.

  2. Role of biological factors in etiopathogenesis of borderline personality disorder

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    Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally labile personality of borderline type (borderline personality occurs in 1-2% of individuals from general population; 75% of this group are women. Similarly to most of the other mental disorders, the borderline personality results from a combination of biological, social and psychological factors. The subject of this study is a survey of the current knowledge on biological factors of borderline personality. Most researchers are of the opinion that these personality disorders are determined genetically, with such inherited temperamental traits as: dysregulation, impulsivity, and hypersensitivity. Perhaps hereditary is also a defect within the serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system and/or dopaminergic system related to the reward system. Many researchers have recently perceived the dysfunction of endogenous opioid system as an integral component of borderline personality. There is now a lot of evidence showing that this dysfunction as well as that of the reward system may account for most of the borderline personality symptoms which constitute an involuntary attempt of stimulating the inefficient systems. This is how e.g. the presence of reckless sexual behaviours, unstable interpersonal relationships and inability to delay the reward in borderline personality is accounted for. Such observations may in the future constitute an important indication for seeking a more effective pharmacotherapy for patients with borderline personality. It is possible that in some patients the described dysfunctions may be alleviated with time. This is implied by the results of comprehensive prospective studies which show a significant regression of symptoms and improvement in functioning of most patients with borderline personality after at least several years.

  3. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify eating disorder subtypes. Because we were interested in both whether the PAI could be used to differentiate eating disorder subtypes from each other, as well as from other disorders, we also included a group of patients with major depression. The three eating disorder groups did differ significantly from each other, and from the patients with depression, on a number of the PAI scales. Only two PAI scales (Anxiety and Depression), however, exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with anorexia nervosa, no scales exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with bulimia nervosa or EDNOS, and only two exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with depression (Depression and Suicide). A discriminant function analysis revealed an overall correct classification between the groups of 81.6%. The PAI helps to understand the psychological factors associated with eating disorders and can be used to assist with assessment. Continued investigation using the PAI in an eating disordered population is supported.

  4. Personality and changes in comorbidity patterns among anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; de Rooij, M.; Heiser, W.; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study examined the prognostic value of the Big Five personality model for changes in comorbidity patterns of emotional disorders both from a person- and trait-centered perspective. Moreover, it is investigated whether the predictive effect of personality can be attributed to symptom

  5. Personality and Changes in Comorbidity Patterns Among Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; de Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study examined the prognostic value of the Big Five personality model for changes in comorbidity patterns of emotional disorders both from a person- and trait-centered perspective. Moreover, it is investigated whether the predictive effect of personality can be attributed to symptom

  6. Differences in mental health among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsin Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the differences in mental health and behavioral problems among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities. Methods: 500 college students participated in this study. Borderline personality symptoms were evaluated using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23. Mental health problems were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale. Suicidality and other behavioral problems were assessed using questions from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and BSL-23 Supplement. According to the distribution of BSL-23 scores at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, the participants were divided into 4 groups: No/Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Profound. Analysis of variance and the chi-square test were used to compare mental health and behavioral problems among the 4 groups. Results: All mental health problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The severity of nearly all mental health problems increased with that of borderline personality symptoms. The proportions of most behavioral problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The Profound group was more likely to have behavioral problems than the other 3 groups. Conclusion: Young adults who had more severe borderline personality symptoms had more severe mental health and behavioral problems. Keywords: Borderline personality, Mental health, Suicidality

  7. Association among self-compassion, childhood invalidation, and borderline personality disorder symptomatology in a Singaporean sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Wong, Yun Yi

    2017-01-01

    Linehan's biosocial theory posits that parental invalidation during childhood plays a role in the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms later in life. However, little research has examined components of the biosocial model in an Asian context, and variables that may influence the relationship between childhood invalidation and borderline symptoms. Self-compassion is increasingly regarded as an adaptive way to regulate one's emotions and to relate to oneself, and may serve to moderate the association between invalidation and borderline symptoms. The present study investigated the association among childhood invalidation, self-compassion, and borderline personality disorder symptoms in a sample of Singaporean undergraduate students. Two hundred and ninety undergraduate students from a large Singaporean university were recruited and completed measures assessing childhood invalidation, self-compassion, and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Analyses using multiple regression indicated that both childhood invalidation and self-compassion significantly predicted borderline personality disorder symptomatology. Results from moderation analyses indicated that relationship between childhood invalidation and borderline personality disorder symptomatology did not vary as a function of self-compassion. This study provides evidence in support of aspects of the biosocial model in an Asian context, and demonstrates a strong association between self-compassion and borderline personality disorder symptoms, independent of one's history of parental invalidation during childhood.

  8. Personality, depressive symptoms and prior trauma exposure of new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Police officers are predisposed to trauma exposure. The development of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be influenced by personality style, prior exposure to traumatic events and prior depression. Objectives. To describe the personality profiles of new Metropolitan Police Service ...

  9. Big Five personality traits and medically unexplained symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, S D M; Hanssen, D; Naarding, P; Lucassen, P; Comijs, H; Oude Voshaar, R

    2016-10-01

    Personality dysfunction has been postulated as the most clinically salient problem of persons suffering from medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) but empirical studies are scarce. This study aims to compare the personality profile of older patients suffering from MUS with two comparison groups and a control group. Ninety-six older patients with MUS were compared with 153 frequent attenders in primary care suffering from medically explained symptoms (MES), 255 patients with a past-month depressive disorder (DSM-IV-TR), and a control group of 125 older persons. The Big Five personality domains (NEO-Five-Factor Inventory) were compared between groups by multiple ANCOVAs adjusted for age, sex, education, partner status and cognitive functioning. Linear regression analyses were applied to examine the association between health anxiety (Whitley Index) and somatization (Brief Symptom Inventory). The four groups differed with respect to neuroticism (Ppersonality profile. Health anxiety and somatization were associated with a higher level of neuroticism and a lower level of extraversion and conscientiousness, irrespective whether the physical symptom was explained or not. Older patients with MUS have a specific personality profile, comparable to MES patients. Health anxiety and somatization may be better indicators of psychopathology than whether a physical symptom is medically explained or not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Do personality traits predict outcome of psychodynamically oriented psychosomatic inpatient treatment beyond initial symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Christiane; Klein, Susanne; Leweke, Frank; Leichsenring, Falk

    2015-03-01

    Whether personality characteristics have an impact on treatment outcome is an important question in psychotherapy research. One of the most common approaches for the description of personality is the five-factor model of personality. Only few studies investigated whether patient personality as measured with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Costa & McCrae [1992b]. Revised NEO-PI-R and NEO-FFI. Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Recources) predicts outcome. Results were inconsistent. Studies reporting personality to be predictive of outcome did not control for baseline symptoms, while studies controlling initial symptoms could not support these findings. We hypothesized that after taking into account baseline symptoms, the NEO-FFI would not predict outcome and tested this in a large sample of inpatients at a psychosomatic clinic. Naturalistic, non-controlled study using patients' data for multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of outcome. Data of 254 inpatients suffering primarily from depressive, anxiety, stress, and somatoform disorders were analysed. Personality was assessed at the beginning of therapy. For psychotherapy outcome, changes in anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS), overall psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R Global Severity Index [GSI]), and interpersonal problems (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems; IIP) were measured. The treatment resulted in significant decreases on all outcome measures corresponding to moderate to large effect sizes (HADS: d = 1.03; GSI: d = 0.90; IIP: d = 0.38). Consistent with our hypothesis, none of the personality domains predicted outcome when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Personality assessment at baseline does not seem to have an added value in the prediction of inpatient psychotherapy outcome beyond initial symptoms. Clinical implications Personality dimensions overlap with symptomatic distress. Rather than serve as predictors of

  11. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Personality profiles in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Golay, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Julien; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Ardu, Stefano; Herrmann, François R; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Baud, Patrick

    2016-06-14

    Previous studies suggested that the presence of ADHD in children and young adolescents may affect the development of personality. Whether or not the persistence of ADHD in adult life is associated with distinct personality patterns is still matter for debate. To address this issue, we compared the profiles of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) that assesses personality dimensions in 119 adults ADHD and 403 controls. ANCOVA were used to examine group differences (controls vs. ADHD and ADHD inattentive type vs. ADHD combined + hyperactive/impulsive types) in Temperaments and Characters. Partial correlation coefficients were used to assess correlation between TCI and expression and severity of symptoms of ADHD. High novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) scores as well as low self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) scores were associated with ADHD diagnosis. Low SD was the strongest personality trait associated with adult ADHD. Cases with the ADHD inattentive type showed higher HA and lower SD scores compared to the combined and hyperactive/impulsive types. High HA scores correlated with inattention symptoms whereas high NS and ST scores were related to hyperactive symptoms. Finally low SD and high NS were associated with increased ADHD severity. Distinct temperaments were associated with inattentive versus hyperactive/impulsive symptoms supporting the heterogeneous nature of the disorder.

  13. Autism Spectrum Symptoms in a Tourette's Disorder Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Grados, Marco; Sandor, Paul; Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Illmann, Cornelia; Osiecki, Lisa; Dion, Yves; King, Robert; Pauls, David; Budman, Cathy L.; Cath, Danielle C.; Greenberg, Erica; Lyon, Gholson J.; McMahon, William M.; Lee, Paul C.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.

    Objective: Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD,

  14. Autism Spectrum Symptoms in a Tourette's Disorder Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darrow, Sabrina M; Grados, Marco A; Sandor, Paul; Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Illmann, Cornelia; Osiecki, Lisa; Dion, Yves; King, Robert A; Pauls, David L; Budman, Cathy L; Cath, Danielle C.; Greenberg, Erica; Lyon, Gholson J; McMahon, William M; Lee, Paul C; Delucchi, Kevin L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD,

  15. Conscientiousness and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-07-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness.

  16. ''Medically unexplained" symptoms and symptom disorders in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Hartman, Tim C. Olde; Aamland, Aase

    2017-01-01

    that better supports clinical decision-making, creates clearer communication and provides scientific underpinning of research to ensure effective interventions. Discussion: We propose a classification of symptoms that places greater emphasis on prognostic factors. Prognosis-based classification aims...

  17. Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Lukowitsky, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    We review the literature on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and describe a significant criterion problem related to four inconsistencies in phenotypic descriptions and taxonomic models across clinical theory, research, and practice; psychiatric diagnosis; and social/personality psychology. This impedes scientific synthesis, weakens narcissism's nomological net, and contributes to a discrepancy between low prevalence rates of NPD and higher rates of practitioner-diagnosed pathological narcissism, along with an enormous clinical literature on narcissistic disturbances. Criterion issues must be resolved, including clarification of the nature of normal and pathological narcissism, incorporation of the two broad phenotypic themes of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability into revised diagnostic criteria and assessment instruments, elimination of references to overt and covert narcissism that reify these modes of expression as distinct narcissistic types, and determination of the appropriate structure for pathological narcissism. Implications for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the science of personality disorders are presented.

  18. Anxiety Symptoms and Disorders in College Students With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Sarah R; Bray, Allison C; Anastopoulos, Arthur D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined anxiety symptoms and disorders in college students with ADHD. Forty-six college students with ADHD and a matched group of students without ADHD participated. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety symptoms and associated features, including worry, maladaptive beliefs about worry, panic symptoms, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and self-efficacy. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview to assess lifetime and current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD endorsed more maladaptive beliefs about worry, more obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and poorer self-efficacy compared with comparison participants. There were no group differences in rates of current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD were over 2 times more likely than comparison participants to endorse this lifetime history. College students with ADHD are more likely to have a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder and are at greater risk for some anxiety symptoms and associated features.

  19. Historical roots of histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Filipa; Araújo, Andreia; Godinho, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states. Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women's afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a "neurosis" with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined "neurosis" as a re-experience of past psychological trauma. Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) made its first official appearance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II (DSM-II) and since the DSM-III, HPD is the only disorder that kept the term derived from the old concept of hysteria. The subject of hysteria has reflected positions about health, religion and relationships between the sexes in the last 4000 years, and the discussion is likely to continue.

  20. The question of symptom lateralization in conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not conversion symptoms are lateralized. Studies have shown a predominant left-oriented manifestation of symptoms for most somatoform disorders. The reports in the literature on the lateralization of conversion symptoms, however, are

  1. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Steven C. Hertler

    2013-01-01

    With the ultimate goal of better understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), the present work is a review and critique of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria at the end of their 18 years of use. Problems of specificity (polythetic criteria and failure to employ a hallmark feature) make OCPD an indistinct diagnostic category that consequently co...

  2. Alternative dimensional models of personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of the many limitations of the categorical model of personality disorder classification has led to the development of quite a number of alternative proposals for a dimensional classification. The purpose of this article is to suggest that future research work toward the integration...... of these alternative proposals within a common hierarchical structure. An illustration of a potential integration is provided using the constructs assessed within existing dimensional models. Suggestions for future research that will help lead toward a common, integrative dimensional model of personality disorder...

  3. Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in long-standing eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabel, Karianne R; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Oyvind; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2010-08-01

    Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current 5-year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (a) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (b) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long-standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. A mixed model was used to examine the predictors. Avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse interacted in predicting high levels of eating disorder over a long-term course. These results suggest that eating disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and sequelae after child sexual abuse are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Impact of dissociation on treatment of depressive and anxiety spectrum disorders with and without personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasko, Jan; Grambal, Ales; Kasalova, Petra; Kamardova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Vrbova, Kristyna; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Latalova, Klara; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders. The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program - Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale. A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86%) patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the questionnaires). The patients' mean ratings on all measurements were significantly reduced during the treatment. Also, 67.5% reached at least minimal improvement (42.4% showed moderate and more improvement, 35.3% of the patients reached remission). The patients without comorbid personality disorder improved more significantly in the reduction of depressive symptoms than those with comorbid personality disorder. However, there were no significant differences in change in anxiety levels and severity of the mental issues between the patients with and without personality disorders. Higher

  5. Genome-wide association study of borderline personality disorder reveals genetic overlap with bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, S.H.; Streit, F.; Jungkunz, M; Frank, J.; Awasthi, S; Reinbold, C S; Treutlein, J.; Degenhardt, F.; Forstner, A. J.; Heilmann-Heimbach, S.; Dietl, L; Schwarze, C E; Schendel, D.J.; Strohmaier, J.; Abdellaoui, A; Adolfsson, R; Air, T M; Akil, H.; Lopezz de Alda, M.; Alliey-Rodriguez, N; Andreassen, O. A.; Babadjanova, G; Bass, N.J.; Bauer, M.; Baune, Bernard T; Bellivier, F.; Bergen, S. E.; Bethell, A.; Biernacka, J.M.; Blackwood, D H R; Boks, Marco P; Boomsma, D I; Børglum, Anders D; Borrmann-Hassenbach, M; Brennan, P.; Budde, M.; Buttenschøn, H N; Byrne, Enda M; Cervantes, P; Clarke, T.K.; Craddock, N.; Cruceanu, C; Curtis, D.; de Geus, E J C; Fischer, S B; Hottenga, J-J; Middeldorp, C M; Milaneschi, Y; Penninx, B W J H; Willemsen, G

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BOR) is determined by environmental and genetic factors, and characterized by affective instability and impulsivity, diagnostic symptoms also observed in manic phases of bipolar disorder (BIP). Up to 20% of BIP patients show comorbidity with BOR. This report

  6. Do cognitive measures of response inhibition differentiate between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F.E. van; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Broek, P.J.A. van den; Kan, C.C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether cognitive measures of response inhibition derived from the AX-CPT are able to differentiate between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC). Current DSM-IV-TR symptoms of ADHD and BPD were

  7. Associations between identity diffusion, Axis II disorder, and psychopathology in inpatients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Daniel; Gremaud-Heitz, Daniela; Riemenschneider, Anke; Küchenhoff, Joachim; Dammann, Gerhard; Walter, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) suffer from instability in their relationships, their affectivity, and their identity. However, the associations between these dimensions are not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between identity diffusion and psychopathology in BPD. In the second week of inpatient treatment, 52 patients with BPD were assessed with the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO) and questionnaires measuring general psychiatric symptoms, mood states, and negative affects (SCL-90-R, BDI, STAI, and STAXI). A median split was examined to differentiate BPD patients with high identity diffusion from those with low identity diffusion. BPD patients with high identity diffusion did not differ in their social data from BPD patients with low identity diffusion. However, BPD patients with high identity diffusion showed significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptoms, as well as higher anxiety, anger, and depression scores (p personality disorders (p identity diffusion with psychopathological symptoms and features of personality disorder and emphasize the clinical significance of identity diffusion for patients with BPD. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Borderline Personality Disorder: Therapeutic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Proponents of the now half-dozen major psychotherapeutic approaches tend to claim the superiority of their different approaches-known widely by their acronyms: CBT for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, DBT for Dialectic Behavioral Therapy, MBT for Mentalization-Based Therapy, TFP for Transference- Focused Psychotherapy, and so on. The data thus far support the utility of each method, but do not show clear-cut superiority of any one method. A large percentage of BPD patients eventually improve or even recover, but these favorable results appear to derive from a multiplicity of factors. These include the personality traits of both patient and therapist, the unpredictable life events over time, the socioeconomic and cultural background of the patient, and the placebo effect of simply being in treatment. These latter factors constitute the contextual model, which operates alongside the medical model, each playing a role in eventual outcome. The contextual model will be discussed extensively in a separate article.

  9. Determining if Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Are Alternative Expressions of the Same Disorder: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Iris; Oquendo, María A; García, Gemma; Stanley, Barbara; González-Pinto, Ana; Liu, Shang-Min; Blanco, Carlos

    To examine whether bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder represent 2 different disorders or alternative manifestations of the same disorder. The data were collected between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2005. The analyses were conducted between December 21 and December 27, 2010. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed on 25 symptoms assessing depression, mania, and borderline personality disorder from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large nationally representative sample of the US adult population (N = 34,653). DSM-IV criteria were used for diagnosis of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. A 3-factor solution provided an excellent fit in both the EFA (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.017, comparative fix index [CFI] = 0.997) and the CFA (RMSEA = 0.024, CFI = 0.993). Factor 1 (Borderline Personality Disorder) loaded on all 9 borderline personality disorder symptoms, factor 2 (Depression) loaded on 8 symptoms of depression, and factor 3 (Mania) loaded on 7 symptoms of mania plus the psychomotor agitation item of the depression section. The correlations between the Borderline Personality Disorder and Depression factors (r = 0.328) and between the Borderline Personality Disorder and Mania factors (r = 0.394) were lower than the correlation between Depression and Mania factors (r = 0.538). A model with 3 positively correlated factors provided an excellent fit for the latent structure of borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder symptoms. The pattern of pairwise correlations between the 3 factors is consistent with the clinical presentation of 2 syndromes (depression and mania) that can be characterized as a unitary psychiatric entity (bipolar disorder) and a third syndrome (borderline personality disorder) that is often comorbid with bipolar disorder. The findings converge in suggesting that bipolar disorder and

  10. Narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C

    2014-10-01

    The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Section II NPD and then discuss the evolution of a new model of personality disorder and the place in the model of pathological narcissism and NPD. The new model was intended to be the official approach to the diagnosis of personality pathology in DSM-5, but was ultimately placed as an alternative in Section III for further study. The new model is a categorical-dimensional hybrid based on the assessment of core elements of personality functioning and of pathological personality traits. The specific criteria for NPD were intended to rectify some of the shortcomings of the DSM-IV representation by acknowledging both grandiose and vulnerable aspects, overt and covert presentations, and the dimensionality of narcissism. In addition, criteria were assigned and diagnostic thresholds set based on empirical data. The Section III representation of narcissistic phenomena using dimensions of self and interpersonal functioning and relevant traits offers a significant improvement over Section II NPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimia nervosa: the importance of knowledge and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel Florence; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Massey, Robin; Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Rodgers, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (ρ = -0.28), unreliability (ρ = -0.19), and advantages of BN (ρ = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment.

  12. Subsyndromal depressive symptoms are associated with functional impairment in patients with bipolar disorder : Results of a large, multisite study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, Lori L.; Post, Robert M.; Black, David O.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; Grunze, Heinz; Kupka, Ralph W.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; McElroy, Susan L.; Walden, Joerg; Mintz, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Studies of patients with unipolar depression have demonstrated a relationship between subthreshold depressive symptoms and impairment in role functioning. Research examining this relationship in persons with bipolar disorder is rare. This study sought to evaluate the association between

  13. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  14. Stiff person case misdiagnosed as conversion disorder: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmeh, Saeed; Habibi, Amir Hasan; Sina, Farzad; Alizadeh, Elham; Eslami, Monireh

    2017-01-01

    Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare neurological disease resulting in stiffness and spasm of muscles. It initially affects the axial muscles and then spread to limb muscles. Emotional stress exacerbated the symptoms and signs of the disease. The pathophysiology of the disease is caused by the decreased level of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity due to an autoantibody against GAD that decreases the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this paper, we present a case of atypical presentation of SPS with lower limb stiffness misdiagnosed as conversion disorder. We report a patient with atypical presentation of SPS with lower limb stiffness and gait disorder misdiagnosed as conversion disorder for a year. Her antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO Ab) level was 75 IU (normal value: 0-34 IU). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was administered (2gr/kg, 5 days) for the patient that showed significant improvement in the follow-up visit. It is essential that in any patient with bizarre gait disorder and suspicious to conversion disorder due to the reversibility of symptoms, SPS and other movement disorder should be considered.

  15. Alexithymia and personality disorder functioning styles in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Liu, Weibo; Zheng, Leilei; Ma, Ying; Chen, Qiaozhen; Chen, Yiping; Yu, Hualiang; Lu, Yunrong; Pan, Bing; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Personality disorder functioning styles might contribute to the inconclusive findings about alexithymic features in schizophrenia. We therefore studied the relationship between alexithymia and personality styles in paranoid schizophrenia. We administered the Chinese versions of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale as well as the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales to 60 paranoid schizophrenia patients and 60 healthy control subjects. Patients scored significantly higher on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, TAS 'difficulty identifying feelings' and 'difficulty describing feelings', Hamilton Depression Scale and most PERM scales. In healthy subjects, difficulty identifying feelings predicted the PERM 'dependent' style, and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale predicted difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings. In patients, difficulty identifying feelings nonspecifically predicted all the PERM scales; by contrast, the PERM 'antisocial' style predicted difficulty identifying feelings, the 'avoidant' style predicted difficulty describing feelings, and the 'histrionic' and 'paranoid (-)' styles predicted 'externally oriented thinking'. Personality disorder functioning styles - instead of anxiety, depression, psychotic symptoms or disease duration - were specifically associated with alexithymia scales in our patients, which sheds light on a cognitive-personological substrate in paranoid schizophrenia on the one hand, and calls for a longitudinal design to discover how premorbid or postacute residual personality styles contribute to the sluggish disorder on the other. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Dysfunctional Affect Regulation : in borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijke, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to provide a systematic exploration of the nature and distribution of dysfunctional affect regulation, its associated phenomena, and retrospectively reported potentially traumatizing events in 475 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), somatoform disorder (SoD), comorbid BPD+SoD, and a psychiatric comparison group (PC) to provide a baseline against which to compare the hypothesized elevations in dysfunctional self and affect regulation....

  17. Borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Raelene Ym; Grigg, Jasmin; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2018-02-01

    This review examines the existing evidence for the relationship between borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome, and to identify commonalities in etiological mechanisms of borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome that might explain the relationship between these seemingly disparate disorders. A search of Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Central was undertaken on 5 December 2016 to identify studies investigating women with borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome (or symptoms and markers specific to polycystic ovary syndrome). Nine studies were identified, including three cross-sectional studies investigating symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome in women with borderline personality disorder, two cross-sectional and one cohort study examining the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and three case reports of comorbid borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome. Overall, the literature shows women with borderline personality disorder to have higher than expected serum androgen levels and incidence of polycystic ovaries, which can be key features of polycystic ovary syndrome. However, this research is still in its infancy, which limits our understanding of this potential comorbid phenomenon. Given the emerging anecdotal and empirical evidence to date, a theoretical discussion of the potential psychoneuroendocrinological mechanism underlying the borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome comorbidity is provided. Further rigorous studies using standardized diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome are warranted. Specifically, the use of prospective controlled cohort studies may be able to determine the causality and temporality of observed comorbid borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome.

  18. Identifying potentially marker symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor B. Arias

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background For the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 proposes that adherence to six symptoms in either group (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity will lead to the diagnosis of one of three presentations of the disorder. Underlying this diagnostic algorithm is the assumption that the 18 symptoms have equal relevance for the diagnosis of ADHD, all are equally severe, and all have the same power to detect the presence of the disorder in all its degrees of severity, without considering the possibility of using marker symptoms. However, several studies have suggested that ADHD symptoms differ in both their power to discriminate the presence of the disorder and the degree of severity they represent. The aim of the present study was to replicate the results of previous research by evaluating the discriminative capacity and relative severity of ADHD symptoms, as well as to extend the investigation of this topic to Spanish-speaking Latin American samples. Methods The properties of ADHD symptoms rated by the parents of 474 Chilean children were analyzed. Symptom parameters were estimated using the graded response model. Results The results suggest that symptoms of ADHD differ substantially in both the accuracy with which they reflect the presence of the disorder, and their relative severity. Symptoms “easily distracted by extraneous stimuli” and “have difficulty sustaining attention in tasks” (inattention and “is on the go, acting as if driven by motor” (hyperactivity/impulsivity were the most informative, and those with relatively lower severity thresholds. Discussion The fact that symptoms differ substantially in the probability of being observed conditionally to the trait level suggests the need to refine the diagnostic process by weighting the severity of the symptom, and even to assess the possibility of defining ADHD marker symptoms, as has

  19. Diabetes Changes Symptoms Cluster Patterns in Persons Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Julie Ann; Bose, Eliezer; Park, Jungmin; Lapiz-Bluhm, M Danet; García, Alexandra A

    Approximately 10-15% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) have a comorbid diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Both of these long-term chronic conditions are associated with high rates of symptom burden. The purpose of our study was to describe symptom patterns for PLWH with DM (PLWH+DM) using a large secondary dataset. The prevalence, burden, and bothersomeness of symptoms reported by patients in routine clinic visits during 2015 were assessed using the 20-item HIV Symptom Index. Principal component analysis was used to identify symptom clusters. Three main clusters were identified: (a) neurological/psychological, (b) gastrointestinal/flu-like, and (c) physical changes. The most prevalent symptoms were fatigue, poor sleep, aches, neuropathy, and sadness. When compared to a previous symptom study with PLWH, symptoms clustered differently in our sample of patients with dual diagnoses of HIV and diabetes. Clinicians should appropriately assess symptoms for their patients' comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social desirability in personality inventories: Symptoms, diagnosis and prescribed cure

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an i...

  1. Patient-reported outcomes in borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Jacob, Gitta A.; Brändle, Laura S.; Schulte-Vels, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an overview of currently used BPD outcome measures and discuss them from clinical, psychometric, experimental, and patient perspectives. In addition, we review the most promising leads to improve BPD PROs, including the DSM-5 Section III, the Recovery Approach, Ecological Momentary Assessments, and novel experimental measures of social functioning that are associated with functional and social outcomes. PMID:25152662

  2. Comorbid personality disorders among patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nahathai Wongpakaran, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: To investigate the personality disorders (PDs diagnosed in patients with depressive disorders.Material and methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis, and was an extension of the Thai Study of Affective Disorder (THAISAD project. Eighty-five outpatients with depressive disorders were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess for depression, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision and using the Thai version of the Structured Clinical Interview for PDs to assess for PD.Results: Seventy-seven percent of the patients had at least one PD, 40% had one PD and 60% had two or more PDs (mixed cluster. The most common PDs found were borderline PD (20% and obsessive–compulsive PD (10.6%, while the occurrence of avoidant PD was low when compared to the findings of previous, related studies. Among the mixed cluster, cluster A combined with cluster C was the common mix. Both dysthymic disorder and double depression were found to have a higher proportion of PDs than major depressive disorder (85.7% versus 76.1%. Dependent PD was found to be less common in this study than in previous studies, including those carried out in Asia.Conclusion: The prevalence of PDs among those with depressive disorder varied, and only borderline PD seems to be consistently high within and across cultures. Mixed cluster plays a prominent role in depression, so more attention should be paid to patients in this category. Keywords: personality disorders, depressive disorder, prevalence, Asian, mixed cluster, SCID-II

  3. Borderline personality pathology in young people at ultra high risk of developing a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jaymee; Graham, Anne; Nelson, Barnaby; Yung, Alison

    2017-06-01

    The association between borderline personality disorder and the ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis state is unclear. The following study aimed to investigate the type of attenuated psychotic symptoms and prevalence of borderline personality pathology in a sample of UHR young people. Additionally, the study aimed to explore whether borderline personality pathology influenced the transition rate to psychosis. Medical records from Orygen Youth Health between 2007 and 2009 were examined. There were 180 patients who met UHR criteria and were included for analysis. Most patients were females (62.8%) and age ranged from 15 to 24 years. A quarter (25.2%) of UHR patients endorsed items consistent with borderline personality pathology. UHR patients with borderline personality pathology experienced a range of attenuated psychotic symptoms and could not be statistically differentiated from UHR patients with less significant or without borderline personality pathology. Borderline personality pathology did not increase or decrease the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. The absence of depression was the only predictor of psychosis. Many UHR patients present with concurrent borderline personality features. The psychotic experiences reported by UHR patients with borderline personality features were not limited to paranoid ideation, supporting the idea that borderline personality disorder may include a wider range of psychotic symptoms than previously thought. It is further possible that the psychotic symptoms experienced in this group could also be indicative of an emerging psychotic disorder. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Ten year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Samuel, Douglas B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Shea, M. Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C.; Gunderson, John G.; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Method Ten-year rank order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluated before and after correcting for test-retest dependability and internal consistency in a clinical sample (N = 266). Results Dependability corrected stability estimates were generally in the range of .60–.90 for traits and .25–.65 for personality disorders. Conclusions The relatively lower stability of personality disorder symptoms may indicate important differences between pathological behaviors and relatively more stable self-attributed traits and imply that a full understanding of personality and personality pathology needs to take both traits and symptoms into account. The Five-Factor Theory distinction between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations provides a theoretical framework for the separation of traits and disorders in terms of stability in which traits reflect basic tendencies that are stable and pervasive across situations, whereas personality disorder symptoms reflect characteristic maladaptations that are a function of both basic tendencies and environmental dynamics. PMID:22812532

  5. An Integrative Dimensional Classification of Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Livesley, W. John; Clark, Lee Anna

    2009-01-01

    Psychological assessment research concerns how to describe psychological dysfunction in ways that are both valid and useful. Recent advances in assessment research hold the promise of facilitating significant improvements in description and diagnosis. One such contribution is in the classification of personality disorder symptomatology. The…

  6. Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Borderline Personality Symptoms at 11-Years of Age: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Schreier, Andrea; Zanarini, Mary C.; Winsper, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abuse by adults has been reported as a potent predictor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Unclear is whether victimisation by peers increases the risk of borderline personality symptoms. Method: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective, longitudinal observation study of 6050 mothers and their…

  7. [Psychopathy and associated personality disorders: searching for a particular effect of the borderline personality disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioche, A; Pham, T H; Ducro, C; de Beaurepaire, C; Chudzik, L; Courtois, R; Réveillère, C

    2010-06-01

    Recent clinical and empirical works are based on Cleckley's clinical observations in which psychopathy is viewed as a personality disorder, characterised by a lack of emotions, callousness, unreliability and superficiality. Hare operationalised Cleckley's concept of psychopathy by developing the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised composed of 20 items that load on two factors in majority: factor 1 (personality aspects of psychopathy) and factor 2 (behavioural manifestations), close to the antisocial personality disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Comorbidity is strong with antisocial personality disorder but also with histrionic, narcissistic and borderline disorders. As results of categorical studies relative to comorbidity suggest a strong comorbidity between psychopathy and other personality disorders, and particularly cluster B disorders (axis II, DSM-IV), this study assesses the relationships between psychopathy (dimensional approach) and personality disorders (categorical approach) and particularly with the borderline personality disorder. The aim of this study is also to underline the complementarity of categorical (SCID-II) and dimensional approaches (PCL-R), and the utility of the standardised clinical examination. We hypothesised positive associations between psychopathy and other personality disorders, mainly with the cluster B axis II (narcissistic, antisocial, histrionic, and borderline). Among those disorders, a particular link exists with the borderline personality disorder, considering that their association may attenuate the pathological level of the psychopathy. The sample included 80 male inmates from French prisons (age: M=31.48; SD=11.06). Each participant was evaluated with the PCL-R to assess the level of psychopathy and the SCID-II to assess the possible presence of personality disorders. The MINI and the WAIS-III were used to exclude respectively those who presented an axis I comorbidity (mood disorders and psychotic disorders established at the moment

  8. Predicting Personality Disorder Functioning Styles by the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in Healthy Volunteers and Personality Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qianqian; Ma, Guorong; Zhu, Qisha; Fan, Hongying; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Detecting personality disorders in the illiterate population is a challenge, but nonverbal tools measuring personality traits such as the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FFNPQ) might help. We hypothesized that FFNPQ traits are associated with personality disorder functioning styles in a predictable way, especially in a sample of personality disorder patients. We therefore invited 106 personality disorder patients and 205 healthy volunteers to answer the FFNPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) which measures 11 personality disorder functioning styles. Patients scored significantly higher on the FFNPQ neuroticism and conscientiousness traits and all 11 PERM styles. In both groups, the 5 FFNPQ traits displayed extensive associations with the 11 PERM styles, respectively, and the associations were more specific in patients. Associations between neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness traits and most PERM styles were less exclusive, but conscientiousness was associated with antisocial (-) and obsessive-compulsive styles, and openness to experience with schizotypal and dependent (-) styles. Our study has demonstrated correlations between FFNPQ traits and PERM styles, and implies the nonverbal measure of personality traits is capable of aiding the diagnoses of personality disorders in the illiterate population. Enlarging sample size and including the illiterate might make for more stable results. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Comparing Dimensional Models Assessing Personality Traits and Personality Pathology Among Adult ADHD and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerting, Johanna; Pukrop, Ralf; Klein, Philipp; Ritter, Kathrin; Knowles, Mark; Banzhaf, Anke; Gentschow, Laura; Vater, Aline; Heuser, Isabella; Colla, Michael; Roepke, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This pilot study was a comparison of dimensional models assessing personality traits and personality pathology in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD and adults diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a nonclinical control sample of healthy adults. Personality traits were assessed using the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) and dimensional personality pathology with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Adults with ADHD and BPD produced higher Emotional Dysregulation/Neuroticism and Dissocial Behavior scores than controls. For the Extraversion/Inhibitedness scale, adults with BPD produced significantly lower scores than adults with ADHD and controls. On the Conscientiousness/Compulsivity domains, Conscientiousness scores were lower for both disorders, whereas low Compulsivity values were specific to adult ADHD. Our results suggest that patients with adult ADHD and BPD have distinguishable profiles of personality traits and personality pathology. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, Lidiane; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the association between minor psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 615 women aged 40 to 65 years treated in a public menopause and gynecological outpatient clinic in the South Region of Brazil. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and menopause symptoms using the Menopause Rating Scale. Score for menopause symptoms was categorized into three levels of symptoms: mild, moderate, and severe. Multivariate analyses used ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe menopause symptoms was 34.1% (95% CI 30.3-37.9), 29.6% (95% CI 25.8-33.1), and 36.3% (95% CI 32.4-40.0), respectively. The overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 66.6% (95% CI 62.8-70.3). After adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of the occurrence of menopause symptoms were approximately eight times higher in women relating minor psychiatric disorders compared with those without such disorders (OR = 7.76; 95% CI 5.27-11.44). The following factors were also associated with the menopause symptoms: women older than 50 years, living with a partner, lower educational level, smokers, larger number of pregnancies, obese, and those using psychotropic and/or postmenopause medication. The minor psychiatric disorders exhibited strong association with the presence of menopause symptoms independently of sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors, and of use of psychotropic medication.

  11. The bipolar II disorder personality traits, a true syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Einar

    2015-06-01

    The author was struck by the similarities and commonality of complaints, aside from mood swings, made by Bipolar II patients and started registrating these complaints. This registrational work eventually led to the development of The Bipolar II Syndome Checklist. The aim of this work was to understand how widely the Bipolar II disorder affects the personality, and what disturbing personality traits are the most common? Deliberately, no attempt was made to diagnose psychiatric comorbidities, in the hope that one would get a clearer view of what symptoms, if any, could be considered a natural part of the Bipolar II Disorder. As far as the author knows this is a novel approach. 105 Bipolar II patients completed the Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist. The answers to the 44 questions on the list are presented in tables. Symptoms like anxiety, low self esteem, paranoia, extreme hurtfulness, migraine, Post Partum Depression, obsessive traits, alcoholism in the family are amongst the findings which will be presented in greater detail. No control group. Bipolar I patients excluded. The Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist has not been systematically validated. The results show that Bipolar II Disorder causes multiple symptoms so commonly that it may be justified to describe it as a syndrome, The Bipolar II Syndrome. Also these disturbances commonly lie in families of Bipolar II patients and are in all likelihood, greatly underdiagnosed. The clinical relevance of this study lies in increasing our knowledge and understanding of the nature of the Bipolar II Disorder, which in all probability will increase the diagnostic and treatment accuracy, since clinicians are more likely to scan for other symptoms needing treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Depressive personality disorder, dysthymia, and their relationship to perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Porcerelli, John; Keaschuk, Rachel; Binienda, Juliann; Engle, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two studies in a nonclinical (n=105) and primary care outpatient sample (n=110), in which Depressive Personality Disorder (DPD), Dysthymia, and depression were assessed for their distinctive relationship with perfectionism. Results from both studies found that self-reported DPD, Dysthymia, and depressive symptoms were all intercorrelated, and that DPD, Dysthymia, and depressive symptoms were correlated with three dimensions of perfectionism-Concern over Mistakes, Doubts about Actions, and Parental Criticism. In the nonclinical sample, variance in measures of DPD was predicted by measures of perfectionism after controlling for depression and Dysthymia symptoms. A similar pattern of findings was observed in the primary care sample. This relationship with perfectionism did not occur when Dysthymia or depressive symptoms were predicted. Nevertheless, much of the variance in measures of DPD, Dysthymia, and depressive symptoms is associated with each other and not perfectionism. It is concluded that a common factor or set of factors underlies these disorders, but that DPD may be more strongly related to perfectionism than Dysthymia and depression. As a common factor(s) is identified, measures of DPD and Dysthymia may be refined, thereby increasing the discriminant validity of their measures.

  13. Changing character: A narrative review of personality change in psychotherapies for personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, John R; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2018-01-19

    Personality disorder (PD) is a negative prognostic indicator for treatment, and absolute improvements in functioning among these patients are often modest. This may be because personality features that give rise to dysfunction in PD are not targeted optimally during most treatments. Attachment, mentalization, core beliefs, and personality organization/defense use were identified as personality constructs that have been pursued in treatment studies and that are proposed to underlie PD. All constructs correlate with psychiatric symptoms, PD diagnosis, and functioning. Defense mechanisms and core beliefs further distinguish specific PDs, whereas personality organization separates more versus less severe PDs. Evidence from treatment and naturalistic studies indicate that maturation of defense mechanisms temporally precedes improvements in symptoms and functioning. Changes in attachment and mentalization correlate with some outcomes, but mediation of improvement has not been established. In psychodynamic therapy, transference interpretations may promote amelioration of personality dysfunction. With the exception of attachment, the experimental literature is lacking that could explicate the mechanisms by which these personality constructs maintain psychosocial dysfunction. Future research should aim to identify changes in these mechanisms that mediate positive outcomes in PD, as well as the specific therapeutic procedures that best promote positive change in PD.

  14. [Psychotherapy of patients with personality disorders with predominance of hypochondria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burno, M E; Igovskaia, A S

    2008-01-01

    A standard of psychotherapeutic help to patients with hypochondriac disorder developed in paranoid, schizoid, anxiety and dependent personality disorders is worked out. In this case, hypochondria is inseparable from the personality structure. Patients of investigated group (61 people) received traditional medical treatment, individual differential symptomatic psychotherapy and a short group course with a variant of the therapy by means of creative sell-expression (TCSEB) worked out by M. Burno. This course aimed at preventing new hypochondriac symptoms and acquiring spiritual creative ways to overcome themselves. The control group (70 people) differed from the index-group by not receiving CSEB. A statistical analysis revealed a significant therapeutic efficacy of the mentioned new clinical psychotherapeutic standard compared to the psychotherapeutic tactics without TCSEB.

  15. Effect of person centered counselling on depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of person centered counselling on depressive symptoms among Type II diabetic patients attending the general ... The clinic visits in both groups were repeated at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 making a total of six sessions for both groups.

  16. ADHD in adolescents with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortese Samuele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of a comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD diagnosis in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, and its impact on the clinical presentation of BPD in adolescents, and to determine which type of impulsivity specifically characterizes adolescents with BPD-ADHD. Methods ADHD diagnoses were sought in a sample of 85 DSM-IV BPD adolescents drawn from the EURNET BPD. Axis-I and -II disorders were determined with the K-SADS-PL and the SIDP-IV, respectively. Impulsivity was assessed with the BIS-11. Results 11% (N = 9 of BPD participants had a current ADHD diagnosis. BPD-ADHD adolescents showed higher prevalence of Disruptive disorders (Chi2 = 9.09, p = 0.01 and a non-significant trend for a higher prevalence of other cluster B personality disorders (Chi2 = 2.70, p = 0.08. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between Attentional/Cognitive impulsivity scores and ADHD (Wald Z = 6.69; p = 0.01; Exp(B = 2.02, CI 95% 1.19-3.45. Conclusions Comorbid ADHD influences the clinical presentation of adolescents with BPD and is associated with higher rates of disruptive disorders, with a trend towards a greater likelihood of cluster B personality disorders and with higher levels of impulsivity, especially of the attentional/cognitive type. A subgroup of BPD patients may exhibit developmentally driven impairments of the inhibitory system persisting since childhood. Specific interventions should be recommended for this subsample of BPD adolescents.

  17. Eating disorder symptom trajectories in adolescence: effects of time, participant sex, and early adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention

  18. [The relationship of attachment features and multi-impulsive symptoms in eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Tamás Dömötör

    2017-07-01

    Attachment dysfunctions determine borderline personality disorder, which is a frequent background factor of multi-impulsivity; however, the relationship between attachment and multi-impulsive eating disorders is almost unexplored. To compare attachment features of multi-impulsive and classical eating disorder patients with individuals without eating disorders, and to test attachment as a predictor of multi-impulsivity. A cross-sectional survey (148 females, mean age: 30.9 years) investigated maternal, paternal and adult attachment, depression, anxiety, eating disorder and multi-impulsive symptoms in these groups. Altogether 41.3% of the individuals without eating disorders, 17.6% of classical and 11.8% of multi-impulsive eating disorder patients had secure attachment. Multi-impulsive patients had the most severe eating disorder symptoms (F (2) = 17.733) and the lowest paternal care (F (2) = 3.443). Preoccupied and fearful attachment explained 14.5% of multi-impulsive symptoms; however, with adjustment for depression only latter one remained the predictor of multi-impulsivity (t = 5.166, peating disorder patients from the aspects of both symptoms and attachment. Handling their negative moods may hold therapeutic potentials. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate the therapeutic value of paternal care, attachment preoccupation and fearfulness. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(27): 1058-1066.

  19. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive–Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Zilhao Nogueira, N.; Smit, D.J.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Cath, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms,

  20. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Zilhao Nogueira, Nuno; Smit, Dirk J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cath, Danielle C

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms,

  1. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and suicidal behavior in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Daniel; Lawrence, Ryan; Parekh, Amrita; Galfalvy, Hanga; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Brent, David A; Mann, J John; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A

    2017-02-01

    The relationship of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) to suicidal behavior is understudied. The modest body of existing research suggests that NPD is protective against low-lethality suicide attempts, but is associated with high lethality attempts. Mood-disordered patients (N = 657) received structured interviews including Axis I and II diagnosis and standardized clinical measures. Following chi-square and t-tests, a logistical regression model was constructed to identify predictors of suicide attempt. While there was no bivariate relationship of NPD on suicide attempt, in the logistic regression patients with NPD were 2.4 times less likely to make a suicide attempt (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19 - 0.88; p disorder, and to have high aggression and hostility scores. Limitations include that the sample consists of only mood-disordered patients, a modest sample size of NPD, and the data are cross-sectional. The multivariate protective effect of NPD on suicide attempt is consistent with most previous research. The lower impulsivity of NPD patients and less severe personality pathology relative to other personality disorders may contribute to this effect. No relationship of NPD to attempt lethality was found, contradicting other research, but perhaps reflecting differences between study samples. Future studies should oversample NPD patients and include suicide death as an outcome. Clinical implications include discussion of individualized suicide risk assessment with NPD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hoarding: From a Symptom to a Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheyla Dogan Bulut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hoarding is a psychological disorder characterized by excessive collecting, storage and inability to discard large quantities of the objects, usually accompanying a severe level of distress or dysfunctionality. Despite the concept has been known for more than a century, it used to be conceptualized as a component of obsessive compulsive disorder. However, hoarding disorder appears as a distinct psychiatric disorder in the last updated version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5. Accordingly, in this review we aimed to make a general framework in understanding of hoarding disorder which is an attention-grabbing diagnosis in these days. In this regard, we addressed the etiology, clinical features of, and treatment approaches to hoarding disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 319-332

  3. The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2015-07-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization.

  4. Antisocial personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Johnson, Alexandria K; Raine, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) classification of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) describes individuals who engage in repetitive irresponsible, delinquent, and criminal behavior. The diagnosis is highly controversial, with many researchers and clinicians arguing that the category is too heterogeneous, overinclusive, and demonstrates considerable overlap with other disorders. This review focuses on recent studies that have improved our understanding of the characteristics of individuals who fit the ASPD definition by exploring how subtypes differ and how comorbid conditions influence the presentation of ASPD. In addition, we discuss research on the etiology of ASPD that has identified genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial behavior, and brain imaging research that has improved our understanding of the relationships between ASPD and other psychopathology. Finally, we discuss promising preliminary research on treatment for this disorder.

  5. Differentiating risk for mania and borderline personality disorder: The nature of goal regulation and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Daniel; Eisner, Lori R; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-06-30

    Researchers and clinicians have long noted the overlap among features and high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. The shared features of impulsivity and labile mood in both disorders make them challenging to distinguish. We tested the hypothesis that variables related to goal dysregulation would be uniquely related to risk for mania, while emotion-relevant impulsivity would be related to risk for both disorders. We administered a broad range of measures related to goal regulation traits and impulsivity to 214 undergraduates. Findings confirmed that risk for mania, but not for borderline personality disorder, was related to higher sensitivity to reward and intense pursuit of goals. In contrast, borderline personality disorder symptoms related more strongly than did mania risk with threat sensitivity and with impulsivity in the context of negative affect. Results highlight potential differences and commonalities in mania risk versus borderline personality disorder risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Personality disorder traits, risk factors, and suicide ideation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; Poindexter, Erin K; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2015-11-01

    Personality disorder traits are relatively prevalent among older adults, and can be associated with complex and chronic difficulties, including suicide risk. However, there is a lack of research regarding personality disorders and suicide ideation in older adults. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness may be important to the relation between personality disorders and suicide risk. Additionally, variables from the interpersonal theory of suicide, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, may be critical risk factors for suicide in this population. We hypothesized that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, theory-based variables, would act as parallel mediators of the relation between personality disorder traits and suicide ideation, whereas depressive symptoms and hopelessness would not. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 143 older adults recruited from a primary care setting. Participants completed self-report questionnaires of personality traits, suicide ideation, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness. Findings from a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure indicated that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms mediated the relation between total personality disorder traits and suicide ideation. Hopelessness did not act as a mediator. These findings indicate that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms are likely important risk factors for suicide ideation among older adults. Clinicians should be aware of these issues when assessing and treating suicide risk among older adults.

  7. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sitong; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Li, Li

    2017-11-01

    Among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms associated with HIV diagnosis is a common problem. This study examined HIV diagnosis-related PTSD symptoms and its associated factors among PLHA in rural China. We used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui Province, China. Surveys of 522 PLHA were conducted via computer-assisted personal interview method. PTSD symptoms were measured based on re-experiencing, avoidance and arousal of the day of HIV diagnosis. Association between PTSD symptoms and demographic characteristics, physical and social functioning were assessed by multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling. Social functioning exhibited a direct association with HIV diagnosis-related PTSD symptoms, and also mediated the association between PTSD symptoms and age, family income, and physical functioning. The study findings underscore the importance of developing interventions that alleviate PTSD symptoms and improve social functioning among PLHA in rural China.

  8. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  9. Narcissistic personality disorder: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2011-03-01

    Narcissistic traits and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) present specific diagnostic challenges. While they are often readily and straightforwardly identified, their presentation in some patients and the reasons for which such patients seek treatment may conceal significant narcissistic pathology. Recently, several empirical studies have confirmed that the phenotypic range of people with NPD includes individuals with insecure, shy, and hypersensitive traits with prominent internalized narcissistic features and functioning. Other studies have confirmed that internal emotional distress, interpersonal vulnerability, fear, pain, anxiety, a sense of inadequacy, and depressivity can also co-occur with narcissistic personality functioning. This paper focuses on integrating these findings into the diagnostic evaluation and initial negotiation of treatment for NPD. In patients with narcissistic traits or NPD, it is important to give attention to the two sides of character functioning, which include both self-serving and self-enhancing manifestations as well as hypersensitivity, fluctuations in self-esteem, and internal pain and fragility. This article highlights some of these seemingly incompatible clinical presentations of narcissistic traits and NPD, especially as they co-occur with depressivity and perfectionism, and it discusses implications for building a treatment alliance with a patient with such a predominant disorder of character functioning. The article also discusses the importance of retaining the NPD diagnosis as a separate type of personality disorder, with this range of features, in the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS-5).

  10. Clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Modica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Personality disorders represent psychopathological conditions hard to be diagnosed. The Author highlights the clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis according to the criteria of the DSM-5. In this study, some of the numerous definitions of personality are mentioned; afterwards, some of the theories on the development of personality shall be. Later on, concepts of temperament, character and personality get analysed. Then, the current approach to personality disorders acco...

  11. Personality disorder in convicted Jamaican murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, F W; Walcott, G

    2013-01-01

    To establish the aetiology and historical prevalence of personality disorder in violent homicidal men in Jamaica. Examination and analysis of primary data from the psychosocial case study interviews of 36 convicted murderers from the Jamaican Government Barnett Commission of Enquiry in 1976. The disaggregated social and clinical data were analysed using a Chi-square statistical analysis. The mean age at time of arrest for the male convicted murderers was 24.26 ± 8.48 years. Twenty-three (66%) of the subjects had loving relationships with mothers, particularly in those men reared in the rural areas. Twenty-one (59%) cases showed marked paternal rejection and absence of integrated family life. Twenty-four (69%) of the cases experienced severe parental disciplinary methods, and two-thirds were illiterate or barely literate. Twenty-nine (83%) were from very poor socio-economic conditions. Thirty (86%) of all the murder victims were adult males. There were significant differences between the urban reared murderers (URM) and rural reared murderers (RRM). Sixteen (94%) of the victims of the URM ensued from robbery and police confrontation, while 13 (72%) of the victims of the RRM resulted from domestic disputes (p < 0.00). Seventeen (49%) of the men had normal personalities; 18 (51%) were diagnosed as having antisocial and inadequate personalities. Diagnosis of primary data using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria revealed 23 (66%) men with Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). There were significantly more APD in the URM than the RRM (p < 0.01). Antisocial personality disorder as an aetiological precursor of homicidal violence represents a major public health problem in contemporary Jamaica.

  12. Operationalization of diagnostic criteria of DSM-5 somatic symptom disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Nana; Zhang, Yaoyin; Wei, Jing; Leonhart, Rainer; Fritzsche, Kurt; Mewes, Ricarda; Hong, Xia; Cao, Jinya; Li, Tao; Jiang, Jing; Zhao, Xudong; Zhang, Lan; Schaefert, Rainer

    2017-11-07

    The aim of this study was to test the operationalization of DSM-5 somatic symptom disorder (SSD) psychological criteria among Chinese general hospital outpatients. This multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolled 491 patients from 10 general hospital outpatient departments. The structured clinical "interview about cognitive, affective, and behavioral features associated with somatic complaints" was used to operationalize the SSD criteria B. For comparison, DSM-IV somatoform disorders were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview plus. Cohen's к scores were given to illustrate the agreement of the diagnoses. A three-structure model of the interview, within which items were classified as respectively assessing the cognitive (B1), affective (B2), and behavioral (B3) features, was examined. According to percentages of screening-positive persons and the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, a cut-off point of 2 was recommended for each subscale of the interview. With the operationalization, the frequency of DSM-5 SSD was estimated as 36.5% in our sample, and that of DSM-IV somatoform disorders was 8.2%. The agreement between them was small (Cohen's к = 0.152). Comparisons of sociodemographic features of SSD patients with different severity levels (mild, moderate, severe) showed that mild SSD patients were better-off in terms of financial and employment status, and that the severity subtypes were congruent with the level of depression, anxiety, quality of life impairment, and the frequency of doctor visits. The operationalization of the diagnosis and severity specifications of SSD was valid, but the diagnostic agreement between DSM-5 SSD and DSM-IV somatoform disorders was small. The interpretation the SSD criteria should be made cautiously, so that the diagnosis would not became over-inclusive.

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.

  14. Personality prototype as a risk factor for eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Sanchez-Guarnido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To establish whether the risk of suffering from an eating disorder (ED is associated with the high-functioning, undercontrolled, or overcontrolled personality prototype groups.Method:The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2 were administered to 69 patients diagnosed as suffering from EDs (cases and 89 people free of any ED symptoms (control group. A cluster analysis was carried out to divide the participants into three groups based on their scores in the Big Five personality dimensions. A logistic regression model was then created.Results:Participants in the undercontrolled group had a risk of suffering from an ED 6.517 times higher than those in the high-functioning group (p = 0.019; odds ratio [OR] = 6.517, while those in the overcontrolled subgroup had a risk of ED 15.972 times higher than those in the high-functioning group.Conclusions:Two personality subtypes were identified in which the risk of EDs was six times higher (the undercontrolled group and almost 16 times higher (the overcontrolled group. Prevention and treatment programs for ED could benefit from focusing on the abovementioned personality profiles.

  15. Validation of Measures of Biosocial Precursors to Borderline Personality Disorder: Childhood Emotional Vulnerability and Environmental Invalidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Shannon E.; Baer, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    Linehan's biosocial theory suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) results from a transaction of two childhood precursors: emotional vulnerability and an invalidating environment. Until recently, few empirical studies have explored relationships between these theoretical precursors and symptoms of the disorder. Psychometrically sound…

  16. Inpatient Therapeutic Assessment With Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supporting the effectiveness of Collaborative/Therapeutic Assessment (C/TA) has led clinicians and researchers to apply C/TA to a variety of clinical populations and treatment settings. This case example presents a C/TA inpatient adaptation illustrated with narcissistic personality disorder. After a brief overview of salient concepts, I provide a detailed account of the clinical interview, test interpretation paired with diagnostic considerations specific to narcissism, planned intervention, and discussion of assessment results. Throughout the case study, I attempt to demonstrate defining features of C/TA, inpatient adaptations, and clinical techniques that encourage meaningful engagement with a "hard to reach" personality.

  17. Are eating disorders and their symptoms increasing in prevalence among adolescent population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmanen, Jessi; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2017-01-01

    A debate concerns whether eating disorders are increasing in prevalence. The role of socio-economic status (SES) for adolescent eating disorders (ED) is another matter of debate. To ascertain whether self-reported eating disorders or their symptoms have increased in prevalence in adolescent population from the early 2000s to early 2010s. A person-identifiable classroom survey, Adolescent Mental Health Cohort study, was carried out among the 9th graders in comprehensive schools in Tampere, Finland, during academic year 2002-2003, and replicated among then 9th graders during academic years 2012-2013. Eating disorders were elicited with questionnaires tailored according to DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No changes were observed between 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 in the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia, most of the symptoms of anorexia and bulimia, or the proportion of adolescents having received treatment due to eating disorders among the girls or the boys. Eating disorders, treatment contacts due to eating disorders, and eating disorder symptoms were not systematically associated with either low or high parental socio-economic status. Based on this dataset, eating disorders are not increasing in the adolescent population. Adolescent eating disorders are not associated with socio-economic status of their family.

  18. Development of schizotypal symptoms following psychiatric disorders in childhood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagel, Selene S A A; Swaab, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo M J; Van Rijn, Sophie; Pieterse, Jolijn K; Scheepers, Floor; Van Engeland, Herman

    2013-11-01

    It was examined how juvenile psychiatric disorders and adult schizotypal symptoms are associated. 731 patients of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, with mean age of 12.1 years (SD = 4.0) were reassessed at the mean age of 27.9 years (SD = 5.7) for adult schizotypal symptoms using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Vollema, Schizophr Bull 26(3):565-575, 2000). Differences between 13 juvenile DSM categories and normal controls (n = 80) on adult schizotypal total and factor scores were analyzed, using (M)ANCOVA. Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), deferred diagnosis, sexual and gender identity disorders and depressive disorders had higher SPQ total scores when compared to normal controls (p gender identity disorders, depressive disorders, disruptive disorders, and the category of 'Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention' (p < 0.001). No differences with normal controls were found for adult positive schizotypal symptoms (p < 0.110). The current findings are suggestive of the idea that psychiatric disorders in childhood or adolescence are a more general expression of a liability to schizophrenia spectrum pathology in future life. In addition, specific patterns of adult schizotypal symptomatology are associated with different types of juvenile psychiatric disorder.

  19. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, Marilou Dp; Donners, Anouk Amt; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI), sleep disorders, and daytime functioning. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: N=574 Dutch young adults (18-35 years old). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep

  20. Sleep disorders as core symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Links between sleep and depression are strong. About three quarters of depressed patients have insomnia symptoms, and hypersomnia is present in about 40% of young depressed adults and 10% of older patients, with a preponderance in females. The symptoms cause huge distress, have a major impact on quality of life, and are a strong risk factor for suicide. As well as the subjective experience of sleep symptoms, there are well-documented changes in objective sleep architecture in depression. Mechanisms of sleep regulation and how they might be disturbed in depression are discussed. The sleep symptoms are often unresolved by treatment, and confer a greater risk of relapse and recurrence. Epidemiological studies have pointed out that insomnia in nondepressed subjects is a risk factor for later development of depression. There is therefore a need for more successful management of sleep disturbance in depression, in order to improve quality of life in these patients and reduce an important factor in depressive relapse and recurrence.

  1. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Borderline personality disorder and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Mathell; Schuurmans, Hanneke; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Smeets, Guus; Verkoeijen, Peter; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated emotional intelligence (EI) in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that patients with BPD (n = 61) compared with patients with other personality disorders (PDs; n = 69) and nonpatients (n = 248) would show higher scores on the ability to perceive emotions and impairments in the ability to regulate emotions. EI was assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso [New York: MHS, 2002]). As compared with the PD group and the nonpatient group, the patients with BPD displayed the anticipated deficits in their ability to understand, whereas no differences emerged with respect to their ability to perceive, use, and regulate emotions. In addition, a negative relationship was found between the severity of BPD and total EI score. However, this relationship disappeared when intelligence quotient was partialled out. These results suggest that BPD is associated with emotion understanding deficits, whereas temporary severity of BPD is associated with emotion regulation deficits.

  3. Emotional Processing in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvak, Michael K.; Sege, Christopher T.; Sloan, Denise M.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Litz, Brett T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) would exhibit augmented emotional responses to picture stimuli after being challenged with an ideographic interpersonal conflict script. Participants were 24 adults diagnosed with BPD, 23 adults diagnosed with obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), and 28 normal controls. Participants viewed emotionally evocative pictures before and after listening to the interpersonal script while a variety of physiological measures were recorded. Findings indicated that the interpersonal script was effective in eliciting enduring emotional responses from the BPD group relative to the control groups. However, despite the effectiveness of the interpersonal challenge task, there were no group differences in emotional responding to the affect eliciting stimuli. The findings underscore the complexities involved in examining emotional dysregulation in BPD in a laboratory setting. PMID:22449065

  4. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Hertler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the ultimate goal of better understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD, the present work is a review and critique of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV diagnostic criteria at the end of their 18 years of use. Problems of specificity (polythetic criteria and failure to employ a hallmark feature make OCPD an indistinct diagnostic category that consequently contains a plurality of types. Problems of sensitivity (missing elements and concrete expression of signs make it more difficult to cull OCPD persons from the population at large. Collectively, these problems of specificity and sensitivity have undermined the efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria set; but more importantly, these problems continue to distort the clinical understanding of OCPD generally.

  5. Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder in the DSM-IV has been criticized foremost for its limitations in capturing the range and complexity of narcissistic pathology. The attention to the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns--at the expense of his or her internal complexity and individual suffering--has also added to the diagnosis' low clinical utility and limited guidance for treatment. Recent studies and reviews have pointed to the need for change in the diagnostic approach to and formulation of narcissism. This review focuses specifically on studies of features that add to the identification, understanding, and treatment of patients with pathological narcissistic functioning and narcissistic personality disorder. They have been integrated into a regulatory model that includes the functions and fluctuations of internal control, self-esteem, perfectionism with accompanying self-criticism, shame, and empathic ability and functioning.

  6. Towards better understanding of symptoms associated with disordered esophageal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herregods, T.V.K.

    2017-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized by both typical symptoms (heartburn and regurgitation) but also atypical symptoms which include cough, chest pain and dysphagia. This thesis aimed to address current topics

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Mediate Early-Onset Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Lier, P.A.C. van; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based,

  10. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  11. Relationships of dissociative disorders and personality traits in opium addicts on methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarinezhad, Alireza; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah; Shahriari, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major public health problem. Some believe that when dissociation fails to defend against emotional, physical, or sexual trauma, the person will find relief from unpleasant thoughts and emotions in opium use. On the other hand, personality disorders are considered as important predictors of treatment outcomes in drug abusers. Due to lack of adequate research in this regard, we evaluated dissociative disorders and personality traits of opium addicts on methadone treatment. This cross-sectional analytic study included 111 non-psychotic subjects on methadone treatment (case group) and 69 non-addicts (control group). After recording demographic characteristics, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Millon Multiaxial Inventory III were applied to assess dissociative symptoms and clinical personality patterns of all participants. Dissociative symptoms were significantly more common in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.044). While hysterionic personality disorder was more frequent in the control group (P = 0.008), sadistic, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders were significantly more common in the case group (P = 0.008, 0.002, and 0.023, respectively). We found relations between history of drug dependence, dissociative symptoms, and personality disorders. Therefore, the mentioned disorders need to be kept in mind while planning addiction treatment modalities and identifying high risk groups.

  12. Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and criminal responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.; Barendregt, M.; Haan, B.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Beurs, E. de

    2011-01-01

    The present study empirically investigates whether personality disorders and psychopathic traits in criminal suspects are reasons for diminished criminal responsibility or enforced treatment in high security hospitals. Recently, the tenability of the claim that individuals with personality disorders

  13. Comparison of Cluster C personality disorders in couples with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Cluster C personality disorders in couples with normal divorce. ... Also purposeful sampling was used to select individuals. ... that the personality disorder group C, there is no significant difference between men and women.

  14. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  15. Historical Roots of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Filipa eNovais; Andreia Monteiro Araújo; Paula eGodinho

    2015-01-01

    Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states.Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women’s afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a neurosis with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined neurosis as a re-experience of past psychological t...

  16. The Five-Factor Model of Personality and Borderline Personality Disorder: A Genetic Analysis of Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Trull, T.J.; Willemsen, G.; Vink, J.M.; Derom, C.A.; Lynskey, M.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, the nature of personality disorders and their relationship with normal personality traits has received extensive attention. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality, consisting of the personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and

  17. Leg symptoms associated with sacroiliac joint disorder and related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi; Kurosawa, Daisuke; Noguchi, Kyoko

    2017-06-01

    The symptoms of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are usually detected in the buttock and groin, and occasionally referred to the thigh and leg. However, lumbar disorders also cause symptoms in these same body regions. The presence of a characteristic, symptomatic pattern in the legs would be useful for diagnosing SIJ disorders. This study aimed to identify specific leg symptoms in patients with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament and determine the rate of occurrence of these symptoms. The source population consisted of 365 consecutive patients from February 2005 to December 2007. One hundred patients were diagnosed with SIJ pain by a periarticular SIJ injection (42 males and 58 females, average age 46 years, age range, 18-75 years). A leg symptom map was made by subtracting the symptoms after a periarticular SIJ injection from the initial symptoms, and evaluating the rate of each individual symptom by area. Ninety-four patients reported pain at or around the posterior-superior iliac spine (PSIS). Leg symptoms comprised pain and a numbness/tingling sensation; ≥60% of the patients had these symptoms. Pain was mainly detected in the back, buttock, groin, and thigh areas, while numbness/tingling was mainly detected in the lateral to posterior thigh and back of the calf. Leg symptoms associated with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament include both pain and numbness, which do not usually correspond to the dermatome. These leg symptoms in addition to pain around the PSIS may indicate SIJ disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Personality, depressive symptoms and prior trauma exposure of new recruits at two Metropolitan Police Service academies in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    U Subramaney; E Libhaber; N Pitts; M Vorster

    2012-01-01

    Background. Police officers are predisposed to trauma exposure. The development of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be influenced by personality style, prior exposure to traumatic events and prior depression. Objectives. To describe the personality profiles of new Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) officers, and to determine the association between personality profiles, trauma exposure and depressive symptoms. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis o...

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Comorbid Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörz-Sagstetter, Susanne; Diamond, Diana; Clarkin, John F; Levy, Kenneth N; Rentrop, Michael; Fischer-Kern, Melitta; Cain, Nicole M; Doering, Stephan

    2017-07-31

    This study examines psychopathology and clinical characteristics of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and comorbid narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) from two international randomized controlled trials. From a combined sample of 188 patients with BPD, 25 also fulfilled criteria for a comorbid diagnosis of NPD according to DSM-IV. The BPD patients with comorbid NPD, compared to the BPD patients without comorbid NPD, showed significantly more BPD criteria (M = 7.44 vs. M = 6.55, p personality disorders, and were more likely to meet criteria for full histrionic PD diagnosis (44.0% vs. 14.2%, p disorders (M = 2.68 vs. M = 3.75, p = .033). No differences could be found in general functioning, self-harming behavior, and suicide attempts.

  20. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive?Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Zilh?o, Nuno R.; Smit, Dirk J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Cath, Danielle C.

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette’s disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms, with genetic correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.45. For tic disorders, studies examining these correlations are lacking. Other lines of research, including clinical samples and GWAS or CNV dat...

  1. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tromp MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marilou DP Tromp,1 Anouk AMT Donners,1 Johan Garssen,1,2 Joris C Verster1,31Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaObjective: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI, sleep disorders, and daytime functioning.Design: Survey.Setting: The Netherlands.Participants: N=574 Dutch young adults (18–35 years old.Measurements: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep habits including the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP and SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales for sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder (CRD, and daytime functioning. SLEEP-50 outcomes of participants who screened negative (≤2 and positive (>2 on the ESP were compared. In addition, SLEEP-50 scores of groups of participants with different ESP scores (0–4 and different BMI groups (ie, underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese were compared using nonparametric statistics.Results: Almost 12% (n=67 of participants screened positive for having an eating disorder. Relative to participants without eating disorders, participants who screened positive for eating disorders reported significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (3.7 versus 2.9, P=0.012, insomnia (7.7 versus 5.5, P<0.0001, CRD (2.9 versus 2.3, P=0.011, and impairment of daytime functioning (8.8 versus 5.8, P=0.0001. ESP scores were associated with insomnia (r=0.117, P=0.005, sleep apnea (r=0.118, P=0.004, sleep quality (r=−0.104, P=0.012, and daytime functioning (r=0.225, P<0.0001, but not with CRD (r=0.066, P=0.112. BMI correlated significantly with ESP scores (r=0.172, P<0.0001 and scores on sleep apnea (r=0.171, P<0.0001. When controlling for BMI, the partial correlation between ESP and sleep apnea remained significant (r=0.10, P=0.015.Conclusion

  2. Symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder in Youth: Predictors and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; von Soest, Tilmann; Hygen, Beate Wold

    2018-04-05

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was included in the Addendum to DSM-5 as a condition for further study. Studies of community samples using a diagnostic interview are lacking, and evaluations of the proposed symptoms, comorbidities, and predictors of IGD are scarce. To provide such information participants in a Norwegian prospective community study were assessed with a clinical interview at age 10 years. Symptoms of other psychiatric disorders were measured with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment at ages 8 and 10 (n = 740). Children, parents, and teachers provided information on demographics, temperament, intelligence, executive functions, self-concept, social skills, victimization, emotion regulation, family climate, and parenting. Results indicated that IGD was present in 1.7% (95% confidence interval, 0.7-2.7) of the participants (3.0% boys and 0.5% girls). Factor analysis revealed two factors: heavy involvement and negative consequences. The positive predictive value of withdrawal, tolerance, and unsuccessful attempts to control gaming symptoms to the disorder was low. Symptoms of other common disorders correlated weakly with IGD-symptoms (i.e., from r = 0.07 to r = 0.15). Upon adjusting for gender and gaming at age 8, only limited social and emotion regulation skills at age 8 predicted more age-10 IGD symptoms. In conclusion, IGD is already present in a small percentage of Norwegian 10-year olds. At least three of the proposed symptoms -- withdrawal, tolerance and unsuccessful attempts to control gaming -- merit further study given their weak associations with the disorder. Symptoms of IGD are only marginally associated with symptoms of other psychiatric disorders and only predicted by social skills and emotion regulation deficits.

  3. Assessment and importance of personality disorders in medical patients: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhossche, D M; Shevitz, S A

    1999-06-01

    Personality disorders in medical patients have received less attention than depression, anxiety, or somatization. We conducted a selective literature search to assess the role of personality disorders in medical patients. Review of recent studies suggests a high prevalence and morbidity of personality disorders in medical populations. Important correlates in selected groups are depression, somatization, noncompliance, sexual risk taking, and substance abuse. Difficulties in physician-patient relationships are also frequently reported. Psychiatric interventions are considered beneficial, though no single treatment of choice is available. We recommend that physicians consider the possibility of personality disorders in medical patients to choose appropriate treatments for selected symptoms. Training in interviewing skills may enhance recognition of personality disorders and management of associated psychiatric conditions.

  4. [Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Personality--Association of Somatic Symptoms and Psychic Structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Rebecca; Löwe, Bernd; A Brünahl, Christian; Riegel, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Despite its high prevalence, little is known about the aetiology and maintenance of Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS). CPPS is is considered to be a multi-causal syndrome with discomfort and pain in the pelvis. Recent literature suggests that psychosocial factors are important for understanding CPPS. For example, CPPS has been associated with deficits in mentalization and bonding experiences. Our study aims to characterize features of personality disorders according to DSM-IV and psychic structure according to OPD-2 in CPPS patients. Furthermore, we examine the association of personality aspects with urological symptoms (NIH Questionnaire) and pain perception (MPQ Questionnaire). Personality aspects were assessed in a total of 109 patients from our CPPS outpatient clinic using standardized questionnaires. To characterize CPPS patients, we compared the sample's scores with reference groups, mostly the general population. In addition, the associations between personality aspects and both the urologic symptoms and pain perception were assessed using correlations. Missing data were replaced using multiple imputation methods. Compared to reference values, we found 'experiencing emotions' and 'creating relationships' as specific deficits in CPPS patients. Furthermore, patients' self-image (more dominant, higher depressive mood) differs from the general population. A higher pain perception was correlated with deficits in most personality aspects we measured. However, this was not the case for the severity of urological symptoms. Compared to the reference values, only a few personality aspects differed in CPPS patients but there was a correlational association between different personality traits and pain perception. Despite the extend of symptoms, pain perception is associated with difficulty (emotional ability) in dealing with emotions, self-management and relationships. These personality aspects should be taken into account when planning therapy. © Georg Thieme

  5. Impact of dissociation on treatment of depressive and anxiety spectrum disorders with and without personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasko J

    2016-10-01

    questionnaires. The patients’ mean ratings on all measurements were significantly reduced during the treatment. Also, 67.5% reached at least minimal improvement (42.4% showed moderate and more improvement, 35.3% of the patients reached remission. The patients without comorbid personality disorder improved more significantly in the reduction of depressive symptoms than those with comorbid personality disorder. However, there were no significant differences in change in anxiety levels and severity of the mental issues between the patients with and without personality disorders. Higher degree of dissociation at the beginning of the treatment predicted minor improvement, and also, higher therapeutic change was connected to greater reduction of the dissociation level.Conclusion: Dissociation is an important factor that influences the treatment effectiveness in anxiety/depression patients with or without personality disorders resistant to previous treatment. Targeting dissociation in the treatment of these disorders may be beneficial. Keywords: depression, anxiety disorders, treatment resistance, panic disorder, GAD, OCD, social phobia, PTSD, adjustment disorders, personality disorders

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder (ADHD) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... amongst school children, 1.5% amongst children from the general population between 45.5% to 100.0% amongst special populations of children with possible organic brain pathology. Common associated co-morbid conditions were oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder as well as anxiety/depressive symptoms.

  7. Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…

  8. Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescence: The Role of Subthreshold Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…

  9. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several other psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as psychosis, secondary mania and depression, have also been associated ... contract, the workers returned home to their families in the rural areas ... 000 (23%) for HIV infection within the work force (Dr. Brian. Brink ..... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was not.

  10. Parents' Reports of Children's Internalizing Symptoms: Associations with Parents' Mental Health Symptoms and Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Hamrick, Hannah C; Braitman, Abby L; White, Tyler D; Jenkins, Jennika

    2017-06-01

    This brief report examined the unique associations between parents' ratings of child internalizing symptoms and their own depression and anxiety in families with parental substance use disorder (SUD). Further, we examined whether parental SUD (father only, mother only, both parents) was related to discrepancy in mothers' and fathers' reports of children's internalizing symptoms. Participants were 97 triads (fathers, mothers) in which one or both parents met criteria for SUD. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to examine whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' own symptoms of depression and anxiety while controlling for child gender, child age, and SUD diagnoses. Controlling for fathers' symptoms and other covariates, mothers experiencing more depression and anxiety symptoms reported more symptoms of child internalizing symptoms than did fathers. Mothers' and fathers' SUD was associated with higher anxiety symptoms among mothers after controlling for other variables. A second set of polynomial regressions examined whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' SUD diagnoses while controlling for child gender and child age. After controlling for mothers' symptoms and other covariates, parents' reports of children's internalizing symptoms were not significantly associated with either parent's SUD or parental SUD interactions (i.e., both parents have SUD diagnoses). Taken together, mothers' ratings of children's internalizing symptoms may be accounted for, in part, by her reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

  11. Beyond Symptom Counts for Diagnosing Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Hipwell, Alison E; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-10-01

    Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are among the most commonly diagnosed childhood behavioral health disorders. Although there is substantial evidence of heterogeneity of symptom presentations, DSM diagnoses of CD and ODD are formally diagnosed on the basis of symptom counts without regard to individual symptom patterns. We used unidimensional item response theory (IRT) two-parameter logistic (2PL) models to examine item parameters for the individual symptoms of CD and ODD using data on 6,491 adolescents (ages 13-17) from the National Comorbidity Study: Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). For each disorder, the symptoms differed in terms of severity and discrimination parameters. As a result, some adolescents who were above DSM diagnostic thresholds for disruptive behavior disorders exhibited lower levels of the underlying construct than others below the thresholds, based on their unique symptom profile. In terms of incremental benefit, our results suggested an advantage of latent trait scores for CD but not ODD.

  12. The relation among perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder in individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A; Tozzi, Federica; Thornton, Laura M; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L; Lilenfeld, Lisa R; Mitchell, James E; Plotnicov, Katherine H; Pollice, Christine; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2005-12-01

    Perfectionism and obsessionality are core features of eating disorders (ED), yet the nature of their relation remains unknown. Understanding the relation between these traits may enhance our ability to identify relevant behavioral endophenotypes for ED. Six-hundred seven individuals with anorexia and bulimia nervosa from the International Price Foundation Genetic Study were assessed for perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No differences were found across ED subtypes in the prevalence of OCPD and OCD, nor with the association between OCD and OCPD. Perfectionism scores were highest in individuals with OCPD whether alone or in combination with OCD. Perfectionism appears to be more closely associated with obsessive-compulsive personality symptoms rather than OCD. The pairing of perfectionism with OCPD may be a relevant core behavioral feature underlying vulnerability to ED. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quantitative electroencephalographic measures in homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Virkkunen, Matti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Appelberg, Björn; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Salmi, Tapani

    2005-07-15

    Many symptoms of antisocial personality disorder have been proposed to be related to decreased daytime vigilance. To explore this hypothesis, quantitative analyses were conducted of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of drug-free and detoxified homicidal male offenders with antisocial personality disorder as the primary diagnosis. Subjects comprised 16 men recruited from a forensic psychiatric examination in a special ward of a university psychiatric hospital. Fifteen healthy age- and gender-matched controls with no criminal record or history of physical violence consisted of hospital staff and students. An overall reduction of alpha power was observed in the waking EEG of offenders. A bilateral increase in occipital delta and theta power was also found in these individuals. This study provides further support to the growing evidence of brain dysfunction in severe aggressive behavior. Homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder seem to have difficulties in maintaining normal daytime arousal. Decreased vigilance, together with social and psychological variables, may explain their aberrant behavior in everyday life. New studies are, however, needed to specify the vigilance problems of this patient group.

  14. Co-occurrence of dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ferrell, Lynn; Schroeder, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that, among individuals with borderline personality disorder, pathological dissociation correlates with a wide range of impairments and difficulties in psychological function. It also predicts a poorer response to dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. We hypothesized that (a) dissociative identity disorder commonly co-occurs with borderline personality disorder and vice versa, and (b) individuals who meet criteria for both disorders have more comorbidity and trauma than individuals who meet criteria for only 1 disorder. We interviewed a sample of inpatients in a hospital trauma program using 3 measures of dissociation. The most symptomatic group was those participants who met criteria for both borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder on the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, followed by those who met criteria for dissociative identity disorder only, then those with borderline personality disorder only, and finally those with neither disorder. Greater attention should be paid to the relationship between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder.

  15. Residual symptoms and specific functional impairments in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, Ludovic; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Vieta, Eduard; Bellivier, Frank; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to confirm the impact of residual symptoms on overall functioning in a large sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder in real-life conditions and to explore the relationship between residual symptoms and specific areas of functional impairment. This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, non-interventional study of euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder. The Functioning Assessment Short Test was used to assess overall and specific domains of functioning (autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time). Various residual symptoms were assessed (residual mood symptoms, emotional dysregulation, sleep and sexual disorders, stigma, and perceived cognitive impairment). Logistic regression was used to determine the best model of association between functional domains and residual symptoms. Almost half of the 468 patients included (42%) had poor overall functioning. Residual depressive symptoms appeared to have an impact on overall functioning and in nearly all areas of functioning. In addition, specific residual symptoms had significantly more negative effects on some domains of functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (residual manic symptoms and occupational stigma on autonomy, emotional inhibition on occupational functioning, residual manic symptoms on financial issues, family stigma on interpersonal relationships, and sexual function and occupational stigma on leisure time). Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating overall functioning in clinical practice as well as functional domains. They also indicate that some residuals symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder should be targeted in personalized treatment plans, in order to improve functioning in the domains in which the patient is most impaired. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Personality disorders and psychiatric morbidity in adolescent anorexia nervosa. Results of a prospective 10 year catamnesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, B; Herpertz, S; Heussen, N; Neudörfl, A; Wewetzer, C; Remschmidt, H; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B

    2000-05-01

    The aim of the current prospective study was to examine at regular intervals the course of the eating disorder symptoms and the psychiatric (co-) morbidity including personality disorders among juvenile patients who fulfilled the DSM-III-R criteria for anorexia nervosa. Ten years after release from hospital all 39 patients (100%), as well as a control group parallelized for age, gender and occupational status were personally followed-up. Symptoms of eating disorders were documented by means of the Standardized Interview for Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa (SIAB, Fichter et al., 1991), the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO, 1990) was applied to diagnose psychiatric (co-) morbidity, and the Structured Clinical Interview (SKID-II, Spitzer et al., 1993) to assess personality disorders. Compared to the control group, at the time of follow-up a significantly greater number of patients were suffering from a psychiatric disorder, primarily an anxiety disorder, an affective disorder or from drug, respectively alcohol abuse. Personality disorders, chiefly anxious-avoidant types on the DSM-III-R were diagnosed among almost one-fourth of the patients. Our findings indicate that anorexia nervosa is not a developmental disorder limited to puberty but a disorder associated both cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally with other psychiatric disorders.

  17. Quality assurance of treatment for personality disorders - a web based solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    We present data on approximately 200 patients treated for personality disorder at Stolpegaard Psychotherapeutic Centre in Denmark. The personality disorder clinic offers mentalization based treatment primarily delivered in groups. Patients have either been assigned to a standardized, time...... restricted treatment package or have been treated in the regional treatment program where duration is longer and individual psychotherapy is delivered in addition to group therapy. Data on symptom severity and interpersonal problems have been collected pre and post treatment. We discuss the implications...

  18. Using Smartphones to Monitor Bipolar Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Kindermann, Sally; Maier, Andreas; Kerl, Christopher; Moock, Jörn; Barbian, Guido; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-06

    Relapse prevention in bipolar disorder can be improved by monitoring symptoms in patients' daily life. Smartphone apps are easy-to-use, low-cost tools that can be used to assess this information. To date, few studies have examined the usefulness of smartphone data for monitoring symptoms in bipolar disorder. We present results from a pilot test of a smartphone-based monitoring system, Social Information Monitoring for Patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder (SIMBA), that tracked daily mood, physical activity, and social communication in 13 patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether smartphone measurements predicted clinical symptoms levels and clinical symptom change. The hypotheses that smartphone measurements are (1) negatively related to clinical depressive symptoms and (2) positively related to clinical manic symptoms were tested. Clinical rating scales were administered to assess clinical depressive and manic symptoms. Patients used a smartphone with the monitoring app for up to 12 months. Random-coefficient multilevel models were computed to analyze the relationship between smartphone data and externally rated manic and depressive symptoms. Overall clinical symptom levels and clinical symptom changes were predicted by separating between-patient and within-patient effects. Using established clinical thresholds from the literature, marginal effect plots displayed clinical relevance of smartphone data. Overall symptom levels and change in clinical symptoms were related to smartphone measures. Higher overall levels of clinical depressive symptoms were predicted by lower self-reported mood measured by the smartphone (beta=-.56, Psmartphone (ie, cell tower movements: beta=-.11, P=.03). Higher overall levels of clinical manic symptoms were predicted by lower physical activity on the smartphone (ie, distance travelled: beta=-.37, Psmartphone (beta=-.17, Psmartphone measurements, but not all smartphone measures predicted the occurrence of

  19. Relationship of neurotransmitters to the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2008-01-01

    A relationship appears to exist between the 3 main monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) and specific symptoms of major depressive disorder. Specific symptoms are associated with the increase or decrease of specific neurotransmitters, which suggests that specific symptoms of depression could be assigned to specific neurochemical mechanisms, and subsequently specific antidepressant drugs could target symptom-specific neurotransmitters. Research on electroconvulsive therapy has supported a correlation between neurotransmitters and depression symptoms. A 2-dimensional model of neurotransmitter functions is discussed that describes depression as a mixture of 2 separate components--negative affect and the loss of positive affect--that can be considered in relation to the 3 amine neurotransmitters. Owing to the different methods of action of available antidepressant agents and the depression symptoms thought to be associated with dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, current treatments can be targeted toward patients' specific symptoms.

  20. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... from them may not be service-connected. However, disability resulting from a mental disorder that is...