WorldWideScience

Sample records for personality constructs assessed

  1. Personality disorder assessment: the challenge of construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L A; Livesley, W J; Morey, L

    1997-01-01

    We begin with a review of the data that challenge the current categorical system for classifying personality disorder, focusing on the central assessment issues of convergent and discriminant validity. These data indicate that while there is room for improvement in assessment, even greater change is needed in conceptualization than in instrumentation. Accordingly, we then refocus the categorical-dimensional debate in assessment terms, and place it in the broader context of such issues as the hierarchical structure of personality, overlap and distinctions between normal and abnormal personality, sources of information in personality disorder assessment, and overlap and discrimination of trait and state assessment. We conclude that more complex conceptual models that can incorporate both biological and environmental influences on the development of adaptive and maladaptive personality are needed.

  2. Assessing Personal Constructs of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Person-Centered Measure of Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sean; Self, Trisha; DiLollo, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Many protocols assessing social communication skills of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are based on behavioral observations. It has been suggested, however, that social cognition encompasses processes underlying observable behaviors. Such processes include personal constructs, which can be assessed using repertory grids. Personal…

  3. Personal Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development...

  4. Construction of health preferences: a comparison of direct value assessment and personal narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstholt, José H; van der Zwaard, Fred; Bart, Hans; Cremers, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Most terminally ill patients prefer to die at home rather than at an institution. However, patients are often insufficiently aware of the downsides of staying at home, which signals a need for effective decision aids. The main purpose of the present study was to compare indirect methods of value elicitation (personal narratives["stories"] in text or video) with a direct method (assessment of the subjective importance of each attribute). The authors asked 183 participants to evaluate 3 possible places to die: home, hospice, and nursing home. The participants received 1 of 3 value elicitation methods. The main dependent variable was participants' evaluations of the choice options before and after value elicitation, measured on a 100-point scale. A shift occurred between pre- and posttest, F(4, 342) = 4.11, P = 0.003, only with the indirect methods. When text and videos were used, participants became more positive about a hospice (text: 41.9 to 49.1; video: 52.9 to 60.3). In the video condition, participants also became more positive about a nursing home (from 20.9 to 24.9). Stories have more impact in shaping people's preferences than merely asking for an assessment of attribute importance. The most straightforward explanation for this effect is that stories, particularly when presented in video, provide a better image of potential consequences.

  5. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension...... and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire...... for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical...

  6. The Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5): Recent Constructive Replication and Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Allan R.; Finn, Jacob A.; McNulty, John L.; Shields, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5; Harkness & McNulty, 1994) is a model of individual differences relevant to adaptive functioning in both clinical and non-clinical populations. In this article, we review the development of the PSY-5 model (Harkness, 1992; Harkness & McNulty, 1994) and discuss the ways in which the PSY-5 model is…

  7. Constructive processes in person cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, K

    1993-12-01

    The notion of constructive memory processes is imported from research on eyewitness memory to the area of social cognition. Mere questioning about the applicability of personality attributes to a target person is shown to affect subsequent memory-based judgements of that person. These constructive influences are to be distinguished, conceptually, from the global notion of priming effects. In Expt 1, the target person was first described as an extravert; afterwards, subjects had to indicate whether either desirable aspects of extraversion (self-confidence) or undesirable aspects (exhibitionism) apply to the target or not. Mere questioning resulted in a congruent judgment bias towards the questioned attributes that did not generalize to a global halo effect. Experiment 2 replicated the basic finding and demonstrated that this phenomenon is independent of a generation effect (i.e. the memory advantage of self-generated inferences). These results are interpreted in terms of (a) a reframing of the categorical distribution representing the information about the target person in memory and (b) a regressive tendency to assume intermediate default values rather than extreme values for questioned attributes under uncertainty. Alternative explanations in terms of demand effects or a conformation bias cannot provide sufficient accounts. The relevance of constructive processes to understanding self-fulfilling prophecies and other phenomena in social interaction is discussed.

  8. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from June...

  9. Personality construct of Sasang Personality Questionnaire in an adolescent sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chae

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The validity of the SPQ construct was confirmed with adolescents. Further investigation on its personality construct would extend the clinical application of SPQ to young age groups including children.

  10. BASES OF CONSTRUCTIVITY OF MODERN PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Petrovna Shatalova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of bases of constructibility is important process at this stage of de-velopment of our state. Personality of modern type must be capable to self-determination, competent adoption of constructive decisions and manifestation of a personal responsibility for the constructive election, personality of modern type must be capable for self-determination, competent adoption of constructive decisions and manifestation to a personal responsibility for the constructive choice. Formation of bases of constructibility in the course of education is caused by use of constructive tasks and the constructive educational environment which define innovative recep-tions and skills of influence as methods of pedagogical influence taking into account constantly changing circumstances. Extent of mastering each member of society bases of constructibility defines a spiritual condition of society, of the present and the future of our country, development of economy and culture in general.Purpose: consideration of question about development of constructive thinking and constructive skills of personality in modern constructive educational environ-ment.Methodology: formal pedagogical method, the theoretical modeling, the meth-od of participant observation.Results. In the article is give the short analysis of problem of development of personality in modern society, opened the concept of constructibility of the personali-ty and her basic components, classification constructive tasks investigated, specified preparatory steps for organization of the conditions of development of a constructibil-ity and gives a brief description of their. Article has the scientific value as contains au-thor's generalizations possessing scientific novelty and the conclusions directed on disclosure of problems of formation and development of the modern personality, considered from the point of view of the theory of democratic constructivism in edu-cation.Practical implications: pedagogical

  11. Teachers' Personal Constructs on Problem Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Everaert; J.T.E. van Beukering; J.M.F. Touw

    2005-01-01

    Present study focuses on revealing and developing personal constructs regarding problem behaviour in classrooms. The main idea is that teachers’ opinions about their students and themselves influence the way they interact with them. Their thoughts and ideas about students - their personal constructs

  12. Multimethod, contextualized personality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hopwood, CJ; Bleidorn, W

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology. Lievens asserted that personality researchers should (a) use multiple methods, in contrast to traditional over-reliance on self-report and (b) move past highly general and context-free assessments to more careful consideration of the situations within which personality predictions are made. These points are with reference to personnel selection settings using the broader framework of Trait Activation Theory. Like most personality research...

  13. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  14. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population: a validation study of the Korean DS14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Min; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical disorders, especially cardiovascular disease, in Korea.

  15. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  16. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.; Thomassen, Y.; Fechter-Rink, E.; Kromhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and

  17. Evaluating Callous-Unemotional Traits as a Personality Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Ray, James V

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the importance of callous-unemotional (CU) traits as a personality construct in isolation from other facets of psychopathy. Specifically, we review research suggesting that these traits are useful for designating a subgroup of youth with serious conduct problems who differ from other antisocial youth on important biological, emotional, cognitive, and social characteristics. In addition, the temperamental features related to CU traits are risk factors for impairments in conscience development in young children. Thus, these traits could advance theoretical models explaining the development of severe antisocial behavior and psychopathy. CU traits also have important clinical utility because they designate a particularly severe and impaired subgroup of antisocial youth, leading to their inclusion in the DSM-5. As a result of this inclusion in diagnostic classification, there has been an increased focus on how to best assess CU traits, and we discuss several key issues in their assessment, highlighting several limitations in existing measures. Finally, the increased use of CU traits, separately from other facets of psychopathy, makes it important to determine how these traits relate to other personality constructs. Thus, we examine how measures of CU traits relate to the broader construct of psychopathy and to other basic personality dimensions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Back to the Future: Personality and Assessment and Personality Development

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Brent W.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay I consider the future of personality development in light of the past effects of Personality and Assessment on the field of personality in general and personality development in particular. The essay is organized around 1) the effect of Mischel's book on the foundational theories informing personality development; 2) definitions of personality traits; 3) an alternative model of personality traits, described as the sociogenomic model of personality traits, that can bridge the div...

  19. Complementary approaches to the assessment of personality disorder. The Personality Assessment Schedule and Adult Personality Functioning Assessment compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J; Fudge, H; Harrington, R; Pickles, A; Rutter, M

    2000-05-01

    Current concepts and measures of personality disorder are in many respects unsatisfactory. To establish agreement between two contrasting measures of personality disorder, and to compare subject-informant agreement on each. To examine the extent to which trait abnormality can be separated from interpersonal and social role dysfunction. Fifty-six subjects and their closest informants were interviewed and rated independently. Personality functioning was assessed using a modified Personality Assessment Schedule (M-PAS), and the Adult Personality Functioning Assessment (APFA). Subject-informant agreement on the M-PAS was moderately good, and agreement between the M-PAS and the APFA, across and within subjects and informants, was comparable to that for the M-PAS. This was equally the case when M-PAS trait plus impairment scores and trait abnormality scores were used. The M-PAS and the APFA are probably assessing similar constructs. Trait abnormalities occur predominantly in an interpersonal context and could be assessed within that context.

  20. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Susan; Kromhout, Hans; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud

    2009-01-01

    A case study was carried out in 2006-2007 to assess the actual cement dust exposure among construction workers involved in a full-scale construction project and as a comparison among workers involved in various stages of cement and concrete production. Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed for several job types. Inhalable dust and cement dust (based on analysis of elemental calcium) concentrations were determined. Inhalable dust exposures at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m3, with a mean concentration of 1.0 mg/m3. For inhalable cement dust mean exposure was 0.3 mg/m3 (range 0.02-17 mg/m3). Reinforcement and pouring workers had the lowest average concentrations. Inhalable dust levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were, on average, below 0.5 mg/m3 for inhalable dust and below 0.2 mg/m3 for inhalable cement dust. Highest dust concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM=55 mg/m3; inhalable cement dust GM=33 mg/m3) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages of cement during reinforcement work and pouring.

  1. Theory of Work Adjustment Personality Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Loralie

    1993-01-01

    To measure Theory of Work Adjustment personality and adjustment style dimensions, content-based scales were analyzed for homogeneity and successively reanalyzed for reliability improvement. Three sound scales were developed: inflexibility, activeness, and reactiveness. (SK)

  2. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site.

  3. Modification of the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-Hm) to consider personalized satisfaction with participation in activities and roles: results from a construct validity study with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Bouthot, Kathleen; Filiatrault, Patrick; Caron, Cyndi; Gagnon, Maxime; Prémont, Stéphanie; Levasseur, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    Participation, defined as a person's involvement in activities and roles, is a primary intervention goal in rehabilitation. To achieve client-centered practice, rehabilitation professionals need to go beyond objective accomplishment criteria and consider satisfaction with and the importance of participation in activities and roles. To our knowledge, no instrument considers accomplishment, satisfaction and importance of activities and roles, and allows numerical scoring and comparison. The objectives of this study were to modify the Assessment of Life Habits questionnaire (LIFE-Hm) to consider personalized satisfaction (satisfaction weighted by importance) with participation in activities and roles, and to: (1) examine its convergent validity with quality of life (QOL) and (2) compare the associations between QOL on the one hand and, satisfaction (LIFE-H) and personalized satisfaction (LIFE-Hm) with participation on the other. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 84 older adults, average age 76 years, with different functional autonomy levels. Quality of life was associated with personalized satisfaction for all categories of activities and roles (r = 0.45 to 0.75; p study found good construct validity of the LIFE-Hm with QOL. Personalization can add value in achieving client-centered practice. Implications for Rehabilitation The LIFE-Hm becomes the first instrument available in English and French that allows comparison between individuals and informs rehabilitation professionals about the level of accomplishment, satisfaction and personalized satisfaction with participation in activities and roles. Personalized satisfaction can add value in achieving client-centered practice as it considers not only how satisfying activities and roles are for the person, but also the importance that these activities and roles have for her/him. The LIFE-Hm offers the advantage of systematically identifying activities and roles which are not satisfactory but

  4. Personal Homepage Construction as an Expression of Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kelly L.; Dayanim, Shoshana; Matthias, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    In 2 studies, the authors explored preadolescent and adolescent use of personal homepages in relation to mastery and identity formation. In Study 1, the authors attempted to determine the prevalence of personal homepage and online journal (blog) construction among a random sample (N = 500) of preadolescents and adolescents. Adolescents were more…

  5. The cross-cultural generalizability of Axis-II constructs: an evaluation of two personality disorder assessment instruments in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; McCrae, R R; Costa, P T; Yao, S; Dai, X; Cai, T; Gao, B

    2000-01-01

    We examined the reliability, cross-instrument validity, and factor structure of Chinese adaptations of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4+; N = 1,926) and Personality Disorders Interview (PDI-IV; N = 525) in psychiatric patients. Comparisons with data from Western countries suggest that the psychometric properties of these two instruments are comparable across cultures. Low to modest agreement between the PDQ-4+ and PDI-IV was observed for both dimensional and categorical personality disorder evaluations. When the PDI-IV was used as the diagnostic standard, the PDQ-4+ showed higher sensitivity than specificity, and higher negative predictive power than positive predictive power. Factor analyses of both instruments replicated the four-factor structure O'Connor and Dyce (1998) found in Western samples. Results suggested that conceptions and measures of DSM-IV personality disorders are cross-culturally generalizable to Chinese psychiatric populations.

  6. Assessing the sustainable construction of large construction companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Bamgbade Jibril; Mohammed, Kamaruddeen Ahmed; Nasrun, Mohd Nawi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Considering the increasing concerns for the consideration of sustainability issues in construction project delivery within the construction industry, this paper assesses the extent of sustainable construction among Malaysian large contractors, in order to ascertain the level of the industry's impacts on both the environment and the society. Sustainable construction explains the construction industry's responsibility to efficiently utilise the finite resources while also reducing construction impacts on both humans and the environment throughout the phases of construction. This study used proportionate stratified random sampling to conduct a field study with a sample of 172 contractors out of the 708 administered questionnaires. Data were collected from large contractors in the eleven states of peninsular Malaysia. Using the five-level rating scale (which include: 1= Very Low; 2= Low; 3= Moderate; 4= High; 5= Very High) to describe the level of sustainable construction of Malaysian contractors based on previous studies, statistical analysis reveals that environmental, social and economic sustainability of Malaysian large contractors are high.

  7. Constructive Deviance, Destructive Deviance and Personality: How do they interrelate?

    OpenAIRE

    Bodankin, Moran; Tziner, Aharon

    2009-01-01

    In recent years deviant behavior in organizations has drawn increasing attention. However, surprisingly little research has focused on constructive rather than destructive deviance. In an attempt to bridge this gap, the present study investigated both constructive and destructive deviance at work and their relationship to employee personality. Using 89 hitech employees, constructive and destructive (interpersonal and organizational) deviance were regressed on the big-five factors of personali...

  8. Using Machine Learning to Advance Personality Assessment and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Hopwood, Christopher James

    2018-05-01

    Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework. We review recent applications of machine learning to personality assessment, place machine learning research in the broader context of fundamental principles of construct validation, and provide recommendations for how to use machine learning to advance our understanding of personality.

  9. An Examination of the Personality Constructs Underlying Dimensions of Creative Problem-Solving Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Scott G.; Kaufmann, Astrid H.; Bakken, Bjørn T.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the personality facets that underpin the construct of problem-solving style, particularly when approaching more creative kinds of problem-solving. Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire and VIEW--An Assessment of Problem Solving Style were administered to 165 students from the Norwegian Business School. We…

  10. Assessment of Pupils’ Personal Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Strokova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the new state educational standards, based on the competence approach, requires some new criteria, procedures and diagnostic tools for estimating pupils’ personal achievements. However, there is a lack of necessary guidelines and recommendations for such objective evaluation and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of educational establishments. The urgent need for unified monitoring instruments induced the author to develop a criteria-diagnostic complex providing the options for evaluating the important personal development aspects – intellectual, value-oriented and moral. The author recommends a self-assessment method for evaluating the intellectual qualities (i.e. self-dependency, critical thinking, logics, flexibility, depth, originality, etc., intellectual competences, and moral traits. The method is based on the tests – «Pupil in his own eyes» and «Pupil in the expert teachers’ eyes». For examining the value orientation, the author takes the classical method by M. Rokich. The approbation of the complex evaluation method was carried out in Tyumen schools and lyceums regarding the last year pupils. The research findings and proposed assessment tools can be used by headmasters and school teachers for monitoring the pupils’ personal growth. 

  11. Constructibility assessment of APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Jae; Kang, Yong Chul; Lee, Jae Gon; Lim, Woo Sang

    2003-01-01

    APR1400 (formerly KNGR) development is one of national G-7 projects sponsored by government and KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD). It is an evolutionary standard reactor with the thermal output of 4000MWt and has been adopted for Shin-Kori Unit 3 and 4. The government organizations, research institutes, universities and industries have participated in the project since 1992 along with KHNP, and the standard design certification program was issued in May 2002. The project set up the top-tier requirements about the safety, economy, operability and maintainability, and constructibility in the early design stage. The requirements have been evaluated periodically during the design process, and the results were reflected to the design. This paper describes the methods for constructibility enhancement and the results of schedule analysis to assure meeting construction duration target, which is set to 48 months from the first concrete pouring to the commercial operation on the condition that learning effects are maximized at Nth plant. To meet the target schedule, the design characteristics and constructibility studies such as new construction methods and construction schedule analysis were performed. The new construction methods presented here are over the top method for NSSS components, deck plate and steel from for concrete wall and slab, automatic welding for large bore piping, and modularization of components and structure, etc. (author)

  12. Adding Personality to Gifted Identification: Relationships among Traditional and Personality-Based Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the underutilized tools in gifted identification is personality-based measures. A multiple confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to examine the relationships between traditional identification methods and personality-based measures. The pattern of correlations indicated this model could be measuring two constructs, one related to…

  13. The Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO: Construction and preleminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development of the self-report Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO, which was constructed on the basis of DSM-IV classification for personality disorders(American Psychiatric Association, 1994, Beck's theory of dysfunctional cognitive schemas (Beck in Freeman, 1990 and psychoanalytic theories of basic personality structures. We focused on the basic experiencing of self and others, which is characteristic of specific personality type. In regard to these theories we believe that personality disorder is a broader term; the disorders within it are not limited to existing DSM-IV axis II categories. The personality disorders are complex phenomenon, which are better described on dimensional then categorical scales as well. The questionnaire consists of 213 items, which correspond to 12 clinical scales (for histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive, avoidant, dependent, depressive, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders and a lie scale. According to the personality organization theory (Kernberg, 1986 and other psychoanalytic theories it is divided into four parts: for neurotic (histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive and avoidant disorders, depressive (dependent and depressive disorders, borderline (narcissistic, borderline and antisocial disorders and psychotic disorders (paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal disorders. The questionnaire was administered to 415 adult psychiatric patients and 215 health persons of both sexes. They were compared according to the responses of the questionnaire. The internal reliability of scales is sufficient, but correlation between scales is quite strong. The validity was tested with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4, Hyler, 1994 and through comparing of the results of healthy individuals and psychiatric patients with different diagnosis. The results are generally in accordance with the

  14. Some suggestions for the DSM-5 schizotypal personality disorder construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2012-05-01

    This study relates to the schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proposal of the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by investigating the construct validity of SPD as defined by DSM-IV in a large sample of patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs (N = 2619), assessed by structured diagnostic interviews and the Longitudinal, Expert All Data standard. We investigated factor structure and psychometric properties of the SPD criteria, as well as co-occurrence patterns between SPD and other PDs. Thirty-six patients were diagnosed with SPD and 513 patients (21%) endorsed at least 2 schizotypal criteria. We found that 2 factors were specific for SPD, a cognitive-perceptual factor (ideas of reference, magical thinking, and unusual perceptual experiences) and an oddness factor (odd thinking and speech, constricted affect, and odd appearance or behavior). The criteria belonging to these factors had appropriate psychometric properties. The criteria of the cognitive-perceptual factor were more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (PD) than with the other PDs. We did not find support for a consistent factor that reflected interpersonal problems. The criteria that used to be part of this factor (suspiciousness, lack of friends or confidants, and excessive social anxiety) performed poorly as specific SPD criteria. SPD was more strongly associated with antisocial PD and paranoid PD than with the other PDs. We suggest that ideas of reference should be included explicitly under the schizotypal facet of cognitive dysregulation in DSM-5, with less emphasis on the social phobic aspects of this feature. Furthermore, there should be more emphasis on the cognitive aspects of suspiciousness in SPD, and it should be considered to split up the affectivity criterion into constricted affect and inappropriate affect, with the latter type of affect being the expression of problems with

  15. Measuring personality functioning in older adults: construct validity of the Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gina; Debast, Inge; van Alphen, S P J

    2017-07-01

    The dimensional personality disorders model in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 section III conceptually differentiates impaired personality functioning (criterion A) from the presence of pathological traits (criterion B). This study is the first to specifically address the measurement of criterion A in older adults. Moreover, the convergent/divergent validity of criterion A and criterion B will be compared in younger and older age groups. The Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF) was administered in older (N = 171) and younger adults (N = 210). The factorial structure was analyzed with exploratory structural equation modeling. Differences in convergent/divergent validity between personality functioning (SIPP-SF) and pathological traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5; Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire) were examined across age groups. Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, Responsibility, Self-Control, and Social Concordance were corroborated as higher order domains. Although the SIPP-SF domains measured unique variation, some high correlations with pathological traits referred to overlapping constructs. Moreover, in older adults, personality functioning was more strongly related to Psychoticism, Disinhibition, Antagonism and Dissocial Behavior compared to younger adults. The SIPP-SF construct validity was demonstrated in terms of a structure of five higher order domains of personality functioning. The instrument is promising as a possible measure of impaired personality functioning in older adults. As such, it is a useful clinical tool to follow up effects of therapy on levels of personality functioning. Moreover, traits were associated with different degrees of personality functioning across age groups.

  16. Personality Assessment: A Competency-Capability Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine J; Finklea, J Tyler; Chan, Ginny

    2018-01-01

    This article begins by reviewing the proficiency of personality assessment in the context of the competencies movement, which has dominated health service psychology in recent years. It examines the value of including a capability framework for advancing this proficiency and enhancing the quality of personality assessments, including Therapeutic Assessment (Finn & Tonsager, 1997 ), that include a personality assessment component. This hybrid competency-capability framework is used to set the stage for the conduct of personality assessments in a variety of contexts and for the optimal training of personality assessment. Future directions are offered in terms of ways psychologists can strengthen their social contract with the public and offer a broader array of personality assessments in more diverse contexts and by individuals who are both competent and capable.

  17. An Integrative Analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Hypomanic Personality Scale: Implications for Construct Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Kasey; Daly, Elizabeth; Stasik-O'Brien, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Clark, Lee Anna; Watson, David

    2017-09-01

    The primary goal of this study was to explicate the construct validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) by examining their relations both to each other and to measures of personality and psychopathology in a community sample ( N = 255). Structural evidence indicates that the NPI is defined by Leadership/Authority, Grandiose Exhibitionism, and Entitlement/Exploitativeness factors, whereas the HPS is characterized by specific dimensions reflecting Social Vitality, Mood Volatility, and Excitement. Our results establish that (a) factor-based subscales from these instruments display divergent patterns of relations that are obscured when relying exclusively on total scores and (b) some NPI and HPS subscales more clearly tap content specifically relevant to narcissism and mania, respectively, than others. In particular, our findings challenge the construct validity of the NPI Leadership/Authority and HPS Social Vitality subscales, which appear to assess overlapping assertiveness content that is largely adaptive in nature.

  18. Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Doris S F; Thompson, David R; Yu, Cheuk Man

    2010-01-01

    Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Typ...

  19. Assessing construction innovation: theoretical and practical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is key for productivity improvement and advancements in different sectors of the economy, including the construction sector.  The criticism of the slow pace of innovation in construction industry may be unwarranted, considering the structure of the industry and nature of the construction business.  The loosely coupled nature of firms, mostly Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s, delivering ‘projects’ through partial engagement, together with the distinction between the project innovation and firm innovation makes it difficult to extract innovations in a meaningful way.  The problem also lies in conceptualising, defining, articulating and assessing innovation in construction.  The literature is replete with research into construction innovation, however, there is limited research into understanding how innovation is perceived and narrated in practice.  The paper aims to explore how innovation is assessed and narrated in construction, specifically analysing theory and practice perspectives.  A theoretical model was constructed from a structured literature review illustrating existing discourse and narratives of construction innovation assessment.  A qualitative analysis of ‘Professional Excellence in Building’ submission documents to the Australian Institute of Building was performed to identify the practice perspective of innovation.  The findings suggest that internal organizational and process innovation account for the majority of improvements identified.  Importantly a taxonomy of narrative is developed that articulates how the construction industry in Australia views industry innovation.

  20. Assessment of the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, T A; Trull, T J

    1997-04-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) of personality is obtaining construct validation, recognition, and practical consideration across a broad domain of fields, including clinical psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, and health psychology. As a result, an array of instruments have been developed and existing instruments are being modified to assess the FFM. In this article, we present an overview and critique of five such instruments (the Goldberg Big Five Markers, the revised NEO Personality Inventory, the Interpersonal Adjective Scales-Big Five, the Personality Psychopathology-Five, and the Hogan Personality Inventory), focusing in particular on their representation of the lexical FFM and their practical application.

  1. Construct Validity and Case Validity in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…

  2. Personal-organisational value conflicts and job satisfaction of internal construction stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Panahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the issue of value conflicts in construction organizations. This research was conducted in the Malaysian construction industry to fill the gap in the knowledge in areas of organizational behaviour in the construction industry in terms of the possible effects of conflicts on the job satisfaction of internal construction stakeholders. The conflicts considered are those rooted in differences between personal and organizational values. This research targeted professional project consultants identified as architects, engineers, and quantity surveyors as the internal construction stakeholders in Malaysia. The personal-organizational values and the level of job satisfaction of the stakeholders were assessed using a questionnaire survey. To achieve the research objective, comparative and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. The results generated by the analyses indicated a high level of value conflicts in the construction organizations which significantly and negatively affected job satisfaction of the internal stakeholders. Therefore this research, through investigating the potential effect of value conflicts on the stakeholders’ job satisfaction, reveals the importance of the interaction between personal and organizational values in construction organizations which contributes to the extant literature of organizational behaviour in construction.

  3. Personality in speech assessment and automatic classification

    CERN Document Server

    Polzehl, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This work combines interdisciplinary knowledge and experience from research fields of psychology, linguistics, audio-processing, machine learning, and computer science. The work systematically explores a novel research topic devoted to automated modeling of personality expression from speech. For this aim, it introduces a novel personality assessment questionnaire and presents the results of extensive labeling sessions to annotate the speech data with personality assessments. It provides estimates of the Big 5 personality traits, i.e. openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Based on a database built on the questionnaire, the book presents models to tell apart different personality types or classes from speech automatically.

  4. Effects of dysthymia on personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Divac-Jovanovic, M

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-eight dysthymic patients (82.1% with personality disorders) were investigated with questionnaires for personality and depression before and after treatment. When in asymptomatic state, defined by clinical criteria and HAM-D score 6 or lower, the personality profile of 15 patients (group I) was significantly changed from the one before treatment (avoidant, passive-aggressive, borderline and schizotypal dimensions were lower, and narcissistic dimension higher [P personality dimension. The second group manifested a permanent characterological affective syndrome, or a core borderline personality disorder. The limitations of personality assessment during affective episodes are discussed as well as the borderline level of functioning related to it.

  5. Comparing Dimensional Models Assessing Personality Traits and Personality Pathology Among Adult ADHD and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerting, Johanna; Pukrop, Ralf; Klein, Philipp; Ritter, Kathrin; Knowles, Mark; Banzhaf, Anke; Gentschow, Laura; Vater, Aline; Heuser, Isabella; Colla, Michael; Roepke, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This pilot study was a comparison of dimensional models assessing personality traits and personality pathology in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD and adults diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a nonclinical control sample of healthy adults. Personality traits were assessed using the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) and dimensional personality pathology with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Adults with ADHD and BPD produced higher Emotional Dysregulation/Neuroticism and Dissocial Behavior scores than controls. For the Extraversion/Inhibitedness scale, adults with BPD produced significantly lower scores than adults with ADHD and controls. On the Conscientiousness/Compulsivity domains, Conscientiousness scores were lower for both disorders, whereas low Compulsivity values were specific to adult ADHD. Our results suggest that patients with adult ADHD and BPD have distinguishable profiles of personality traits and personality pathology. © The Author(s) 2012.

  6. Death education for oncology professionals: a personal construct theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, L C

    1983-01-01

    Using observations from a psychosocial training program for oncology professionals, this article illustrates how one can model, while training the student, the very methods he or she can adopt in working with patients and families. One starts with an elicitation of the student's (patient's) operative personal constructs and then devises strategies to elaborate, integrate, loosen, tighten, preempt, or take other action, as needed. The very means used to promote movement within the student's own death-related constructs can be adopted for use by him or her in the clinical situation. As the helper's pathways of action and thought with regard to this domain become more comprehensive and as the helper becomes more skilled at moving freely along them, he or she becomes more perceptive and resourceful to those in need.

  7. Design and construction of a personal radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.H. de.

    1979-01-01

    The design and construction of a personal radiation monitor is dealt with. It provides a direct and reliable reading of the received dose, and sounds an alarm in the event of an excessive dose rate. A detailed analysis of its design, construction and caracteristics is given, as well a comparison with usual dosimeters. The apparatus is based on large-scale integrated electronics, it is reliable, easy to read, and can be used in the same manner as a film-badge. Contrariwise to both the film-badge and the termoluminescent dosimeters, it allows a direct reading. Also, it is not susceptible to false readings due to mechanical shocks, which is the weak point of the pocket ionization chamber. The dosimeter described herein is equipped with a special corrective shield that gives the correct dose reading, regardless of the photon energy. It is also highly immune to neutron interference. (Author) [pt

  8. Automatic personality assessment through social media language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Assessment of dysfunctional beliefs in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew C; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T; Grisham, Jessica R

    2002-10-01

    This study had two aims: to test the hypothesis that borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients hold numerous dysfunctional beliefs associated with a variety of Axis II disorders, and to construct a BPD belief scale which captures these beliefs. Beliefs were measured using the Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ) which is designed to assess beliefs associated with various personality disorders, although not specifically BPD. Eighty-four BPD patients and 204 patients with other personality disorders (OPD) were randomly split into two study samples. Fourteen PBQ items were found to discriminate BPD from OPD patients in both samples. These items came from the PBQ Dependent, Paranoid, Avoidant, and Histrionic scales and reflect themes of dependency, helplessness, distrust, fears of rejection/abandonment/losing emotional control, and extreme attention-seeking behavior. A BPD beliefs scale constructed from these items showed good internal consistency and diagnostic validity among the 288 study patients. The scale may be used to assist in diagnosis and cognitive therapy of BPD.

  10. Refining the construct of narcissistic personality disorder: diagnostic criteria and subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Eric; Shedler, Jonathan; Bradley, Rebekah; Westen, Drew

    2008-11-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder has received relatively little empirical attention. This study was designed to provide an empirically valid and clinically rich portrait of narcissistic personality disorder and to identify subtypes of the disorder. A random national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (N=1,201) described a randomly selected current patient with personality pathology. Clinicians provided detailed psychological descriptions of the patients using the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II (SWAP-II), completed a checklist of axis II diagnostic criteria, and provided construct ratings for each axis II personality disorder. Descriptions of narcissistic patients based on both raw and standardized SWAP-II item scores were aggregated to identify, respectively, the most characteristic and the most distinctive features of narcissistic personality disorder. A total of 255 patients met DSM-IV criteria for narcissistic personality disorder based on the checklist and 122 based on the construct ratings; 101 patients met criteria by both methods. Q-factor analysis identified three subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder, which the authors labeled grandiose/malignant, fragile, and high-functioning/exhibitionistic. Core features of the disorder included interpersonal vulnerability and underlying emotional distress, along with anger, difficulty in regulating affect, and interpersonal competitiveness, features that are absent from the DSM-IV description of narcissistic personality disorder. These findings suggest that DSM-IV criteria for narcissistic personality disorder are too narrow, underemphasizing aspects of personality and inner experience that are empirically central to the disorder. The richer and more differentiated view of narcissistic personality disorder suggested by this study may have treatment implications and may help bridge the gap between empirically and clinically derived concepts of the disorder.

  11. Students' personal professional theories in competence-based vocational education : the construction of personal knowledge through internalisation and socialisation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke van der Schaaf; Paul Kirschner; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn; Dr. Harmen Schaap

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to provide an insight into how students construct their professional knowledge and what the content and nature of personal professional knowledge is through the concept of PPTs (personal professional theories).

  12. Personality Assessment Use by Clinical Neuropsychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven R.; Gorske, Tad T.; Wiggins, Chauntel; Little, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study is an exploration of the personality assessment practices of clinical neuropsychologists. Professional members of the National Academy of Neuropsychology and the International Neuropsychological Society (N = 404) were surveyed to examine use of several forms of personality, behavior, and emotional function measures. Results…

  13. Personality assessment in snow leopards (Uncia uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of individual personality is a useful tool in animal husbandry and can be used effectively to improve welfare. This study assessed personality in snow leopards (Uncia uncia) by examining their reactions to six novel objects and comparing them to personality assessments based on a survey completed by zookeepers. The objectives were to determine whether these methods could detect differences in personality, including age and sex differences, and to assess whether the two methods yielded comparable results. Both keeper assessments and novel object tests identified age, sex, and individual differences in snow leopards. Five dimensions of personality were found based on keepers' ratings: Active/Vigilant, Curious/Playful, Calm/Self-Assured, Timid/Anxious, and Friendly to Humans. The dimension Active/Vigilant was significantly positively correlated with the number of visits to the object, time spent locomoting, and time spent in exploratory behaviors. Curious/Playful was significantly positively correlated with the number of visits to the object, time spent locomoting, and time spent in exploratory behaviors. However, other dimensions (Calm/Self-Assured, Friendly to Humans, and Timid/Anxious) did not correlate with novel-object test variables and possible explanations for this are discussed. Thus, some of the traits and behaviors were correlated between assessment methods, showing the novel-object test to be useful in assessing an animal's personality should a keeper be unable to, or to support a keeper's assessment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Statistical methods in personality assessment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, J A; LaLone, L; Broeckel, J A

    1997-06-01

    Emerging models of personality structure and advances in the measurement of personality and psychopathology suggest that research in personality and personality assessment has entered a stage of advanced development, in this article we examine whether researchers in these areas have taken advantage of new and evolving statistical procedures. We conducted a review of articles published in the Journal of Personality, Assessment during the past 5 years. Of the 449 articles that included some form of data analysis, 12.7% used only descriptive statistics, most employed only univariate statistics, and fewer than 10% used multivariate methods of data analysis. We discuss the cost of using limited statistical methods, the possible reasons for the apparent reluctance to employ advanced statistical procedures, and potential solutions to this technical shortcoming.

  15. USING A PERSONAL CONSTRUCT APPROACH TO EXPLORE QUAUTY OF LIFE ISSUES WITH PEOPLE WITH LEARNING DISABILTTIES

    OpenAIRE

    BOYES, CLAIRE MARIE

    1999-01-01

    While an agreed definition of quality of life rennains elusive, research into the quality of life of people with learning disabilities has developed significantly. Following a discussion of this work, the author argues that these assessment processes should be refocused towards the views of people with learning disabilities themselves, particularly given the idiosyncratic nature of the quality of life issue. This study explores the use of the Personal Construct Psychology...

  16. Belgrade adolescent personality inventory: Bridging the gap between personality assessment in children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamonja-Ignjatović Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality inventories for assessment and study temperament and character of adolescents, an age critical for the finalisation of both normal and pathological mental development, have not been specifically developed. In this paper, we introduce a new personality inventory based on Cloninger's Psychobiological model of personality to assess adolescents from 14 to 18 years of age (the Belgrade Adolescent Personality Inventory - BAPI, which bridges the gap between personality assessment in children and adults. The BAPI is a 46-item Likert scale inventory derived from previous studies using the TCI and JTCI on the Serbian sample. The psychometric properties of the BAPI were tested on the sample of 535 secondary school students in Serbia, aged 15 to 16. In order to assess the fit of the model, the Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed. The differences between sexes were analysed by MANOVA, while the Latent class analysis (LCA was applied in order to identify different adaptation profiles among adolescents. The BAPI scales had a satisfactory internal consistency (.66 - .80. considering the small number of items (5-6 in each scale. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA generally supported the main dimensions of temperament and character, as postulated by Cloninger. The only exception was Novelty Seeking, which best fitted a two-factor solution, Explorative curiosity and Impulsivity, separating the 'good' (curious, inquisitive, creative and 'bad' (impulsive, impatient, disorderly facets of this trait. Such polarity of Novelty Seeking could be specific for personality development and behaviour disorders in adolescence. The LCA differentiated the personality profiles of well-adapted adolescents from those at risk for maladaptation that manifested low character traits, lack of Persistence and high Novelty seeking Impulsivity subscale. The results support the construct validity of the BAPI and thus provide the basis for its practical application

  17. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  18. Contextualized personality: traditional and new assessment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Daniel; Watson, David; Komar, Jennifer; Min, Ji-A; Perunovic, Wei Qi Elaine

    2007-12-01

    We describe our ongoing program of research related to the assessment of contextualized personality, focusing on social roles and cultural cues as contextual factors. First, we present our research employing the traditional assessment approach, wherein participants are asked to rate explicitly their personality across several different roles. We argue that this hypothetical approach is potentially susceptible to the influence of stereotypes, social desirability, and demand characteristics. We therefore describe the development of three novel and subtle assessment procedures that are based on obtaining online self-representations that are activated while occupying a specific context. Finally, the strengths and limitations of all four approaches, as well as directions for future research in the study of contextualized personality, are discussed.

  19. Inpatient Therapeutic Assessment With Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supporting the effectiveness of Collaborative/Therapeutic Assessment (C/TA) has led clinicians and researchers to apply C/TA to a variety of clinical populations and treatment settings. This case example presents a C/TA inpatient adaptation illustrated with narcissistic personality disorder. After a brief overview of salient concepts, I provide a detailed account of the clinical interview, test interpretation paired with diagnostic considerations specific to narcissism, planned intervention, and discussion of assessment results. Throughout the case study, I attempt to demonstrate defining features of C/TA, inpatient adaptations, and clinical techniques that encourage meaningful engagement with a "hard to reach" personality.

  20. Improving assessment of personality disorder traits through social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Allan; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2007-10-01

    When assessing personality disorder traits, not all judges make equally valid judgments of all targets. The present study uses social network analysis to investigate factors associated with reliability and validity in peer assessment. Participants were groups of military recruits (N=809) who acted as both targets and judges in a round-robin design. Participants completed self- and informant versions of the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology. Social network matrices were constructed based on reported acquaintance, and cohesive subgroups were identified. Judges who shared a mutual subgroup were more reliable and had higher self-peer agreement than those who did not. Partitioning networks into two subgroups achieved more consistent improvements than multiple subgroups. We discuss implications for multiple informant assessments.

  1. Simulation-based assessment for construction helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James; Yang, James; Lei, Zhipeng; Liang, Daan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a concerted effort for greater job safety in all industries. Personnel protective equipment (PPE) has been developed to help mitigate the risk of injury to humans that might be exposed to hazardous situations. The human head is the most vulnerable to impact as a moderate magnitude can cause serious injury or death. That is why industries have required the use of an industrial hard hat or helmet. There have only been a few articles published to date that are focused on the risk of head injury when wearing an industrial helmet. A full understanding of the effectiveness of construction helmets on reducing injury is lacking. This paper presents a simulation-based method to determine the threshold at which a human will sustain injury when wearing a construction helmet and assesses the risk of injury for wearers of construction helmets or hard hats. Advanced finite element, or FE, models were developed to study the impact on construction helmets. The FE model consists of two parts: the helmet and the human models. The human model consists of a brain, enclosed by a skull and an outer layer of skin. The level and probability of injury to the head was determined using both the head injury criterion (HIC) and tolerance limits set by Deck and Willinger. The HIC has been widely used to assess the likelihood of head injury in vehicles. The tolerance levels proposed by Deck and Willinger are more suited for finite element models but lack wide-scale validation. Different cases of impact were studied using LSTC's LS-DYNA.

  2. Immediate elaborated feedback personalization in online assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasilyeva, E.; De Bra, P.M.E.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Dillenbourg, P.; Specht, M.

    2008-01-01

    Providing a student with feedback that is timely, most suitable and useful for her personality and the performed task is a challenging problem of online assessment within Web-based Learning Systems (WBLSs). In our recent work we suggested a general approach of feedback adaptation in WBLS and through

  3. The depressive personality disorder inventory and current depressive symptoms: implications for the assessment of depressive personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jude; Huprich, Steven K

    2011-10-01

    The Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996; see Appendix) was created to assess Depressive Personality Disorder in clinical and nonclinical samples. Since its creation, the DPDI has been used in multiple studies, and the psychometric properties of the measure have generally supported its reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity; however, evidence for the measure's discriminant validity has been mixed. Specifically, the DPDI tends to correlate highly with measures of current depressive symptoms, which limits its efficacy in differentiating current depressive symptoms from a depressive personality structure. A principal components analysis of 362 individuals who completed both the DPDI and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) found that 49% of the variance was accounted for in two components. Seven items from the DPDI loaded more strongly on the first component composed of many BDI-II items. These items were removed in order to create a measure believed to assess DPD without the confounding influence of current depressive symptomology. Principal components analysis of the revised measure yielded three components, accounting for 46% of the variance. The revised DPDI was used to calculate convergent, discriminant, and construct validity coefficients from measures used in former studies. Virtually no improvement in the validity coefficients was observed. It is concluded that assessing DPD via self-report is limited in its utility.

  4. Students’ personal professional theories in competence-based vocational education: the construction of personal knowledge through internalisation and socialisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Harmen; De Bruijn, Elly; Van der Schaaf, Marieke; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Schaap, H., De Bruijn, E., Van der Schaaf, M. F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Students' personal professional theories in competence-based vocational education: the construction of personal knowledge through internalisation and socialisation. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 61(4),

  5. Students' Personal Professional Theories in Competence-Based Vocational Education: The Construction of Personal Knowledge through Internalisation and Socialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.; Van der Schaaf, M. F.; Kirschner, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Competence-based vocational education is based on a constructivist learning paradigm, where the development of students' personal professional knowledge is emphasised. However, there is a lack of insight into how students construct their own professional knowledge and what the content and nature of personal professional knowledge is. This article…

  6. Deductive Sensemaking Principles Using Personal Constructs of the Field Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ntuen, Celestine A; Leedom, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    .... It is assumed that the expert commander constructs diverse and asynchronous sensemaking models when confronted with asymmetric situations-evolving and changing dynamics of the battlefield information...

  7. The big five personality traits: psychological entities or statistical constructs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franić, S.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study employed multivariate genetic item-level analyses to examine the ontology and the genetic and environmental etiology of the Big Five personality dimensions, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and

  8. The Big Five Personality Traits: Psychological Entities or Statistical Constructs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franic, S.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study employed multivariate genetic item-level analyses to examine the ontology and the genetic and environmental etiology of the Big Five personality dimensions, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and

  9. Using Personal Construct Theory to Explore Self-Image with Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha; Butler, Richard; Hare, Dougal Julian; Green, David

    2011-01-01

    A young person's construct of self can be fundamental to their psychological well being (Glick 1999; Emler 2001). However limited research has been conducted in the United Kingdom to explore self-image with adolescents with learning disabilities. Previous studies have demonstrated the effective use of personal construct theory with children…

  10. Assessment Moderation: Constructing the Marks and Constructing the Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Susan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author considers the positivist approaches in mainstream higher education assessment research. She contrasts this to emerging poststructuralist perspectives and goes on to report on a study into the assessment moderation practices in a higher education art department. In this research she explores the ways in which art and design…

  11. Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Doris S F; Thompson, David R; Yu, Cheuk Man; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2010-08-01

    Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Type D discrepancies in depression/anxiety, among Chinese patients with CHD. Patients with CHD (N=326) completed the Chinese version of the DS14. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Stress Symptom Checklist (SSC) were administered to subsamples to establish construct and discriminant validity. Administration of the DS14, HADS, and SSC was repeated at 1 month after hospital discharge in 66 patients, and stability of the DS14 was examined in another subsample of 100 patients. The theoretical structure of the Type D construct in the Chinese culture was supported (chi(2)/df=2.89, root mean square error of approximation=0.08, normal fit index=0.91, non-normal fit index=0.91, comparative fit index=0.93). The Negative Affectivity (NA) and Social Inhibition (SI) subscales of the DS14 in the entire sample were internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha=0.89/0.81), measured stable traits (3-month test-retest ICC=0.76/0.74), and correlated significantly with the neuroticism (NA/neuroticism, r=0.78, Ppersonality was 31%. Type D was not related to transient emotional states. However, Chinese patients with a Type D personality were at increased concurrent risk of anxiety (P=.002) and depression (P=.016). Type D personality is a cross-culturally valid construct, is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression, and deserves prompt attention in estimating the prognostic risk of Chinese CHD patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, M J B; Van de Wiel, M W J; Schuwirth, L W T; Van der Vleuten, C P M; Muijtjens, A M M

    2013-08-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using theoretical frameworks of social cognition and person perception, we explored raters' implicit performance theories, use of task-specific performance schemas and the formation of person schemas during WBA. We used think-aloud procedures and verbal protocol analysis to investigate schema-based processing by experienced (N = 18) and inexperienced (N = 16) raters (supervisor-raters in general practice residency training). Qualitative data analysis was used to explore schema content and usage. We quantitatively assessed rater idiosyncrasy in the use of performance schemas and we investigated effects of rater expertise on the use of (task-specific) performance schemas. Raters used different schemas in judging trainee performance. We developed a normative performance theory comprising seventeen inter-related performance dimensions. Levels of rater idiosyncrasy were substantial and unrelated to rater expertise. Experienced raters made significantly more use of task-specific performance schemas compared to inexperienced raters, suggesting more differentiated performance schemas in experienced raters. Most raters started to develop person schemas the moment they began to observe trainee performance. The findings further our understanding of processes underpinning judgment and decision making in WBA. Raters make and justify judgments based on personal theories and performance constructs. Raters' information processing seems to be affected by differences in rater expertise. The results of this study can help to improve rater training, the design of assessment instruments and decision making in WBA.

  13. Disabled person: construction of concept by this population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to build the concept of disabled person. Methods: study of analysis of concept using the phases field work andstatistical analysis with 120 individuals divided into three groups of 40 people with hearing, visual and motor disability.Results: there was predomination of men (68%, 18-29 years old (55%, with superior education (35% and married/common-law married (75%. The attribute accepted was person with limitation and still able to perform activity, witha difference between groups (p = 0.018; the keyword accepted was limitation (p = 0.001; the expression was disabledperson, with intergroup difference (p = 0.013. Concept of choice by group was deaf (97.51%; blind (45% and person withvisual disability (45% and; person with physical disability (27.5%. Conclusion: attributes, keywords used in the literatureand public policy were not accepted. They prefer to be called deaf; blind or visually impaired; They reject people with motordisability and wheelchair user.

  14. Assessment of capabilities in persons with advanced stage of dementia: Validation of The Montessori Assessment System (MAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkes, Jérôme; Camp, Cameron J; Raffard, Stéphane; Gély-Nargeot And, Marie-Christine; Bayard, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Montessori Assessment System. The Montessori Assessment System assesses preserved abilities in persons with moderate to severe dementia. In this respect, this instrument provides crucial information for the development of effective person-centered care plans. A total of 196 persons with a diagnosis of dementia in the moderate to severe stages of dementia were recruited in 10 long-term care facilities in France. All participants completed the Montessori Assessment System, the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale and/or the Mini Mental State Examination and the Severe Impairment Battery-short form. The internal consistency and temporal stability of the Montessori Assessment System were high. Additionally, good construct and divergent validity were demonstrated. Factor analysis showed a one-factor structure. The Montessori Assessment System demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties while being a useful instrument to assess capabilities in persons with advanced stages of dementia and hence to develop person-centered plans of care.

  15. Development and Validation of Triarchic Construct Scales from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jason R.; Drislane, Laura E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Morano, Mario; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Poythress, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    The Triarchic model of psychopathy describes this complex condition in terms of distinct phenotypic components of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Brief self-report scales designed specifically to index these psychopathy facets have thus far demonstrated promising construct validity. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing facets of the Triarchic model using items from a well-validated existing measure of psychopathy—the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). A consensus rating approach was used to identify PPI items relevant to each Triarchic facet, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the resulting PPI-based Triarchic scales were evaluated in relation to multiple criterion variables (i.e., other psychopathy inventories, antisocial personality disorder features, personality traits, psychosocial functioning) in offender and non-offender samples. The PPI-based Triarchic scales showed good internal consistency and related to criterion variables in ways consistent with predictions based on the Triarchic model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy. PMID:24447280

  16. The big five personality traits: psychological entities or statistical constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franić, Sanja; Borsboom, Denny; Dolan, Conor V; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-11-01

    The present study employed multivariate genetic item-level analyses to examine the ontology and the genetic and environmental etiology of the Big Five personality dimensions, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, 1992; Hoekstra et al., NEO personality questionnaires NEO-PI-R, NEO-FFI: manual, 1996]. Common and independent pathway model comparison was used to test whether the five personality dimensions fully mediate the genetic and environmental effects on the items, as would be expected under the realist interpretation of the Big Five. In addition, the dimensionalities of the latent genetic and environmental structures were examined. Item scores of a population-based sample of 7,900 adult twins (including 2,805 complete twin pairs; 1,528 MZ and 1,277 DZ) on the Dutch version of the NEO-FFI were analyzed. Although both the genetic and the environmental covariance components display a 5-factor structure, applications of common and independent pathway modeling showed that they do not comply with the collinearity constraints entailed in the common pathway model. Implications for the substantive interpretation of the Big Five are discussed.

  17. The Convergent and Concurrent Validity of Trait-Based Prototype Assessment of Personality Disorder Categories in Homeless Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Connolly, Adrian J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2012-01-01

    The "DSM-5" proposal indicates that personality disorders (PDs) be defined as collections of maladaptive traits but does not provide a specific diagnostic method. However, researchers have previously suggested that PD constructs can be assessed by comparing individuals' trait profiles with those prototypic of PDs and evidence from the…

  18. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  19. A Computer-Supported Method to Reveal and Assess Personal Professional Theories in Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogaart, Antoine C. M.; Bilderbeek, Richel J. C.; Schaap, Harmen; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a dedicated, computer-supported method to construct and formatively assess open, annotated concept maps of Personal Professional Theories (PPTs). These theories are internalised, personal bodies of formal and practical knowledge, values, norms and convictions that professionals use as a reference to interpret and acquire…

  20. Construction process assessment or 'Black Box Opener'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Scheublin, F.J.M.; Lambert, A.J.D.; Durmicevic, E.

    2009-01-01

    The construction industry and related ones are considered the world’s largest industrial employer and natural resources consumer. 50% of all materials extracted from the earth are transformed into construction materials and products. When these materials enter the waste stream, they account for some

  1. The Past and the Future of Constructive Technology Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Johan; Rip, Arie

    1997-01-01

    Constructive technology assessment (CTA) is a member of the family of technology assessment approaches. developed in particular in the Netherlands and Denmark. CTA shifts the focus away from assessing impacts of new technologies to broadening design, development, and implementation processes.

  2. Assessment of Siemens plessey electronic personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirning, C.R.; Lopez, S.; Yuen, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a laboratory assessment of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter. The Electronic Personal Dosimeter, or EPD, was developed jointly by the National Radiological Protection Board and Siemens Plessey Controls Limited, both of the United Kingdom. Twenty pre-production units of the EPD and a reader were purchased by Ontario Hydro for the assessment. The tests were conducted jointly by Ontario Hydro's Health and Safety Division and AECL Research's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), with funding from the Candu Owner's Group. A total of 26 tests were conducted, divided between Ontario Hydro and AECL. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards. In general, the performance of the EPD was found to be quite acceptable. It met most of the relevant requirements of the three standards and most of the design specifications. However, the following deficiencies were found: slow response time; sensitivity to high-frequency EMF; poor resistance to dropping; and an alarm that is not loud enough. In addition, the response of the EPD to low-energy beta rays may be too low for some applications. There were serious problems with the reliability of operation of the pre production EPDs used in these tests. 9 refs., 34 tabs., 20 figs

  3. Assessment of Siemens plessey electronic personal dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C R; Lopez, S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yuen, P S [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a laboratory assessment of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter. The Electronic Personal Dosimeter, or EPD, was developed jointly by the National Radiological Protection Board and Siemens Plessey Controls Limited, both of the United Kingdom. Twenty pre-production units of the EPD and a reader were purchased by Ontario Hydro for the assessment. The tests were conducted jointly by Ontario Hydro`s Health and Safety Division and AECL Research`s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), with funding from the Candu Owner`s Group. A total of 26 tests were conducted, divided between Ontario Hydro and AECL. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards. In general, the performance of the EPD was found to be quite acceptable. It met most of the relevant requirements of the three standards and most of the design specifications. However, the following deficiencies were found: slow response time; sensitivity to high-frequency EMF; poor resistance to dropping; and an alarm that is not loud enough. In addition, the response of the EPD to low-energy beta rays may be too low for some applications. There were serious problems with the reliability of operation of the pre production EPDs used in these tests. 9 refs., 34 tabs., 20 figs.

  4. A psycholexical route to content coverage in personality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.; Hendriks, A.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The psycholexical approach to personality, which has resulted in a widely accepted framework of personality trait description, is used for the development of the construction of a personality questionnaire. The principles and theoretical notions leading to the Big Five trait model are discussed, and

  5. Development and Validation of a Personality Assessment Instrument for Traditional Korean Medicine: Sasang Personality Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Sasang typology is a traditional Korean medicine based on the biopsychosocial perspectives of Neo-Confucianism and utilizes medical herbs and acupuncture for type-specific treatment. This study was designed to develop and validate the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ for future use in the assessment of personality based on Sasang typology. Design and Methods. We selected questionnaire items using internal consistency analysis and examined construct validity with explorative factor analysis using 245 healthy participants. Test-retest reliability as well as convergent validity were examined. Results. The 14-item SPQ showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=.817 and test-retest reliability (=.837. Three extracted subscales, SPQ-behavior, SPQ-emotionality, and SPQ-cognition, were found, explaining 55.77% of the total variance. The SPQ significantly correlated with Temperament and Character Inventory novelty seeking (=.462, harm avoidance (=−.390, and NEO Personality Inventory extraversion (=.629. The SPQ score of the So-Eum (24.43±4.93, Tae-Eum (27.33±5.88, and So-Yang (30.90±5.23 types were significantly different from each other (<.01. Conclusion. Current results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SPQ and its subscales that can be utilized as an objective instrument for conducting personalized medicine research incorporating the biopsychosocial perspective.

  6. Teachers’ personal constructs on problem behaviour: towards professional development & Personal constructs on (problem) pupils: a teacher’s view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Everaert; J.T.E. van Beukering; J.M.F. Touw; P. Kos

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on revealing and developing personal constructs regarding problem behaviour in classrooms. Twenty-nine teachers (initial and in-service students) took part in the project. The main idea is that teachers’ opinions about their pupils and themselves influence the way they act in

  7. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Herché (Joel); M.J. Swenson (Michael); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling

  8. Validity of the Type D personality construct in Danish post-MI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with increased risk of depression, vital exhaustion, social alienation, a higher number of reinfarctions, and higher mortality rates in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of traditional biomedical risk factors. The construct ...

  9. The Investigation of Construct Validity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-5 Personality Traits on Iranian sample with Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza Khodaie; Lotfi, Mozhgan

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-5 (DSM-5) conceptual model of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PDs). More specifically, the aim was to determine whether the DSM-5 five-factor structure of pathological personality trait domains replicated in an independently collected sample that differs culturally from the derivation sample. This study was on a sample of 346 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline PD (n = 130), and nonclinical subjects (n = 94). Participants randomly selected from prisoners, out-patient, and in-patient clients. Participants were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II, DSM-5 Personality Trait Rating Form (Clinician's PTRF) were used to diagnosis of PD and to assessment of pathological traits. The data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution for DSM-5 personality traits. Results showed that DSM-5 has adequate construct validity in Iranian sample with antisocial and borderline PDs. Factors similar in number with the other studies, but different in the content. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five homogeneous components of antisocial and borderline PDs. That may represent personality, behavioral, and affective features central to the disorder. Furthermore, the present study helps understand the adequacy of DSM-5 dimensional approach to evaluation of personality pathology, specifically on Iranian sample.

  10. The investigation of construct validity of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-5 personality traits on iranian sample with antisocial and borderline personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-5 (DSM-5 conceptual model of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PDs. More specifically, the aim was to determine whether the DSM-5 five-factor structure of pathological personality trait domains replicated in an independently collected sample that differs culturally from the derivation sample. Methods: This study was on a sample of 346 individuals with antisocial (n = 122 and borderline PD (n = 130, and nonclinical subjects (n = 94. Participants randomly selected from prisoners, out-patient, and in-patient clients . Participants were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II, DSM-5 Personality Trait Rating Form (Clinician′s PTRF were used to diagnosis of PD and to assessment of pathological traits. The data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Results: Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution for DSM-5 personality traits. Results showed that DSM-5 has adequate construct validity in Iranian sample with antisocial and borderline PDs. Factors similar in number with the other studies, but different in the content. Conclusions: Exploratory factor analysis revealed five homogeneous components of antisocial and borderline PDs. That may represent personality, behavioral, and affective features central to the disorder. Furthermore, the present study helps understand the adequacy of DSM-5 dimensional approach to evaluation of personality pathology, specifically on Iranian sample.

  11. How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Bo; Lee, Christopher; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-08-01

    DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants. Associations were investigated in terms of factor loadings and regression coefficients in relation to five domains, followed by specific correlations among all constructs. The results indicated conceptually coherent associations, and 15 of 25 traits were strongly related to relevant schema therapy constructs. Conclusively, DSM-5 traits may be considered expressions of schema therapy constructs, which psychotherapists might take advantage of in terms of case formulation and targets of treatment. In turn, schema therapy constructs add theoretical understanding to DSM-5 traits.

  12. Teaching Strategies for Personality Assessment at the Undergraduate Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael J; Jacobson, Nicholas C; Roche, Carley A

    2017-01-01

    Personality assessment is a crucial component of clinical practice, and the training and proficiency criteria to develop competence are complex and multifaceted. Like many advanced topics, the field of personality assessment would benefit from early exposure in undergraduate classroom settings. This research evaluates how an undergraduate personality course can be enhanced through 2 enrichment activities (self-assessments and a personality project). Students completed several self-assessments of their personality and wrote a comprehensive and integrative personality assessment about themselves. Results demonstrated that these activities increased interest in personality assessment, deepened understanding of course material, and promoted student growth and self-exploration. We discuss the benefits of these enrichment activities for the student, instructor, and field of personality science.

  13. Disarming the Threat to Feminist Identification: An Application of Personal Construct Theory to Measurement and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Martin, Annelise; Brewster, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals endorse feminist values but do not identify as feminist. The present set of studies tests the concept of threat, grounded in G. A. Kelly's personal construct theory of personality, as a potential factor in feminist nonidentification. Study 1 introduces the theoretically grounded "Feminist Threat Index" and evaluates its…

  14. Personalized pseudophakic model for refractive assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena J Ribeiro

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test a pseudophakic eye model that allows for intraocular lens power (IOL calculation, both in normal eyes and in extreme conditions, such as post-LASIK. METHODS: PARTICIPANTS: The model's efficacy was tested in 54 participants (104 eyes who underwent LASIK and were assessed before and after surgery, thus allowing to test the same method in the same eye after only changing corneal topography. MODELLING: The Liou-Brennan eye model was used as a starting point, and biometric values were replaced by individual measurements. Detailed corneal surface data were obtained from topography (Orbscan® and a grid of elevation values was used to define corneal surfaces in an optical ray-tracing software (Zemax®. To determine IOL power, optimization criteria based on values of the modulation transfer function (MTF weighted according to contrast sensitivity function (CSF, were applied. RESULTS: Pre-operative refractive assessment calculated by our eye model correlated very strongly with SRK/T (r = 0.959, p0.05. Comparison of post-operative refractive assessment obtained using our eye model with the average of currently used formulas showed a strong correlation (r = 0.778, p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that personalized pseudophakic eye models and ray-tracing allow for the use of the same methodology, regardless of previous LASIK, independent of population averages and commonly used regression correction factors, which represents a clinical advantage.

  15. Personalized pseudophakic model for refractive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Filomena J; Castanheira-Dinis, António; Dias, João M

    2012-01-01

    To test a pseudophakic eye model that allows for intraocular lens power (IOL) calculation, both in normal eyes and in extreme conditions, such as post-LASIK. The model's efficacy was tested in 54 participants (104 eyes) who underwent LASIK and were assessed before and after surgery, thus allowing to test the same method in the same eye after only changing corneal topography. MODELLING: The Liou-Brennan eye model was used as a starting point, and biometric values were replaced by individual measurements. Detailed corneal surface data were obtained from topography (Orbscan®) and a grid of elevation values was used to define corneal surfaces in an optical ray-tracing software (Zemax®). To determine IOL power, optimization criteria based on values of the modulation transfer function (MTF) weighted according to contrast sensitivity function (CSF), were applied. Pre-operative refractive assessment calculated by our eye model correlated very strongly with SRK/T (r = 0.959, p0.05). Comparison of post-operative refractive assessment obtained using our eye model with the average of currently used formulas showed a strong correlation (r = 0.778, p0.05). Results suggest that personalized pseudophakic eye models and ray-tracing allow for the use of the same methodology, regardless of previous LASIK, independent of population averages and commonly used regression correction factors, which represents a clinical advantage.

  16. Thermoluminescence dosemeter for personal dose equivalent assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Campos, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility was investigated of utilising a Brazilian thermoluminescence individual dosemeter, usually calibrated in terms of photon dose equivalent, for the assessment of the personal dose equivalent, H p (d), at depths of 0.07 and 10 mm. The dosemeter uses four CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent detectors, between different filters, as the sensitive materials. It was calibrated in gamma and X radiation fields in the energy range from 17 to 1250 keV. Linear combinations of the responses of three detectors, in this energy range, allow the evaluation of H p (0.07) and H p (10), for radiation incidence angles varying from 0 to 60 degrees, with an accuracy better than 35%. The method is not applicable to mixed photon-beta fields. (author)

  17. The right place? Users and professionals' constructions of the place's influence on personal recovery in community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femdal, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    Current mental health policy emphasizes the importance of community-based service delivery for people with mental health problems to encompass personal recovery. The aim of this study is to explore how users and professionals construct the place's influence on personal recovery in community mental health services. This is a qualitative, interpretive study based on ten individual, semi-structured interviews with users and professionals, respectively. A discourse analysis inspired by the work of Foucault was used to analyze the interviews. The findings show how place can be constructed as a potential for and as a barrier against recovery. Constructions of the aim of the services matter when choosing a place for the services. Further, constructions of user-professional relationships and flexibility are important in the constructions of an appropriate place for the services. The aim of the service, the user-professional relationship, and flexibility in choosing place were essential in the participants' constructions. To find "the right place" for mental health services was constructed as context-sensitive and complex processes of assessment and co-determination. Trial registration The study is approved by the Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics, Norway (REK-Midt 2011/2057).

  18. Theoretical Models, Assessment Frameworks and Test Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the usefulness of proficiency models influencing second language testing. Findings indicate that several factors contribute to the lack of congruence between models and test construction and make a case for distinguishing between theoretical models. Underscores the significance of an empirical, contextualized and structured approach to the…

  19. Proposed changes in personality and personality disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 part I: description and rationale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Clark, L.A.; Bender, D.S.; Krueger, R.F.; Morey, L.C.; Verheul, R.; Alarcon, R.D.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.; Oldham, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A major reconceptualization of personality psychopathology has been proposed for DSM-5 that identifies core impairments in personality functioning, pathological personality traits, and prominent pathological personality types. A comprehensive personality assessment consists of four components:

  20. Personal Constructions of Biological Concepts – The Repertory Grid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. J. McCloughlin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses repertory grid analysis as a tool for investigating the structures of students’ representations of biological concepts. Repertory grid analysis provides the researcher with a variety of techniques that are not associated with standard methods of concept mapping for investigating conceptual structures. It can provide valuable insights into the learning process, and can be used as a diagnostic tool in identifying problems that students have in understanding biological concepts. The biological concepts examined in this work are ‘natural kinds’: a technical class of concepts which ‘appear’ to have invisible ‘essences’ meaning carrying more perceptual weight than being perceptually similar. Because children give more weight to natural-kind membership when reasoning about traits, it would seem pertinent to apply such knowledge to deep-level research into how children reason in biology. The concept of natural kinds has a particular resonance with biology since biological kinds hold the distinction of being almost all natural kinds, such as when the same ‘stuff or thing’ takes many different forms. We have conducted a range of studies using a diversity of biological natural kinds, but in this paper, we wish to explore some of the theoretical underpinnings in more detail. To afford this exploration, we outline one case-study in a small group of secondary school students exploring the concept of ‘equine’ – that is, what is an equine? Five positive examples were chosen to engaged with by the students and one ‘outlier’ with which to compare the construction process. Recommendations are offered in applying this approach to biological education research.

  1. Some problems for natural radiation impact assessment in road construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xutong; Chen Xiaoqiu; Li Yuanxin

    2002-01-01

    Some instances have occurred for that road constructions were likely to meet with some high grade uranium mine in some provinces with abundant uranium resource and developed economy. Some of the constructions have made assessment for the radiation risk. The author discusses the problems existent in the assessments

  2. The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism.

  3. Using Personality Traits to Construct Linear Growth Models of Mental Health in Family Members of Individuals With Severe Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Objective: No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members...... neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories...... the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. Results: All mental HRQo...

  4. LINKING PERSONAL COMPETENCIES WITH TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE EVIDENCE FROM THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedsuda Limsila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the linkage between personal competencies and leadership behaviours as well as their influences on leadership outcomes and subordinates’ work performance. Personal competencies were measured using the Project Manager Competency Development (PMCD tool. Leadership behaviours and outcomes were measured using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ. Data was collected from construction projects in Thailand. Findings revealed that leadership outcomes have significant positive relationship with all personal competencies specified in the PMCD framework, every factor in the transformational style and contingent reward factor in the transactional style. Transformational leaders tend to produce high work quality, work quantity, and problem solving creativity from subordinates. Findings further verified that all PMCD personal competencies have significant positive relationship with every factor in the transformational style. It implies that project managers who apply the transformational style and/or have high personal competencies indicated in PMCD framework are likely to generate greater leadership outcomes and work performance on construction projects.

  5. Personality, Motivation, and College Readiness: A Prospectus for Assessment and Development. Research Report. ETS RR-14-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns how noncognitive constructs--personality and motivation--can be assessed and developed to increase students' readiness for college. We propose a general framework to account for personality and motivational differences between students. We review numerous studies showing that personality and motivational factors are related…

  6. Critical developments in the assessment of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Peter; Coombs, Natalie; Ibrahimi, Fatema; Mathilakath, Anand; Bajaj, Priya; Ranger, Maja; Rao, Bharti; Din, Raana

    2007-05-01

    The assessment of personality disorder is currently inaccurate, largely unreliable, frequently wrong and in need of improvement. To describe the errors inherent in the current systems and to indicate recent ways of improving personality assessment. Historical review, description of recent developments, including temporal stability, and of studies using document-derived assessment. Studies of interrater agreement and accuracy of diagnosis in complex patients with independently established personality status using document-derived assessment (PAS-DOC) with a four personality cluster classification, showed very good agreement between raters for the flamboyant cluster B group of personalities, generally good agreement for the anxious/dependent cluster C group and inhibited (obsessional) cluster D group, but only fair agreement for the withdrawn cluster A group. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 71%. Personality function or diathesis, a fluctuating state, is a better description than personality disorder. The best form of assessment is one that uses longitudinal repeated measures using a four-dimensional system.

  7. Relation between constructs of BisBas questionnaire and some personality constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Sedlar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine relation between constructs relevant for Gray's neuropsychological model of motivation. According to Gray's theory, two general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS and a behavioral activation system (BAS. BIS is sensitive to aversive stimuli, causes avoidance behaviors and is responsible for individual differences in anxiety. BAS is responsive to appetitive stimuli, triggers approach behavior and has been associated with individual differences in impulsivness. BIS activity has been related to the experience of negative emotions, whereas BAS activity has been associated with the experience of positive emotions. A total of 122 Slovenian students, aged 17–19 years, completed the BIS/BAS scale, the Impulsiveness-Venturesome-Empathy Scale IVE, State Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI-X2, The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS, and The Big Five Questionairre BFQ. Our results are consistent with those from recent empirical studies and provide support for Gray's theory. Measures of BIS were found to be positively related to trait anxiety and neuroticism, whereas measures of BAS were found to be positively related to impulsiveness and extraversion. Emotional component measured with PANAS did not distinguish BIS from BAS constructs. Both were found to be related to negative affect. With respect to construct validity these findings suggest that BIS/BAS scale is reasonably effective.

  8. Assessing competition avoidance as a basic personality dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Richard M; Thornton, Bill; Gold, Joel A

    2009-03-01

    The lack of an adequate psychometric instrument has impeded personality theory testing in the area of competition avoidance. The authors conducted 6 studies in an attempt to remedy this deficiency by constructing an individual-difference measure of competition avoidance. In line with K. Horney's (1937) interpersonal theory of neurosis, participants who were higher in competition avoidance showed higher levels of neuroticism, greater fears of both success and failure, a lower desire to prove themselves in competitive situations, higher levels of self-handicapping, and more maladaptiveness than those participants who were lower in competition avoidance. Also, they were more modest and willing to conform to group standards than were those lower in competition avoidance. The authors discuss the measure's potential usefulness as a diagnostic and assessment tool in academic, athletic, and clinical settings.

  9. Is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, histrionic personality disorder category a valid construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkevig, Jonas F; Karterud, Sigmund

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated crucial aspects of the construct validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) histrionic personality disorder (HPD) category. The study included 2289 patients from the Norwegian Network of Psychotherapeutic Day Hospitals. Construct validity was assessed by means of prevalence, comorbidity with other personality disorders, internal consistency among HPD criteria, severity indices, as well as factor analyses. The prevalence of HPD was very low (0.4 %). The comorbidity was high, especially with borderline, narcissistic, and dependent personality disorders. The internal consistency was low. The criteria seemed to form 2 separate clusters: the first contained exhibitionistic and attention-seeking traits and the other contained impressionistic traits. The results indicated poor construct validity of the HPD category. Different options for the future of the category are discussed. The authors suggest the HPD category to be deleted from the DSM system. However, the clinical phenomena of exhibitionism and attention-seeking, which are the dominant personality features of HPD, should be preserved in an exhibitionistic subtype of narcissism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of chemicals in construction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Hanne; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    . The reasons for that are lacks of product-specific emissions by manufacturing of chemical products, e.g. waterproofing systems and sealants. Besides, most LCA-models do not include assessments of emissions in working environment, in indoor environment or from disposal processes. It was therefore...

  11. Use of Personal Protective Equipment among Building Construction Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Izudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 270 million workplace accidents occur annually. In Uganda, Kampala district has the highest workplace injury and fatality rates. However, information on personal protective equipment (PPE—hand gloves, hardhats, overalls, safety boots, earplugs, safety harness with lanyard, and face shields—utilization among building construction workers remains scarce. We assessed PPE utilization and determinants among building construction workers in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. This cross-sectional study involved 385 respondents. Data collected by structured questionnaire was double-entered in EpiData and analyzed in STATA at 5% significance level. Independent determinants of PPE use were established by a stepwise backward logistic regression analysis. Results. 305 (79.2% respondents were males, 290 (75.3% were 18–30 years, 285 (74.0% completed secondary education, and 197 (51.2% were temporary employees. 60 (15.6% respondents used PPE. Female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 6.64; 95% CI: 1.55–28.46; P=0.011, temporary (AOR = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27; P<0.001 and casual (AOR = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.001–0.071; P<0.001 employment, and previous knowledge of safety measures (AOR = 100.72; 95% CI: 26.00–390.16; P<0.001 were associated with PPE use. Conclusion. PPE use was low in Kampala, Uganda. Building construction companies should implement measures of the Uganda Occupational Health and Safety Act.

  12. Borderline or Schizotypal? Differential Psychodynamic Assessment in Severe Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Riel, Laura; Ingenhoven, Theo J M; VAN Dam, Quin D; Polak, Marike G; Vollema, Meinte G; Willems, Anne E; Berghuis, Han; VAN Megen, Harold

    2017-03-01

    Considerable overlap in symptoms between patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) complicates personality diagnostics. Yet very little is known about the level of psychodynamic functioning of both personality disorders. Psychodynamic assessment procedures may specify personality characteristics relevant for differential diagnosis and treatment planning. In this cross-sectional study we explored the differences and similarities in level of personality functioning and psychodynamic features of patients with severe BPD or STPD. In total, 25 patients with BPD and 13 patients with STPD were compared regarding their level of personality functioning (General Assessment of Personality Disorder), current quasipsychotic features (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire), and psychodynamic functioning [Developmental Profile (DP) interview and Developmental Profile Inventory (DPI) questionnaire]. Both groups of patients showed equally severe impairments in the level of personality functioning and the presence of current quasipsychotic features. As assessed by the DP interview, significant differential psychodynamic patterns were found on the primitive levels of functioning. Moreover, subjects with BPD had significantly higher scores on the adaptive developmental levels. However, the self-questionnaire DPI was not able to elucidate all of these differences. In conclusion, our study found significant differences in psychodynamic functioning between patients with BPD and STPD as assessed with the DP interview. In complicated diagnostic cases, personality assessment by psychodynamic interviewing can enhance subtle but essential differentiation between BPD and STPD.

  13. An integral approach to town planning: lessons from personal construct theory, part 1

    OpenAIRE

    A Jackson

    1986-01-01

    Personal construct theory is introduced as an all-embracing philosophy which provides a consistent framework for integrating different notions about the planning process. The implication is that 'man-the-planner' does not necessarily have constructs which are better, more accurate, or more predictive than his subject, 'man-the-planned'. Policies can be seen as theories, in which case they should be clearly expressed as such. The theory and its methodology have been used in an empirical invest...

  14. Assessing the construct validity of aberrant salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT. The “aberrant salience” measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance, attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a learned irrelevance task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for ~75% percent of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated “Introvertive Anhedonia” schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. Learned irrelevance loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of learned irrelevance and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.

  15. Assessment of supply chain management in Nigerian construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on assessment of supply Chain Management (SCM) in Effective Project ... in Imo state focused on identifying the challenges of construction supply chain ... and diverse objective were ranked highest whereas unfair risk allocation and poor ... The study recommends that construction stakeholders should embrace ...

  16. A Framework for Assessing Reading Comprehension of Geometric Construction Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Lin; Li, Jian-Lin

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates one issue related to reading mathematical texts by presenting a two-dimensional framework for assessing reading comprehension of geometric construction texts. The two dimensions of the framework were formulated by modifying categories of reading literacy and drawing on key elements of geometric construction texts. Three…

  17. How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Lee, Christopher; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants. Associations were investigated in terms of factor......DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema...

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.75 - Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? 102-80.75 Section 102-80.75 Public... Management Assessment of Environmental Issues § 102-80.75 Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? Federal agencies must assess required environmental issues...

  19. Personalized Assessment as a Means to Mitigate Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Sathiamoorthy

    2017-01-01

    Although every educational institution has a code of academic honesty, they still encounter incidents of plagiarism. These are difficult and time-consuming to detect and deal with. This paper explores the use of personalized assessments with the goal of reducing incidents of plagiarism, proposing a personalized assessment software framework…

  20. Extending the search for folk personality constructs: the dimensionality of the personality-relevant proverb domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Heather A

    2002-04-01

    College students (95 men and 264 women) rated how well 211 familiar proverbs described their behavior and beliefs. A factor analysis of these data yielded 7 major dimensions; many of the factors were similar to recognized lexical personality factors. Big Five Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were each strongly associated with a single proverb dimension (interpreted as Restraint and Enjoys Life, respectively). Big Five Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Intellect/Imagination were all associated with several proverb dimensions. Agreeableness was most strongly associated with proverb dimensions representing Machiavellian behavior and strong Group Ties, and both Extraversion and Intellect showed particularly notable associations with an Achievement Striving dimension. The 2 remaining proverb dimensions, which represented a belief that Life is Fair and an attitude of Cynicism, could not be accounted for by the Big Five.

  1. Integrating the Differentiated: A Review of the Personal Construct Approach to Cognitive Complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marie; Filip, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2015), s. 342-366 ISSN 1072-0537 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2432 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : cognitive complexity * psychology of personal constructs * repertory grid technique Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2015

  2. Integrating the Differentiated: A Review of the Personal Construct Approach to Cognitive Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Kovářová, M. (Marie); Filip, M. (Miroslav)

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews personal construct psychology (PCP) research on cognitive complexity. It examines conceptual foundations, measures of cognitive complexity, and a large body of empirical findings. It identifies several ambiguities in the conceptualization of the two components of cognitive complexity: differentiation and integration. These ambiguities lead to inconsistent interpretations of indexes proposed for their measurement and consequently to an inconsistent interpretation of em...

  3. Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Two-Factor Model with Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J.; Edens, John F.; Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Benning, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the research on psychopathy has treated it as a unitary construct operationalized by total scores on one (or more) measures. More recent studies on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) suggest the existence of two distinct facets of psychopathy with unique external correlates. Here, the authors report reanalyses of two offender…

  4. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    OpenAIRE

    Herché, Joel; Swenson, Michael; Verbeke, Willem

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).

  5. Threat and Guilt Aspects of Internalized Antilesbian and Gay Prejudice: An Application of Personal Construct Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Epting, Franz R.

    2009-01-01

    Building on G. A. Kelly's (1991a, 1991b) personal construct theory, this study introduced concepts of threat and guilt as different manifestations of internalized antilesbian and gay prejudice. Results with 102 lesbian and gay participants indicated that internalized threat and guilt each accounted for unique variance in global internalized…

  6. [Effects of construct accessibility and self-schema on person memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, H

    1991-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship among construct accessibility, self-schema and person memory. Three hundred and thirty-four subjects received 40 behavioral descriptions of a stimulus person, consisting of eight specific behaviors on each of five trait-dimensions. Subjects also rated personality traits of their acquaintances and themselves on nine-point bipolar scales and ranked the importance of the five trait-dimensions. Weights, which subjects assigned to each of the five dimensions, were calculated as indices of construct accessibility. Self-schema scores of each subject were also calculated based on his/her ratings. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the dimensional weights and self-schema scores were positively correlated with the recall performance of the descriptions of the stimulus person. The schematics recalled significantly more descriptions than the aschematics, whether their self-schema was positive or negative. Subjects who had positive self-schema showed higher construct accessibility than the aschematics. It was argued that the relationship between construct accessibility and self-schema might be affected by motivational factors such as self-esteem.

  7. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed...... of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most...... of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing...

  8. Poor Validity of the DSM-IV Schizoid Personality Disorder Construct as a Diagnostic Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Wilberg, Theresa; Karterud, Sigmund

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the construct validity of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) by investigating a sample of 2,619 patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs by a variety of statistical techniques. Nineteen patients (0.7%) reached the diagnostic threshold of SZPD. Results from the factor analyses indicated that SZPD consists of three factors: social detachment, withdrawal, and restricted affectivity/ anhedonia. Overall, internal consistency and diagnostic efficiency were poor and best for the criteria that belong to the social detachment factor. These findings pose serious questions about the clinical utility of SZPD as a diagnostic category. On the other hand, the three factors were in concordance with findings from previous studies and with the trait model for personality disorders in DSM-5, supporting the validity of SZPD as a dimensional construct. The authors recommend that SZPD should be deleted as a diagnostic category in future editions of DSM-5.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Personal Exposure Assessment Using a Computer Simulated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Jensen, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a computer simulated person. CFD is used to simulate a uniform flow field around a human being to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source. For various vertical locations of a point contaminant source...... three additional factors are varied, namely the velocity, details of the computer simulated person, and the CFD model of the wind channel. The personal exposure is found to be highly dependent on the relative source location. Variation in the range of two orders of magnitude is found. The exposure...

  10. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As there has recently been a need for researchers to consider shorter personality measures, we compared the construct validity of a longer and a shorter personality measure in the South African context. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  11. Examining the Construct Validity of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Lynam, Donald R.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Lynam and colleagues recently developed a new self-report inventory for the assessment of psychopathy, the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA). Using a sample of undergraduates (N = 227), the authors examined the construct validity of the EPA by examining its correlations with self and stranger ratings on the Five-Factor Model, as well as…

  12. Differentiating normal and disordered personality using the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Annett G; John Livesley, W

    2013-05-01

    Criteria to differentiate personality disorder from extremes of normal personality variations are important given growing interest in dimensional classification because an extreme level of a personality dimension does not necessarily indicate disorder. The DSM-5 proposed classification of personality disorder offers a definition of general personality disorder based on chronic interpersonal and self/identity pathology. The ability of this approach to differentiate personality disorder from other mental disorders was evaluated using a self-report questionnaire, the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD). This measure was administered to a sample of psychiatric patients (N = 149) from different clinical sub-sites. Patients were divided into personality disordered and non-personality disordered groups on the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II). The results showed a hit rate of 82% correct identified patients and a good accuracy of the predicted model. There was a substantial agreement between SCID-II interview and GAPD personality disorder diagnoses. The GAPD appears to predict personality disorder in general, which provides support of the DSM-5 general diagnostic criteria of personality disorder. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  14. The Heritability of Cluster B Personality Disorders Assessed both by Personal Interview and Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for ...

  15. Personality Assessment for Employee Development: Ivory Tower or Real World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Penny; Hackston, John

    2018-06-22

    The acceptance and popularity of personality assessments in organizational contexts has grown enormously over the last 40 years. Although these are used across many applications, such as executive coaching, team building, and hiring and promotion decisions, the focus of most published research on the use of personality assessments at work is biased toward assessment for employee selection. Reviews have therefore tended to use criteria that are appropriate for selection, neglecting the additional and different criteria that are important in relation to employee development. An illustration of the often-discussed scientist-practitioner divide is that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is the most widely known and used personality assessment in organizations, despite harsh criticism by the academic community. This article reviews this debate, and draws implications for the appropriate choice of personality assessments for use in individual and team development, and a new direction for scientific research.

  16. Contributions from personality- and psychodynamically oriented assessment to the development of the DSM-5 personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K

    2011-07-01

    Advances in personality assessment over the past 20 years have notably influenced the proposed assessment and classification of personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]). However, a considerable body of personality assessment and psychodynamically oriented assessment research has significant relevance to the way in which personality disorders are evaluated that appears to have gone unrecognized in the current proposals for DSM-5. In this article, I discuss the ways in which some of these 2 bodies of literature can and should inform the DSM-5 so that the diagnostic nomenclature can be more scientifically and comprehensively informed and consequently improve the clinical utility of a diagnostic system in need of considerable revision.

  17. Development and Validation of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire: Test Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others

    Data are presented evaluating the validity and reliability of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ), a self-report questionnaire designed to elicit respondents' perceptions of themselves with respect to seven personality and behavioral dispositions: hostility and aggression, dependence, self-esteem, self-adequacy, emotional…

  18. Personality and recovery: integrating personality assessment data to facilitate the recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, D C

    2001-01-01

    The relatively enduring and persistent nature of personality traits means that they will likely continue to impact the course of psychiatric recovery after Axis I symptoms are stabilized. These traits can significantly impact the choices that recovering persons make and the quality of interpersonal relationships with care providers who are trying to facilitate the recovery process. Despite this, they are often inadequately assessed and considered in providing psychiatric care. This manuscript reviews the common combinations of personality traits that have emerged across a variety of clinical samples. The implications of these personality features for the provision of care in an inpatient setting to facilitate recovery are discussed.

  19. Assessing problem-solving skills in construction education with the virtual construction simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Fadi

    The ability to solve complex problems is an essential skill that a construction and project manager must possess when entering the architectural, engineering, and construction industry. Such ability requires a mixture of problem-solving skills, ranging from lower to higher order thinking skills, composed of cognitive and metacognitive processes. These skills include the ability to develop and evaluate construction plans and manage the execution of such plans. However, in a typical construction program, introducing students to such complex problems can be a challenge, and most commonly the learner is presented with only part of a complex problem. To support this challenge, the traditional methodology of delivering design, engineering, and construction instruction has been going through a technological revolution, due to the rise of computer-based technology. For example, in construction classrooms, and other disciplines, simulations and educational games are being utilized to support the development of problem-solving skills. Previous engineering education research has illustrated the high potential that simulations and educational games have in engaging in lower and higher order thinking skills. Such research illustrated their capacity to support the development of problem-solving skills. This research presents evidence supporting the theory that educational simulation games can help with the learning and retention of transferable problem-solving skills, which are necessary to solve complex construction problems. The educational simulation game employed in this study is the Virtual Construction Simulator (VCS). The VCS is a game developed to provide students in an engaging learning activity that simulates the planning and managing phases of a construction project. Assessment of the third iteration of the VCS(3) game has shown pedagogical value in promoting students' motivation and a basic understanding of construction concepts. To further evaluate the benefits on

  20. Assessing Ontario's Personal Support Worker Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Laporte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing role of personal support workers (PSWs in the delivery of health care services to Ontarians, the Ontario government has moved forward with the creation of a PSW registry. This registry will be mandatory for all PSWs employed by publicly funded health care employers, and has the stated objectives of better highlighting the work that PSWs do in Ontario, providing a platform for PSWs and employers to more easily access the labour market, and to provide government with information for human resources planning. In this paper we consider the factors that brought the creation of a PSW registry onto the Ontario government’s policy agenda, discuss how the registry is being implemented, and provide an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of this policy change.

  1. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li, Jinhui

    2009-02-15

    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps--i.e. the end of life phase--lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study.

  2. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li Jinhui

    2009-01-01

    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps - i.e. the end of life phase - lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study

  3. Cultural Aspects in Symptomatology, Assessment, and Treatment of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa F; Keng, Shian-Ling; Ridolfi, Maria Elena; Arbabi, Mohammad; Grenyer, Brin F S

    2018-03-26

    This review discusses cultural trends, challenges, and approaches to assessment and treatment of personality traits and disorders. Specific focus include current developments in the Asian, Italian, Iranian, and Australian societies, as well as the process of acculturation, following moves between cultures with the impact on healthy and disordered personality function. Each culture with its specific history, dimensions, values, and practices influences and gears the individual and family or group in unique ways that affect personality functioning. Similarly, each culture provides means of protection and assimilation as well as norms for acceptance and denunciations of specific behaviors and personality traits. The diagnosis of personality disorders and their treatment need to take into consideration the individual in the context of the culture and society in which they live. Core personality problems, especially emotion dysregulation and interpersonal functioning are specifically influenced by cultural norms and context.

  4. Personality assessment and feedback (PAF): strategies and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats; Pedersen, Mads Kjær

    2008-01-01

    Background: Co-morbid personality disorders are common in substance dependent patients, and personality disorders are associated with worse clinical outcomes, worse retention and compliance, and alliance problems. The whole range of personality disorders is present in substance dependent patients......, and antisocial personality disorder is particularly common. However, clinical strategies must vary strongly across disorders. Objectives: To test the clinical effectiveness of a full personality disorder assessment and individual feedback to patient and caseworker, against screening for axis I disorders alone...... anxiety or depression, drug and alcohol dependence, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and current level of functioning. The axis II disorder includes a semi-structured interview for personality disorders. Outcomes include global functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), substance use...

  5. Assessment and Evaluation of Volcanic Rocks Used as Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment and Evaluation of Volcanic Rocks Used as Construction Materials in the City of Addis Ababa. ... So, field observation and sample collection for laboratory investigations were conducted on six selected target areas of the city periphery. In doing so, the compressive strength, open porosity, water absorption and ...

  6. Model-Based Approaches for Teaching and Practicing Personality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Mark A; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Psychological assessment is a complex professional skill. Competence in assessment requires an extensive knowledge of personality, neuropsychology, social behavior, and psychopathology, a background in psychometrics, familiarity with a range of multimethod tools, cognitive flexibility, skepticism, and interpersonal sensitivity. This complexity makes assessment a challenge to teach and learn, particularly as the investment of resources and time in assessment has waned in psychological training programs over the last few decades. In this article, we describe 3 conceptual models that can assist teaching and learning psychological assessments. The transtheoretical model of personality provides a personality systems-based framework for understanding how multimethod assessment data relate to major personality systems and can be combined to describe and explain complex human behavior. The quantitative psychopathology-personality trait model is an empirical model based on the hierarchical organization of individual differences. Application of this model can help students understand diagnostic comorbidity and symptom heterogeneity, focus on more meaningful high-order domains, and identify the most effective assessment tools for addressing a given question. The interpersonal situation model is rooted in interpersonal theory and can help students connect test data to here-and-now interactions with patients. We conclude by demonstrating the utility of these models using a case example.

  7. The heritability of cluster A personality disorders assessed by both personal interview and questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2007-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by questionnaires and personal interviews are heritable. However, we know neither how much unreliability of measurement impacts on heritability estimates nor whether the genetic and environmental risk factors assessed by these two methods are the same. We wish to know whether the same set of PD vulnerability factors are assessed by these two methods. A total of 3334 young adult twin pairs from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel (NIPHTP) completed a questionnaire containing 91 PD items. One to 6 years later, 1386 of these pairs were interviewed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Self-report items predicting interview results were selected by regression. Measurement models were fitted using Mx. In the best-fit models, the latent liabilities to paranoid personality disorder (PPD), schizoid personality disorder (SPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) were all highly heritable with no evidence of shared environmental effects. For PPD and STPD, only unique environmental effects were specific to the interview measure whereas both environmental and genetic effects were found to be specific to the questionnaire assessment. For SPD, the best-fit model contained genetic and environmental effects specific to both forms of assessment. The latent liabilities to the cluster A PDs are highly heritable but are assessed by current methods with only moderate reliability. The personal interviews assessed the genetic risk for the latent trait with excellent specificity for PPD and STPD and good specificity for SPD. However, for all three PDs, the questionnaires were less specific, also indexing an independent set of genetic risk factors.

  8. Thermoluminescent dosimetry and assessment of personal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Martin, L.J.; Young, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thermoluminescence is discussed in terms of the energy band structure of a crystalline solid and the trapping of charge carriers by point defects. Some general properties of thermoluminescent materials used for dosimetry are outlined, with thermoluminescence of CaSO 4 :Dy being described in detail. The energy response function and the modification of the energy response of a dosimeter by shielding are discussed. The final section covers the connection between exposure, as recorded by a TLD badge, and the absorbed dose to various organs from gamma radiation in a uranium mine; the conversion from absorbed dose to dose equivalent; and uncertainties in assessment of dose equivalent

  9. Modeling Of Construction Noise For Environmental Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Hamoda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the noise levels generated at different construction sites in reference to the stage of construction and the equipment used, and examined the methods to predict such noise in order to assess the environmental impact of noise. It included 33 construction sites in Kuwait and used artificial neural networks (ANNs for the prediction of noise. A back-propagation neural network (BPNN model was compared with a general regression neural network (GRNN model. The results obtained indicated that the mean equivalent noise level was 78.7 dBA which exceeds the threshold limit. The GRNN model was superior to the BPNN model in its accuracy of predicting construction noise due to its ability to train quickly on sparse data sets. Over 93% of the predictions were within 5% of the observed values. The mean absolute error between the predicted and observed data was only 2 dBA. The ANN modeling proved to be a useful technique for noise predictions required in the assessment of environmental impact of construction activities.

  10. Factor Structure and Validation of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Questionnaire (DAPQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Krupić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decade was extremely dynamic in the field of personality disorder. The extensive research has resulted with significant changes in conceptualization and assessment of personality psychopathology. DSM 5 has introduced a hybrid diagnostic model of personality disorders, which leads toward implementing dimensional instead of categorical approach to personality disorders. There are many questionnaires aimed to measure dimensions of personality psychopathology. However, they contain a large number of items, which may present a methodological problem in conducting research on large samples. Hence, the aim of this study is to present development of a short questionnaire aimed to measure main dimensions of personality psychopathology. The questionnaire, named Dimensional Assessment of Personality Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ, contains 62 items distributed into 5 main scales; Negative Emotionality, Detachment, Compulsivity, Psychoticism and Antagonism, and two additional scales Grandiosity and Attention Seeking. Study was conducted on the sample of 456 high school students from Osijek and Koprivnica. The DAPTQ, YPI, LEXI - 70 and Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being were administered. Results indicate good psychometric properties, namely content, construct and convergent validity and reliability, of all scales of the DAPTQ. This paper discusses some measurement issues concerning personality psychopathology in adolescents' population and the ways in which they could be overcome.

  11. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  12. Risk analysis within environmental impact assessment of proposed construction activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka

    2017-01-15

    Environmental impact assessment is an important process, prior to approval of the investment plan, providing a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of selected constructions – flood protection structures using risk analysis methods. The application of methodology designed for the process of environmental impact assessment will develop assumptions for further improvements or more effective implementation and performance of this process. The main objective of the paper is to improve the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process. Through the use of risk analysis methods in environmental impact assessment process, the set objective has been achieved. - Highlights: This paper is informed by an effort to develop research with the aim of: • Improving existing qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the impacts • A better understanding of relations between probabilities and consequences • Methodology for the EIA of flood protection constructions based on risk analysis • Creative approaches in the search for environmentally friendly proposed activities.

  13. Risk analysis within environmental impact assessment of proposed construction activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment is an important process, prior to approval of the investment plan, providing a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of selected constructions – flood protection structures using risk analysis methods. The application of methodology designed for the process of environmental impact assessment will develop assumptions for further improvements or more effective implementation and performance of this process. The main objective of the paper is to improve the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process. Through the use of risk analysis methods in environmental impact assessment process, the set objective has been achieved. - Highlights: This paper is informed by an effort to develop research with the aim of: • Improving existing qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the impacts • A better understanding of relations between probabilities and consequences • Methodology for the EIA of flood protection constructions based on risk analysis • Creative approaches in the search for environmentally friendly proposed activities.

  14. Validity aspects of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, narcissistic personality disorder construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karterud, Sigmund; Øien, Maria; Pedersen, Geir

    2011-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition, narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) construct has been criticized for being too narrowly defined, for example, by focusing on overt grandiosity at the expense of exhibitionism and narcissistic vulnerability and thus covering only parts of the domain of narcissism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate several validity aspects of the NPD construct. The material consisted of data from 2277 patients (80% of whom had a personality disorder [PD]) who were admitted to units connected to The Norwegian Network of Psychotherapeutic Day Hospitals. The Axis II diagnoses were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Fourth Edition, Axis II Personality Disorders. The frequency of NPD was very low (0.8%). Male patients were overrepresented both on a diagnostic level and on criteria levels. The NPD category was positively associated with other cluster B disorders and negatively associated with avoidant PD. The criteria "demands excessive admiration" and "fantasies of unlimited success" correlated almost as highly with the histrionic PD category and loaded primarily on a histrionic factor. The dominant NPD factor also included the antisocial criterion of "showing no regret having injured others." The major part of the patients' personality pathology could be attributed to other PD criteria. The results challenge the notion of NPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Rather, narcissism should be conceived as personality dimensions pertinent to the whole range of PDs. The results support the views put forward by Russ et al (Refining the construct of narcissistic personality disorder: diagnostic criteria and subtypes. Am J Psychiatry 2008;11:1473-1481) that what clinicians conceive as narcissism consists of several subtypes (dimensions). Our data support the existence of a grandiose/malignant type and an exhibitionistic type. Unfortunately, there was no measure of hypersensitivity. The

  15. A phantom for assessing the personal dose equivalent, HP(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, C.; Filho, J.A

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of a phantom designed to evaluate the personal dose equivalent, H P (10), and appropriate for photographic dosimetry are presented. It is called HP(10) phantom due to cavities constructed to insert dosimetric films at a depth of 10 mm. The H P (10) phantom is irradiated with ionizing radiation energy, E, from 45 to 1250 keV, with doses ranging from 0.2 to 50 mSv. It is positioned in the direction α = 0 °, and the radiation field focusing perpendicular to its front surface. So, are established calibration curves of dosimeters in the position conventionally true and quantities H P (10). It made a comparison between the responses obtained with the H P (10) phantom and responses obtained when using the calibration procedure recommended by ISO dosimeters. The ISO recommends getting the air kerma, Ka, for photons at test point of the radiation field by an ionization chamber. And through conversion coefficients, h pK (10; E, α), becomes the air kerma for H P (10). The ISO 4037-3 recommendation has been studied by researchers to ensure that the low energy spectral differences occur in radiation fields which are generated by various X-ray equipment, and induce changes in the percentages of conversion coefficients on the order of 10% to 90% . On the basis of the recommendations ISO, this article develops phantom able to assess the dose to the influence of scattering and absorption of radiation, its implications with respect to dosimetry, providing improvement in the assessment of doses. (author)

  16. Competitiveness of personality as a psychological phenomenon: The content of the construct and its typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klyueva, Olga A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activity (professional and production-related occurs within the context of explicit or implicit competition and proves to be more or less productive and creative. Operationalization and measurement of the competitiveness of personality without due regard for personal and situational interactions reduces the content of the notion. Competitiveness requires a high degree of personal energy, flexibility, intelligence, and creativity in regulating activity. However, enlarging the domain of psychological studies has necessitated the study of personality in the context of the natural social situations in which it functions. This structural and functional analysis allows expansion of the description of the phenomenology of the competitiveness of personality as well as classification of the strategies of competitive behavior. In this study competitive-behavior strategies (1,064 critical incidents in professional activities were analyzed using the Critical Incident Technique and thematic content analysis. To classify the data set, I used two-step cluster analysis as an exploratory method and analyzed the cross-tables of several categorical variables using the log-linear method of model selection. I applied the Solution Tree method for categorical variables to build a dependent-variable hierarchical model with the relevant predictor values. Through analysis of the results of the cluster analysis, the hierarchical model, and the functional and situational analysis of the context, it is possible to single out and validate three types of competitiveness strategies: the dependent, irrational, destructive, short-term strategy (quasi-competitiveness; the dependent, rational, constructive, short-term strategy; and the free, rational, constructive, long-term strategy. Study of the nature of competition and a subject’s competitive-behavior strategies is required to analyze, predict, and correct destructive strategies for enhancing performance.

  17. Using personality traits to construct linear growth models of mental health in family members of individuals with severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline; Norup, Anne

    2016-11-01

    No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members of individuals with severe brain injury could predict the trajectories of their own mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, and depression beginning in a neurointensive care unit through 1 year after injury. Danish family members of individuals with severe brain injury (n = 52) completed the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. All mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression variables improved significantly over time. Caregivers who were less neurotic and less conscientious had higher vitality, social functioning, and mental health over time, whereas caregivers who were more agreeable had higher social functioning over time. Caregivers with lower neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories of anxiety and depression. These results suggest that personality assessments for caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury could help identify those most at risk for poor mental health over the course of rehabilitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Domains and facets: hierarchical personality assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P T; McCrae, R R

    1995-02-01

    Personality traits are organized hierarchically, with narrow, specific traits combining to define broad, global factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992c) assesses personality at both levels, with six specific facet scales in each of five broad domains. This article describes conceptual issues in specifying facets of a domain and reports evidence on the validity of NEO-PI-R facet scales. Facet analysis-the interpretation of a scale in terms of the specific facets with which it correlates-is illustrated using alternative measures of the five-factor model and occupational scales. Finally, the hierarchical interpretation of personality profiles is discussed. Interpretation on the domain level yields a rapid understanding of the individual interpretation of specific facet scales gives a more detailed assessment.

  19. Construction and characteristics of questionnaire for the assessment of defense mechanisms: MOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamonja-Ignjatović Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense mechanisms are psychological constructs of key importance for the assessment of personality and planning therapeutic process. Their assessment is mainly based on interview, observation and projective techniques. Questionnaires, as the self-assessment techniques, apparently are not suitable method for unconscious processes such as defense mechanisms. The paper presents the results of construction of the questionnaire for the assessment of defense mechanisms, abbreviated called MOD (Mechanisms of Defense, which represents an attempt to clarify conceptualization and operationalization of these constructs through a variety of behavioral and emotional manifestations, personal attitudes and beliefs, patterns of interpersonal relationships and feedback from environment. Research objectives included testing of metric characteristics and the factor structure of the questionnaire, as well as its validity for differentiating subjects from clinical and non-clinical populations. The questionnaire has 110 items assessed at the 5-point Likert scale for evaluation of 20 defense mechanisms. The sample consisted of 194 subjects of both sexes, of which 136 students of psychology and social work and 58 nonpsychotic patients from clinical populations. The results showed that the reliability of the scale varies from high to unsatisfactory (Cronbach alpha .82- .35, although for most subscales is around .65-.70. The most of defense mechanisms has one factor structure, whereas from about a third of the subscales two principal components were isolated. Analysis of the structure of mature defense mechanisms clearly derived out four factors corresponding to the presumed mechanisms of defense, while for the groups of neurotic and immature mechanisms were not obtained pure solutions. The questionnaire successfully differentiate clinical from non-clinical sample, based on higher scores on mature and lower scores on immature mechanisms, while the groups did not differ

  20. Assessing personality risks using the Surps for alcohol and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing personality risks using the Surps for alcohol and other drug problems in Cape Town, South Africa. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... In this crosssectional study, the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) was applied to measure these traits and assess the questionnaire's reliability from a ...

  1. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the "Short Five" personality inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenn Konstabel

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5 by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China, and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours, there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the

  2. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the “Short Five” personality inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item “Short Five” (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version

  3. Using personal construct methodology to explore relationships with adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mark; Burns, Jan; Kilbey, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Research shows that adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience difficulties developing friendships, and that loneliness is a significant factor contributing to higher incidence of anxiety and depression within this population. This study aimed to provide an in-depth analysis of relationships as described by adolescents with ASD, and, from these descriptions, to explore what can be inferred about the development of successful interpersonal relationships for these individuals. Eight adolescents with ASD participated in semi-structured interviews using established personal construct theory (PCT) techniques. PCT was found to be a helpful approach to elicit rich, qualitative data. A thematic analysis identified four themes: relationships as a source of support, perceptions of similarity and difference, valued qualities in self and others, and the development and maintenance of relationships. Whilst this exploratory study highlighted some commonality in terms of perceptions of family support and friendships as protective and desirable, participants differed in their ability to establish and maintain peer relationships. Participants valued personal qualities such as intelligence, humour and trust within relationships, and recognised the important role of peers and siblings in the development of social skills, a finding which has implications for the delivery of social skills training and other interventions. The study provides empirical support for the application of personal construct methodologies in ASD research and offers a potentially useful approach to therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Personality Profiles of Effective Leadership Performance in Assessment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D; Lanza, Stephanie T; Bernthal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most research examining the relationship between effective leadership and personality has focused on individual personality traits. However, profiles of personality traits more fully describe individuals, and these profiles may be important as they relate to leadership. This study used latent class analysis to examine how personality traits combine and interact to form subpopulations of leaders, and how these subpopulations relate to performance criteria. Using a sample of 2,461 executive-level leaders, six personality profiles were identified: Unpredictable Leaders with Low Diligence (7.3%); Conscientious, Backend Leaders (3.6%); Unpredictable Leaders (8.6%); Creative Communicators (20.8%); Power Players (32.4%); and Protocol Followers (27.1%). One profile performed well on all criteria in an assessment center; remaining profiles exhibited strengths and weaknesses across criteria. Implications and future directions for research are highlighted.

  5. Environmental Impacts Assessment of Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania

    .e. soil and stones, concrete, asphalt and masonry, and as such it has the potential to be used as aggregate in the construction sector. A typical application is in an unbound state as filler in road structures. This practice offers evident benefits in terms of resource savings, however it might lead......Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) is waste derived from the construction, demolition and renovation of buildings and civil infrastructure. With 900 million tons generated every year in Europe, it is the largest waste stream on the continent. C&DW is mainly constituted of mineral fractions, i...... be evaluated critically.Owing to its high toxicity and significant mobility, especially at high pH levels, Cr(VI) is one of the elements of concern found in C&DW leachates. Its fate in the sub-soil below road applications was assessed experimentally, and its vertical migration was then predicted through...

  6. Risk assessment of work at height in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letice Dalla Lana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction presents alarming statistics when it comes to the risks that these workers are subject. Higher risks still present work at a height where the fall is the biggest causal factor of fatal accidents. Thus the managements of companies who seek to reduce these risks and this has going for technical evaluation of operational risks. Three of these techniques are discussed in this article: PHA, FTA and CIT. The goal is to determine which one is most effective in assessing the risks of working at height in construction. The methodology used was case study of three works on three different construction of Santa Maria, RS. For a better understanding of the phenomenon suggests that the techniques are used together, but the CIT has provided a better quantitative analysis of incidents and the PHA contributes towards already establish the possible effects that each risk may have.

  7. The Heritability of Cluster B Personality Disorders Assessed both by Personal Interview and Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40–.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders. PMID:23281671

  8. The heritability of Cluster B personality disorders assessed both by personal interview and questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2012-12-01

    Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40-.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders.

  9. The Biographical Personality Interview (BPI)--a new approach to the assessment of premorbid personality in psychiatric research. Part I: Development of the instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zerssen, D; Pössl, J; Hecht, H; Black, C; Garczynski, E; Barthelmes, H

    1998-01-01

    The Biographical Personality Interview (BPI) is a research instrument for the retrospective assessment of premorbid personality traits of psychiatric patients. Its construction is based on results of a series of investigations in which biographical data from psychiatric case notes were analysed with respect to premorbid personality traits. In order to avoid methodological shortcomings of the utilisation of clinical records, an interview technique was developed. It is applied by two independent, specially trained investigators who are kept "blind" regarding any clinical data of the subject under study. One of them has to conduct the interview of a clinically remitted patient and to provide an interview protocol, the other one has to rate personality traits from that protocol along a large series of purely descriptive items. Sum scores for six personality structures ("types") are calculated and the case is then assigned to the intra-individually dominating personality type according to the highest of these scores.

  10. The construct validation of the relationship harmony and soft-heartedness scales of the South African Personality Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, C.; French, L.; Morton, N.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Valchev, V.H.; Adams, B.G.; de Bruin, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study forms part of the South African Personality Inventory project that aims to develop: (a) an indigenous theoretical model of personality; and (b) a unique personality measure that is in line with South African legislation and that can be used fairly to assess personality across different

  11. Assessing knowledge retention in construction organisations: Cases from the UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present different issues facing the problem of knowledge retention by construction sector companies in the UAE. Methodology: Existing framework in the area of knowledge retention has been used to assess three large construction consultancies in the UAE. The case study methodology used in this paper highlights some key issues in the area of knowledge retention in the UAE. Findings: Based on the analysis of the knowledge retention system the major drivers for its successful implementation are prevalence of a culture of sharing knowledge, reward and recognition for sharing knowledge, a technology platform that can accommodate multi formats of files, awareness of knowledge retention system and its benefits among its employees, and top management support. Research Limitations: The paper presents three case studies and draws conclusions about the UAE construction sector. Although the three companies are large companies, there are several Small and Medium sized Enterprise (SME operating in the construction sector in the UAE. Future researchers need to look at these SMEs. Originality / Value: Through the three case studies, several issues related to the implementation of robust knowledge retention practices have been identified and highlighted for the UAE construction sector.

  12. The validity of the Type D construct and its assessment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chia-Ying; Denollet, Johan; Lin, Chin-Lon; Lin, Tin-Kwang; Wang, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jyun-Ji; Wong, Shu-Shu; Mols, Floortje

    2013-02-04

    Type D (distressed) personality, defined by negative affectivity and social inhibition, is related to cardiovascular outcomes. Little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the validity of this construct and its assessment in Taiwanese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and adults from the general population. CAD patients (N = 87) and adults from the general population (N = 421) completed the 14-item Type D Scale- Taiwanese version (DS14-T), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Chinese Hostility Inventory Short-Form. Based on the psychometric examination, item #3 of the original DS14, "I often talk to strangers" was replaced by "I don't like to have a lot of people around me" which comes from the "Withdrawal" facet of social inhibition of DS-24. The reliability of Type D assessment in Taiwan was good, with Cronbach's α for negative affectivity and social inhibition of .86 and .79. Factor analyses confirmed the two-factor model of the Type D construct. The prevalence rate of Type D personality in Taiwan was 20% in CAD patients and 16% in the general population. Negative affectivity was positively associated with anxiety, depression and hostility, and social inhibition was positively associated with suppressive hostility and negatively associated with expressive hostility after controlling for the total hostility. Furthermore, Taiwanese individuals with a Type D personality displayed elevated levels of anxiety, depression and hostility. The Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14-T is generalizable to an Asian setting, Taiwan. The DS14-T showed good psychometric properties, and the prevalence of Type D personality in Taiwan was similar to the prevalence rates in Western countries and Mainland China, and Type D was associated with anxiety, depression and hostility.

  13. Project assessment for construction of new nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Project risk management is an important and integral part of project and quality management. It is also a key part of the due diligence process in making informed project decisions where in addition to the qualitative assessments quantitative ones shall be used to the extend practical. As part of the risk management process, risk identification, evaluation and mitigation must be an on-going activity at senior management levels throughout the planning, design, construction and commissioning phases of a new NPP

  14. Economic assessment of the construction industry: A construction-economics nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Herbert Marion, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an economic assessment of the construction industry. More specifically, this study addresses ambiguities within the literature that are associated with the construction-economics nexus. The researcher 1) investigated the relationships between economic indicators and stock prices of U.S. construction equipment manufacturers, 2) investigated the relationships between energy production, consumption, and corruption, and 3) determined the economic effect electricity generation and electricity consumption has on economies of scale. The researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics in this study and determined that economists, researchers, policy-makers, and others should have predicted the 2007-08 world economic collapse 5-6 years prior to realization of the event given that construction indices and GDP grossly regressed from statistically acceptable trends as early as 2002 and perhaps 2000. Substantiating this claim, the effect of the cost of construction materials and labor, i.e. construction index, on GDP was significant for years leading up to the collapse (1970-2007). Additionally, it was determined that energy production and consumption are predictors of governmental corruption in some countries. In the Republic of Botswana, for example, the researcher determined that energy production and consumption statistically jointly effected governmental corruption. In addition to determining statistical effect, a model for predicting governmental corruption was developed based on energy production and consumption volumes. Also, the researcher found that electricity generation in the 25 largest world economies had a statistically significant effect on GDP. Electricity consumption also had an effect on GDP, as well, but not on other economic indicators. More importantly than the quantitative findings, the researcher concluded that the construction-economics nexus is far more complex than most policy-makers realize. As such

  15. Using Technology and Assessment to Personalize Instruction: Preventing Reading Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2017-09-15

    Children who fail to learn to read proficiently are at serious risk of referral to special education, grade retention, dropping out of high school, and entering the juvenile justice system. Accumulating research suggests that instruction regimes that rely on assessment to inform instruction are effective in improving the implementation of personalized instruction and, in turn, student learning. However, teachers find it difficult to interpret assessment results in a way that optimizes learning opportunities for all of the students in their classrooms. This article focuses on the use of language, decoding, and comprehension assessments to develop personalized plans of literacy instruction for students from kindergarten through third grade, and A2i technology designed to support teachers' use of assessment to guide instruction. Results of seven randomized controlled trials demonstrate that personalized literacy instruction is more effective than traditional instruction, and that sustained implementation of personalized literacy instruction first through third grade may prevent the development of serious reading problems. We found effect sizes from .2 to .4 per school year, which translates into about a 2-month advantage. These effects accumulated from first through third grade with a large effect size (d = .7) equivalent to a full grade-equivalent advantage on standardize tests of literacy. These results demonstrate the efficacy of technology-supported personalized data-driven literacy instruction to prevent serious reading difficulties. Implications for translational prevention research in education and healthcare are discussed.

  16. Introduction to the special section on mixture modeling in personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Hallquist, Michael N

    2014-01-01

    Latent variable models offer a conceptual and statistical framework for evaluating the underlying structure of psychological constructs, including personality and psychopathology. Complex structures that combine or compare categorical and dimensional latent variables can be accommodated using mixture modeling approaches, which provide a powerful framework for testing nuanced theories about psychological structure. This special series includes introductory primers on cross-sectional and longitudinal mixture modeling, in addition to empirical examples applying these techniques to real-world data collected in clinical settings. This group of articles is designed to introduce personality assessment scientists and practitioners to a general latent variable framework that we hope will stimulate new research and application of mixture models to the assessment of personality and its pathology.

  17. Exploring the Assessment of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders With the Personality Assessment Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Alexander J; Morey, Leslie C; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) contains an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorder involving the assessment of 25 traits and a global level of overall personality functioning. There is hope that this model will be increasingly used in clinical and research settings, and the ability to apply established instruments to assess these concepts could facilitate this process. This study sought to develop scoring algorithms for these alternative model concepts using scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). A multiple regression strategy used to predict scores in 2 undergraduate samples on DSM-5 alternative model instruments: the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and the General Personality Pathology scale (GPP; Morey et al., 2011 ). These regression functions resulted in scores that demonstrated promising convergent and discriminant validity across the alternative model concepts, as well as a factor structure in a cross-validation sample that was congruent with the putative structure of the alternative model traits. Results were linked to the PAI community normative data to provide normative information regarding these alternative model concepts that can be used to identify elevated traits and personality functioning level scores.

  18. A New Measure to Assess Psychopathic Personality in Children: The Child Problematic Traits Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik; Frogner, Louise; Lopez-Romero, Laura; Veen, Violaine; Andershed, Anna-Karin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the development of psychopathic personality from childhood to adulthood is crucial for understanding the development and stability of severe and long-lasting conduct problems and criminal behavior. This paper describes the development of a new teacher rated instrument to assess psychopathic personality from age three to 12, the Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI). The reliability and validity of the CPTI was tested in a Swedish general population sample of 2,056 3- to 5-year-olds (mean age = 3.86; SD = .86; 53 % boys). The CPTI items loaded distinctively on three theoretically proposed factors: a Grandiose-Deceitful Factor, a Callous-Unemotional factor, and an Impulsive-Need for Stimulation factor. The three CPTI factors showed reliability in internal consistency and external validity, in terms of expected correlations with theoretically relevant constructs (e.g., fearlessness). The interaction between the three CPTI factors was a stronger predictor of concurrent conduct problems than any of the three individual CPTI factors, showing that it is important to assess all three factors of the psychopathic personality construct in early childhood. In conclusion, the CPTI seems to reliably and validly assess a constellation of traits that is similar to psychopathic personality as manifested in adolescence and adulthood.

  19. Stimulating Learning with Integrated Assessments in Construction Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyas Kamardeen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of learning students experience is heavily dependent on the effectiveness of course design. Assessments are a key component in course design and students determine their level of involvement in a learning activity based on whether it is assessed or not. Assessments are therefore a powerful tool that lecturers can utilise to drive learning. However, designing effective assessments to stimulate learning is challenging in the presence of disciplinary, contextual dimensions. A case study approach is adopted to demonstrate how effective integrated assessment schemes may be developed and implemented for construction education. The scheme in the case study amalgamated case-based learning, online quizzes and adaptive eTests to provide a variety of assessments, aligned with lecture topics and contemporary real-word scenarios. It was found that the presence of both formative and summative tasks in the assessment scheme complemented each other, kept students constantly motivated and engaged in learning, and resulted in a good learning experience for them. The study provide evidence, and valuable insights and tips for lecturers in similar degree programs as to how they could modify pedagogical styles in their courses for better learning experiences for students and improved teaching ratings for themselves. Keywords: Pedagogy, Integrated assessment, Case-based learning, Online quiz, Adaptive eLearning

  20. Stimulating Learning with Integrated Assessments in Construction Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyas Kamardeen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of learning students experience is heavily dependent on the effectiveness of course design. Assessments are a key component in course design and students determine their level of involvement in a learning activity based on whether it is assessed or not. Assessments are therefore a powerful tool that lecturers can utilise to drive learning. However, designing effective assessments to stimulate learning is challenging in the presence of disciplinary, contextual dimensions. A case study approach is adopted to demonstrate how effective integrated assessment schemes may be developed and implemented for construction education. The scheme in the case study amalgamated case-based learning, online quizzes and adaptive eTests to provide a variety of assessments, aligned with lecture topics and contemporary real-word scenarios. It was found that the presence of both formative and summative tasks in the assessment scheme complemented each other, kept students constantly motivated and engaged in learning, and resulted in a good learning experience for them. The study provide evidence, and valuable insights and tips for lecturers in similar degree programs as to how they could modify pedagogical styles in their courses for better learning experiences for students and improved teaching ratings for themselves.   Keywords: Pedagogy, Integrated assessment, Case-based learning, Online quiz, Adaptive eLearning

  1. Measurement of DSM-5 section II personality disorder constructs using the MMPI-2-RF in clinical and forensic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Pymont, Carly; Smid, Wineke; De Saeger, Hilde; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the associations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) scale scores and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) Section II personality disorder (PD) criterion counts in inpatient and forensic psychiatric samples from The Netherlands using structured clinical interviews to operationalize PDs. The inpatient psychiatric sample included 190 male and female patients and the forensic sample included 162 male psychiatric patients. We conducted correlation and count regression analyses to evaluate the utility of relevant MMPI-2-RF scales in predicting PD criterion count scores. Generally, results from these analyses emerged as conceptually expected and provided evidence that MMPI-2-RF scales can be useful in assessing PDs. At the zero-order level, most hypothesized associations between Section II disorders and MMPI-2-RF scales were supported. Similarly, in the regression analyses, a unique set of predictors emerged for each PD that was generally in line with conceptual expectations. Additionally, the results provided general evidence that PDs can be captured by dimensional psychopathology constructs, which has implications for both DSM-5 Section III specifically and the personality psychopathology literature more broadly. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Personal Construction of Cough Medicine among Young Substance Abusers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cough medicine abuse is a growing problem in many places, there is no study examining the views of young substance abusers toward cough medicine. The objective of this study was to examine personal constructions of cough medicine abusers via the repertory grid tests (=11. Several observations are highlighted from the study. First, personal constructions of cough medicine were mixed, including the benefits and harmful effects of its abuse. Second, although the informants perceived cough medicine to be addictive and harmful, they perceived cough medicine to be less addictive and less harmful than did heroin. Third, while the informants construed cough medicine to be similar to ketamine and marijuana, they also perceived cough medicine to possess some characteristics of heroin. Fourth, relative to the construed similarity between heroin and the gateway drugs (cigarette, beer, and liquor, the informants construed cough medicine to be more similar to the gateway drugs. Finally, a higher level of perceived dissimilarity between cough medicine and gateway drugs was related to a higher level of perceived harm of cough medicine abuse.

  3. Peer Assessment for Construction Management and Quantity Surveying Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McLaughlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Students undertaking the Bachelor of ConstructionManagement degree course at RMIT University, Melbourne,qualify for registration with the Australian Institute ofQuantity Surveyors (AIQS and the Australian Institute ofBuilding (AIB upon graduation. Over the past decade thedegree course has been constantly upgraded and altered inline with recommendations from professional bodies such asthese and other industry partners. In 1994 the Departmentof Building and Construction Economics re-assesseda range of subjects including the first year technologysubjects. Out of the review a problem-based integratedlearning unit was developed and tested. This unit has nowbeen in place for ten years.Quantity surveying and construction management likemost other professions in the construction industryrequire teamwork and advanced consultation skills. Theseskills may be learnt through experience but there isconsiderable evidence that these skills can be taught in theundergraduate years. Therefore in line with team-basedapproaches used in industry and professional constructionsettings, this year a new assessment model - peerassessment - will be applied to the problem-based learningunit. This paper describes the procedures and processesused to introduce the change and examines the theoreticalbase upon which the model was developed.

  4. Personality in proportion : A bipolar proportional scale for personality assessments and its consequences for trait structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, W.K.B.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Trait structures resulting from personality assessments on Likert scales are affected by the additive and multiplicative transformations implied in interval scaling and correlational analysis. The effect comes into view on selecting a plausible alternative scale. To this end, we propose a bipolar

  5. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H.; Astrup, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  6. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butera, Stefania, E-mail: stbu@teknologisk.dk; Christensen, Thomas H.; Astrup, Thomas F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  7. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60-95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing that end-of-life impacts and leaching should not be disregarded when assessing environmental impacts from construction products and materials. CO2 uptake in the C

  8. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  9. Impact of highway construction on water bodies: a geospatial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Mardikar, Trupti; Labhasetwar, P K

    2017-08-01

    India has witnessed a massive infrastructure boom in the past few years. One of such projects is National Highway-7 (NH-7), a North-South highway connecting Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, to Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, traversing many water bodies. The present study aims to assess the pre- and post-construction impact due to existing, new and widened NH-7 on the physical status of the water bodies, using remote sensing techniques. Satellite images spanning 22 years were procured and analysed for change detection in land use and land cover within the waterbodies. The study indicates that construction activities have led to transformation within the water bodies regarding reduction in area and inter-changing of land use and land cover classes, in turn leading to siltation and reduction of recharge.

  10. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify e...

  11. Personality assessment and behavioral prediction at first impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vartanian, O.; Stewart, K.; Mandel, D.R.; Pavlovic, N.; McLellan, L.; Taylor, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated high levels of consensus and self-other agreement for extraversion and conscientiousness. However, the mechanisms whereby these assessments contribute to accuracy in behavioral predictions remain unclear. In this study, two judges rated targets on Big Five personality

  12. The Use of Personal Data Assistants in Early Childhood Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Yoder, Noreen N.; Hanes, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Four early childhood education teachers, two veteran and two newer teachers, were asked to pilot the use of handheld Personal Data Assistants loaded with Childchart assessment software. The participants were observed in their use of the electronic devices for monitoring student performance and interviewed regarding the use of the devices and their…

  13. New Modes of Constructive Technology Assessment for Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David; Remmen, Arne

    of transformation or co-creation in a movement from one context to another, i.e. from the North to South. The question here is how to affect a proactive intake of relevant knowledge in decision-making in a technological innovation process so as to increase the likelihood of developing sustainable solutions. A co...... into actor strategies and decision-making processes. There is a variant of ‘constructive’ technology assessment that stands out as useful in multi-actor partnership settings. Placing emphasis on interactive processes, constructive technology assessment embraces active negotiation among involved parties...... in influencing technological change. In developing countries, technology assessment has received relatively little attention, but recent developments have expressed a ‘call-to-arms’ to tailor flexible approaches by ensuring the involvement of diverse stakeholders and citizens and continual learning among...

  14. A cost-effective technique for integrating personal radiation dose assessment with personal gravimetric sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strydom, R.; Rolle, R.; Van der Linde, A.

    1992-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing awareness internationally of radiation levels in the mining and milling of radioactive ores, including those from non-uranium mines. A major aspect of radiation control is concerned with the measurement of radiation levels and the assessment of radiation doses incurred by individual workers. Current techniques available internationally for personnel monitoring of radiation exposures are expensive and there is a particular need to reduce the cost of personal radiation monitoring in South African gold mines because of the large labour force employed. In this regard the obvious benefits of integrating personal radiation monitoring with existing personal monitoring systems already in place in South African gold mines should be exploited. A system which can be utilized for this purpose is personal gravimetric sampling. A new cost-effective technique for personal radiation monitoring, which can be fully integrated with the personal gravimetric sampling strategy being implemented on mines, has been developed in South Africa. The basic principles of this technique and its potential in South African mines are described. 9 refs., 7 figs

  15. A dimensional approach to assessing personality functioning: examining personality trait domains utilizing DSM-IV personality disorder criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Fowler, J; Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison; Madan, Alok; Clapp, Joshua; Allen, Jon G; Christopher Frueh, B; Oldham, John M

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a dimensional, trait domain approach to characterizing personality pathology with the traditional polythetic approach with respect to their associations with interpersonal functioning and personality traits from the five factor model. Psychiatric inpatients (N=1476) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders. Dimensional representations of trait domains were derived from reorganizing DSM-IV criteria into personality trait domains from DSM-5 Alternative Model. Dimensional scores and personality disorder (PD) total criterion scores served as independent variables in predicting interpersonal profile clusters, as well as extraversion, agreeableness conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness from the five factor model traits. Trait domain scores and PD criteria totals were significantly correlated with submissive interpersonal style yet none proved significant in regression analyses. Avoidant and borderline PD total criteria were negatively associated with a normative interpersonal style. Combined trait domain of detachment and avoidant PD total criteria predicted a hostile/withdrawn interpersonal style. The trait domain of detachment was negatively associated with five factor traits of extroversion, whereas borderline PD total criteria were negatively associated with conscientiousness. Avoidant and borderline PD total criteria were positively associated with neuroticism. The cross-cutting dimensional approach provided useful information in predicting a hostile/withdrawn interpersonal style as well as extroversion. Importantly, PD criterion scores and dimensional trait scores combined to predict this interpersonal style providing support to the alternative model of personality diagnosis in DSM-5. Clinicians are encouraged to assess dimensions of personality traits as these are related to interpersonal problems frequently encountered in psychiatric settings. While potentially useful, the dimensional

  16. Millon's Contributions to Preadolescent and Adolescent Personality Assessment: Searching Onward and Upward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringone, Robert; Bockian, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was one of the most influential personality theorists of the 20th century. His theory was originally rooted in biosocial learning models and later reconceptualized as an evolutionary model. This foundation of Millon's work encompasses the entire life span. He had a genuine concern for humankind, especially children. His theory encompasses a comprehensive understanding of the relationship among childhood experiences, parenting styles, and recurring events throughout the life span in shaping the personality. Notable contributions to child and adolescent assessment are the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (Millon, Green, & Meagher, 1982 ), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1993 ), and the Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical Inventory (M-PACI; Millon, Tringone, Millon, & Grossman, 2005 ). Given Millon's influence on the personality disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the aforementioned instruments have personality constructs tied to familiar DSM categories, and among them, cover the age range of 9 to 18 years old. His development of the Millon Inventories revolutionized personality assessment in the United States and abroad. Millon's legacies will live on through his works and through the respect and compassion he demonstrated toward others.

  17. Seeking sustainability in the construction sector: opportunities within impact assessment and sustainable public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Uttam, Kedar

    2014-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding sustainability have led the construction sector to adopt various policy instruments for reducing the impacts caused by construction activities. One such policy instrument includes impact assessment, which enables the construction sector to evaluate the environmental consequences of proposed developments at project (environmental impact assessment) and strategic (strategic environmental assessment) level. In recent years, the construction sector has also adopted gree...

  18. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): A New Measure for Assessing Adolescent Personality and Personality Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-01-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…

  19. Multifaceted Approach to Personality Assessment in Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B. Razal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the personality of 17 South African cheetahs at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A multifaceted approach of observer ratings (rating method, behavioral data (coding method and hormone monitoring was used to examine individual differences. Knowledge of these individual differences, i.e., personality, is essential to better husbandry and management in a zoological facility. Principal Components Analysis yielded five personality components: Insecure, Aggressive, Interactive, Active, and Unsociable. Comparing the personality components with gender, reproductive success, and hand-rearing history of the individuals revealed significant associations. The components Aggressive and Interactive had a positive correlation with behavioral diversity, and the component Unsociable had a positive correlation with self-maintenance. There was a significant gender difference, with males scoring higher on Aggressive and Interactive. Individuals who scored higher on these components also had higher levels of behavioral diversity, and males displayed higher levels of behavioral diversity than females. In addition, individuals that were reproductively successful scored higher on the component Unsociable, as well as displayed higher FGM levels. This study demonstrates the value of using a multifaceted approach to further understand and assess animal personality. Information gained from this study can ultimately help zoological facilities manage and assist with reproductive efforts in populations that are not currently self-sustaining, such as the cheetah.

  20. Personality and the subjective assessment of hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R M; Alexander, G C; Gray, G

    1999-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the influence of patients' personality features on the responses they make to self-assessment items used to measure the outcome of a hearing aid fitting. If the personality of the hearing aid wearer has a significant influence on self-report outcome data, it would be important to explore the relevant personality variables and to be cognizant of their effects when using subjective outcome data to justify decisions about clinical services or other matters. This investigation explored the relationship between several personality attributes and responses to the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB). It found that more extroverted patients tend to report more hearing aid benefit in all speech communication situations. In addition, patients with a more external locus of control tend to have more negative reactions to loud environmental sounds, both with and without amplification. Anxiety also played a small additional role in determining APHAB responses. Although personality variables were found to explain a relatively small amount of the variance in APHAB responses (usually around 10%), these outcomes should alert practitioners and researchers to the potential effects of personality variables in all self-report data.

  1. [Forensic Psychiatric Assessment for Organic Personality Disorders after Craniocerebral Trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C H; Huang, L N; Zhang, M C; He, M

    2017-04-01

    To explore the occurrence and the differences of clinical manifestations of organic personality disorder with varying degrees of craniocerebral trauma. According to the International Classification of Diseases-10, 396 subjects with craniocerebral trauma caused by traffic accidents were diagnosed, and the degrees of craniocerebral trauma were graded. The personality characteristics of all patients were evaluated using the simplified Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The occurrence rate of organic personality disorder was 34.6% while it was 34.9% and 49.5% in the patients with moderate and severe craniocerebral trauma, respectively, which significantly higher than that in the patients (18.7%) of mild craniocerebral trauma ( P personality disorder, the neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness scores all showed significantly differences ( P personality disorder; the neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness scores showed significantly differences ( P >0.05) in the patients of moderate and severe craniocerebral trauma with personality disorder. The agreeableness and conscientiousness scores in the patients of moderate and severe craniocerebral trauma with personality disorder were significantly lower than that of mild craniocerebral trauma, and the patients of severe craniocerebral trauma had a lower score in extraversion than in the patients of mild craniocerebral trauma. The severity of craniocerebral trauma is closely related to the incidence of organic personality disorder, and it also affects the clinical features of the latter, which provides a certain significance and help for forensic psychiatric assessment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  2. Risk assessment for construction projects of transport infrastructure objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The paper analyzes and compares different methods of risk assessment for construction projects of transport objects. The management of such type of projects demands application of special probabilistic methods due to large level of uncertainty of their implementation. Risk management in the projects requires the use of probabilistic and statistical methods. The aim of the work is to develop a methodology for using traditional methods in combination with robust methods that allow obtaining reliable risk assessments in projects. The robust approach is based on the principle of maximum likelihood and in assessing the risk allows the researcher to obtain reliable results in situations of great uncertainty. The application of robust procedures allows to carry out a quantitative assessment of the main risk indicators of projects when solving the tasks of managing innovation-investment projects. Calculation of damage from the onset of a risky event is possible by any competent specialist. And an assessment of the probability of occurrence of a risky event requires the involvement of special probabilistic methods based on the proposed robust approaches. Practice shows the effectiveness and reliability of results. The methodology developed in the article can be used to create information technologies and their application in automated control systems for complex projects.

  3. Perceived visual informativeness (PVI): construct and scale development to assess visual information in printed materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andy J; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, LaShara A; Carcioppolo, Nick

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on the visual images used in health communication messages and campaign materials. Even though many studies suggest further investigation of these visual messages and their features, few studies provide specific constructs or assessment tools for evaluating the characteristics of visual messages in health communication contexts. The authors conducted 2 studies to validate a measure of perceived visual informativeness (PVI), a message construct assessing visual messages presenting statistical or indexical information. In Study 1, a 7-item scale was created that demonstrated good internal reliability (α = .91), as well as convergent and divergent validity with related message constructs such as perceived message quality, perceived informativeness, and perceived attractiveness. PVI also converged with a preference for visual learning but was unrelated to a person's actual vision ability. In addition, PVI exhibited concurrent validity with a number of important constructs including perceived message effectiveness, decisional satisfaction, and three key public health theory behavior predictors: perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy. Study 2 provided more evidence that PVI is an internally reliable measure and demonstrates that PVI is a modifiable message feature that can be tested in future experimental work. PVI provides an initial step to assist in the evaluation and testing of visual messages in campaign and intervention materials promoting informed decision making and behavior change.

  4. Rorschach Assessment of Two Distinctive Personality States of a Person With Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ellen; Benum, Kirsten

    2017-12-13

    This case study used test data from a patient with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ) to illustrate how two main personality states of the patient ("Ann" and "Ben") seemed to function. The Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS; Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011 ) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (IIP-64; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000 ), administered to Ann and Ben in separate settings, exposed two diverse R-PAS and IIP-64 profiles. Ann's R-PAS profile suggested an intellectualized style of information processing with few indications of psychological problems. Ben's profile indicated severe perceptual, cognitive, and interpersonal difficulties combined with suspicion and anxiety. Ann's IIP-64 profile suggested minor interpersonal problems, whereas Ben's indicated serious relational difficulties. The findings were discussed in relation to the theory of trauma-related structural dissociation of the personality (van der Hart, Nijenhuis, & Steele, 2006 ), which implies an enduring split in the organization of the personality with more or less separate entities with their own sense of self, perception of the world, and ways of organizing emotional, cognitive, and social functions. The DID personality structure is seen as a defense strategy and as a pathway in the personality development producing serious psychological pain and symptoms.

  5. Analysing the impact of buyers' personality constructs on the market structure of brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios; Rungie, Cam

    2008-01-01

    In order to operationalize brand loyalty, various models have been applied that estimate brand measures and further describe patterns and the structure of the markets. A well known model in this area is the Dirichlet-NBD model. Despite major advancements to those models, how buyers' characteristics...... and psychographics influence actual brand measures and the overall market structure in repeat purchase occasions is still under-researched. Moreover, measuring the type and magnitude of buyer-related effects on brand loyalty could provide additional valuable information to brand managers. Aim of this paper...... is to provide an approach of estimating the effect that various personality constructs have on brand measures and overall market structure through revealed preference data....

  6. Investigating the construct validity of a development assessment centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia M. Brits

    2013-11-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the construct validity of a one-day development assessment centre (DAC using a convenience sample of 202 managers in a large South African banking institution. Motivation for the study: Although the AC method is popular, it has been widely criticised as to whether it predominantly measures the dimensions it is designed to measure. Research design, approach and method: The fit of the measurement models implied by the dimensions measured was analysed in a quantitative study using an ex post facto correlation design and structural equation modelling. Main findings: Bi-factor confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the relative contribution of higher-order exercise and dimension effects. Empirical under-identification stemming from the small number of exercises designed to reflect designated latent dimensions restricted the number of DAC dimensions that could be evaluated. Ultimately, only one global dimension had enough measurement points and was analysed. The results suggested that dimension effects explained the majority of variance in the post-exercise dimension ratings. Practical/managerial implications: Candidates’ proficiency on each dimension was used as the basis for development reports. The validity of inferences holds important implications for candidates’ career development and growth. Contribution/value-add: The authors found only one study on construct validity of AC dimensions in the South African context. The present study is the first use the bi-factor approach. This study will consequently contribute to the scarce AC literature in South Africa.

  7. Capturing Parenting as a Multidimensional and Dynamic Construct with a Person-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Pasalich, Dave S; Oberth, Carla; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2017-04-01

    Although parenting is one of the most commonly studied predictors of child problem behavior, few studies have examined parenting as a multidimensional and dynamic construct. This study investigated different patterns of developmental trajectories of two parenting dimensions (harsh discipline [HD] and parental warmth [PW]) with a person-oriented approach and examined the associations between different parenting patterns and child externalizing problems and callous-unemotional traits. Data were drawn from the combined high-risk control and normative sample (n = 753) of the Fast Track Project. Parent-reported HD and observer-reported PW from kindergarten to grade 2 were fit to growth mixture models. Two subgroups were identified for HD (low decreasing, 83.0 %; high stable, 17.0 %) and PW (high increasing, 78.7 %; low increasing, 21.3 %). The majority of parents (67.0 %) demonstrated the low decreasing HD and high increasing PW pattern, while the prevalence of the high stable HD and low increasing PW pattern was the lowest (6.8 %). Parenting satisfaction, parental depression, family socioeconomic status, and neighborhood safety predicted group memberships jointly defined by the two dimensions. Children from the high stable HD and low increasing PW pattern showed the highest levels of externalizing problems in grades 4 and 5. Children from the low decreasing HD and low increasing PW pattern showed the highest levels of callous-unemotional traits in grade 7. These findings demonstrate the utility and significance of a person-oriented approach to measuring parenting as a multidimensional and dynamic construct and reveal the interplay between HD and PW in terms of their influences on child developmental outcomes.

  8. The relevance of personality assessment in patients with hyperventilation symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Bolle, Marleen; Boone, Eva; De Fruyt, Filip

    2012-05-01

    Relatively few data are available concerning the relations between hyperventilation symptoms and general personality traits in clinical populations. A clear picture of the personality traits associated with hyperventilation symptoms could enhance early detection of those individuals who are at risk for developing hyperventilation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of general personality in hyperventilation syndrome. Patients (N = 364) with symptoms not explained by an organic disease and supposedly caused by hyperventilation completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the General Health Questionnaire--12, and the Nijmegen Questionnaire. Patients were also subjected to a hyperventilation provocation test and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcPCO(2)) values were registered. The results showed that patients with hyperventilation obtained mean Neuroticism scores above the normative mean. Moreover, only Neuroticism was positively linked with self-reported hyperventilation symptoms, and personality traits were more strongly related to self-reported complaints than to objective physical information. Neuroticism clearly differentiated between different diagnostic groups on the basis of Nijmegen Questionnaire and TcPCO(2) values, and an additional small effect of Agreeableness was observed. The present study contributes to the evidence that Neuroticism is strongly associated with self-reported hyperventilation symptoms, and provides substantial evidence that Neuroticism is a vulnerability factor in the development of hyperventilation. Therefore, personality assessment may be helpful in advancing the understanding and the early detection of hyperventilation symptoms.

  9. Names in Psychological Science: Investigating the Processes of Thought Development and the Construction of Personal Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Rocco; Longobardi, Claudio; Mendola, Manuela; Prino, Laura Elvira

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the name as an issue of interest in the psychology field. In thinking about the role played by names for some of the most important approaches on the psychology panorama, it has been found that the analysis of names can be used as an instrument for the investigation of thought formation processes, or as an element in the process of constructing personal identity. In the first case, the focus is on the so-called "common" names, which designate objects; in the second case, instead, it is on people's given names and on the way they are perceived by their bearers and those who surround them. We have examined both domains, since it is essential to understand how the psychological concepts related to names develop in children's minds, if we aim to grasp their importance as designators of people's internal and external realities. Lastly, we have proposed our own view of the person's name, linked to the relational systems perspective which essentially sees the name as a signifier or "representative" of the child-parent relationship, while the "relationship" is the signified.

  10. The Lived Experiences of Persons Hospitalized for Construction of an Urgent Fecal Ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlufsen, Per; Brødsgaard, Anne

    The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of hospital stays for patients undergoing urgent ostomy surgery. Qualitative, descriptive, phenomenological study. Six persons undergoing acute hospital admission and urgent ileostomy or colostomy surgery (either permanent or temporary) participated in the study. Participants were of Danish ethnicity and between the ages of 48 and 75 years. The research setting was the surgical department at a university hospital in the Capital Region of Denmark. Data collection and analyses were guided by a Reflective Lifeworld Research approach; this approach is based on phenomenological philosophy. Data were collected during in-depth interviews using a semistructured interview guide. Their average length was 50 minutes (range, 30-65 minutes). Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions were analyzed in 4 phases according to the principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. The phenomenon we labeled "lived experiences of acute hospitalization with construction of an urgent unplanned fecal ostomy" comprised 4 constituents: (1) undergoing unexpected bodily changes, (2) partnership with professional caregivers, (3) experience of vulnerability, and (4) a lack of continuity. These constituents can be described as a number of challenges due to both hospitalization and ostomy creation. We found that individuals experience a number of challenges due to acute hospitalization and urgent construction of a fecal ostomy. These challenges are due to the unexpected bodily changes and interpersonal and organizational conditions. Nurses should be aware of not only the physical implications of urgent creation of a fecal ostomy but also the individual and psychological implications of this event.

  11. Condom use assessment of persons in drug abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dana; Schumacher, Joseph E

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively and quantitatively assess individual skill level of male condom use. This study developed a reliable and face valid assessment of correct male condom use based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Participants (N= 163) were recruited from persons in treatment for cocaine addiction. Condom use was assessed on the basis of correct completion of eight discrete steps. An overall score of 40% correct condom use indicated the need for training in this sample. Assessment showed training needs especially related to steps involving reduction of ejaculate leakage and steps related to potential hazards of nonoxynol-9 use. Frequency of condom use was also assessed; there was no correlation between frequency of condom use and condom use skill. Drug addiction treatment programs are encouraged to incorporate HIV risk reduction programs that teach condom use skills and use the CUDOS as an empirical measure of condom skill acquisition.

  12. An Internal Dose Assessment Associated with Personal Food Intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Wontae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Therefore, had recommended the concept of 'Critical Group'. Recently the ICRP has recommended the use of 'Representative Person' on the new basic recommendation 103. On the other hand the U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) has adopted more conservative concept, 'Maximum Exposed Individuals (MEI)' of critical Group. The dose assessment in Korea is based on MEI. Although dose assessment based on MEI is easy to receive the permission of the regulatory authority, it is not efficient. Meanwhile, the internal dose by food consumption takes an important part. Therefore, in this study, the internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. The internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. It showed 13.2% decreased of the annual internal dose due to gaseous effluents by replacing MEI to the concept of representative person. Also, this calculation based on new ICRP's recommendation has to be extended to all areas of individual dose assessment. Then, more accurate and efficient values might be obtained for dose assessment.

  13. Microbial fuel cells for clogging assessment in constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, Clara; García, Joan; Puigagut, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Clogging in HSSF CW may result in a reduction of system's life-span or treatment efficiency. Current available techniques to assess the degree of clogging in HSSF CW are time consuming and cannot be applied on a continuous basis. Main objective of this work was to assess the potential applicability of microbial fuel cells for continuous clogging assessment in HSSF CW. To this aim, two replicates of a membrane-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) were built up and operated under laboratory conditions for five weeks. The MFC anode was gravel-based to simulate the filter media of HSSF CW. MFC were weekly loaded with sludge that had been accumulating for several years in a pilot HSSF CW treating domestic wastewater. Sludge loading ranged from ca. 20 kg TS·m"− "3 CW·year"− "1 at the beginning of the study period up to ca. 250 kg TS·m"− "3 CW·year"− "1 at the end of the study period. Sludge loading applied resulted in sludge accumulated within the MFC equivalent to a clogging degree ranging from 0.2 years (ca. 0.5 kg TS·m"–"3CW) to ca. 5 years (ca. 10 kg TS·m"–"3CW). Results showed that the electric charge was negatively correlated to the amount of sludge accumulated (degree of clogging). Electron transference (expressed as electric charge) almost ceased when accumulated sludge within the MFC was equivalent to ca. 5 years of clogging (ca. 10 kg TS·m"–"3CW). This result suggests that, although longer study periods under more realistic conditions shall be further performed, HSSF CW operated as a MFC has great potential for clogging assessment. - Highlights: • Microbial fuel cells are used as tool for clogging assessment in constructed wetlands. • Microbial fuel cells were loaded with sludge from constructed wetlands. • Sludge retained within the systems simulated a clogging time ranging from 0.2 to ca. 5 years. • Electrons transferred decreased potentially as function of sludge loading. • Microbial fuel cells have potential for clogging assessment

  14. Microbial fuel cells for clogging assessment in constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, Clara; García, Joan; Puigagut, Jaume, E-mail: jaume.puigagut@upc.edu

    2016-11-01

    Clogging in HSSF CW may result in a reduction of system's life-span or treatment efficiency. Current available techniques to assess the degree of clogging in HSSF CW are time consuming and cannot be applied on a continuous basis. Main objective of this work was to assess the potential applicability of microbial fuel cells for continuous clogging assessment in HSSF CW. To this aim, two replicates of a membrane-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) were built up and operated under laboratory conditions for five weeks. The MFC anode was gravel-based to simulate the filter media of HSSF CW. MFC were weekly loaded with sludge that had been accumulating for several years in a pilot HSSF CW treating domestic wastewater. Sludge loading ranged from ca. 20 kg TS·m{sup −} {sup 3} CW·year{sup −} {sup 1} at the beginning of the study period up to ca. 250 kg TS·m{sup −} {sup 3} CW·year{sup −} {sup 1} at the end of the study period. Sludge loading applied resulted in sludge accumulated within the MFC equivalent to a clogging degree ranging from 0.2 years (ca. 0.5 kg TS·m{sup –3}CW) to ca. 5 years (ca. 10 kg TS·m{sup –3}CW). Results showed that the electric charge was negatively correlated to the amount of sludge accumulated (degree of clogging). Electron transference (expressed as electric charge) almost ceased when accumulated sludge within the MFC was equivalent to ca. 5 years of clogging (ca. 10 kg TS·m{sup –3}CW). This result suggests that, although longer study periods under more realistic conditions shall be further performed, HSSF CW operated as a MFC has great potential for clogging assessment. - Highlights: • Microbial fuel cells are used as tool for clogging assessment in constructed wetlands. • Microbial fuel cells were loaded with sludge from constructed wetlands. • Sludge retained within the systems simulated a clogging time ranging from 0.2 to ca. 5 years. • Electrons transferred decreased potentially as function of sludge loading.

  15. THE ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PERSONALITY: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Suárez-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is fundamental in modern society because it represents an important source of innovation, employment, productivity, and growth. While the first theoretical models arose from economic and sociological approaches, psychology provides models that integrate different aspects such as cognitions, attitudes and personality, which allow a more detailed study. The purpose of this paper is to show the main contributions of psychology to the assessment of the enterprising personality. For this purpose, the main models and instruments developed to date were reviewed. The results confirm that the enterprising personality has a multidimensional structure and eight personality traits can be highlighted: achievement motivation, risk-taking, autonomy, self-efficacy, stress tolerance, innovativeness, internal locus of control, and optimism. From a methodological point of view, Item Response Theory and Computerised Adaptive Tests represent the most advanced and modern methods for assessing enterprising personality. There are currently several measurement instruments available. Future areas of research should be directed at the construction of multidimensional models as well as providing alternatives that facilitate a reduction in social desirability and other biases inherent in self-reports.

  16. Review article Assessment of personality according to Otto Kernberg’s conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Izdebska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the model of personality developed by Otto Kernberg and the research tools designed on the basis of that conception. The paper presents the spectrum of diagnostic methods differing in terms of the level of structuralizing and the form in which they are applied. The first one constructed, the Structural Interview, due to the high requirements within psychoanalytical knowledge and clinical abilities for the individuals who apply it, initiated the development of subsequent methods. They include: the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO, inventory methods, and a clinician-rated instrument referred to as the Personality Organization Diagnostic Form (PODF. Within the scope of inventory methods, two principal tools for which Polish adaptations have been developed are presented, namely: the Inventory of Personality Organization of Kernberg and collaborators, and the Borderline Personality Inventory of Leichsenring. The existence of a broad spectrum of assessment methods of the personality structure makes it possible to take advantage of the conception of Kernberg in the realms of clinical diagnosis, scientific research, and recently also forensic psychology.

  17. The five factor model of personality and intelligence: A twin study on the relationship between the two constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, M.; van Weegen, F.I.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Carlier, M.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association and underlying genetic and environmental influences among intelligence (IQ) and personality in adolescent and young adult twins. Data on intelligence were obtained from psychometric IQ tests and personality was assessed with the short form of the NEO five factor inventory

  18. Environmental assessment of sewer construction in small to medium sized cities using life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In a world with an increasing urban population, analysing the construction impacts of sanitation infrastructures through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is necessary for defining the best environmental management strategies. In this study, the environmental impacts of one linear meter of sewer constructive solution were analysed for different pipe materials and diameters used in Southern Europe; a unit of different sewer appurtenances (pump, manhole and inspection chamber) was also considered. Th...

  19. Rejoinder: A Construct Validity Approach to the Assessment of Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    In this rejoinder, we comment on Wright's response to our reanalysis and reinterpretation of the data presented by Wright and colleagues. Two primary differences characterize these perspectives. First, the conceptualization of grandiose narcissism differs such that emotional and ego vulnerability, dysregulation, and pervasive impairments are more characteristic of Wright's conception, likely due to the degree to which it is tied to clinical observations. Our conceptualization is closer to psychopathy and describes an extraverted, dominant, and antagonistic individual who is relatively less likely to be found in clinical settings. Second, our approach to construct validation differs in that we take an empirical perspective that focuses on the degree to which inventories yield scores consistent with a priori predictions. The grandiose dimension of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI-G) yields data that fail to align with expert ratings of narcissistic personality disorder and grandiose narcissism. We suggest that caution should be taken in treating the PNI-G as a gold standard measure of pathological narcissism, that revision of the PNI-G is required before it can serve as a stand-alone measure of grandiose narcissism, and that the PNI-G should be buttressed by other scales when being used as a measure of grandiose narcissism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Introduction to the special issue on the personality assessment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, John E; Blais, Mark A

    2007-02-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Personality Assessment brings together 13 new research studies on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) that should inform users and stimulate future empirical activity with this measure. In 4 articles, authors evaluate the validity scales and indexes of the PAI using both analog and criterion designs and samples from a variety of clinical and forensic settings. In a 5th article, the authors describe a novel approach to profile interpretation using two PAI negative distortion measures. The authors present applications of the PAI to new populations and problems including a German translation of the PAI and profile information for male batterers and victims of head injury. The authors of 2 studies extend research on the validity of the PAI for the assessment of borderline personality disorder. In the final 3 studies, the authors evaluate the validity of PAI measures of violence and aggression to predict subsequent aggressive behavior and institutional misconduct. Finally, the authors offer several suggestions for future research with the PAI.

  1. Viewing the Personality Traits Through a Cerebellar Lens: a Focus on the Constructs of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    The variance in the range of personality trait expression appears to be linked to structural variance in specific brain regions. In evidencing associations between personality factors and neurobiological measures, it seems evident that the cerebellum has not been up to now thought as having a key role in personality. This paper will review the most recent structural and functional neuroimaging literature that engages the cerebellum in personality traits, as novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and it will discuss the findings in the context of contemporary theories of affective and cognitive cerebellar function. By using region of interest (ROI)- and voxel-based approaches, we recently evidenced that the cerebellar volumes correlate positively with novelty seeking scores and negatively with harm avoidance scores. Subjects who search for new situations as a novelty seeker does (and a harm avoiding does not do) show a different engagement of their cerebellar circuitries in order to rapidly adapt to changing environments. The emerging model of cerebellar functionality may explain how the cerebellar abilities in planning, controlling, and putting into action the behavior are associated to normal or abnormal personality constructs. In this framework, it is worth reporting that increased cerebellar volumes are even associated with high scores in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. On such a basis, it seems necessary to go over the traditional cortico-centric view of personality constructs and to address the function of the cerebellar system in sustaining aspects of motivational network that characterizes the different temperamental traits.

  2. Personal monitoring and assessment of doses received by radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.; Morris, N.D.

    1981-12-01

    The Personal Radiation Monitoring Service operated by the Australian Radiation Laboratory is outlined and the types of monitors used for assessment of doses received by radiation workers are described. The distribution of doses received by radiation workers in different occupational categories is determined. From these distributions, the average doses received have been assessed and the maximum likely additional increase in cancer deaths in Australia as a result of occupational exposure estimated. This increase is shown to be very small. There is, however, a considerable spread of doses received by individuals within occupational groups

  3. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA OF FUNCTIONALITY GEOTEXTILES USED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA Cristinel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed in order to assess the functionality of geotextiles used in road construction. To increase the quality of road works requires the use of geotextiles in their structure. Depending on the role and the benefits they offer, geotextiles have a number of physical properties, hydraulic, endurance and optimal characteristics regarding their degradation. Geotextile properties were identified and divided according to their characteristics area. Thus, there were obtained textile properties oriented towards geotextiles and properties geared to the application field respectively reinforcement, drainage, and filtration. Value engineering works at the level of constructive product conception and production. The instrumentation is done by functional analysis, value functions and design or redesign of geotextile based on the necessary functions. Systematic research method allowed geotextiles dimensioning functions in order to obtain products in terms of quality, reliability and maximum operational performance. Functions obtained from the analysis are appropriate for a single property. After obtaining the set of decisions was possible functions geotextiles hierarchy after the significance of their use. Establishing the importance of the coefficients or characteristics hierarchy after their weight requires the comparison of the features between them and grading them in proportion to their degree of importance. The ranking of these functions is beneficial when designing or redesigning geotextiles.

  4. Database construction for assessment of chronic radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Bledsoe, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a comprehensive dose/risk assessment methodology, CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System), for assessment of atmospheric radionuclide releases (e.g., during decontamination and decommissioning). Radiological effects are calculated for direct atmospheric and ground exposure and for consumption of contaminated agricultural products. Previously, population and agricultural data for CRRIS were tabulated on 1/2-degree square grid cells. This coarse resolution resulted in anomalies such as population in water bodies, agricultural production in city centers, and nonconservation of population over the assessment grid. An even finer mesh (2-minute square grid) is inadequate in densely populated cities where 20,000 or more people live in a square block. These difficulties are overcome by a higher resolution technique using US Census Bureau population data at the most detailed [enumeration district (ED)] level available and by excluding population from unpopulated areas (e.g., water bodies). Agricultural data are available at only the county level and are apportioned to the ED grid according to farm population, conserving the original data. This paper discusses the database construction using Tennessee as an illustration. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Is the Assessment of Personality Comparable in Persons Who Have and Have Not Experienced Depressive, Anxiety, and Substance Use Disorders? An Examination of Measurement Invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; Benini, Laura; Icenogle, Grace; Wilson, Sylia; Klein, Daniel N; Seeley, John R; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2017-08-01

    Numerous studies have focused on characterizing personality differences between individuals with and without psychopathology. For drawing valid conclusions for these comparisons, the personality instruments used must demonstrate psychometric equivalence. However, we are unaware of any studies that examine measurement invariance in personality across individuals with and without psychopathology. This study conducted tests of measurement invariance for positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and disinhibition across individuals with and without histories of depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders. We found consistent evidence that positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and disinhibition were assessed equivalently across all comparisons with each demonstrating strict invariance. Overall, results suggest that comparisons of personality measures between diagnostic groups satisfy the assumption of measurement invariance and these scales represent the same psychological constructs. Thus, mean-level comparisons across these groups are valid tests.

  6. Refining a complex diagnostic construct: subtyping Dysthymia with the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Defife, Jared; Westen, Drew

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether meaningful subtypes of Dysthymic patients could be identified when grouping them by similar personality profiles. A random, national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (n=1201) described a randomly selected current patient with personality pathology using the descriptors in the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II (SWAP-II), completed assessments of patients' adaptive functioning, and provided DSM-IV Axis I and II diagnoses. We applied Q-factor cluster analyses to those patients diagnosed with Dysthymic Disorder. Four clusters were identified-High Functioning, Anxious/Dysphoric, Emotionally Dysregulated, and Narcissistic. These factor scores corresponded with a priori hypotheses regarding diagnostic comorbidity and level of adaptive functioning. We compared these groups to diagnostic constructs described and empirically identified in the past literature. The results converge with past and current ideas about the ways in which chronic depression and personality are related and offer an enhanced means by which to understand a heterogeneous diagnostic category that is empirically grounded and clinically useful. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Perspective on the personal and professional needs of the project leader in construction industry in Libya: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid kadir Pakir

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of leadership is one of the most important factors in determining the success and survival of groups and organizations. The purpose of this paper is to examine the leadership needs of the project manger in the Libyan construction companies. The objective was identified the most important and crucial personal and professional needs of the project manager. This study attempted to identify the needs of the project managers in the construction industry in Libya. The finding has shown that all managers surveyed basically agreed that adherence to law/legality, specific, concise and rational, followed by intuitive and open minded are ranked as the most crucial personal needs that should be acquired to become an effective project manager in the construction industry. On the other hand, attention to details, project focus, adherence to construction industries/ professional codes, time concious / constraints, problem solving were ranked as the crucial professional needs that required the respondents.

  8. Development of a method for personal, spatiotemporal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Colby; Riggs, Philip; Volckens, John

    2009-07-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of a high resolution, space and time-referenced sampling method for personal exposure assessment to airborne particulate matter (PM). This method integrates continuous measures of personal PM levels with the corresponding location-activity (i.e. work/school, home, transit) of the subject. Monitoring equipment include a small, portable global positioning system (GPS) receiver, a miniature aerosol nephelometer, and an ambient temperature monitor to estimate the location, time, and magnitude of personal exposure to particulate matter air pollution. Precision and accuracy of each component, as well as the integrated method performance were tested in a combination of laboratory and field tests. Spatial data was apportioned into pre-determined location-activity categories (i.e. work/school, home, transit) with a simple, temporospatially-based algorithm. The apportioning algorithm was extremely effective with an overall accuracy of 99.6%. This method allows examination of an individual's estimated exposure through space and time, which may provide new insights into exposure-activity relationships not possible with traditional exposure assessment techniques (i.e., time-integrated, filter-based measurements). Furthermore, the method is applicable to any contaminant or stressor that can be measured on an individual with a direct-reading sensor.

  9. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: A social cognitive perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lorente Prieto, Laura; Salanova Soria, Marisa; Martínez Martínez, Isabel M.; Vera Perea, María

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict se...

  10. Personality assessment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, D; Parish-Plass, J

    1995-01-01

    The present research was designed to assess several potentially important factors in the personality structure of a sample of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) as compared to normal control children. Three questionnaires were administered to a group of 28 ADHD boys and to a control group of 83 boys: (1) The Locus of Control Scale for Children; (2) The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; and (3) The Persistence Scale for Children. Results showed that the ADHD children had significantly higher external locus of control, were significantly less persistent, and reported an elevated level of "concentration/social worry" (an anxiety subscale). Such findings can help to clarify both the personality structure and the coping styles of the ADHD child.

  11. Assessment Procedures for Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Comparison of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and Best-Estimate Clinical Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample--one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD)…

  12. Life Cycle Assessment on Cement Treated Recycling Base (CTRB Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarno Sudarno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available LCA is one of the few environmental management techniques that are used to perform a risk assessment, environmental performance evaluation, environmental auditing, and environmental impact assessment and must be applied to the construction CTRB. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of energy consumption is used and determine the amount of emissions (CO2 in the implementation of the Foundation Layer Top (base course with the former asphalt pavement aggregate blended cement / Recycling Cement Treated Base (CTRB. This study uses: (i Compilation and data inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system; (ii Evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with the data input and output; (iii Interpret the results of the inventory analysis and impact assessment in relation to the research objectives. The results showed that Energy consumption in the implementation of recycling pavement (CTRB is 225.46 MJ / km of roads and the resulting GHG emissions 17,43Ton CO2 / km of roads. Previous researchers to calculate the energy consumption of road works on the implementation of conventional (hotmix is 383.46 MJ / km of roads and the resulting GHG emissions 28.24 Ton CO2 / km of roads. If the calculated difference between a job and Hotmix CTRB and then a comparison is made CTRB energy consumption is 158 MJ / km of road, this happens 70.07% savings and GHG emissions resulting difference is 10.81 tons of CO2 / km of road, resulting in a decrease in 62,02%.

  13. Persuasion to use personal protective equipment in constructing subway stations: application of social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Mahmoud; Pariani, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Soleymani-nejad, Marzieh

    2016-04-01

    To study the effects of an intervention based on social marketing to persuade workers to use personal protective equipment (PPE) in constructing subway stations in Isfahan, Iran. This was a quasi-experimental study. Two stations were selected as intervention and control groups. Intervention was designed based on results of a formative research. A free package containing a safety helmet with a tailored message affixed to it, mask and gloves and an educational pamphlet was delivered to the intervention group. After 6 weeks, behaviours in the intervention and control stations were measured using an observational checklist. After the intervention, the percentage of workers who used PPE at the intervention station increased significantly. OR for helmet and mask usage was 7.009 and 2.235, respectively, in the intervention group. Social marketing can be used to persuade workers to use PPE in the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Discourse and media: construction of concepts about person with intellectual disability in advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria de Schipper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed in order to understand language work respecting  the construction of conceptions about Intellectual Disabilities in the contemporary discourse and their discursive genesis. The basis of the discourse analysis were advertisements published by an institution of special education in the period of 1980 to 2009. To perform this action, the Analysis of Discourse (AD from French perspective, especially the concepts of interdiscours, memory and heterogeneity, was used as a theoretical basis. Prior to analyzing, presenting some basic concepts of AD and the various conceptions of disability that have arisen throughout history was proven necessary. The Material for analysis is composed of five advertising texts published on a magazine that represents institutions devoted to the care of people with intellectual disabilities and an advertisement to raise funds. The recovery of memory discourse, considering the socio-historical condition of production of discourse, has given visibility to the different places occupied by the person with intellectual disability in the society in each time reported. At the speeches of subject enunciators, attempts to internalize the social roles focused on educational inclusion have been observed, but at the interdiscours, they proved to be voices that exceeded sediment paradigm of medicalization and work as mission.

  15. Likelihood ratio-based integrated personal risk assessment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriko; Htun, Nay Chi; Daimon, Makoto; Tamiya, Gen; Kato, Takeo; Kubota, Isao; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Fukao, Akira; Kayama, Takamasa; Muramatsu, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate personalized health care for multifactorial diseases, risks of genetic and clinical/environmental factors should be assessed together for each individual in an integrated fashion. This approach is possible with the likelihood ratio (LR)-based risk assessment system, as this system can incorporate manifold tests. We examined the usefulness of this system for assessing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our system employed 29 genetic susceptibility variants, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension as risk factors whose LRs can be estimated from openly available T2D association data for the Japanese population. The pretest probability was set at a sex- and age-appropriate population average of diabetes prevalence. The classification performance of our LR-based risk assessment was compared to that of a non-invasive screening test for diabetes called TOPICS (with score based on age, sex, family history, smoking, BMI, and hypertension) using receiver operating characteristic analysis with a community cohort (n = 1263). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the LR-based assessment and TOPICS was 0.707 (95% CI 0.665-0.750) and 0.719 (0.675-0.762), respectively. These AUCs were much higher than that of a genetic risk score constructed using the same genetic susceptibility variants, 0.624 (0.574-0.674). The use of ethnically matched LRs is necessary for proper personal risk assessment. In conclusion, although LR-based integrated risk assessment for T2D still requires additional tests that evaluate other factors, such as risks involved in missing heritability, our results indicate the potential usability of LR-based assessment system and stress the importance of stratified epidemiological investigations in personalized medicine.

  16. Mechanical characterization and structural assessment of biocomposites for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Sarah Jane

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether or not two particular biocomposite materials, made from hemp fabric and cellulose acetate or polyhydroxybutyrate matrices, are capable of being used for structural and/or construction purposes within in the construction and building industry. The objective of this dissertation was addressed by conducting research to meet the following three goals: (1) to measure the basic mechanical properties of hemp/cellulose acetate and hemp/PHB biocomposites and evaluate if they suitable for use in construction applications, (2) to determine how quickly moisture diffuses into the biocomposite materials and how the moisture affects the mechanical behavior, and (3) to determine how well simple models can predict behavior of structural scale laminates in tension and flexure using biocomposite ply behavior. Compression molding was used to manufacturing the biocomposites from hemp fabric and the themoplastic matrices: cellulose acetate and polyhydroxybutyrate. Four methods for determining the fiber volume fraction were evaluated, and the dissolution method, using different solvents for each matrix type, was used to determine the fiber volume fraction for each composite plate manufactured. Both types of biocomposite were tested in tension, compression, shear, and flexure and the measured properties were compared to wood and engineered wood products to assess whether the biocomposite properties are suitable for use in the construction industry. The biocomposites were conditioned in a humid environment to determine the rate of moisture diffusion into the materials. Then saturated specimens and specimens that were saturated and then dried were tested in tension to evaluate how moisture absorption affects the mechanical behavior of the biocomposites. Finally, simple models of laminate behavior based on laminate plate theory were evaluated to determine if ply level behavior could be used to predict structural scale laminate behavior

  17. "Talking like a Book?" Socioeconomic Differences of Maternal Conversational Styles in Co-Constructing Personal Narratives with Young Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Feng

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated how Taiwanese mothers with different socioeconomic statuses (SES) co-constructed personal experience with their children in narrative conversations. Forty dyads recruited in Taiwan participated in the study, half from middle-class families and half from the working-class. Narrative conversations in Mandarin Chinese were…

  18. Interest Profile Elevation, Big Five Personality Traits, and Secondary Constructs on the Self-Directed Search: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Emily E.; Reardon, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The study used the Self-Directed Search (SDS) and the NEO-FFI to explore profile elevation, four secondary constructs, and the Big Five personality factors in a sample of college students in a career course. Regression model results showed that openness, conscientiousness, differentiation high-low, differentiation Iachan, and consistency accounted…

  19. The heritability of avoidant and dependent personality disorder assessed by personal interview and questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, L C; Czajkowski, N; Røysamb, E; Orstavik, R E; Knudsen, G P; Ostby, K; Torgersen, S; Myers, J; Kendler, K S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T

    2012-12-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) have been shown to be modestly heritable. Accurate heritability estimates are, however, dependent on reliable measurement methods, as measurement error deflates heritability. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of DSM-IV avoidant and dependent personality disorder, by including two measures of the PDs at two time points. Data were obtained from a population-based cohort of young adult Norwegian twins, of whom 8045 had completed a self-report questionnaire assessing PD traits. 2794 of these twins subsequently underwent a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Questionnaire items predicting interview results were selected by multiple regression, and measurement models of the PDs were fitted in Mx. The heritabilities of the PD factors were 0.64 for avoidant PD and 0.66 for dependent PD. No evidence of common environment, that is, environmental factors that are shared between twins and make them similar, was found. Genetic and environmental contributions to avoidant and dependent PD seemed to be the same across sexes. The combination of both a questionnaire- and an interview assessment of avoidant and dependent PD results in substantially higher heritabilities than previously found using single-occasion interviews only. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Orthorexia nervosa: Assessment and correlates with gender, BMI, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Samaghabadi, Razieh O; Hughes, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthorexia nervosa (ON; characterized by an obsessive fixation on eating healthy) may be predicted from the demographics variables of gender and BMI, and from the personality variables of self-esteem, narcissism, and perfectionism. Participants were 459 college students, who completed several online questionnaires that assessed these variables. A principal components analysis confirmed that the Eating Habits Questionnaire (Gleaves, Graham, & Ambwani, 2013) assesses three internally-consistent ON components: healthy eating behaviors, problems resulting from those behaviors, and positive feelings associated with those behaviors. A MANOVA and its tests of between subjects effects then revealed significant interactions between gender and BMI, such that for men but not women, a higher BMI was associated with greater symptomatology for all ON components. Partial correlation analyses, after controlling for gender and BMI, revealed that both narcissism and perfectionism were positively correlated with all aspects of ON symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social science constructs in ecosystem assessments: revisiting community capacity and community resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue; Victoria E. Sturtevant

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development of sociological constructs in community assessment components of large-scale ecosystem assessments. We compare the conceptual and operational development of the constructs of community capacity and community resiliency used in three community assessments in the western United States: the Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team...

  2. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): a new measure for assessing adolescent personality and personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347 also completed the Big Five Inventory-Adolescent, 144 provided 2-week retest data, and 128 others completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. Outpatient adolescents (N = 103) completed the SNAP-Y, and 97 also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. The SNAP-Y demonstrated strong psychometric properties, and structural, convergent, discriminant, and external validities. Consistent with the continuity of personality, results paralleled those in adult and college samples using the adult Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Second Edition (SNAP-2), from which the SNAP-Y derives and which has established validity in personality-trait assessment across the normal-abnormal continuum. The SNAP-Y thus provides a new, clinically useful instrument to assess personality traits and personality pathology in adolescents.

  3. Personality Assessment Inventory scale characteristics and factor structure in the assessment of alcohol dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, J A

    1995-02-01

    Individual scale characteristics and the inventory structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) were examined by conducting internal consistency and factor analyses of item and scale score data from a large group (N = 301) of alcohol-dependent patients. Alpha coefficients, mean inter-item correlations, and corrected item-total scale correlations for the sample paralleled values reported by Morey for a large clinical sample. Minor differences in the scale factor structure of the inventory from Morey's clinical sample were found. Overall, the findings support the use of the PAI in the assessment of personality and psychopathology of alcohol-dependent patients.

  4. Life cycle assessment: applications and implications for the greening of the South African construction sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The inordinate quantities of resources used and pollution released by construction products identify construction as a critical sector for a paradigm shift in consumption and production approaches. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) concept...

  5. Using Purchasing Power Parity to Assess Construction Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Best

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For many reasons comparing construction productivity between countries is a difficult task. One key problem is that of converting construction costs to a common currency. This problem can be overcome relatively simply by using a basket of construction materials and labour, termed a BLOC (Basket of Locally Obtained Commodities, as a unit of construction cost. Average BLOC costs in each location are calculated from data obtained from a number of sources (quantity surveyors, estimators. Typical building costs obtained from published construction cost data are expressed in BLOC equivalents. Lower BLOC equivalents represent higher productivity as other inputs (largely materials are constant. The method provides a relatively simple and direct method for comparing productivity between different locations.

  6. Construction of average adult Japanese voxel phantoms for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira

    2011-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted the adult reference voxel phantoms based on the physiological and anatomical reference data of Caucasian on October, 2007. The organs and tissues of these phantoms were segmented on the basis of ICRP Publication 103. In future, the dose coefficients for internal dose and dose conversion coefficients for external dose calculated using the adult reference voxel phantoms will be widely used for the radiation protection fields. On the other hand, the body sizes and organ masses of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasian. In addition, there are some cases that the anatomical characteristics such as body sizes, organ masses and postures of subjects influence the organ doses in dose assessment for medical treatments and radiation accident. Therefore, it was needed to use human phantoms with average anatomical characteristics of Japanese. The authors constructed the averaged adult Japanese male and female voxel phantoms by modifying the previously developed high-resolution adult male (JM) and female (JF) voxel phantoms. It has been modified in the following three aspects: (1) The heights and weights were agreed with the Japanese averages; (2) The masses of organs and tissues were adjusted to the Japanese averages within 10%; (3) The organs and tissues, which were newly added for evaluation of the effective dose in ICRP Publication 103, were modeled. In this study, the organ masses, distances between organs, specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) and dose conversion coefficients of these phantoms were compared with those evaluated using the ICRP adult reference voxel phantoms. This report provides valuable information on the anatomical and dosimetric characteristics of the averaged adult Japanese male and female voxel phantoms developed as reference phantoms of adult Japanese. (author)

  7. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. The co-construction of medical humanitarianism: analysis of personal, organizationally condoned narratives from an agency website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Iacovou, Melina

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen significant growth in both the size and profile of the humanitarian sector. However, little research has focused upon the constructions of humanitarian practice negotiated by agencies and their workers that serve to sustain engagement in the face personal challenges and critique of the humanitarian enterprise. This study used the public narrative of 129 website postings by humanitarian workers deployed with the health-focused international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to identify recurrent themes in personal, organizationally-condoned, public discourse regarding humanitarian practice. Data represented all eligible postings from a feature on the agency's UK website from May 2002 to April 2012. The text of postings was analysed with respect to emergent themes on an iterative basis. Comprehensive coding of material was achieved through a thematic structure that reflected the core domains of project details, the working environment, characteristics of beneficiaries and recurrent motivational sub-texts. Features of the co-construction of narratives include language serving to neutralize complex political contexts; the specification of barriers as substantive but surmountable; the dominance of the construct of national-international in understanding the operation of teams; intense personal identification with organization values; and the use of resilience as a framing of beneficiary adaptation and perseverance in conditions that--from an external perspective--warrant despair and withdrawal. Recurrent motivational sub-texts include 'making a difference' and contrasts with 'past professional constraints' and 'ordinary life back home.' The prominence of these sub-texts not only highlights key personal agendas but also suggests--notwithstanding policy initiatives regarding stronger contextual rooting and professionalism--continuing organizational emphasis on externality and volunteerism. Overall, postings illustrate a

  9. Atherogenic Risk Assessment among Persons Living in Rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Wekesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease and commonly coexist. Cardiovascular risk can be reliably predicted using lipid ratios such as the atherogenic index, a useful prognostic parameter for guiding timely interventions. Objective. We assessed the cardiovascular risk profile based on the atherogenic index of residents within a rural Ugandan cohort. Methods. In 2011, a population based survey was conducted among 7507 participants. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical measurements (blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumference, and blood sampling for nonfasting lipid profile were collected for each participant. Atherogenic risk profile, defined as logarithm base ten of (triglyceride divided by high density lipoprotein cholesterol, was categorised as low risk (0.24. Results. Fifty-five percent of participants were female and the mean age was 49.9 years (SD±20.2. Forty-two percent of participants had high and intermediate atherogenic risk. Persons with hypertension, untreated HIV infection, abnormal glycaemia, and obesity and living in less urbanised villages were more at risk. Conclusion. A significant proportion of persons in this rural population are at risk of atherosclerosis. Key identified populations at risk should be considered for future intervention against cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality. The study however used parameters from unfasted samples that may have a bearing on observed results.

  10. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify eating disorder subtypes. Because we were interested in both whether the PAI could be used to differentiate eating disorder subtypes from each other, as well as from other disorders, we also included a group of patients with major depression. The three eating disorder groups did differ significantly from each other, and from the patients with depression, on a number of the PAI scales. Only two PAI scales (Anxiety and Depression), however, exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with anorexia nervosa, no scales exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with bulimia nervosa or EDNOS, and only two exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with depression (Depression and Suicide). A discriminant function analysis revealed an overall correct classification between the groups of 81.6%. The PAI helps to understand the psychological factors associated with eating disorders and can be used to assist with assessment. Continued investigation using the PAI in an eating disordered population is supported.

  11. Assessing the privacy policies in mobile personal health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Belén Cruz; Hernández Niñirola, Antonio; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio

    2014-01-01

    The huge increase in the number and use of smartphones and tablets has led health service providers to take an interest in mHealth. Popular mobile app markets like Apple App Store or Google Play contain thousands of health applications. Although mobile personal health records (mPHRs) have a number of benefits, important challenges appear in the form of adoption barriers. Security and privacy have been identified as part of these barriers and should be addressed. This paper analyzes and assesses a total of 24 free mPHRs for Android and iOS. Characteristics regarding privacy and security were extracted from the HIPAA. The results show important differences in both the mPHRs and the characteristics analyzed. A questionnaire containing six questions concerning privacy policies was defined. Our questionnaire may assist developers and stakeholders to evaluate the security and privacy of their mPHRs.

  12. Ethical issues in personality assessment in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, S; VandeCreek, L

    2001-10-01

    In this article we address several ethical issues of concern for psychologists who are engaged in personality assessment in forensic settings such as for courts or attorneys. The ethical issues reviewed include the role of the psychologist as an expert witness, matters of competence, informed consent, confidentiality, multiple relationships, and special issues related to billing. Emphasis is placed on how psychologists can provide useful information to the courts in a manner consistent with the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, the Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologist's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, and the APA's Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings. The practical recommendations made in this article are consistent with the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

  13. Discussion on the method of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics and environmental radiological impact of the highway construction project, the basic procedure of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project is put forward, including analysis and determination of contamination sources, selection of evaluation factors, determination of assessment range and dose limit, environmental investigation, environmental impact prediction and assessment. The working method of each procedure is analyzed. (authors)

  14. The Biographical Personality Interview (BPI)--a new approach to the assessment of premorbid personality in psychiatric research. Part II: Psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zerssen, D; Barthelmes, H; Pössl, J; Black, C; Garzynski, E; Wessel, E; Hecht, H

    1998-01-01

    The Biographical Personality Interview (BPI) was applied to 179 subjects (158 psychiatric patients and 21 probands from the general population); 100 patients and 20 healthy controls served as a validation sample; the others had been interviewed during the training period or did not meet the inclusion criteria for the validation of the BPI. The acceptance of the interview was high, the inter-rater reliability of the ratings of premorbid personality structures ("types") varied between 0.81 and 0.88 per type. Concurrent validity of the typological constructs as assessed by means of the BPI was inferred from the intercorrelations of type scores and correlations of these scores with questionnaire data and proved to be adequate. Clinical validity of the assessment was indicated by statistically significant differences between diagnostic groups. Problems and further developments of the instrument and its application are discussed.

  15. Three-Pronged Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder and its Consequences: Personality Functioning, Pathological Traits, and Psychosocial Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality), and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the three dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the five-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were co-factored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the five-factor level, included (1) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction), (2) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness), (3) disinhibition, (4) poor basic functioning, and (5) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD

  16. An Investigation of the Construct Validity of the Personality Trait of Self-Directed Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W.; Levy, Levy J.; Park, Soo-Hee; Gibson, Lucy W.; Smith, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Based on samples of 398 middle school students, 568 high school students, and 1159 college students, self-directed learning was found to be related to cumulative grade-point-average at all levels as well as to Big Five personality traits (Openness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Extraversion), narrow personality traits (Optimism,…

  17. Levels of Personality Functioning Scale Self-Report Validation Journal of Personality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Evan; Hopwood, Christopher; Morey, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Validation of the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale - Self-Report. Results suggest that the measure has a robust single dimension and that it correlates in a very general manner with a wide range of maladaptive personality variables, consistent with its purpose as a measure of non-specific personality pathology.

  18. Free Associations Mirroring Self- and World-Related Concepts: Implications for Personal Construct Theory, Psycholinguistics and Philosophical Psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuška, M.; Trnka, R.; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín; Růžička, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 981. ISSN 1664-1078 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : psycholinguistics * world * personal construct theory * free association * association network Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kubena-0464017.pdf

  19. An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jonathan K; Yacoubian, George S

    2002-01-01

    Drug testing in the workplace has gone from virtual nonexistence to widespread employer acceptance during the past two decades. This growth is particularly significant for the construction industry. High rates of alcohol and other drug use, coupled with the high-risk, safety-sensitive nature of the industry, have prompted the development of a variety of drug surveillance and prevention strategies. Despite this growing vigilance, no scholarly works have examined the impact of drug-related policies in the construction industry. To address this limitation, we investigate the efficacy of workplace drug-testing programs in reducing injury incident rates and workers' compensation experience-rating modification factors (MODs) within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programs experienced a 51 percent reduction in incident rates within two years of implementation. Moreover, companies that drug test their employees experienced a significant reduction in their MODs. Policy implications are discussed in light of the current findings.

  20. Construction industry, e-business and marketing. Are the dot.coms pushing aside personal relationships?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, Willem

    2001-01-01

    In the present globalizing construction industry, parties in construction industry are looking more internationally for enhancing their business-activities. But what stimulates these developments specifically? It seems to be that the role of information-technology is one of the big drivers for it,

  1. RAPS: Robust and Efficient Automatic Construction of Person-Specific Deformable Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    The construction of Facial Deformable Models (FDMs) is a very challenging computer vision problem, since the face is a highly deformable object and its appearance drastically changes under different poses, expressions, and illuminations. Although several methods for generic FDMs construction, have

  2. Environmentally Sustainable Construction Products and Materials – Assessment of release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Margareta; Laine-Yliijoki, Jutta; Järnström, helena

    The construction sector consumes yearly about half of all natural resourcesextracted in Europe and their transformation into building products has huge energy demands. Therefore the focus of today’s environmental policy is on the building end-of-life scenarios and material efficiency. Here waste...... hardly any construction product is designed keeping recycling/reuse in mind, the “Design for theEnvironment” -concept is one of the key steps towards increased recycling and reuse and thereby towards minimal environmental impacts. This project has been carried out by VTT with cooperation with the Danish...

  3. Pupil Mortification: Digital Photography and Identity Construction in Classroom Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossouard, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Cultural theorists have illuminated how photographic images contribute to autobiographical remembering and identity formation. This has new significance given that digital photography now allows personal images to circulate rapidly amongst peer groups. Taking these insights into classroom contexts, this paper draws on recent case-study data to…

  4. Systems of Selves: the Construction of Meaning in Multiple Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dureen Jean

    Current models for understanding both Multiple Personality Disorder and human mentation in general are both linear in nature and self-perpetuating insofar as most research in this area has been informed and shaped by extant psychological concepts, paradigms and methods. The research for this dissertation made use of anthropological concepts and methods in an attempt to gain a richer understanding of both multiple personality and fundamental universal processes of the mind. Intensive fieldwork using in-depth, open-ended interviewing techniques was conducted with people diagnosed with Multiple Personality Disorder with the purpose of mapping their personality systems in order to discover the nature of the relationships between the various alternate personalities and subsystems comprising the overall personality systems. These data were then analyzed in terms of dynamical systems theory ("Chaos Theory") as a way of understanding various phenomena of multiple personality disorder as well as the overall structure of each system. It was found that the application of the formal characteristics of nonlinear models and equations to multiple personality systems provided a number of new perspectives on mental phenomena. The underlying organizational structure of multiple personality systems can be understood as a phenomenon of spontaneous self-organization in far-from -equilibrium states which characterizes dissipative structures. Chaos Theory allows the perspective that the nature of the process of the self and the nature of relationship are one and the same, and that both can be conceived as ideas in struggle at a fractal boundary. Further, such application makes it possible to postulate an iterative process which would have as one of its consequences the formation of a processural self who is conscious of self as separate self. Finally, given that the iterative application of a few simple rules (or instructions) can result in complex systems, an attempt was made to discern

  5. A Model for Traffic Accidents Prediction Based on Driver Personality Traits Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Čubranić-Dobrodolac

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The model proposed in this paper uses four psychological instruments for assessing driver behaviour and personality traits aiming to find a relationship between the considered constructs and the occurrence of traffic accidents. A Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 was used for the assessment of impulsivity, Aggressive Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (ADBQ for assessing the aggressiveness while driving, Manchester Driver Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ and the Questionnaire for self-assessment of driving ability. Besides these instruments, the participants filled out an extensive demographic survey. Within the statistical analysis, in addition to the descriptive indicators, correlation coefficients were calculated and four hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine the predictive power of personality traits on the occurrence of traffic accidents. Further, to confirm the results and to obtain additional information about the relationship between the considered variables, the structural equation modelling and binary logistic regression have been implemented. A sample of this research covered 305 drivers, of which there were 100 bus drivers and 102 truck drivers, as well as 103 drivers of privately owned vehicles. The results indicate that BIS-11 and ADBQ questionnaires show the best predictive power which means that impulsivity and aggressiveness as personality traits have the greatest influence on the occurrence of traffic accidents. This research could be useful in many fields, such as the design of selection procedures for professional drivers, development of programs for the prevention of traffic accidents and violations of law, rehabilitation of drivers who have been deprived of the driving license, etc.

  6. A clinical nutritional information system with personalized nutrition assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-E; Lai, Hui-San; Hsu, Jen-Ming; Yu, Yao-Chang; Zheng, Dong-Zhe; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2018-03-01

    Traditional nutrition evaluations not only require the use of numerous tables and lists to provide sufficient recommendations for patients' diets but are also very time-consuming due to cross-referencing and calculations. To personalize patient assessments, this study implemented a Clinical Nutritional Information System (CNIS) to help hospital dietitians perform their daily work more effectively in terms of time management and paper work. The CNIS mainly targets in-patients who require cancer-nutrition counselling. The development of the CNIS occurred in three phases. Phase 1 included system design and implementation based on the Nutrition Care Process and Model (NCPM) and the Patient Nutrition Care Process. Phase 2 involved a survey to characterize the efficiency, quality and accuracy of the CNIS. In Phase 3, a second survey was conducted to determine how well dietitians had adapted to the system and the extent of improvement in efficiency after the CNIS had been available online for three years. The work time requirements decreased by approximately 58% with the assistance of the CNIS. Of the dietitians who used the CNIS, 95% reported satisfaction, with 91.66% indicating that the CNIS was really helpful in their work. However, some shortcomings were also evident according to the results. Dietitians favoured the standardization of nutritional intervention and monitoring. The CNIS meets the needs of dietitians by increasing the quality of nutritional interventions by providing accurate calculations and cross-referencing for information regarding patients' conditions, with the benefit of decreasing the processing time, such as handwritten documentation. In addition, the CNIS also helps dietitians statistically analyse each patient's personal nutritional needs to achieve nutritional improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The concept of ego threat in social and personality psychology: is ego threat a viable scientific construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Terry, Meredith L; Batts Allen, Ashley; Tate, Eleanor B

    2009-08-01

    Although widely invoked as an explanation for psychological phenomena, ego threat has been conceptualized and induced in a variety of ways. Most contemporary research conceptualizes ego threat as a threat to a person's self-image or self-esteem, but experimental operationalizations of ego threat usually confound threats to self-esteem with threats to public image or decreased control over negative events, leading to an inability to distinguish the effects of threats to people's personal egos from threats to public image or threats to feelings of control. This article reviews research on ego threat, discusses experimental manipulations that confound ego threat with other processes, and makes recommendations regarding the use of ego threat as a construct in personality and social psychology.

  8. Risk assessment and model for community-based construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It, therefore, becomes necessary to systematically manage uncertainty in community-based construction in order to increase the likelihood of meeting project objectives using necessary risk management strategies. Risk management, which is an iterative process due to the dynamic nature of many risks, follows three main ...

  9. Construction of Valid and Reliable Test for Assessment of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadebe, P. U.

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out to construct a valid and reliable test in Economics for secondary school students. Two research questions were drawn to guide the establishment of validity and reliability for the Economics Achievement Test (EAT). It is a multiple choice objective test of five options with 100 items. A sample of 1000 students was randomly…

  10. assessment of supply chain management in nigerian construction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    technique of SCM in order to reduce the overall construction cost by streaming the flow of supplies to ... It was further reported that a supply chain involved a network of firms ... The conception of SCM arose over the idea of sub – optimization.

  11. Towards Sustainable Construction: Life Cycle Assessment of Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli

    Since last few decades, the increased pressure from the environmental issues of natural resource depletion, global warming and air pollution have posed a great challenge worldwide. Among all the industrial fields, bridge infrastructures and their belonged construction sector contribute to a wide...

  12. Constructive Technology Assessment : STS for and with Technology Actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konrad, Kornelia Elke; Rip, Arie; Schulze Greiving-Stimberg, Verena Carolin

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, STS has more and more moved from a predominant analytical gaze to engaging with the very fields and processes it is concerned with. At the University of Twente, STePS researchers have early on embarked on this road, with a key strand having evolved under the heading of Constructive

  13. The importance and acceptability of general and maladaptive personality trait computerized assessment feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengel, Gregory J; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-01-01

    Personality traits are a useful component of clinical assessment, and have been associated with positive and negative life outcomes. Assessment of both general and maladaptive personality traits may be beneficial practice, as they may complement each other to comprehensively and accurately describe one's personality. Notably, personal preferences regarding assessment feedback have not been studied. The current study examined the acceptability of personality assessment feedback from the perspective of the examinee. Treatment-seeking participants from a university (n = 72) and Amazon.com MTurk (n = 101) completed measures of the 5-factor model and the DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorder, and were then provided feedback on their general and maladaptive personality traits. Individuals then provided feedback on which aspects they found most useful. Results demonstrated strong participant agreement that the personality trait feedback was accurate and relevant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Construct Validity evidence for the Intercultural Readiness Check against the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, KI; Brinkmann, U

    The psychometric qualities of the intercultural readiness check (IRC) were evaluated against an existing instrument for multicultural effectiveness: the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). The IRC has scales for intercultural sensitivity, intercultural communication, intercultural

  15. Construct validity evidence for the intercultural readiness check against the multicultural personality questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.I.; Brinkmann, Ursula

    The psychometric qualities of the intercultural readiness check (IRC) were evaluated against an existing instrument for multicultural effectiveness: the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). The IRC has scales for intercultural sensitivity, intercultural communication, intercultural

  16. Personal responsibility and obesity: a constructive approach to a controversial issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Kelly D; Kersh, Rogan; Ludwig, David S; Post, Robert C; Puhl, Rebecca M; Schwartz, Marlene B; Willett, Walter C

    2010-01-01

    The concept of personal responsibility has been central to social, legal, and political approaches to obesity. It evokes language of blame, weakness, and vice and is a leading basis for inadequate government efforts, given the importance of environmental conditions in explaining high rates of obesity. These environmental conditions can override individual physical and psychological regulatory systems that might otherwise stand in the way of weight gain and obesity, hence undermining personal responsibility, narrowing choices, and eroding personal freedoms. Personal responsibility can be embraced as a value by placing priority on legislative and regulatory actions such as improving school nutrition, menu labeling, altering industry marketing practices, and even such controversial measures as the use of food taxes that create healthier defaults, thus supporting responsible behavior and bridging the divide between views based on individualistic versus collective responsibility.

  17. Development of a group work assessment pedagogy using constructive alignment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Suzanne R

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore group work assessment underpinned by constructive alignment theory to develop a new assessment pedagogy. A review was undertaken of an existing module 'Mental Health Nursing 1', with student nurses participating in the BSc (Hons) Nursing Programme. Constructive alignment theory requires teachers to adopt a deep approach to learning where module learning outcomes are aligned with the teaching environment and modes of assessment. As the module progressed, reviewing the Mental Health Nursing 1 module became an excellent opportunity to begin to understand how constructive alignment theory can inform a group work assessment pedagogy. Working using a constructively aligned assessment process became a valuable learning experience for the module leader whilst at the same time revealed a gap in the research around the impact of constructively aligned teaching and group work assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  19. AN ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING MATERIAL STOCK CONTROL PRACTICE ON SELECTED CONSTRUCTION SITES IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adafin, Johnson Kayode; Ayodele, Elijah Olusegun; Daramola, Olufemi

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the stock control methods utilized by construction firms on construction sites with a view to assessing the factors affecting material stock control practice by construction firms as well as determining the impact of factors affecting material stock control on building project performance. Data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered on a number of construction professionals and technicians in some randomly selected building constructio...

  20. On the integration of personality assessment methods: the Rorschach and MMPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G J

    1997-04-01

    Despite being the most studied and used personality assessment tools, data from the Rorschach and MMPI generally disagree (Archer & Krishnamurthy, 1993a, 1993b). Independence is proposed to result from at least 3 factors: (a) the methods tap unique levels of personality, (b) personality has a complex organization, and (c) response styles generate considerable method variance that must be considered in nomothetic research. These ideas led to 5 hypotheses, each of which received support. Rorschach and MMPI response styles are uncorrelated, although response styles are quite consistent within a method family. MMPI-2 and Rorschach constructs of dysphoria, psychosis, or wariness are uncorrelated when response styles are ignored. However, robust convergent validity is evident when patients have similar response styles on each method (e.g., for dysphoria, M r = .59) and dysphoria is expressed in opposing ways on each method when response styles are discordant (i.e., M r = -.54). Data from the latter analyses were correlated with genuine clinical phenomena and implications were discussed for clinical practice and research.

  1. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research.

  2. Validation of a Modified Life-Space Assessment in Multimorbid Older Persons With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Phoebe; Werner, Christian; Bongartz, Martin; Kiss, Rainer; Bauer, Jürgen; Hauer, Klaus

    2018-01-31

    To investigate the validity, reliability, sensitivity to change, and feasibility of a modified University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging Life-Space Assessment (UAB-LSA) in older persons with cognitive impairment (CI). The UAB-LSA was modified for use in persons with CI Life-Space Assessment for Persons with Cognitive Impairment (LSA-CI). Measurement properties of the LSA-CI were investigated using data of 118 multimorbid older participants with CI [mean age (SD): 82.3 (6.0) years, mean Mini-Mental State Examination score: 23.3 (2.4) points] from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to improve motor performance and physical activity. Construct validity was asessed by Spearman's rank (rs) and point-biseral correlations (rpb) with age, gender, motor, and cognitive status, psychosocial factors, and sensor-derived (outdoor) physical activity variables. Test-retest reliability was analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Sensitivity to change was determined by standardized response means (SRMs) calculated for the RCT intervention group. The LSA-CI demonstrated moderate to high construct validity, with significant correlations of the LSA-CI scores with (outdoor) physical activity (rs = .23-.63), motor status (rs = .27-.56), fear of falling-related psychosocial variables (rs = |.24-.44|), and demographic characteristics (rpb = |.27-.32|). Test-retest reliability was good to excellent (ICC = .65-.91). Sensitivity to change was excellent for the LSA-CI composite score (SRM = .80) and small to moderate for the LSA-CI subscores (SRM = .35-.60). A completion rate of 100% and a mean completion time of 4.1 min) documented good feasibility. The LSA-CI represents a valid, reliable, sensitive, and feasible interview-based life-space assessment tool in multimorbid older persons with CI. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Assessment of metal retention in newly constructed highway embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2016-12-01

    Newly constructed embankments should provide both a specific bearing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases and a sufficient pollutant retention capacity to protect the groundwater. A number of lysimeters were installed along the A115 highway to determine total and dissolved metal concentrations in road runoff and in the soil solution of newly constructed embankments. Dissolved concentrations in soil solution of the embankments did not exceed the trigger values of the German legislation. Depending on the metal, total concentrations in soil solution were more than twice as high as dissolved concentrations. The high infiltration rates lead to increased groundwater recharge beneath the embankments (up to 4100 mm a -1 ). Although metal concentrations were not problematic from the legislators' point of view, the elevated infiltration rates beside the road facilitated the transfer of high metal loads into deeper soil layers and potentially into the groundwater as well.

  4. Assessment of different construction and demolition waste management approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal S. Abdelhamid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The waste generated from construction and demolition sites is considered one of the most irritating problems in Egypt. In the last 10 years some effort has been made toward solving this problem, the most outstanding is the newly issued Egyptian rating system “Green Pyramids Rating System”. It emphasizes on waste management and particularly “site provision and environment” which contributes to 75% of the management category score. However the traditional practice which is limited to dumping all the generated waste is still dominating. The absence of sustainable practices in construction sector in Egypt led to the lack in financial and environmental data. From strategic perspective, the research aims at developing a detailed procedure to evaluate two construction and demolition waste management approaches by means of Decision Matrix technique. A detailed study is introduced for the two approaches; for each approach a flow chart is developed to demonstrate its lifecycle, as well as the cost break down structure and the different stakeholders’ roles. A penetration discussion of the pros and cons for each approach was developed accordingly and came out with sixteen influencing attributes for both approaches. The previous steps paved the ground to construct a Decision Matrix to decide on one of the approaches from a strategic environmentally oriented perspective. The study relied on the detailed and deep demonstration of the two approaches to justify the assigned weight for attributes and scores for corresponding approach. From a strategic perspective, the decision came out in favor of the more environmentally friendly approach.

  5. Assessment of natural radiation exposure inside a newly constructed building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Sadasivan, S.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sundaram, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation exposure to the population. Several building materials used for a newly constructed building complex were analysed for 40 K, 238 U radioactivity by gamma ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose inside the complex was evaluated by using the computer code QAD-CGGP. External dose rate was also measured by using scintillation gamma monitor. Calculated and the measured dose rate values are discussed. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Improved Necker Cube Drawing-Based Assessment Battery for Constructional Apraxia: The Mie Constructional Apraxia Scale (MCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Satoh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Constructional apraxia (CA is usually diagnosed by having patients draw figures; however, the reported assessments only evaluate the drawn figure. We designed a new assessment battery for CA (the Mie Constructional Apraxia Scale, MCAS which includes both the shape and drawing process, and investigated its utility against other assessment methods. Methods: We designed the MCAS, and evaluated inter- and intrarater reliability. We also investigated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values in dementia patients, and compared MCAS assessment with other reported batteries in the same subjects. Results: Moderate interrater reliability was shown for speech therapists with limited experience. Moderate to substantial intrarater reliability was shown several weeks after initial assessment. When cutoff scores and times were set at 2/3 points and 39/40 s, sensitivity and specificity were 77.1 and 70.4%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 80.0 and 66.7%, respectively. Dementia patients had significantly worse scores and times for Necker cube drawing than an elderly control group on the MCAS, and on other assessments. Conclusions: We conclude that the MCAS, which includes both the assessment of the drawn Necker cube shape and the drawing process, is useful for detecting even mild CA.

  7. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley M.; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A. [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States); Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas [Fraunhofer USA – CCL, 1449 Engineering Research Ct., East Lansing 48824, MI (United States); Dweik, Badawi M., E-mail: bdweik@ginerinc.com [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium.

  8. Structure, Fit and Coherence of Two Circumplex Assessments of Personality in a Population with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W. R.; Steptoe, L.; Hogue, T. E.; Mooney, P.; Taylor, J. L.; Morrissey, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little research has been conducted investigating the way in which personality constructs relate to people with intellectual disabilities. The small amount of research that does exist suggests that underlying personality structure may be considerably different to that found in mainstream research. This hypothesis is, however, untested…

  9. Deep learning for constructing microblog behavior representation to identify social media user’s personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of information technology, the Internet has gradually become a part of everyday life. People would like to communicate with friends to share their opinions on social networks. The diverse behavior on socials networks is an ideal reflection of users’ personality traits. Existing behavior analysis methods for personality prediction mostly extract behavior attributes with heuristic analysis. Although they work fairly well, they are hard to extend and maintain. In this paper, we utilize a deep learning algorithm to build a feature learning model for personality prediction, which could perform an unsupervised extraction of the Linguistic Representation Feature Vector (LRFV activity without supervision from text actively published on the Sina microblog. Compared with other feature extractsion methods, LRFV, as an abstract representation of microblog content, could describe a user’s semantic information more objectively and comprehensively. In the experiments, the personality prediction model is built using a linear regression algorithm, and different attributes obtained through different feature extraction methods are taken as input of the prediction model, respectively. The results show that LRFV performs better in microblog behavior descriptions, and improves the performance of the personality prediction model.

  10. Personality Matters: Relevance and Assessment of Personality Characteristics. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 157

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaraš, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Personality characteristics shape human behaviour and influence a wide range of life events and outcomes. They do so not only through their direct effects on life outcomes, but also through their indirect effects on other important personal factors and intermediate life events, such as the development of cognitive capacities, the attainment of…

  11. Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: a study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, J L; Benet-Martínez, V; Garolera, J

    2001-09-01

    This research argues that the meaning embedded in consumption symbols, such as commercial brands, can serve to represent and institutionalize the values and beliefs of a culture. Relying on a combined emic-etic approach, the authors conducted 4 studies to examine how symbolic and expressive attributes associated with commercial brands are structured and how this structure varies across 3 cultures. Studies 1 and 2 revealed a set of "brand personality" dimensions common to both Japan and the United States (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, and Sophistication), as well as culture-specific Japanese (Peacefulness) and American (Ruggedness) dimensions. Studied 3 and 4, which extended this set of findings to Spain, yielded brand personality dimensions common to both Spain and the United States (Sincerity, Excitement, and Sophistication), plus nonshared Spanish (Passion) and American (Competence and Ruggedness) dimensions. The meaning of these brand personality dimensions is discussed in the context of cross-cultural research on values and affect, globalization issues, and cultural frame shifting.

  12. Assessment of leaching from Construction & Demolition Waste concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste features two very important properties when considering its management options: the large amounts, and the low environmental hazardousness. Therefore, concrete waste can be recycled relatively easily: most common end-of-life option is utilization as unbound...... approaches exist, often implying unrealistic or not relevant conditions if compared to real life utilization scenarios. A modified version of the CEN/TS 14405 column percolation test has been implemented on four crushed concrete samples, with the purpose of analysing the release of chromium, one...

  13. Construction and pilot assessment of the Lower Limb Function Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allart, Etienne; Paquereau, Julie; Rogeau, Caroline; Daveluy, Walter; Kozlowski, Odile; Rousseaux, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Stroke often leads to upright standing and walking impairments. Clinical assessments do not sufficiently address ecological aspects and the patient's subjective evaluation of function. To perform a pilot assessment of the psychometric properties of the Lower Limb-Function Assessment Scale (LL-FAS). The LL-FAS includes 30 items assessing the patient's perception (in a questionnaire) and the examiner's perception (in a practical test) of upright standing and walking impairments and their impact on activities of daily living. We analyzed the LL-FAS's reliability, construct validity, internal consistency, predictive validity and feasibility. Thirty-five stroke patients were included. The scale's mean ± SD completion time was 25 ± 6 min. Intra-observer reliability was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC >0.82). Interobserver reliability was moderate (0.67 0.9) and predictive validity were excellent. The LL-FAS showed fair psychometric properties in this pilot study and may be of value for evaluating post-stroke lower limb impairment.

  14. Mood disorder history and personality assessment in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, D G; Bond, A J; Wingrove, J

    2001-09-01

    Menstrually related dysphoria is known to be associated with other affective disorders, notably major depressive disorder and puerperal depression. The relationship between premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and maladaptive personality disorders and traits, however, is less established, at least in part because of the methodological and nosologic difficulties in the diagnosis of both PMDD and personality disorders. This study seeks to address this problem to elucidate the relationship between PMDD, other affective disturbances commonly experienced by women, and maladaptive personality. Axis I and II disorders were examined using standardized instruments and stringent diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV and the International Personality Disorders Examination) in 34 women with DSM-IV PMDD and 22 healthy women without severe premenstrual mood changes. Seventy-seven percent of the PMDD group had suffered from a past Axis I disorder in comparison with 17% of the control group. Two thirds of the parous women with PMDD had suffered from major depressive disorder in the puerperium. Personality disorder diagnoses were not highly represented in either group of women. The women with PMDD had significantly more obsessional personality traits (p personality disorder diagnoses. Obsessional symptoms are known to cluster with the affective disorders and may reflect underlying temperamental and biological vulnerability. This study provides further evidence of the link between serotonergic dysregulation, personality vulnerability, and mood changes related to the female reproductive cycle.

  15. Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students: A Programmatic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melançon, Jérôme; Goebel, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students (PLAS) program at the University of Alberta (UofA) is a creative outgrowth of the growing Personal Librarian programs in academic libraries, in which a student is partnered with an individual librarian for the academic year. In the case of the UofA's PLAS program, first-year undergraduate students who…

  16. Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…

  17. Industrial Assessment of Creative Persons and Work Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Peter D.

    While personality psychology has a definite contribution to make to the study of industrial psychology and organizational behavior, it is a contribution with parameters, limitations, and areas of expertise which need to be better defined. Many industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists are skeptical of the utility of personality measures for…

  18. The contamination of personal space : boundary construction in a prison environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibley, David; van Hoven, Bettina

    In this paper, inmates in dormitories in a prison in New Mexico, USA, talk about their everyday lives. We are particularly interested in the ways in which they think about space. Their principal concern appears to be the definition of personal space in an environment where boundaries are weak. The

  19. Personal and social meanings of wilderness: Constructing and contesting places in a global village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2000-01-01

    Description: This paper takes a social constructionist approach to examine the nature and dynamics of personal and social meanings of wilderness. The paper builds on geographic and social theory to discuss the ways in which conflicts over the meaning and value of wilderness are significant consequences of modernization and globalization. The process of modernization...

  20. An Assessment Of Compliance Of Building Construction Projects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indirect impacts on the environment by displacement of communities and ... These pose threats to the existence of man and the sustenance of natural vegetation. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is encapsulated as a practicable ...

  1. Construct validity of the Groningen Frailty Indicator established in a large sample of home-dwelling elderly persons: Evidence of stability across age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, L L; Boter, H; Burgerhof, J G M; Slaets, J P J; Buskens, E

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) in a sample of Dutch elderly persons participating in LifeLines, a large population-based cohort study. Additional aims were to assess differences between frail and non-frail elderly and examine which individual characteristics were associated with frailty. By December 2012, 5712 elderly persons were enrolled in LifeLines and complied with the inclusion criteria of the present study. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the variability of GFI-scores among elderly subgroups that differed in demographic characteristics, morbidity, obesity, and healthcare utilization. Within subgroups Kruskal-Wallis tests were also used to examine differences in GFI-scores across age groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between individual characteristics and frailty. The GFI discriminated between subgroups: statistically significantly higher GFI-median scores (interquartile range) were found in e.g. males (1 [0-2]), the oldest old (2 [1-3]), in elderly who were single (1 [0-2]), with lower socio economic status (1 [0-3]), with increasing co-morbidity (2 [1-3]), who were obese (2 [1-3]), and used more healthcare (2 [1-4]). Overall age had an independent and statistically significant association with GFI scores. Compared with the non-frail, frail elderly persons experienced statistically significantly more chronic stress and more social/psychological related problems. In the multivariate logistic regression model, psychological morbidity had the strongest association with frailty. The present study supports the construct validity of the GFI and provides an insight in the characteristics of (non)frail community-dwelling elderly persons participating in LifeLines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of handheld devices to field research among underserved construction worker populations: a workplace health assessment pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleming Lora E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel low-cost approaches for conducting rapid health assessments and health promotion interventions among underserved worker groups are needed. Recruitment and participation of construction workers is particularly challenging due to their often transient periods of work at any one construction site, and their limited time during work to participate in such studies. In the present methodology report, we discuss the experience, advantages and disadvantages of using touch screen handheld devices for the collection of field data from a largely underserved worker population. Methods In March 2010, a workplace-centered pilot study to examine the feasibility of using a handheld personal device for the rapid health assessment of construction workers in two South Florida Construction sites was undertaken. A 45-item survey instrument, including health-related questions on tobacco exposure, workplace safety practices, musculoskeletal disorders and health symptoms, was programmed onto Apple iPod Touch® devices. Language sensitive (English and Spanish recruitment scripts, verbal consent forms, and survey questions were all preloaded onto the handheld devices. The experience (time to survey administration and capital cost of the handheld administration method was recorded and compared to approaches available in the extant literature. Results Construction workers were very receptive to the recruitment, interview and assessment processes conducted through the handheld devices. Some workers even welcomed the opportunity to complete the questionnaire themselves using the touch screen handheld device. A list of advantages and disadvantages emerged from this experience that may be useful in the rapid health assessment of underserved populations working in a variety of environmental and occupational health settings. Conclusions Handheld devices, which are relatively inexpensive, minimize survey response error, and allow for easy storage of data

  3. Application of handheld devices to field research among underserved construction worker populations: a workplace health assessment pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Clarke, Tainya C; Davila, Evelyn P; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J

    2011-04-01

    Novel low-cost approaches for conducting rapid health assessments and health promotion interventions among underserved worker groups are needed. Recruitment and participation of construction workers is particularly challenging due to their often transient periods of work at any one construction site, and their limited time during work to participate in such studies. In the present methodology report, we discuss the experience, advantages and disadvantages of using touch screen handheld devices for the collection of field data from a largely underserved worker population. In March 2010, a workplace-centered pilot study to examine the feasibility of using a handheld personal device for the rapid health assessment of construction workers in two South Florida Construction sites was undertaken. A 45-item survey instrument, including health-related questions on tobacco exposure, workplace safety practices, musculoskeletal disorders and health symptoms, was programmed onto Apple iPod Touch® devices. Language sensitive (English and Spanish) recruitment scripts, verbal consent forms, and survey questions were all preloaded onto the handheld devices. The experience (time to survey administration and capital cost) of the handheld administration method was recorded and compared to approaches available in the extant literature. Construction workers were very receptive to the recruitment, interview and assessment processes conducted through the handheld devices. Some workers even welcomed the opportunity to complete the questionnaire themselves using the touch screen handheld device. A list of advantages and disadvantages emerged from this experience that may be useful in the rapid health assessment of underserved populations working in a variety of environmental and occupational health settings. Handheld devices, which are relatively inexpensive, minimize survey response error, and allow for easy storage of data. These technological research modalities are useful in the

  4. Professional Development in Person: Identity and the Construction of Teaching within a High School Science Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneroff, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    This is a narrative inquiry into the role of professional development in the construction of teaching practice by an exemplary urban high school science teacher. I collected data during 3 years of ethnographic participant observation in Marie Gonzalez's classroom. Marie told stories about her experiences in ten years of professional development…

  5. Delineating the Construct Network of the Personnel Reaction Blank: Associations with Externalizing Tendencies and Normal Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Gasperi, Marianna; Steffen, Benjamin; Ones, Deniz S.; Arvey, Richard D.; de Oliveira Baumgartl, Viviane; do Nascimento, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Integrity testing has long been utilized in personnel selection to screen for tendencies toward counterproductive workplace behaviors. The construct of externalizing from the psychopathology literature represents a coherent spectrum marked by disinhibitory traits and behaviors. The present study drew on a sample of male and female undergraduates…

  6. Study on environmental impact assessment index system of uranium production base construction plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochao; Song Liquan

    2008-01-01

    The index system on planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction is discussed by using the hiberarchy method according to characteristics of uranium production and environmental protection object of planning assessment. The suggested index system is in favor of persistent exploitation of uranium resource and environmental protection in the uranium mining area, and can provide a reference for planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction in China. (authors)

  7. Occupational risk assessment in the construction industry in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi Azad Mard, Hamid Reza; Estiri, Ali; Hadadi, Parinaz; Seifi Azad Mard, Mahshid

    2017-12-01

    Occupational accidents in the construction industry are more common compared with other fields and these accidents are more severe compared with the global average in developing countries, especially in Iran. Studies which lead to the source of these accidents and suggest solutions for them are therefore valuable. In this study a combination of the failure mode and effects analysis method and fuzzy theory is used as a semi-qualitative-quantitative method for analyzing risks and failure modes. The main causes of occupational accidents in this field were identified and analyzed based on three factors; severity, detection and occurrence. Based on whether the risks are high or low priority, modifying actions were suggested to reduce the occupational risks. Finally, the results showed that high priority risks had a 40% decrease due to these actions.

  8. Assessing the impacts of implementing lean construction Evaluando los impactos de la implementación de lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Alarcón

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years an increasing number of companies have implemented lean construction practices in an attempt to improve performance in construction projects. Most companies, and also some researchers, have reported satisfactory results from their implementation. However, there is still a need to provide more extensive analysis of the empirical evidence available to assess the impact of the implementation of lean construction. The authors have researched the implementation of the Last Planner System and other Lean Construction techniques in over one hundred construction projects over the last five years. They have also developed strategies and support tools for implementation. This paper analyzes some of the main impacts observed in the studied projects, and some of the lessons learned from implementations. The paper discusses difficulties and barriers for implementation, productivity improvements, variability reduction and effectiveness of implementation strategies. The paper also provides recommendations for future implementation and researchEn los últimos 10 años un creciente número de empresas constructoras ha implementado prácticas de Lean Construction para mejorar el desempeño de sus proyectos. La mayor parte de estas empresas, y también algunos investigadores, han informado sobre buenos resultados obtenidos en los proyectos. Sin embargo, todavía es necesario un análisis más completo de la evidencia empírica disponible para evaluar así el impacto de Lean Construction en los proyectos y empresas. Los autores han investigado la implementación del Sistema Ultimo Planificador y otras técnicas de Lean Construction en mas de un centenar de proyectos en los últimos 5 años y han desarrollado estrategias y herramientas de apoyo para su implementación. Este artículo analiza algunos de los principales impactos observados en los proyectos estudiados y las lecciones aprendidas en este proceso. Se discuten dificultades y barreras

  9. Framing the construct of life satisfaction in terms of older adults' personal goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, B D; Fischer, K

    1992-03-01

    Older adults' life satisfaction can be better understood in light of their personal goals. This study of 179 elders examined (a) how goals correlate with satisfaction, (b) whether elders maintain satisfaction by accommodating goals to past losses, and (c) how correlations between satisfaction and key predictors differ among groups with different goals. Satisfaction was related positively to social maintenance and energetic life-style goals and negatively to concerns for improvement, disengagement, stability, and reduced activity. Past losses were correlated with current goals but not with satisfaction, consistent with the notion of accommodation. A cluster analysis identified 5 patterns of goals: high demand, age prescribed, self-focused, socially engaged, and low demand. Correlations between satisfaction and other predictors differed by cluster, suggesting that the determinants of elders' satisfaction depend on personal goals.

  10. Comparing the constructs of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet I; South, Susan C

    2006-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and psychopathy among a sample of 137 female offenders. Drawing from a historical review of the evolution of these two concepts, we explore their differential relationship to patterns of criminal behavior, psychological adjustment, co-morbidity with other personality disorders, victimization, and institutional adjustment. Findings suggest that the two disorders share a common foundation of social norm violations and deception; however, APD is associated with impulsive, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior, higher rates of childhood abuse, and greater co-morbidity with Cluster A PDs, while psychopathy is better characterized by higher rates of property crimes, previous incarceration, and the manifestation of remorselessness. Results contribute to a further understanding of the etiology and phenomenology of these two disorders and suggest different types of treatment and intervention. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Internet addiction components model and personality: establishing construct validity via a nomological network

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Van de Mheen, D; Griffiths, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern over excessive and sometimes problematic Internet use. Drawing upon the framework of the components model of addiction (Griffiths, 2005), Internet addiction appears as behavioural addiction characterised by the following symptoms: salience, withdrawal, tolerance, mood modification, relapse and conflict. A number of factors have been associated with an increased risk for Internet addiction, including personality traits. The overall aim of this study was to establish th...

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Construction and Operation of New Vehicle Maintenance Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    reasonably foreseeable future actions regardless of what agency (federal or non-federal) or person undertakes such actions” (40 CFR 1508.7). Cumulative... clubhouse /pool and playgrounds. MFH 734,789 and Clughouse 22,500 sf (Under Construction) 70,355 757,298 Yes (05) 05 1500 Army Aviation Support

  13. Pre-persons, commodities or cyborgs: the legal construction and representation of the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores how embryos have been represented in law. It argues that two main models have underpinned legal discourse concerning the embryo. One discourse, which has become increasingly prevalent, views embryos as legal subjects or persons. Such representations are facilitated by technological developments such as ultrasound imaging. In addition to influencing Parliamentary debate prior to the passage of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990, images of embryos as persons feature prominently in popular culture, including advertising and films, and this discourse came to the fore in the 'orphaned embryo' debate in 1996. The main opposing discourse dismisses embryos as commodifiable objects, which fits with a trend towards legal recognition that reproductive materials such as sperm may be classified as property which may be donated or sold. In the case of cryopreserved embryos these competing perspectives have resulted in litigation over the status of frozen embryos. In this paper I argue that it might be productive to shift the debate from this polarised dispute over whether embryos matter or not, whether they are pre-persons or commodities. Instead, I suggest that we should attempt to locate them in a biotechnological milieu, where cyborg metaphors may be utilised, and questions of how we should treat embryos would be contextualized alongside our response to other cyborgs.

  14. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, M.J.; Wiel, M.W.J. van de; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using

  15. Methodology of constructive technology assessment in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Kirsten F. L.; Karsenberg, Kim; Hummel, Marjan J. M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; van Harten, Wim H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Technologies in health care are evolving quickly, with new findings in the area of biotechnological and genetic research being published regularly. A health technology assessment (HTA) is often used to answer the question of whether the new technology should be implemented into clinical

  16. Beyond checklists: toward an ethical-constructive technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiran, Asle; Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2015-01-01

    While many technology assessments (TAs) formally conducted by TA organizations in Europe and the USA have examined the implications of new technologies for ‘quantifiable risks’ regarding safety, health or the environment, they have largely ignored the ethical implications of those technologies.

  17. Methodology of constructive technology assessment in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Kirsten F.L.; Hummel, J. Marjan; Karsenberg, Kim; van Harten, Willem H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Technologies in health care are evolving quickly, with new findings in the area of biotechnological and genetic research being published regularly. A health technology assessment (HTA) is often used to answer the question of whether the new technology should be implemented into clinical

  18. Constructive technology assessment of emerging nanotechnologies : experiments in interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, D.K.R.

    2010-01-01

    In January 2003, the Dutch R&D consortium NanoNed (at first supported by special NanoImpulse funding) started its work, and from the beginning it included a component on Technology Assessment and Societal Aspects of Nanotechnology, organized as an additional “flagship”, labelled TA NanoNed. The

  19. Professional development in person: identity and the construction of teaching within a high school science department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneroff, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    This is a narrative inquiry into the role of professional development in the construction of teaching practice by an exemplary urban high school science teacher. I collected data during 3 years of ethnographic participant observation in Marie Gonzalez's classroom. Marie told stories about her experiences in ten years of professional development focused on inquiry science teaching. I use a social practice theory lens to analyze my own stories as well as Marie's. I make the case that science teaching is best understood as mediated by socially-constructed identities rather than as the end-product of knowledge and beliefs. The cognitive paradigm for understanding teachers' professional learning fails to consistently produce transformations of teaching practice. In order to design professional development with science teachers that is generative of new knowledge, and is self-sustaining, we must understand how to build knowledge of how to problematize identities and consciously use social practice theory.

  20. Profiling, assessing and matching personalities active in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Ciarán; Smeaton, Alan F.

    2016-01-01

    The world of social media influencers, bloggers and online “clothes horses” is a relatively new one. New-media personalities, a.k.a. “clothes horses”, are now endorsing brands, products and companies in a more subtle way than through traditional advertising. They carefully cultivate and position their personal brands with a view to persuading businesses to use them for relatively inexpensive, often local, online marketing campaigns. In the world of traditional media, companies wishing to adve...

  1. Construction Of A Performance Assessment Model For Zakat Management Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Fadilah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to examine the performance evaluation using Balanced Scorecard model. The research is conducted due to a big gap existing between zakat (alms and religious tax in Islam with its potential earn of as much as 217 trillion rupiahs and the realization of the collected zakat fund that is only reached for three trillion. This indicates that the performance of zakat management organizations in collecting the zakat is still very low. On the other hand, the quantity and the quality of zakat management organizations have to be improved. This means the performance evaluation model as a tool to evaluate performance is needed. The model construct is making a performance evaluation model that can be implemented to zakat management organizations. The organizational performance with Balanced Scorecard evaluation model will be effective if it is supported by three aspects, namely:  PI, BO and TQM. This research uses explanatory method and data analysis tool of SEM/PLS. Data collecting technique are questionnaires, interviews and documentation. The result of this research shows that PI, BO and TQM simultaneously and partially gives a significant effect on organizational performance.

  2. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  3. Microbial fuel cells for clogging assessment in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Clara; García, Joan; Puigagut, Jaume

    2016-11-01

    Clogging in HSSF CW may result in a reduction of system's life-span or treatment efficiency. Current available techniques to assess the degree of clogging in HSSF CW are time consuming and cannot be applied on a continuous basis. Main objective of this work was to assess the potential applicability of microbial fuel cells for continuous clogging assessment in HSSF CW. To this aim, two replicates of a membrane-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) were built up and operated under laboratory conditions for five weeks. The MFC anode was gravel-based to simulate the filter media of HSSF CW. MFC were weekly loaded with sludge that had been accumulating for several years in a pilot HSSF CW treating domestic wastewater. Sludge loading ranged from ca. 20kgTS·m(-3)CW·year(-1) at the beginning of the study period up to ca. 250kgTS·m(-3)CW·year(-1) at the end of the study period. Sludge loading applied resulted in sludge accumulated within the MFC equivalent to a clogging degree ranging from 0.2years (ca. 0.5kgTS·m(-3)CW) to ca. 5years (ca. 10kgTS·m(-3)CW). Results showed that the electric charge was negatively correlated to the amount of sludge accumulated (degree of clogging). Electron transference (expressed as electric charge) almost ceased when accumulated sludge within the MFC was equivalent to ca. 5years of clogging (ca. 10kgTS·m(-3)CW). This result suggests that, although longer study periods under more realistic conditions shall be further performed, HSSF CW operated as a MFC has great potential for clogging assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. COACHING AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE SELF IN A COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE IN BUCHAREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Trifan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coaching is a personal development practice where a coach attends coachees in achieving an objective. Coaching is promoted as a suitable solution for accomplishing a well-paid job, social mobility, a thriving business, as well as gaining a fulfilling relationship with a significant others or with oneself. It states that it can help alleviate new social impediments such as lack of communication skills, troubles finding the inner self or a positive attitude toward life. This article explores the intimate connection between coaching and the neoliberal settings, describing coaching as a community of practicing a new type of neoliberal self

  5. Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

  6. The spiritual distress assessment tool: an instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalised elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Estelle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although spirituality is usually considered a positive resource for coping with illness, spiritual distress may have a negative influence on health outcomes. Tools are needed to identify spiritual distress in clinical practice and subsequently address identified needs. This study describes the first steps in the development of a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods A three-step process was used to develop the Spiritual Distress Assessment Tool (SDAT: 1 Conceptualisation by a multidisciplinary group of a model (Spiritual Needs Model to define the different dimensions characterizing a patient's spirituality and their corresponding needs; 2 Operationalisation of the Spiritual Needs Model within geriatric hospital care leading to a set of questions (SDAT investigating needs related to each of the defined dimensions; 3 Qualitative assessment of the instrument's acceptability and face validity in hospital chaplains. Results Four dimensions of spirituality (Meaning, Transcendence, Values, and Psychosocial Identity and their corresponding needs were defined. A formalised assessment procedure to both identify and subsequently score unmet spiritual needs and spiritual distress was developed. Face validity and acceptability in clinical practice were confirmed by chaplains involved in the focus groups. Conclusions The SDAT appears to be a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in elderly hospitalised persons. Studies are ongoing to investigate the psychometric properties of the instrument and to assess its potential to serve as a basis for integrating the spiritual dimension in the patient's plan of care.

  7. Assessing buyer-supplier relationship management : A multiple case-study in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, J.; Voordijk, H.; Vos, G.C.J.M.; Buter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on obstacles to, and opportunities for, increasing the effectiveness of construction firms in managing buyer-supplier relationships. More specifically, the focus is on assessing the maturity level of buyer-supplier relationship management by construction

  8. Assessing buyer-supplier relationship management: a multiple case-study in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Jeroen; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Vos, B.; Buter, J.I.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on obstacles to, and opportunities for, increasing the effectiveness of construction firms in managing buyer-supplier relationships. More specifically, the focus is on assessing the maturity level of buyer-supplier relationship management by construction

  9. Assessing personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irbha Magotra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study has attempted to explore personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption through the development of an index named as Technology Adoption Index. For developing the index, exploratory factor analysis approach has been employed on the sample of 1201 responses collected from the residents of 12 different cities in India. Accordingly, the results of the index have indicated significant role of seven personal traits, namely, optimism, innovativeness, self-efficacy, risk taking propensity, habit, social influence and psychological resilience while manifesting personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption, i.e., the technology adoption propensity of the individuals. Further, an attempt has also been made to explore the socio-economic characteristics of the individuals possessing distinct level of personal disposition towards technology adoption. Accordingly, the results have unveiled that the personal disposition of the individuals towards technology adoption increases with enhancement in their income and qualification but decreases with enhancement in their age. As a measurement tool, Technology Adoption Index can be used as ready-recknor by practitioners for the identification of technology adoption propensity of the individuals. This will facilitate organizations in developing and designing new products and services which can be readily accepted by the individuals.

  10. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a highway construction project in Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Based on the field environmental investigation and monitoring result, the radioactive environmental impact for a highway construction project in Guangdong province has been analyzed and assessed and forecacted. (authors)

  11. Stability assessment for underground excavations and key construction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Zhao, Yu; Niu, Fusheng

    2017-01-01

    This book examines how the state of underground structures can be determined with the assistance of force, deformation and energy. It then analyzes mechanized shield methods, the New Austrian tunneling method (NATM) and conventional methods from this new perspective. The book gathers a wealth of cases reflecting the experiences of practitioners and administrators alike. Based on statistical and engineering studies of these cases, as well as lab and field experiments, it develops a stability assessment approach incorporating a stable equilibrium, which enables engineers to keep the structure and surrounding rocks safe as long as the stable equilibrium and deformation compliance are maintained. The book illustrates the implementation of the method in various tunneling contexts, including soil-rock mixed strata, tunneling beneath operating roads, underwater tunnels, and tunnel pit excavation. It offers a valuable guide for researchers, designers and engineers, especially those who are seeking to understand the u...

  12. The personal interview: assessing the potential for personality similarity to bias the selection of orthopaedic residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Andres J; Segal, Lee S; King, Tonya S; Black, Kevin P

    2009-10-01

    The selection of medical students for training in orthopaedic surgery consists of an objective screening of cognitive skills to secure interviews for the brightest candidates, followed by subjective measures of candidates to confirm whether applicants are worthy of further consideration. The personal interview and its potential biased impact on the orthopaedic workforce were evaluated. During 2004-2006 at the Penn State College of Medicine, the authors performed a prospective cohort study in which 30 consenting interviewers and 135 interviewees completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator before the interviews. Completed surveys were evaluated after submitting the resident selection list to the National Residency Matching Program, and candidate rankings based solely on the personal interview were analyzed. Clinicians ranked candidates more favorably when they shared certain personality preferences (P = .044) and when they shared the preference groupings of the quadrant extrovert-sensing and either the function pair sensing-thinking (P = .007) or the temperament sensing-judging (P = .003), or the function pair sensing-feeling and the temperament sensing-judging (P = .029). No associations existed between personality preferences and interviewee rankings performed by basic scientists and resident interviewers. The results support the hypothesis that, within the department studied, there was a significant association between similarities in personality type and the rankings that individual faculty interviewers assigned to applicants at the completion of each interview session. The authors believe that it is important for the faculty member to recognize that this tendency exists. Finally, promoting diversity within the admission committee may foster a diverse resident body and orthopaedic workforce.

  13. Short Scales for the Assessment of Personality Traits: Development and Validation of the Portuguese Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Andreia; Limpo, Teresa; Lima, César F; Castro, São Luís

    2018-01-01

    The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness). In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0.39-0.72), very good 4-week test-retest reliability ( n = 81, r s > 0.71), expected factorial structure, high convergent validity with the Big-Five Inventory ( r s > 0.60), and correlations with self-esteem, affect, and aggressiveness similar to those found with standard measures of personality traits. Overall, our findings suggest that the Portuguese TIPI is a reliable and valid alternative to longer measures: it offers a promising tool for research contexts in which the available time for personality assessment is highly limited.

  14. Short Scales for the Assessment of Personality Traits: Development and Validation of the Portuguese Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Andreia; Limpo, Teresa; Lima, César F.; Castro, São Luís

    2018-01-01

    The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness). In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0.39–0.72), very good 4-week test–retest reliability (n = 81, rs > 0.71), expected factorial structure, high convergent validity with the Big-Five Inventory (rs > 0.60), and correlations with self-esteem, affect, and aggressiveness similar to those found with standard measures of personality traits. Overall, our findings suggest that the Portuguese TIPI is a reliable and valid alternative to longer measures: it offers a promising tool for research contexts in which the available time for personality assessment is highly limited. PMID:29674989

  15. Cooperativeness and competitiveness as two distinct constructs: validating the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale in a social dilemma context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Su; Au, Wing-Tung; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Xiaofei; Yam, Paton

    2013-01-01

    The present research validated the construct and criterion validities of the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale (CCPS) in a social dilemma context. The results from three studies supported the notion that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two independent dimensions, challenging the traditional view that they are two ends of a single continuum. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor structure fit the data significantly better than a one-factor structure. Moreover, cooperativeness and competitiveness were either not significantly correlated (Studies 1 and 3) or only moderately positively correlated (Study 2). Second, cooperativeness and competitiveness were differentially associated with Schwartz's Personal Values. These results further supported the idea that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two distinct constructs. Specifically, the individuals who were highly cooperative emphasized self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence) more, whereas the individuals who were highly competitive emphasized self-enhancement values (i.e., power and achievement) more. Finally, the CCPS, which adheres to the trait perspective of personality, was found to be a useful supplement to more prevalent social motive measures (i.e., social value orientation) in predicting cooperative behaviors. Specifically, in Study 2, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in a public goods dilemma (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale contributed more to the public goods). In Study 3, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in commons dilemmas (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale requested fewer resources from the common resource pool). The practical implications of the CCPS in conflict resolution, as well as in recruitment and selection settings, are discussed.

  16. Ecological risk assessment of hydropower dam construction based on ecological network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shaoqing; Fath, Brian D.; Chen, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Dam construction is regarded as one of the major factors contributing to significant modifications of the river ecosystems, and the ecological risk (ER) assessment of dam construction has received growing attention in recent years. In the present study, we explored the potential ecological risk caused by dam project based on the general principles of the ecological risk assessment. Ecological network analysis was proposed as the usable analytic method for the implement of ecological risk asse...

  17. The social construction of violence among Northern Plains tribal members with antisocial personality disorder and alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Lori L; Spicer, Paul; Belcourt, Annie; Sarche, Michelle; Novins, Douglas K; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette

    2014-02-01

    Whereas recent reports from national studies have presented extremely high rates for many personality disorders in American Indian communities, persistent concerns about the meaning of these symptoms have left many troubled by these reports. American Indians as a group are known to suffer disproportionately from a number of violent experiences, but the dynamics of this violence have received little attention. This paper examines perspectives on violence in the lives of 15 northern plains tribal members who met criteria for antisocial personality disorder and comorbid alcohol use disorder. It explores how study participants constructed and understood their own violent encounters, as well as the motivations they described (characterized here as reputation, leveling, retaliation, catharsis, and self-defense). Violence was gendered in this study, with men generally presenting as perpetrators and women as victims. Men often described themselves as ready participants in a violent world, while women were quite clear that aggression for them was often simply required as they tried to defend themselves from male violence. While this analysis does not replace clinical analyses of violence in antisocial personality disorder, it does reveal an underlying cultural logic that may play a role in shaping the recourse to violence for that minority of individuals for whom it appears to be the obvious choice.

  18. Comparisons of Belief-Based Personality Constructs in Polish and American University Students: Paranormal Beliefs, Locus of Control, Irrational Beliefs, and Social Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome J.; Tobacyk, Zofia Socha

    1992-01-01

    Uses Social Learning Theory to compare 149 university students from Poland with 136 university students from the southern United States for belief-based personality constructs and personality correlates of paranormal beliefs. As hypothesized, Poles reported a more external locus of control and significantly greater endorsement of irrational…

  19. Instability risk assessment of construction waste pile slope based on fuzzy entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Xing, Huige; Yang, Mao; Nie, Tingting

    2018-05-01

    Considering the nature and characteristics of construction waste piles, this paper analyzed the factors affecting the stability of the slope of construction waste piles, and established the system of the assessment indexes for the slope failure risks of construction waste piles. Based on the basic principles and methods of fuzzy mathematics, the factor set and the remark set were established. The membership grade of continuous factor indexes is determined using the "ridge row distribution" function, while that for the discrete factor indexes was determined by the Delphi Method. For the weight of factors, the subjective weight was determined by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and objective weight by the entropy weight method. And the distance function was introduced to determine the combination coefficient. This paper established a fuzzy comprehensive assessment model of slope failure risks of construction waste piles, and assessed pile slopes in the two dimensions of hazard and vulnerability. The root mean square of the hazard assessment result and vulnerability assessment result was the final assessment result. The paper then used a certain construction waste pile slope as the example for analysis, assessed the risks of the four stages of a landfill, verified the assessment model and analyzed the slope's failure risks and preventive measures against a slide.

  20. Assessing chimpanzee personality and subjective well-being in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hong, Kyung-Won; Inoue, Eiji; Udono, Toshifumi; Ochiai, Tomomi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi; King, James E

    2009-04-01

    We tested whether the cultural background of raters influenced ratings of chimpanzee personality. Our study involved comparing personality and subjective well-being ratings of 146 chimpanzees in Japan that were housed in zoos, research institutes, and a retirement sanctuary to ratings of chimpanzees in US and Australian zoos. Personality ratings were made on a translated and expanded version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. Subjective well-being ratings were made on a translated version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. The mean interrater reliabilities of the 43 original adjectives did not markedly differ between the present sample and the original sample of 100 zoo chimpanzees in the US. Interrater reliabilities of these samples were highly correlated, suggesting that their rank order was preserved. Comparison of the factor structures for the Japanese sample and for the original sample of chimpanzees in US zoos indicated that the overall structure was replicated and that the Dominance, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness domains clearly generalized. Consistent with earlier studies, older chimpanzees had higher Dominance and lower Extraversion and Openness scores. Correlations between the six domain scores and subjective well-being were comparable to those for chimpanzees housed in the US and Australia. These findings suggest that chimpanzee personality ratings are not affected by the culture of the raters.

  1. Assessing Instructional Modalities: Individualized Treatment Effects for Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemer, Joshua; Spoon, Kelly; Fan, Juanjuan; Stronach, Jeanne; Frazee, James P.; Bohonak, Andrew J.; Levine, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    Estimating the efficacy of different instructional modalities, techniques, and interventions is challenging because teaching style covaries with instructor, and the typical student only takes a course once. We introduce the individualized treatment effect (ITE) from analyses of personalized medicine as a means to quantify individual student…

  2. Construction of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire for assessing plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  3. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676

  4. Construction and Assessment of an on the Go Soil Electrical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Baradaran Motie

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue of soil salinity is one of the snags for increasing agricultural productivity, which must be inhibited by appropriate devise and scientific management. One way to identify salty areas of farm lands is to prepare salinity maps. In this study, a prototype soil apparent electrical conductivity measuring and mapping device, was designed and built. This device employs direct contact method of electrodes with soil (Also called Wenner method. The system inputs include power supply voltage, location signal from a GPS receiver and signal of voltage between the electrodes. The outputs include the apparent electrical conductivity with respective to geographical coordinate that created in a TEXT file, and then transmitted through a RS-232 serial port to a PC. Electrical conductivity data calibrated and mapped using ESAP-95 software package. To evaluate the device, electrical conductivity map of a land with area of 0.8 Ha surveyed in two ways: using the on the go EC mapper and capturing soil samples manually. The results of these two methods were then compared. Assessment of the device in a clay-loamy soil with low salt level, showed a good correlation with the laboratory EC, having mean error (ME of -15.27μS.cm-1. Point to point comparison between surveyed data and laboratory EC’s shown that in 67 percent of measurements the errors were under 10 percent. These errors are acceptable mainly due to unknown soil variables and in comparison with other research findings.

  5. Preventing construction worker injury incidents through the management of personal stress and organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Mei-yung; Chan, Isabelle Yee Shan; Yu, Jingyu

    2012-09-01

    Construction workers (CWs) are positioned at the lowest level of an organization and thus have limited control over their work. For this reason, they are often deprived of their due rewards and training or sometimes are even compelled to focus on production at the expense of their own safety. These organizational stressors not only cause the CWs stress but also impair their safety behaviors. The impairment of safety behaviors is the major cause of CW injury incidents. Hence, to prevent injury incidents and enhance safety behaviors of CWs, the current study aimed to identify the impact of various organizational stressors and stress on CW safety behaviors and injury incidents. To achieve this aim, we surveyed 395 CWs. Using factor analysis, we identified five organizational stressors (unfair reward and treatment, inappropriate safety equipment, provision of training, lack of goal setting, and poor physical environment), two types of stress (emotional and physical), and safety behaviors. The results of correlation and regression analyses revealed the following: (1) injury incidents were minimized by safety behaviors but escalated by a lack of goal setting, (2) safety behaviors were maximized by moderate levels of emotional stress (i.e., an inverted U-shape relationship between these two variables) and increased in line with physical stress and inappropriate safety equipment, (3) emotional stress was positively predicted by the provision of training and inappropriate safety equipment, and (4) physical stress was predicted only by inappropriate safety equipment. Based on these results, we suggest various recommendations to construction stakeholders on how to prevent CW injury incidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form: Evidence for Reliability and Construct Validity in a Sample of Community-Dwelling Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    To assess the reliability and construct validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form (PID-5-BF) among adolescents, 877 Italian high school students were administered the PID-5-BF. Participants were administered also the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning (MDPF) as a criterion measure. In the full sample, Cronbach's alpha values for the PID-5-BF scales ranged from .59 (Detachment) to .77 (Psychoticism); in addition, all PID-5-BF scales showed mean interitem correlation values in the .22 to .40 range. Cronbach's alpha values for the PID-5-BF total score was .83 (mean interitem r = .16). Although 2-month test-retest reliability could be assessed only in a small ( n = 42) subsample of participants, all PID-5-BF scale scores showed adequate temporal stability, as indexed by intraclass r values ranging from .78 (Negative Affectivity) to .97 (Detachment), all ps <.001. Exploratory structural equation modeling analyses provided at least moderate support for the a priori model of PID-5-BF items. Multiple regression analyses showed that PID-5-BF scales predicted a nonnegligible amount of variance in MDPF Non-Cooperativeness, adjusted R 2 = .17, p < .001, and Non-Coping scales, adjusted R 2 = .32, p < .001. Similarly, the PID-5-BF total score was a significant predictor of both MDPF Non-Coping, and Non-Cooperativeness scales.

  7. Stability and change in personality assessment: the revised NEO Personality Inventory in the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P T; McCrae, R R

    1997-02-01

    The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) consists of 30 facet scales that define the broad domains of the Five-Factor Model of personality. No major revisions of the basic model are anticipated in the near future. Despite their popularity, social desirability and inconsistency scales will not be added to the NEO-PI-R because their validity and utility have not yet been demonstrated. Among possible changes are minor modifications in wording and more extensive adaptations for adolescents and for populations with low reading levels. Contextualized (e.g., work-related) versions of the instrument will be further explored. Many changes are more easily implemented on the computer than the print version of the instrument.

  8. Increasing the Usage of Personal Protective Equipments in Constructing Subway Stations: An Application of Social Marketing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Although the relationship between the use of personal protective equipment and the reduction of workplace injuries is well-known the use of these devices during operation by the staff is not so desirable. This study was based on a model of social marketing interventions to increase the use of safety devices and personal protection on the subway-station staff. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was based on the results of a formative research consisted of a qualitative (exploring employees’ views through focus group discussions and a quantitative study (measuring attitudes and behaviors by questionnaire and checklist. Based on the formative research findings, a free package includes a helmet with a label containing the message, an anti-cut safety gloves, a dust mask, and an educational pamphlet were delivered to intervention group. After four weeks, the check list of observational behaviors in two constructing stations was completed and the results were compared with before intervention. The data were analyzed by paired t-test, t-test and logistic regression. Results: Three common behaviors were observed among staff not using caps, masks and gloves. The odds ratio for helmet and mask usage in the intervention group was more than other groups. After the intervention, the use of safety helmets and masks significantly increased (p < 0.05. The odds ratio for the use of helmets and masks after intervention in the intervention group was significantly higher than other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The experimental basis of the safety devices and personal protection needs and demands of the audience, material and immaterial costs of the equipment, supplies, and promoting their use in the right place, can encourage the staff to continuously use the safety devices at workplace. Key Words: Workplace, Injuries, Personal Protective Equipment, Social Marketing

  9. The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: a useful tool for assessing pathological narcissism? Evidence from patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Aline; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Ritter, Kathrin; Renneberg, Babette; Schulze, Lars; Bosson, Jennifer K; Roepke, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) has dominated research on narcissism in the field of social and personality psychology. Surprisingly, it is unclear whether the NPI is useful for identifying pathological narcissism in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). The goal of this study was to close this research gap. We used an extreme-group approach by including NPD patients and healthy controls and comparing their narcissism scores. We further investigated whether explicit self-esteem (assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) suppressed the relationship between group membership and NPI narcissism. According to our results, NPD patients do not score higher on the NPI in comparison to healthy controls. Analysis of indirect effects revealed that differences in NPI scores are suppressed by NPD patients' low self-esteem. Our results indicate that the NPI is not a valid indicator of NPD, unless one controls for self-esteem. Implications for future research are discussed.

  10. Problems in developing an instrument for the rapid assessment of personality status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, E; Manley, C; Leddy, D; Cicchetti, D; Tyrer, P

    2000-06-01

    To assess the validity of a quick assessment instrument (10 minutes) for assessing personality status, the Rapid Personality Assessment Schedule (PAS-R). The PAS-R was evaluated in psychotic patients recruited in one of the centres involved in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of intensive vs standard case management (the UK700 case management trial). Patients were assessed using both a full version of the PAS (PAS-I - ICD version) and the PAS-R. The weighted kappa statistic was used to gauge the (criterion-related) validity of the PAS-R using the PAS-I as the gold standard. Both measure code personality status using a four-point rating of severity in addition to recording individual categories of personality disorder. One hundred fifty-five (77%) of 201 patients recruited were assessed with both instruments. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.31, suggesting only moderate agreement between the PAS-I and PAS-R instruments under the four-point rating format, and 0.39 for the dichotomous personality disorder/no disorder separation. The sensitivity (64%) and specificity (82%) of the PAS-R in predicting PAS-I personality disorder were as satisfactory as for other screening instruments but still somewhat disappointing, and the PAS-R had an overall diagnostic accuracy of 78%. The PAS-R is a quick and rough method of detecting personality abnormality but is not a substitute for a fuller assessment.

  11. Neural correlates of four broad temperament dimensions: testing predictions for a novel construct of personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy L Brown

    foundational mechanisms in personality structure and play a role in romantic partnerships.

  12. Neural correlates of four broad temperament dimensions: testing predictions for a novel construct of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy L; Acevedo, Bianca; Fisher, Helen E

    2013-01-01

    in personality structure and play a role in romantic partnerships.

  13. Assessment of Cost Variation in Solid and Hollow Floor Construction in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Sunday Dosumu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences in construction methods between different forms of slabs construction tend to result into variation in the cost of the slabs for any building project. Thus, this study aims at assessing the variation in construction cost among various construction methods available for hollow and solid floors in construction projects within Lagos State. The research design for this study was a survey design approach and the population of the study are active professionals (Architects, Civil Engineers, Builders, Quantity Surveyors, Consultant and contractors because they are the major participants in the construction activities of the construction industry in Lagos State, Nigeria. The research is based on 46 returned questionnaires out of the 60 that was administered. The data from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive tools such as frequencies, percentage and mean values. The hypotheses were tested with paired sample t-test and it was found that the system or method of slab construction well known to the respondents is cast in situ, precast and semi-precast. The study also shows that the cost of in-situ solid slabs are higher than that of hollow slab which is an indication that solid slab construction is more expensive than hollow slab construction provided the hollow slab is a one-way hollow floor and not waffle floor. In pre cast solid slab construction the cost of transportation of units to sites, cost of expertise required in the construction process and the cost of fabrication off site are the three highest and most expensive aspects of precast solid slab while cost of erection and placement and the cost of grouting and topping if required are less expensive. Therefore there is difference in the cost of construction between the solid and hollow slabs but the difference is not appreciable. The study's major recommendation is that, adequate and careful analysis must be done in the choice of floor system being adopted for any

  14. Noise-induced hearing loss in construction workers being assessed for hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ronald A; Sauvé, John T; Jiang, Depeng

    2010-01-01

    Construction workers are at risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) but often have no periodic audiometric testing. The participants were construction workers assessed for Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) at the Occupational Health Clinic, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. Audiometry was offered and 169 of the 191 workers assessed for HAVS agreed to have the audiometric test. The objective was to examine the prevalence of hearing loss in these 169 workers and to determine the effect on hearing of duration of work in construction (as a proxy for noise exposure) and the severity of vibration white finger (VWF) which previous studies have suggested is a marker for increased individual susceptibility for NIHL. VWF was measured by the Stockholm vascular scale. All participants were men, median age of 57 (range: 28-75), median number of years worked in construction of 35 (range: 4-52). All of the Spearman rank correlations between years worked in construction and the hearing levels at each audiometric frequency were statistically significant (p hearing loss at or above the level at which a workers' compensation pension would be granted in Ontario and the prevalence of this auditory outcome had a statistically significant increase as years worked in construction increased. Multivariate linear regression indicated that VWF also had a statistically significant effect on hearing loss for all audiometric frequencies combined after controlling for years worked in construction. Improved prevention of hearing loss in construction workers is needed.

  15. Assessing Environmental Impact Indicators in Road Construction Projects in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Marzouk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is considered to be one of the main concerns in the construction industry. Environmental pollution has become a major challenge to construction projects due to the huge amount of pollution caused by construction projects. There are different types of environmental impact indicators, such as the greenhouse gas (GHG footprint, eutrophication potential (EP, acidification potential (AP, human health (HH particulate, ozone depletion, and smog. Each of these environmental impact indicators can be linked to different phases of the construction projects. The overall environmental impact indicators can be divided into direct, indirect, and operational emissions. This paper presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-based methodology for the assessment of environmental impacts in road construction projects. The model takes into account the overall life cycle of the road construction project, which is divided into: manufacturing phase, transportation phase, construction phase, maintenance phase, operational phase, recycling phase, and deconstruction phase. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The proposed model solves a major problem for road construction project teams who want to assess the environmental impact indicators associated with their project prior to the start of the execution of their projects.

  16. An assessment of the performance of municipal constructed wetlands in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Anthony; Arnscheidt, Joerg; Joyce, Eadaoin; O'Toole, James; Galvin, Gerry; O' Callaghan, Mark; Conroy, Ken; Killian, Darran; Shryane, Tommy; Hughes, Francis; Walsh, Katherine; Kavanagh, Emily

    2018-03-15

    While performance assessments of constructed wetlands sites around the world have appraised their capacity for effective removal of organics, a large variance remains in these sites' reported ability to retain nutrients, which appears to depend on differences in design, operation and climate factors. Nutrient retention is a very important objective for constructed wetlands, to avoid eutrophication of aquatic environments receiving their effluents. This study assessed the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of nutrient retention and associated parameters under the humid conditions of Ireland's temperate maritime climate. A review of the performance of 52 constructed wetland sites from 17 local authorities aimed to identify the best performing types of constructed wetlands and the treatment factors determining successful compliance with environmental standards. Data analysis compared effluent results from constructed wetlands with secondary free surface flow or tertiary horizontal subsurface flow, hybrid systems and integrated constructed wetlands with those from small-scale mechanical wastewater treatment plants of the same size class. Nutrient concentrations in effluents of constructed wetlands were negatively correlated (p treatment performance of constructed wetlands significantly (p wastewater treatment plants, secondary free surface water and tertiary horizontal subsurface flow wetlands showed a very large variance in effluent concentrations for organic and nutrient parameters. E. coli numbers in effluents were lowest for integrated constructed wetlands with an arithmetic mean of 89 MPN/100 ml. Despite Ireland's humid climate, some constructed wetland sites achieved long or frequent periods of zero effluent discharge and thus did not transfer any waterborne pollution to their receptors during these periods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of methods to assess push/pull forces in a construction task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M J; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Frings-Dresena, M H; Van der Molen, Henk F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the validity of methods to assess push/pull forces exerted in a construction task. Forces assessed using a hand-held digital force gauge were compared to those obtained using a highly accurate measuring frame. No significant differences were found

  18. Assessment of teacher competence using video portfolios: reliability, construct validity and consequential validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W.; Hoeksma, M.; van de Kamp, M.-T.; van Duin, G.

    2011-01-01

    The richness and complexity of video portfolios endanger both the reliability and validity of the assessment of teacher competencies. In a post-graduate teacher education program, the assessment of video portfolios was evaluated for its reliability, construct validity, and consequential validity.

  19. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  20. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Meijer, Rob R; Denollet, Johan

    2007-07-01

    Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)-referred to as type-D personality-are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the relative contribution of individual items to the measurement precision at the cutoff to distinguish type-D from non-type-D personality and (b) to investigate the comparability of NA, SI, and type-D constructs across the general population and clinical populations. Data from representative samples including 1316 respondents from the general population, 427 respondents diagnosed with coronary heart disease, and 732 persons suffering from hypertension were analyzed using the graded response IRT model. In Study 1, the information functions obtained in the IRT analysis showed that (a) all items had highest measurement precision around the cutoff and (b) items are most informative at the higher end of the scale. In Study 2, the IRT analysis showed that measurements were fairly comparable across the general population and clinical populations. The DS14 adequately measures NA and SI, with highest reliability in the trait range around the cutoff. The DS14 is a valid instrument to assess and compare type-D personality across clinical groups.

  1. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  2. Assessment of toxic metals in waste personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolias, Konstantinos; Hahladakis, John N.; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste personal computers were collected and dismantled in their main parts. • Motherboards, monitors and plastic housing were examined in their metal content. • Concentrations measured were compared to the RoHS Directive, 2002/95/EC. • Pb in motherboards and funnel glass of devices released <2006 was above the limit. • Waste personal computers need to be recycled and environmentally sound managed. - Abstract: Considering the enormous production of waste personal computers nowadays, it is obvious that the study of their composition is necessary in order to regulate their management and prevent any environmental contamination caused by their inappropriate disposal. This study aimed at determining the toxic metals content of motherboards (printed circuit boards), monitor glass and monitor plastic housing of two Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors, three Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors, one LCD touch screen monitor and six motherboards, all of which were discarded. In addition, concentrations of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were compared with the respective limits set by the RoHS 2002/95/EC Directive, that was recently renewed by the 2012/19/EU recast, in order to verify manufacturers’ compliance with the regulation. The research included disassembly, pulverization, digestion and chemical analyses of all the aforementioned devices. The toxic metals content of all samples was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results demonstrated that concentrations of Pb in motherboards and funnel glass of devices with release dates before 2006, that is when the RoHS Directive came into force, exceeded the permissible limit. In general, except from Pb, higher metal concentrations were detected in motherboards in comparison with plastic housing and glass samples. Finally, the results of this work were encouraging, since concentrations of metals referred in the RoHS Directive were found in

  3. Applying personal genetic data to injury risk assessment in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle T Goodlin

    Full Text Available Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with risk for certain sports-related injuries and performance-related conditions, with the hope that these markers could be used by individual athletes to personalize their training and diet regimens. We found that we could greatly expand the knowledge base of sports genetic information by using published data originally found in health and disease studies. For example, the results from large genome-wide association studies for low bone mineral density in elderly women can be re-purposed for low bone mineral density in young endurance athletes. In total, we found 124 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with: anterior cruciate ligament tear, Achilles tendon injury, low bone mineral density and stress fracture, osteoarthritis, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, and sickle cell trait. Of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, 91% have not previously been used in sports genetics. We conducted a pilot program on fourteen triathletes using this expanded knowledge base of genetic variants associated with sports injury. These athletes were genotyped and educated about how their individual genetic make-up affected their personal risk profile during an hour-long personal consultation. Overall, participants were favorable of the program, found it informative, and most acted upon their genetic results. This pilot program shows that recent genetic research provides valuable information to help reduce sports injuries and to optimize nutrition. There are many genetic studies for health and disease that can be mined to provide useful information to athletes about their individual risk for relevant injuries.

  4. Assessment of toxic metals in waste personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolias, Konstantinos; Hahladakis, John N., E-mail: john_chach@yahoo.gr; Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Waste personal computers were collected and dismantled in their main parts. • Motherboards, monitors and plastic housing were examined in their metal content. • Concentrations measured were compared to the RoHS Directive, 2002/95/EC. • Pb in motherboards and funnel glass of devices released <2006 was above the limit. • Waste personal computers need to be recycled and environmentally sound managed. - Abstract: Considering the enormous production of waste personal computers nowadays, it is obvious that the study of their composition is necessary in order to regulate their management and prevent any environmental contamination caused by their inappropriate disposal. This study aimed at determining the toxic metals content of motherboards (printed circuit boards), monitor glass and monitor plastic housing of two Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors, three Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors, one LCD touch screen monitor and six motherboards, all of which were discarded. In addition, concentrations of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were compared with the respective limits set by the RoHS 2002/95/EC Directive, that was recently renewed by the 2012/19/EU recast, in order to verify manufacturers’ compliance with the regulation. The research included disassembly, pulverization, digestion and chemical analyses of all the aforementioned devices. The toxic metals content of all samples was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results demonstrated that concentrations of Pb in motherboards and funnel glass of devices with release dates before 2006, that is when the RoHS Directive came into force, exceeded the permissible limit. In general, except from Pb, higher metal concentrations were detected in motherboards in comparison with plastic housing and glass samples. Finally, the results of this work were encouraging, since concentrations of metals referred in the RoHS Directive were found in

  5. DALY-Based Health Risk Assessment of Construction Noise in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhihui

    2016-01-01

    Noise produced by construction activities has become the second most serious acoustic polluting element in China. To provide industry practitioners with a better understanding of the health risks of construction noise and to aid in creating environmentally friendly construction plans during early construction stages, we developed a quantitative model to assess the health impairment risks (HIA) associated with construction noise for individuals living adjacent to construction sites. This model classifies noise-induced health impairments into four categories: cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance, and annoyance, and uses disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) as an indicator of damage. Furthermore, the value of a statistical life (VSL) is used to transform DALYs into a monetary value based on the affected demographic characteristics, thereby offering policy makers a reliable theoretical foundation for establishing reasonable standards to compensate residents suffering from construction noise. A practical earthwork project in Beijing is used as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The results indicate that construction noise could bring significant health risks to the neighboring resident community, with an estimated 34.51 DALYs of health damage and 20.47 million yuan in social costs. In particular, people aged 45–54 are most vulnerable to construction noise, with the greatest health risks being caused by sleep disturbance. PMID:27792207

  6. Bio-monitoring for the genotoxic assessment in road construction workers as determined by the buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ayla; Yildirim, Seda; Ekinci, Seda Yaprak; Taşdelen, Bahar

    2013-06-01

    Buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay monitors genetic damage, cell proliferation and cell death in humans exposed to occupational and environmental agents. BMCyt is used as an indicator of genotoxic exposure, since it is associated with chromosomal instability. There is little research on the occupational exposure among road construction workers for genotoxicity testing. In the present study, we evaluated MN frequencies and other nuclear changes, karyorrhexis (KR), karyolysis (KL), broken egg (BE), binucleate (BN), condensed chromatin cell (CCC), and picnotic cell (PC) in buccal mucosa cells of 40 road construction workers (twenty smokers and twenty non-smokers) and 40 control groups consisting of healthy persons (twenty smokers and twenty non-smokers). Microscopic observation was performed of 2000 cells per individual in both road construction workers and control group. In control and worker groups, for each person repair index (RI) was calculated via formula KR+L/BE+MN. The results showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of MN in buccal epithelial cells of exposed group compared with control group (proad construction workers, RI is lower than the control group. There is a significant difference between workers and control group (proad paving operations are absorbed by workers and that asphalt fume exposure is able to significantly induce cytogenetic damage in buccal mucosa cells of workers after controlling some possible confounding factors, such as age, sex and smoking habits. In addition to determination of nuclear changes and the micronucleus, the determination of RI value presents a new approach to genotoxic bio-monitoring assessment studies of occupationally exposed population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A structured interview for the assessment of the Five-Factor Model of personality: facet-level relations to the axis II personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, T J; Widiger, T A; Burr, R

    2001-04-01

    The Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model (SIFFM; Trull & Widiger, 1997) is an 120-item semistructured interview that assesses both adaptive and maladaptive features of the personality traits included in the five-factor model of personality, or "Big Five." In this article, we evaluate the ability of SIFFM scores to predict personality disorder symptomatology in a sample of 232 adults (46 outpatients and 186 nonclinical college students). Personality disorder symptoms were assessed using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R; Hyler & Rider, 1987). Results indicated that many of the predicted associations between lower-order personality traits and personality disorders were supported. Further, many of these associations held even after controlling for comorbid personality disorder symptoms. These findings may help inform conceptualizations of the personality disorders, as well as etiological theories and treatment.

  8. Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use. METHOD: The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently......BACKGROUND: Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview...... diagnosed with first episode depression. A total number of 394 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode were sampled consecutively via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register during a 2years inclusion period and assessed by the screening interview and, subsequently...

  9. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected...... use of constructs traditionally associated with usability (e.g., easy-to-use, intuitive, and liked). Further analysis of the data is ongoing...

  10. Personality traits in patients with Parkinson's disease: assessment and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-06-01

    This study reviews empirical evidence on the association between personality traits and Parkinson's disease (PD), with a twofold aim. First, to better identify non-motor symptoms, such as affective symptoms and personality changes, that could help to define the pre-motor phase of PD; second, to better understand the neurobiological bases of personality traits, a goal that is not fully accomplished by a purely anatomical approach. A literature review was performed on studies of personality traits in PD patients, in electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline and PsychInfo, conducted in July 2011. We found evidence that the existence of a characteristic premorbid personality profile of PD patients is not actually sustained by robust empirical evidence, mainly due to the methodological bias of the retrospective assessment of personality; PD patients present a personality profile of low novelty seeking and high harm avoidance. We concluded that the definition of a pre-motor phase of PD, based on non-motor symptoms, should search for the presence of concomitant affective disorders and for a positive psychiatric history for affective disorders rather than for a typical personality profile or personality changes. The low novelty seeking profile is probably related to the dopaminergic deficit, while the high harm avoidance profile is probably associated with the presence of affective disorders. Clinical implications of these findings, in regard to personality assessment and pharmacological treatments in PD, are also discussed.

  11. Altered memory and affective instability in prisoners assessed for dangerous and severe personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Tim; Joyce, Eileen; Milton, John; Duggan, Conor; Tyrer, Peter; Rogers, Robert D

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies of borderline personality disorder report neuropsychological impairments in several domains, including memory. No studies have compared memory functioning in high-risk prisoners with borderline personality disorder with similar prisoners with other personality disorders. To explore mnemonic impairments in prisoners undergoing personality assessment as part of the dangerous and severe personality disorder initiative or detained in a medium secure facility. We investigated memory function in 18 prisoners with borderline personality disorder and 18 prisoners with other personality disorders. Prisoners with borderline personality disorder exhibited a pattern of multi-modal impairments in the immediate and delayed recall of verbal and visual information, with some association with affective instability. These deficits were not associated with the severity of personality disturbance. These data suggest that memory deficits have some specificity in relation to the constituent traits of borderline personality disorder and indicate that neuropsychological assessment may be a source of useful adjunctive information for distinguishing between the cognitive and psychological difficulties of individual prisoners.

  12. Design and construction the identification of nitriding plasma process parameters using personal computer based on serial communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frida Iswinning Diah; Slamet Santosa

    2012-01-01

    Design and construction the identification of process parameters using personal computer based on serial communication PLC M-series has been done. The function of this device is to identify the process parameters of a system (plan), to which then be analyzed and conducted a follow-up given to the plan by the user. The main component of this device is the M-Series T100MD1616 PLC and personal computer (PC). In this device the data plan parameters obtained from the corresponding sensor outputs in the form of voltage or current. While the analog parameter data is adjusted to the ADC analog input of the PLC using a signal conditioning system. Then, as the parameter is processed by the PLC then sent to a PC via RS232 to be displayed in the form of graphs or tables and stored in the database. Software to program the database is created using Visual Basic Programming V-6. The device operation test is performed for the measurement of temperature parameter and vacuum level on the plasma nitriding machine. The results indicate that the device has functioning as an identification device parameters process of plasma nitriding machine. (author)

  13. Assessment of personality disorder by means of NeuroSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena G, Ismael; Nader N, Armando; Valdes M, Cecilia; Riquelme V, Raul

    2012-01-01

    We report on functional imaging results in 24 patients of Personality Disorder (P.D.) performed with NeuroSPECT by means of Tc99m HMPAO, in Basal state and during frontal cortical activation by means of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Results demonstrate that we can make the diagnosis of P.D. when we detect significant hypoperfusion (- 2 Stand/ Deviations below the normal mean for the same age group) in the subgenual area (Area 25 of Brodmann) and in Area 24 of Brodmann, the anterior cingulated gyrus. Both areas are paradoxically more hypoperfused during the Wisconsin Test. Among patients diagnosed with P.D. NeuroSPECT can distinguish between patients of Cluster B from the ones from Cluster C in both Basal and Activation State, while Cluster A from B could be differentiated only in Basal State. On the other hand Motor Impulsivity patients could be differentiated from the Cognitive group due to paradoxical hypoperfusion in motor areas 1,2,3, and 4 of Brodmann. While the number of patients studied appears reduced these results demonstrate the capability of diagnosing Personality Disorder and also the capability to improved understanding of the subgroups of this Disorder

  14. The quality of the DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder construct as a prototype category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2008-06-01

    The study evaluated the quality of the DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) construct as a prototype category. A sample of 2237 patients from the Norwegian Network of Psychotherapeutic Day Hospitals was examined by a variety of psychometric analyses. A high number of OCPD patients (77%) had co-occurrent PDs, but only the co-occurrence with paranoid was significantly higher than expected. Exploratory factor analysis of the PD criteria indicated that OCPD consists of 2 dimensions. The first dimension, perfectionism, was constituted by OCPD criteria only and was significantly related to obsessive-compulsive disorder. The second dimension, aggressiveness, included 2 OCPD criteria, reluctance to delegate and stubbornness, but was also defined by criteria from paranoid, antisocial, and borderline PD. Confirmatory factor analysis of the OCPD criteria indicated a poor fit of both a unitary model and a 3-dimensional model. Overall, the OCPD criteria had poor psychometric properties. Although it seems that the quality of the DSM-IV OCPD as a prototype construct is insufficient, it may be improved by deleting the criteria hoarding behavior and miserliness. Alternative criteria could be related to problems in close relationships involving the need for predictability. Such revisions may add a third dimension to the 2 dimensions of perfectionism and aggressiveness.

  15. How Useful Are Indices of Personality Pathology when Assessing Domestic Violence Perpetrators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being…

  16. Explore the Usefulness of Person-Fit Analysis on Large-Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Mousavi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The current study applied the person-fit statistic, l[subscript z], to data from a Canadian provincial achievement test to explore the usefulness of conducting person-fit analysis on large-scale assessments. Item parameter estimates were compared before and after the misfitting student responses, as identified by l[subscript z], were removed. The…

  17. Usage patterns of personal care products: Important factors for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesterbos, J.W.H.; Dudzina, T.; Delmaar, C.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Russel, F.G.M.; Goetz, N. von; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2013-01-01

    Complete information regarding the use of personal care products (PCPs) by consumers is limited, but such information is crucial for realistic consumer exposure assessment. To fill this gap, a database was created with person-oriented information regarding usage patterns and circumstances of use for

  18. ESTIMATING INJURIOUS IMPACT IN CONSTRUCTION LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENTS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDevitt, James E.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a desire to include social factors alongside environmental and economic considerations in Life Cycle Assessment studies for the construction sector. We describe a specific search for a method to include injurious impact for construction Life Cycle Assessment studies, by evaluating a range of methods and data sources. A simple case study using selected Accident Compensation Corporation information illustrates that data relating to injury could provide a compelling evidence to cause changes in construction supply chains, and could provide an economic motive to pursue further research in this area. The paper concludes that limitations notwithstanding, the suggested approach could be useful as a fast and cheap high level tool that can accelerate the discussions and research agenda that will bring about the inclusion of social metrics in construction sector supply chain management and declarations.

  19. A construct-driven investigation of gender differences in a leadership-role assessment center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil; Lievens, Filip; van Dam, Karen; Born, Marise

    2006-05-01

    This study examined gender differences in a large-scale assessment center for officer entry in the British Army. Subgroup differences were investigated for a sample of 1,857 candidates: 1,594 men and 263 women. A construct-driven approach was chosen (a) by examining gender differences at the construct level, (b) by formulating a priori hypotheses about which constructs would be susceptible to gender effects, and (c) by using both effect size statistics and latent mean analyses to investigate gender differences in assessment center ratings. Results showed that female candidates were rated notably higher on constructs reflecting an interpersonally oriented leadership style (i.e., oral communication and interaction) and on drive and determination. These results are discussed in light of role congruity theory and of the advantages of using latent mean analyses.

  20. In Search of Validity Evidence in Support of the Interpretation and Use of Assessments of Complex Constructs: Discussion of Research on Assessing 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Oliveri, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Assessing complex constructs such as those discussed under the umbrella of 21st century constructs highlights the need for a principled assessment design and validation approach. In our discussion, we made a case for three considerations: (a) taking construct complexity into account across various stages of assessment development such as the…

  1. An effective self-assessment based on concept map extraction from test-sheet for personalized learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Keng-Hou; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Examination is a traditional way to assess learners' learning status, progress and performance after a learning activity. Except the test grade, a test sheet hides some implicit information such as test concepts, their relationships, importance, and prerequisite. The implicit information can be extracted and constructed a concept map for considering (1) the test concepts covered in the same question means these test concepts have strong relationships, and (2) questions in the same test sheet means the test concepts are relative. Concept map has been successfully employed in many researches to help instructors and learners organize relationships among concepts. However, concept map construction depends on experts who need to take effort and time for the organization of the domain knowledge. In addition, the previous researches regarding to automatic concept map construction are limited to consider all learners of a class, which have not considered personalized learning. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes a new approach to automatically extract and construct concept map based on implicit information in a test sheet. Furthermore, the proposed approach also can help learner for self-assessment and self-diagnosis. Finally, an example is given to depict the effectiveness of proposed approach.

  2. Justification of system of assessment of ecological safety degree of housing construction objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankhva, Vadim

    2017-10-01

    In article characteristics and properties of competitiveness of housing construction objects are investigated, criteria and points of national systems of ecological building’s standardization are structured, the compliance assessment form on stages of life cycle of a capital construction project is developed. The main indicators of level of ecological safety considering requirements of the international ISO standards 9000 and ISO 14000 and which are based on the basic principles of general quality management (TQM) are presented.

  3. Management self-assessment in construction phase of nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Bixiu

    2004-01-01

    Management self-assessment is one of the quality management methods to achieve the organization's continuous improvement. Through the investigation of the methods, the author hopes to give guideline to the management at all levels involved in the construction of nuclear power station in the implementation of management self-assessment, and also to make the management self-assessment more normalized, systematical and effective

  4. Interest and limitations of projective techniques in the assessment of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petot, J M

    2000-06-01

    Assessing personality disorders (PD) remains a difficult task because of persistent problems linked to concurrent validity of existing instruments, which are all structured interviews or self-report inventories. It has been advocated that indirect methods, projective techniques in particular, can strengthen PD assessment methods. The thematic apperception test (TAT) may be a significant adjuvant method of PD assessment.

  5. Natural memory beyond the storage model: Repression, trauma, and the construction of a personal past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Axmacher

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring memory processes show features which are difficult to investigate by conventional cognitive neuroscience paradigms. Distortions of memory for problematic contents are described both by psychoanalysis (internal conflicts and research on post-traumatic stress disorder (external traumata. Typically, declarative memory for these contents is impaired – possibly due to repression in the case of internal conflicts or due to dissociation in the case of external traumata – but they continue to exert an unconscious pathological influence: neurotic symptoms or psychosomatic disorders after repression or flashbacks and intrusions in post-traumatic stress disorder after dissociation. Several experimental paradigms aim at investigating repression in healthy control subjects. We argue that these paradigms do not adequately operationalize the clinical process of repression, because they rely on an intentional inhibition of random stimuli (suppression. Furthermore, these paradigms ignore that memory distortions due to repression or dissociation are most accurately characterized by a lack of self-referential processing, resulting in an impaired integration of these contents into the self. This aspect of repression and dissociation cannot be captured by the concept of memory as a storage device which is usually employed in the cognitive neurosciences. It can only be assessed within the framework of a constructivist memory concept, according to which successful memory involves a reconstruction of experiences such that they fit into a representation of the self. We suggest several experimental paradigms that allow for the investigation of the neural correlates of repressed memories and trauma-induced memory distortions based on a constructivist memory concept.

  6. Parental representations and dimensions of personality: empirical relations and assessment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, A L; Ruiz, M A

    1997-04-01

    Research on the relations between parental representations, personality traits, and psychopathology was discussed with reference to their integration for clinical personality assessment. Empirical results linking parental representations assessed by the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior and the Five-Factor Model of personality traits in a young adult population supported the position that parental representations significantly relate to adult personality. Individuals whose parental representations were generally affiliative described themselves as less prone to emotional distress (lower neuroticism); more interpersonally oriented and experiencing of positive emotions (higher extraversion); more peaceable and trustworthy (higher agreeableness); and more dutiful, resourceful, and dependable (higher conscientiousness). Parental representations colored by autonomy granting and autonomy taking were related to higher levels of openness to experience but lower levels of conscientiousness and extraversion in self-descriptions. Assessment implications and an integrative assessment strategy were presented along with a clinical case example.

  7. A social work study for assessment of entrepreneurs' personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The personality of an entrepreneur plays an important role on the success of creating new ideas. There are different characteristics such as courage, hardness, braveness, which could help an entrepreneur reach his/her goals. In this paper, we present an empirical study to learn more about students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in different fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, etc. In this paper, There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We implement ANOVA test to measure different entrepreneurship characteristics of students who study in various educational fields. The case study is associated with Sama private university located in city of Zanjan/Iran. The results indicate that there are not meaningful differences among pairwise comparison of many engineering fields.

  8. Divergences between clinical and research methods for assessing personality disorders: implications for research and the evolution of axis II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westen, D

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which instruments for assessing axis II diverge from clinical diagnostic processes. Subjects in the first study were 52 clinicians with experience in assessment and treatment of patients with personality disorders, who were surveyed about the methods they use in clinical practice to make diagnoses and other aspects of the diagnostic process. A second study replicated the major findings with a random national sample of 1,901 experienced psychiatrists and psychologists. Whereas current instruments rely primarily on direct questions derived from DSM-IV, clinicians of every theoretical persuasion found direct questions useful for assessing axis I disorders but only marginally so for axis II. They made axis II diagnoses, instead, by listening to patients describe interpersonal interactions and observing their behavior with the interviewer. In contrast to findings with current research instruments, most patients with personality disorders in clinical practice receive only one axis II diagnosis, and if they receive more than one, one is considered primary. Clinicians reported treating a substantial number of patients for enduring personality patterns that current axis II instruments do not assess, many of which meet neither axis I nor axis II criteria, notably problems with relatedness, work, self-esteem, and chronic subclinical depressive traits. Measurements of axis II were constructed by using a model derived from axis I instruments that diverges from clinical diagnostic procedures in a way that may be problematic for the assessment of personality disorders and the development of a more clinically and empirically sound taxonomy.

  9. Safety risk assessment using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) during planning and budgeting of construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminbakhsh, Saman; Gunduz, Murat; Sonmez, Rifat

    2013-09-01

    The inherent and unique risks on construction projects quite often present key challenges to contractors. Health and safety risks are among the most significant risks in construction projects since the construction industry is characterized by a relatively high injury and death rate compared to other industries. In construction project management, safety risk assessment is an important step toward identifying potential hazards and evaluating the risks associated with the hazards. Adequate prioritization of safety risks during risk assessment is crucial for planning, budgeting, and management of safety related risks. In this paper, a safety risk assessment framework is presented based on the theory of cost of safety (COS) model and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The main contribution of the proposed framework is that it presents a robust method for prioritization of safety risks in construction projects to create a rational budget and to set realistic goals without compromising safety. The framework provides a decision tool for the decision makers to determine the adequate accident/injury prevention investments while considering the funding limits. The proposed safety risk framework is illustrated using a real-life construction project and the advantages and limitations of the framework are discussed. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of activity limitations and participation restrictions with persons with chronic fatigue syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwen, Kuni; Huijnen, Ivan P J; Kos, Daphne; Van de Velde, Dominique; van Eupen, Inge; Meeus, Mira

    2015-01-01

    To summarize measurement instruments used to evaluate activity limitations and participation restrictions in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and review the psychometric properties of these instruments. General information of all included measurement instruments was extracted. The methodological quality was evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Results of the measurement properties were rated based on the quality criteria of Terwee et al. Finally, overall quality was defined per psychometric property and measurement instrument by use of the quality criteria by Schellingerhout et al. A total of 68 articles were identified of which eight evaluated the psychometric properties of a measurement instrument assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions. One disease-specific and 37 generic measurement instruments were found. Limited evidence was found for the psychometric properties and clinical usability of these instruments. However, the CFS-activities and participation questionnaire (APQ) is a disease-specific instrument with moderate content and construct validity. The psychometric properties of the reviewed measurement instruments to evaluate activity limitations and participation restrictions are not sufficiently evaluated. Future research is needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the measurement instruments, including the other properties of the CFS-APQ. If it is necessary to use a measurement instrument, the CFS-APQ is recommended. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Chronic fatigue syndrome causes activity limitations and participation restrictions in one or more areas of life. Standardized, reliable and valid measurement instruments are necessary to identify these limitations and restrictions. Currently, no measurement instrument is sufficiently evaluated with persons with CFS. If a measurement instrument is needed to identify activity limitations and participation restrictions with persons with CFS, it is recommended to use

  11. An assessment of personality disorders with the Five-Factor Model among Belgian inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Many international studies report a high prevalence of personality disorders among inmates on the basis of (semi)-structured diagnostic interviews. The present study proposes a self-reported evaluation of personality disorders using the NEO PI-R. The sample consists of 244 male and 18 female inmates (N=262) who were psychologically assessed. The analysis of the five psychological domains shows that the French-speaking Belgian inmates are as stable, as extroverted, more closed, more agreeable and more conscientious than the normative sample. The NEO PI-R facets are also analyzed. The mean Cohen's d (.26) is small. Two personality disorders have medium effect sizes: obsessive compulsive personality disorder (high) and histrionic personality (low). Small effect sizes exist for antisocial personality (low), psychopathy (low), narcissistic personality (low), schizoid personality (high) and borderline personality (low). In our view, the context of the assessment can partially explain these results but not entirely. The results do not confirm previous studies and question the high rates of psychiatric prevalence in prison. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Personality assessment of homeless adults as a tool for service planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomiczenko, G S; Sota, T; Goering, P N

    2000-01-01

    The psychiatric status of homeless adults has been described primarily in terms of Axis I disorders. By adding a subset of the Personality Assessment Inventory, this study tests the feasibility and usefulness of a brief, self-administered questionnaire to obtain scores on several dimensions of personality. Cluster analysis sorted 112 tested subjects into four groups characterized by distinct profiles. Two of these were characterized by extreme scores on pathological dimensions of personality (borderline features, antisocial traits, and aggressivity) and differed primarily on the dimension of suicidality. The third reflected moderate levels of personality dysfunction and the fourth did not deviate from adult nonclinical norms. The validity of the clusters was supported by demographic, background, and diagnostic subgroup differences. Brief personality assessment can be a cost-effective approach to matching services with clinical needs of homeless adults by attending to interpersonal dimensions that will likely affect service provision.

  13. Personality assessment of substance-dependent patients in a therapeutic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, L A; Steinberg, S L; Rohde, P

    1996-01-01

    The design and implementation of a personality assessment system for severely substance-dependent men in a therapeutic community (TC) are described. The system was designed from a treatment utility perspective (Hayes, Nelson, & Jarrett, 1987) and uses the Personality Research Form E (Jackson, 1984) to provide each patient with feedback (a) describing his normal personality traits, (b) predicting his probable pattern of adjustment to the treatment setting, and (c) prescribing specific actions he can take to address potentially problematic behaviors. Discussing the the results with the patient helps him cope with the TC. Reviewing the assessment results with the staff promotes their empathy for the patient as a person whose behavior can be understood as an interaction of his personality with the specific demands of the TC rather than seeing the patient in exclusively pathological terms. Specific suggestions for behavior change guide both the patient and the staff and are potentially useful in various treatment settings.

  14. Personality Assessment of Global Talent: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The recruitment of managers who will operate in a culturally heterogeneous context (as expatriate managers, managers in a global company, or managers of a multicultural workforce) is increasingly important in an age of globalization. This article describes conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of such managers, notably in the…

  15. Assessing the candidate in the selection interview: The role of interviewer’s personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čerović Sofija

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the relative contribution of interviewers’ personality and interviewers’ ratings of candidate’s personality in predicting interviewers’ ratings of candidate’s job suitability and examines the moderating effect of interviewers’ personality on the relationship between ratings of candidate’s personality and job suitability. Results showed that ratings of candidate’s Big Five personality traits were related to ratings of candidate’s job suitability, as well as were interviewers’ Agreeableness and Extraversion. Interviewers’ Openness and Agreeableness had a moderating effect on the relationship between interviewers’ ratings of candidate’s personality traits and ratings of candidate’s job suitability. Results reveal the role that interviewer’s Agreeableness, Extraversion and Openness play in the assessment of candidate in the selection interview.

  16. Construction and Application Research of Isomap-RVM Credit Assessment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangrong Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit assessment is the basis and premise of credit risk management systems. Accurate and scientific credit assessment is of great significance to the operational decisions of shareholders, corporate creditors, and management. Building a good and reliable credit assessment model is key to credit assessment. Traditional credit assessment models are constructed using the support vector machine (SVM combined with certain traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms. When constructing such a model, the dimensionality reduction algorithms are first applied to reduce the dimensions of the samples, so as to prevent the correlation of the samples’ characteristic index from being too high. Then, machine learning of the samples will be conducted using the SVM, in order to carry out classification assessment. To further improve the accuracy of credit assessment methods, this paper has introduced more cutting-edge algorithms, applied isometric feature mapping (Isomap for dimensionality reduction, and used the relevance vector machine (RVM for credit classification. It has constructed an Isomap-RVM model and used it to conduct financial analysis of China's listed companies. The empirical analysis shows that the credit assessment accuracy of the Isomap-RVM model is significantly higher than that of the Isomap-SVM model and slightly higher than that of the PCA-RVM model. It can correctly identify the credit risks of listed companies.

  17. A critical assessment of two types of personal UV dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckmeyer, Gunther; Klingebiel, Marcus; Riechelmann, Stefan; Lohse, Insa; McKenzie, Richard L; Liley, J Ben; Allen, Martin W; Siani, Anna-Maria; Casale, Giuseppe R

    2012-01-01

    Doses of erythemally weighted irradiances derived from polysulphone (PS) and electronic ultraviolet (EUV) dosimeters have been compared with measurements obtained using a reference spectroradiometer. PS dosimeters showed mean absolute deviations of 26% with a maximum deviation of 44%, the calibrated EUV dosimeters showed mean absolute deviations of 15% (maximum 33%) around noon during several test days in the northern hemisphere autumn. In the case of EUV dosimeters, measurements with various cut-off filters showed that part of the deviation from the CIE erythema action spectrum was due to a small, but significant sensitivity to visible radiation that varies between devices and which may be avoided by careful preselection. Usually the method of calibrating UV sensors by direct comparison to a reference instrument leads to reliable results. However, in some circumstances the quality of measurements made with simple sensors may be over-estimated. In the extreme case, a simple pyranometer can be used as a UV instrument, providing acceptable results for cloudless skies, but very poor results under cloudy conditions. It is concluded that while UV dosimeters are useful for their design purpose, namely to estimate personal UV exposures, they should not be regarded as an inexpensive replacement for meteorological grade instruments. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. Personalized risk communication for personalized risk assessment: Real world assessment of knowledge and motivation for six mortality risk measures from an online life expectancy calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Douglas G; Abdulaziz, Kasim E; Perez, Richard; Beach, Sarah; Bennett, Carol

    2018-01-01

    In the clinical setting, previous studies have shown personalized risk assessment and communication improves risk perception and motivation. We evaluated an online health calculator that estimated and presented six different measures of life expectancy/mortality based on a person's sociodemographic and health behavior profile. Immediately after receiving calculator results, participants were invited to complete an online survey that asked how informative and motivating they found each risk measure, whether they would share their results and whether the calculator provided information they need to make lifestyle changes. Over 80% of the 317 survey respondents found at least one of six healthy living measures highly informative and motivating, but there was moderate heterogeneity regarding which measures respondents found most informative and motivating. Overall, health age was most informative and life expectancy most motivating. Approximately 40% of respondents would share the results with their clinician (44%) or social networks (38%), although the information they would share was often different from what they found informative or motivational. Online personalized risk assessment allows for a more personalized communication compared to historic paper-based risk assessment to maximize knowledge and motivation, and people should be provided a range of risk communication measures that reflect different risk perspectives.

  19. The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment Scale: An Instrument to Help Aid Immediate Threat Assessment for Counselors, Faculty, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Threats of violence are not uncommon to counselors, faculty, or teachers. Each must be taken seriously, quickly analyzed, and safety procedures implemented. Yet, there exists a paucity of brief, face-to-face, assessments designed to aid threat assessment. To address this paucity, the author created The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment…

  20. PERSONALITY AND CLINICAL TESTS IN SPANISH FOR ASSESSING JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Wenger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The psychological assessment of offenders throughout the different stages in the juvenile justice system is essential. It ensures the adequacy of the legal and educational measures to be applied in the process. This paper reviews the main tests of psychological assessment available in Spanish, suitable for use by psychology professionals who work with young offenders in the juvenile justice services in Spanish-speaking countries. We classify these tools into three groups: a personological, i.e. generic tools, suitable for any professional context in psychology, b clinical, i.e. tools whose initial use has been limited to working with adolescents with mental health needs, and c forensic, tools that have been specially developed for use in the juvenile justice population. This last group is described in the second part of this article (which appears in this same issue. The most important instruments of proven utility are presented and reviewed for each group.

  1. Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Psychological Assessment with the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders: Tradition and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Mark H; Hopwood, Christopher J; Krueger, Robert F; Morey, Leslie C; Pincus, Aaron L; Wright, Aidan G C

    2017-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD; APA, 2013) represents an innovative system for simultaneous psychiatric classification and psychological assessment of personality disorders (PD). The AMPD combines major paradigms of personality assessment and provides an original, heuristic, flexible, and practical framework that enriches clinical thinking and practice. Origins, emerging research, and clinical application of the AMPD for diagnosis and psychological assessment are reviewed. The AMPD integrates assessment and research traditions, facilitates case conceptualization, is easy to learn and use, and assists in providing patient feedback. New as well as existing tests and psychometric methods may be used to operationalize the AMPD for clinical assessments.

  3. Stakeholders Assessment of Constraints to Project Delivery in the Nigerian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L. Tanko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The central goal of construction stakeholders is to successfully deliver projects to stated objective (s. However, for decades, construction projects have been plagued by perennial constraints of cost and time overruns, poor quality, and lack of sustainability. The objective of this paper is to identify and assess the constraints to construction project delivery, and to recommend solutions to enhance project performance. This paper adopted both quantitative and qualitative methods to establish the constraints in the Nigerian construction industry. A pilot survey and literature reviewed revealed a total of fifty (50 construction constraints, which were further classified into eight (8 major groups. Well-structured questionnaires were administered to construction stakeholders (client, consultant and contractor in Abuja, the federal capital city of Nigeria. Relative Importance Index (RII was used to analyze the data using Likert scale.  The results suggest that cost/time overrun related factors (inability to reduce project cost, Stakeholders interactive-related factors (inability to establish client value system, Client-related factors (Delay in interim payment and finance problem, and Labor/material-related factors (escalation of material prices and materials quality variability are the most prevalent constraints in the Nigerian construction environment.  To mitigate the effects of these challenges, it is suggested that a formal innovative approach should be used by stakeholders to address the problems of poor communication, high project cost, and delay. Clients should also take measures to provide adequate funding and should promptly honor interim certificates.

  4. The assessment of personal dose due to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Young, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental basis of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) is discussed and a number of considerations in the measurement of thermoluminescence described, with particular reference to CaSO 4 :Dy. The steps taken to convert a thermoluminescence measurement to an exposure and then an absorbed dose are outlined. The calculation of effective dose equivalents due to external exposure to γ-radiation in a number of situations commonly encountered in a uranium mine is discussed. Factors which may affect the accuracy of external dose assessments are described

  5. Assessment of prison life of persons with disability in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbe, Joslin; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Edusei, Anthony; Plange-Rhule, Gyikua; Addofoh, Nicholas; Baffour-Awuah, Sandra; Sarfo-Kantanka, Osei; Hammond, Charles; Owusu, Michael

    2016-08-08

    Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) are a unique group that are often overlooked in many developing countries due to systemic weaknesses, lack of political commitment and inadequate support from government and non-governmental agencies. The population of these individuals is however steadily on the increase and currently corresponds to 15 % of the world population. Although much data exist on lifestyle and conditions of prisoners with disabilities in the western world, scanty information is available in Africa. In Ghana, there is insufficient data on the occurrence and social characteristics of prisoners with disabilities. The purpose of this current study was therefore to identify the occurrence, types and causes of disabilities among prisoners serving sentences in Ghanaian prisons. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted in the Male and Female Regional Prisons in Kumasi, Sunyani and the Nsawam Medium Security Prison, from November to December 2011. PWDs were selected by prisons officers and interviewed using structured questionnaires on variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, causes of disabilities and accessibility to recreational facilities. Ethical approval was obtained from the security services and the Committee of Human Research Publications and Ethics (CHRPE) of the School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). We screened 6114 records of prisoners of which 1852 (30.3 %) were from the Kumasi Central Prisons, 3483 (57 %) from the Nsawam Medium Security and 779 (12.8 %) from the Sunyani Central Prisons. A total of 99 PWDs were identified with the commonest disability being physical, followed by visual, hearing, speech, mental and albinism. Most of the disabilities were caused by trauma (68.8 %) followed by infection (16.7 %), and drug related mental disabilities (6.3 %). Fifty (50.5 %) out of the 99 PWDs were not provided with assistive devices although they admitted the need

  6. Assessing DSM-5 section III personality traits and disorders with the MMPI-2-RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Anderson, Jaime L; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-12-01

    An alternative model for diagnosing personality disorders (PDs) appears in DSM-5 Section III. This model includes a set of dimensional personality traits, which along with impairment in personality functioning can be configured to represent one of six PDs. Although specific assessment instruments for these personality traits have already been developed (e.g., the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]), clinicians will likely continue to use omnibus measures of psychopathology that are familiar to them to inform diagnostic decision making. One such measure, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), will likely remain in the test armamentarium of many practitioners and be employed to assess the DSM-5 dimensional traits. In the current investigation, we examined the associations between MMPI-2-RF scale scores and the PID-5 trait scores and DSM-5 Section III PDs in a combined sample of university students (n = 668) from the United States and Canada. Our results indicated that the MMPI-2-RF scale scores mostly converge with PID-5 dimensional traits as well as the Section III PDs in a conceptually expected manner. As such, we conclude that the MMPI-2-RF is a potentially useful instrument in assessing personality psychopathology as conceptualized in DSM-5 Section III.

  7. The Person Centered approach in Gerontology: New validity evidence of the Staff Assessment Person-directed Care Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Martínez; Javier Suárez-Álvarez; Javier Yanguas; José Muñiz

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes/Objetivos La atención centrada en la persona es un enfoque innovador que busca mejorar la calidad asistencial de los servicios para personas mayores que precisan cuidados. Ante el creciente interés hacia este enfoque es necesario contar con instrumentos de medida que permitan evaluar en qué grado los servicios gerontológicos llevan a cabo una atención centrada en la persona. El objetivo de este trabajo es la adaptación y validación del Staff Assessment Person-directed Care (PDC) ...

  8. Framework for Continuous Assessment and Improvement of Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Construction Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi, Shahram; Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soleimani, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Construction industry is among the most hazardous industries, and needs a comprehensive and simple-to-administer tool to continuously assess and promote its health and safety performance. Methods: Through the study of various standard systems (mainly Health, Safety, and Environment Management System; Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 180001; and British Standard, occupational health and safety management systems-Guide 8800), seven main elements were determined fo...

  9. The Design of Curriculum, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education with Constructive Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat

    2018-01-01

    In higher education, the principle of constructive alignment for devising teaching, learning activities and assessment tasks is the underpinning concept in curriculum design and development to achieve intended learning outcomes. Student's deep learning is critical and it is the responsibility of the curriculum developer to make sure that synergy…

  10. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waterfront facility handling and storing Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) at its Orange, Texas facility. The... LHG marine traffic in the associated waterway. INVISTA, S.a.r.l. located in Orange, Texas submitted an...

  11. Constructing Assessment Model of Primary and Secondary Educational Quality with Talent Quality as the Core Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Benyou

    2014-01-01

    Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…

  12. Establishing the Validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory Drug and Alcohol Scales in a Corrections Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Marc W.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Weinman, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Although not originally designed for implementation in correctional settings, researchers and clinicians have begun to use the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to assess offenders. A relatively small number of studies have made attempts to validate the alcohol and drug abuse scales of the PAI, and only a very few studies have validated those…

  13. The assessment of personality disorders : Implications for cognitive and behavior therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanVelzen, CJM; Emmelkamp, PMG

    This article reviews the comorbidity of personality disorders (PDs) and Axis I disorders and discusses implications for assessment and treatment. Pros and cons of various assessment methods are discussed. The co-occurrence of PDs with Axis I disorders is considerable; roughly half of patients with

  14. Correspondence between Self-Report and Interview-Based Assessments of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Laura S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Edens, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD--the ASPD scale of…

  15. Ethical dilemmas in personality assessment courses: using the classroom for in vivo training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalof, J; Brabender, V

    2001-10-01

    In this article, we argue that the student's first lessons in ethical decision making in personality assessment are in those assessment courses that have a practice component. In these courses, the student has an opportunity to experience in vivo how ethical problems are identified, addressed, and resolved. The faculty member's demonstration of a process wherein the ethical principles activated are highlighted and explored, will enable students to internalize a model for addressing future dilemmas. Four particular ethical situations are considered: (a) the students' procurement of personal experience with personality testing, (b) the identification of assessment participants, (c) the development of informed consent procedures for assessment participants, and (d) classroom presentations. This discussion does not provide concrete solutions to ethical problems but offers a consideration of the relevant ethical principles that any adequate solution must encompass.

  16. Correlation between safety climate and contractor safety assessment programs in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Emily H; Murphy, Lauren A; Taylor, Kathryn M; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-12-01

    Contractor safety assessment programs (CSAPs) measure safety performance by integrating multiple data sources together; however, the relationship between these measures of safety performance and safety climate within the construction industry is unknown. Four hundred and one construction workers employed by 68 companies on 26 sites and 11 safety managers employed by 11 companies completed brief surveys containing a nine-item safety climate scale developed for the construction industry. CSAP scores from ConstructSecure, Inc., an online CSAP database, classified these 68 companies as high or low scorers, with the median score of the sample population as the threshold. Spearman rank correlations evaluated the association between the CSAP score and the safety climate score at the individual level, as well as with various grouping methodologies. In addition, Spearman correlations evaluated the comparison between manager-assessed safety climate and worker-assessed safety climate. There were no statistically significant differences between safety climate scores reported by workers in the high and low CSAP groups. There were, at best, weak correlations between workers' safety climate scores and the company CSAP scores, with marginal statistical significance with two groupings of the data. There were also no significant differences between the manager-assessed safety climate and the worker-assessed safety climate scores. A CSAP safety performance score does not appear to capture safety climate, as measured in this study. The nature of safety climate in construction is complex, which may be reflective of the challenges in measuring safety climate within this industry. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:1463-1472, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Incremental Validity of the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Scales in Assessing Self-Reported Personality Disorder Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, Dustin B.; Sellbom, Martin; Graham, John R.; Schenk, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5) scales were developed to measure abnormal personality symptomatology. The present study examines the incremental validity of the PSY-5 scales beyond the clinical and content scales in assessing criteria associated with personality disorders. The…

  18. General and maladaptive personality dimensions and the assessment of callous-unemotional traits in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; De Clercq, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Associations between callous-unemotional traits and general and maladaptive personality dimensions are examined in adolescence. More specifically, it was investigated to what extent general and maladaptive personality dimensions can account for the variance in callous-unemotional (CU) scores. Adolescents (N = 509) and their mothers completed the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU; Frick, 2003), the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC; Mervielde & De Fruyt, 1999, 2002), and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Both personality measures accounted for substantial variance in ICU scores and the overall CU profile in terms of the HiPIC and DIPSI was consistent with psychopathy conceptualizations and consistent across informant. Implications for the assessment of early externalizing trait pathology are discussed.

  19. Assessment and importance of personality disorders in medical patients: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhossche, D M; Shevitz, S A

    1999-06-01

    Personality disorders in medical patients have received less attention than depression, anxiety, or somatization. We conducted a selective literature search to assess the role of personality disorders in medical patients. Review of recent studies suggests a high prevalence and morbidity of personality disorders in medical populations. Important correlates in selected groups are depression, somatization, noncompliance, sexual risk taking, and substance abuse. Difficulties in physician-patient relationships are also frequently reported. Psychiatric interventions are considered beneficial, though no single treatment of choice is available. We recommend that physicians consider the possibility of personality disorders in medical patients to choose appropriate treatments for selected symptoms. Training in interviewing skills may enhance recognition of personality disorders and management of associated psychiatric conditions.

  20. Assessment of maladaptiveness: a core issue in the diagnosing of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanborg, P; Gustavsson, P J; Mattila-Evenden, M; Asberg, M

    1999-01-01

    Although an operationalized and commonly accepted definition of maladaptiveness is lacking, the delineation of personality traits as being adaptive or maladaptive is essential in diagnosing personality disorders (PDs). A way to explore the meaning of maladaptiveness is to compare how patients from all DSM-III-R PDs relate to different traits and dimensions of various dimensional models of personality. In the present study, the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) were used in a sample of 94 psychiatric outpatients who were assessed according to severity of maladaption and according to type of predominant cluster type of deviant traits. Only one of four factors of the scores of the KSP subscales, "Interpersonal Aversiveness," was related to degree of maladaption, indicating high detachment, suspicion, irritability, dysphoria, and low socialization as core features of maladaptiveness. Three subscales of the KSP Socialization were all associated with maladaptiveness. However, one subscale, "Childhood Adjustment," was also related to the predominant cluster type of personality pathology.

  1. Time diary and questionnaire assessment of factors associated with academic and personal success among university undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Darren; Dixon, Sinikka; Stansal, Emory; Gelb, Shannon Lund; Pheri, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 231 students attending a private liberal arts university in central Alberta, Canada, completed a 5-day time diary and a 71-item questionnaire assessing the influence of personal, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on success. The authors used 3 success measures: cumulative grade point average (GPA), Personal Success--each participant's rating of congruence between stated goals and progress toward those goals--and Total Success--a measure that weighted GPA and Personal Success equally. The greatest predictors of GPA were time-management skills, intelligence, time spent studying, computer ownership, less time spent in passive leisure, and a healthy diet. Predictors of Personal Success scores were clearly defined goals, overall health, personal spirituality, and time-management skills. Predictors of Total Success scores were clearly defined goals, time-management skills, less time spent in passive leisure, healthy diet, waking up early, computer ownership, and less time spent sleeping. Results suggest alternatives to traditional predictors of academic success.

  2. Hygienic assessment of using rocks with high content of natural radionuclides in road construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilov, A.N.; Ryabchikov, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental investigations on radiation hygienic assessment of the possibilities of using rocks with an increased content of natural radionuclides (NRN) are carried out. At experimental road portions constructed using such rocks, γ-radiation levels have been measured and radioactive contamination of the ad-- jacent territory has been determined. The danger presented by such roads for highway engineering workers and population also has been assessed. The results obtained permit to express a possitive opinion on the use of solid wastes with an increased NRN content for construction of roads with asphalt coating. Rocks with specific α-activity 3 Bq/kg are recommended to be used for any types of road construction, whereas wastes with specific α-activity 3 Bq/kg - only for road construction in an industrial zone, between populated areas and for thoroughfares and highways. The use of wastes with a higher NRN content is unreasonable as it leads to a growth of annular dose to population and excessive exposure of construction workers engaged in highway engineering operations

  3. Risk assessment framework on time impact: Infrastructure projects in soft soil during construction stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W. W.; Wong, K. S.; Lee, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    With the growth of economy and population, there is an increase in infrastructure construction projects. As such, it is unavoidable to have construction projects on soft soil. Without proper risk management plan, construction projects are vulnerable to different types of risks which will have negative impact on project’s time, cost and quality. Literature review showed that little or none of the research is focused on the risk assessment on the infrastructure project in soft soil. Hence, the aim of this research is to propose a risk assessment framework in infrastructure projects in soft soil during the construction stage. This research was focused on the impact of risks on project time and internal risk factors. The research method was Analytical Hierarchy Process and the sample population was experienced industry experts who have experience in infrastructure projects. Analysis was completed and result showed that for internal factors, the five most significant risks on time element are lack of special equipment, potential contractual disputes and claims, shortage of skilled workers, delay/lack of materials supply, and insolvency of contractor/sub-contractor. Results indicated that resources risk factor play a critical role on project time frame in infrastructure projects in soft soil during the construction stage.

  4. Self-Assessment Of Personal Virtues and its Correlation to the Basic Beliefs and Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Bogomaz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of empirical research of the personal values as bases for self-assessments of some personal virtues. The study is implemented in line with positive psychology, and is based on the concept of values as basic foundations of a particular human actions. The empirical research of a self-assessment of expressiveness of personal values at 658 residents of 4 Siberian cities of Russia. (Tomsk, Kemerovo, Barnaul, Lesosibirsk was carried out in 2013-2014 with the use of the technique the "Questionnaire of 24 virtues" developed by E.N. Osin on the basis of a questionnaire "A profile of personal values" of K. Peterson and M. Seligman's Values-In-Action. The results of cluster and correlation analysis were presented, allowing to isolate distinct groups of the virtues in a sample and to connect these to the basic beliefs and values.

  5. Assessment of a personalized and distributed patient guidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Mor; Shahar, Yuval; Quaglini, Silvana; Broens, Tom; Budasu, Roxana; Fung, Nick; Fux, Adi; García-Sáez, Gema; Goldstein, Ayelet; González-Ferrer, Arturo; Hermens, Hermie; Hernando, M Elena; Jones, Val; Klebanov, Guy; Klimov, Denis; Knoppel, Daniel; Larburu, Nekane; Marcos, Carlos; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Napolitano, Carlo; Pallàs, Àngels; Palomares, Angel; Parimbelli, Enea; Pons, Belén; Rigla, Mercedes; Sacchi, Lucia; Shalom, Erez; Soffer, Pnina; van Schooten, Boris

    2017-05-01

    The MobiGuide project aimed to establish a ubiquitous, user-friendly, patient-centered mobile decision-support system for patients and for their care providers, based on the continuous application of clinical guidelines and on semantically integrated electronic health records. Patients would be empowered by the system, which would enable them to lead their normal daily lives in their regular environment, while feeling safe, because their health state would be continuously monitored using mobile sensors and self-reporting of symptoms. When conditions occur that require medical attention, patients would be notified as to what they need to do, based on evidence-based guidelines, while their medical team would be informed appropriately, in parallel. We wanted to assess the system's feasibility and potential effects on patients and care providers in two different clinical domains. We describe MobiGuide's architecture, which embodies these objectives. Our novel methodologies include a ubiquitous architecture, encompassing a knowledge elicitation process for parallel coordinated workflows for patients and care providers; the customization of computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) by secondary contexts affecting remote management and distributed decision-making; a mechanism for episodic, on demand projection of the relevant portions of CIGs from a centralized, backend decision-support system (DSS), to a local, mobile DSS, which continuously delivers the actual recommendations to the patient; shared decision-making that embodies patient preferences; semantic data integration; and patient and care provider notification services. MobiGuide has been implemented and assessed in a preliminary fashion in two domains: atrial fibrillation (AF), and gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Ten AF patients used the AF MobiGuide system in Italy and 19 GDM patients used the GDM MobiGuide system in Spain. The evaluation of the MobiGuide system focused on patient and care providers

  6. Conformity Assessment as a Tool for Organizational Learning in Large Engineering and Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Assalim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For the successful realization of large engineering and construction projects (LECPs, a systemic organizational learning framework for institutional cooperation is critical. Due to the long project life-cycle of LECPs, this is particularly important for this kind of project. The objective of this paper is to analyze to what extent the conformity assessment of LECPs, carried out under Engineering, Procurement and Construction management (EPCm services, can be used as a tool for organizational learning and cooperation between typical stakeholders (project owners, engineering contractors, EPC contractors; subcontractors and certification bodies. The research, from which this paper emanates, was based on a case study concerning LECPs in an oil and gas company in Brazil. Based on its results, we suggest that the proposed organizational learning framework, supported by the conformity assessment rationale, constitutes an important management tool that can be disseminated in other organizational contexts where conformity assessments of LECPs take place.

  7. THE ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PERSONALITY: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Suárez-Álvarez; Ignacio Pedrosa

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is fundamental in modern society because it represents an important source of innovation, employment, productivity, and growth. While the first theoretical models arose from economic and sociological approaches, psychology provides models that integrate different aspects such as cognitions, attitudes and personality, which allow a more detailed study. The purpose of this paper is to show the main contributions of psychology to the assessment of the enterprising personality. F...

  8. Constructing Ecological Networks Based on Habitat Quality Assessment: A Case Study of Changzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Ma, Lei; Liu, Jiaxun; Zhuang, Zhuzhou; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2017-01-01

    Fragmentation and reduced continuity of habitat patches threaten the environment and biodiversity. Recently, ecological networks are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers as they provide fundamental frameworks for environmental protection. This study suggests a set of procedures to construct an ecological network. First, we proposed a method to construct a landscape resistance surface based on the assessment of habitat quality. Second, to analyze the effect of the resistance surface on corridor simulations, we used three methods to construct resistance surfaces: (1) the method proposed in this paper, (2) the entropy coefficient method, and (3) the expert scoring method. Then, we integrated habitat patches and resistance surfaces to identify potential corridors using graph theory. These procedures were tested in Changzhou, China. Comparing the outputs of using different resistance surfaces demonstrated that: (1) different landscape resistance surfaces contribute to how corridors are identified, but only slightly affect the assessment of the importance of habitat patches and potential corridors; (2) the resistance surface, which is constructed based on habitat quality, is more applicable to corridor simulations; and (3) the assessment of the importance of habitat patches is fundamental for ecological network optimization in the conservation of critical habitat patches and corridors. PMID:28393879

  9. Assessment of the nursing care product (APROCENF: a reliability and construct validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabiana Cucolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to verify the reliability and construct validity estimates of the "Assessment of nursing care product" scale (APROCENF and its applicability. Methods: this validation study included a sample of 40 (inter-rater reliability and 172 (construct validity assessments performed by nurses at the end of the work shift at nine inpatient services of a teaching hospital in the Brazilian Southeast. The data were collected between February and September/2014 with interruptions. Cronbach's alpha and Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated, as well as the intraclass correlation and the weighted kappa index (inter-rater reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was used with principal component extraction and varimax rotation (construct validity. Results: the internal consistency revealed an alpha coefficient of 0.85, item-item correlation ranging between 0.13 and 0.61 and item-total correlation between 0.43 and 0.69. Inter-rater equivalence was obtained and all items evidenced significant factor loadings. Conclusion: this research evidenced the reliability and construct validity of the scale to assess the nursing care product. Its application in nursing practice permits identifying improvements needed in the production process, contributing to management and care decisions.

  10. Construction of data base for radiation safety assessment of low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Shin

    2001-01-01

    Data base with an electronic text on the safety assessment of low dose ionizing radiation have been constructed. The contents and the data base system were designed to provide useful information to Japanese citizens, radiation specialists, and decision makers for a scientific and reasonable understanding of radiation health effects, radiation risk assessment, and radiation protection. The data base consists of the following four essential parts, namely, ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION, DETAILED INFORMATION, TOPIC INFORMATION, and RELATED INFORMATION. The first two parts of the data base are further classified into following subbranches: Radiobiological effects, radiation risk assessment, and radiation exposure and protection. (author)

  11. Assessment of impact of construction materials on the ecological safety of home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigulina Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of creating environmentally friendly aerial environment within residential premises. The main sources causing air pollution of urban housing are determined and classified. The origins of air pollution sources of residential premises are adopted as the classifying criterion. The sources of contamination are defined and assessed. Particular attention is paid to the choice of environmentally friendly building materials. The methodology for assessing toxicity of industrial waste used in the production of housing materials is developed to assess the comfort and environmental safety of home. The idea of creating “Residential buldings ID” containing information on the construction materials used is introduced.

  12. Constructing a Language Assessment Knowledge Base: A Focus on Language Assessment Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar-Lourie, Ofra

    2008-01-01

    The competencies required for conducting assessment in the educational context have recently been reformulated in view of social constructivist perspectives and the acknowledgement of the role of classroom assessment in promoting learning. These changes have impacted the knowledge base language assessors need to obtain, and hence the contents of…

  13. Assessment of self-perception of transsexual persons: pilot study of 15 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barišić, Jasmina; Milosavljević, Marija; Duišin, Dragana; Batinić, Borjanka; Vujović, Svetlana; Milovanović, Srdjan

    2014-01-01

    There have been few studies in the area of Self-Perception in transsexual persons, except for the population of transsexual adolescents. Bearing in mind its importance not only in the assessment of personality but also in predicting adaptive capacity, the goal of our research is based on the examination of Self-Perception of adult transsexual persons. The study was conducted using a Rorschach test, which provides an insight into various aspects of Self-Perception. The sample consisted of 15 transsexual persons, who passed the standard diagnostic procedure. The results suggest that transsexual persons manage to maintain Adequate Self-Esteem. Hypervigilance Index and Obsessive Style Index are negative, while the values showing a negative quality of Self-Regard and the capacity for introspection tend to increase. In the process of Self-Introspection, negative and painful emotional states are often perceived. The estimation of Self-Perception in adult transsexual persons indicates a trend of subjective perception of a personal imperfection or inadequacy. This is probably the result of experiencing discomfort for a number of years due to gender incongruence and dysphoria, in particular in persons who enter the sex reassignment procedure later in their adulthood.

  14. Pilot evaluation of the Computer-Based Assessment for Sampling Personal Characteristics test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipper, Edward S; Mazer, Laura M; Merrell, Sylvia Bereknyei; Lin, Dana T; Lau, James N; Melcher, Marc L

    2017-07-01

    High attrition rates hint at deficiencies in the resident selection process. The evaluation of personal characteristics representative of success is difficult. Here, we evaluate a novel tool for assessing personal characteristics. To evaluate feasibility, we used an anonymous voluntary survey questionnaire offered to study participants before and after contact with the CASPer test. To evaluate the CASPer test as a predictor of success, we compared CASPer test assessments of personal characteristics versus traditional faculty assessment of personal characteristics with applicant rank list position. All applicants (n = 77) attending an in-person interview for general surgery residency, and all faculty interviewers (n = 34) who reviewed these applications were invited to participate. Among applicants, 84.4% of respondents (65 of 77) reported that a requirement to complete the CASPer test would have no bearing or would make them more likely to apply to the program (mean = 3.30, standard deviation = 0.96). Among the faculty, 62.5% respondents (10 of 16) reported that the same condition would have no bearing or would make applicants more likely to apply to the program (mean = 3.19, standard deviation = 1.33). The Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients for the relationships between traditional faculty assessment of personal characteristics and applicant rank list position, and novel CASPer assessment of personal characteristics and applicant rank list position, were -0.45 (P = 0.033) and -0.41 (P = 0.055), respectively. The CASPer test may be feasibly implemented as component of the resident selection process, with the potential to predict applicant rank list position and improve the general surgery resident selection process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Multi-Peer Assessment Platform for Programming Language Learning: Considering Group Non-Consensus and Personal Radicalness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Liang, Yaowen; Liu, Luning; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Multi-peer assessment has often been used by teachers to reduce personal bias and make the assessment more reliable. This study reviews the design and development of multi-peer assessment systems that detect and solve two common issues in such systems: non-consensus among group members and personal radicalness in some assessments. A multi-peer…

  16. Assessment of personality functioning in the transition from adolescent to adult life: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, M; Oppenheim, A; Hill, J

    1996-01-01

    The Adolescent to Adult Personality Functioning Assessment (ADAPFA) a modification of the Adult Personality Functioning Assessment (APFA) is described. It may be used to assess specific and general social dysfunction in the transition from childhood to adult life. Two raters independently rated 38 audiotaped interviews to test the interrater reliability of the instrument. The relationship between dysfunction in specific domains and overall psychosocial dysfunction was examined. Interrater reliabilities for the total ADAPFA score and for the majority of the domains were high. Agreement on type of dysfunction and on categorical ratings indicating the presence of personality disorder were good. The ADAPFA is a useful measure of interpersonal and social role performance in the transition between adolescent and adult life.

  17. A Comparison between the Brand Personality Construct of KFC and Marrybrown: Their Restaurant Concept and Brand Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kuang Long

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation undertakes the research project from a deductive position based on Aaker’s (1997) brand personality to shape the result by adopting the quantitative research process. Brand personality scale measures important aspects of the personalities that consumers attribute to brands of all kinds. Marketers and researchers have embraced brand personality as an important facet of brand management and a key source of brand differentiation (Siguaw et. al., 1999). This paper attempts to me...

  18. Assessing Heat Stress and Health among Construction Workers in a Changing Climate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Acharya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction workers are at an elevated risk of heat stress, due to the strenuous nature of the work, high temperature work condition, and a changing climate. An increasing number of workers are at risk, as the industry’s growth has been fueled by high demand and vast numbers of immigrant workers entering into the U.S., the Middle East and Asia to meet the demand. The risk of heat-related illnesses is increased by the fact that little to no regulations are present and/or enforced to protect these workers. This review recognizes the issues by summarizing epidemiological studies both in the U.S. and internationally. These studies have assessed the severity with which construction workers are affected by heat stress, risk factors and co-morbidities associated with heat-related illnesses in the construction industry, vulnerable populations, and efforts in implementing preventive measures.

  19. Assessing urban and rural neighborhood characteristics using audit and GIS data: derivation and reliability of constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laraia Barbara A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures to assess neighborhood environments are needed to better understand the salient features that may enhance outdoor physical activities, such as walking and bicycling for transport or leisure. The purpose of this study was to derive constructs to describe neighborhoods using both primary (neighborhood audit and secondary (geographic information systems data. Methods We collected detailed information on 10,770 road segments using an audit and secondary data. The road segment sample was randomly split into an exploratory (60% and validation sample (40% for cross-validation. Using the exploratory sample (n = 6,388, seven a priori constructs were assessed separately (functionality, safety, aesthetics, destinations, incivilities, territorality, social spaces by urbanicity using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Additionally, new a posteriori constructs were derived using exploratory factor analysis (EFA. For cross-validation (n = 4,382, we tested factor loadings, thresholds, correlated errors, and correlations among a posteriori constructs between the two subsamples. Two-week test-retest reliability of the final constructs using a subsample of road segments (n = 464 was examined using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results CFA indicated the a priori constructs did not hold in this geographic area, with the exception of physical incivilities. Therefore, we used EFA to derive a four-factor solution on the exploratory sample: arterial or thoroughfare, walkable neighborhood, physical incivilities, and decoration. Using CFA on the validation sample, the internal validity for these a posteriori constructs was high (range 0.43 to 0.73 and the fit was acceptable. Spearman correlations indicated the arterial or thoroughfare factor displayed near perfect reliability in both urban and rural segments (r = 0.96. Both the physical incivilities factor and the walkable neighborhood factor had substantial to near perfect

  20. Evaluation of the Personal Impact Health Assessment Questionnaire (PI HAQ) to capture the impact of disability in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Livesey, Christine; Learmonth, Ian D; Blom, Ashley W; Hewlett, Sarah

    2010-06-01

    Measuring facts about disability may not reflect their personal impact. An individualized values instrument has been used to weight difficulty in performing activities of daily living in rheumatoid arthritis, and calculate personal impact (Personal Impact Health Assessment Questionnaire; PI HAQ). This study aimed to evaluate the PI HAQ in osteoarthritis (OA). Study 1: 51 people with OA completed short and long versions of the value instrument at 0 and 1 week. Study 2: 116 people with OA completed the short value instrument, disability and psychological measures at 0 and 4 weeks. Study 1: The eight-category and 20-item value instruments correlated well (r = 0.85) and scores differed by just 2.7%. The eight-category instrument showed good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85) and moderate one-week test-retest reliability (r = 0.68, Wilcoxon signed-rank test p = 0.16, intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.62). Study 2: Values for disability were not associated with disability severity or clinical status. After weighting disability by value, the resulting PI HAQ scores were significantly associated with dissatisfaction with disability, perceived increase in disability, poor clinical status and life dissatisfaction, and differed significantly between people with high and low clinical status (convergent and discriminant construct validity). There was moderate association with the disease repercussion profile disability subscale (r = 0.511; p personal impact of disability in people with OA, setting disability within a personal context. Further studies, including sensitivity to change, are required.

  1. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Construct Relevant or Irrelevant? The Role of Linguistic Complexity in the Assessment of English Language Learners' Science Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenia-Tapper, Brianna; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of language-related construct-irrelevant variance on content area tests from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics. We propose that the construct relevance of language used in content area assessments, and consequent claims of construct-irrelevant variance and bias, should be determined according to…

  3. Personal Identification and the Assessment of the Psychophysiological State While Writing a Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lozhnikov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of user identification and psychophysiological state assessment while writing a signature using a graphics tablet. The solution of the problem includes the creation of templates containing handwriting signature features simultaneously with the hidden registration of physiological parameters of a person being tested. Heart rate variability description in the different time points is used as a physiological parameter. As a result, a signature template is automatically generated for psychophysiological states of an identified person. The problem of user identification and psychophysiological state assessment is solved depending on the registered value of a physiological parameter.

  4. Construction of climate change scenarios from transient climate change experiments for the IPCC impacts assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viner, D.; Hulme, M.; Raper, S.C.B.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines the different methods which may be used for the construction of regional climate change scenarios. The main focus of the paper is the construction of global climate change scenarios from climate change experiments carried out using General Circulation Models (GCMS) An introduction to some GCM climate change experiments highlights the difference between model types and experiments (e.g., equilibrium or transient). The latest generation of climate change experiments has been performed using fully coupled ocean-atmosphere GCMS. These allow transient simulations of climate change to be performed with respect to a given greenhouse gas forcing scenario. There are, however, a number of problems with these simulations which pose difficulties for the construction of climate change scenarios for use in climate change impacts assessment. The characteristics of the transient climate change experiments which pose difficulties for the construction of climate change scenarios are discussed. Three examples of these problems are: different climate change experiments use different greenhouse gas concentration scenarios; the 'cold-start' problem makes it difficult to link future projections of climate change to a given calendar year; a drift of the climate is noticeable in the control simulations. In order to construct climate change scenarios for impacts assessment a method has therefore to be employed which addresses these problems. At present the climate modeling and climate change impacts communities are somewhat polarized in their approach to spatial scales. Current GCMs model the climate at resolutions larger than 2.5 x 3.75 degree, while the majority of impacts assessment studies are undertaken at scales below 50km (or 0.5 degree). This paper concludes by addressing the problems in bringing together these two different modeling perspectives by presenting a number of regional climate change scenarios. 35 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  5. An assessment of the construct distinctiveness of stress arousal and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth J; Davy, Jeanette A; Everly, George S

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the construct and discriminant validity of stress arousal and burnout as measured on the Stress Arousal Scale and the multidimensional role-specific version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, respectively. The analyses utilized data from 148 individuals randomly selected from a database of 563 respondents to a larger study. The sample responded to a survey sent to members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). Sample size used in this study fell within Loehlin's 1992 prescription that for confirmatory factor analysis with two to four factors, a minimum of 100 to 200 cases should be collected. Forty-six respondents indicated that they were partners, principals, or sole practitioners in accounting firms, and 103 indicated that they were staff members (juniors, seniors, or managers). Latent variables were first constructed for the stress arousal and burnout factors. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted on the scale data to assess whether the factors would load on their respective underlying theoretical constructs. Finally, a nested model constraining stress arousal and burnout to load on one underlying construct was tested against the hypothesized two-factor model. The results indicated good model fit for the two-factor model and a significant loss of fit for the one-factor model, thus providing strong support for the conceptualization of stress arousal and burnout as distinct constructs.

  6. Workplace Health Promotion: Assessing the Cardiopulmonary Risks of the Construction Workforce in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Lam, Wendy W T; Yoon, Sungwon; Zhang, Na; Xia, Nan; Zhang, Weiwei; Ma, Ke; Fielding, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Health needs of different employee subgroups within an industry can differ. We report the results of a workplace cardiopulmonary risk assessment targeting workers and support staff in the construction industry. A free worksite-based cardiopulmonary risk assessment for 1,903 workers on infrastructural contracts across Hong Kong was initiated in May 2014. Cardiopulmonary risk screening was performed in 60-minute blocks for approximately 30 workers/block with individualized feedback and lifestyle counseling. Risk profiles stratified by occupational roles are differentiated using the χ2-test for categorical and Student's t-test for continuous variables. Most construction workers and clerks/professionals were male (83.2% and 71.2%, respectively) and Chinese (78.7% and 90.9%, respectively). Construction workers were older (mean: 44.9 years, SD 11.5) and less well-educated (6.1% received tertiary education) than clerks/professionals (35.0 years, 10.7; 72.6% received tertiary education), but more likely to be hypertensive (22.6% vs. 15.4%, pscreening can identify potentially high-cardiopulmonary-risk construction industry employee subgroups for onward confirmatory referral. Separate cardiopulmonary health promotion strategies that account for the varying lifestyle profiles of the two employee subgroups in the industry appear justified.

  7. The Importance of Considering Context in the Assessment of Personality Characteristics: Evidence from Ratings of Dolphin Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczaj II, Stan A.; Highfill, Lauren; Byerly, Holli

    2012-01-01

    One of the tenets of personality is that an individual’s distinguishing behavioral characteristics arerelatively stable over time and across contexts. Both humans and animals demonstrate suchconsistency, at least for certain personality traits. However, the relative extent to which personality isstable is rarely addressed in studies of animal personality, the focus typically being on stability ratherthan its absence. Here we present data on dolphin personality that suggest dolphin behavior (a...

  8. A climatic environmental performance assessment method for ecological city construction: Application to Beijing Yanqi Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yi Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the input perspective for evaluating planning metrics, this research takes the climatic environmental output effects as the starting point for assessing ecological city construction. Based on approaches such as observation data analysis, meteorological model simulation, and remote sensing, a set of climatic environmental performance assessment methods is developed and established. These methods mainly focus on surface ventilation assessment and urban thermal environment assessment. With the Yanqi Lake ecological development demonstration area located in Huairou district, Beijing as an example, the assessment of the local climatic environment before and after the construction are conducted, and relevant policy suggestions for urban planning and construction are presented. The results show that after development, the ventilation capacity will decrease overall and the ventilation potential index will decrease from 0.53 to 0.44. While this is not a large reduction, and is still at a favorable level, the ventilation potential in some local areas will markedly decrease. Furthermore, the thermal environment will become poorer to some extent; the urban heat island (UHI area and intensity will increase compared with the current situation; continuous heat islands may occur in local areas; the UHI potential index of the core area will rise from 0.0878 to 0.1217 (still a favorable level. Therefore, urban surfaces should be carefully developed and arranged during planning. It is suggested that the negative impacts of large areas of urban construction on the local climatic environment in the Yanqi Lake could be mitigated by 1 strengthening the airflow by introducing fresh, cold, northwesterly air via constructed ventilation corridors, 2 increasing the number of ecological cold sources, particularly for water bodies and green belts to prevent the UHI in the southern region of Yanqi Lake from becoming linked with each other, and 3 considering a

  9. Using Personal Sensors to Assess the Exposome and Acute Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The exposome encompasses the totality of human environmental exposures. Recent developments in sensor technology have made it possible to better measure personal exposure to environmental pollutants and other factors. We aimed to discuss and demonstrate the recent developments in personal sensors to measure multiple exposures and possible acute health responses, and discuss the main challenges ahead. Methods: We searched for a range of sensors to measure air pollution, noise, temperature, UV, physical activity, location, blood pressure, heart rate and lung function and to obtain information on green space and emotional status/mood and put it on a person. Results and Conclusions: We discussed the recent developments and main challenges for personal sensors to measure multiple exposures. We found and put together a personal sensor set that measures a comprehensive set of personal exposures continuously over 24 h to assess part of the current exposome and acute health responses. We obtained data for a whole range of exposures and some acute health responses, but many challenges remain to apply the methodology for extended time periods and larger populations including improving the ease of wear, e.g., through miniaturization and extending battery life, and the reduction of costs. However, the technology is moving fast and opportunities will come closer for further wide spread use to assess, at least part of the exposome.

  10. Construct validity of the reporter-interpreter-manager-educator structure for assessing students' patient encounter skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G.; Arendrup, Henrick; Lindhardt, Bjarne O.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study, done in Denmark, was to explore the construct validity of a Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME)-structured scoring format for assessing patient encounter skills. METHOD: The authors developed a RIME-structured scoring form and explored its construct validity...... in a two-step procedure. The first step (implemented in 2009) was a randomized, controlled, experimental study in which the performance of three groups (16 fourth-year medical students, 16 sixth-year medical students, and 16 interns) was assessed in two simulated patient encounters. The second step...... (carried out during 2009-2010) was an observational study of patient encounter skills where clinician examiners used the scoring form in end-of-clerkship oral examinations of three consecutive cohorts of a total of 547 fourth-year medical students. RESULTS: In the experimental study, RIME scores showed...

  11. Family history assessment of personality disorders: I. Concordance with direct interview and between pairs of informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, T; Klein, D N

    1997-01-01

    The present study examined the concordance of the Family History Interview for Personality Disorders (FHIPD) with diagnoses based on direct interviews and between pairs of informants. Subjects were 224 probands participating in a series of studies of the familial transmission of mood and personality disorders and their first-degree relatives. Proband informants and relatives provided information about themselves on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), Personality Disorder Examination (PDE), and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Information from informants about relatives was collected with the FHIPD. All assessments were made blindly and independently. Using Kappa, concordance between proband informants' family histories and relative direct reports on specific personality disorders was low, ranging from -.01 to .28, with a median of .10. Kappa for a diagnosis of any personality disorder was .16. When two independent informant reports were compared, Kappas for specific Axis II disorders ranged from .10 to .72, with a median of .28. Kappa for a diagnosis of any personality disorder was .36. These data suggest that subjects and informants provide different perspectives on Axis II psychopathology, and support the use of both sources of information whenever possible.

  12. Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwereji, Ee

    2009-03-01

    Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

  13. Assessment of Personality Types and Locus of Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mazaheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with unknown cause. MS is one of the disabling neurologic diseases in adult especially young range that myelin part of central nervous system (CNS is destructed. The aim of this study was assessment of types A and B personality and internal and external locus of control in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and comparison of the results with control group.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 30 patients with MS and 30 normal persons as control group evaluated with neurological examination, Rotter locus of control test and Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire for detection of types A and B personality. We employed to analyze the results.Results: 43 percent and 57 percent of MS patients had internal and external locus of control respectively. 63 percent and 37 percent of MS patients had type A and B personality respectively. 60 percent and 40 percent of control group had internal and external locus of control respectively. 20 percent and 80 percent of control group had type A and B personality respectively. Difference between personality type in two groups was significant (P<0.01.Conclusions: In this study, MS patients had more type A personality in comparison to control group.

  14. Mixture modeling methods for the assessment of normal and abnormal personality, part II: longitudinal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Hallquist, Michael N

    2014-01-01

    Studying personality and its pathology as it changes, develops, or remains stable over time offers exciting insight into the nature of individual differences. Researchers interested in examining personal characteristics over time have a number of time-honored analytic approaches at their disposal. In recent years there have also been considerable advances in person-oriented analytic approaches, particularly longitudinal mixture models. In this methodological primer we focus on mixture modeling approaches to the study of normative and individual change in the form of growth mixture models and ipsative change in the form of latent transition analysis. We describe the conceptual underpinnings of each of these models, outline approaches for their implementation, and provide accessible examples for researchers studying personality and its assessment.

  15. Reliability of observer ratings in the assessment of personality disorders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolidge, F L; Burns, E M; Mooney, J A

    1995-01-01

    A 200-item, self-report personality disorder inventory (Coolidge Axis II Inventory; CATI) was administered to 52 married target subjects. Their spouses and a close friend completed a significant-other form about the targets. The mean correlation across all personality disorder scales was .51 for the targets-spouses, .36 for the targets-friends, and .41 for the spouses-friends. Twenty-eight target-spouse correlations were significant and ranged from .99 to -.40. The mean correlation for the individual 13 personality disorder scales was .46 for target-spouses and ranged from .63 for the histrionic scale to .27 for the paranoid scale. The results were interpreted as establishing a basis for significant other assessment of personality disorders.

  16. Personality change following head injury: assessment with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoo, E; de Deyne, C; Colardyn, F; de Soete, G; Jannes, C

    1997-11-01

    We evaluated personality change following head injury in 68 patients at 6 months postinjury using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess the five personality dimensions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. All items had to be rated twice, once for the preinjury and once for the current status. Twenty-eight trauma patients with injuries to other parts of the body than the head were used as controls. For the head-injured group, 63 relatives also completed the questionnaire. The results showed no differences between the ratings of head-injured patients and the ratings of trauma control patients. Both groups showed significant change in the personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. Compared to their relatives, head-injured patients report a smaller change in Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Changes were not reported on the Openness and Agreeableness scales, by neither the head-injured or their relatives, nor by the trauma controls.

  17. Comparing personality disorder models: cross-method assessment of the FFM and DSM-IV-TR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas W

    2010-12-01

    The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) defines personality disorders as categorical entities that are distinct from each other and from normal personality traits. However, many scientists now believe that personality disorders are best conceptualized using a dimensional model of traits that span normal and abnormal personality, such as the Five-Factor Model (FFM). However, if the FFM or any dimensional model is to be considered as a credible alternative to the current model, it must first demonstrate an increment in the validity of the assessment offered within a clinical setting. Thus, the current study extended previous research by comparing the convergent and discriminant validity of the current DSM-IV-TR model to the FFM across four assessment methodologies. Eighty-eight individuals receiving ongoing psychotherapy were assessed for the FFM and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders using self-report, informant report, structured interview, and therapist ratings. The results indicated that the FFM had an appreciable advantage over the DSM-IV-TR in terms of discriminant validity and, at the domain level, convergent validity. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Assessment of Lean Construction Principles: A Case Study at Semarang Medical Centre Hospital Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Roy Adi Wijaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The lean construction frameworks have been developed for years to enhance the poor performance of Indonesian project delivery system which influenced by the waste of non-value adding activities. Never the less most of the developments were limited on working process and lack in people empowerment. Toyota Way which integrate working process optimization and people empowerment, was developed as a lean construction frame works. This paper aimed to assess the implementation of Toyota Way principles in project delivery system by observing project’s delivery current state (status quo. The assessment began by conducting a questionnaire survey about Toyota Way implementation which then validated by interview with involved stakeholders and field observation. The assessment showed that project’s stakeholders were still unfamiliar with Toyota Way concept. Although some Toyota Way guidelines have been used in projects completion process such as visual management and training program, it found that those guidelines had not fully implemented. The project delivery system was lack of process focus and concerns more on relationship inter-parties. It also found thatToyota Way implementation will constrained by the difficulties to change the status quo of project delivery. Moreover, it seems that construction projects need practical guidelines to simplify the Toyota Way implementation in project delivery system such as project flow evaluation and system of reflection.

  19. Children's exposure assessment of radiofrequency fields: Comparison between spot and personal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegi, Mara; Huss, Anke; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Guxens, Mònica; Birks, Laura Ellen; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; Röösli, Martin; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana

    2018-05-24

    Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work. The aims of this study were to assess RF exposure in the Spanish INMA birth cohort by spot measurements and by personal measurements in the settings where children tend to spend most of their time, i.e., homes, schools and parks; to identify the settings and sources that contribute most to that exposure; and to explore if exposure assessment based on spot measurements is a valid proxy for personal exposure. When children were 8 years old, spot measurements were conducted in the principal settings of 104 participants: homes (104), schools and their playgrounds (26) and parks (79). At the same time, personal measurements were taken for a subsample of 50 children during 3 days. Exposure assessment based on personal and on spot measurements were compared both in terms of mean exposures and in exposure-dependent categories by means of Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's kappa and McNemar test. Median exposure levels ranged from 29.73 (in children's bedrooms) to 200.10 μW/m 2 (in school playgrounds) for spot measurements and were higher outdoors than indoors. Median personal exposure was 52.13 μW/m 2 and median levels of assessments based on spot measurements ranged from 25.46 to 123.21 μW/m 2 . Based on spot measurements, the sources that contributed most to the exposure were FM radio, mobile phone downlink and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, while indoor and personal sources contributed very little (altogether spot measurements, with the latter

  20. Value of standard personality assessments in informing clinical decision - making in a medium secure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Conor; Mason, Lauren; Banerjee, Penny; Milton, John

    2007-05-01

    Assessing those with personality disorder for treatment in secure settings is known to be unsatisfactory. To examine the utility of a standardised assessment of offenders with personality disorder referred for treatment in secure care in a naturalistic study. A consecutive series of 89 men were assessed with a battery of four recommended instruments measuring personality and risk. Decisions on whether or not to admit were based on a multidisciplinary discussion informed by these assessments. Of the 89 comprehensively assessed referrals, 60 (67%) were offered admission. High scores on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (especially on Factor 1) was the only measure that was associated with rejection. Of 44 patients discharged, 29 (66%) failed to complete treatment; none of the pre-admission assessments distinguished ;completers' from ;non-completers'. Although skills were acquired on the unit, follow-up of 24 men in the community showed that this had only a marginal effect on re-offending rate (58%). Current recommended assessment methods appear unsatisfactory in identifying those who either (a) complete treatment or (b) benefit from treatment. Our results throw doubt on their value.

  1. The Person Centered approach in Gerontology: New validity evidence of the Staff Assessment Person-directed Care Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivos La atención centrada en la persona es un enfoque innovador que busca mejorar la calidad asistencial de los servicios para personas mayores que precisan cuidados. Ante el creciente interés hacia este enfoque es necesario contar con instrumentos de medida que permitan evaluar en qué grado los servicios gerontológicos llevan a cabo una atención centrada en la persona. El objetivo de este trabajo es la adaptación y validación del Staff Assessment Person-directed Care (PDC en población espanola. ˜ Método Se llevó a cabo la traducción y adaptación del PDC al espanol ˜ y se aplicó a una muestra de 1.339 profesionales de atención directa, pertenecientes a 56 residencias para personas mayores. El estudio de las propiedades psicométricas se realizó desde el marco de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests y los modelos de Teoría de Respuesta a los Ítems. Resultados El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,97 y el coeficiente de fiabilidad test-retest de 0,89. La Función de Información indica que la prueba mide de forma precisa para un amplio rango de puntuaciones (valores entre -2 y + 2. La estructura factorial del PDC es esencialmente unidimensional, confirmándose la existencia de dos grandes dimensiones que se articulan a su vez en ocho factores muy correlacionados. En cuanto a la validez predictiva destacan las correlaciones del PDC con el The Person-centered Care Assessment Tool (r= 0,68, con el clima organizacional (r = 0,67 y con los factores del burnout, agotamiento emocional (r= -0,41 y realización personal (r = 0,46. Conclusiones La versión espanola ˜ del PDC confirma los resultados encontrados en otras poblaciones, presentando unas excelentes propiedades psicométricas para su uso en la evaluación de residencias de personas mayores, tanto con fines profesionales como de investigación.

  2. Construct Validity and Reliability of Structured Assessment of endoVascular Expertise in a Simulated Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, B; Lönn, L; Falkenberg, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study the construct validity and reliability of a novel endovascular global rating scale, Structured Assessment of endoVascular Expertise (SAVE). Design A Clinical, experimental study. Materials Twenty physicians with endovascular experiences ranging from complete novices to highly....... Validity was analysed by correlating experience with performance results. Reliability was analysed according to generalisability theory. Results The mean score on the 29 items of the SAVE scale correlated well with clinical experience (R = 0.84, P ... with clinical experience (R = -0.53, P validity and reliability of assessment with the SAVE scale was high when applied to performances in a simulation setting with advanced realism. No ceiling effect...

  3. Reliability of the NEO Five Factor Inventory short form for assessing personality after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwan, Toni; Ownsworth, Tamara; Donovan, Caroline; Lo, Ada Ho Yan

    2017-07-01

    It is well recognized that an individual's personality characteristics influence their psychological adjustment after stroke. However, there is a lack of research on the reliability of personality inventories for stroke. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the reliability of the Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to Experience (NEO)-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) for assessing pre-morbid personality and personality changes after stroke. Further aims were to investigate changes in personality during the hospital-to-home transition period and examine associations between personality and mood. Forty participants with stroke (52.5% male, M age=65.55 years) were recruited at time of hospital discharge and completed the NEO-FFI, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. Significant others completed an informant version of the NEO-FFI. Stroke participants were re-assessed on the NEO-FFI at 1-month and 4-months post-discharge. Forty matched controls also completed the NEO-FFI. Internal consistency was adequate for the NEO-FFI (α=0.57-0.86), although low for agreeableness. There was fair to excellent concordance between self-rated and informant versions of the NEO-FFI (ICC=0.58-0.78). Significant positive associations were found between neuroticism and mood (r=0.50-0.68), and significant negative associations were found between extraversion and mood (r=-0.33-0.36) and agreeableness and anxiety (r=-0.43). Self-ratings of stroke participants on the NEO-FFI at discharge did not significantly differ from matched controls. Extraversion levels significantly decreased, and agreeableness levels significantly increased between discharge and 1- and 4-months post-discharge. Overall, the results support the reliability of the NEO-FFI for assessing personality characteristics in the context of stroke.

  4. 'I am not a dyslexic person I'm a person with dyslexia': identity constructions of dyslexia among students in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William

    2014-02-01

    To introduce how nursing students discursively construct their dyslexic identities. Identity mediates many important facets of a student's scholarly journey and the availability and use of discourses play a critical part in their ongoing construction. A discourse-based design was used to examine the language employed by students in constructing their dyslexic identities. Using narrative methods, 12 student nurses with dyslexia from two higher education institutions in the Republic of Ireland were interviewed during the period February-July 2012. Discourse analysis of interviews entailed a two-stage approach: leading identity analysis followed by thematic analysis. Discourses used by students to construct their dyslexic identity correspond with positions on an 'Embracer, Passive Engager and Resister' continuum heuristic. The majority of students rejected any reference to using medical or disabled discourses and instead drew on contemporary language in constructing their dyslexic identity. Nine of the 12 students did not disclose their dyslexic identity in practice settings and drew on not being understood to support this position. In addition, a discourse linking 'being stupid' with dyslexia was pervasive in most student narratives and evolved from historical as well as more recent interactions in nurse education. This study indicates variation in how students discursively construct their dyslexic identities, which, in turn, has an impact on disclosure behaviours. Policy leaders must continue to be mindful of wider sociocultural and individualized understandings of dyslexic identities to enhance inclusion prerogatives. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.

  6. Detection of feigned mental disorders on the personality assessment inventory: a discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R; Sewell, K W; Morey, L C; Ustad, K L

    1996-12-01

    Psychological assessment with multiscale inventories is largely dependent on the honesty and forthrightness of those persons evaluated. We investigated the effectiveness of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in detecting participants feigning three specific disorders: schizophrenia, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder. With a simulation design, we tested the PAI validity scales on 166 naive (undergraduates with minimal preparation) and 80 sophisticated (doctoral psychology students with 1 week preparation) participants. We compared their results to persons with the designated disorders: schizophrenia (n = 45), major depression (n = 136), and generalized anxiety disorder (n = 40). Although moderately effective with naive simulators, the validity scales evidenced only modest positive predictive power with their sophisticated counterparts. Therefore, we performed a two-stage discriminant analysis that yielded a moderately high hit rate (> 80%) that was maintained in the cross-validation sample, irrespective of the feigned disorder or the sophistication of the simulators.

  7. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Standardized Assessment of Severity of Personality Disorder (SASPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, Kike; Munjiza, Jasna; Moran, Paul; O'Connell, Lesley; Newton-Howes, Giles; Bassett, Paul; Akintomide, Gbolagade; Ng, Nicola; Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike J

    2018-02-01

    Personality disorder (PD) is increasingly categorized according to its severity, but there is no simple way to screen for severity according to ICD-11 criteria. We set out to develop the Standardized Assessment of Severity of Personality Disorder (SASPD). A total of 110 patients completed the SASPD together with a clinical assessment of the severity of personality disorder. We examined the predictive ability of the SASPD using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Two to four weeks later, 43 patients repeated the SASPD to examine reliability. The SASPD had good predictive ability for determining mild (AUC = 0.86) and moderate (AUC = 0.84) PD at cut points of 8 and 10, respectively. Test-retest reliability of the SASPD was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93, 95% CI [0.88, 0.96]). The SASPD thus provides a simple, brief, and reliable indicator of the presence of mild or moderate PD according to ICD-11 criteria.

  8. Enriching psychological assessment using a person-specific analysis of interpersonal processes in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Rebar, Amanda L; Conroy, David E; Ram, Nilam

    2014-10-01

    We present a series of methods and approaches for clinicians interested in tracking their individual patients over time and in the natural settings of their daily lives. The application of person-specific analyses to intensive repeated measurement data can assess some aspects of persons that are distinct from the valuable results obtained from single-occasion assessments. Guided by interpersonal theory, we assess a psychotherapy patient's interpersonal processes as they unfold in his daily life. We highlight specific contexts that change these processes, use an informant report to examine discrepancies in his reported interpersonal processes, and examine how his interpersonal processes differ as a function of varying levels of self-esteem and anger. We advocate for this approach to complement existing psychological assessments and provide a scoring program to facilitate initial implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Construct validity of adolescents' self-reported big five personality traits: importance of conceptual breadth and initial validation of a short measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Julien

    2014-10-01

    While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Measuring the contribution of art therapy in multidisciplinary treatment of personality disorders: The construction of the Self-expression and Emotion Regulation in Art Therapy Scale (SERATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeyen, Suzanne; van Hooren, Susan; van der Veld, William M; Hutschemaekers, Giel

    2018-02-01

    Despite the use of art therapy in clinical practice, its appreciation and reported beneficial results, no instruments are available to measure specific effects of art therapy among patients with personality disorders cluster B/C in multidisciplinary treatment. In the present study, we described the development and psychometric evaluation of the Self-expression and Emotion Regulation in Art Therapy Scale (SERATS). Structural validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis), reliability, construct validity and sensitivity to change were examined using two independent databases (n = 335; n = 34) of patients diagnosed with personality disorders cluster B/C. This resulted in a nine-item effect scale with a single factor with a high internal reliability and high test-retest reliability; it demonstrated discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. In conclusion, the SERATS is brief and content-valid and offers objective and reliable information on self-expression and emotion regulation in art therapy among patients with personality disorders cluster B/C. Although more research on construct validity is needed, the SERATS is a promising tool to be applied as an effect scale and as a monitoring tool during art therapy treatment. © 2017 The Authors Personality and Mental Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors Personality and Mental Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Handbook of safety assessment of nanomaterials from toxicological testing to personalized medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeel, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    "The Handbook of Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials: From Toxicological Testing to Personalized Medicine provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of nanotoxicology and is a unique resource that fills up many knowledge gaps in the toxicity issue of nanomaterials in medical applications. The book is distinguished by up-to-date insights into creating a science-based framework for safety assessment of nanomedicines." -Prof. Yuliang Zhao, National Center for Nanosciences and Technology, China.

  12. Implicit and explicit personality assessment in the context of personnel selection

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIA MĂGUREAN; DELIA VÎRGĂ; FLORIN ALIN SAVA

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the role of Conscientiousness and Extraversion at implicit and explicit level, in the context of personnel selection. Personality was assessed using the NEO-FFI, for the explicit level (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and the Semantic Misattribution Procedure (Sava et al. 2012), for the implicit level, as part of the selection process in a multinational corporation. Twenty eight candidates were hired, and their in-role job performance was assessed by their sup...

  13. Estimating the Reliability of Aggregated and Within-Person Centered Scores in Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Weng, Li-Jen

    2012-01-01

    A procedure for estimating the reliability of test scores in the context of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was proposed to take into account the characteristics of EMA measures. Two commonly used test scores in EMA were considered: the aggregated score (AGGS) and the within-person centered score (WPCS). Conceptually, AGGS and WPCS represent…

  14. Assessing the Development of Medical Students' Personal and Professional Skills by Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yielder, Jill; Moir, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of a new domain of learning for Personal and Professional Skills in the medical program at the University of Auckland in New Zealand has involved the compilation of a portfolio for assessment. This departure from the traditional assessment methods predominantly used in the past has been challenging to design, introduce, and maintain as a relevant and authentic assessment method. We present the portfolio format along with the process for its introduction and appraise the challenges, strengths, and limitations of the approach within the context of the current literature. We then outline a cyclical model of evaluation used to monitor and fine-tune the portfolio tasks and implementation process, in response to student and assessor feedback. The portfolios have illustrated the level of insight, maturity, and synthesis of personal and professional qualities that students are capable of achieving. The Auckland medical program strives to foster these qualities in its students, and the portfolio provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate their reflective abilities. Moreover, the creation of a Personal and Professional Skills domain with the portfolio as its key assessment emphasizes the importance of reflective practice and personal and professional development and gives a clear message that these are fundamental longitudinal elements of the program.

  15. Assessing the Development of Medical Students’ Personal and Professional Skills by Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yielder, Jill; Moir, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of a new domain of learning for Personal and Professional Skills in the medical program at the University of Auckland in New Zealand has involved the compilation of a portfolio for assessment. This departure from the traditional assessment methods predominantly used in the past has been challenging to design, introduce, and maintain as a relevant and authentic assessment method. We present the portfolio format along with the process for its introduction and appraise the challenges, strengths, and limitations of the approach within the context of the current literature. We then outline a cyclical model of evaluation used to monitor and fine-tune the portfolio tasks and implementation process, in response to student and assessor feedback. The portfolios have illustrated the level of insight, maturity, and synthesis of personal and professional qualities that students are capable of achieving. The Auckland medical program strives to foster these qualities in its students, and the portfolio provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate their reflective abilities. Moreover, the creation of a Personal and Professional Skills domain with the portfolio as its key assessment emphasizes the importance of reflective practice and personal and professional development and gives a clear message that these are fundamental longitudinal elements of the program. PMID:29349315

  16. The MMPI-2: A New Standard for Personality Assessment and Research in Counseling Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, James N.; Graham, John R.

    1994-01-01

    Highlights the application of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in college counseling, couples counseling, medical problem assessment, military applications, personnel screening programs, and other areas. Provides a general description of the MMPI-2, discusses continuity of MMPI and MMPI-2 scales, and describes new scales…

  17. The Impact of NEO PI-R Gender Norms on the Assessment of Personality Disorder Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Ansell, Emily B.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Many personality assessment inventories provide gender-specific norms to allow comparison of an individual's standing relative to others of the same gender. In some cases, this means that an identical raw score produces standardized scores that differ notably depending on whether the respondent is male or female. Thus, an important question is…

  18. Assessing Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Habits of Adolescents Using Personal Data Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary W.; Guthrie, Joanne; Landry, Danielle; Paun, Mihaela M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviors of seventh graders in nine randomly selected middle schools in Louisiana. Methods: This descriptive study used personal data assistants (PDAs) to administer a pre-validated questionnaire developed from national instruments to 127 seventh grade students from nine randomly-selected…

  19. CAPs-IDD: Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, E. L.; Nader, I. W.; Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Koller, I.; Weber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation…

  20. Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…

  1. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Irene R.; Bustin, Paul M. J.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet

  2. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Bustin, P.M.; Oosterveld, F.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet

  3. Type D (distressed) personality and its assessment with the DS14 in Lithuanian patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Staniute, Margarita; Brozaitiene, Julija; Stropute, Dalia; Bunevicius, Robertas; Denollet, Johan

    2013-09-01

    We examined Type D personality (combination of negative affectivity with social inhibition) and its assessment with the DS14 in 543 Lithuanian coronary patients. Psychometric analyses confirmed the two-factor structure, internal consistency (α = 0.84/α = 0.75), and test-retest reliability (r = 0.69/0.81) of the DS14 negative affectivity and inhibition components. Negative affectivity correlated (r = -0.58) with emotional stability and social inhibition (r = -0.46) with extraversion; correlations with other Big-Five traits ranged between r = -0.11 and -0.19. Type D patients (34%) had a ninefold increased odds of depression (95% confidence interval = 5.01-17.36) and a fivefold increased odds of anxiety (95% confidence interval = 3.47-7.97). These findings support the validity of the Type D construct in Lithuania.

  4. An integrative typology of personality assessment for aggression: implications for predicting counterproductive workplace behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Mark N; Stewart, Susan M; Davison, H Kristl; Green, Philip D; McIntyre, Michael D; James, Lawrence R

    2007-05-01

    This study presents an integrative typology of personality assessment for aggression. In this typology, self-report and conditional reasoning (L. R. James, 1998) methodologies are used to assess 2 separate, yet often congruent, components of aggressive personalities. Specifically, self-report is used to assess explicit components of aggressive tendencies, such as self-perceived aggression, whereas conditional reasoning is used to assess implicit components, in particular, the unconscious biases in reasoning that are used to justify aggressive acts. These 2 separate components are then integrated to form a new theoretical typology of personality assessment for aggression. Empirical tests of the typology were subsequently conducted using data gathered across 3 samples in laboratory and field settings and reveal that explicit and implicit components of aggression can interact in the prediction of counterproductive, deviant, and prosocial behaviors. These empirical tests also reveal that when either the self-report or conditional reasoning methodology is used in isolation, the resulting assessment of aggression may be incomplete. Implications for personnel selection, team composition, and executive coaching are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Crafting the TALE: construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2011-07-01

    Theory suggests that autobiographical remembering serves several functions. This research builds on previous empirical efforts (Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005) with the aim of constructing a brief, valid measure of three functions of autobiographical memory. Participants (N=306) completed 28 theoretically derived items concerning the frequency with which they use autobiographical memory to serve a variety of functions. To examine convergent and discriminant validity, participants rated their tendency to think about and talk about the past, and measures of future time orientation, self-concept clarity, and trait personality. Confirmatory factor analysis of the function items resulted in a respecified model with 15 items in three factors. The newly developed Thinking about Life Experiences scale (TALE) shows good internal consistency as well as convergent validity for three subscales: Self-Continuity, Social-Bonding, and Directing-Behaviour. Analyses demonstrate factorial equivalence across age and gender groups. Potential use and limitations of the TALE are discussed.

  6. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD): factor structure, incremental validity of self-pathology, and relations to DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Annett G; Livesley, W John

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the classification of personality disorder, especially moves toward more dimensional systems, create the need to assess general personality disorder apart from individual differences in personality pathology. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD) is a self-report questionnaire designed to evaluate general personality disorder. The measure evaluates 2 major components of disordered personality: self or identity problems and interpersonal dysfunction. This study explores whether there is a single factor reflecting general personality pathology as proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), whether self-pathology has incremental validity over interpersonal pathology as measured by GAPD, and whether GAPD scales relate significantly to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]) personality disorders. Based on responses from a German psychiatric sample of 149 participants, parallel analysis yielded a 1-factor model. Self Pathology scales of the GAPD increased the predictive validity of the Interpersonal Pathology scales of the GAPD. The GAPD scales showed a moderate to high correlation for 9 of 12 DSM-IV personality disorders.

  7. Assessment of the impact of nuclear power plant construction and operation on small regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of the comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the construction and operation of nuclear power plant on a given region. A theoretical model of the regional impacts is constructed employing input-output methods that are extended to include ecologic as well as economic effects. Thus, the regional model explicitly incorporates environmental feedback as a consequence of economic activity. The model is then employed to estimate the impact of the construction and operation of a nuclear power facility on a small region in South Carolina. Measures of economic and environmental effects include estimates of changes in output, income, employment, local government revenue and expenditure, external costs of environmental decay, pollution loads, and common-property resource usage. Results indicate that, in the South Carolina case study, significant gains in social welfare accrued to the region due to the construction and operation of the nuclear power facility. Further, the theoretical method developed herein provides a comprehensive method of objectively assessing various types of impacts on a region as small as several contiguous counties or even a single county

  8. Development of a construct-based risk assessment framework for genetic engineered crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker, M P; Boari, P; Burachik, M; Cuadrado, V; Junco, M; Lede, S; Lema, M A; Lewi, D; Maggi, A; Meoniz, I; Noé, G; Roca, C; Robredo, C; Rubinstein, C; Vicien, C; Whelan, A

    2016-10-01

    Experience gained in the risk assessment (RA) of genetically engineered (GE) crops since their first experimental introductions in the early nineties, has increased the level of familiarity with these breeding methodologies and has motivated several agencies and expert groups worldwide to revisit the scientific criteria underlying the RA process. Along these lines, the need to engage in a scientific discussion for the case of GE crops transformed with similar constructs was recently identified in Argentina. In response to this need, the Argentine branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI Argentina) convened a tripartite working group to discuss a science-based evaluation approach for transformation events developed with genetic constructs which are identical or similar to those used in previously evaluated or approved GE crops. This discussion considered new transformation events within the same or different species and covered both environmental and food safety aspects. A construct similarity concept was defined, considering the biological function of the introduced genes. Factors like environmental and dietary exposure, familiarity with both the crop and the trait as well as the crop biology, were identified as key to inform a construct-based RA process.

  9. Introduction to the JPA special issue: Can the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual put the complex person back at the center-stage of personality assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Meyer, Gregory J

    2011-03-01

    We briefly introduce this special issue, which focuses both on the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) and the practice of idiographic, depth-oriented personality assessment. The 7 articles in this issue are diverse in scope but all address these 2 important topics. To set the stage, the special issue opens with a description of the history behind, the purposes of, and the steps taken to develop the PDM, and the next article provides a compelling illustration of depth-oriented personality assessment in the context of a long-term course of psychodynamic treatment. The third and fourth articles describe how the PDM model fosters attention to dynamic processes, not just overt symptoms, and they articulate the challenges and benefits of integrating this model into both the revitalized practice of assessment and diagnosis and the research avenues that will evaluate its validity and utility. The fifth article provides a broad overview of interesting experimental research on implicit processes from personality, social, and cognitive psychology, with implications for understanding and assessing dynamic processes. The sixth article illustrates how a PDM-based assessment of an adolescent boy helpfully contributed to his psychodynamic therapy. Finally, the issue closes with an illuminating article describing a PDM-based training model for the graduated development of assessment and diagnosis skills in a doctoral program. Overall, this special issue helps show how the PDM can invigorate multimethod personality assessment by placing the complex idiographic understanding of a person at the center-stage in the assessment process.

  10. Development of Instruments to Assess Shame and Guilt in Adolescents: Empirical Differences Between the Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Maria Laskoski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shame and guilt are terms easily mixed in everyday life and often used as synonyms. Although they are words of similar use, they represent theoretically different moral emotions. The aims of this study were to develop and validate instruments to assess shame and guilt and to test the empirical independence of the constructs. Five hundred and eighty high school students from three Brazilian states participated in this study, 55% of them female, with an average age of 16.0 years. The participants answered a questionnaire containing socio demographic questions and scales designed for this study in order to assess shame and guilt. The scales developed gave appropriate evidence of validity and reliability. A single factor was extracted to assess shame and two factors to assess guilt (recognition of mistake and regret. The constructs revealed to be correlated, but independent. It is considered that there is sufficient evidence to affirm that shame and guilt are emotions with distinctive peculiarities and can be measured using the instruments developed in this research.

  11. Personal Care Product Use in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: Implications for Exposure Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern regarding the potential for developmental health risks associated with certain chemicals (e.g., phthalates, antibacterials used in personal care products is well documented; however, current exposure data for pregnant women are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of personal care product use in pregnancy and the post-partum period. Usage patterns of personal care products were collected at six different time points during pregnancy and once in the postpartum period for a cohort of 80 pregnant women in Ottawa, Canada. The pattern of use was then described and groups of personal care product groups commonly used together were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed that product use varied by income and country of birth. General hygiene products were the most commonly used products and were consistently used over time while cosmetic product use declined with advancing pregnancy and post-delivery. Hand soaps and baby products were reported as used more frequently after birth. This study is the first to track personal care product use across pregnancy and into the postpartum period, and suggests that pregnant populations may be a unique group of personal care product users. This information will be useful for exposure assessments.

  12. Assessing the performance of the construction sectors in the Baltic states and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podvezko Valentinas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the evaluation of the construction market performance in three Baltic States, including Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, based on using structural statistical criteria. The evaluation covers various periods of time, embracing the time before the economic crisis, in 2007, during the economic crisis, in 2009, and after the economic crisis, in 2013. For assessing the efficiency of their construction sectors’ performance, the investigated countries are arranged in the order of preference according to this indicator by using three multiple-criteria decision making methods (MCDM, such as SAW, TOPSIS and COPRAS. These evaluation methods are based on determining the weights of the structural criteria used. For this purpose, three various methods, including the entropy, the method of the criteria impact loss (CILOS and a new method of determining the objective criteria weights (IDOCRIW suggested by the authors. The results obtained allowed the researchers to assess the construction market performance in the considered states in various periods of time, to compare them with other countries and to rank them based on this parameter. Therefore, the suggested method of market performance evaluation may be used as an effective supplementary aid for determining the priorities in the future business development, as well as for studying the competitive markets or directing the cash flows of an enterprise to the appropriate areas.

  13. Exposure assessment and modeling of particulate matter for asthmatic children using personal nephelometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Delfino, Ralph J.; Floro, Joshua N.; Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Samimi, Behzad S.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Allen, Ryan W.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    It has been shown that acute exposures to particulate matter (PM) may exacerbate asthma in children. However, most epidemiological studies have relied on time-integrated PM measurements taken at a centrally located stationary monitoring sites. In this article, we characterized children's short-term personal exposures to PM 2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters size-selective inlet was used to estimate real-time PM 2.5 concentrations on 20 asthmatic children, inside and outside of their residences, and at a central site. The personal and indoor pDRs were operated passively, while the home outdoor and central site instruments were operated actively. The subjects received 29.2% of their exposures at school, even though they only spent 16.4% of their time there. More precise personal clouds were estimated for the home-indoor and home-outdoor microenvironments where PM concentrations were measured. The personal cloud increased with increasing activity levels and was higher during outdoor activities than during indoor activities. We built models to predict personal PM exposures based on either microenvironmental or central-site PM 2.5 measurements, and evaluated the modeled exposures against the actual personal measurements. A multiple regression model with central site PM concentration as the main predictor had a better prediction power ( R2=0.41) than a three-microenvironmental model ( R2=0.11). We further constructed a source-specific exposure model utilizing the time-space-activity information and the particle infiltration efficiencies (mean=0.72±0.15) calculated from a recursive mass balance model. It was estimated that the mean hourly personal exposures resulting from ambient, indoor-generated, and personal activity PM 2.5 were 11.1, 5.5, and 10.0 μg/m 3, respectively, when the modeling error was minimized. The high PM 2.5 exposure to personal activities reported in our study is likely due to children's more active lifestyle as compared with older adult subjects in

  14. Assessing the reliability, predictive and construct validity of historical, clinical and risk management-20 (HCR-20) in Mexican psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Andrea; Robles-García, Rebeca; Martínez-López, Nicolás; Hernández-Ramírez, Rafael; Tovilla-Zarate, Carlos-Alfonso; López-Munguía, Fernando; Suárez-Alvarez, Enrique; Ayala, Xochitl; Fresán, Ana

    2016-08-01

    Assessing dangerousness to gauge the likelihood of future violent behaviour has become an integral part of clinical mental health practice in forensic and non-forensic psychiatric settings, one of the most effective instruments for this being the Historical, Clinical and Risk Management-20 (HCR-20). To examine the HCR-20 factor structure in Mexican psychiatric inpatients and to obtain its predictive validity and reliability for use in this population. In total, 225 patients diagnosed with psychotic, affective or personality disorders were included. The HCR-20 was applied at hospital admission and violent behaviours were assessed during psychiatric hospitalization using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). Construct validity, predictive validity and internal consistency were determined. Violent behaviour remains more severe in patients classified in the high-risk group during hospitalization. Fifteen items displayed adequate communalities in the original designated domains of the HCR-20 and internal consistency of the instruments was high. The HCR-20 is a suitable instrument for predicting violence risk in Mexican psychiatric inpatients.

  15. The Construction of the Malaysian Educators Selection Inventory (MEdSI: A Large Scale Assessment Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joharry Othman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The crucial role that teachers and schools play in the development of a nation’s human resource is undeniable. In Malaysia, teaching has always been perceived as a financially secure and relatively easy job by many, resulting in mass application for entry into teacher education programmes. Many of those who aspire and opto to go into the teaching profession however do so regardless of their personal interests, potential, and values. Pursuing a program that does not fit a person’s personality and interest – despite initially having good academic credentials and excellent co-curricular involvement in school – may result in unsatisfactory academic performance, frustration, change of program and even withdrawal at college level. Hence, in the quest for selecting suitable teacher trainee candidates, a psychometrically sound instrument known as the Malaysian Educators Selection Inventory (MEdSI was developed as a screening measure to filter the large number of teacher hopefuls. This paper specifically describes the theoretical basis and the constructs of the instrument developed.

  16. Personality assessment and feline–keepers relationship in lions (Panthera leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal personality is a growing research area due to the increasing evidence of the impact that it has on welfare, health and management of animals in captivity (Freeman and Gosling, 2010. Testing and improving existent methodologies, as well as develop new ones, to outline animal personality is an important step towards welfare, health and longevity of captive animals (Phillips, 2007; Whitham and Wielebnowski, 2013. Lions (Panthera leo were chosen for this study because the species is understudied compared to other felidae species in personality matters and because it displays a vast, diverse and well known behaviour repertoire (Schaller, 1973. Behavioural observations were conducted on the seven African lions housed in ZSL Whipsnade zoo. Keeper-animal interactions were recorded and a personality questionnaire was given to the keepers in order to rate 28 personality traits (Chadwick, 2014. Sociogram, composite sociality index (CSI and spread of participation index (SPI were also used to assess personality traits (Stanton 2015. Data gathered in this pilot study was successfully used to produce ID like personality traits profiles for all animals, to delineate personality traits, outline the unique characteristics of each subject. A sociogram consent to access and validate the dyad solitary/social and a SPI to understand each animal enclosure usage and relate it to the trait triad affiliate/fearful/aggressive towards humans. We believe this approach is promising and could be applied to investigate keeper-animal interactions also in other species. The limitation of this study is the sample size of the animal considered; in future research we hope to test other animals in order to validate the methodologies.

  17. Construction and application of an indicator system to assess the ergonomic performance of large and medium-sized construction companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Isabela Xavier Barbalho; de Carvalho, Ricardo José Matos

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a system of indicators to evaluate the performance of companies in ergonomics for buildings. The system was developed based primarily on studies related to the performance evaluation of the construction industry and on Brazilian standards of ergonomics and work safety and had also the contribution of national and international indicators related to ergonomics, work safety, quality, sustainability, quality of work life and to organizational behavior. The indicators were named, classified and their components were assigned to compose the theoretical model SIDECE--System of Performance Indicators in Ergonomics for Building Construction (as for the Portuguese acronym), serving the major goals of ergonomics: health, safety and workers' satisfaction and production efficiency. The SIDECE is being validated along with the building construction companies in the city of Natal, Brazil, whose practical results, deriving from the application of instruments to collect field data, are under process, to be presented on the occasion of the 18th World Congress on Ergonomics. It is intended that the SIDECE be used by building construction companies as a support tool for excellence management.

  18. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021)

  19. Assessment of environmental benefits of flyover construction over signalized junctions: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K; Goel, Sangita; Tamhane, S M

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of the flyover construction to curb traffic congestion problem has been assessed in terms of traffic decongestion, time saving, fuel saving and emission reduction. A flyover has also been constructed over four signalized junctions in the main commercial area in Nagpur city, India. It was found that about 35% of the total traffic is diverted to the flyover, which results in a reduction of about 32% in the total emission generation. Travel on the flyover resulted in as much as 60-70% saving in time, compared to the travel on the main road, particularly when all the four signals are found to be in the red phase. The loss of fuel for combustion and the associated cost resulting from waiting for the signal to change are also estimated, and these are found to be significant.

  20. LABOUR SUBCONTRACTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRIES OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: AN ASSESSMENT FROM TWO PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Wells

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of employing labour through subcontractors (often referred to as the ‘outsourcing’ of labour is both long established and widespread in the construction industries of developing countries. Recent studies show that it is also increasing in both developing and developed countries. An assessment of the advantages of the practice from the viewpoint of the contractors and of the labour force, suggests it is unlikely to disappear. The paper goes on to explore the implications for the development of the construction industry, as well as for the welfare of the workers and the achievement of broader development objectives. It is concluded that interventions may be needed to deal with some of the negative repercussions, but they have to accept and build on current labour practices.