Mund, Marcus; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Neyer, Franz J.; Johansen, Christoffer
This chapter shows that personality traits and social relationships are deeply entwined in a bidirectional way: Individuals select relationships partly based on their personality traits but at the same time develop across the lifespan partly in response to changes in their social environment. Life
VanderZee, K; Buunk, B; Sanderman, R
The relationship between social comparison processes and personality was examined in a sample of cancer patients (Study 1) and in a random population sample (Study 2). Previous studies showed that the need for comparison, its affective consequences and the tendency to make self-enhancing comparisons
Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund
The main explanatory hypothesis for the distinction between social phobia (SP) and avoidant personality disorder (APD) has been the severity continuum hypothesis, stating that APD only differs from SP in terms of severity of dysfunction and symptomatic distress, that is, social anxiety and depressive symptoms. This study aimed at a comprehensive evaluation of this hypothesis in a large sample (n = 2192) of thoroughly assessed patients, most of whom had a diagnosis of personality disorder. Social phobia was stronger associated with APD than with other personality disorders, and APD was stronger associated with SP than with other symptom disorders. Social phobia-pure patients had a higher level of global functioning and lower levels of general symptom distress and interpersonal problems than APD-pure patients. The 2 groups were similar on domains that pertain to social anxiety and introversion, but APD was associated with a broader array of symptoms and interpersonal problems and was substantially lower on the personality domain of conscientiousness. Avoidant personality disorder was stronger associated with eating disorders, and SP was stronger associated with panic disorder. The APD diagnosis seems to capture a broader constellation of symptoms and personality features pointing toward more severe personality dysfunction. Our findings suggest that the severity continuum hypothesis lacks specificity and exploratory power to account for both similarities and differences between SP and APD.
This review summarizes past and recent findings in the empiric literature and the evolution of the concepts of avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP). APD is an internally consistent dimensional personality pathology that causes dysfunction that appears to be dimensional rather than a sudden jump in impairment after a certain number of criteria have been met. It has state and trait personality components. Evidence indicates that symptoms are at least partially treatable with psychological or pharmacologic interventions. APD and SP have similar symptoms and treatment response and identical genetics. We can conclude from the empiric evidence that no dividing line exists between APD and SP, with APD merely being the more severe form of the disorder. The best conceptualization is that APD is a dimensional personality pathology that in its attenuated form (SP) resembles an anxiety disorder.
Mollenhorst, Gerald; Völker, Beate; Flap, Henk
This paper examines the effect of social contexts on similarity in personal relationships. We argue that the effect of social contexts is larger for weaker, and smaller for stronger relationships. Using data from The Survey of the Social Networks of the Dutch (collected in 1999/2000, n = 1007), we
Leach, Stefan; Weick, Mario; Lammers, Joris
We iteratively develop and test a model to clarify the relationship between both high and low levels of social (influence) and personal (autonomy) power. A meta-analysis synthesising primary data (n = 298) and secondary data (n = 498) found that impaired personal power coincided with impaired social power, but not vice versa. Unexpectedly, elevated social power did not coincide with elevated personal power, suggesting that the association between influence and autonomy attenuates with increas...
McConkey, Roy; Bunting, Brendan; Keogh, Fiona; Garcia Iriarte, Edurne
A natural experiment contrasted the social relationships of people with intellectual disabilities ( n = 110) before and after they moved from congregated settings to either personalized accommodation or group homes. Contrasts could also be drawn with individuals who had enduring mental health problems ( n = 46) and who experienced similar moves. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in each person's residence on two occasions approximately 24 months apart. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to determine significant effects. Greater proportions of people living in personalized settings scored higher on the five chosen indicators of social relationships than did persons living in grouped accommodation. However, multivariate statistical analyses identified that only one in five persons increased their social relationships as a result of changes in their accommodation, particularly persons with an intellectual disability and high support needs. These findings reinforce the extent of social isolation experienced by people with disabilities and mental health problems that changes in their accommodation only partially counter.
Race, Eleanor; Brand, Ann E.
The relationship between parental personality traits and how parents socialize their children's emotions is largely unexplored. This study examined the association of personality traits such as Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and emotion traits such as Anxiety and Trait Depression to the strategies parents use to socialize their children's sadness,…
Hessels, Christel; van den Hanenberg, Danique; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G
This study seeks to integrate two research traditions that lie at the base of the understanding of personality pathology in adolescents. The first research tradition refers to normal personality according to the Five Factor Model (FFM). The second tradition specifies the key feature of personality disorder as the capacity to mentalize, which can be reflected in Social Information Processing (SIP). In a clinical sample of 96 adolescents, the authors investigated response generation, coping strategy, and memories of past frustrating experiences as part of SIP, as mediator in the relationship between personality and personality pathology, and a possible moderating role of personality on the relationship between SIP and personality pathology. The hypothesized mediation, by which the effects of personality dimensions on personality pathology was expected to be mediated by SIP variables, was found only for the effect of Neuroticism, most specifically on BPD, which appeared to be mediated by memories the patients had about past frustrating conflict situations with peers. Some moderating effects of personality on the relationship between SIP variables and personality pathology were found, suggesting that high Agreeableness and sometimes low Neuroticism can buffer this relationship. These results suggest that personality dimensions and social cognitions both independently and together play a role in adolescents' personality pathology.
This books describes and explains how a romantic partner and child(-ren) affect social relationships. Whereas many scholars have studied the importance of personal networks as a resource for the individual, comparatively little is known about how social networks emerge and how network composition
Welander-Vatn, Audun; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Kendler, Kenneth S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share risk factors to a substantial degree, and both are characterized by the experience of anxiety in social situations. The authors investigated whether these disorders are differentially related to the Big Five personality traits. They also examined the underlying genetic and environmental influences on these associations. A population-based sample of 1,761 female twins was interviewed at baseline, and 1,471 of these were re-interviewed 10 years later. Associations between AvPD, SAD, and personality traits were investigated with multivariate biometric analyses. The authors found that AvPD and SAD are differentially related to several personality traits at the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental level. The genetic and environmental liability to AvPD could be fully accounted for by the genetic and environmental factors influencing SAD and personality. The findings may increase current etiological understanding of these disorders and inform future classification and treatment efforts.
van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.
This study continued past research on the relationship between personality composition in teams and social cohesion and team performance (Barrick, Stewart, Neubert, & Mount, 1998). Results from the Barrick et al. sample (N = 50) were compared with data from two new samples, one comprising drilling
Tough, Hannah; Fekete, Christine; Brinkhof, Martin W G; Siegrist, Johannes
Various social relationship constructs have been proposed to affect mental health. However, these constructs have rarely been studied in a comprehensive way in persons with chronic disabilities and their partners, inhibiting researchers from evaluating their relative importance. To investigate 1) the variation in the quantity and quality of social relationships in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their partners; 2) dyadic coherence within social relationship constructs; 3) the interrelationships between social relationship constructs; and 4) the associations of social relationship constructs with vitality and mental health. Cross-sectional survey data from 133 couples of persons with SCI and their partners was used. Quantitative (social networks) and qualitative aspects (social support, relationship quality, loneliness, and reciprocity in partnerships) of social relationships were assessed. Correlations were performed to analyse dyadic coherence and interrelationships of social relationship constructs and multivariable regressions were applied to examine associations with vitality and mental health. Loneliness, larger social networks and higher relationship quality were more prevalent in SCI. All social relationship constructs, apart from loneliness, were more similar within couples than between couples and the interrelationships between different constructs were small. Qualitative aspects of relationships were more important than the quantitative aspects in their associations to vitality and mental health. These associations were most consistent for loneliness, reciprocity and relationship quality in both groups. In the long-term management of community functioning in persons with SCI and their partners, the fostering of high quality intimate relationships should take priority. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E
This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p social responsibility (r = .38, p responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.
Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud
Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic data, Iranian version of the 36-item short form QoL (SF-36) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). While mean score of QoL was 60.4±29.5, mean score of social desirability were 14.2±3.7. Low, moderate and high levels of social desirability were observed in 4.9%, 90.2% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Pearson's correlation were not significant between mean score of social desirability and mean score of QoL (p=0.969, r=0.004). Addicted participants of present study showed a moderate level of QoL and social desirability, without any significant relationship between QoL and social desirability. Further research is suggested in addicts with social and cultural differences.
Kaplan, Simona C; Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W
It is well established that social anxiety (SA) has a positive relationship with neuroticism and a negative relationship with extraversion. However, findings on the relationships between SA and agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience are mixed. In regard to facet-level personality traits, SA is negatively correlated with trust (a facet of agreeableness) and self-efficacy (a facet of conscientiousness). No research has examined interactions among the Big Five personality traits (e.g., extraversion) and facet levels of personality in relation to SA. In two studies using undergraduate samples (N = 502; N = 698), we examined the relationships between trust, self-efficacy, the Big Five, and SA. SA correlated positively with neuroticism, negatively with extraversion, and had weaker relationships with agreeableness, openness, and trust. In linear regression predicting SA, there was a significant interaction between trust and openness over and above gender. In addition to supporting previous research on SA and the Big Five, we found that openness is related to SA for individuals low in trust. Our results suggest that high openness may protect against the higher SA levels associated with low trust.
Costa, Andrea Lorenada; Sophia, Eglacy C; Sanches, Cíntia; Tavares, Hermano; Zilberman, Monica L
The aim of this study was to identify romantic relationship characteristics, emotional and personality aspects and social adjustment in subjects with pathological jealousy (PJ) and to compare them to control group. The participants, 32 individuals with PJ and 31 healthy volunteers completed measures of jealousy intensity, attachment type, love and relationship styles, personality, impulsivity, aggressiveness and social adjustment. Socio-demographic profiles were also obtained. Participants with PJ were significantly older than the control group, but no other important socio-demographic differences were observed. Participants with PJ were significantly more jealous and were predominately categorized with anxious-ambivalent attachment type, and Mania love style. They presented with elevated novelty seeking and harm avoidance, low self-directedness and cooperativeness, high levels of impulsivity and trait anxiety, and poor social adjustment. Multivariate analysis showed that jealousy intensity and trait anxiety were the variables that best distinguished participants with PJ from the control group. This study was limited by the cross-sectional design and relatively small sample size. PJ presents a particular pattern of attachment, love style, and personality structure, and deserves further attention as a specific potential disorder of the romantic bonding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Weidong; Wright, Paul M.; Rukavina, Paul Bernard; Pickering, Molly
The purpose of the current study was to test the validity and reliability of a two-factor model of the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire (PSRQ) and examine the relationships between perceptions of personal and social responsibility and intrinsic motivation in physical education. Participants were 253 middle school students who…
Reza Bagherian Sararoudi
Full Text Available Background: Type D personality is based on two global and stable personality traits, including negative affectivity (NA and social inhibition (SI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between type D personality and perceived social support in post myocardial infarction (MI patients. Methods: One hundred seventy six consecutive patients following MI admitted to the cardiac care unit (CCU of nine hospitals in Isfahan, Iran from April to September 2006 were selected based on the inclusive and exclusive criteria. The patients completed the Persian version of type D personality scale and the Persian version of multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS. Also, demographic and medical questionnaire was completed for each patient. Chi-squared test, t-test and MANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The findings indicated that 35.8% patients (35.8 % were classified as type D. The results of MANOVA showed that type D patients were significantly different from non-type D patients (F = 8.72, p = 0.0001 on MSPSS scores and on all dimensions including family subscale (F = 11.52, p = 0.001, friends subscale (F= 16.16, p = 0.0001 and significant others subscale (F = 5.04, p = 0.026. Conclusions: Type D personality substantially affects the way MI patients perceive availability of social support from different sources including family, friends, and significant others. One implication of this finding may be to develop tailor-made interventions for MI patients with type D.
de Hooge, Ilona E
Guilt is considered by many researchers to be the hallmark social emotion. Guilt theories perceive guilt to be a negative emotion with positive interpersonal consequences, and empirical research has shown guilt to motivate prosocial behaviours aimed at restoring the relationship with one's victims. The current research questions the relationship-oriented nature of this emotion. Five experiments reveal that when a person repairs the transgressor's damage caused to a victim, the transgressor's guilt feelings, reparative intentions, and prosocial behaviour decrease. These findings suggest that it is not the relationship with the victim that is important in the regulation of guilt feelings, but rather the reparative actions that have been undertaken. Implications for theory and behavioural research on guilt are discussed.
Elzy, Meredith B.
The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…
Full Text Available On the basis of the lack of measurement tools and the research gap regarding social entrepreneurship, three studies were conducted to develop a new measure of social enterprise (SE performance that is empirically valid and easy to administer. The purpose of this measure was to examine the relationship between entrepreneurs’ personality traits and their perceived SE performance. The results indicated that SE performance can be assessed using four dimensions: personal issues, social aspects, business elements, and service programmes. Extraversion positively influenced service programmes, and openness negatively affected service programmes. Neuroticism and conscientiousness positively predicted personal issues and service programmes, and agreeableness positively predicted all dimensions of perceived SE performance. The results also demonstrated the curvilinear relationship of the U-shaped curve between neuroticism and personal issues and the social aspects of SE performance. Furthermore, the results showed the curvilinear relationship of the inverted U-shaped curve between agreeableness and the four dimensions of SE performance.
Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Escartí Carbonell, Amparo; Pascual Baños, Carminal
The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to present/display the Spanish version of diverse instruments that assess Empathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-efficacy and Personal and social responsibility, and, on the other hand, to analyze which of these variables could predict responsibility. Participants were 822 pupils, ages 8 to 15 years, who studied in 11 educational centres of the Valencian Community. Measures include Spanish versions of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents, Prosocial Behaviour, and Physical and Verbal Aggression, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and the Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire. Through structural equation modelling (SEM), the results showed positive relationships between Prosocial behaviour, Empathy, Self-efficacy, and Responsibility; and negative relationships between Aggressiveness and Responsibility. The results and implications for education are discussed.
Kamdar, Dishan; Van Dyne, Linn
This field study examines the joint effects of social exchange relationships at work (leader-member exchange and team-member exchange) and employee personality (conscientiousness and agreeableness) in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Consistent with trait activation theory, matched data on 230 employees, their coworkers, and their supervisors demonstrated interactions in which high quality social exchange relationships weakened the positive relationships between personality and performance. Results demonstrate the benefits of consonant predictions in which predictors and outcomes are matched on the basis of specific targets. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. (c) 2007 APA.
Liang, Chao-Tung; Peng, Li-Pei; Yao, Shu-Nung; Liang, Chaoyun
On the basis of the lack of measurement tools and the research gap regarding social entrepreneurship, three studies were conducted to develop a new measure of social enterprise (SE) performance that is empirically valid and easy to administer. The purpose of this measure was to examine the relationship between entrepreneurs’ personality traits and their perceived SE performance. The results indicated that SE performance can be assessed using four dimensions: personal issues, so...
Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Tambs, Kristian; Kendler, Kenneth S
The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of comorbidity for social phobia and dimensional representations of avoidant personality disorder by estimating to what extent the two disorders are influenced by common genetic and shared or unique environmental factors versus the extent to which these factors are specific to each disorder. Young adult female-female twin pairs (N=1,427) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed at personal interview for avoidant personality disorder and social phobia using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Bivariate Cholesky models were fitted using the Mx statistical program. The best-fitting model included additive genetic and unique environmental factors only. Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia were influenced by the same genetic factors, whereas the environmental factors influencing the two disorders were uncorrelated. Within the limits of statistical power, these results suggest that there is a common genetic vulnerability to avoidant personality disorder and social phobia in women. An individual with high genetic liability will develop avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia entirely as a result of the environmental risk factors unique to each disorder. The results are in accordance with the hypothesis that psychobiological dimensions span the axis I and axis II disorders.
Farag, Magdy S.; Elias, Rafik Z.
Professional skepticism is an essential component of every successful audit. Research in psychology identified the trait professional skepticism as an enduring personality construct. The current study examines the relationship between the Big Five personality characteristics and accounting students' trait professional skepticism and their level of…
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the implementation of DOTS strategy, TB remains one of the ten leading causes of death in developing countries. Compliance with treatment is affected by social, cultural, and economic factors, and patients’ knowledge and attitude as well. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between compliance with treatment and personal, social and therapeutic factors in TB patients in Ahwaz. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 167 TB patients. Subjects were selected based on target. The data were collected using a questionnaire, and by observation, sputum analysis, and Kvzart Ponce urine test. The validity of the questionnaire was tested by the method of content validity, and its internal consistency and reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data analyzed by SpSS. Results: Among all subjects, 52.7% of patients showed complete compliance and 35.2% and 12% of them showed partial and poor compliance, respectively. There was a significant relationship between treatment compliance and gender(p=0.009, quality of monthly income(p=0.007, and addiction(p=0.001. The quality of treatment compliance was not significantly related to age, marital status, educational level, ethnicity, and medical complications. Conclusion: The findings showed that Incomplete treatment of TB is much worse than not treating it, because the lack of precision in the administration and consumption of anti-tuberculosis drugs, leads to the emergence of resistant TB. Paying attention to the factors decreasing treatment compliance and trying to eliminate them may lead to better treatment and lower incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in the community.
Horváth, Klára; Martos, János; Mihalik, Béla; Bódizs, Róbert
Our study intends to examine whether the social brain theory is applicable to human individual differences. According to the social brain theory primates have larger brains as it could be expected from their body sizes due to the adaptation to a more complex social life. Regarding humans there were few studies about the relationship between theory of mind and frontal and temporal brain lobes. We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives. Our findings support this hypothesis as Sociability correlated positively with the examined brain structures if we control the effects of body size differences and age. These results suggest that the social brain theory can be extended to human interindividual differences and they have some implications to personality psychology too.
Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.
This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…
Hooge, de I.E.
Guilt is considered by many researchers to be the hallmark social emotion. Guilt theories perceive guilt to be a negative emotion with positive interpersonal consequences, and empirical research has shown guilt to motivate prosocial behaviours aimed at restoring the relationship with one's victims.
Waszkowska, Małlgorzata; Andysz, Aleksandra; Merecz, Dorota
Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit). The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) by Cohen et al. As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers.
Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit. The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. Material and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 by Cohen et al. Results: As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers. Med Pr 2014;65(2:219–228
Kloos, Bret; Shah, Seema
This paper seeks to advance mental health-housing research regarding which factors of housing and neighborhood environments are critical for adaptive functioning, health, and recovery for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). Housing and neighborhood environments are particularly important for persons with SMI because of the prevalence of poor housing conditions among this population. Most mental health-housing research has been limited by a focus on problems in environments and functioning. The paper seeks to expand the mental health-housing research agenda to consider protective factors that promote community integration and adaptive functioning. We provide an account of how social ecology theory transformed a research program, from examining individual risk factors to investigating the functioning of persons in the contexts of their housing and neighborhood experiences. The resulting housing environment framework-physical aspects of housing and neighborhoods, social environment of neighborhoods, and interpersonal relationships tied to housing-allows for identification of opportunities for health promotion and facilitation of participation in community-based settings. This program of research draws upon several methods to understand the social experience of persons with SMI living in community settings-survey research, qualitative interviews, Geographic Information Systems, participatory research, and visual ethnography. In this paper, we present how social ecology theory was instrumental in the development of new housing environment measures, the selection of appropriate research methods, and framing research questions that are building a new empirical base of knowledge about promoting adaptive functioning, health, and recovery for persons with SMI living in community settings.
Full Text Available The relationship between individual psychological and individually-typological characteristics of patients with personality disorders who committed socially dangerous acts were studied, taking into account the severity of the organic factor and the degree of their social dangerousness. 121 males were surveyed, 70 of them were diagnosed with "organic personality disorder" and 33 - personality disorder. The types of personality disorders were diagnosed. The individual variables, the ratio of processes of system activation of behavior and its inhibition, protective styles, especially coping behaviours that constitute aggression, styles of self-regulation were analyzed. It was revealed that low settings of the system activation behavior found in the group of persons with a high degree of social dangerousness, determines the formation of individual psychological treats related to the rigidity behavior, the instability of the motives, impulsivity, negative emotionality, disinhibition. During comparison of samples of individuals with medium and high degree of social dangerousness it has been discovered that self-centeredness, as a component of self-control, high levels of affective components of aggression – anger and immature defense mechanisms significantly distinguish individuals with a high degree of public danger.
Phan, Huy P.; Ngu, Bing H.
The present study focused on an examination of both "global" and "domain-specific self-esteems" in secondary mathematics learning. The extent to which self-esteem, in general, would account and explain educational success through "social relationships with teachers" and "peers", and "personal interest…
Kim, Hyondong; Chung, Yang Woon
Social networking services (SNSs) have been garnering attention from society due to their recent rapid growth. This study examines whether SNS use can affect the relationship between the Big Five personality model and individual job satisfaction. Based on a sample of 1,452 workers in Korea, the results of this study indicate that the Big Five personality model (extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) was significantly related to individual job satisfaction. Further, SNS use moderated the relationship between extroversion and neuroticism with individual job satisfaction. Also, SNS use was found to increase job satisfaction of Korean workers who are more extroverted, while it also affected job satisfaction of Korean workers with low agreeableness. As SNS use plays an important role in the workplace, it is necessary to realize and appreciate the importance of SNSs in shaping and promoting job satisfaction of working individuals.
Full Text Available Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measures the reflection of repliers to different social factors including social position, popularity, socialize, social manners, self-reliance, speech abilities, responsibility, etc. Data were gathered from a sample of 300 people using random sampling and analyzed using descriptive mono factor statistics, Spearman correlation, Kramer correlation coefficient, Chi-square, regression and path analysis. The validity of questionnaire is tested by using Cronbach alpha (%75. The results indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between woman’s educational level, age, residency status, socialization capability, urbanity, skill & ability and their employment. The study, however, does not find any relationship between marital status and number of children and outcome of woman’s employment.
Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira
People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…
Андрей Борисович Шалимов
Full Text Available Purpose: Our scientific purpose is creation of practical model of person’s representation in social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Classmates. As user of social networks, person is made conditional not only upon its own identity, but also upon the information about himself, which he is ready to share with his friends in contact list. Goal-setting and practical activities for their achievement mean that you should apply force, it can completely eliminates systemic factors, the system of power relations, which overwhelms human being in social networks.Methodology: The reconstruction of the model of human in the popularity of social networksResults: There is descripton of practical model of person's representation in social networks, it includes the management of own identity and the audience (the list of contacts. When person manages own identity, he answers the question, «Whom I can dare to be?». Person perceives himself in social networks' being, he understands himself and his place in the world, he identifies.Managing the way in social media means that you answer the question «What I want to tell?». Person in social media looks at events in the field of culture, economy, politics, social relations through the prism of his own attitudes, he forms and formulates his own agenda and he is going to tell about himself through them.Practical implications: Everyday people’s life, practical activities, including marketing in social networks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-51
Neyer, F J; Asendorpf, J B
Personality and social relationships were assessed twice across a 4-year period in a general population sample of 489 German young adults. Two kinds of personality-relationship transaction were observed. First, mean-level change in personality toward maturity (e.g., increase in Conscientiousness and decrease in Neuroticism) was moderated by the transition to partnership but was independent of other developmental transitions. Second, individual differences in personality traits predicted social relationships much better than vice versa. Specifically, once initial correlations were controlled for, Extraversion, Shyness, Neuroticism, self-esteem, and Agreeableness predicted change in various qualities of relationships (especially with friends and colleagues), whereas only quality of relationships with preschool children predicted later Extraversion and Neuroticism. Consequences for the transactional view of personality in young adulthood are discussed.
Kuiper, Jisca S; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Zuidema, Sytse U; Stolk, Ronald P; Zuidersma, Marij; Smidt, Nynke
Poor social functioning is associated with cognitive decline in older adults. It is unclear whether social functioning is also associated with subjective memory complaints (SMC). We investigated the association between social functioning and incident SMC and SMC recovery. A population-based sample of 8762 older adults (aged ≥65 years) with good objective cognitive functioning at baseline (MMSE ≥26) from the LifeLines Cohort Study were followed for 1.5 years. Self-reported SMC were measured at baseline and after 1.5 years follow-up. Aspects of social functioning included marital status, household composition, social network size, social activity, quality of social relationships, social support, affection, behavioral confirmation, and status. Thirteen percent (513/3963) developed SMC during follow-up (incident SMC). Multivariate logistic regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender, education level, physical activity, alcohol use, smoking status, depression, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke) showed that participants with better feelings of affection, behavioral confirmation and stable good social support had a lower risk of incident SMC. Thirty-four percent (1632/4799) reported recovery. Participants with good social functioning at baseline on all determinants reported more SMC recovery. People who remained stable in a relationship, stable in good quality of social relationships or increased in quality of social relationships more often report SMC recovery. Good social functioning is associated with less incident SMC and more SMC recovery over a follow-up period of 1.5 years. Albeit future confirmative studies are needed, we argue for targeting also social functioning when designing multidomain interventions to prevent or slow down cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students; impact of negative affect and personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion.
Evren, Cuneyt; Dalbudak, Ercan; Ozen, Secil; Evren, Bilge
The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while controlling the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion, anxiety and depression symptoms in a sample of Turkish university students (n=455). Participants were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Severity of social anxiety, depression, anxiety and neuroticism were higher among those with probable ADHD, whereas extraversion score did not differ between the groups. The severity of ADHD score, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity score, was related with the "fear or anxiety" together with low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism dimensions of personality, whereas the severity of ADHD score, both inatentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores, was related with "avoidence" together with low extraversion (introversion) dimension of personality. These findings suggest that probable ADHD and severity of ADHD symptoms are related with both "fear or anxiety" and "avoidance" of social anxiety, while personality dimensions of low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism may have an effect on this relationships among young adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Divney, Anna A; Sipsma, Heather; Gordon, Derrick; Niccolai, Linda; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace
To assess the relationship between personal and romantic partner's experiences of stressful life events and depression during pregnancy, and the social moderators of this relationship, among 296 young couples with low incomes from urban areas. We recruited couples who were expecting a baby from four ob/gyn and ultrasound clinics in southern Connecticut; women were ages 14-21 and male partners were 14+. We analyzed self-reports of stressful events in the previous six months, depression in the past week and current interpersonal social supports. To determine the influence of personal and partner experiences of stressful events on depression, we used multilevel dyadic models and incorporated interaction terms. We also used this model to determine whether social support, family functioning and relationship satisfaction moderated the association between stressful events and depression. Experiences of stressful life events were common; 91.2% of couples had at least one member report an event. Money, employment problems, and moving were the most common events. Personal experiences of stressful life events had the strongest association with depression among men and women; although partner experiences of stressful life events were also significantly associated with depression among women. Social support, family functioning, and romantic relationship satisfaction significantly buffered the association between personal and partner stressful events and depression. Interventions that improve relationships, support systems, and family functioning may reduce the negative impact of stressors, experienced both personally and by a romantic partner, on the emotional well-being of young expectant parents. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Divney, Anna A.; Sipsma, Heather; Gordon, Derrick; Niccolai, Linda; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace
Study Objective To assess the relationship between personal and romantic partner’s experiences of stressful life events and depression during pregnancy, and the social moderators of this relationship among 296 young couples with low incomes from urban areas. Participants and Setting We recruited couples who were expecting a baby from four OB/GYN and ultrasound clinics in lower CT; women were ages 14-21 and male partners were 14+. Design and Outcome Measures We analyzed self-reports of stressful events in the previous six months, depression in the past week and current interpersonal social supports. To determine the influence of personal and partner experiences of stressful events on depression, we used multilevel dyadic models and incorporated interaction terms. We also used this model to determine whether social support, family functioning and relationship satisfaction moderated the association between stressful events and depression. Results Experiences of stressful life events were common; 91.2% of couples had at least one member report an event. Money, employment problems and moving were the most common events. Personal experiences of stressful life events had the strongest association with depression among men and women; although partner experiences of stressful life events were also significantly associated with depression among women. Social support, family functioning and romantic relationship satisfaction significantly buffered the association between personal and partner stressful events and depression. Conclusion Interventions that improve relationships, support systems, and family functioning may reduce the negative impact of stressors, experienced both personally and by a romantic partner, on the emotional well-being of young expectant parents. PMID:22578481
Shahram Basity; Mohammad Reza Iravani; Zahra Ghassabi; Faezeh Taghipour; Hajar Jannesari
Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measur...
Zhang, Lifang; Sui, Minghong; Yan, Tiebin; You, Liming; Li, Kun; Gao, Yan
To explore the impacts of social participation and the environment on depression among people with stroke. Cross-sectional survey. Structured interviews in the participants' homes. Community-dwelling persons with stroke in the rural areas of China ( N = 639). Not applicable. Depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-6), activity and social participation (Chinese version of the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0), environmental barriers (Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors), neurological function (Canadian Neurological Scale). A total of 42% of the variance in depression was explained by the environmental barriers, neurological function, activity, and social participation factors studied. Social participation, services/assistance, and attitudes/support were directly related to depression; their standardized regression coefficients were 0.530, 0.162, and 0.092, respectively ( p ⩽ 0.01). The physical environment, policies, and neurological function indirectly impacted depression. Depression influences social participation in turn, with a standardized regression coefficient of 0.29 ( p ⩽ 0.01). Depression and social participation are inversely related. The physical environment, services/assistance, attitudes/support, and policies all impact post-stroke depression.
Wu, Xin; Chen, Yujie; Chen, Bing; Guan, Lili; Zhao, Yufang
According to sociometer theory, self-esteem is an internal monitor of positive social bonds to others. Social exclusion can break or threaten social bonds, which might be reflected by the brain structure of social exclusion regions. Thus, self-esteem might be influenced by structurally individual differences in these regions. It has been suggested that self-esteem can be divided into personal (PSE) and collective (CSE) self-esteem and CSE can bring individuals many benefits, such as acceptance, belonging, and social support, which could further maintain or increase their PSE. Based on this, we hypothesized that CSE might moderate the relationship between structurally individual differences in social exclusion regions and PSE. Therefore, in the present study, the moderating effect of CSE on the relationships between PSE and individual differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of 10 social exclusion regions from previous meta-analysis of social exclusion were investigated using voxel-based morphometry. The results showed that CSE played a moderating role in the relationship between PSE and rGMV of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Specifically, PSE was positively associated with rGMV of left PCC in lower CSE, while there was no significant relationship between PSE and rGMV of left PCC in higher CSE. Therefore, we believe that compared with a higher CSE, because of lack of acceptance, belonging, and social support from valued groups, lower CSE individuals might be more prone to be influenced by social exclusion with decreased rGMV of the left PCC, which makes them more prone to develop lower PSE.
Full Text Available According to sociometer theory, self-esteem is an internal monitor of positive social bonds to others. Social exclusion can break or threaten social bonds, which might be reflected by the brain structure of social exclusion regions. Thus, self-esteem might be influenced by structurally individual differences in these regions. It has been suggested that self-esteem can be divided into personal (PSE and collective (CSE self-esteem and CSE can bring individuals many benefits, such as acceptance, belonging, and social support, which could further maintain or increase their PSE. Based on this, we hypothesized that CSE might moderate the relationship between structurally individual differences in social exclusion regions and PSE. Therefore, in the present study, the moderating effect of CSE on the relationships between PSE and individual differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV of 10 social exclusion regions from previous meta-analysis of social exclusion were investigated using voxel-based morphometry. The results showed that CSE played a moderating role in the relationship between PSE and rGMV of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Specifically, PSE was positively associated with rGMV of left PCC in lower CSE, while there was no significant relationship between PSE and rGMV of left PCC in higher CSE. Therefore, we believe that compared with a higher CSE, because of lack of acceptance, belonging, and social support from valued groups, lower CSE individuals might be more prone to be influenced by social exclusion with decreased rGMV of the left PCC, which makes them more prone to develop lower PSE.
Margolis, Seth A; Nakhutina, Luba; Schaffer, Sarah G; Grant, Arthur C; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S
Perceived epilepsy stigma and reduced social well-being are prevalent sources of distress in people with epilepsy (PWE). Yet, research on patient-level correlates of these difficulties is lacking, especially among underserved groups. Racially/ethnically diverse adults with intractable seizures (N=60, 62% female; 79% Black, 20% Hispanic/Latino, 8% White) completed validated measures of personality (NEO Five Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI-3), perceived epilepsy stigma (Epilepsy Stigma Scale, ESS), and quality of life (Quality of Life Inventory in Epilepsy, QOLIE-89). Controlling for covariates, ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression evaluated the total, direct, and indirect effects of NEO-FFI-3 neuroticism and extraversion scores on epilepsy-related social well-being (i.e., combination of QOLIE-89 social isolation and work/driving/social function subscales, α=0.87), mediated through perceived stigma. In separate models, higher levels of neuroticism (N) and lower levels of extraversion (E) were significantly and independently associated with greater perceived stigma (N path a=0.71, p=0.005; E path a=-1.10, pStigma, in turn, was significantly and independently associated with poorer social well-being (N path b=0.23, psocial well-being through their respective associations with perceived stigma (N path ab=-0.16, 95% CIs [-0.347, -0.044]; E path ab=0.25, 95% CIs [0.076, 0.493]). Higher neuroticism and lower extraversion covaried with stigma beliefs, and these may be markers of poor social outcomes in PWE. Mediation models suggest that targeting epilepsy stigma beliefs may be a particularly useful component to incorporate when developing interventions aimed at promoting social well-being in diverse PWE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.
The present study examines the personality characteristics of partners receiving marital therapy. On the basis of previous research, we expected partners in distressed relationships to be more neurotic and more introverted and to have lower self-esteem than partners in non-distressed relationships.
Angermeyer, M C; Daubmann, A; Wegscheider, K; Mnich, E; Schomerus, G; Knesebeck, O V D
Previous population-based studies did not support the view that biological and genetic causal models help increase social acceptance of people with mental illness. However, practically all these studies used un-labelled vignettes depicting symptoms of the disorders of interest. Thus, in these studies the public's reactions to pathological behaviour had been assessed rather than reactions to psychiatric disorders that had explicitly been labelled as such. The question arises as to whether results would have been similar if respondents had been confronted with vignettes with explicit mention of the respective diagnosis. Analyses are based on data of a telephone survey in two German metropolises conducted in 2011. Case-vignettes with typical symptoms suggestive of depression or schizophrenia were presented to the respondents. After presentation of the vignette respondents were informed about the diagnosis. We found a statistically significant association of the endorsement of brain disease as a cause with greater desire for social distance from persons with schizophrenia. In major depression, this relation was absent. With both disorders, there was no statistically significant association between the endorsement of hereditary factors as a cause and social distance. Irrespective of whether unlabelled or labelled vignettes are employed, the ascription to biological or genetic causes seems not to be associated with a reduction of the public's desire for social distance from people with schizophrenia or depression. Our results corroborate the notion that promulgating biological and genetic causal models may not help decrease the stigma surrounding these illnesses.
Adams, Mark James; Majolo, Bonaventura; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S; Weiss, Alexander
Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Binzel, Christine; Fehr, Dietmar
While social relationships play an important role for individuals to cope with missing market institutions, they also limit individuals' range of trading partners. This paper aims at understanding the determinants of trust at various social distances when information asymmetries are present. Among participants from an informal housing area in Cairo we find that the increase in trust following a reduction in social distance comes from the fact that trustors are much more inclined to follow the...
Garcia-Sedeño, Manuel; Navarro, Jose I; Menacho, Inmaculada
Summary.-The relationship between occupational preferences and personality traits was examined. A randomly chosen sample of 735 students (age range = 17 to 23 years; 50.5% male) in their last year of high school participated in this study. Participants completed Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor-5 Questionnaire (16PF-5 Questionnaire) and the Kuder-C Professional Tendencies Questionnaire. Initial hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the participants into two groups by Kuder-C vocational factors: one showed a predilection for scientific or technological careers and the other a bias toward the humanities and social sciences. Based on these groupings, differences in 16PF-5 personality traits were analyzed and differences associated with three first-order personality traits (warmth, dominance, and sensitivity), three second-order factors (extraversion, control, and independence), and some areas of professional interest (mechanical, arithmetical artistic, persuasive, and welfare) were identified. The data indicated that there was congruency between personality profiles and vocational interests.
von Soest, Tilmann; Wagner, Jenny; Hansen, Thomas; Gerstorf, Denis
Self-esteem development across adulthood has been in the center of interest for some time now. However, not much is known about factors that shape self-esteem and its development in the second half of life and whether the factors differ with age and gender. To examine these questions, this study uses 2-wave data from the population-based NorLAG study in Norway (N = 5,555; M age = 58 years; 51% women) and combines self-report data on self-esteem and personality with registry-based information on socioeconomic status (education, income, unemployment), health problems (sick leave, lifetime history of disability), and social relationships (cohabiting partner, lifetime history of divorce and widowhood). Results from latent change score models revealed that self-esteem peaked at around age 50 and declined thereafter. More importantly, lower socioeconomic status, not having a cohabiting partner, unemployment, and disability were each uniquely associated with lower levels of self-esteem and/or steeper declines in self-esteem over the 5-year study period. Over and above registry-based information, personality characteristics were relevant, with a more mature personality being associated with higher self-esteem level. Emotionally stable participants also showed less pronounced declines in self-esteem. Moreover, associations of disability and of emotional stability with self-esteem level were weaker with advancing age. Among women, self-esteem level was more strongly associated with emotional stability and less strongly with openness, compared to men. Our findings demonstrate the utility of registry-based information and suggest that physical health, social relationships, and personality factors are in manifold ways uniquely associated with self-esteem and its development later in life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to assess the relationship between the environment and mentally retarded persons. Material and methods: Information referring to social support of mentally retarded persons is a source material collected on the base of the data included in the Polish and foreign literature. The issues under discussion related to the following problems: social integration of persons with intellectual disabilities in a family and local environment, social functioning of people with mild intellectual disability, social rehabilitation of people with moderate, severe and profound intellectual disability and specific contact with people with disabilities. Results: For a person with an intellectual disability, the family is the source of acquisition of basic social skills that give him the opportunity for further development and performing certain social roles in a sense of safety. Full acceptance of the intellectually disabled, may dismiss their sense of shame and fear, and instill the satisfaction of belonging to a social community. Conclusions: Full social acceptance of people with intellectual disabilities is the basis for their assimilation and social functioning.
Carla Ruiz-Mafé; Silvia Sanz-Blas; José Martí-Parreño
Social Networking Sites (SNS) are gaining momentum as powerful tools of marketing communications. Mobile phones are becoming one of the most popular devices for accessing Social Networking Sites. In Spain, 44% of Social Networking Sites users access these sites on a daily basis while 79% of them access these sites on a weekly basis. Furthermore, it is notable that over 70% of Social Networking Sites users talk about and recommend commercial brands. This justifies the interest of the study of ...
Kuiper, Jisca S; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Zuidema, Sytse U; Stolk, Ronald P; Zuidersma, Marij; Smidt, Nynke
OBJECTIVE: Poor social functioning is associated with cognitive decline in older adults. It is unclear whether social functioning is also associated with subjective memory complaints (SMC). We investigated the association between social functioning and incident SMC and SMC recovery. METHODS: A
Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Nastaran; Kamali, Koorosh; Khaleghi, Ali; Ahmadi, Ameneh
Objective: We aimed at designing a cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents (IRCAP) and to determine its relationship with social capital, life style, and parents' personality disorders. Method: This cross sectional study was a national project implemented in all provinces of Iran. In this community-based study, using multistage cluster sampling method, we selected 1000 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in each province. The total sample size reached to 31 000. We randomly collected 170 blocks. Then, of each cluster head, we selected 6 cases including 3 cases of each gender in different age groups (6- 9 years, 10- 14 years, and 15- 18 years). The clinical psychologists instructed the participants to complete the Persian version of Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). In addition, demographic data (gender, age, education, parent education, and economic situation) and information on lifestyle, social capital, and parents' personality disorders were obtained from the participants. Discussion: IRCAP study presents a protocol for an epidemiological survey on the first estimates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents across the country. This large body of data, on a range of individual behavioural and emotional items and scores, allows us to compare the rates and patterns of deviance between urban and rural places of residence in 31 provinces of Iran with non Iranian samples surveyed with the same measures.
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
Full Text Available Objective: We aimed at designing a cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents and to determine its relationship with social capital, life style, and parents' personality disorders.Method: This cross sectional study was a national project implemented in all provinces of Iran. In this community-based study, using multistage cluster sampling method, we selected 1000 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in each province. The total sample size reached to 31 000. We randomly collected 170 blocks. Then, of each cluster head, we selected 6 cases including 3 cases of each gender in different age groups (6- 9 years, 10- 14 years, and 15- 18 years. The clinical psychologists instructed the participants to complete the Persian version of Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. In addition, demographic data (gender, age, education, parent education, and economic situation and information on lifestyle, social capital, and parents' personality disorders were obtained from the participants.Discussion: This study presents a protocol for an epidemiological survey on the first estimates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents across the country. This large body of data, on a range of individual behavioural and emotional items and scores, allows us to compare the rates and patterns of deviance between urban and rural places of residence in 31 provinces of Iran with non Iranian samples surveyed with the same measures.
With the Ottawa Charter definition of the concept health is integrated and expanded, aiming at enhancing not only the "state" of health, but the "process" that leads to it, taking into account health That is considered a resource through which, the individual becomes an active player in the community. Therefore it considers very important the community aspect and the social existence of the person, it must be that within an active protagonist. Each person, therefore, should feel responsibl...
Roark, Sybil V
Personality disorders, by definition, affect relationships. Narcissistic Personality Disorder can negatively impact relationships in all areas of life: the workplace, the community, and the family. A clear understanding of the types and extent of interpersonal impairment can assist nurses in establishing therapeutic relationships with those diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The purpose of this activity is to examine the negative impact of Narcissistic Personality Disorder on interpersonal relationships. A review of literature connecting Narcissistic Personality Disorder to impairment in relationships. Research findings show that Narcissistic Personality Disorder symptoms and behaviors will negatively impact interpersonal relationships across all areas of life. CONCLUSIONS AND COMMENT: Nurses interact with diverse populations in a variety of settings. Establishment of a therapeutic relationship with individuals who have Narcissistic Personality Disorder can be aided by a clear understanding of the associated relationship issues.
Uebelacker, Sven; Quiel, Susanne
We explore ICT security in a socio-technical world and focus in particular on the susceptibility to social engineering attacks. We pursue the question if and how personality traits influence this susceptibility. This allows us to research human factors and their potential impact on the physical and
Rhodes, Darson L.
A sample of 656 undergraduate students from multiple sections of an introductory nutrition course, a personal health course, and a physical fitness course at a large Midwestern University completed one of four surveys. Using matrix sampling, each participant completed a survey measuring one of four personal and social competence constructs; coping…
Luciana Karine de Souza
Full Text Available A amizade é um relacionamento importante para o desenvolvimento social, emocional e cognitivo; no entanto a maioria dos estudos trata da amizade na infância e na adolescência, havendo pouca ênfase na investigação de adultos. O presente trabalho apresenta uma revisão da literatura sobre relacionamentos de amizade na adultez, procurando descrever criticamente a produção científica na área. Estudos brasileiros indicam que relacionamentos de amizade no nosso país podem ser comparados aos de outras culturas e discutidos com base nos modelos teóricos existentes. Não obstante, há algumas diferenças que requerem mais estudo, inclusive para verificar se os modelos internacionais correntes são satisfatórios para explicar adequadamente relações de amizade entre adultos na cultura brasileira.La amistad es un relacionamiento importante para el desarrollo social, emocional y cognitivo, pero la mayor parte de los estudios trata de la amistad en la niñez y en la adolescencia, habiendo poca énfasis en la investigación con adultos. El estudio en cuestión presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre relacionamentos de amistad en la edad adulta, buscando describir críticamente la producción científica en el área. Estudios brasileños indican que relacionamientos de amistad en ese país pueden ser comparados a los de otras culturas y discutidos en base a los modelos teóricos existentes. Sin embargo, hay algunas diferencias que requieren más estudio incluso para averiguar si los modelos internacionales actuales son satisfactorios para explicar adecuadamente relaciones de amistad entre adultos en la cultura brasileña.Friendship is an important relationship for social, emotional and cognitive development. However, most empirical studies investigate friendship in childhood and adolescence, with little emphasis in adulthood. Current analysis presents a critical review of the literature on friendship among adults, describing the major
Frick, T.W. (Thomas W.); T. Li (Ting)
textabstractThis study compares the effectiveness of product- and category-specific advertising personalization in Social Retargeting. Social Retargeting combines the features of social advertising, targeting consumers based on social connections, and retargeting, using consumers' browsing behavior
Full Text Available Leadership style plays an essential role on personality trait in educational systems. In this paper, we present a study among 180 school principals in city of Khomeinishahr, located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The study selects a sample of 123 principals and examines ten hypotheses including the effects of personality trait neuroticism, extroversion, resilience, participative, conscientiousness on leadership style. The study examined the effects of two groups of leadership, namely transactional leadership and Laissez-fair leadership styles on five personality traits. The results have shown that there were some meaningful relationship between transactional leadership and personality trait extraversion, resilience, participative and consciousness but there was not meaningful relationship between transactional leadership and personality trait neuroticism. In addition, while there were meaningful and positive relationship between Laissez-fair leadership style and personality trait extraversion as well as being resilience, our survey did not find any meaningful relationship between Laissez-fair leadership style and personality trait neuroticism, extraversion and being consciousness.
Social media are changing the way we do business and how leaders are perceived, from the shop floor to the CEO suite. But whereas the best businesses are creating comprehensive strategies in thi area, research suggests that few corporate Leaders have a social media presence--say, a Facebook or Linked in of page--and that those do don't use it strategically. Today's leaders must embrace social media for three reasons, First, they provide a low-cost, highly accessible platform on which to build your personal brand, communicating who you are both within and outside your company. Second, they allow you to engage rapidly and simultaneously with peers, employees, customers, and the broader public--in order to leverage relationships, show commitment to a cause, and demonstrate a capacity for reflection. Third, they give you an opportunity to learn from instant information and unvarnished feedback. To formulate your personal social media strategy, it helps to clarify your goals (personal, professional, or both), desired audience (private or public), and resources (can you justify using your company's?). You must also consider the risks of maintaining a large number of connections and of sharing content online. Active participation in social media can be a powerful tool--the difference between leading effectively and ineffectively, and between advancing and faltering in the pursuit of your goals.
Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena
This study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) alternative model of personality disorder (AMPD) traits may be significantly associated with deficits on 2 different social cognition tasks, namely, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, in a sample of consecutively admitted inpatients and outpatients. The sample was composed of 181 consecutively admitted participants (57.5% women; mean age = 38.58 years). Correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients were computed in order to assess the associations among social cognition tasks, DSM-5 AMPD traits, and dimensionally assessed DSM-5 Section II personality disorders. Specific maladaptive traits listed in the DSM-5 AMPD were significantly associated with Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test scores and Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition scores, even when the effect of selected DSM-5 Section II personality disorders was controlled for. Our results support the relevance of studying social cognitive functioning in subjects suffering from personality disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available With the Ottawa Charter definition of the concept health is integrated and expanded, aiming at enhancing not only the "state" of health, but the "process" that leads to it, taking into account health That is considered a resource through which, the individual becomes an active player in the community. Therefore it considers very important the community aspect and the social existence of the person, it must be that within an active protagonist. Each person, therefore, should feel responsible for their own condition and must be fire "exercise opinions more control over health and over their own their environments, and to make choices conducive to health." To achieve this it is essential to enable people to learn throughout life, to prepare themselves for all of its stages and to be fire cope with injuries and chronic diseases. This should be made possible at school, at home, in the workplace and in all community settings. The purpose of the “Ottawa Charter” are really ambitious if one takes into account that not all western industrialized countries, starting from the USA, put into practice social policies that can raise standards of health, requiring structural reforms of the welfare state. The disease is the tip of the iceberg of a social pathology, which causes discomfort and influence individual, not finding answers in the institutions, become chronic changing for the worse the quality of life.
South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Elkins, Irene; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
The heritability of major normative domains of personality is well-established, with approximately half the proportion of variance attributed to genetic differences. In the current study, we examine the possibility of gene x environment interaction (GxE) for adult personality using the environmental context of intimate romantic relationship functioning. Personality and relationship satisfaction are significantly correlated phenotypically, but to date no research has examined how the genetic and environmental components of variance for personality differ as a function of romantic relationship satisfaction. Given the importance of personality for myriad outcomes from work productivity to psychopathology, it is vital to identify variables present in adulthood that may affect the etiology of personality. In the current study, quantitative models of GxE were used to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on personality differ as a function of relationship satisfaction. We drew from a sample of now-adult twins followed longitudinally from adolescence through age 29. All participants completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and an abbreviated version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). Biometric moderation was found for eight of the eleven MPQ scales examined: Well-Being, Social Potency, Negative Emotionality, Alienation, Aggression, Constraint, Traditionalism, and Absorption. The pattern of findings differed, suggesting that the ways in which relationship quality moderates the etiology of personality may depend on the personality trait. PMID:26581694
Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether university students' smoking behaviour is associated with higher levels of stress and depression directly, or indirectly, via the mediation of coping, personal beliefs and social support. Design/methodology/approach: The study design involves a cross-sectional survey. Structural equation…
Fahnøe, Kristian Relsted
organisations, friends and family, and communities. These social relations are viewed as the foundation of citizenship as experienced and practised. Focusing on how two dimensions of lived citizenship, namely rights-responsibilities and belonging, are affected by the social repairs, the chapter shows how...
Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Franzese, Alexis T; Thorp, Steven R; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R
The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and depressive symptoms were associated with changes in perceived social support over the 3 year study interval in a sample of depressed older adults. Results suggest that Conscientiousness and Extraversion were personality traits that were significantly predictive of changes in perceived social support over this time interval. Based on these results it appears that, among depressed older adults, those with conscientious or extraverted personality traits are more likely to resist impulses to withdraw from relationships. In addition, these traits may lead to more satisfying interactions and greater perceived social support over time. The implications of these results are discussed.
The current research investigated how the contextual expression of personality differs across interpersonal relationships. Two related studies were conducted with college samples (Study 1: N = 52, 38 female; Study 2: N = 111, 72 female). Participants in each study completed a five-factor measure of personality and constructed a social network detailing their 30 most important relationships. Participants used a brief Five-Factor Model scale to rate their personality as they experience it when with each person in their social network. Multiple informants selected from each social network then rated the target participant's personality (Study 1: N = 227, Study 2: N = 777). Contextual personality ratings demonstrated incremental validity beyond standard global self-report in predicting specific informants' perceptions. Variability in these contextualized personality ratings was predicted by the position of the other individuals within the social network. Across both studies, participants reported being more extraverted and neurotic, and less conscientious, with more central members of their social networks. Dyadic social network-based assessments of personality provide incremental validity in understanding personality, revealing dynamic patterns of personality variability unobservable with standard assessment techniques. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kent, Robert G.; Uchino, Bert N.; Cribbet, Matthew R.; Bowen, Kimberly; Smith, Timothy W.
Background The quality of social relationships and social support appears to be associated with physical health outcomes and sleep quality. Almost all previous research in this area focuses on positive aspects of relationships. Purpose The present study thus intended to examine the links between supportive, aversive, ambivalent, and indifferent network ties and sleep quality. Methods Relationship data, PSQI-assessed sleep quality, and depression were examined in 175 middle-aged and older adults. Results Consistent with hypotheses, supportive ties were positively related to sleep quality, while aversive ties predicted worse sleep quality; associations that were primarily seen for close relationships. Ambivalent and indifferent ties were not significant predictors of sleep quality. Importantly, depression was found to mediate the link between relationship quality and sleep quality. Conclusions These data suggest the more specific types of social relationships that may be linked to poor sleep quality, and that depression appears to underlie these associations. PMID:25976874
Topor, Alain; Ljungqvist, Ingemar
During a 9-month period, 100 persons with SMI were given approx. 73 USD per month above their normal income. Sixteen of the subjects were interviewed. The interviews were analysed according to the methods of thematic analysis. The money was used for personal pleasure and to re-establish reciprocal relations to others. The ways in which different individuals used the money at their disposal impacted their sense of self through experiences of mastery, agency, reciprocity, recognition and security. The findings underline the importance of including social circumstances in our understanding of mental health problems, their trajectories and the recovery process.
Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.
This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…
Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.
It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women…
Finn, Gabrielle M.; Walker, Simon J.; Carter, Madeline; Cox, David R.; Hewitson, Ruth; Smith, Claire F.
There is increasing recognition in medicine of the importance of noncognitive factors, including personality, for performance, and for good medical practice. The personality domain of conscientiousness is a well-established predictor of performance in workplace and academic settings. This study investigates the relationships between the "Big…
Aguirre, Fabian; Sergi, Mark J; Levy, Cynthia A
The present study is the first to examine emotional intelligence in persons with schizotypy. Over 2100 undergraduates were screened for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Version. Forty participants identified as persons with high schizotypy and 56 participants identified as persons with low schizotypy completed assessments of emotional intelligence (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report), verbal episodic (secondary) memory (California Verbal Learning Test), and executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Persons high in schizotypy were impaired in overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions. Persons high in schizotypy were also impaired in three aspects of social functioning: peer relationships, family relationships, and academic functioning. Group differences in verbal episodic (secondary) memory and executive functioning were not observed. For persons with high schizotypy, overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions, were associated with peer relationship functioning. Overall emotional intelligence was associated with verbal episodic (secondary) memory, but not executive functioning, in persons with high schizotypy. The current findings suggest that emotional intelligence is impaired in persons with schizotypy and that these impairments affect their social functioning.
van Velzen, CJM
Four groups of patients with social phobia (SP) were compared with regard to psychopathologic characteristics, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning. Fifteen persons with discrete social phobia without any personality disorder (DSP), 28 persons with generalized social phobia
From a sociological perspective, this study challenges the idea that personal relationships and networks are a simple result of an individual’s preferences for certain types of associates. The social contexts we enter in our daily lives, such as the work place, the family, the neighborhood, clubs
Sheikhi, Siamak; Issazadegan, Ali; Norozy, Merseda; Saboory, Ehsan
The present study considered the relationships between alexithymia and Machiavellian personality beliefs among university students. Two hundred and thirteen students (95 women and 118 men) studying Master's degrees in psychology, education, law, political sciences, and social sciences at the University of Tehran were randomly chosen using…
55 undergraduate men and 55 women took Schill's 1990 Self-defeating Personality Scale and Lorr, Youniss, and Stefic's (1991) multidimensional Social Relations Survey. As expected, persons who endorsed more self-defeating characteristics scored lower on scales which make up the Social Skills or Assertiveness Factor. However, these scores did not have significant correlations with the Empathy or Social Approval Need Scales; two of the three scales which make up the Empathy Factor. The results were discussed in terms of prior work relating deficits in social skills to dysfunctional early parenting.
Wu, D.W.; Bischof, W.F.; Anderson, N.C.C.; Jakobsen, T.; Kingstone, A.
The intersection between personality psychology and the study of social attention has been relatively untouched. We present an initial study that investigates the influence of the Big Five personality traits on eye movement behaviour towards social stimuli. By combining a free-viewing eye-tracking
VanSickle, Ronald L.
Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…
Kern, Margaret L; Della Porta, Serenity S; Friedman, Howard S
Building upon decades of research with the lifelong (nine-decade) Terman Life Cycle Study, we present a life pathway model for understanding human thriving that accounts for long-term individual difference in health and longevity, with a particular focus on child personality and adult social relationships. Developing data derived and supplemented from the Terman study (N = 570 males, 451 females), we employed regression and survival analyses to test models of childhood personality predicting adult psychosocial factors (subjective well-being, family relationships, community involvement, subjective achievement, hardships) and subsequent longevity. Child personality differentially related to midlife social relationships, well-being, and hardships. Conscientiousness and good social relationships predicted longer life, whereas subjective well-being was unrelated to mortality risk. Examining multiple life factors across long time periods uncovers important pathways through which personality relates to premature mortality or longevity. Typical stress-and-illness models are untenable and should be replaced with life span trajectory approaches. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Oh, Seong Joon; Benenson, Rodrigo; Fritz, Mario; Schiele, Bernt
People nowadays share large parts of their personal lives through social media. Being able to automatically recognise people in personal photos may greatly enhance user convenience by easing photo album organisation. For human identification task, however, traditional focus of computer vision has been face recognition and pedestrian re-identification. Person recognition in social media photos sets new challenges for computer vision, including non-cooperative subjects (e.g. backward viewpoints...
Brunt, D; Rask, M
A questionnaire to measure the verbal and social interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities has been developed. It is an adaptation of a questionnaire originally used in a forensic psychiatric setting. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the construct validity and the reliability of this new version of the Verbal and Social Interactions questionnaire for use in supported housing facilities (VSI-SH). Two hundred and twenty-three carers from municipal and privately run housing facilities completed the questionnaire. A factor analysis was performed, which resulted in six factors. The number of items was reduced from the original 47 to 30 in order to minimize factorial complexity and multiple loadings. The reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha and good internal consistency for the questionnaire and five of the six factors was found. The resulting six factors and the items were compared to the conceptual model and four of the six factors corresponded well with the categories in this original theoretical model. The questionnaire can be a useful contribution to the study of interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
This thesis deals with two main issues: personality (stable individual differences in behavior) and behavioral endocrinology (or socioendocrinology) in nonhuman primates. The first part of the thesis comprises of two primate personality studies of two species: Hanuman langurs and Barbary macaques. Two basic methods of animal personality research (behavioral coding and trait rating) were compared. Stability of personality assessments has been demonstrated. Social rank of individuals was used t...
Thompson, Jeffery A
This study of 126 employee-supervisor dyads examined a mediated model of the relationship between proactive personality and job performance. The model, informed by the social capital perspective, suggests that proactive employees reap performance benefits by means of developing social networks that provide them the resources and latitude to pursue high-level initiatives. Structural equation modeling suggested that the relationship between proactive personality and job performance is mediated by network building and initiative taking on the part of the employee. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent, the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010. A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions, the deficits in attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention.
Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley
developing a social tool set that makes it very successful in interacting and communicating with humans. Human evolution has similarly resulted in the development of complex social cognition in humans. This enables humans to form bonded relationships, besides pair-bonding, and it seems that humans are also...... of this thesis was to attain a better understanding of some of the factors related to the inter-action between humans and dogs. This aim was addressed by focusing on dog personality and hu-man social skills in relation to human-dog interaction. Two studies investigated dog personality and how it a) affects...... the relationship with the owner, and b) is affected by human breeding goals. Two studies investigated how human social skills affect the communication and interaction between hu-man and dog. As part of these studies it was also investigated how experience with dogs interacts with human social skills, perception...
Burns, Cardra E.
Computer deviance by employees, defined as malicious and nonmalicious computer use behaviors, has contributed to billions of dollars of monetary and productivity losses for public and private sector organizations. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between personality characteristics and employees' computer…
Liang, John Paul
Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…
Weih, Timothy G.
Literature holds the potential to significantly influence the lives of readers, but what is the nature of this influence for very young readers? This study investigated the question: What are the relationships between beginning readers and their personal literature? A first grade class of 18 students individually assembled a collection of personal…
Gil de Zúñiga, Homero; Diehl, Trevor; Huber, Brigitte; Liu, James
This study examines the relationship between peoples' personality traits and social media uses with data from 20 societies (N = 21,314). A measure of the "Big Five" personality traits is tested on key social media dimensions: frequency of use, social interaction, and news consumption. Across diverse societies, findings suggest that while extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are all positive predictors of different types of social media use, emotional stability and openness are negatively related to them.
Relationships between stress, social adaptation, personality traits, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol plasma concentrations in employees at a publishing company in Japan.
Okuno, Kanae; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Hori, Hikaru; Hayashi, Kenji; Katsuki, Asuka; Chen, Hsin-I; Nakamura, Jun
There is growing evidence that blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), a major metabolite of noradrenaline, are related to depression-associated personality traits as well as to depressive, suicidal and anxious states. Psychological job stress is well known to lead to symptoms of depression, anxiety and suicide. We have recently reported that psychological job stress among hospital employees altered blood levels of BDNF and MHPG (Mitoma et al., 2008). In the present study, we re-examined the effects of social adaptation and personality traits, as well as those of psychological job stress, on plasma levels of BDNF and MHPG in healthy employees (n=269, male/female=210/59, age=49 ± 10years) working in a publishing company in Japan. The values (mean ± SD) of scores on the Stress and Arousal Check Lists (s-SACL and a-SACL), Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale (SASS), plasma MHPG levels and plasma BDNF levels were 6.0 ± 3.4, 5.7 ± 2.3, 33.7 ± 6.8, 5.8 ± 4.3 and 4.6 ± 3.1ngml(-1), respectively. A positive correlation was found between plasma MHPG levels and scores on the s-SACL, but not the a-SACL. A positive correlation was also found between SASS scores and plasma MHPG levels and between SASS scores and plasma BDNF levels. A negative correlation was found between plasma BDNF levels and s-SACL scores. Furthermore, a positive correlation between NEO-Five factor Inventory (Openness) scores and plasma MHPG levels was observed, as well as between NEO-Five factor Inventory (Extroversion) scores and plasma BDNF levels. These results suggest that levels of plasma BDNF and plasma MHPG might be associated with psychological job stress and certain personality traits among employees in the publishing industry in Japan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yu Zhang; Tong Yu
With the growing popularity of online social network,trust plays a more and more important role in connecting people to each other.We rely on our personal trust to accept recommendations,to make purchase decisions and to select transaction partners in the online community.Therefore,how to obtain trust relationships through mining online social networks becomes an important research topic.There are several shortcomings of existing trust mining methods.First,trust is category-dependent.However,most of the methods overlook the category attribute of trust relationships,which leads to low accuracy in trust calculation.Second,since the data in online social networks cannot be understood and processed by machines directly,traditional mining methods require much human effort and are not easily applied to other applications.To solve the above problems,we propose a semantic-based trust reasoning mechanism to mine trust relationships from online social networks automatically.We emphasize the category attribute of pairwise relationships and utilize Semantic Web technologies to build a domain ontology for data communication and knowledge sharing.We exploit role-based and behavior-based reasoning functions to infer implicit trust relationships and category-specific trust relationships.We make use of path expressions to extend reasoning rules so that the mining process can be done directly without much human effort.We perform experiments on real-life data extracted from Epinions.The experimental results verify the effectiveness and wide application use of our proposed method.
This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).
Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Sourki, Mehdi Sadeghian; Bonjar, Seyedeh Elaham Hashemi
The main objective for this survey is to assess the relationship between physical education teachers' personality and students' individual with social behaviors. The statistical population of the study was all the teachers of physical education working at high schools in the academic year 2012-2013. The sample consisted of sixty teachers that were…
McDonald, Jennifer; Badger, Terry A
1. The social function needs of persons with schizophrenia are similar to those of all individuals and include typical social roles, integration and contacts, and intimacy and sexual function. 2. Social function is essential to QOL, and aspects of social function are determinants of mental health and mental health outcomes. 3. Although intimacy and sexual function is found to be an important aspect of social function and QOL, health care workers neglect to discuss these issues with patients with schizophrenia. 4. Education, support, counseling, adequate transportation, safe environments, and treatment plans that include appropriate activities are important treatment interventions.
Social media challenge--or have already redefined--conventional boundaries of public and private, personal and professional, friendship, and social relations generally. Here, I consider how these developments may affect professionalism, the physician-patient relationship, and our cultural experiences in a wholly different and unexpected way.
Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Fouad, Nadya A.
This study examined the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) model. It was hypothesized that individuals resembling Social and Enterprising vocational personality types would report higher SWB than those resembling other personality types.…
Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Wright, Stephen L.; Hudiburgh, Lynette M.
Among emerging adult populations, the increasingly prevalent use of online social media, such as Facebook, and its relationship to individual personality traits and interpersonal relationships are of growing interest to researchers. The current study sought to investigate how attachment style, personality traits based on the Five Factor Model, and…
Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P
Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
This paper explores the ethical implications of the existence of personal relationships in business exchanges. Firstly, this paper introduces personal relationship in business exchanges. Secondly, three normative theories of business ethics that are related to the issue of personal relationship are presented. Finally, this paper explores the ethical implications on personal relationships according to the three theories. The main recommendation of this paper is that an analysis of ...
Myers, Lorna; Lancman, Marcelo; Laban-Grant, Olgica; Lancman, Martin; Jones, Jace
The purpose of this report was to describe social behaviors and preferences in adults with epilepsy, including self-reported use of various socialization media (face-to-face and indirect communication) as well as perceived social barriers. 1320 consecutive persons with epilepsy (PWEs) confirmed through inpatient video-EEG monitoring were administered a questionnaire on the day of their first appointment. The questionnaire was designed to assess preferences in socialization practices, frequency of interpersonal contact, use of social media, and perceived barriers to socialization. The survey was developed to gain a better understanding of the socialization behaviors and preferences of our patients for the future development of customized activities in our wellness program. Our sample revealed higher rates of unemployment and single status as compared to the US Census of 2012. With regard socialization however, many were quite social (86% reported daily/weekly communication with friends and family via telephone, 71% saw relatives in person weekly, 68% saw friends weekly, and 65% reported using the computer daily/weekly to socialize). Facebook® was the preferred on-line social media. Indoor/solitary activities were most common with 63% stating they watch TV/read/use the computer followed by physical exercise and spending time outdoors (36%). The frequency of socialization with friends, relatives, and coworkers decreased with the respondents' age and the longer the respondent had carried the diagnosis of epilepsy. Respondents who were taking a greater number of AEDs or were considered refractory were less likely to consider participating in socialization-enhancing activities. The primary barriers to socialization that respondents endorsed were driving prohibition and medication side-effects. Respondents expressed the greatest interest in online support groups or educational programs (31%), office-based support groups (25%), and volunteering (19%). Although the
Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia
The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular
The purpose of this study was to set forth the relationship between the individuals' states to adopt social networks and social intelligence and analyze both concepts according to various variables. Research data were collected from 1145 social network users in the online media by using the Adoption of Social Network Scale and Social Intelligence…
Topor, Alain Pierre; Ljungqvist, Ingemar
During a 9-month period, 100 persons with SMI were given approx. 73 USD per month above their normal income. Sixteen of the subjects were interviewed. The interviews were analysed according to the methods of thematic analysis. The money was used for personal pleasure and to re-establish reciprocal relations to others. The ways in which different individuals used the money at their disposal impacted their sense of self through experiences of mastery, agency, reciprocity, recognition and securi...
Beeney, Joseph E; Hallquist, Michael N; Clifton, Allan D; Lazarus, Sophie A; Pilkonis, Paul A
Examining differences in social integration, social support, and relationship characteristics in social networks may be critical for understanding the character and costs of the social difficulties experienced of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We conducted an ego-based (self-reported, individual) social network analysis of 142 participants recruited from clinical and community sources. Each participant listed the 30 most significant people (called alters) in their social network, then rated each alter in terms of amount of contact, social support, attachment strength and negative interactions. In addition, measures of social integration were determined using participant's report of the connection between people in their networks. BPD was associated with poorer social support, more frequent negative interactions, and less social integration. Examination of alter-by-BPD interactions indicated that whereas participants with low BPD symptoms had close relationships with people with high centrality within their networks, participants with high BPD symptoms had their closest relationships with people less central to their networks. The results suggest that individuals with BPD are at a social disadvantage: Those with whom they are most closely linked (including romantic partners) are less socially connected (i.e., less central) within their social network. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Brown, Jackie; Busfield, Robert; O'Shea, Alison; Sibthorpe, Joanne
This paper will discuss research undertaken within a London borough in 2009 that aimed to examine how Personal, Social, Health and Economic education (PSHE) was perceived and delivered. The ethos of schools was incorporated into the enquiry as a key determinate of both perception and delivery of PSHE. The findings are presented with particular…
Gallant, David T.
Almost everyone uses social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn. Since Facebook is the most popular site in the history of the Internet, this article will focus on how one can protect his/her personal information and how that extends to protecting the private information of others.
Lamb, Michael E., Ed.; Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.
This new text contains parts of Bornstein and Lamb's "Developmental Science, 6th edition", along with new introductory material, providing a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of social and personality development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…
Full Text Available Individuals in social species commonly form dominance relationships, where dominant individuals enjoy greater access to resources compared to subordinates. A range of factors such as sex, age, body size and prior experiences has to varying degrees been observed to affect the social status an individual obtains. Recent work on animal personality (i.e. consistent variation in behavioural responses of individuals demonstrates that personality can co-vary with social status, suggesting that also behavioural variation can play an important role in establishment of status. We investigated whether personality could predict the outcome of duels between pairs of morphologically matched male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus, a species where individuals readily form social hierarchies. We found that males that more quickly explored a novel arena, or remained vigilant for a longer period following the playback of a warning call were more likely to obtain a dominant position. These traits were uncorrelated to each other and were also uncorrelated to aggression during the initial part of the dominance-determining duel. Our results indicate that several behavioural traits independently play a role in the establishment of social status, which in turn can have implications for the reproductive success of different personality types.
Sutcliffe, Alistair; Dunbar, Robin; Binder, Jens; Arrow, Holly
Psychological studies of relationships tend to focus on specific types of close personal relationships (romantic, parent-offspring, friendship) and examine characteristics of both the individuals and the dyad. This paper looks more broadly at the wider range of relationships that constitute an individual's personal social world. Recent work on the composition of personal social networks suggests that they consist of a series of layers that differ in the quality and quantity of relationships involved. Each layer increases relationship numbers by an approximate multiple of 3 (5-15-50-150) but decreasing levels of intimacy (strong, medium, and weak ties) and frequency of interaction. To account for these regularities, we draw on both social and evolutionary psychology to argue that relationships at different layers serve different functions and have different cost-benefit profiles. At each layer, the benefits are asymptotic but the costs of maintaining a relationship at that level (most obviously, the time that has to be invested in servicing it) are roughly linear with the number of relationships. The trade-off between costs and benefits at a given level, and across the different types of demands and resources typical of different levels, gives rise to a distribution of social effort that generates and maintains a hierarchy of layered sets of relationships within social networks. We suggest that, psychologically, these trade-offs are related to the level of trust in a relationship, and that this is itself a function of the time invested in the relationship. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to obtain information about social network variables in order to predict the relational commitment of married individuals and people having dating relationships. For this purpose, social network analysis has been carried out on 134 people having dating relationship and 154 married individuals and then Relationship Stability Scale, Subjective Norm Scale and Social Network Feature Survey prepared by the researcher were used. The results indicated that the approval of the closest social network member and the level of enjoyment of each other’s social network members had the best predictive value for relationship satisfaction and the investment to the relationship. The results also demonstrated that, approval of the social network had a negative impact on the level of the quality of alternatives and it showed that social networks were seen as a barrier function to have alternative relationships. Furthermore, by dividing social network members into two groups, for the dating group, the approval of the social network was the most significant variable for commitment but in the married group, the need for social network approval was not an important criteria because of having their relatioship already confirmed legally. When social network members were categorised and examined, the closest social network members did not differ by sex, but were varied in terms of relationship types. In the flirt group, one of their friends among his/her social network and their partners’ social network was specified as the closest social network member whereas in the married group, the closest social network member among his/her social network was their mother while it was their sibling among partner’s social network.
Investigating the relationship between social responsibility and improving organizational commitment in employees of Tehran Ghavamin Bank with respect to the mediating role of psychological empowerment.
WENDY ELIZABETH ROLLINS
This thesis explores, using qualitative methodology, the significance of social worker – client relationships for achieving client outcomes in the field of child and family welfare. The study found that social worker – client relationships are critical for achieving outcomes. It is a distinct practice method, informed by relational views about ‘the self’, human development and healing. The social worker, as Relationship Building Agent, is heavily focused on client engagement and building t...
Full Text Available The purpose of the current paper is to test whether value similarity may foster social trust in society and whether people have higher levels of social trust when they emphasise the same values that prevail in their country. The relationship between social trust and human values was examined in a sample of 51,308 people across 29 European countries using data from the European Social Survey round 6. Results suggest that value similarity is more important in generating individual level social trust in countries where the overall levels of social trust are higher. There is a stronger positive relationship between value similarity and social trust in Scandinavian countries, which have high social trust levels, while in countries with a low level of social trust, congruity of the personal value structure with the country level value structure tends to decrease the individuals trustfulness
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relationships among personality, selfesteem and social problem-solving, as well as the mediating role of self-esteem in the link between personality and social problem-solving among Turkish youth. The study utilized a cross-sectional design comprising several self-reports. Data…
Salami, Samuel O.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of job stress, personality and social support to burnout among college of education lecturers. The second purpose was to examine the extent to which personality and social support can buffer the negative effects of stress on burnout. Design/methodology/approach--Survey methodology…
Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris
A lack of political diversity in psychology is said to lead to a number of pernicious outcomes, including biased research and active discrimination against conservatives. We surveyed a large number (combined N = 800) of social and personality psychologists and discovered several interesting facts. First, although only 6% described themselves as conservative "overall," there was more diversity of political opinion on economic issues and foreign policy. Second, respondents significantly underestimated the proportion of conservatives among their colleagues. Third, conservatives fear negative consequences of revealing their political beliefs to their colleagues. Finally, they are right to do so: In decisions ranging from paper reviews to hiring, many social and personality psychologists said that they would discriminate against openly conservative colleagues. The more liberal respondents were, the more they said they would discriminate. © The Author(s) 2012.
Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A
Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Eller, Linda S.
Social media sites furnish an online space for a community of practice to create relationships and trust, collaboration and connections, and a personal learning environment. Social networking sites, both public and private, have common elements: member profiles, groups, discussions, and forums. A community of practice brings participants together…
Sickness absence, social relations, and self-esteem: a qualitative study of the importance of relationships with family, workmates, and friends among persons initially long-term sickness absent due to back diagnoses.
Svensson, Tommy; Müssener, Ulrika; Alexanderson, Kristina
The aim of the present study was to explore and analyze accounts of social interactions and relationships with family, workmates, and friends supplied by persons with experience of sickness absence due to back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses. The focus was on experiences that seemed to involve positive and negative self-evaluative aspects, and therefore may be important to the self-conception and self-esteem of the absentee, and possibly to return to work. The interviewees were women and men between 25 to 34 years of age who had been sickness certified due to back, neck, or shoulder diagnosis. A descriptive and explorative method was used to analyze data from five focus-group interviews. The importance of being supported and encouraged by family members, and the importance of feeling needed at work as well as being part of a social context were aspects stressed by the respondents. Our results indicate that these interactions and relations are important to the absentees' self-esteem, and that this should be taken into account when discussing rehabilitation efforts.
Full Text Available The article analyses the development of the relationship between social work and social pedagogy at the end of the 20th century in the Czech Republic and compares this relationship to the one in neighbouring countries (Germany, England, France, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Poland, Slovakia, Russia, Lithuania. The article further deals with various concepts of this relationship (including identification, differentiation, and convergent principle. It also compares the paradigms of social pedagogy and social work (autonomy, similarities and differences mainly in epistemological terms. Series of paradigms appear in both social work and social pedagogy during their development. A prevailing tendency towards the multi-paradigmatism can be seen. Furthermore, the article discusses the differences in professional aspirations within both fields and the number of job opportunities for the fields graduates. A conclusion of the article is dedicated to the professional career within social pedagogy and social work regarding the real life situation in both fields.
Porter, Eliora; Chambless, Dianne L
Little is known about the quality of socially anxious individuals' romantic relationships. In the present study, we examine associations between social anxiety and social support in such relationships. In Study 1, we collected self-report data on social anxiety symptoms and received, provided, and perceived social support from 343 undergraduates and their romantic partners. One year later couples were contacted to determine whether they were still in this relationship. Results indicated that men's social anxiety at Time 1 predicted higher rates of breakup at Time 2. Men's and women's perceived support, as well as men's provided support, were also significantly predictive of breakup. Social anxiety did not interact with any of the support variables to predict breakup. In Study 2, a subset of undergraduate couples with a partner high (n=27) or low (n=27) in social anxiety completed two 10-minute, lab-based, video-recorded social support tasks. Both partners rated their received or provided social support following the interaction, and trained observers also coded for support behaviors. Results showed that socially anxious individuals received less support from their partners during the interaction according to participant but not observer report. High and lower social anxiety couples did not differ in terms of the target's provision of support. Taken together, results suggest that social anxiety is associated with difficulties even in the context of established romantic relationships. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.; Fingerman, Karen L.
Older adults typically report higher levels of satisfaction with their social relationships than younger adults. The present paper integrates current developmental research to explain why social relationships are generally more positive with age. We discuss actions by older adults that contribute to more positive social experiences. We also include social role changes that may provide advantages for older adults when navigating their relationships. Next, we turn to interactional processes between older adults with their social partners. We review literature indicating that: (a) older adults engage in strategies that optimize positive social experiences and minimize negative ones by avoiding conflicts, and (b) social partners often reciprocate by treating older adults more positively and with greater forgiveness than they do younger adults. PMID:22389547
Bijen FİLİZ; Gıyasettin DEMİRHAN
In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S)” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 i...
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Leung, Kwok
A notable way that social change affects personal quality of life would rely on the person's experience with social change. This experience may influence societal quality of life and quality of work life, which may in turn affect personal quality of life. Additionally, the experience of social change is possibly less detrimental to personal…
Robinson, Michael D; Gordon, Kathryn H
Psychodynamic and social cognitive approaches to personality assessment converge now more so than at any time in the history of experimental psychology. This contribution seeks to make this point. First, the trait of neuroticism predisposes one to multiple adverse outcomes, a point not sufficiently captured by the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Second, though, self-reported levels of neuroticism are insufficient in understanding problematic outcomes for multiple reasons. Third, there are ways of experimentally modeling the many processes of interest to psychodynamic theorists such as unconscious affective biases, implicit representations of self and other, and underlying deficits in self- and emotion regulation. Implicit approaches to assessment also provide clues to interventions targeting the processes of interest, a point that will be made as well.
Kim, Hyunji; Callan, Mitchell J; Gheorghiu, Ana I; Matthews, William J
Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism. In Study 4, participants who learned that they had less (vs. similar) discretionary income than people like them reported a stronger desire for more money relative to donating more to charity. In Study 5, during a windfall-spending task, participants higher in PRD spent more on things they wanted relative to other spending categories (e.g., paying off debts). © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Cole, David A; Nick, Elizabeth A; Zelkowitz, Rachel L; Roeder, Kathryn M; Spinelli, Tawny
As social media websites have grown in popularity, public concern about online victimization has grown as well; however, much less attention has focused on the possible beneficial effects of online social networks. If theory and research about in-person social networks pertain, then online social relationships may represent an important modern source of or vehicle for support. In a study of 231 undergraduates, three major findings emerged: (1) for people with weaker in-person social support, social media sites provide a source of social support that is less redundant of the social support they receive in person; (2) in ways that were not redundant of each other, both online and in-person social support were associated with lower levels of depression-related thoughts and feelings, and (3) the beneficial effects of online social support (like in-person social support) offset some of the adverse effects of peer victimization. The study suggests that augmenting social relations via strategic use of social media can enhance young people's social support systems in beneficial ways.
Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to examine to internet addiction and personality relation among university students. Material and Methods: Totally 527 students, studying at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart university participated to this study as a volunteer. Internet addiction scale and Eysenck personality scale were used to collect data. Kruskal Wallis was used to investigate differences between groups and Pearson Correlation was also used to investigate the relation between variables in SPSS. Findings were accepted at p<0.05 level. Results: Total internet addiction scores of participants were 26.85±14.41 point, %94 of them were average internet user. It was determined that they are mostly connected the internet from the mobile phone (%58, 5.8±1.8 days a week and 4.7±3.0 hours a day, and that they mostly use social network and chat sites (%30. There were statistical differences between departments (p<0.05. The internet addiction score of students of Faculty of Science and Literature, School of Health and Theology was significantly lower than other sections. internet addiction scores were higher in males (p<0.05. In terms of personality characteristics of participants, it was found that they had a higher score (3.9±1.8 in the "Outward Turnover". It was determined that there is a statistically positive relationship between internet addiction score and Neurotism, Psychotism but the negative relationship with the "Lie" personality sub-dimensions. Conclusion: Internet dependency score was found low in this study. Although this is a desirable situation, it would be useful to ensure participation of students in the recreational activities to protect this situation.
Leykin, Dmitry; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Lahad, Mooli
Introduction: The extensive use of social media in modern life redefines social interaction and communication. Communication plays an important role in mitigating, or exacerbating, the psychological and behavioral responses to critical incidents and disasters. As recent disasters demonstrated, people tend to converge to social media during and following emergencies. Authorities can then use this media and other computational methods to gain insights from the public, mainly to enhance situational awareness, but also to improve their communication with the public and public adherence to instructions. Methods: The current review presents a conceptual framework for studying psychological aspects of crisis and risk communication using the social media through social computing. Results: Advanced analytical tools can be integrated in the processes and objectives of crisis communication. The availability of the computational techniques can improve communication with the public by a process of Hyper-Targeted Crisis Communication. Discussion: The review suggests that using advanced computational tools for target-audience profiling and linguistic matching in social media, can facilitate more sensitive and personalized emergency communication. PMID:27092290
Leykin, Dmitry; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Lahad, Mooli
The extensive use of social media in modern life redefines social interaction and communication. Communication plays an important role in mitigating, or exacerbating, the psychological and behavioral responses to critical incidents and disasters. As recent disasters demonstrated, people tend to converge to social media during and following emergencies. Authorities can then use this media and other computational methods to gain insights from the public, mainly to enhance situational awareness, but also to improve their communication with the public and public adherence to instructions. The current review presents a conceptual framework for studying psychological aspects of crisis and risk communication using the social media through social computing. Advanced analytical tools can be integrated in the processes and objectives of crisis communication. The availability of the computational techniques can improve communication with the public by a process of Hyper-Targeted Crisis Communication. The review suggests that using advanced computational tools for target-audience profiling and linguistic matching in social media, can facilitate more sensitive and personalized emergency communication.
Marino, Claudia; Vieno, Alessio; Pastore, Massimiliano; Albery, Ian P; Frings, Daniel; Spada, Marcantonio M
Facebook is the most popular social networking site in the world providing the opportunity to maintain and/or establish relationships, to share media contents and experiences with friends, and to easily communicate with them. Despite the resources and the innovative social features offered by Facebook research has emerged indicating that its use may become problematic, with negative consequences on personal psycho-social well-being, especially among adolescents and young adults. The main aim of this study was to examine the unique contribution of personality traits and social influence processes (i.e. subjective norms, group norms, and social identity) to perceived frequency of Facebook Use and Problematic Facebook Use in a sample of adolescents. A total of 968 Italian adolescents participated in the study. Structural equation modeling showed that emotional stability, extraversion, conscientiousness and norms directly predicted Problematic Facebook Use, whereas gender, group norms and social identity predicted perceived frequency of Facebook use. In conclusion, both personal and social variables appear to explain perceived frequency of Facebook use and Problematic Facebook Use among adolescents, and should be taken into account by researchers and educational practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Law, Marcus; Lam, Michelle; Wu, Diana; Veinot, Paula; Mylopoulos, Maria
Residency poses challenges for residents' personal relationships. Research suggests residents rely on family and friends for support during their training. The authors explored the impact of residency demands on residents' personal relationships and the effects changes in those relationships could have on their wellness. The authors used a constructivist grounded theory approach. In 2012-2014, they conducted semistructured interviews with a purposive and theoretical sample of 16 Canadian residents from various specialties and training levels. Data analysis occurred concurrently with data collection, allowing authors to use a constant comparative approach to explore emergent themes. Transcripts were coded; codes were organized into categories and then themes to develop a substantive theory. Residents perceived their relationships to be influenced by their evolving professional identity: Although personal relationships were important, being a doctor superseded them. Participants suggested they were forced to adapt their personal relationships, which resulted in the evolution of a hierarchy of relationships that was reinforced by the work-life imbalance imposed by their training. This poor work-life balance seemed to result in relationship issues and diminish residents' wellness. Participants applied coping mechanisms to manage the conflict arising from the adaptation and protect their relationships. To minimize the effects of identity dissonance, some gravitated toward relationships with others who shared their professional identity or sought social comparison as affirmation. Erosion of personal relationships could affect resident wellness and lead to burnout. Educators must consider how educational programs impact relationships and the subsequent effects on resident wellness.
The relationship between social support and functional capacity in elderly persons with cognitive alterations Relación entre apoyo social y capacidad funcional de los mayores con los cambios cognitivos Relação entre apoio social e capacidade funcional de idosos com alterações cognitivas
Tábatta Renata Pereira de Brito
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between social support and the functional capacity of elderly persons with cognitive alterations. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study. The subjects were 101 elderly persons registered in Family Health Centers whose performance in the Mini-Exam for Mental Status was below a certain specified level in a previous study. The Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire, Katz Index and Pfeffer Questionnaire were applied. The dimensions of material, affective, emotional, informational and positive social interaction support resulted in an average final score of 74.32 points, indicating a better level of material and affective support in relation to the other dimensions of support. There was a statistically significant correlation between emotional support and the Katz Index. Knowledge about this relationship favors the development of a nursing care pathway for the elderly which is capable of maintaining their functional capacity and ensuring satisfactory social relations.El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la relación entre el apoyo social y funcionalidad de personas mayores con deterioro cognitivo. Es un estudio descriptivo, transversal y cuantitativo. Los sujetos fueron 101 mayores inscritos en Unidades de Salud Familiar que mostro rendimiento en Mini Examen del Estado Mental por debajo del umbral en estudio anterior. Se aplicó Medical Outcomes Study, Índice Katz y cuestionario Pfeffer. Las dimensiones del apoyo material, afectivo, emocional, interacción social positiva y de información dio lugar a una puntuación media final de 74,43 puntos, lo que indica mayor nivel de apoyo material y afectivo con relación a otras dimensiones de apoyo. Hubo una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre apoyo emocional e índice de Katz. El conocimiento de esta relación favorece el desarrollo de una línea de atención de enfermería a los mayores, capaz de
users' privacy. Firstly, it updates the current privacy guidelines of ubiquitous computing by proposing four drawbacks to be avoided when designing for privacy in ubiquitous social networking environments. Secondly, this dissertation identifies and investigates the determinants that might influence......Ubiquitous social networking focuses on developing possible advantageous relationships such as friendships, partnerships and business relations in the physical world, by uncovering hidden connections that people share with others nearby. The foundation of these services is based on disclosure...... of personal information, which can provoke numerous accidental invasions of privacy. This dissertation contributes by addressing two problems, related to support of privacy-aware social networking in ubiquitous computing environments that focus on maximizing potential networking benefits while preserving...
Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Schweitzer, Jochen
Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537), a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558) confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317), an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons. PMID:26200357
Full Text Available Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537, a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558 confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317, an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons.
Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender. ... is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. ... are necessary in the society it should not be mistaken for gender inequality.
Full Text Available In this study, we examine the relation between social network site (SNS usage and the personal networks of immigrants, using a unique dataset composed of a representative sample of immigrants living in the Netherlands. In theory, SNSs can be a helpful tool for immigrants, because they may help establish social ties in the destination country and help maintain ties with people in the country of origin. We examine whether this is also true in practice by analyzing whether the frequency of using two SNSs—Facebook and Hyves (a Dutch SNS—is associated with the number of ingroup and outgroup ties, as well as the quality of social relations. In addition, we test whether general emotional disclosure boosts the effect of SNS usage on the quality of relationships. We find that SNS usage is associated with more outgroup ties, but not with more ingroup ties. Our analyses also show that SNS usage is associated with greater quality social relationships among migrants. Contrary to our expectations, we found no interaction between general emotional disclosure and SNS usage on satisfaction with social relations. The implications of these findings are discussed.
María José Rodrigo
Full Text Available This study investigated: a mothers´ use and satisfaction with informal and formal supports in at-risk psychosocial contexts, and b the relationships between satisfaction with help and the mothers´ perception of their role (personal agency. Self-report data about the use and satisfaction with sources of help, and levels of internal control, self-efficacy, couple agreement, role difficulty and motivation for change were obtained from 519 mothers referred by Social Services and 519 non-referred mothers. Results indicated that at-risk mothers relied less upon close informal support and more on formal support than non atrisk mothers. They were also more satisfied with the formal sources of support and had lower levels of personal agency. There were beneficial effects of satisfaction with informal help and school support on several aspects of personal agency for both groups. However, satisfaction with school and social services support had a detrimental effect on couple agreement in the at-risk group. Implications of the results for providing social support to at-risk families are discussed.
den Oudsten, Brenda L.; van Heck, Guus L.; van der Steeg, Alida F. W.; Roukema, Jan A.; de Vries, Jolanda
This study examines the relationships between personality, on the one hand, and perceived availability of social support (PASS) and satisfaction with received social support (SRSS), on the other hand, in women with early stage breast cancer (BC). In addition, this study examined whether a stressful
O'Connell, Maria J; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A
This study examined social network structure and function among a sample of 460 homeless veterans who participated in an experimental trial of the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. Participants were randomly assigned to HUD-VASH (housing subsidies and case management), case management only, or standard care. Mixed-model longitudinal analysis was used to compare treatment groups on social network outcomes over 18 months. Veterans in HUD-VASH reported significantly greater increases in social support than veterans in the two other groups, as well as greater frequency of contacts, availability of tangible and emotional support, and satisfaction with nonkin relationships over time. These gains largely involved relationships with providers and other veterans encountered in treatment. Supported housing may play a pivotal role in fostering constructive new relationships with persons associated with service programs but may have a more limited impact on natural support networks.
this study, we explore and test the relationship between financial ... initiatives into their corporate culture and business operations because increases ... Corporate social responsibility (CSR for short and also called corporate social ..... with the inclusion criteria. ...... financial performance: Evidence from the banking industry.
Goebel, Barbara L.
First and second born college students (N=178) responded to measures of four social cognition factors. Multivariate analysis of variance identified relationships of social cognition factors with five sibling constellation components: subject's sex, subject's birth order (first or second), adjacent first or second born sibling's sex, spacing…
Tsimonis, Georgios; Dimitriadis, Sergios
The paper focuses on consumer-brand relationships, and attempts to identify what relational benefits and costs consumers-members of social media brand pages perceive. Considering the rapid development of social media and their penetration in business marketing actions, this study is an exploratory step towards the understanding of relational benefits and costs together in the context of social media. A qualitative approach was employed for this study. Data were collected from four focus gr...
Garner, Mark; Raschka, Christine; Sercombe, Peter
This paper suggests elements of an agenda for future sociolinguistics among minority groups, by seeing it as a mutual relationship that involves benefits to researcher and researched. We focus on two aspects of the relationship. One is the political, economic and social benefits that can accrue to a minority group as a result of the research.…
Jia, L.; Shen, S.; van de Bovenkamp, R.; Iosup, A.; Kuipers, F.A.; Epema, D.H.J.
Multiplayer Online Games (MOGs) like Defense of the Ancients and StarCraft II have attracted hundreds of millions of users who communicate, interact, and socialize with each other through gaming. In MOGs, rich social relationships emerge and can be used to improve gaming services such as match
Full Text Available Manipulation is not unknown or strange to any of us. We have all experienced it, or perhaps even practiced it. It is wrong not to recognize it, to find excuses for it, and, above all, it is wrong not to decide to change one’s behaviour. Long-lasting use of manipulation leaves consequences on all the parties involved: the victim, the observer and the perpetrator. Manipulation is a relation between persons which does not consider the needs of everybody involved. It means exploitation and misleading, inhumane and unethical behaviour on the part of the manipulator, which he uses in order gain success, self-confirmation and to achieve his goals. In the act of manipulation personal boundaries of the other person are violated since the manipulator enforces his dominance and subjectedness of the victim. The manipulator invades the victim’s personal integrity, limiting their potential. He isolates, controls and intimidates them; by devises a system to catch the victims, to entangle them in his net and suck them up like a spider. If the manipulation is very successful, the other person does not recognize it as such; they consider themselves happy to be cooperating with the manipulator, as they identify his goals as their own. Therefore, the manipulator can be said to have stolen the manipulated person’s soul.
Habits are largely absent from modern social and personality psychology. This is due to outdated perspectives that placed habits in conflict with goals. In modern theorizing, habits are represented in memory as implicit context-response associations, and they guide responding in conjunction with goals. Habits thus have important implications for our field. Emerging research shows that habits are an important mechanism by which people self-regulate and achieve long-term goals. Also, habits change through specific interventions, such as changes in context cues. I speculate that understanding of habits also holds promise for reducing intergroup discrimination and for understanding lay theories of the causes for action. In short, by recognizing habit, the field gains understanding of a central mechanism by which actions persist in daily life.
Dorota Szczygieł; Joanna Weber
Background This study investigated the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and social competences (SC), which determine effective functioning in three types of social situations: intimate situations, situations of social exposure and situations requiring self-assertion. Social competences were assessed using a peer nomination method. It was hypothesized that trait EI predicts SC above and beyond personality traits. Participants and procedure Data were co...
MERSCH, PPA; JANSEN, MA; ARNTZ, A
Thirty-four patients meeting the DSM-III-R criteria for social phobia participated in a study on the relationship between personality disorder, symptom pattern, and treatment outcome. Eight patients (23.5%) were diagnosed with a personality disorder; 26 patients did not receive an Axis II diagnosis.
Bernard, Larry C
There are few multidimensional measures of individual differences in motivation available. The Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire assesses 15 putative dimensions of motivation. The dimensions are based on evolutionary theory and preliminary evidence suggests the motive scales have good psychometric properties. The scales are reliable and there is evidence of their consensual validity (convergence of self-other ratings) and behavioral validity (relationships with self-other reported behaviors of social importance). Additional validity research is necessary, however, especially with respect to current models of personality. The present study tested two general and 24 specific hypotheses based on proposed evolutionary advantages/disadvantages and fitness benefits/costs of the five-factor model of personality together with the new motive scales in a sample of 424 participants (M age=28.8 yr., SD=14.6). Results were largely supportive of the hypotheses. These results support the validity of new motive dimensions and increase understanding of the five-factor model of personality.
R.L. Guimarães (Rodrigo); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); I. Kegel; P. Ljungstrand
htmlabstractSocial multimedia is changing the way people interact with each other, transforming old practices on political activism, social participation and interpersonal relationships. Sharing dynamically created video segments is a prime example of this social transformation. This paper reports
Mlinar, Simona; Petek, Davorina; Cotič, Živa; Mencin Čeplak, Metka; Zaletel, Marjan
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that can lead to complex psychosocial consequences. Epilepsy can change the social status of persons with epilepsy (PWE) and has an effect on their social inclusion as well as their perception of social inclusion. This study aims to explore subjective experiences with social inclusion of PWE in Slovenia. This study takes a qualitative approach. Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted with eleven participants. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Epilepsy has physical, emotional, and social consequences. Physical consequences of epilepsy are mainly tiredness and exhaustion following an epileptic episode, frequently accompanied by headaches. Emotional consequences are different forms of fear. The main social consequence identified is a negative effect on PWE's social network, which leads to (self-)isolation and social distrust. PWE experience of social inclusion depends on various psychosocial factors and differs from person to person. The consequences of epilepsy are shown in PWE social contacts and their sense of social inclusion and autonomy.
Gideon P. de Bruin
Full Text Available This This study examined the relationship between vocational interests and basic personality traits. The interest fields of the 19-Field-Interest Inventory were related to the second order factors of the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire by means of a factor extension analysis. The results showed that extroverts tend to be interested in fields related to social contact and the influencing of other people. Emotionally sensitive individuals tend to be interested in the arts and languages. Independent individuals tend to be interested in creative thinking. The implications of the findings for career counselling are discussed. Opsomming Hierdie studie het ondersoek ingestel na die verband tussen beroepsbelangstellings en basiese persoonlikheidstrekke. Die 19 belangstellingsvelde van die 19-Veld-belangstellings-vraelys is aan die hand van ’n faktorverlengingsontleding met die tweede orde faktore van die 16-Persoonlikheids-faktorvraelys in verband gebring. Die resultate dui daarop dat ekstroverte geneig is omin veldewat sosiale kontak en die beinvloeding vanmense behels, belang te stel. Emosioneel sensitiewe individue is geneig om in kunssinnge en taal verwante velde belang te stel. Onafhanklike individue is geneig om in kreatiewe denke belang te stel. Die implikasies van die resultate vir loopbaanvoorligting word bespreek.
To explore the relationship between procrastinate behavior of college students and bad personality disposition. 566 college students were selected and followed through adopting the measurement on the procrastination scale of college students and Personality Disorders Questionnaire (PDQ-4). Results showed that male and female college students did not have remarkable difference in terms of procrastination. High level procrastinators had a higher level of scores on bad personality disposition. In addition, College students' procrastination had close relationship with bad personality disposition (r = 0.341, P College students' procrastination had close relationship with bad personality disposition which did not match the findings from McCown's results on american college students.
Lysaker Paul H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that stable individual differences in personality exist among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders predating illness onset that are linked to symptoms and self appraised quality of life. Less is known about how closely individual differences in personality are uniquely related to levels of social relationships, a domain of dysfunction in schizophrenia more often linked in the literature with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits. This study tested the hypothesis that trait levels of personality as defined using the five-factor model of personality would be linked to social function in schizophrenia. Methods A self-report measure of the five factor model of personality was gathered along with ratings of social function, symptoms and assessments of neurocognition for 65 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Results Univariate correlations and stepwise multiple regression indicated that frequency of social interaction was predicted by higher levels of the trait of Agreeableness, fewer negative symptoms, better verbal memory and at the trend level, lesser Neuroticism (R2 = .42, p 2 = .67, p Conclusions Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that person-centered variables such as personality, may account for some of the broad differences seen in outcome in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including social outcomes. One interpretation of the results of this study is that differences in personality combine with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits to affect how persons with schizophrenia are able to form and sustain social connections with others.
Rözer, J.J.; Mollenhorst, G.; Volker, B.
According to the social withdrawal hypothesis, a personal network becomes smaller when a person starts dating, cohabitates and marries. This phenomenon is widely established in the literature. However, these studies were usually done with cross-sectional data. As a consequence, it is still unclear
Parker, Philip D.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W.
The post–high school transition period is believed to be associated with considerable changes in social networks, yet longitudinal studies documenting these changes are scarce. To address this gap, the current research explored 3 relevant issues. First, changes in participants’ relationship characteristics during the transition from high school were examined. Second, the roles of personality traits as antecedents of these changes were studied. Third, the association between change in relationship characteristics and personality during the transition was explored. A sample of over 2,000 German emerging adults, surveyed before leaving school and then 2 years after the transition from high school, was assessed on personality traits and a multidimensional assessment of the quality of their relationships. Findings indicated that participants experienced mostly positive changes in relationship quality during the transition from high school and that antecedent personality at school was an important predictor of the nature of this change. Finally, change in relationship quality was found to be associated with personality change during the post-school transition. Findings indicated that personality traits may influence transition success and that change in relationships during this transition may influence personality development. The implications of the research for post-school transition success are discussed. PMID:22224909
Weiqin, Eliza Leong; Campbell, Marilyn; Kimpton, Melanie; Wozencroft, Kelly; Orel, Alexandra
Online relationship formation through social networking sites helps to meet the developmental need for intimacy in emerging adults. Through the use of the "rich get richer" and the "social compensation" hypotheses, it is evident that personality characteristics such as extraversion and introversion impact online relationship…
Boen, Courtney E; Barrow, David A; Bensen, Jeannette T; Farnan, Laura; Gerstel, Adrian; Hendrix, Laura H; Yang, Yang Claire
Background: Social stressors, such as social relationship deficits, have been increasingly linked to chronic disease outcomes, including cancer. However, critical gaps exist in our understanding of the nature and strength of such links, as well as the underlying biological mechanisms relating social relationships to cancer progression and survival. Methods: Utilizing novel questionnaire and biomarker data from the UNC Health Registry/Cancer Survivorship Cohort, this study examines the associations between diverse measures of social support and mortality risk among individuals with cancer ( N = 1,004). We further assess the role of multiple serum markers of inflammation, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), IL6, TNFα, and VEGF, as potential mediators in the social relationship-cancer link. Results: The findings revealed that one's appraisal of their social support was associated with cancer mortality, such that individuals reporting higher levels of social support satisfaction had lower mortality risk than individuals reporting lower levels of satisfaction. The amount of support received, on the other hand, was not predictive of cancer survival. We further found evidence that inflammatory processes may undergird the link between social support satisfaction and mortality among individuals with cancer, with individuals reporting higher levels of social support satisfaction having lower levels of CRP, IL6, and TNFα. Conclusions: These results provide new knowledge of the biosocial processes producing population disparities in cancer outcomes. Impact: Our study offers new insights for intervention efforts aimed at promoting social connectedness as a means for improving cancer survival. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(5); 541-9. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.
Davod Ghaderi; Ali Mostafaei; Saadi Bayazidi; Mahdi Shahnazari
The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987) and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989). Results: The results showed that the prevalence ...
von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Dragano, Nico; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Siegrist, Johannes
Based on a large scale population study, associations between experienced non-reciprocity in social relationships and three health indicators (depressive symptoms, self-rated health, sleeping problems) are analysed. The norm of reciprocity is commonly defined as the obligation to return actions or services provided by another person. We use baseline survey data of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Participants (n = 4814) were randomly selected from mandatory lists of residency from three adjacent cities of the Ruhrregion (Germany) with a response rate of 55.8 %. Non-reciprocity is measured by a questionnaire containing three scales: "partnership", "parent-child", and "non-specific relationships". Depressive symptoms are assessed by the German short version of the CES-D scale, self-rated health by a single widely tested item and sleeping problems by an index consisting of three items. Associations are explored using logistic regression analyses with age, education, occupational position and two indicators of social support as control variables. Results show that men and women who experience non-reciprocity in social relationships have significantly elevated risks of depressive symptoms, poor self-rated health and sleeping problems. Associations decrease after controlling for age, education, occupational position and social support but remain significant in most cases. The reciprocity approach proposed here offers the opportunity to systematically explore negative aspects of social relationships and resulting health consequences.
Manipulation is not unknown or strange to any of us. We have all experienced it, or perhaps even practiced it. It is wrong not to recognize it, to find excuses for it, and, above all, it is wrong not to decide to change one’s behaviour. Long-lasting use of manipulation leaves consequences on all the parties involved: the victim, the observer and the perpetrator. Manipulation is a relation between persons which does not consider the needs of everybody involved. It means exploitation and mislea...
Brand personality, especially brand gender concepts are quite new in Turkey, therefore these concepts have not been used as a topic in research. The aim of this research is to shed light on the literature by emphasizing the relationship between brand personality, brand gender and brand loyalty. This research is conducted to demonstrate the effects of brands loyalty on consumers in terms of gender and personality. Brand categories and brands are chosen in...
Wilkinson, Todd J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.
The present study examined relationships between leisure interests and the Big Five personality traits, positive and negative affect, and moods. Regression analysis identified particular personality but not mood or affect variables as significant predictors of leisure factor scores. Further exploration through factor analysis revealed factor…
Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.
This study examined longitudinal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. On the basis of Conservation of Resources theory, we hypothesized that job resources, personal resources, and work engagement are reciprocal over time. The study was conducted among 163 employees, who were followed-up over a period of 18…
Clark, M. H.; Schroth, Christopher A.
Relationships between personality and academic motivation were examined using 451 first-year college students. Multiple regressions compared three types of intrinsic motivation, three types of extrinsic motivation and amotivation to five personality factors. Results indicated that those who were intrinsically motivated to attend college tended to…
Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik
An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an i...
Miner, J B
Comparisons were made to determine the degree of convergence among three measures associated with leadership success in large, hierarchic organizations in the business sector: the Miner Sentence Completion Scale; the Ghiselli Self-Description Inventory; and the F-Scale, Correlational analyses and comparisons between means were made using college students and business manager samples. The results indicated considerable convergence for the first two measures, but not for the F-Scale. The F-Scale was related to the Miner Sentence Completion Scale in the student group, but relationships were nonexistent among the managers. Analyses of the individual F-Scale items which produced the relationship among the students suggested that early family-related experiences and attitudes may contribute to the development of motivation to manage, but lose their relevance for it later, under the onslaught of actual managerial experience.
In this editorial, the new incoming editor for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology ( JPSP )addresses the upcoming challenges and the issue of replicability. Although people vary (often dramatically) in their views on the nature and extent of this issue, that we have an issue to address is something that the new editor thinks most scholars would agree on. It is her hope that engaging in these efforts will return our community to a place that young talent willingly and safely bets their futures on. It is with this sense of mission that she feel honored to serve in this role over the next five years. As Editor, she would like to address the current challenges by actively promoting three principles: rigor, innovation, and inclusiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Knez, Igor; Eliasson, Ingegärd
The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county (N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite site...
Nazzaro, Maria Paola; Boldrini, Tommaso; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Muzi, Laura; Giovanardi, Guido; Lingiardi, Vittorio
Mentalization, operationalized as reflective functioning (RF), can play a crucial role in the psychological mechanisms underlying personality functioning. This study aimed to: (a) study the association between RF, personality disorders (cluster level) and functioning; (b) investigate whether RF and personality functioning are influenced by (secure vs. insecure) attachment; and (c) explore the potential mediating effect of RF on the relationship between attachment and personality functioning. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) was used to assess personality disorders and levels of psychological functioning in a clinical sample (N = 88). Attachment and RF were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS). Findings showed that RF had significant negative associations with cluster A and B personality disorders, and a significant positive association with psychological functioning. Moreover, levels of RF and personality functioning were influenced by attachment patterns. Finally, RF completely mediated the relationship between (secure/insecure) attachment and adaptive psychological features, and thus accounted for differences in overall personality functioning. Lack of mentalization seemed strongly associated with vulnerabilities in personality functioning, especially in patients with cluster A and B personality disorders. These findings provide support for the development of therapeutic interventions to improve patients' RF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aleman, Melissa Wood; Aleman, Carlos Galvan
A basic premise of social approaches to studying communication is that theories of interpersonal communication and personal relationships are reflexively defined, socially constructed, and historically situated. In contrast to the tradition of psychological models of relational processes and message transmission, social approaches encourage…
Nauta, Margaret M.
Relationships among the Big Five personality factors (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism), career interests, and career self-efficacy (using Holland's realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional types for both of the latter) were examined. Among a sample of 147 college students,…
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
In the literature on social trust, institutional trust is prominent explanations of why people trust the generalized other. However, while institutional trust is a plausible cause of social trust, it is also likely to be consequences of trust or a consequence of deep-rooted personality traits...... affecting both types of trust. Therefore, conventional analyses using cross-sectional data are ill-suited to determine whether institutional trust actually cause social trust. In contrast to previous analyses, this paper utilizes two Danish panel surveys containing measures of the two types of trust...... as regressors), the results provide strong evidence of trust in state institutions exercising an impact on social trust whereas the evidence for a reverse relationship is mixed....
Full Text Available The contribution presents a follow-up study of sibling relationship and personality in 87 sibling dyads in early/middle childhood from parental perspective. At Time 1 all siblings attended pre-school and one year later approximately half of the older siblings entered compulsory school. At both times of measurement siblings' mothers and fathers independently reported on their children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003; Slovene adaptation, Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and on the observed sibling warmth, agonism, and rivalry using the Parental Expectations and Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships Questionnaire (Kramer, 2001. The predictive relationship obtained by two sets of cross-rater analyses (between maternal ratings of child personality and paternal reports on sibling relationship, and vice versa suggested that (a personality traits of both siblings and (b the match between siblings' personalities are associated with sibling type (affectionate, involved or average membership. Among personality traits, disagreeableness seems to be an especially significant contributor to sibling relationship quality.
Girard, Brian James
This study investigates two high school social science classrooms in order to better understand the pedagogical relationships among teachers, students, and disciplinary content, and how teachers can influence students' opportunities to learn disciplinary literacy. Drawing on conceptual resources from sociocultural theories of learning and…
Full Text Available Sensitivity to unwanted sounds is common in general and clinical populations. Noise sensitivity refers to physiological and psychological internal states of an individual that increase the degree of reactivity to noise in general. The current study investigated the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and noise sensitivity using the 240-item NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI and 35-item The Noise-Sensitivity-Questionnaire (NoiSeQ scales, respectively. Overall, the Big Five accounted for 33% of the variance in noise sensitivity, with the Introversion-Extroversion dimension explaining the most variability. Furthermore, the Big Five personality dimensions (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness had an independent effect on noise sensitivity, which were linear. However, additional analyses indicated that the influence of gender and age must be considered when examining the relationship between personality and noise sensitivity. The findings caution against pooling data across genders, not controlling for age, and using personality dimensions in isolation.
Full Text Available Social Customer Relationships Management (CRM is a current business trend providing new channels of two-way communication with customers through social media sites, such as Facebook, Twitter etc. Social CRM enables companies to interact in an easy and contemporary way directly with customers as well as to track customer interactions and their social influence. In this paper we examine the importance of CRM, e-CRM and Social CRM for businesses. We provide perspectives on objectives and types of CRM, the working cycle of CRM, the stages of a CRM Strategy and technology tools that are used in CRM. Social CRM is in particularly analyzed, since this new trend requires active engagement by customers and other stakeholders. The engagement process is essential to successful Social CRM and to successful social business practices. Finally, we describe experiences from three family businesses that introduced Social CRM as a result of a project carried out as an assignment in the ‘Social Media Networking’ module of the MSc course in ‘Web Intelligence’ at the Department of Informatics of Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. The assignment of the groups was to create a Social CRM Strategy in collaboration with a company. This study is a follow-up of the outcome of the projects carried out in the autumn semester 2014 and 2015. The results show that all three companies consider that Social CRM is an excellent tool for obtaining real time valuable data about customers and a cheap way to reach them.
Mowling, Claire M.; Brock, Sheri J.; Hastie, Peter A.
This study examines 12 grade five elementary school students' attitudes and beliefs concerning personal and social responsibility in physical education. Factors used to identify students' attitudes and beliefs were initially divided into the six levels of Hellison's Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR), namely: irresponsibility,…
Lang, Frieder R; Carstensen, Laura L
On the basis of postulates derived from socioemotional selectivity theory, the authors explored the extent to which future time perspective (FTP) is related to social motivation, and to the composition and perceived quality of personal networks. Four hundred eighty German participants with ages ranging from 20 to 90 years took part in the study. In 2 card-sort tasks, participants indicated their partner preference and goal priority. Participants also completed questionnaires on personal networks and social satisfaction. Older people, as a group, perceived their future time as more limited than younger people. Individuals who perceived future time as being limited prioritized emotionally meaningful goals (e.g., generativity, emotion regulation), whereas individuals who perceived their futures as open-ended prioritized instrumental or knowledge-related goals. Priority of goal domains was found to be differently associated with the size, composition, and perceived quality of personal networks depending on FTP. Prioritizing emotion-regulatory goals was associated with greater social satisfaction and less perceived strain with others when participants perceived their future as limited. Findings underscore the importance of FTP in the self-regulation of social relationships and the subjective experience associated with them.
Carman, Carol A.
One of the underutilized tools in gifted identification is personality-based measures. A multiple confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to examine the relationships between traditional identification methods and personality-based measures. The pattern of correlations indicated this model could be measuring two constructs, one related to…
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987 and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of personality disorders is among students. It was also found that there existed a positive correlation between schizoid, avoidant, dependent, schizotypal, borderline and paranoid personality disorders with Neuroticism factor (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders with extraversion factor (r = .1 and significant positive correlation between histrionic disorders and extraversion (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between dependent personality disorder and Openness factor (r = .1 , significant negative correlation between narcissistic, antisocial and paranoid personality disorders with agree ableness factor (r = .1 and finally, significant negative correlation between antisocial, passive-aggressive and borderline personality disorders with accountability factor (r = .1and a significant positive correlation between accountability factor and compulsive personality disorder (r = .1. Conclusion: The results suggest a prevalence of personality disorders among students and significant correlation between some disorders with personality factors. Further studies in this area could provide more insightful findings in the field.
Eikenaes, I.; Hummelen, B.; Abrahamsen, G.; Andrea, H.; Wilberg, T.
Avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP) are closely related, such that they are suggested to represent different severity levels of one social anxiety disorder. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patients with APD to patients with SP, with particular focus on personality
Martins, Paulo; Rosado, António; Ferreira, Vítor; Biscaia, Rui
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm) and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study. The results gathered through a structural equation model revealed that task orientation had the strongest relationship with personal responsibility and social responsibility, followed by engagement. Self-determination levels were not associated with personal and social responsibility. These results suggest that monitoring of task orientation and engagement levels should be performed by coaches as a strategy to develop personal and social responsibility among their athletes. Moreover, findings from this study provide scholars with a tool to aid them in managing athletes' levels of personal and social responsibility.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study. The results gathered through a structural equation model revealed that task orientation had the strongest relationship with personal responsibility and social responsibility, followed by engagement. Self-determination levels were not associated with personal and social responsibility. These results suggest that monitoring of task orientation and engagement levels should be performed by coaches as a strategy to develop personal and social responsibility among their athletes. Moreover, findings from this study provide scholars with a tool to aid them in managing athletes’ levels of personal and social responsibility.
Martins, Paulo; Rosado, António; Ferreira, Vítor; Biscaia, Rui
Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm) and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study. The results gathered through a structural equation model revealed that task orientation had the strongest relationship with personal responsibility and social responsibility, followed by engagement. Self-determination levels were not associated with personal and social responsibility. These results suggest that monitoring of task orientation and engagement levels should be performed by coaches as a strategy to develop personal and social responsibility among their athletes. Moreover, findings from this study provide scholars with a tool to aid them in managing athletes’ levels of personal and social responsibility. PMID:28713457
Despite the increased interest in exercise dependence, there is limited research examining the personality characteristics of exercise dependent individuals. Furthermore, researchers examining the relationship between exercise dependence and personality have found inconsistent results. This maybe the result of the varying methods used by researchers to assess exercise dependence and personality. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exercise dependence and personality, and that determine whether there is an addictive personality type. Participants were 484 university students (M=21.24, SD=3.03), and 322 sport leisure participants (M=30.08, Sd=13.58) who completed multidimensional assessments of exercise dependence and personality. to assess exercise dependence, the EDS-R (French version, Kern, L, 2007, Validation de l'adaptation française de l'échelle de dépendance à l'exercice physique : l'EDS-R Pratiques Psychologiques, 13, 4, 425-441) was undertaken. This scale is based on the DSM_IV criteria for substance dependence which are: withdrawal effects, intention effects, lack of control, time, reductions in other activities, continuance. The D5D was chosen to assess the big five personality dimensions (Rolland, J.-P., & Mogenet, J.-L. (1994). Manuel du système d5d. Paris: ECPA.). These dimensions are: Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience. To examine the predictive relationship of personality for exercise dependence symptoms, a series of multiple regressions was carried out. Results show that, according to the status of the people under scrutiny, it is either openness to experience and emotional stability or openness to experience and agreeableness which explain the greatest variance of exercise dependence. Then, the description of a personality type seemed very difficult to obtain. We feel it's important to know the personality type, but not sufficient; it is more pertinent to
Malloy, Thomas E; Albright, Linda; Diaz-Loving, Rolando; Dong, Qi; Lee, Yueh Ting
The social context hypothesis states that people behave differently in different social groups because group norms and context-specific interpersonal relationships uniquely affect behavior. Consequently, a person who is a member of different, nonoverlapping social groups (i. e., the members of different groups are unacquainted) should be judged consensually on personality traits within each group; however, between groups there should be less agreement in judgments. This research focused on cultural moderation of the social context effect in two collective cultures (China and Mexico) with different norms for interpersonal relationships. Among Chinese, there was greater consensus in trait judgments within groups than between groups, whereas in Mexico, agreement within and between groups was equivalent. Culturally based relationship norms that affect cross-context consistency of behavior and, in turn, the consistency of trait judgments across groups were described.
Mukono, J; Rusmanto, Dwi
Environmental conditions and poor personal hygiene as one of the causes of the high incidence of helminthiasis in Indonesia, affectingthe status of health, nutrition, intelligence and economic productivity. This study aims to determine the relationship between personal hygieneand the incidence of helminthiasis among primary school students. A cross sectional research was conduct at Omben Regency, District ofSampang, Madura island. Study sample were 57 students at 4th, 5th, and 6th grade from ...
Steijn, Wouter M P; Schouten, Alexander P
This article investigates the relationship between sharing personal information and relationship development in the context of social networking sites (SNSs). Information disclosed on these sites could affect relationships in a different manner compared to more traditional interactions, such as instant messaging or face-to-face interaction. Respondents in the age range of 12 to 83 were surveyed about experiences of relationship development as a consequence of contact through Facebook or Hyves-the most popular Dutch SNSs. Results showed a primarily positive effect of information sharing on SNSs on our relationships. Furthermore, relationship development mainly occurs among acquaintances and friends, and public posts are most strongly related to relationship development. These findings suggest that SNSs might affect relationships in a distinct fashion as acquaintances and friends gain access to public self-disclosures that might normally only be reserved for close friends and family. Overall, this study provides an insight into some of the positive aspects of the public nature of SNSs in contrast with the general negative associations.
Emily E Butler
Full Text Available Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243, the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits. Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57. Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.
Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard
Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.
Smith, Eliot R.; Collins, Elizabeth C.
Research on person perception typically emphasizes cognitive processes of information selection and interpretation within the individual perceiver and the nature of the resulting mental representations. The authors focus instead on the ways person perception processes create, and are influenced by, the patterns of impressions that are socially…
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was determining the relationship between personality traits and happiness in patients with major thalassemia. Materials and Methods: The design of this study was descriptive (correlational study. The target population of this study was all under-treated patients with major thalassemia in Amirkola thalassemia center in 2011. Among these patients, 150 patients were sampled using simple random sampling method and Morgan's table. The data were analyzed by means of calculating Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis. The patients were asked to complete NEO-five factor Inventory (short form and Oxford happiness inventory. Results: Based on the results, the coefficient of regression analysis of NEO personality factors (big five and happiness was 0.45, which shows a linear relationship between personality factors of NEO and happiness in patients with thalassemia. Thus, there is a statistically significant relationship among personality traits (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness and happiness. Conclusion: Among personality traits, extroversion, flexibility, agreeableness and conscientiousness had positive statistically meaningful relationship with happiness i.e. patients with lower scores in neuroticism, were happier.
The personal account of new rural social pension insurance raises funds in the form of individual premium-paying,collectively pooled subsidy and government subsidy.The personal account accumulated value has a decisive influence on the payment level of personal account pension.The personal account accumulated value has a direct or indirect relationship with the income level of farmers,premium-paying level,the insured period,investment return rate of funds and other factors.Analysing the impact of infinitesimal variation of these factors on accumulated value of personal account pension,is of great significance to improving and consolidating personal account,and achieving sustainable development of new rural social pension insurance.
Full Text Available In this study, staff job satisfaction were evaluated according to their personality differences by assessing five personality factors, based on NEO-FFI scoring and those components, which are directly associated with job satisfaction. In this regard, three data collection tools including communication satisfaction questionnaires, job descriptions index and five personality trait questionnaire were used. Based on the findings there was a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and personality traits (r = 0.97, and job satisfaction was depended on communication satisfaction. This research showed that communication satisfaction and job satisfaction could be predicted based on the five personality traits, which are nervousness, extraversion, empiricism, responsibility, and compatibility with others.
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between personality types and leadership styles in the city's high school principals. The population of this survey includes all principals of secondary schools in city of Zanjan, Iran. Using a stratified random sampling, 48 principals were surveyed. To assess the reliability of the questionnaire, a pretest was accomplished by distributing 20 questionnaires among the target population and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.79. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics has been used. The study has confirmed that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between personality and leadership style. In addition, the study has confirmed that there were positive and meaningful relationships between task/relationship-oriented leadership style and principals’ competition/ Impatience and restlessness behavior.
Full Text Available In the past three decades, organizational commitment has been of interest to researchers as one of the organizational attitudes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of emotional intelligence and personality traits with organizational commitment among Iranian nurses. A total of 280 nurses were selected by multistage random sampling. Study tools included emotional intelligence inventory, Neo personality inventory and organizational commitment inventory. Results showed the positive and significant relationship of emotional intelligence and its dimensions (self-expression, self-regard, independence, social responsibility, problem solving, stress tolerance, impulse control, and optimism with organizational commitment. Also, organizational commitment showed a positive and significant relationship with extroversion and conscientiousness. Moreover, components of self-expression, problem solving and stress tolerance in emotional intelligence are able to predict organizational commitment. Thus, these results indicate the importance of emotional intelligence and personality traits in organizational commitment.
Full Text Available In order to alleviate the pressure of information overload and enhance consumer satisfaction, personalization recommendation has become increasingly popular in recent years. As a result, various approaches for recommendation have been proposed in the past few years. However, traditional recommendation methods are still troubled with typical issues such as cold start, sparsity, and low accuracy. To address these problems, this paper proposed an improved recommendation method based on trust relationships in social networks to improve the performance of recommendations. In particular, we define trust relationship afresh and consider several representative factors in the formalization of trust relationships. To verify the proposed approach comprehensively, this paper conducted experiments in three ways. The experimental results show that our proposed approach leads to a substantial increase in prediction accuracy and is very helpful in dealing with cold start and sparsity.
Zvjezdana Penava Brekalo
Full Text Available The starting point of personal marketing is an individual, i.e. a person. Personal marketing, in the sense of the narrowest level of marketing, has a markedly interdisciplinary character, because it relies on the knowledge of psychology - the science of psychological characteristics of a person. Psychological factors of personal marketing, like personality, behaviour, emotions, temperament, character and intelligence are numerous, but in this paper some of the psychological categories relevant for the implementation of personal marketing are singled out and described. These are primarily the self, personal image, needs, desires, motives, motivation, attitudes and behaviour seen from the viewpoint of social cognitive theory of personality in the context of personal marketing.
Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin
This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for…
Bono, Joyce E; Boles, Terry L; Judge, Timothy A; Lauver, Kristy J
Two studies explored the extent to which dispositions influence the attributions individuals make about the type of conflict they experience. Traits from the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) were linked to the tendency to experience task-and relationship-oriented conflict. Results provide some support for the idea that individuals have stable tendencies in the attributions they make about their conflict experiences across time, partners, and situations. Agreeableness and openness were related to reports of relationship conflict at the individual level. However, the strongest effects of personality on conflict attributions were found in the analysis of dyads. This analysis revealed that partner levels of extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with individuals' tendencies to report relationship conflict. Moreover, mean levels of extraversion and conscientiousness in a pair were associated with reports of relationship conflict. Differences between partners in extraversion were associated with more frequent conflict and a greater likelihood of reporting task-related conflict. Implications of these findings with respect to the role of personality in interpersonal relationships are discussed. Finally, these studies provide confirmatory evidence that conflict attributions have a meaningful impact on relationship satisfaction.
Dauvrin, M; Lorant, V
This study investigated the role of social relationships in the sharing of cultural competence by testing two hypotheses: cultural competence is a socially shared behaviour; and central healthcare professionals are more culturally competent than non-central healthcare professionals. Sustaining cultural competence in healthcare services relies on the assumption that being culturally competent is a socially shared behaviour among health professionals. This assumption has never been tested. Organizational aspects surrounding cultural competence are poorly considered. This therefore leads to a heterogeneous implementation of cultural competence - especially in continental Europe. We carried out a social network analysis in 24 Belgian inpatient and outpatient health services. All healthcare professionals (ego) were requested to fill in a questionnaire (Survey on social relationships of health care professionals) on their level of cultural competence and to identify their professional relationships (alter). We fitted regression models to assess whether (1) at the dyadic level, ego cultural competence was associated with alter cultural competence, and (2) health professionals of greater centrality had greater cultural competence. At the dyadic level, no significant associations were found between ego cultural competence and alter cultural competence, with the exception of subjective exposure to intercultural situations. No significant associations were found between centrality and cultural competence, except for subjective exposure to intercultural situations. Being culturally competent is not a shared behaviour among health professionals. The most central healthcare professionals are not more culturally competent than less central health professionals. Culturally competent health care is not yet a norm in health services. Health care and training authorities should either make cultural competent health care a licensing criteria or reward culturally competent health care
Murphy, Mark; Burns, Jan; Kilbey, Elizabeth
Research shows that adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience difficulties developing friendships, and that loneliness is a significant factor contributing to higher incidence of anxiety and depression within this population. This study aimed to provide an in-depth analysis of relationships as described by adolescents with ASD, and, from these descriptions, to explore what can be inferred about the development of successful interpersonal relationships for these individuals. Eight adolescents with ASD participated in semi-structured interviews using established personal construct theory (PCT) techniques. PCT was found to be a helpful approach to elicit rich, qualitative data. A thematic analysis identified four themes: relationships as a source of support, perceptions of similarity and difference, valued qualities in self and others, and the development and maintenance of relationships. Whilst this exploratory study highlighted some commonality in terms of perceptions of family support and friendships as protective and desirable, participants differed in their ability to establish and maintain peer relationships. Participants valued personal qualities such as intelligence, humour and trust within relationships, and recognised the important role of peers and siblings in the development of social skills, a finding which has implications for the delivery of social skills training and other interventions. The study provides empirical support for the application of personal construct methodologies in ASD research and offers a potentially useful approach to therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marketing programs, source credibility, engagement, word of mouth have positive influence on the formation of behavior, but awareness of a program is not found to influence formation of behavior. This research also obtained findings that attitudes influence behavioral intention, but subjective norms is not positively influence the formation of behavioral intentions.
Amado, Joaquín; Sierra, Angela Maria; Gallón, Alejandro; Alvarez, Cristina; Baccetti, Tiziano
To establish the relationship between the personality traits of the adolescent and his or her cooperation with the orthodontic treatment. From a sample of 70 adolescent orthodontic patients (46 girls and 24 boys) between 12 and 15 years of age (average age, 13.4 +/- 1.1 years), the patients' personality traits were evaluated by using a personality questionnaire (16 Personality Factors-Adolescent Personal Questionnaire) and the degree of patient cooperation was assessed through the cooperation test (Orthodontic Patient Cooperation Scale [OPCS]). The cutting point for the assessment of cooperation on the OPCS questionnaire (noncooperation vs cooperation) was carried out through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of curves. A chi2 test with Yates correction (P < or = .05) was applied to evaluate the associations between the degree of cooperation and the scales of personality, gender, or age. The cutting point for cooperation as assessed by the OPCS by means of ROC analysis was 380. No statistically significant relations were found between the degree of cooperation and the scales of personality, gender, or age. The results of the current study indicate that the personality traits alone of adolescents do not predict cooperation during treatment.
Lee, Kyung Hee; Boltz, Marie; Lee, Hana; Algase, Donna L
Social interaction between residents and staff is an important factor influencing sense of well-being. This study examined the relationship between staff-resident interactions and psychological well-being of persons with dementia. A total of 831 observations of 110 persons with dementia in 17 nursing homes and 6 assisted living facilities were included. Psychological well-being was measured by observed displays of positive and negative emotional expressions. Social interaction was determined by the type of social interaction (ie, verbal interaction, nonverbal interaction, and both verbal and nonverbal interactions) and the quality of interaction (ie, positive, negative, and neutral). Verbal or both verbal and nonverbal interactions showed significant relationship with positive and negative emotional expressions. Positive interaction was significantly associated with more positive emotional expression, whereas negative interaction was not. Staff-resident interactions are important to promote the psychological well-being of persons with dementia in residential care.
Lanthier, Richard P
Associations between the Big Five personality traits of siblings and the quality of sibling relationships were examined in a sample of 115 college students and one of their older siblings. Big Five traits, as assessed by Goldberg's 100 adjective markers, predicted a large amount of the variability in sibling Warmth and Conflict. Agreeableness was the most consistent predictor of positive sibling outcomes.
The study was carried out to investigate the Relationship between Personality Types and Career Choice of Secondary School Students in Nigeria. The researchers formulated one research question and one hypothesis to guide the study. The researchers employed two sampling techniques, cluster and random sampling ...
Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to study the relationships between indicators of personal mastery and indicators of teachers’ competencies at Junior Secondary State Bone district in Indonesia. The respondents of the research consists of all the Junior Secondary State teachers of the Bone district including 200 teachers (80 males 120 females. The obtained data was analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results have indicated that there exists a significant correlation between personal mastery and teachers’ competencies at the 0.05 significance level. Further, a significant positive correlation was observed between the indicators of personal mastery (personal vision, creative tension, commitment, trust, and consciousness and indicators of teachers’ competencies (pedagogic, professional, personality, and social.
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the engagement as a mediating variable of the relationship between personality and communication with satisfaction. This study was conducted at business school in Indonesia with 307 students who are still active as a respondent. Survey research was conducted over four months by questionnaire that has been well-established that was taken and modified from previous studies. The results of this study indicate that student engagement mediates the relationship between personality and communication as independent variables and satisfaction as the dependent variable. Extroversion personality and communication significantly positive effect on student engagement in all three dimensions (vigor, dedication, and absorption. In addition, this study also showed that engagement and satisfaction are two different variables, but correlated, and there was no difference in terms of gender differences involvement.
Berlanga, Adriana; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter; Fetter, Sibren
Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Brouns, F., Sloep, P. B., & Fetter, S. (2011). Personal Profiles: Enhancing Social Interaction in Learning Networks. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 7(1), 66-82.
Servan, A; Brunelin, J; Poulet, E
Deficits in social cognition and interpersonal difficulties are key features in borderline personality disorder. Social cognition refers to the function of perceiving and adequately dealing with social signals, leading to the establishment and maintenance of healthy and positive social relationships. Evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT) may improve social cognition and human social behavior. Recently, several studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of oxytocin in several psychiatric conditions involving social cognition deficits such as schizophrenia, autism or social phobia. However, despite growing interest, the effects of oxytocin in patients with borderline personality disorder are far from being clearly demonstrated. The objective of this work was to review and discuss studies investigating the interest of oxytocin in alleviating social cognition deficits in patients with borderline personality disorder (recognition of emotion, trust and cooperation, affective and cognitive empathy, emotional expression and social problem-solving). A systematic review of the literature was conducted up to September 31, 2016 on the Pubmed, Science direct, Medline and Scopus databases using "borderline personality disorder" and "oxytocin" as keywords. To be included, studies were to include patients with borderline personality disorder; to investigate social cognition and to investigate the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in patients with TPB. The initial search yielded 52 articles. Among them, 11 studies were selected according to the PRISMA criteria. The effect of oxytocin on social cognition in patients with borderline personality disorder was mainly investigated in relation to recognition of emotions and trust and cooperation. We did not find any studies investigating the effect of oxytocin on affective and cognitive empathy, emotional expression or social problem-solving abilities. In patients with borderline personality disorder, oxytocin had a beneficial
Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Hummelen, Benjamin; Abrahamsen, Gun; Andrea, Helene; Wilberg, Theresa
Avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP) are closely related, such that they are suggested to represent different severity levels of one social anxiety disorder. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patients with APD to patients with SP, with particular focus on personality dysfunction. Ninety-one adult patients were examined by diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including the Index of Self-Esteem and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems. Patients were categorized in three groups; SP without APD (n = 20), APD without SP (n = 15), and APD with SP (n = 56). Compared to patients with SP without APD, patients with APD reported more symptom disorders, psychosocial problems, criteria of personality disorders, and personality dysfunction regarding self-esteem, identity and relational problems. These results indicate that APD involves more severe and broader areas of personality dysfunction than SP, supporting the conceptualization of APD as a personality disorder as proposed for DSM-5.
Full Text Available Brand personality claims that brands convey human characteristics. In this study, attempts have been made to determine the brand personality dimensions of cities based on the assumption that cities also have brand personality. Additionally, it has been studied whether or not urbanites reflect their own personality traits to brand personality characteristics of the city. In this descriptive study, data has been collected through face-to-face interviews. The sampling where stratified sampling is used – one method of random sampling – has been performed in Kayseri in Turkey. A total of 382 consumers have been reached. Factor and regression analyses have been used for data analysis. In conclusion, the city of Kayseri has five city brand dimensions: exhilarating, mature, androgen, traditional and sincere. In addition, it has also revealed that there is a relationship between the personalities of those who live in Kayseri and their city brand personalities. Those who live in metropolitan Kayseri and like taking risks – a criterion of extrovert personality – find Kayseri exhilarated and competent. In the light of this conclusion, it can be said that urbanites’ personalities should also be considered when forming city brand personality.
Child, Stephanie T; Lawton, Leora
Associations between social networks and loneliness or social isolation are well established among older adults. Yet, limited research examines personal networks and participation on perceived loneliness and social isolation as distinct experiences among younger adults. Accordingly, we explore relationships among objective and subjective measures of personal networks with loneliness and isolation, comparing a younger and older cohort. The UC Berkeley Social Networks Study offers unique cohort data on young (21-30 years old, n = 472) and late middle-age adults' (50-70 years old, n = 637) personal network characteristics, social participation, network satisfaction, relationship status, and days lonely and isolated via online survey or in-person interview. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between social network characteristics, loneliness, and isolation by age group. Young adults reported twice as many days lonely and isolated than late middle-age adults, despite, paradoxically, having larger networks. For young adults, informal social participation and weekly religious attendance were associated with fewer days isolated. Among late middle-age adults, number of close kin and relationship status were associated with loneliness. Network satisfaction was associated with fewer days lonely or isolated among both age groups. Distinct network characteristics were associated with either loneliness or isolation for each cohort, suggesting network factors are independently associated with each outcome, and may fluctuate over time. Network satisfaction was associated with either loneliness or isolation among both cohorts, suggesting perceptions of social networks may be equally important as objective measures, and remain salient for loneliness and isolation throughout the life course.
Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith
There is a lack of consensus surrounding the conceptualization of narcissism. The present study compared two measures of narcissism-one used in clinical settings (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, PDQ-4+; Hyler, 1994) and one used in social-personality research (Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988)-across two samples. Sample 1 (N=271) was composed of undergraduates, whereas Sample 2 (N=211) was composed of parents of the Sample 1 participants. The scales were significantly interrelated but manifested divergent relations with general personality traits, personality disorders (including expert prototypal ratings of narcissism), recollections of parenting received, and psychological distress and self-esteem. PDQ-4 narcissism captured an emotionally unstable, negative-affect-laden, and introverted variant of narcissism; NPI narcissism captured an emotionally resilient, extraverted form. The clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism primarily share a tendency to use an antagonistic interpersonal style. Implications for the DSM-V are discussed.
Full Text Available Background. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that can lead to complex psychosocial consequences. Epilepsy can change the social status of persons with epilepsy (PWE and has an effect on their social inclusion as well as their perception of social inclusion. This study aims to explore subjective experiences with social inclusion of PWE in Slovenia. Methods. This study takes a qualitative approach. Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted with eleven participants. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Epilepsy has physical, emotional, and social consequences. Physical consequences of epilepsy are mainly tiredness and exhaustion following an epileptic episode, frequently accompanied by headaches. Emotional consequences are different forms of fear. The main social consequence identified is a negative effect on PWE’s social network, which leads to (self-isolation and social distrust. Conclusion. PWE experience of social inclusion depends on various psychosocial factors and differs from person to person. The consequences of epilepsy are shown in PWE social contacts and their sense of social inclusion and autonomy.
Decuyper, Mieke; Gistelinck, Fien; Vergauwe, Jasmine; Pancorbo, Gina; De Fruyt, Filip
Personality disorders (PDs) are inherently associated with deficits in relating to other people. Previous research has shown consistent negative associations between categorical PD symptoms and relationship satisfaction. The present studies extend on these findings by examining the role of maladaptive traits in a number of ways. Self- and partner-reported maladaptive traits of both partners are included. Moreover, the present studies add a couple-centered approach by investigating the effects of actual similarity, perceptual similarity, and perceptual accuracy of the maladaptive trait profile on relationship satisfaction. PDs are conceptualized using 2 dimensional maladaptive trait models, that is, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire in Study 1 and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 in Study 2. A total of 167 heterosexual couples participated in Study 1 and 52 heterosexual couples in Study 2. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to examine the associations between traits and relationship satisfaction, whereas the coefficient of profile agreement was used for the couple-centered analyses. Overall, results showed that the presence of maladaptive traits within romantic relationships has a detrimental effect on relationship satisfaction. Self-ratings on maladaptive traits, how we perceive our partners, and how we are perceived by our partners on maladaptive traits make significant contributions to our relationship (dis)satisfaction. Among the maladaptive traits, negative affect and detachment were most consistently negatively associated with relationship satisfaction. The couple-centered perspective showed less explanatory value but nontrivial associations between perceptual similarity and relationship satisfaction were found in Study 2. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Tonetti, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Marco; Natale, Vincenzo
We explored the relationship between personality, based on the five-factor model, and circadian preference. To this end, 503 participants (280 females, 223 males) were administered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and the self-report version of the Big Five Observer (BFO) to determine circadian preference and personality features, respectively. Morning types scored significantly higher than evening and intermediate types on the conscientiousness factor. Evening types were found to be more neurotic than morning types. With reference to the big five personality model, our data, together with those of all the previous studies, indicate that the conscientiousness domain is the one that best discriminates among the three circadian types. Results are discussed with reference to neurobiological models of personality.
Full Text Available Optimising focus is a key success driver for many organisation leaders. The relationship between personality type and leadership focus is examined. Personality type is assessed with Form M of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator instrument, and leadership focus is explored through the development and application of a Leadership Focus Questionnaire. South African executives form the target population for this study. Both functionalist and interpretive approaches are applied. Three primary theoretical hypotheses about leadership focus, concerning (1 optimising the balance of focus between external and internal priorities, (2 the fit between the leadership personality type and the organisation type, and (3 the capacity to manage a multiple focus, are considered. Results show that Extraverted personality types are more comfortable with the challenges of focus in the leadership role than are Introverted types, and Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking and Judging types experience a greater degree of fit with their organisations than do Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling and Perceiving types.
A developmental-evolutionary perspective is used to synthesize basic research from the neurosciences, ethology, genetics, and developmental psychology into a unified framework for understanding the nature and origins of social anxiety and avoidant personality disorder. Evidence is presented that social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and avoidant personality disorder may be alternate conceptualizations of the same disorder because they have virtually the same symptoms and genetic basis, and respond to the same pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions. A functionalist perspective on social anxiety is formulated to (a) explain the origins of normative states of anxiety, (b) outline developmental pathways in the transition from normative anxiety to social anxiety and avoidant personality disorders, and (c) account for the processes leading to gender-differentiated patterns of anxiety-related disorders after puberty.
Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Branje, S.T.J.; Teppers, E.; Goossens, L.; Meeus, W.H.J.
Adolescence and young adulthood are characterized by important changes in personality, changes toward a more stable identity, and the establishment of intimate relationships. We examined the role of personality traits in establishing intimate relationships, the interplay between personality traits
Rosenthal, D A; Smith, A M; de Visser, R
Early initiation of sexual activity is a concern, in part because of increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies among young people. In this study, 241 high schoolers were administered a questionnaire to establish the relationships between age at first sexual intercourse and personal qualities (sexual style, attractiveness, physical maturity, restraint, autonomy expectations, and attitudes to gender roles), smoking and drug use, and aspects of the social context (social activities, media impact, peer norms). There were few effects of sex of respondent and none in which respondents' sex impacted on age of initiation. Overall (and among the male sample), perceptions of greater physical maturity, greater use of uncommon (mostly illicit) drugs, and expectations of earlier autonomy significantly differentiated between early and later initiators. This group of factors tends to confirm the view that early experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with problem behaviors and a press toward "adult" behaviors. For girls, this pattern was even clearer, with use of uncommon drugs being replaced as a significant contributor to early sexual experience by relative lack of restraint. We conclude that the desire to achieve the transition to adulthood at an earlier age than their peers constitutes a powerful incentive for young people to become sexually active.
Full Text Available Background Individual factors are usually important as non-occupational parameters that participate in the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Personality traits are one of the individual factors that affect physical illness, which are constant over time, thereby reflecting stable individual differences. Identifying the personality trait can be used to predict musculoskeletal disorders in workers and select individual with appropriate personality traits for different works. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to identify the personality traits used to determine the relationship between different personality traits and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods 136 people of 2 different companies in Tabriz (in 2015 were selected as the study population. The first group was selected from the petrochemical repair workers and the second from a dairy factory. The 50-item version of Goldberg’s big five personality scale was used to assess the personality traits. Nordic questionnaire was employed to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Chi-square test was incorporated for analyzing the data. Finally, logistic regression test was used to study the factors affecting upper and lower body pain. Results Results indicated that individual personality traits were associated with musculoskeletal disorder prevalence in some members of body: Extraversion with wrist (P-value = 0.013 and hip (P-value = 0.044, emotional stability with shoulder (P-value = 0.012, wrist (P-value = 0.043, back (P-value = 0.034, low back (P-value = 0.029 and ankle( P-value = 0.014, Conscientiousness with Hip ( P-value = 0.009, Agreeableness with shoulder (P-value = 0.004, back (P-value = 0.001, Hip ( P-value = 0.006 and ankle ( P-value = 0.019. Conclusions According to the results of this study, the personality traits can contribute to musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, notice of personality traits can be used to predict individuals who
De la Fuente-Solana, Emilia I; Gómez-Urquiza, José L; Cañadas, Gustavo R; Albendín-García, Luis; Ortega-Campos, Elena; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A
To assess burnout levels in oncology nurses, to evaluate at what stage of burnout suffering they are and to analyze the relationship between burnout with personality factors. A quantitative, observational, cross-sectional multicenter study was done. Oncology nurses (n = 101) from the Andalusian Health Service (Andalusia, Spain) were included. The main variables were personality factors, assessed with the NEO-FFI questionnaire, anxiety and depression, assessed with the Educational-Clinical Questionnaire: Anxiety and Depression, and burnout, evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Student t-statistic was used for hypothesis contrasts and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to establish the association between personality factors and burnout. According to the burnout phases model, 29.6% of the sample is in the most severe phases. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are positively correlated with neuroticism and negatively correlated with agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness. Personal accomplishment has a negative correlation with neuroticism and negative correlations with agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness. Finally, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization have a positive correlation with anxiety and depression, while personal accomplishment has a negative correlation with anxiety and depression. A significant number of oncology nurses are in the most severe stages of burnout suffering. Personality factors have a key role in burnout development. The importance of personality factors in burnout development should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gelissen, John; Graaf, Paul M. de
Pooled cross-sectional and life-history data from the Dutch Family Survey 1998 and 2000 (N = 4000) were used to investigate whether personality was directly related to income attainment and occupational career transitions after controlling for human capital indicators, working hours, and parental
Weigl, Matthias; Hornung, Severin; Parker, Sharon K.; Petru, Raluca; Glaser, Jurgen; Angerer, Peter
Drawing on Conservation of Resources Theory and previous research on work engagement, the present study investigates gain spirals between employees' engagement and their task, social, and personal resources. It focuses on the key resources of job control, positive work relationships, and active coping behavior. In a three-wave design, work…
Ma, Hing Keung; Cheung, Ping Chung; Shek, Daniel T. L.
This study investigated the relation of peer interactions, family social environment and personality to prosocial orientation in Chinese adolescents. The results indicated no sex differences in general prosocial orientation and inclination to help others, but sex differences in inclination to maintain an affective relationship and inclination to…
Stoughton, J William; Thompson, Lori Foster; Meade, Adam W
Job applicants and incumbents often use social media for personal communications allowing for direct observation of their social communications "unfiltered" for employer consumption. As such, these data offer a glimpse of employees in settings free from the impression management pressures present during evaluations conducted for applicant screening and research purposes. This study investigated whether job applicants' (N=175) personality characteristics are reflected in the content of their social media postings. Participant self-reported social media content related to (a) photos and text-based references to alcohol and drug use and (b) criticisms of superiors and peers (so-called "badmouthing" behavior) were compared to traditional personality assessments. Results indicated that extraverted candidates were prone to postings related to alcohol and drugs. Those low in agreeableness were particularly likely to engage in online badmouthing behaviors. Evidence concerning the relationships between conscientiousness and the outcomes of interest was mixed.
AlKandari, Nabila; AlShallal, Khalid
This study discusses the nature of social relationships in student communities at Kuwait University. Three hundred seventy-two students participated. A survey of 22 items was designed to describe students' social relationships. The study revealed that students have affirmative social relationships. The students do not feel desolation on campus;…
Dvorak, Robert G.; Borrie, William T.; Watson, Alan E.
Wilderness managers are charged with the challenging goal of balancing resource protection and experience quality across a broad, value-laden landscape. While research has provided insight into visitors' motivations and their meanings for wilderness, a struggle exists to implement experiential concepts within current management frameworks. This research posits the human experience of wilderness to be an evolving, enduring relationship, and that research needs can be addressed by conceptualizing and investigating an individuals' personal wilderness relationship. The purpose of this study was to explore wilderness relationships of visitors to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. A predictive model was proposed to investigate the internal dimensions of a visitor's wilderness relationship. A mail-back questionnaire was distributed during the summer of 2007, resulting in a sample of 564 respondents. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results from testing several relationship models provided support for a multidimensional structure consisting of five factors with a single overarching relationship factor. The preferred relationship model indicated the importance of identities and attachment in place relationships. Trust and commitment toward management were also important considerations. This research provided the preliminary evidence for a multidimensional wilderness relationship model and complements a perspective of wilderness experiences as wilderness. Findings may help to reframe decision-making and public-input processes that guide management actions to increased wilderness character protection and facilitate quality wilderness experiences.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issues of social support of individuals with disabilities and describes its role in the development and maintenance of subjective well-being of persons in situations of disability. A special external resource for overcoming unfavorable developmental conditions, social support is interlocked in a continuous relationship with psychological resources of personality. One of its distinctive features is that it implies the subject's activity aimed at overcoming difficult life situation on his/her own. When the person's bodily resources are insufficient (as it happens in situations of physical disabilities, the role of macro- and microsocial resources in supporting his/her well-being naturally increases. However, when both social and bodily resources are scarce, it is the individual's personality that stands in the gap. The research described in the paper explored the relationship between microsocial resources (support of family and friends, satisfaction with this support and psychological resources of resistance and self-regulation of personality. The sample consisted of 210 subjects (48 students with disabilities, 162 healthy subjects. The outcomes revealed certain differences between the subsamples with low and high rates of social support which suggest that the subjects' perceptions and evaluations of the support contribute to their psychological resources of coping and self-regulation, activating and/or reinforcing the existing potential of their personalities.
Camacho, Mar; Guilana, Sonia
VLE (Virtual Learning Environments) are rapidly falling short to meet the demands of a networked society. Web 2.0 and social networks are proving to offer a more personalized, open environment for students to learn formally as they are already doing informally. With the irruption of social media into society, and therefore, education, many voices…
Resnik, D B
Most of the discussion in bioethics and health policy concerning social responsibility for health has focused on society's obligation to provide access to healthcare. While ensuring access to healthcare is an important social responsibility, societies can promote health in many other ways, such as through sanitation, pollution control, food and drug safety, health education, disease surveillance, urban planning and occupational health. Greater attention should be paid to strategies for health promotion other than access to healthcare, such as environmental and public health and health research.
Daviss, Steve; Hanson, Annette; Miller, Dinah
Three psychiatrist authors illustrate the impact of social media on their professional lives by reflecting on personal stories about their experiences with social media. They reflect on their experiences with listservs, chat rooms, online forums, blogs, podcasts, and other interactive media, while recounting actual stories involving those media. The impact of social media on professional advocacy across broad populations is addressed. In addition, the use of social media in educating psychiatric trainees and informing forensic evaluations is discussed. Finally, social media as a tool for enhancing consumer advocacy and addressing controversial patient safety procedures in emergency settings is discussed.
Full Text Available Working in a rural community locates the professional in a wider social network as community members often expect more from their professionals; not only as service providers, but also as engaged members of the community. This can result in the rural social worker being highly visible both personally and professionally and it can also lead to overlapping relationships. These higher expectations can place stress on the worker in terms of maintaining accepted professional roles and a sense of professional identity. This qualitative study explores the first-hand experiences of a cross-section of service providers in more than a dozen communities within northwestern Ontario and northern Manitoba, Canada. The responses of the participants provide some insight into how rural practitioners maintain their professional identity when working within the unique demands of the rural and remote context. Recurring themes from the interviews suggest that these professionals craft their own informal decision-making processes to address intersecting roles, community gossip, and personal isolation, even while, in some cases, practicing in their home community. The findings provide greater understanding of the pressures and realities of working in small remote towns and the challenges of responding to the expectations and realities of relationships including the expectation of working with friends and family members of friends or colleagues: issues that have not been adequately studied in the literature to date.
Firth, Josh A; Voelkl, Bernhard; Farine, Damien R; Sheldon, Ben C
Social relationships are fundamental to animals living in complex societies. The extent to which individuals base their decisions around their key social relationships, and the consequences this has on their behavior and broader population level processes, remains unknown. Using a novel experiment that controlled where individual wild birds (great tits, Parus major) could access food, we restricted mated pairs from being allowed to forage at the same locations. This introduced a conflict for pair members between maintaining social relationships and accessing resources. We show that individuals reduce their own access to food in order to sustain their relationships and that individual foraging activity was strongly influenced by their key social counterparts. By affecting where individuals go, social relationships determined which conspecifics they encountered and consequently shaped their other social associations. Hence, while resource distribution can determine individuals' spatial and social environment, we illustrate how key social relationships themselves can govern broader social structure. Finally, social relationships also influenced the development of social foraging strategies. In response to forgoing access to resources, maintaining pair bonds led individuals to develop a flexible "scrounging" strategy, particularly by scrounging from their pair mate. This suggests that behavioral plasticity can develop to ameliorate conflicts between social relationships and other demands. Together, these results illustrate the importance of considering social relationships for explaining behavioral variation due to their significant impact on individual behavior and demonstrate the consequences of key relationships for wider processes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Roff, Merrill; And Others
This book describes a series of studies included in a 5-year program of research on the social adjustment of school children in the third through sixth grades. The sample consists of a total of 40,000 children from Texas and Minnesota, including a small subsample of 5,000 used in a 4-year longitudinal study. Peer acceptance-rejection scores…
Roberti, Jonathan W.; Fox, Daniel J.; Tunick, Roy H.
The Vocational Preference Inventory, two personality questionnaires, and the Sensation-Seeking Scale were completed by 126 college students. Younger students had undifferentiated vocational profiles. Men tended toward Realistic, Enterprising, and Investigative occupations, women toward Social, Enterprising, and Artistic. Significant convergence…
Full Text Available Studies of aggressive behavior of teenagers and sexual aggression in particular in the last time are particularly relevant and valuable in modern society. This is confirmed by the data of criminological statistics, according to which the rate of minor crime in the Russian Federation in recent years has virtually the same range. A comprehensive study of the person of a minor convicted of violent crimes of a sexual nature (personal characteristics, characteristics of sexual identity and parent-child relationship on the basis of comparative analysis with a group of teenagers convicted of the crime of mercenary-violent type, and a group of students emerging in socially favourable environment, enabled them to identify some distinctive features. The obtained results allow to suggest a possible mutual influence of personal characteristics and characteristics of sexual identity with the peculiarities of child-parent relationships in a group of juveniles convicted for violent crimes of a sexual nature.
Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, André; Luo, Yuejia
The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular reactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and subjective affect (including positive affect, negative affect and subjective controllability) in healthy individuals. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach was applied to account for the relationship between personality traits and stress responses. Results suggested that higher neuroticism predicted lower heart rate stress reactivity, lower cortisol stress response, more decline of positive affect and lower subjective controllability. Individuals higher in extraversion showed smaller cortisol activation to stress and less increase of negative affect. In addition, higher openness score was associated with lower cortisol stress response. These findings elucidate that neuroticism, extraversion and openness are important variables associated with the stress response and different dimensions of personality trait are associated with different aspects of the stress response.
Atefeh Beydokhti; Ramazan Hassanzadeh; Bahram Mirzaian
Today, mobile phones compared with computers and Internet technology, have a greater impact on social life, people's lifestyle and their consumer behavior, because mobile phones are cheap and easy to use. This paper aims to examine the relationship between 5 main personality factors, neuroticism, extroversion and addiction of students to SMS. The statistical population consisted of all high school students studying in the academic year (2011-2012) which totally are 7520 people of which 364 st...
Frick, Ulrich; Irving, Hyacinth; Rehm, Jürgen
To empirically determine the impact of the capacity to sustain social relationships on valuing health states. 68 clinical experts conducted a health state valuation exercise in five sites using pairwise comparison, ranking, and person trade-off as elicitation methods. 23,840 pairwise comparisons of a total of 379 health states were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Social relationships had a clear monotonic association with perceived disability: the more limited the capacity to sustain social relationships, the more disabling the resulting health state valuations. The highest level of limitations with respect to social relationships was associated with slightly lower impact on health state valuations compared to the highest level of limitations in physical functioning. Social relationships showed an independent contribution to health state valuations and should be included in health state measures.
Full Text Available In the current study we investigated the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence assessed with Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. The sample included a total of 290 people: 59 monozygotic (MZ and 86 dizygotic (DZ, 58 same-sex and 28 opposite-sex twin pairs aged 14 to 20 years (mean age = 15.84, SD = 1.05. The phenotypic correlations between the traits and intelligence scores were non-significant, except for Openness. This relationship was largely explained by shared environmental influences (65%.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating whether there is a correlation between organizational commitment and narcissistic personalty traits. METHOD: In order to measure the GATA Occupation High School of Health Subordinate Officiers’ narcissistic personality traits Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI scala was used. In order to measure students’ organizational commitment Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used. 229 questionnaire forms were distributed to the Occupation High School of Health Subordinate Officiers’ students, and 220 (%96 of them were returned. Totally 220 students were evaluated. FINDINGS: When students’ narcissistic scores were evaluated out of 16, it was found out that the highest narcissistic personality score (8,98 was taken by second year students, the highest score for organizational commitment (3,70 was taken by first year students, “exploitativeness” which is one of the sub-levels of narcissisim was observed at the highest level with an average of 0,73 out 1 full score, “entitlement” sub level was observed at the lowest level (0,29, “affective commitment” one of the sub-levels of commitment, had the highest average (3,84, “normative commitment” had the second highest average (3,71 and finally “continuance commitment” was observed at the lowest level (3,55. Statistically, there is no significant relationship found between narcissistic personality and organizational commitment. However, there is a significant relationship found between narcissistic personality and continuity commitment. There is a significant and opposite relationship found between organizational commitment and continuity commitment with superiority. There is similar relationship found between exploitation and continuity commitment. CONCLUSION: With respect to these findings, it is suggested that “Health Technicians” candidates’, who will be one of the indispensable constituents of health services
Williams, R L; Verble, J S; Price, D E; Layne, B H
This study addressed the relationship between self-management (as measured by the Lifestyle Approaches Inventory, Williams, Moore, Pettibone, & Thomas, 1992) and personality types and indexes (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Myers & McCaulley, 1985) in a sample of 347 university students. Correlational analyses indicated that the self-management factor most consistently linked to the Myers-Briggs indices was Organization of Physical Space. The Myers-Briggs index most consistently correlated with the self-management factors was Judgment-Perception. Overall, male and female subjects showed similar patterns of relationships between the self-management and personality indices. When the self-management scores were compared for the various Myers-Briggs types, the analysis indicated that types having a J (planful and organized) or S (precise and practical) in the typology tended to score higher than those having a P (spontaneous and flexible) or N (imaginative and insightful).
Full Text Available Background This study investigated the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI and social competences (SC, which determine effective functioning in three types of social situations: intimate situations, situations of social exposure and situations requiring self-assertion. Social competences were assessed using a peer nomination method. It was hypothesized that trait EI predicts SC above and beyond personality traits. Participants and procedure Data were collected from among 111 adolescents (46.95% girls. The study was conducted among five classes from three public high schools. Participants first completed the Personality Inventory NEO-FFI and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF. Subsequently, the descriptions of three different persons were presented to the participants. Each description concerned one of the SC: intimate competence, social exposure competence and assertive competence. Participants were asked to nominate three classmates who suited each description best. Results A series of hierarchical regression analyses was performed. Personality traits and trait EI were regressed on each competence. Analyses involved two-step hierarchical regressions, entering personality traits at step 1 and adding trait EI at step 2. The results demonstrated that personality traits explained a substantial portion of the variance in each SC. Beyond these variables, trait EI was significant as a predictor of nominations for each SC, explaining an additional amount of the unique variance. Conclusions The results complement existing evidence that trait EI contributes to successful social functioning. The relationships between trait EI and SC remained statistically significant even after controlling for Big Five variance. The results demonstrate incremental validity of trait EI over and above personality traits.
Yasin, Bahar; Jamontaite, Kamile; Ahmedova, Saida; Akin, Mahmut Selami
The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between brand personality and customer loyalty in the five-star business hotel and propose an effective way for developing a remarkable hotel brand and improving its customer loyalty. The reason for choosing a particular hotel is that it is a member of a famous international hotel chain with a well-known brand name. According to the literature, business hotels usually have stronger brand names comparing to leisure hotels. Literature r...
Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.
It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bi...
Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood
Den Oudsten, Brenda L; Van Heck, Guus L; Van der Steeg, Alida F W; Roukema, Jan A; De Vries, Jolanda
This study examines the relationships between personality, on the one hand, and perceived availability of social support (PASS) and satisfaction with received social support (SRSS), on the other hand, in women with early stage breast cancer (BC). In addition, this study examined whether a stressful event (i.e., diagnosis) is associated with quality of life (QOL), when controlling for PASS and SRSS. Women were assessed on PASS and SRSS (World Health Organization QOL assessment instrument-100) before diagnosis (time 1) and 1 (time 2), 3 (time 3), 6 (time 4), 12 (time 5), and 24 months (time 6) after surgical treatment. Personality (neuroticism extraversion openness five-factor inventory and state trait anxiety inventory-trait scale) and fatigue (fatigue assessment scale) were assessed at time 1. Agreeableness and fatigue predicted PASS and SRSS at time 5 and time 6. Trait anxiety had a negative effect on SRSS (ss = -0.22, p personality factors substantially influence the way women with early stage BC perceive social support. Knowledge about these underlying mechanisms of social support is useful for the development of tailor-made interventions. Professionals should be aware of the importance of social support. They should check whether patients have sufficient significant others in their social environment and be sensitive to potential discrepancies patients might experience between availability and adequacy of social support.
Susanne Lehner, Birgit; Kowalski, Christoph; Wirtz, Markus; Ansmann, Lena; Driller, Elke; Ommen, Oliver; Oksanen, Tuula; Pfaff, Holger
Work engagement has been proven to be a viable indicator of physical and mental well-being at work. Research findings have shown a link between work engagement and both individual and organizational resources. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesized relationships between personal traits (Big-5), the quality of the social work environment (social capital) and work engagement among hospital (n=35) physicians (n=387) in North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Structural equation modeling (SEM), combining confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and path analysis, was employed to conduct the statistical analyses. The results of the SEM indicated that social capital and neuroticism were significantly associated with work engagement. The relationship between agreeableness and work engagement was fully mediated by social capital. Findings suggest that social capital plays a key role in promoting work engagement of physicians. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Loas, Gwenolé; Baelde, Olympe; Verrier, Annie
The present study had two aims and used two different samples. The first aim was to determine if alexithymia and dependent personality disorder (DPD) are distinct or overlapping constructs. The second aim was to determine the specificity and the stability of the relationship between alexithymia and DPD. The first study used exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) in a sample of 477 non-clinical subjects who completed three questionnaires measuring alexithymia (Twenty item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, i.e. TAS-20), dependent personality disorder (Dependent Personality Questionnaire, i.e. DPQ) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II, i.e. BDI-II). The second study used a sample of 305 subjects consecutively admitted to an outpatient department of legal medicine. The subjects completed (at admission and 3 months later) the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, screen questionnaire (SCID-II-SQ), the TAS-20 and the BDI. Multiple regressions were done. For the first study, the PCA yielded a four-factor solution with no overlap of the significant factor loadings for the items from each scale and with the factors corresponding to their respective construct. For the second study, multiple regressions showed that only avoidant personality disorder was an independent predictor of the TAS-20 scores. Alexithymia is a construct that is distinct and separate from DPD and depression. Alexithymia is not a stable feature of DPD while it is a core feature of avoidant personality disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ogurlu, Üzeyir; Sevgi-Yalin, Hatun; Yavuz-Birben, Fazilet
This study aimed to examine the relationship between social-emotional learning skills and perceived social support of gifted students. Based on this relationship, the authors also examined to what extent social and emotional learning skills were predictive of social support. In addition, gender variables were compared in social and emotional…
Full Text Available Social studies on disability have increased in number and importance in Spain and other countries over the last few years. Nevertheless, the majority of the available sources and studies do not adequately represent this heterogeneous group, which currently makes up about 9 per cent of the Spanish population. The implementation of social measures requires representative sources and studies containing relevant information. The aim of this paper is to identify the main diffi culties involved in designing and developing social research methods concerning persons with disabilities, and offer proposals and recommendations in order to advance towards a more inclusive social research using the concepts of accessibility and design for all.
de Miguel, Adelia; Buss, David M
Mate retention is an important problem in romantic relationships because of mate poachers, infidelity, and the risk of outright defection. The current study (N=892) represents the first study of mate retention tactics conducted in Spain. We tested hypotheses about the effects of gender, relationship commitment status, and personality on mate retention tactics. Women and men differed in the use of resource display, appearance enhancement, intrasexual violence, and submission/self-abasement as mate retention tactics. Those in more committed relationships reported higher levels of resource display, appearance enhancement, love, and verbal signals of possession. Those in less committed relationships more often reported intentionally evoking jealousy in their partner as a mate retention tactic. Personality characteristics, particularly Neuroticism and Agreeableness, correlated in coherent ways with mate retention tactics, supporting two evolution-based hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the implications, future research directions, and interdisciplinary syntheses emerging between personality and social psychology and evolutionary psychology. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Blumstein, Daniel T; Williams, Dana M; Lim, Alexandra N; Kroeger, Svenja; Martin, Julien G A
Humans in strong social relationships are more likely to live longer because social relationships may buffer stressors and thus have protective effects. However, a shortcoming of human studies is that they often rely on self-reporting of these relationships. By contrast, observational studies of non-human animals permit detailed analyses of the specific nature of social relationships. Thus, discoveries that some social animals live longer and healthier lives if they are involved in social grooming, forage together or have more affiliative associates emphasizes the potential importance of social relationships on health and longevity. Previous studies have focused on the impact of social metrics on longevity in obligately social species. However, if sociality indeed has a key role in longevity, we might expect that affiliative relationships should also influence longevity in less social species. We focused on socially flexible yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventer ) and asked whether female longevity covaries with the specific nature of social relationships. We quantified social relationships with social network statistics that were based on affiliative interactions, and then estimated the correlation between longevity and sociality using bivariate models. We found a significant negative phenotypic correlation between affiliative social relationship strength and longevity; marmots with greater degree, closeness and those with a greater negative average shortest path length died at younger ages. We conclude that sociality plays an important role in longevity, but how it does so may depend on whether a species is obligately or facultatively social. © 2018 The Author(s).
Gundogdu, Didem; Finnerty, Ailbhe N; Staiano, Jacopo; Teso, Stefano; Passerini, Andrea; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno
The recent personality psychology literature has coined the name of personality states to refer to states having the same behavioural, affective and cognitive content (described by adjectives) as the corresponding trait, but for a shorter duration. The variability in personality states may be the reaction to specific characteristics of situations. The aim of our study is to investigate whether specific situational factors, that is, different configurations of face-to-face interactions, are predictors of variability of personality states in a work environment. The obtained results provide evidence that within-person variability in personality is associated with variation in face-to-face interactions. Interestingly, the effects differ by type and level of the personality states: adaptation effects for Agreeableness and Emotional Stability, whereby the personality states of an individual trigger similar states in other people interacting with them and complementarity effects for Openness to Experience, whereby the personality states of an individual trigger opposite states in other people interacting with them. Overall, these findings encourage further research to characterize face-to-face and social interactions in terms of their relevance to personality states.
Guo, Q.; Shao, F.; Hu, Z. L.; Liu, J. G.
The statistical properties of the user interaction behaviors in a city have great significance for developing the network marketing strategy, promoting personalized service and so on. In this paper, we investigate the interaction property of the users from New Orleans network in the Facebook, and find that one's out-degree and in-degree are approximately the same. In addition, when the number of a user friends is less than 65, the number of their posts would linearly grow with the slope 4.2, but when one user's friends are more than 65, their posts would grow with the slope 2.1. Further, the average link weight is relatively flat when the out-degree ranges from 28 to 65, and before or after the section it is on the rise or in decline, respectively, from which we can conclude that one could not maintain stable and meaningful relationships with more than 65 people in a single city. We present a null model to reshuffle the network to guarantee that the empirical results are not obtained by accident. The result obtained after reshuffling suggests that there exists a limit that restricts people's social activities.
Xu, Bin; Gou, Liang; Xu, Anbang; Mahmud, Jalal; Cosley, Dan
Users' persistent social media contents like posts on Facebook Timeline are presented as an "exhibition" about the person to others, and managing these exhibitional contents for impression management needs intentional and manual efforts. To raise awareness of and facilitate impression management around past contents, we developed a prototype called PersonalityInsight. The system employs computational psycho-linguistic analysis to help users visualize the way their past text posts might convey...
Hennessy, Ciarán; Smeaton, Alan F.
The world of social media influencers, bloggers and online “clothes horses” is a relatively new one. New-media personalities, a.k.a. “clothes horses”, are now endorsing brands, products and companies in a more subtle way than through traditional advertising. They carefully cultivate and position their personal brands with a view to persuading businesses to use them for relatively inexpensive, often local, online marketing campaigns. In the world of traditional media, companies wishing to adve...
Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chu, Samuel K W
Previous studies have shown that depression is negatively associated with hope and social support. However, little research has been undertaken to investigate the theoretical mechanisms underlying the connections among hope, social support, and depression. This study examined how two types of self-esteem (personal and relational) would mediate the relationship of hope and social support to depression among 384 Hong Kong adolescents (age: 12-18 years; M = 14, SD = 1.19). Participants reported their levels of hope, social support, personal self-esteem, relational self-esteem, and depressive mood. Results of the path analysis showed that both personal and relational self-esteem mediated the associations of hope and social support with depression. Hope and social support were associated with higher levels of personal and relational self-esteem, which were in turn related to decreased levels of depression. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Anttila, Katriina I; Anttila, Minna J; Kurki, Marjo H; Välimäki, Maritta A
Social relationships among adolescents with mental disorders are demanding. Adolescents with depressive symptoms may have few relationships and have difficulties sharing their problems. Internet may offer reliable and easy to use tool to collect real-time information from adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore how adolescents describe their social relationships with an electronic diary. Mixed methods were used to obtain a broad picture of adolescents' social relationships with the data gathered from network maps and reflective texts written in an electronic diary. Adolescents who visited an outpatient clinic and used an intervention (N=70) designed for adolescents with signs of depression were invited to use the electronic diary; 29 did so. The quantitative data gathered in the electronic diary were summarized with descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were categorized using a thematic analysis with an inductive approach. We found that social relationships among adolescents with signs of depression can vary greatly in regards to the number of existing relationships (from lacking to 21) and the quality of the relationships (from trustful to difficult). However, the relationships may change, and the adolescents are also willing to build up their social relationships. Professionals need to be aware of the diversity of adolescents' social relationships and their need for personalized support.
Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa
To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Candini, Michela; Giuberti, Virginia; Manattini, Alessandra; Grittani, Serenella; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Frassinetti, Francesca
Studies in children with Typical Development (TD) and with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) revealed that autism affects the personal space regulation, influencing both its size (permeability) and its changes depending on social interaction (flexibility). Here, we investigate how the nature of social interaction (Cooperative vs. Uncooperative) and the person perspective influence permeability and flexibility of interpersonal distance. Moreover, we tested whether the deficit observed in ASD children, reflects the social impairment (SI) in daily interactions. The stop-distance paradigm was used to measure the preferred distance between the participant and an unfamiliar adult (first-person perspective, Experiment 1), and between two other people (third-person perspective, Experiment 2). Interpersonal distance was measured before and after the interaction with a confederate. The Wing Subgroups Questionnaire was used to evaluate SI in everyday activities, and each ASD participant was accordingly assigned either to the lower (children with low social impairment [low-SI ASD]), or to the higher SI group (children with high social impairment [high-SI ASD]). We observed larger interpersonal distance (permeability) in both ASD groups compared to TD children. Moreover, depending on the nature of social interaction, a modulation of interpersonal distance (flexibility) was observed in TD children, both from the first- and third-person perspective. Similar findings were found in low-SI but not in high-SI ASD children, in Experiment 1. Conversely, in Experiment 2, no change was observed in both ASD groups. These findings reveal that SI severity and a person's perspective may account for the deficit observed in autism when flexibility, but not permeability, of personal space is considered. Autism Res 2017, 10: 144-154. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gary K. Burger
Full Text Available El análisis factorial es el método utilizado frecuentemente para la identificación de las dimensiones y estructuras que constituyen la base de un conjunto de medidas, lo cual es importante para la investigación. Mientras el análisis factorial de tipo R, produce los factores presentes en las variables, es conocido por muchos investigadores que el análisis de tipo Q describe los factores presentes en las personas, y ha sido utilizado con menor frecuencia. En el presente trabajo se describe el análisis factorial de tipo Q y lo distingue del análisis factorial de tipo R. Entonces, se examinan tres usos de factores derivados del análisis factorial tipo Q: para describir el perfil de los resultados de pruebas de individuos, para dar más opciones al análisis convencional de los datos y para investigar las cualidades del individuo en los instrumentos de medición. Se propone que los factores personales resultan útiles para estos propósitos, en las investigaciones de las ciencias sociales.
Ayubi, Soleh U; Parmanto, Bambang
Advances in physical activity (PA) monitoring devices provide ample opportunities for innovations in the way the information produced by these devices is used to encourage people to have more active lifestyles. One such innovation is expanding the current use of the information from self-management to social support. We developed a Persuasive social network for physical Activity (PersonA) that combines automatic input of physical activity data, a smartphone, and a social networking system (SNS). This paper describes the motivation for and overarching design of the PersonA and its functional and non-functional features. PersonA is designed to intelligently and automatically receive raw PA data from the sensors in the smartphone, calculate the data into meaningful PA information, store the information on a secure server, and show the information to the users as persuasive and real-time feedbacks or publish the information to the SNS to generate social support. The implementation of self-monitoring, social support, and persuasive concepts using currently available technologies has the potential for promoting healthy lifestyle, greater community participation, and higher quality of life. We also expect that PersonA will enable health professionals to collect in situ data related to physical activity. The platform is currently being used and tested to improve PA level of three groups of users in Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Bonifas, Robin P; Simons, Kelsey; Biel, Barbara; Kramer, Christie
This article presents results of a qualitative research study that examined how living in a long-term care (LTC) home influences the quality of residents' relationships with peers, family members, and outside friends. Semistructured interviews using a phenomenological approach were conducted with 23 residents of a LTC home. Thematic analysis was employed to illuminate residents' perspectives on the nature of social relationships in this setting. Four key themes were identified that highlight the role of place in social relationships. Residing in a LTC home influences the context of social interactions, impacts their quality and process, clusters individuals with health and functional declines that hinder socialization, and poses structural and cultural barriers that impede social interactions. Health and functional limitations posed the greatest challenge to socialization relative to characteristics of the facility itself. Residents' insights emphasize how personal characteristics influence community culture and the experience of place. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Orientation: Research has shown that total rewards models structured according to individual preferences, positively influence efforts to attract, retain and motivate key employees. Yet, this is seldom done. Structuring total rewards models according to the preferences of employee segments is a viable alternative to accommodate individual preferences. Research purpose: The primary aim of the study was to determine the relationship between personality types and reward preferences. The secondary aim was to determine the reward preferences for different demographic groups. Motivation for the study: An enhanced understanding of reward preferences for different employee segments will enable employers to offer more competitive reward options to their employees. This may, in turn, have a positive impact on retention. Research design, approach and method: Two measuring instruments, the MBTI® Form GRV and the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire, were distributed electronically to 5 000 potential respondents. The results from 589 sets of questionnaires were used in the data analyses. Primary and secondary factor analyses were done on the items in the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire. Main findings/results: The study confirmed that individuals with certain personality types and personality preferences, have different preferences for certain reward categories. There was a stronger relationship between reward preferences and personality preferences than for reward preferences and personality types. Preferences for reward categories by different demographic groups were confirmed. The significant difference in reward preferences between Black and White respondents in particular was noteworthy, with Black respondents indicating significantly higher mean scores for all reward categories than White respondents. Finally, a total rewards framework influenced by the most prominent preferences for reward categories, was designed. Practical/Managerial implications
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social capital components, social trust, social cohesion, social participation and social security, and sustainable development in city of Salmas, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who live in this city. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.92, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression technique, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between three components of social capital and sustainable development including social cohesion, social participation and social security. However, the study does not confirm the relationship between social trust and sustainable development.
Lin, Jhih-Syuan; Lee, Yen-I; Jin, Yan; Gilbreath, Bob
This study explores social media users' personality traits and motivations for the usage of two different social media platforms, Facebook and Pinterest, as well as how the varied uses impact users' negative emotional experiences. The findings suggest that the intensity of social media usage is positively related to negative emotions. For Facebook users, socialization, entertainment, and information seeking motivations significantly influence their platform use intensity and, subsequently, lead to negative emotions. Self-status seeking also has a direct effect on Facebook users' negative emotions. For Pinterest users, socialization is not a significant motivation for usage of that platform. However, entertainment, information seeking, and self-status seeking significantly predict their platform use intensity, which subsequently lead to negative emotions. Similarly, all four motivations for Facebook and Pinterest uses are influenced by users' personality traits: extraversion and openness. Yet, openness has a greater impact on using Pinterest than Facebook in terms of fulfilling socialization needs. Neuroticism has a positive impact on socialization and information seeking motives for use of both platforms, while conscientiousness and agreeableness have a negative influence on fulfilling self-status seeking needs. In addition, agreeable social networking site users are less likely to use Facebook than Pinterest for fulfilling self-status related gratifications, while they are likely to use Pinterest instead of Facebook for entertainment and information needs. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Recksiedler, Claudia; Loter, Katharina; Klaas, Hannah S; Hollstein, Betina; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina
Losing one's spouse is one of the most stressful life events in old age, yet research on positive consequences of overcoming critical life events describes experiences of personal growth for survivors. Because prior studies conceptualized personal growth as a stable accomplishment of an individual, our study challenges this assumption by examining trajectories of personal growth and its links to two aspects of social support. We assume that personal growth is boosted by heightened levels of loss-related social support seeking during early years of widowhood. However, toward the later stages in the bereavement process, we expect personal growth to be fostered by perceived social embeddedness. Data stem from a survey on relationships in later life conducted in 2012, 2014, and 2016 in Switzerland. The final analytical sample consisted of 508 individuals aged 50+ years, who were on average 73 years old and widowed for about 3 years at baseline. Longitudinal explorative factor analyses yielded a 3-factorial solution for personal growth. Random-effects group-specific growth curves were used to examine the trajectories of personal growth and its subdimensions, by different levels of loss-related social support seeking and embeddedness in a supportive network, over the first 8 years of widowhood. Our analyses included time-invariant and time-varying covariates. On average, our findings point to a stable trajectory of personal growth after having become widowed in later life. Group-specific analyses, however, showed different courses in the trajectories for specific subdimensions of personal growth - particularly for spiritual change and appreciation of life. Average marginal effects also yielded group differences by loss-related support seeking in the level of personal growth over time, which highlight the importance of social support seeking, rather than social embeddedness, at all stages of the bereavement process. Findings underline the importance of a longitudinal and
Davidson, Sandra K; Dowrick, Christopher F; Gunn, Jane M
High rates of persistent depression highlight the need to identify the risk factors associated with poor depression outcomes and to provide targeted interventions to people at high risk. Although social relationships have been implicated in depression course, interventions targeting social relationships have been disappointing. Possibly, interventions have targeted the wrong elements of relationships. Alternatively, the statistical association between relationships and depression course is not causal, but due to shared variance with other factors. We investigated whether elements of social relationships predict major depressive episode (MDE) when multiple relevant variables are considered. Data is from a longitudinal study of primary care patients with depressive symptoms. 494 participants completed questionnaires at baseline and a depression measure (PHQ-9) two years later. Baseline measures included functional (i.e. quality) and structural (i.e. quantity) social relationships, depression, neuroticism, chronic illness, alcohol abuse, childhood abuse, partner violence and sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used to estimate the association between social relationships and MDE. Both functional and structural social relationships predicted MDE in univariate analysis. Only functional social relationships remained significant in multivariate analysis (OR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.79-0.97; p=0.01). Other unique predictors of MDE were baseline depression severity, neuroticism, childhood sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. We did not assess how a person's position in their depression trajectory influenced the association between social relationships and depression. Interventions targeting relationship quality may be part of a personalised treatment plan for people at high risk due of persistent depression due to poor social relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
as eflections of phylogenetically evolved, evaluative and apperceptively based action systems helping organisms to structure and relate in adaptive fashion to their species-specific Umwelt. One special feature of humans' emotional life, setting our species apart from all other, is that emotions not only guide...... describing - as the title does - emotions and feelings as the body's (subjectively experienced) comments to personal relationships. A model of human self- or second order consciousness, consistent with the described theoretical framework, will be presented. Implications of the model for the understanding...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has consistently found that favourable exchange with one’s proximal social environment has positive effects on both mental health and wellbeing. Adults with physical disabilities may have fewer opportunities of favourable exchange, and therefore the effects on mental health and wellbeing may be less advantageous. The aim of this study is to systematically review quantitative studies exploring associations of social relationships with mental health and wellbeing in persons with physical disabilities. Methods The databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus were searched for relevant studies published between 1995 and 2016. Data was extracted on study and participants’ characteristics, independent and dependent variables, used measures and effects sizes of associations between social relationships and mental health or wellbeing. A narrative review was performed to synthesize findings along the constructs social support, social networks, negative social interactions, family functioning and relationship quality. Results Of the 63 included studies, 47 were cross-sectional and 16 longitudinal. Most studies included a measure of social support (n = 58, while other concepts were less often studied (social networks n = 6; negative social interaction n = 3; family functioning n = 2; relationship quality n = 1. Over half of studies included depression as outcome (n = 33, followed by wellbeing (n = 14, composite mental health measures (n = 10, anxiety (n = 8, psychological distress (n = 7, posttraumatic stress disorder (n = 3, and hopelessness (n = 1. Although trends for associations of social support with mental health and wellbeing were consistent, around a quarter of studies failed to report significant associations. Social networks were related to depression, but not to other mental health or wellbeing measures. Family functioning, negative social interactions and relationship quality showed consistent
Tough, Hannah; Siegrist, Johannes; Fekete, Christine
Research has consistently found that favourable exchange with one's proximal social environment has positive effects on both mental health and wellbeing. Adults with physical disabilities may have fewer opportunities of favourable exchange, and therefore the effects on mental health and wellbeing may be less advantageous. The aim of this study is to systematically review quantitative studies exploring associations of social relationships with mental health and wellbeing in persons with physical disabilities. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus were searched for relevant studies published between 1995 and 2016. Data was extracted on study and participants' characteristics, independent and dependent variables, used measures and effects sizes of associations between social relationships and mental health or wellbeing. A narrative review was performed to synthesize findings along the constructs social support, social networks, negative social interactions, family functioning and relationship quality. Of the 63 included studies, 47 were cross-sectional and 16 longitudinal. Most studies included a measure of social support (n = 58), while other concepts were less often studied (social networks n = 6; negative social interaction n = 3; family functioning n = 2; relationship quality n = 1). Over half of studies included depression as outcome (n = 33), followed by wellbeing (n = 14), composite mental health measures (n = 10), anxiety (n = 8), psychological distress (n = 7), posttraumatic stress disorder (n = 3), and hopelessness (n = 1). Although trends for associations of social support with mental health and wellbeing were consistent, around a quarter of studies failed to report significant associations. Social networks were related to depression, but not to other mental health or wellbeing measures. Family functioning, negative social interactions and relationship quality showed consistent associations with mental health and wellbeing
Highlights: → Independently, altruism and locus of control contributed significantly toward attitude towards littering. → Altruism and locus of control jointly contributed significantly to attitude towards littering. → The results further show a significant joint influence of altruism and locus of control on REB. → The independent contributions reveal that altruism and locus of control contribute significantly to REB. → Attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between locus of control and REB. - Abstract: The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.
Lehrer, H Matthew; Janus, Katherine C; Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A
We investigated the relationships among positivity, perceived personal and environmental resources, and emotional dysfunction in adolescent girls. We hypothesized that perceived resources would mediate the relationship between positivity and emotional dysfunction. Participants (N = 510) attending an all-girls public school completed a survey assessing emotional dysfunction (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), positivity (positive/negative emotions), and personal/ environmental resources (resilience, hope, percent adaptive coping, community connectedness, social support, and school connectedness). Perceived resources were combined into one latent variable, and structural equation modeling tested the mediating effect of perceived resources on the relationship between positivity and emotional dysfunction. The model accounted for 63% of the variance in emotional dysfunction. Positivity exerted a significant direct effect on emotional dysfunction (β = -.14, p emotional dysfunction is primarily but not entirely mediated by perceived personal and environmental resources. Schools should consider strategies to enhance experiences of positive emotions and/or decrease experiences of negative emotions, in conjunction with encouraging student awareness and development of personal and environmental resources.
Full Text Available Background: Collaborative working between professionals is a key component of integrated care. The academic literature on it largely focuses either on integration between health and social care or on the dynamics of power and identity between doctors and nurses. With the proliferation and extension of nursing roles, there is a need to examine collaborative working amongst different types of nurses. Method: This study explored experiences of collaborative working amongst generalist and specialist nurses, in community and acute settings. We carried out semi-structured interviews, incorporating the Pictor technique, with 45 nurses, plus 33 other key stakeholders. Transcripts were analysed using Template Analysis. This article focuses on one major thematic area that emerged from the analysis: the significance of interpersonal relationships amongst nurses, and between them and other professionals, patients and carers. Results: Relationship issues were ubiquitous in participants’ accounts of collaborative working. Good personal relationships facilitated collaboration; face-to-face interaction was especially valued. Relationships were recognized as requiring effort, especially in new roles. Organisational changes could disrupt productive personal networks. Conclusion: Relationship issues are integral to successful collaborative working. Policy and practice leaders must take this into account in future service developments. Further research into collaborative relationships in different settings is needed.
van Zoonen, W.; Rice, R.E.
New information and communication technologies can have paradoxical implications: they may be liberating and constraining at the same time. This field study examines the direct implications of personal social media use for work on employees’ autonomy and work pressure, and the indirect effects on
Full Text Available In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 items and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA were applied to 330 high-school students. Items that did not apply as a result of the analysis were omitted from 52-item trial scale and the scale was reduced to 14 items. A final scale consisting of two factors was created. Obtained scale was applied to different 250 high-school students for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. It has been determined that EFA and CFA results of two-factor PSRB-S and reliability and validity of internal consistency coefficients are at an acceptable level. It was not detected a significance difference in total scores of athlete students’ responsibility behaviors in terms of gender and age variables while there were significant difference in their total scores of years of sport practice.
Akar, Hüseyin; Dogan, Yildiz Burcu
The purpose of this research is to examine to what extent pre-service teachers' personal values predict their social entrepreneurship characteristics. In this context, statistical analysis was conducted on the data obtained from 393 pre-service teachers studying at the Faculty of Muallim Rifat Education at Kilis 7 Aralik University in 2016-2017…
Ardaiolo, Frank P.; Neilson, Steve; Daugherty, Timothy K.
In 2005 the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) launched a national initiative that championed the importance of a twenty-first century liberal education. What was unique about this initiative was the underlying assumption that educating for personal and social responsibility was "core" for an educated citizenry and should be…
The teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) in physical education (PE) has a research base dating back some years. There is significant literature pertaining to senior students, the underserved, problem youth in America, teaching responsibility in gym settings, and through PE and in special projects. At the fore-front of this literature…
Martinek, Tom; Hellison, Don
This article provides an overview of how the teaching for personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model has evolved. Its birthplace--a gym--is described where things were tried out, ideas tested, and learning about what worked and what did not work took place. Secondly, the present-day applications of the TPSR are examined--its use by a variety…
Ter Laak, Jan; de Goede, Martijn; Aleva, Liesbeth; Brugman, Gerard; van Leuven, Miranda; Hussmann, Judith
Study investigated personality traits and social competence as predictors of delinquency in adolescent girls. Agreeableness did not correlate with the overall delinquency score. The more crimes reported, the less conscientious, more neurotic, and more open the girls were. Correlation between delinquency and extroversion was not statistically…
Damian, E.; van Ingen, E.J.
In this study, we examine the relation between social network site (SNS) usage and the personal networks of immigrants, using a unique dataset composed of a representative sample of immigrants living in the Netherlands. In theory, SNSs can be a helpful tool for immigrants, because they may help
Bekkers, René; Aken, Marcel A.G. van; Denissen, Jaap
We study the influence of social structure on assortative mating for personality in a large national sample (n=3616) of married and cohabitating couples in the Netherlands. We find that couples with higher levels of education and from dissimilar religious origins are more similar with regard to
Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.
Helping someone who is depressed can be very important to the depressed person. A number of supportive family members or friends can often make a big difference. This paper addresses how a social support network can be formed, taking the needs of the support recipient and the possibilities of the
Lo, Panmi; Siu, Andrew M H
Social-cognitive deficits have a significant impact on the community and vocational functioning of persons with schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationship between social-cognitive abilities and vocational functioning in a Chinese population. We recruited 30 outpatients with schizophrenia to participate. We administered the Chinese Social Cognition and Screening Questionnaire (C-SCSQ) to assess Theory of Mind (ToM), attributional bias, and neurocognition; the Facial Expression Identification Test (FEIT) to assess emotion perception (EP) ability, and the Chinese Work Personality Profile (CWPP) to assess work performance in a simulated work setting. ToM showed a significant negative correlation with attributional bias. The neurocognitive measure displayed a significant positive correlation with ToM and EP. The structural equation model was a good fit to the data (CFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.12), and showed that social-cognitive abilities had a significant impact (-0.41) on work performance. Of the four social-cognitive domains, ToM and paranoid attributional style (PAS) contributed significantly to variations in work performance. These results support the theory that social-cognitive abilities have an impact on work performance. ToM has a positive impact whereas PAS has an adverse effect. Persons with schizophrenia present specific deficits in their social-cognitive abilities, which have significant impact on their work performance and employability.
Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kang, Myung-Hee
A healthy diet has been reported to be associated with physical development, cognition and academic performance, and personality during adolescence. This study was performed to investigate the relationships among milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategies, and personality among Korean adolescents. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was a survey on the relationship between milk consumption and academic performance, in which intakes of milk and milk products and academic scores were examined in percentiles among 630 middle and high school students residing in small and medium-sized cities in 2009. The second part was a survey on the relationships between milk consumption and learning motivation and strategy as well as personality, in which milk consumption habits were collected and Learning Motivation and Strategy Test (L-MOST) for adolescents and Total Personality Inventory for Adolescents (TPI-A) were conducted in 262 high school students in 2011. In the 2009 survey, milk and milk product intakes of subjects were divided into a low intake group (LM: ≤ 60.2 g/day), medium intake group (MM: 60.3-150.9 g/day), and high intake group (HM: ≥ 151.0 g/day). Academic performance of each group was expressed as a percentile, and performance in Korean, social science, and mathematics was significantly higher in the HM group (P learning strategy total," "testing technique," and "resources management technique" scores (P learning strategy total, class participation technique, and testing technique showed significantly positive correlations (P academic performance (Korean, social science, and mathematics) in Korean adolescents. In male high school students, particularly, higher milk intake frequency was positively correlated with learning motivation and strategy as well as some items of the personality inventory.
Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O
The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Reyes, Jose Alberto S
Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes-Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa.
Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.
Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes—Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa. PMID:19779603
Baek, Young Min; Bae, Young; Jang, Hyunmi
With the advent of social network sites (SNSs), people can efficiently maintain preexisting social relationships and make online friendships without offline encounters. While such technological features of SNSs hold a variety of potential for individual and collective benefits, some scholars warn that use of SNSs might lead to socially negative consequences, such as social isolation, erosion of social cohesion, or SNS addiction. This study distinguishes types of SNS relationships, and investigates their relationships with social isolation, interpersonal trust, and SNS addiction. We classify SNS relationships into two types: (a) social relationships based on reciprocity between a user and his/her friends, and (b) parasocial relationships in which an ordinary user is aware of activities of a celebrity (e.g., famous actors, athletes, and others) but not vice versa. Based on achievements in studies of media effect and social psychology, we constructed a set of hypotheses, and tested them using a subsample of SNS users drawn from representative survey data in South Korea. We found that dependency on parasocial relationships is positively related with loneliness but negatively correlated with interpersonal distrust, while dependency on social relationship is negatively correlated with loneliness but positively related with trust. However, more dependency on both social and parasocial relationships are positively related with SNS addiction. Implications based on findings are also discussed.
Vîrgă, Delia; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A.; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia
This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models. PMID:25372143
Full Text Available This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models. Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.
Vîrgă, Delia; Curşeu, Petru Lucian; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia
This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.
Demirtaş, H Andaç; Dönmez, Ali
In this study, the effects of personal, situational, and relational variables (such as age, gender, gender role orientation, duration of relationship, relational satisfaction, and physical attractiveness of the partner) on jealousy are investigated. A sample of 454 individuals currently involved in dating or marital relationships (48 % married, 52 % unmarried) completed the Romantic Jealousy Questionnaire, Bem Sex Role Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Stepwise regression analyses and 2 (gender) x2 (gender role orientation) x2 (relational type) ANOVA's were submitted for analyzing the data. Analysis indicated that unmarried people reported higher levels of jealousy than married people (F1-446 = 5.029). Married women reported less jealousy than unmarried women and married women reported more jealousy than married men. Age, relational satisfaction level, expectation level about the duration of the relationship, and physical attractiveness of the partner were unique predictors of the reported level of jealousy (R2 = 0.12; adjusted R2 = 0.11; P physical, emotional, and cognitive responses to jealousy compared to men. Women used more constructive (F1-446 = 6.27) and less destructive strategies than men (F1-446 = 6.27). Unmarried people used more destructive strategies than married people (F1-446 = 3.84). Age, self-esteem, and the duration of the relationship were unique predictors of coping strategies. The present study revealed that jealousy was a multidimensional variable. In particular, relational type, self-esteem, age, relational satisfaction, and sex are highly correlated with jealousy.
Full Text Available The paper presents concurrent predictive relations of personality traits with social behaviour of children at the transition from early to middle childhood. Personality ratings of firstgraders (N = 316 were collected using the Inventory of Child and Adolescent Individual Differences (Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and the Social Competence and Behaviour Evaluation Scale (La Freniere et al., 2001 was employed to obtain assessments on the children's social competence, internalizing behaviour, and externalizing behaviour. To account for the same rater bias, the children's personality and social behaviour were rated by both teachers and assisstent teachers in the first grade of a nine-year compulsory school; the predictions were based on two sets of their cross-ratings. The firstgraders' social competentnce was consistently (over the cross-ratings predicted by high conscientiousness, mainly due to ratings of child compliance, whereas low conscientiousness was predictive of internalizing behaviour, especially due to low ratings of subjectively perceived child intelligence. Disagreeableness (both antagonism and strong will and low neuroticism contributed to assessments of the observed children's externalizing behaviour. In regard to neuroticism, ratings of child fear/insecurity were positively related to externalizing and ratings of child shyness were negatively associated with the observed incidence of externalizing behaviour.
Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik
An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an interaction between the evaluative content of the item and enhancement motivation in the rater. Study 2 introduced a possible cure; evaluative neutralization of items. To test the feasibility of the method lay psychometricians (undergraduates) reformulated existing personality test items according to written instructions. The new items were indeed lower in social desirability while essentially retaining the five factor structure and reliability of the inventory. We conclude that although neutralization is no miracle cure, it is simple and has beneficial effects. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Travizano, Matías; Makse, Hernán A.
It is commonly believed that patterns of social ties affect individuals' economic status. Here we translate this concept into an operational definition at the network level, which allows us to infer the economic well-being of individuals through a measure of their location and influence in the social network. We analyse two large-scale sources: telecommunications and financial data of a whole country's population. Our results show that an individual's location, measured as the optimal collective influence to the structural integrity of the social network, is highly correlated with personal economic status. The observed social network patterns of influence mimic the patterns of economic inequality. For pragmatic use and validation, we carry out a marketing campaign that shows a threefold increase in response rate by targeting individuals identified by our social network metrics as compared to random targeting. Our strategy can also be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.
Osama Hasan Gaber
This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD), Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and Dependent personality disorder (DPD) and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00)...
Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.
It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. PMID:24174890
A N Pronina
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topic of the development of children from orphanage in a foster home, showing the importance of personal maturity of the adoptive parents. The authors present the results of a study showing that there is a relationship between the individual criteria of personal maturity of the adoptive parents and the process of socialization and individualization of the children from orphanage.
Brooks, Jeffrey A; Freeman, Jonathan B
The visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual perception can give rise to systematic biases in face perception and may potentially act as a mediating factor for intergroup behavioral and evaluative biases. Drawing on neuroimaging evidence, we review the ways that top-down social cognitive factors shape visual perception of facial features. This emerging work in social and affective neuroscience builds upon work on predictive coding and perceptual priors in cognitive neuroscience and visual cognition, suggesting domain-general mechanisms that underlie a social-visual interface through which social cognition affects visual perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Skinner, T. Chas; John, Mary; Hampson, Sarah E.
, well-being, and social support. Results: Perceived impact of diabetes and supportive family and friends were prospectively predictive of participants' well-being measures. Although support from family and friends was predictive of better dietary self-care, this relationship was mediated by personal...... of diabetes are important determinants of both dietary self-care and well-being. In addition, personal models may serve to mediate the relationship between social support and dietary behavior.......Objectives: To examine whether peer support and illness representation mediate the link between family support, self-management and well-being. Method: Fifty-two adolescents (12-18 years old) with Type I diabetes were recruited and followed over 6 months, completing assessments of self- management...
Kortink, Elise D; Weeda, Wouter D; Crowley, Michael J; Gunther Moor, Bregtje; van der Molen, Melle J W
Monitoring social threat is essential for maintaining healthy social relationships, and recent studies suggest a neural alarm system that governs our response to social rejection. Frontal-midline theta (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power might act as a neural correlate of this system by being sensitive to unexpected social rejection. Here, we examined whether frontal-midline theta is modulated by individual differences in personality constructs sensitive to social disconnection. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of feedback-related brain potentials (i.e., the feedback-related negativity and P3) to social feedback. Sixty-five undergraduate female participants (mean age = 19.69 years) participated in the Social Judgment Paradigm, a fictitious peer-evaluation task in which participants provided expectancies about being liked/disliked by peer strangers. Thereafter, they received feedback signaling social acceptance/rejection. A community structure analysis was employed to delineate personality profiles in our data. Results provided evidence of two subgroups: one group scored high on attachment-related anxiety and fear of negative evaluation, whereas the other group scored high on attachment-related avoidance and low on fear of negative evaluation. In both groups, unexpected rejection feedback yielded a significant increase in theta power. The feedback-related negativity was sensitive to unexpected feedback, regardless of valence, and was largest for unexpected rejection feedback. The feedback-related P3 was significantly enhanced in response to expected social acceptance feedback. Together, these findings confirm the sensitivity of frontal midline theta oscillations to the processing of social threat, and suggest that this alleged neural alarm system behaves similarly in individuals that differ in personality constructs relevant to social evaluation.
Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai WongpakaranFaculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: Somatization is a common symptom among the elderly, and even though personality disorders have been found to be associated with somatization, personality traits have not yet been explored with regard to this symptom. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality traits and somatization, and social inhibition.Patients and methods: As part of a cross-sectional study of a community sample, 126 elderly Thais aged 60 years or over completed self-reporting questionnaires related to somatization and personality traits. Somatization was elicited from the somatization subscale when using the Symptom Checklist SCL-90 instrument. Personality traits were drawn from the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and social inhibition was identified when using the inventory of interpersonal problems. In addition, path analysis was used to establish the influence of personality traits on somatization and social inhibition.Results: Of the 126 participants, 51% were male, 55% were married, and 25% were retired. The average number of years in education was 7.6 (standard deviation =5.2. “Emotional stability” and “dominance” were found to have a direct effect on somatization, as were age and number of years in education, but not sex. Also, 35% of the total variance could be explained by the model, with excellent fit statistics. Dominance was found to have an indirect effect, via vigilance, on social inhibition, which was also influenced by number of years in education and emotional stability. Social inhibition was not found to have any effect on somatization, although hypothetically it should.Conclusion: “Emotional stability”, “dominance”, and “vigilance”, as well as age and the number of years in education, were found to have an effect on somatization. Attention should be paid to these factors in the elderly
Uehara, T; Sakado, K; Sakado, M; Sato, T; Someya, T
Stress coping is defined as a behavioral or cognitive response of an individual to uncomfortable or difficult situations. It has been suggested that coping, like personality, is related to the pathology and course of mental disorders. Accordingly, we here used a clinical sample to investigate the relationships between coping strategies and personality traits. Subjects were 60 outpatients who were in remission from major depressive disorder and who completed the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Munich Personality Test (MPT). Task-oriented coping showed a positive correlation with extraversion and frustration tolerance. Emotion-oriented coping was closely associated with neuroticism, esoteric tendencies and isolation tendency. Avoidance-oriented coping was related to extraversion. Principal component analysis indicated three corresponding factors between coping and personality; one was related to psychopathology (loading from the neuroticism, esoteric tendencies and isolation tendency scales of the MPT, and from the emotion-oriented coping scale of the CISS), a second was a social-adaptive ability component (loading from the frustration tolerance and extraversion scales of the MPT, and from the task-oriented coping and avoidance-oriented coping scales of the CISS), and a third was a passive-avoidance coping component (loaded from the emotion-oriented coping and avoidance-oriented coping scales of the CISS only). Some personality traits such as extraversion and frustration tolerance are significantly related to task-oriented coping, and psychopathological personality traits such as neuroticism are associated with emotional-oriented coping in major depressive disorder.
Grygolec, Jaroslaw; Coricelli, Giorgio; Rustichini, Aldo
We formulate and test a model that allows sharp separation between two different ways in which environment affects evaluation of outcomes, by comparing social vs. private and personal responsibility vs. chance. In the experiment, subjects chose between two lotteries, one low-risk and one high-risk. They could then observe the outcomes. By varying the environment between private (they could observe the outcome of the chosen lottery and the outcome of the lottery they had not chosen) and social (they could observe the outcome of the lottery chosen by another subject) we can differentiate the response and brain activity following the feedback in social and private settings. The evidence suggests that envy and pride are significant motives driving decisions and outcomes evaluation, stronger than private emotions like regret and rejoice, with ventral striatum playing a key role. When we focus on the outcome evaluation stage we demonstrate that BOLD signal in ventral striatum is increasing in the difference between obtained and counterfactual payoffs. For a given difference in payoffs, striatal responses are more pronounced in social than in private environment. Moreover, a positive interaction (complementarity) between social comparison and personal responsibility is reflected in the pattern of activity in the ventral striatum. At decision stage we observe getting ahead of the Joneses effect in ventral striatum with subjective value of risk larger in social than in private environment.
Mileounis, A.; Cuijpers, R.H.; Barakova, E.I.
This study investigates the effect of two personality traits, dominance and extroversion, on social intelligence. To test these traits, a NAO robot was used, which was teleoperated through a computer using a Wizard of Oz technique. A within-subject design was conducted with extroversion as
Harker, L; Keltner, D
To test hypotheses about positive emotion, the authors examined the relationship of positive emotional expression in women's college pictures to personality, observer ratings, and life outcomes. Consistent with the notion that positive emotions help build personal resources, positive emotional expression correlated with the self-reported personality traits of affiliation, competence, and low negative emotionality across adulthood and predicted changes in competence and negative emotionality. Observers rated women displaying more positive emotion more favorably on several personality dimensions and expected interactions with them to be more rewarding; thus, demonstrating the beneficial social consequences of positive emotions. Finally, positive emotional expression predicted favorable outcomes in marriage and personal well-being up to 30 years later. Controlling for physical attractiveness and social desirability had little impact on these findings.
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kakarani, Styliani; Kolovou, Demetra
The present study examined the relationships between shyness, a number of personal and interpersonal variables (i.e. social skills, self-esteem, attachment style, advanced Theory of Mind skills and peer relations) in a sample of 243 Greek pre-adolescents. Participants completed self-reports of the variables. Results indicated that females scored…
Recently the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is being ... recognize and instill CSR initiatives into their corporate culture and business ... Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Financial Performance, ROA, ROE, and ROS.
While a specific personality trait may escalate suicide ideation, contextual factors such as social support, when provided effectively, may alleviate the effects of such personality traits. This study examined the moderating role of social support in the relationship between the Big-Five personality traits and suicide ideation. Significant interactions were found between social support and extraversion and emotional stability. Specifically, the relationship between emotional stability and extraversion to suicide ideation was exacerbated when social support was low. Slope analysis showed openness also interacted with low social support. Results were computed for frequency, duration and attitude dimensions of suicide ideation. Extraversion interacted with social support to predict all three dimensions. Social support moderated emotional stability to predict frequency and duration, moderated conscientiousness towards frequency and attitude, and moderated openness towards attitude. The results imply that whereas personality traits may be difficult to alter, social support may play a significant role in saving a life. Psychologists should include family and friends when treating a suicidal youth, guiding them to awareness of one's personality and being more supportive. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Miguel A. Carbonero
Full Text Available The performance of school children has been studied by considering partial relationships between several personal variables such as the link between cognition and motivation. However, contextual variables, such as a child’s willingness to accept social responsibility, also influence students’ social and academic performance. Thus, students with greater responsibility have a better attitude toward their studies, resulting in higher academic achievement. This 2-year study aims to reveal to what extent an intervention program affects student performance and is based on the Theory of Positive Action among young people proposed by Don Hellison and the Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen. The program focuses on positive influences on social and personal responsibility, taking into consideration parental styles, gender, and academic performance. The program was a part of the educational curricula in participating schools and it targeted four main areas: (a teaching units using academic texts about social responsibility, (b student training in mediation processes, (c teacher training, and (d family training and involvement. A total of 271 students took part from first and second year of Secondary Education (12–14 years old. The experimental group was made up of 132 students while the remaining 139 formed the control group. All participants completed the Assessment Scale of Social Responsibility Attitudes in Secondary Education and the Parent–Adolescent Communication Scale. Results show that students in the experimental group performed significantly better than those in the control group. Additionally, the issue of social responsibility seems to be related to commitment, self-discipline and perseverance. Regarding gender, males appear to score higher in the factor for well-mannered, friendly and tidy. Finally, a positive relationship has been identified between social responsibility attitudes and parenting with an open communicational
Carbonero, Miguel A; Martín-Antón, Luis J; Otero, Lourdes; Monsalvo, Eugenio
The performance of school children has been studied by considering partial relationships between several personal variables such as the link between cognition and motivation. However, contextual variables, such as a child's willingness to accept social responsibility, also influence students' social and academic performance. Thus, students with greater responsibility have a better attitude toward their studies, resulting in higher academic achievement. This 2-year study aims to reveal to what extent an intervention program affects student performance and is based on the Theory of Positive Action among young people proposed by Don Hellison and the Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen. The program focuses on positive influences on social and personal responsibility, taking into consideration parental styles, gender, and academic performance. The program was a part of the educational curricula in participating schools and it targeted four main areas: (a) teaching units using academic texts about social responsibility, (b) student training in mediation processes, (c) teacher training, and (d) family training and involvement. A total of 271 students took part from first and second year of Secondary Education (12-14 years old). The experimental group was made up of 132 students while the remaining 139 formed the control group. All participants completed the Assessment Scale of Social Responsibility Attitudes in Secondary Education and the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale. Results show that students in the experimental group performed significantly better than those in the control group. Additionally, the issue of social responsibility seems to be related to commitment, self-discipline and perseverance. Regarding gender, males appear to score higher in the factor for well-mannered, friendly and tidy. Finally, a positive relationship has been identified between social responsibility attitudes and parenting with an open communicational style. This paper
Belgrad, Benjamin A; Griffen, Blaine D
Assessing the stability of animal personalities has become a major goal of behavioral ecologists. Most personality studies have utilized solitary individuals, but little is known on the extent that individuals retain their personality across ecologically relevant group settings. We conducted a field survey which determined that mud crabs, Panopeus herbstii, remain scattered as isolated individuals on degraded oyster reefs while high quality reefs can sustain high crab densities (>10 m -2 ). We examined the impact of these differences in social context on personality by quantifying the boldness of the same individual crabs when in isolation and in natural cohorts. Crabs were also exposed to either a treatment of predator cues or a control of no cue throughout the experiment to assess the strength of this behavioral reaction norm. Crabs were significantly bolder when in groups than as solitary individuals with predator cue treatments exhibiting severally reduced crab activity levels in comparison to corresponding treatments with no predator cues. Behavioral plasticity depended on the individual and was strongest in the presence of predator cues. While bold crabs largely maintained their personality in isolation and group settings, shy crabs would become substantially bolder when among conspecifics. These results imply that the shifts in crab boldness were a response to changes in perceived predation risk, and provide a mechanism for explaining variation in behavioral plasticity. Such findings suggest that habitat degradation may produce subpopulations with different behavioral patterns because of differing social interactions between individual animals.
Sandal, Gro M.; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert. L.; Gravdal, Lene
The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD may be a negative predictor for performance under stress.
Damanik, R.; Effendy, E.; Camellia, V.
Schizophrenia is a dramatic mental illness with tragic manifestation. The consequences of the illness are for the individual, affected his or her family and society. Schizophrenia is one of the twenty illness that causes Years Lost due to Disability. Treating only the symptom is insufficient. The aim of treatment must include the quality of life of aschizophrenic person. This study aims to examine the relationship between cognitive impairment and performance of the person with schizophrenia. Cognitive test is scaled with Indonesian version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-Ina), while personal and social performance isscaled with Personal and Social Performance scale. There are many studies that search the relationship between cognitive impairment and social functioning of schizophrenic patients, but this is the first study that uses PSP and MoCA-Ina. Both PSP and MoCA-Ina are easy to use but still have high sensitivity and specificity, and perhaps can build people’s interest to use it in clinical practice. Twenty-five male schizophrenic patients were assessed in Prof. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital of North Sumatera Province of Indonesia. Positive correlations between MoCA-Ina and PSP score were identified. Clinicians should pay attention to cognitive and might give some early intervention to it.
Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie
Research in social epidemiology suggests that the absence of positive social relationships is a significant risk factor for broad-based morbidity and mortality. The nature of these social relationships and the mechanisms underlying this association are of increasing interest as the population gets older and the health care costs associated with chronic disease escalate in industrialized countries. We review selected evidence on the nature of social relationships and focus on one particular fa...
M Kingsbury, Diana; P Bhatta, Madhav; Castellani, Brian; Khanal, Aruna; Jefferis, Eric; S Hallam, Jeffery
Women comprise 50% of the refugee population, 25% of whom are of reproductive age. Female refugees are at risk for experiencing significant hardships associated with the refugee experience, including after resettlement. For refugee women, the strength of their personal social networks can play an important role in mitigating the stress of resettlement and can be an influential source of support during specific health events, such as pregnancy. A personal social network analysis was conducted among 45 resettled Bhutanese refugee women who had given birth within the past 2 years in the Akron Metropolitan Area of Northeast Ohio. Data were collected using in-depth interviews conducted in Nepali over a 6-month period in 2016. Size, demographic characteristics of ties, frequency of communication, length of relationship, and strength of connection were the social network measures used to describe the personal networks of participants. A qualitative analysis was also conducted to assess what matters were commonly discussed within networks and how supportive participants perceived their networks to be. Overall, participants reported an average of 3 close personal connections during their pregnancy. The networks were comprised primarily of female family members whom the participant knew prior to resettlement in the U.S. Participants reported their networks as "very close" and perceived their connections to be supportive of them during their pregnancies. These results may be used to guide future research, as well as public health programming, that seeks to improve the pregnancy experiences of resettled refugee women.
Kierkegaard, Marie; Einarsson, Ulrika; Gottberg, Kristina; von Koch, Lena; Holmqvist, Lotta Widén
Multiple sclerosis has a vast impact on health, but the relationship between walking, manual dexterity, cognition and activity/participation is unclear. The specific aims were to explore the discriminative ability of measures of walking, manual dexterity and cognition, and to identify cut-off values in these measures, for prediction of independence in personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) and activity/participation in social and lifestyle activities. Data from 164 persons with multiple sclerosis were collected during home visits with the following measures: the 2 × 5 m walk test, the Nine-hole Peg Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Katz Personal and Instrumental ADL Indexes, and the Frenchay Activities Index (measuring frequency in social and lifestyle activities). The 2 × 5 m walk test and the Nine-hole Peg Test had high and better discriminative and predictive ability than the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Cut-off values were identified. The accuracy of predictions was increased above all by combining the 2 × 5 m walk test and the Nine-hole Peg Test. The proposed cut-off values in the 2 × 5 m walk test and the Nine-hole Peg Test may be used as indicators of functioning and to identify persons risking activity limitations and participation restrictions. However, further studies are needed to confirm the usefulness in clinical practice.
Greenberg, Sarah; Rosenblum, Katherine L; McInnis, Melvin G; Muzik, Maria
Social relationships and attachment are core developmental elements of human existence and survival that evolve over the lifetime of an individual. The internal and external factors that influence them include the presence of illness in the individual or in their immediate environment. The developmental aspects of attachment and social relationships have become increasingly of interest and relevance in light of early developmental epigenetic modification of gene expression patterns that may influence subsequent behavioral patterns and outcomes. This review examines extant literature on attachment and social relationships in bipolar cohorts. Despite many methodological challenges, the findings indicate that social relationships and capacity for attachment are significantly compromised in individuals with bipolar disorder compared to other mood disorders and normal controls. Though extant research is limited, research clearly points toward the importance of social relationships on the etiology, course, and consequences of bipolar disorder. We highlight a number of key considerations for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja
Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.
Niitsuma, Mayuko; Katsuki, Takeshi; Sakuma, Yumiko; Sato, Chifumi
The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between social skills and early resignation in Japanese novice nurses. The early resignation of novice nurses has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the personal sociality of novice nurses and their early resignation. We surveyed 272 nurses with 1-3 years of experience. Instances of early resignation were studied by using a questionnaire, and their social skills were measured using Kikuchi's Scale of Social Skills:18 items (KiSS-18), a tool developed by Kikuchi to estimate sociality. Nurses with low sociality were more likely to resign than those with higher sociality. The lack of advanced social skills was closely associated with a higher likelihood of early resignation. The presence of advanced social skills appeared to potentially prevent resignation among novice nurses. Further investigation is needed to determine the causal relationship between sociality and early resignation. Social skills training for novice nurses may be of benefit in preventing early resignation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Berry, Clio; Greenwood, Kathryn
Personal recovery accounts suggest that a positive therapeutic relationship with an optimistic mental health professional may facilitate social inclusion. However, little empirical research has investigated the role of the therapeutic relationship in social outcomes or explored potential mechanisms of change within community psychosis care. This study investigated the direct predictive associations of the therapeutic relationship and professional expectancies for social inclusion and vocational activity for young people with psychosis, and indirect associations through hopefulness. Young people with psychosis and their main mental health professional (n=51 dyads) participated across two time points. Measures of therapeutic relationships, professional expectancies, and vocational activity were obtained at baseline. Measures of hopefulness, social inclusion and vocational activity were obtained at follow-up. Direct and indirect associations between variables were analysed using path modelling. Directed path models were consistent with a positive therapeutic relationship and positive professional expectancies predicting social inclusion and vocational activity through mediation by increased patient domain-specific hopefulness. The professional-rated therapeutic relationship more directly predicts change in vocational activity status. Change in vocational activity status predicts increased patient hopefulness. The therapeutic relationship between professionals and young people with psychosis appears hope-inspiring and important to patients' social inclusion and vocational outcomes. Vocational activity may produce reciprocal gains in hopefulness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smrithi; Devdas; Ashok; Meghashree; Aarathi
Interpersonal Attraction is the attraction between two people, which leads to friendships and even romantic relationships. Although Interpersonal Attraction has been a long - standing concept, only recently it is being studied regarding its neurobiological and socio evolutionary basis. It is now a major area of research in Social as well as Evolutionary Psychology.
Corina Anamaria IOAN
Full Text Available More than ever doctors are beginning to recognize that beyond impeccable professionalism shown to the patient, equally imports became part of communication, and in one century of the Internet, the most effective communication process moves online, in the social networks. It is important for doctors to develop a personal brand because a reputation, passed with internet speed can only have a positive effect. In a century in which patients make the decision to see a particular doctor, largely based on recommendations and research the forums online discussions, doctors are beginning realize the importance of a strong presence, constant and reliable environment through online networks social priority.
Amparo eRuiz-Tagle; Elsa eCostanzo; Delfina eDe Achával; Salvador eGuinjoan
Social cognition was assessed in a clinical sample of personality disorder (PD) stable patients receiving ambulatory treatment (N = 17) and healthy matched controls (N = 17) using tests of recognition of emotions in faces and eyes, in a test of social faux pas and in theory of mind (ToM) stories. Results indicated that when compared with healthy controls, individuals with PD showed a clear tendency to obtain lower scoring in tasks assessing recognition of emotion in faces (T = −2.602, p = 0.0...
Full Text Available Stylistics is a linguistic analysis on literary and non-literary texts. This article is concerned with a systemic stylistic analysis on a poem in terms of Systemic Functional Linguistics and Verbal Art Semiotics. It uses library research, qualitative data, documentary study, descriptive method and intrinsic-objective approach. The semantic analysis results in both automatized and foregrounded meanings. Then the automatized meaning produces lexical cohesion and in turn, it produces subject matter. Meanwhile, the foregrounded meaning produces the literary meaning and in turn, it creates theme. Finally, the analysis indicates that the subject matter is about daily works, the literary meaning is about the complete severance and the theme is about personal relationship.
D. P. Zavodchikov
Full Text Available Introduction. Today, the problem of personal planning and realization of the individual professional future has become very urgent in the conditions of uncertainty of the social and economic environment development, fast updating of technologies and transformation of the world of professions. Therefore, skills of self-regulation and attraction of all psychological abilities of the individual are required to build up personal professional perspective.The aim of the publication is to present the results of the pilot study of the relationship of self-regulation parameters and components of personal professional perspective at the stage of vocational training.Methodology and research methods. The methodological basis of the research is subject-activity approach to the study of the phenomena “professional self-determination”. To obtain empirical data, V. I. Morosanova’s questionnaire “The Style of Self-Regulation of Behaviour” and the scheme of creation of the personal professional plan developed by E. A. Klimov and added with the valuable and moral components of self-determination offered by N. S. Pryazhnikov were applied. Mathematical-statistical processing of the results was carried out by means of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparative analysis; the Spearman’s rank correlation test was used for the correlation analysis.Results and scientific novelty. In the present article, the idea of self-determination of the subject in the professional sphere is discussed at the methodological level. Creation of personal professional perspective is shown as practical actions for predicting of the professional future under the developed behavioural self-regulation structures of the personality.The relationship of self-regulation and professional perspective (as the measured parameters of professional self-determination was revealed at the empirical level on the sample of students of the
Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.
This article aims at presenting different approaches to the phenomenon of social capital The concept of social capital is ambiguous and that is why we will highlight a number of definitions of this notion. The central attention of the paper focuses on the relationship between social capital and
Risager, Bjarke Skærlund
that is oriented towards enacting new ways of social and political living and whose identity is continually formed in the movement’s dialectical relationship with its social and environmental surroundings; (2) the relationship between the social movement and place is dialectical and mutually constitutive......Inspired by the Occupy movement, the Egyptian revolutionaries and other of the 2011 social movements, this dissertation investigates the relationship between social movement and place. I argue that (1) there are epistemological and empirical reasons for conceiving of a social movements in a way......: the physical and symbolic characteristics of place influence the formation of the movement and its actions while the latter re-creates the place; (3) a social movement can re-create a ‘hegemonic place’, a node in hegemonic structures, as an ‘evental place’, a prefigurative place characterised by a new way...
Zechner, Michelle R; Gill, Kenneth J
This study examined whether the social cognitive theory (SCT) model can be used to explain the variance in physical exercise among persons with serious mental illnesses. A cross-sectional, correlational design was employed. Participants from community mental health centers and supported housing programs (N = 120) completed 9 measures on exercise, social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and goal-setting. Hierarchical regression tested the relationship between self-report physical activity and SCT determinants while controlling for personal characteristics. The model explained 25% of the variance in exercise. Personal characteristics explained 18% of the variance in physical activity, SCT variables of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and goals were entered simultaneously, and they added an r2 change value of .07. Gender (β = -.316, p = .001) and Brief Symptom Inventory Depression subscale (β = -2.08, p exercise. In a separate stepwise multiple regression, we entered only SCT variables as potential predictors of exercise. Goal-setting was the single significant predictor, F(1, 118) = 13.59, p exercise in persons with mental illnesses. Goal-setting practices, self-efficacy, outcome expectations and social support from friends for exercise should be encouraged by psychiatric rehabilitation practitioners. People with more depressive symptoms and women exercise less. More work is needed on theoretical exploration of predictors of exercise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Jensen, Lasse Meinert
. In this paper, I will discuss how studies of persons’ time-use and their experience of everyday life can illuminate contemporary social problems. The study of what people “actually do” in their everyday lives mirrors the theoretical debate in current Personality Psychology about the importance of “behavior......” for understanding personality – and problems in the latter debate can thus shed light on how to understand the former. I will draw on empirical material from my PhD-project, where I’ve carried out a survey study, combining time-use and diary methods. The empirical material contains information about not only......-related) responsibilities. Much social pathology is related to or manifests itself as time-use problems. And in addition, the understanding of such problems is often confined to the private sphere of the individual’s life – often without considering the societal structures within which the individual lives her life...
Clifton, Allan; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F
When assessing personality disorder traits, not all judges make equally valid judgments of all targets. The present study uses social network analysis to investigate factors associated with reliability and validity in peer assessment. Participants were groups of military recruits (N=809) who acted as both targets and judges in a round-robin design. Participants completed self- and informant versions of the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology. Social network matrices were constructed based on reported acquaintance, and cohesive subgroups were identified. Judges who shared a mutual subgroup were more reliable and had higher self-peer agreement than those who did not. Partitioning networks into two subgroups achieved more consistent improvements than multiple subgroups. We discuss implications for multiple informant assessments.
藤田, 文; Aya, Fujita
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the sibling relationship on the adolescents' social skills in friendship. One hundred and seventy-seven undergraduate students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their sibling relationship and their social skills in friendship. Their sibling relationship was categorized eight types; close, intimate, hostile, dominate, intimate-hostile, intimate-dominate, hostile-dominate, separate. The result showed that the students ...
Chee, Benedict Tay Tiong; Taezoon, Park; Xu, Qianli; Ng, Jamie; Tan, Odelia
Past research showed that people are able to perceive the personality of others at zero acquaintances. There are two main ways, verbal and non-verbal methods, which play an important role for one in perceiving personality of others. Extensive research was conducted in relating personality with verbal, paralinguistic and gestures cues. However, there are not much research, to our knowledge, that relates the appearance and perceived personality of robots. The main objective of this research is to relate individual design features with big five perceived personality of the robots. We used the results of rated perceptions across 100 pictorial images of robots and relate the results with the 40 individual design features using General Linear Model (GLM). The initial results of the GLM analysis showed that participants' rating of personality of robot fell along the dimension of perceived friendliness which is a common rotation of extroversion and agreeableness. Some relationships were found between humanlike design features and perceived friendliness of robots. Since participants are more familiar with humans, participants perceived robots with humanlike features friendlier than the others. Some other findings such as color and surface material were found related with participants' perceived friendliness as well. In the future, we will work on the analysis of the main and interaction effects of individual features on user's perceived friendliness.
Zhou, Jing; Shin, Shung Jae; Brass, Daniel J; Choi, Jaepil; Zhang, Zhi-Xue
Taking an interactional perspective on creativity, the authors examined the influence of social networks and conformity value on employees' creativity. They theorized and found a curvilinear relationship between number of weak ties and creativity such that employees exhibited greater creativity when their number of weak ties was at intermediate levels rather than at lower or higher levels. In addition, employees' conformity value moderated the curvilinear relationship between number of weak ties and creativity such that employees exhibited greater creativity at intermediate levels of number of weak ties when conformity was low than when it was high. A proper match between personal values and network ties is critical for understanding creativity.
Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter
-based recommender system which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags from a Web 2.0 tagging application. The proposed approach extends the basic similarity calculus with external factors such as tag popularity, tag representativeness and the affinity between user and tag. In order...... to study and evaluate the recommender system, we have conducted an experiment involving 38 people from 12 countries using data from Del.icio.us , a social bookmarking web system on which users can share their personal bookmarks......Tagging activity has been recently identified as a potential source of knowledge about personal interests, preferences, goals, and other attributes known from user models. Tags themselves can be therefore used for finding personalized recommendations of items. In this paper, we present a tag...
Mounts, Nina S.
Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…
Gregory D. Webster
Full Text Available Has the emergence of evolutionary psychology had an increasing impact on personality and social psychological research published over the past two decades? If so, is its growing influence substantially different from that of other emerging psychological areas? These questions were addressed in the present study by conducting a content analysis of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP from 1985 to 2004 using the PsycINFO online abstract database. Specifically, keyword searches for “evol*” or “Darwin*” revealed that the percentage of JPSP articles drawing on evolutionary theory was modest, but increased significantly between 1985 and 2004. To compare the growing impact of evolutionary psychology with other psychological areas, similar keywords searches were performed in JPSP for emotion and motivation, judgment and decision making, neuroscience and psychophysiology, stereotyping and prejudice, and terror management theory. The increase in evolutionary theory in JPSP over time was practically equal to the mean increase over time for the other five areas. Thus, evolutionary psychology has played an increasing role in shaping personality and social psychological research over the past 20 years, and is growing at a rate consistent with other emerging psychological areas.
GREKIN, EMILY R.; ONDERSMA, STEVEN J.
Aims Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women. Methods Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health. Findings Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman’s home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures. PMID:24391354
Huprich, Steven K; Porcerelli, John; Keaschuk, Rachel; Binienda, Juliann; Engle, Benjamin
This paper reports the results of two studies in a nonclinical (n=105) and primary care outpatient sample (n=110), in which Depressive Personality Disorder (DPD), Dysthymia, and depression were assessed for their distinctive relationship with perfectionism. Results from both studies found that self-reported DPD, Dysthymia, and depressive symptoms were all intercorrelated, and that DPD, Dysthymia, and depressive symptoms were correlated with three dimensions of perfectionism-Concern over Mistakes, Doubts about Actions, and Parental Criticism. In the nonclinical sample, variance in measures of DPD was predicted by measures of perfectionism after controlling for depression and Dysthymia symptoms. A similar pattern of findings was observed in the primary care sample. This relationship with perfectionism did not occur when Dysthymia or depressive symptoms were predicted. Nevertheless, much of the variance in measures of DPD, Dysthymia, and depressive symptoms is associated with each other and not perfectionism. It is concluded that a common factor or set of factors underlies these disorders, but that DPD may be more strongly related to perfectionism than Dysthymia and depression. As a common factor(s) is identified, measures of DPD and Dysthymia may be refined, thereby increasing the discriminant validity of their measures.
N hasan neghad
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological hardiness is a personal factor and social support is regarded as an environmental factor that can facilitate adjustment to disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adaptation with psychological hardiness and social support in individuals with Multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Seventy two females with MS and 25 males with MSwere selected through randomized sampling from two MS centers. Main variables of the study including adaptation, psychological hardiness, and social supportwere assessed respectively by Adaptation Inventory, Personal Attitudes Survey, and Social Support Questionnaire. Results: Spearman correlation coefficients revealed that there are significant relationships between adaptation and psychological hardiness (p<0.0001, as well as between adaptation and social support (p<0.0001. In addition, Multiple linear Regression showed that psychological hardiness (β= -0.483 and social support (β= -0.240 can explain 35/1% of adaptation variance in individuals with MS. Psychological hardinessproved to have a more important role in adaptation of individuals with MS. Conclusion: The study data demonstrated that personal factors like psychological hardiness and environmental factors such as social support can predict adjustment in individuals with MS. In order to clarify mechanisms of these factors on adaptation in individuals with MS, morelongitudinal and experimental studiesare required. These results are alsoapplicable in designing therapeutic programs for individuals with MS.
Landazabal, Maite Garaigordobil
The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to study the concomitant relationships between psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and other personality traits; and (b) to identify the predictive variables of psychopathological symptoms. The sample consists of 322 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old. This study uses correlational methodology. In order to assess psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and personality traits, the following scales are used: the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1983), the Cooperativeness Scale (CS; Rigby, Cox, and Black, 1997), the MESSY social skills scale (Matson, Rotatori, and Helsel, 1983), and the TPT Personality Test (Corral, Pamos, Pereña, and& Seisdedos, 2002). Pearson coefficients suggest that adolescents with many psychopathological symptoms have low levels of cooperative behaviors and social skills. They also score high in inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, overconfidence, and jealousy-withdrawal and have low levels of emotional stability, sociability, and responsibility. Through multiple regression analyses, the following variables were identified as predictors of psychopathological symptoms: jealousy-withdrawal, low social integration, impulsiveness, and low self-concept. The role played by intervention programs promoting socio-emotional development to prevent psychopathological symptoms and enhance mental health is discussed.
Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Preisig, Martin; Rossier, Jérôme
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between major recent life events that occurred during the last 5 years, social and personal resources, and subjective quality of life (QoL). A total of 1801 participants from the general population (CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study) completed the Life Events Questionnaire, the Social Support Questionnaire, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory Revised, and the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Major life events were modestly associated with the QoL (about 5 % of the explained variance). However, QoL was significantly related to perceived social support and personality traits (about 37 % of the explained variance). Particularly, perceived social support, extraversion and conscientiousness personality dimensions were positively linked to life satisfaction, whereas a high level of neuroticism was negatively associated with QoL. This study highlights the negative but temporary association between critical events and QoL. However, a combination of high conscientiousness and extraversion, and positive social support may explain better variances for a high-perceived QoL.
Full Text Available Telecom users constitute a huge, but relatively sparse social network. Community discovery has been a research topic of data mining. Traditional algorithms are greatly influenced by outliers. This paper presents a new algorithm based on social triangle theory. Experiments show that the new algorithm is effective.
Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, Mk; Jiloha, Rc; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, Gk
To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.
Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK
Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670
Elmisery, Ahmed M.
In our connected world, recommender systems have become widely known for their ability to provide expert and personalize referrals to end-users in different domains. The rapid growth of social networks and new kinds of systems so called "social recommender systems" are rising, where recommender systems can be utilized to find a suitable content according to end-users' personal preferences. However, preserving end-users' privacy in social recommender systems is a very challenging problem that might prevent end-users from releasing their own data, which detains the accuracy of extracted referrals. In order to gain accurate referrals, social recommender systems should have the ability to preserve the privacy of end-users registered in this system. In this paper, we present a middleware that runs on end-users' Set-top boxes to conceal their profile data when released for generating referrals, such that computation of recommendation proceeds over the concealed data. The proposed middleware is equipped with two concealment protocols to give users a complete control on the privacy level of their profiles. We present an IPTV network scenario and perform a number of different experiments to test the efficiency and accuracy of our protocols. As supported by the experiments, our protocols maintain the recommendations accuracy with acceptable privacy level.
Full Text Available Social cognition was assessed in a clinical sample of Personality Disorder (PD stable patients receiving ambulatory treatment (N=17 and healthy matched controls (N=17 using tests of recognition of emotions in faces and eyes, in a test of social faux pas and in theory of mind stories. Results indicated that when compared with healthy controls, individuals with PD showed a clear tendency to obtain lower scoring in tasks assessing recognition of emotion in faces (T=-2,602, p=0,014, eyes (T=-3,593, p=0,001, TOM stories (T=-4,706, p=0,000 and Faux pas (T=-2,227, p=0,035. In the present pilot study, PD individuals with a normal cognitive efficiency showed an impaired performance at social cognition assessment including emotion recognition and theory of mind.
Kiseleva Elena Stanislavovna
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the essence of psychological approach application to personal sales in conditions of relationship marketing domination. Defintions of global relationship marketing, marketing of client relations and personal sale are given. New element of marketing system is proposed as well as universal model of competence for personal agents. Technique for psychological image of the client has been developed.
Kiseleva Elena Stanislavovna
The paper analyzes the essence of psychological approach application to personal sales in conditions of relationship marketing domination. Defintions of global relationship marketing, marketing of client relations and personal sale are given. New element of marketing system is proposed as well as universal model of competence for personal agents. Technique for psychological image of the client has been developed.
Within the relationships in modern sport, coaches hold a degree of authority over their athletes and, by implication, operate to some degree as supervisors. Athletes are in the subordinate roles as employees are to employers. As in most employment relationships, there are times when athletes, like employees, find ...
Bentley, Eryn; Millman, Zachary B; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Kline, Emily; Pitts, Steven C; DeVylder, Jordan E; Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason
Stress is related to symptom severity among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, although this relation may be influenced by protective factors. We explored whether the association of CHR diagnosis with social stress is moderated by the quality of parent-child relationships in a sample of 96 (36 CHR; 60 help-seeking controls) adolescents and young adults receiving mental health services. We examined self-reported social stress and parent-child relationships as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), and determined CHR status from the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndrome (SIPS). The social stress subscale, part of the clinical domain of the BASC-2, assesses feelings of stress and tension in personal relationships and the relations with parents subscale, part of the adaptive domain of the BASC-2, assesses perceptions of importance in family and quality of parent-child relationship. There was a modest direct relation between risk diagnosis and social stress. Among those at CHR, however, there was a significant relation between parent-child relationships and social stress (b=-0.73, t=-3.77, psocial stress for those at risk for psychosis. Findings provide additional evidence to suggest that interventions that simultaneously target both social stress and parent-child relationships might be relevant for adolescents and young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yulia S. Shkurko
Full Text Available Neurosociology is a new approach aimed at integrating social and biologicalsciences. In this paper, first we used Alan Fiske’s theory (1992 of elementary forms of social relationships as a nexus between sociological studies of groups and group-based emotions and relevant neuroscientific findings. Then, we identified types of social situations that generate basic emotions (happiness, anger, sadness, and fear within particular relationships. Individuals participate differently in these situations. Therefore, they are expected to differ in their emotions and cognitions, as well as in their underlying neural activity. Finally, we considered social affiliation and social hierarchy corresponding to communal sharing and authority ranking social relationships to demonstrate the logic of neurosociological research.
Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Mengle, Shruta; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Hensel, Devon; Herbenick, Debby; Anand, Vivek
Little research exists on women who do not identify as heterosexual in India. Social support for sexual minority women may protect against the effects of discrimination. An examination of significant social relationships may point to both strengths and weaknesses in this support. We aimed to understand relationship prioritisation and communication patterns associated with the social support of sexual minority women in Mumbai. In partnership with the Humsafar Trust, India's oldest and largest sexual and gender minority-advocacy organisation, we conducted photo-elicitation interviews with 18 sexual minority women, using participants' photographs to prompt dialogue about their social support. Intimate partners were a source of dependable support and many of those without relationships were seeking them. Participants' extended networks included friends and family as well as less formal relationships of social support. Participants mediated their communication with particular social network members, which involved filtering information sexual identity, romantic interests, and personal aspirations, among others. The diverse relationships that sexual minority women have in their social support networks may be used to guide programmes to improve health outcomes.
Bower, Marlee; Conroy, Elizabeth; Perz, Janette
Both loneliness and a lack of social integration are associated with serious physical and psychological health issues. One population highly susceptible to social isolation and loneliness are individuals who are homeless, who also experience high rates of mental disorder and relationship breakdown. Despite this, little research has explored how social networks, isolation and loneliness are experienced for those with a history of homelessness. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to get a nuanced understanding of how social networks and isolation are experienced and understood by individuals experiencing homelessness. Sixteen participants who were either homeless (n = 11) or previously homeless (n = 5) in Sydney, Australia, completed one-off interviews that were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants constructed their social networks as being both constrained and enabled by marginalisation. They experienced rejection from the non-homeless: the loss of critical network members, including rejection from family and a lack of companionship, and low quality and precarious relationships within the homeless community. These accounts were best conceptualised through loneliness theory. Participant's accounts signal that the homeless will likely continue feeling isolated if mainstream attitudes towards homelessness remain stigmatising and discriminatory. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Travlos, Antonios K; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Douma, Irene
Bullying is a subset of aggressive behavior that has severe consequences in children's psychosocial development. Bullying behaviors can be influenced by personal and social factors, such as gender, age, school type, and sport participation, as well as psychological constructs, such as moral disengagement. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of moral disengagement on bullying behaviors and the moderating role of personal and social factors. In this study, 2,252 students ( M = 13.57, SD = 1.17; 1,125 girls, and 1,127 boys) attending the sixth grade of primary school and secondary education have participated. Participants completed the revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and Bandura's Moral Disengagement Questionnaire along with general questions about their demographic characteristics. The results of the analyses demonstrated moderation effects of gender on the moral disengagement-physical bullying relationship and of age on the moral disengagement-verbal bullying relationship. No significant moderating effect emerged for school type and sport participation. The findings of the present study provide valuable information about the role of personal and social factors on bullying behavior.
Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Llacqua, Vito; Lai, Hak Kan; Jantunen, Matti; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino
Social and demographic factors have been found to play a significant role in differences between time-activity patterns of population subgroups. Since time-activity patterns largely influence personal exposure to compounds as individuals move across microenvironments, exposure subgroups within the population may be defined by factors that influence daily activity patterns. Socio-demographic and environmental factors that define time-activity subgroups also define quantifiable differences in VOC personal exposures to different sources and individual compounds in the Expolis study. Significant differences in exposures to traffic-related compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were observed in relation to gender, number of children and living alone. Categorization of exposures further indicated time exposed to traffic at work and time in a car as important determinants. Increased exposures to decane, nonane and undecane were observed for males, housewives and self-employed. Categorization of exposures indicated exposure subgroups related to workshop use and living downtown. Higher exposures to 3-carene and α-pinene commonly found in household cleaning products and fragrances were associated with more children, while exposures to traffic compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were reduced with more children. Considerable unexplained variation remained in categorization of exposures associated with home product use and fragrances, due to individual behavior and product choice. More targeted data collection methods in VOC exposure studies for these sources should be used. Living alone was associated with decreased exposures to 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-butanol, and traffic-related compounds. Identification of these subgroups may help to reduce the large amount of unexplained variation in VOC exposure studies. Further they may help in assessing impacts of urban planning that result in changes in behavior of individuals, resulting in shifts in
Porter, Eliora; Chambless, Dianne L; Keefe, John R
Social anxiety is associated with difficulties in intimate relationships. Because fear of negative evaluation is a cardinal feature of social anxiety disorder, perceived criticism and upset due to criticism from partners may play a significant role in socially anxious individuals' intimate relationships. In the present study, we examine associations between social anxiety and perceived, observed, and expressed criticism in interactions with romantic partners. In Study 1, we collected self-report data from 343 undergraduates and their romantic partners on social anxiety symptoms, perceived and expressed criticism, and upset due to criticism. One year later couples reported whether they were still in this relationship. Results showed that social anxiety was associated with being more critical of one's partner, and among women, being more upset by criticism from a partner. Social anxiety was not related to perceived criticism, nor did criticism variables predict relationship status at Time 2. In Study 2, undergraduate couples with a partner high (n = 26) or low (n = 26) in social anxiety completed a 10-minute, video-recorded problem-solving task. Both partners rated their perceived and expressed criticism and upset due to criticism following the interaction, and observers coded interactions for criticism. Results indicated that social anxiety was not significantly related to any of the criticism variables, but post hoc analyses cast doubts upon the external validity of the problem-solving task. Results are discussed in light of known difficulties with intimacy among individuals with social anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Thomas, William E; Brown, Rupert; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Vignoles, Vivian L; Manzi, Claudia; D'Angelo, Chiara; Holt, Jeremy J
Based on motivated identity construction theory (MICT; Vignoles, 2011), we offer an integrative approach examining the combined roles of six identity motives (self-esteem, distinctiveness, belonging, meaning, continuity, and efficacy) instantiated at three different motivational levels (personal, social, and collective identity) as predictors of group identification. These identity processes were investigated among 369 members of 45 sports teams from England and Italy in a longitudinal study over 6 months with four time points. Multilevel change modeling and cross-lagged analyses showed that satisfaction of four personal identity motives (individuals' personal feelings of self-esteem, distinctiveness, meaning, and efficacy derived from team membership), three social identity motives (individuals' feelings that the team identity carries a sense of belonging, meaning, and continuity), and one collective identity motive (a shared belief in group distinctiveness) significantly predicted group identification. Motivational processes underlying group identification are complex, multilayered, and not reducible to personal needs.
Mounts, Nina S
Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in
Anastas, Jeane W.
As John Brekke has observed, social work does not use the word "science" to define itself, suggesting a need to articulate a science of social work. This article discusses the science of social work and its relationship to social work practice in the United States, arguing that a "rapprochement" between practice and science…
Petru L. Curşeu
Full Text Available Various factors pertaining to the social context (availability of plausible social contacts as well as personality traits influence the emergence of social ties that ultimately compose one’s personal social network. We build on a situational selection model to argue that personality traits influence the cognitive processing of social cues that in turn influences the preference for particular social ties. More specifically, we use a cross-lagged design to test a mediation model explaining the effects of need for cognition (NFC on egocentric network characteristics. We used the data available in the LISS panel, in which a probabilistic sample of Dutch participants were asked to fill in surveys annually. We tested our model on data collected in three successive years and our results show that people scoring high in NFC tend to revolve in information-rich egocentric networks, characterized by high demographic diversity, high interpersonal dissimilarity, and high average education. The results also show that the effect of NFC on social network characteristics is mediated by non-prejudicial judgments.
Güleç, Medine Yazici; Hocaoğlu, Ciçek
The co-morbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD ) with personality disorders (PDs) in patients with long-standing work disability at a psychiatry clinic was investigated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate personality for contributing to disability in patients with MDD and to investigate the relationship with these two psychometric characters in patients with MDD. Seventy-two patients with a MDD and 72 healthy controls were assessed by means of both clinician and self-rating scales for depression, anxiety, disability, and the SCID-II personality inventory. There was no difference between the personality parameters of the groups regarding schizotypal and antisocial PDs. Avoidant personality was found to be less common in the patient group (p=0.030). Dependent (p less than 0.001), obsessive (p=0.003), passive-aggressive (p=0.025), self-defeating (p less than 0.001), paranoid (p less than 0.001), schizoid (p=0.012), histrionic (p=0.001), narcissistic (p less than 0.001), and borderline (p less than 0.001) PDs in patients were more common than in controls. On the disability sub-scales, physical role limitation, vitality, social functioning, emotional role limitation, and mental health were significantly lower in patient group than normal control group. While Cluster A was not related to any disability subscale, Cluster B had a positive correlation with vitality and mental health, whereas Cluster C and Cluster NOS had a negative correlation with emotional role limitation. Only the emotional role limitation predicts the presence of depression, whereas only self-defeating, obsessive, paranoid, and passive aggressive personality predict the emotional role limitation. Patients with MDD have personality and disability problems. PDs in depression contribute to disability. Our results demonstrated that the emotional role limitation is the unique sub-scale that predicts the MDD group.
Economou, George C
This study investigated whether personality plays a role in a condition called dental anxiety. Specifically, the study examined the relationship between dental anxiety (the negative response to the stress elicited from a dental interaction) and self-consciousness (the tendency to evaluate aspects of oneself that are subject to private and public display). The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics possessed by dentally anxious individuals who face potential health risks because of their avoidance. Sixty York University undergraduate students were recruited by convenience sampling to participate. These subjects completed Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale and the Self-Consciousness Scale. The Self-Consciousness Scale consists of three subscales, including private self-consciousness, public self-consciousness, and social anxiety. Results indicated an 0.54 significant correlation between dental anxiety and self-consciousness. The public self-consciousness and social anxiety subscales correlated the most with dental anxiety. Furthermore, the data did not indicate a significant moderating relationship for gender between the two aforementioned variables. These results contribute to the establishment of personality characteristics as one of the dimensions determining dental anxiety.
Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; van Helmondt, Sanne J
Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting...... styles may also be associated with Type D personality. We examined whether remembered parenting was associated with anxiety and depression in cardiac patients and whether Type D personality mediated this relationship. Methods: Our sample comprised 435 patients treated with percutaneous coronary...... intervention (PCI) and 123 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Type D Scale (DS14), and Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale. Results: Remembered parenting was significantly associated with higher anxiety and depression...
Vijay Kumar Saini
Full Text Available Context: Internet addiction is less researched entity in developing countries. There has been an explosive growth in the use of internet worldwide including India in the last decade. Aims: To study the relationship of internet addictive behavior with personality characteristics among medical students. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional observational study carried out on 140 medical students. Subjects and Methods: All the students were taken randomly. Assessment of sociodemographic details was done with the help of semi-structured pro forma, and internet addiction test and big five inventory were used to assess internet addictive behavior and personality traits. Statistical Analysis Used: For comparison of dichotomous variables, Chi-square test was used. Correlation and linear regression were applied to see association. Data analysis was done with the help of statistical software SPSS 23. 0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences by IBM Corporation. Results: Mean score of internet addiction scale among medical students was 33.94 (standard deviation 13.592. It was found that higher neuroticism (β =0.242, P = 0.004 and less extroversion (β = −0.210, P = 0.011 displayed significant associations with internet addictive behavior. Conclusions: Neurotic individuals tend to experience increased levels of stress and interpersonal conflict because of this personality trait. Internet addictive behavior was lower on extroversion traits because they are more in social activities, making friend easily, and cheerful.
In this paper, I discuss the problems of ``order in social situations'' using a computer simulation of iterated N-person prisoners' dilemma game. It has been claimed that, in the case of the 2-person prisoners' dilemma, repetition of games and the reciprocal use of the ``tit-for-tat'' strategy promote the possibility of cooperation. However, in cases of N-person prisoners' dilemma where N is greater than 2, the logic does not work effectively. The most essential problem is so called ``sanctioning problems''. In this paper, firstly, I discuss the ``sanctioning problems'' which were introduced by Axelrod and Keohane in 1986. Based on the model formalized by Axelrod, I propose a new model, in which I added a mechanism of players' payoff changes in the Axelrod's model. I call this mechanism norm-internalization and call our model ``norm-internalization game''. Second, by using the model, I investigated the relationship between agents' norm-internalization (payoff-alternation) and the possibilities of cooperation. The results of computer simulation indicated that unequal distribution of cooperating norm and uniform distribution of sanctioning norm are more effective in establishing cooperation. I discuss the mathematical features and the implications of the results on social science.
ways that recognize the relationship between the business and society. It is therefore important .... Section three discusses the research design and methodology employed in this study. In section four .... context (Bryman, 2008). Population and ...
Abraham B. Nkhata
Full Text Available This paper proposes and articulates a social relationships perspective of collaboration in the management of social-ecological systems (SESs. It provides a conceptual premise for understanding the dynamics of long-term social relationships that underlie collaborative processes. We argue that a resilience approach offers a better perspective for the study of change in long-term relationships. A conceptual framework based on the theories of resilience and social relationships is developed for analyzing the evolution of collaborative schemes. The essence of the framework is to facilitate understanding and building of resilient social relationships for effective collaboration through interpreting and managing relational change. We suggest that an analysis of resilient social relationships requires an understanding of the complexity and extent of relational change. The elements of a behavioral approach to relationships theory are discussed as a foundation for resilient social relationships. By incorporating the models of Holling (1995 and Cousins (2002 into a behavioral approach to relationships theory, the framework we propose can be used to determine the potential for change based on the amount of relational capital and the degree of relational connectedness in long-term social relationships.
Owen, Rebecca; Gooding, Patricia; Dempsey, Robert; Jones, Steven
Evidence suggests that social support can influence relapse rates, functioning and various clinical outcomes in people with bipolar disorder. Yet 'social support' is a poorly defined construct, and the mechanisms by which it affects illness course in bipolar disorder remain largely unknown. Key aims of this study were to ascertain which facets of social interaction affect mood management in bipolar disorder, and how symptoms of bipolar disorder can influence the level of support received. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 individuals with bipolar disorder. Questions were designed to elicit: the effects of social interaction upon the management and course of bipolar disorder; and the impact of bipolar disorder upon social relationships. An inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Empathy and understanding from another person can make it easier to cope with bipolar disorder. Social interaction can also provide opportunities to challenge negative ruminative thoughts and prevent the onset of a major mood episode. The loss of social support, particularly through bereavement, creates a loss of control and can trigger mania or depression. Hypomanic symptoms can facilitate new social connections, whereas disinhibited and risky behaviour exhibited during mania can cause the breakdown of vital relationships. An in-depth clinical formulation of an individual's perceptions of how their illness affects and is affected by social interaction is crucial to understanding psychosocial factors which influence mood management. These results have clear application in interventions which aim to promote improved wellbeing and social functioning in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The relationship between bipolar-related experiences and social interaction is complex and multi-faceted. Bipolar disorder can damage social relationships and create a loss of social control via extreme mood states, but it can also offer a
Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine
Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calciolari, Stefano; González-Ortiz, Laura G; Lega, Federico
In several health systems of advanced countries, reforms have changed primary care in the last two decades. The literature has assessed the effects of a variety of interventions and individual factors on the behavior of general practitioners (GPs). However, there has been a lack of investigation concerning the influence of the resources embedded in the GPs' personal advice networks (i.e., social capital) on GPs' capacity to meet defined objectives. The present study has two goals: (a) to assess the GPs' personal advice networks according to the social capital framework and (b) to test the influence of such relationships on GPs' capacity to accomplish organizational goals. The data collection relied on administrative data provided by an Italian local health authority (LHA) and a survey administered to the GPs of the selected LHA. The GPs' personal advice networks were assessed through an ad-hoc instrument and interpreted as egocentric networks. Multivariate regression analyses assessed two different performance measures. Social capital may influence the GPs' capacity to meet targets, though the influence differs according to the objective considered. In particular, the higher the professional heterogeneity of a GP personal advice network, the lower her/his capacity is to meet targets of prescriptive appropriateness. Our findings might help to design more effective primary care reforms depending on the pursued goals. However, further research is needed.
Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.
Bipp, T.; Steinmayr, R.; Spinath, B.
In the present study we examined the nomological network of achievement motivation and personality by inspecting the relationships between four goal orientations (learning, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, work avoidance), the Big Five personality traits, and intelligence. Within a
Freeman, Jonathan B; Johnson, Kerri L; Adams, Reginald B; Ambady, Nalini
Research is increasingly challenging the claim that distinct sources of social information-such as sex, race, and emotion-are processed in discrete fashion. Instead, there appear to be functionally relevant interactions that occur. In the present article, we describe research examining how cues conveyed by the human face, voice, and body interact to form the unified representations that guide our perceptions of and responses to other people. We explain how these information sources are often thrown into interaction through bottom-up forces (e.g., phenotypic cues) as well as top-down forces (e.g., stereotypes and prior knowledge). Such interactions point to a person perception process that is driven by an intimate interface between bottom-up perceptual and top-down social processes. Incorporating data from neuroimaging, event-related potentials (ERP), computational modeling, computer mouse-tracking, and other behavioral measures, we discuss the structure of this interface, and we consider its implications and adaptive purposes. We argue that an increased understanding of person perception will likely require a synthesis of insights and techniques, from social psychology to the cognitive, neural, and vision sciences.
M. Pagani; A. Mirabello
Traditional retail and online brands seek new ways to build a platform to enable customers to connect with each other and encourage consumer engagement. Purpose of this article is to understand how social media is transforming consumer engagement and redefining commercial marketing strategies using video on the web, mobile devices and traditional TV. The article develops and estimates a conceptual model of how experiential Personal Engagement and Social-Interactive Engagement influence a...
Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K; Walker, Robert
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of social exclusion, personal control, and self-regulation to perceived stress among individuals who participated in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. Participants entered treatment between June 2006 and July 2007 and completed a 12-month follow-up survey by telephone (n=787). The results of the OLS regression analysis indicate that individuals with greater social exclusion factors (e.g. greater economic hardship, lower subjective social standing, greater perceived discrimination), lower perceived control of one's life, and lower self-regulation had higher perceived stress. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found suggesting a stress-buffering effect of personal control between subjective social standing and perceived stress. Interestingly, income status was not significantly related to perceived stress, while economic hardship, which assesses participants' inability to meet basic expenses, was significantly associated with perceived stress. Future research should examine how to integrate the AA/NA teaching about powerlessness and its role in recovery with the importance of increased personal control and self-control in decreasing perceived stress. Implications for future research and substance abuse treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sloboda, Alexander; Mustafa, Aesha; Schober, Justine
As the United States of America becomes more socially diverse, it is more important now than ever for health care providers to become more aware of their patients' social identities. It is imperative that providers engage with their patients and see how each of them identifies personally in relation to social construction terminology. As with the terminology of human anatomy, there is a vast and diverse vocabulary concerning the anatomy of society, which is also clinically relevant to health care providers. If health care providers take the initiative to discuss how their patients identify, they can understand better how those patients experience the world, and this can significantly affect many facets of their health and health care experience. Giving respect fosters the creation of a strong relationship within which patients can share very personal and intimate information, which in turn allows health care providers the possibility of providing the best healthcare. This discussion will build upon and integrate current academic research and opinion for tangible clinical use while discussing various social and personal identities, including but not limited to race, gender, gender expression, sex, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, and physical and mental abilities. Clin. Anat. 31:136-139, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Uchino, Bert N.; Cawthon, Richard M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Light, Kathleen C.; McKenzie, Justin; Carlisle, McKenzie; Gunn, Heather; Birmingham, Wendy; Bowen, Kimberly
Objective The quality of one’s personal relationships has been linked to morbidity and mortality across different diseases. As a result, it is important to examine more integrative mechanisms that might link relationships across diverse physical health outcomes. In this study, we examine associations between relationships and telomeres which predict general disease risk. These questions are pursued in the context of a more comprehensive model of relationships that highlights the importance of jointly considering positive and negative aspects of social ties. Method 136 individuals from a community sample (ages 48 to 77) completed the social relationships index which allows a determination of relationships that differ in their positive and negative substrates (i.e., ambivalent, supportive, aversive, indifferent). Telomere length was determined from peripheral blood mononuclear cells via quantitative PCR. Results Participants who had a higher number of ambivalent ties in their social networks evidenced shorter telomeres. These results were independent of other relationships types (e.g., supportive), as well as standard control variables (e.g., age, health behaviors, medication use). Gender moderated the links between ambivalent ties and telomere length with these associations seen primarily in women. Follow-up analyses revealed that the links between ambivalent ties and telomeres were primarily due to friendships, parents, and social acquaintances. Conclusions Consistent with epidemiological findings, these data highlight a novel and integrative biological mechanism by which social ties may impact health across diseases, and further suggests the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of specific relationships and physical health. PMID:22229928
Schry, Amie R; Norberg, Melissa M; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W
Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M(age) = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female) completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role). Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences.
Amie R Schry
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. METHODS: In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M(age = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role. Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. RESULTS: After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences.
Schry, Amie R.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.
Background and Objectives Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. Methods In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M age = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female) completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role). Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. Results After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. Discussion and Conclusions These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. Scientific Significance This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences. PMID:25541722
Umberson, Debra; Montez, Jennifer Karas
Social relationships—both quantity and quality—affect mental health, health behavior, physical health, and mortality risk. Sociologists have played a central role in establishing the link between social relationships and health outcomes, identifying explanations for this link, and discovering social variation (e.g., by gender and race) at the population level. Studies show that social relationships have short- and long-term effects on health, for better and for worse, and that these effects emerge in childhood and cascade throughout life to foster cumulative advantage or disadvantage in health. This article describes key research themes in the study of social relationships and health, and it highlights policy implications suggested by this research. PMID:20943583
De Bruyn, Sara; Wouters, Edwin; Ponnet, Koen; Van Damme, Joris; Maes, Lea; Van Hal, Guido
Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds?', measuring alcohol use among students in Flanders (Belgium). In total, a large dataset consisting of information from 19,253 anonymously participating students was available. Negative consequences were measured using a shortened version of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS_D). Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Results vary depending on the type of alcohol-related consequences: Personal negative consequences occur frequently among daily beer drinkers. However, a high rate of social negative consequences was recorded for both daily beer drinkers and daily spirits drinkers. Finally, early drinking onset was significantly associated with both personal and social negative consequences, and this association was especially strong between beer and spirits drinking onset and social negative consequences. Numerous negative consequences, both personal and social, are related to frequent beer and spirits drinking. Our findings indicate a close association between drinking beer and personal negative consequences as well as between drinking beer and/or spirits and social negative consequences. Similarly, early drinking onset has a major influence on the rates of both personal and social negative consequences
Bozanoğlu, İhsan; Sapancı, Ahmet
The relationships between personality traits and motivation are significant for effective learning and teaching. The main purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between personality traits and motivation levels of Turkish university students. The specific purpose of the study is to determine which personality factor predicts academic motivation to what extent. For this purpose, Adjective Based Personality Scale (ABPT) developed by Bacanlı et al. (2009) was conducted on 353 ...
Knez, Igor; Eliasson, Ingegärd
The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county ( N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite sites, and tourism and alpine for collective favorite sites. According to quantitative analyses the stronger the attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place identity) residents felt to favorite personal and collective sites the more well-being they perceived when visiting these places. Similarly, the more remembrance, thinking and mental travel (cognitive component of place identity) residents directed to these sites the more well-being they perceived in these places. In both types of sites well-being was more strongly predicted by emotional than cognitive component of place-identity. All this indicates the importance of person-place bonds in beneficial experiences of the outdoors, over and above simply being in outdoor environments.
Utz, S.; Beukeboom, C.J.
On social network sites (SNS), information about one's romantic partner is readily available and public for friends. The paper focuses on the negative (SNS jealousy) and positive (SNS relationship happiness) consequences of SNS use for romantic relationships. We examined whether relationship
The purpose of this study was to increase the amount of new likes of Diamo Oy in the social media network site Facebook, eventually aiming for the creation of new customer relationships, increased visibility of the company and into strictly increasing purchasing of their products. The theoretical part of the study consists of the role of content production in the social media field and customer relationship management, of which particularly customer acquisition and retention are discussed mor...
Firth, Josh A.; Voelkl, Bernhard; Farine, Damien R.; Sheldon, Ben C.
Social relationships are fundamental to animals living in complex societies [1-3]. The extent to which individuals base their decisions around their key social relationships, and the consequences this has on their behavior and broader population level processes, remains unknown. Using a novel experiment that controlled where individual wild birds (great tits, Parus major) could access food, we restricted mated pairs from being allowed to forage at the same locations. This introduced a conflic...
van den Berg, P.T.; Feij, J.A.
The aim of the study was to investigate the additive, mediating, and moderating effects of personality traits and job characteristics on work behaviors. Job applicants (N = 161) completed personality questionnaires measuring extraversion, neuroticism, achievement motivation, and experience seeking.
Hülya Aşçı, F; Kelecek, Selen; AltintaŞ, Atahan
This study investigated the relationship between athletes' personality characteristics and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 84 female (M age = 20.6 yr., SD = 2.8) and 129 male (M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 3.3) elite youth athletes competing at least for 7 yr. participated in this study. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (short version) and the Quality of Relationships Inventory were administered to all participants. Stepwise multiple regression analysis assessed which of the five personality factors predicted scores for the different subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory (Depth, Support, and Conflict). Results indicated that depth of relationship was not predicted by personality factors. On the other hand, neuroticism and extraversion were significant predictors of support dimension of relationship. Analysis indicated that conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of conflict. In conclusion, athletes' personality characteristics may be important in determining the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.
van Leeuwen, Christel M.; Post, Marcel W.; Westers, Paul; van der Woude, Lucas H.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe; Slootman, Hans; Lindeman, Eline
van Leeuwen CM, Post MW, Westers P, van der Woude LH, de Groot S. Sluis T, Slootman H, Lindeman E. Relationships between activities, participation, personal factors, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:82-9. Objective: To clarify
Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang
Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905
Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Smith, Timothy B; Layton, J Bradley
The quality and quantity of individuals' social relationships has been linked not only to mental health but also to both morbidity and mortality. This meta-analytic review was conducted to determine the extent to which social relationships influence risk for mortality, which aspects of social relationships are most highly predictive, and which factors may moderate the risk. Data were extracted on several participant characteristics, including cause of mortality, initial health status, and pre-existing health conditions, as well as on study characteristics, including length of follow-up and type of assessment of social relationships. Across 148 studies (308,849 participants), the random effects weighted average effect size was OR = 1.50 (95% CI 1.42 to 1.59), indicating a 50% increased likelihood of survival for participants with stronger social relationships. This finding remained consistent across age, sex, initial health status, cause of death, and follow-up period. Significant differences were found across the type of social measurement evaluated (psocial relationships on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang
Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modeling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Moral values of society the media as a whole and individual rules are vital for individuals and the personal assets of the mutual position of the mass media, and media relations and conflicts related to the size of the taste society include studies. Mainly in the context of media ethics, media, publications, the company whether as a result of overlap with ethics, social values and points of conflict emerged in this format, whether caused by of problems in the media or society, who do not ...
Full Text Available In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM. Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.
Wang, Guan-Nan; Gao, Hui; Chen, Lian; Mensah, Dennis N A; Fu, Yan
In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition) towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.
Wong, Jaclyn S; Hsieh, Ning
Health limitations can change older adults' social relationships and social engagement. Yet, researchers rarely examine how the disability of one's spouse might affect one's social relationships, even though such life strains are often experienced as a couple. This study investigates the association between functional and cognitive limitations and social experience in a dyadic context. We use actor-partner interdependence models to analyze the partner data from 953 heterosexual couples in Wave II (2010-2011) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. One spouse's functional and cognitive health is associated with the other's relationship quality, but the pattern varies by gender. Husbands' functional limitations are associated with lower marital support and higher marital strain in wives, but wives' functional limitations are related to lower family and friendship strain in husbands. Husbands' cognitive impairment also predicts higher family and friend support in wives. Findings support a gendered dyadic relationship between health and social life and highlight women's caregiver role and better connection with family and friends. There are also differences between experiencing cognitive and physical limitations in couples. Finally, mild health impairment sometimes shows stronger effects on social relationships than severe impairment, suggesting adaptation to health transition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Fakhrzadegan, Shahin; Gholami-Doon, Hossein; Shamloo, Bagher; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz
Prisoners are a vulnerable group within societies, and also threaten society due to their dangerous behavior. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between prisoners' personality disorders and their crime and substance use. This was a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population consisted of all prisoners of Kerman, Iran. Through stratified random sampling, 228 prisoners (114 women and 114 men) were selected as the study subjects. Data were collected through clinical interviews by a psychiatrist [structured interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4 th Edition (DSM-IV)], a social worker, and a physician and using a demographic characteristics questionnaire and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-2 nd Edition (MCMI-II) (the 175-item Persian version). Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, and Fisher's z-distribution in SPSS software. The results showed that 87.3% of women and 83.3% of men had a personality disorder at the time of committing the crime. Moreover, 46.5% of the target population had developed substance dependence at the time of committing the crime. The highest percentage of substance abuse in both women and men was related to opium, especially in the age group of 18-28 years. The highest rates of mental disorders were related to major depressive disorder (MDD), dependent personality disorder (DPD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), respectively. In these personality disorders, opium, methamphetamine, heroin, and alcohol, respectively, had the highest rates of use. The results of Fisher's z-distribution illustrated a significant relationship between personality disorders and type of crime committed and substance used. The total rate of substance abuse was lower in sexual offenses and fraud, but was the highest in theft and drug trafficking. The presence of personality disorders in the target population is
Outcalt, Jared; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Popolo, Raffaele; Buck, Kelly; Chaudoin-Patzoldt, Kelly A; Kukla, Marina; Olesek, Kyle L; Lysaker, Paul H
Borderline personality disorder traits have been observed to be linked with both insecure attachment styles as well as deficits in mentalizing and metacognition. Less is known, however, about how attachment style does or does not interact with deficits in mentalizing and metacognition to create, sustain, or influence levels of borderline personality disorder traits. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that metacognitive mastery, which is the ability to use knowledge about mental states of self and others to cope with distress and solve social problems, moderates the relationship of anxious attachment style with the severity of borderline personality disorder traits. Concurrent assessments were gathered of metacognitive mastery using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale Abbreviated, anxious attachment style using the Experiences of in Close Relationships Scale, and borderline personality disorder traits using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders. Participants were 59 adults in an early phase of recovery from substance use disorders in a residential setting. Multiple regression revealed that metacognitive mastery moderated the relationship of anxious attachment style with the number of borderline personality disorder traits. A median split of the anxious attachment and metacognitive mastery scores was performed yielding 4 groups. An analysis of covariance revealed that participants with higher levels of anxious attachment and poorer metacognitive mastery had more borderline personality disorder traits did than the other groups after controlling for levels of psychopathology. Insecure attachment may be associated with higher number of borderline personality disorder traits in the presence of deficits in metacognitive mastery. Patients with substance use and borderline personality disorder traits may benefit from treatment which addresses metacognitive mastery. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Huijer, M L M
How much social responsibility do physicians have? Historically, care for collective health and well-being has been part and parcel of the responsibility of the medical profession. The changes in the urban environment to which physicians contributed at the end of the 19th century bear witness to this. During the 20th century, however, the medical search for extra health gain has focused increasingly on the individual. This has reached a provisional zenith in personalized medicine. This article argues that physician are letting patients, society and themselves down by paying so much attention to the individual and so little to social factors that cause disease or promote health. The exceptional position that physicians occupy in identifying and tackling pathological processes advocates an increase in societal and political engagement.
I consider educational relationships as found in Rousseau's "Émile" (and elsewhere in his writing) and the critique of his views in Wollstonecraft's "A Vindication of the Rights of Women." Wollstonecraft's critique is a significant one, precisely because of her partial agreement with Rousseau. Like Rousseau, her…
Elliot, Ari J; Heffner, Kathi L; Mooney, Christopher J; Moynihan, Jan A; Chapman, Benjamin P
To better understand age and gender differences in associations of social relationships with chronic inflammation. Using a sample of middle-aged and older adults ( N = 963) from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) biomarker project, we examined interactions of age and gender with structural and functional social network measures in predicting interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Significant interactions involving age and gender showed that social support was associated with lower IL-6 in older women, whereas perceived positive relationships and social integration were related to lower IL-6 in both men and women of advanced age. Functional measures were associated with higher CRP in both men and women after adjustment for health conditions and behaviors, with some further variation by age. Greater social support may be related to lower IL-6 in older women. Further research is needed to understand observed associations of social support with higher CRP.
Menatti, Andrew R.; Weeks, Justin W.; Levinson, Cheri A.; McGowan, Maggie M.
Previous findings indicate that social anxiety and bulimia co-occur at high rates; one mechanism that has been proposed to link these symptom clusters is perfectionism. We tested meditational models among 167 female undergraduates in which maladaptive evaluative perfectionism concerns (MEPC; i.e., critical self-evaluative perfectionism) mediated the relationship between social anxiety and bulimic symptoms. Results from a first model indicated that MEPC mediated the relationship between fear of public scrutiny and bulimia symptoms. This indirect effect was significant above and beyond the indirect effects of maladaptive body-image cognitions and perfectionism specific to pure personal standards. A second model was tested with MEPC mediating the relationship between social interaction anxiety and bulimia symptoms. Similar results were obtained; however, in this model, a significant direct effect remained after partialing out the indirect effect of the mediators. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:24932054
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis
We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…
Miller, Duane I.
Failure to establish a strong relationship between attitudes and buying behavior may indicate that the personality-consumer behavior link is mediated by some social mechanism, such as differential propensities toward advice-seeking. Undergraduates (N=75) completed two measures of attitudes, a questionnaire consisting of 10 consumer decisions and…
Abstract Social media is a marketing phenomenon that is growing very fast. Social media helps creating value for customers in broadcasting the advertising among social networks. Blog posts, videos, pictures, reviews and ratings all have a significant impact on marketing. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate how companies can achieve customer loyalty and customer relationship management using social media marketing and if companies can target new customers by social media. An inductive ...
Animals need to make constant decisions throughout their lives and to make optimal decisions individuals rely on information. Information can be obtained in two distinct ways: personal or social information. The current paradigm in the information theory use in animal ecology assumes that the
In the article the relationship between system of technical and system of social norms in ecological project has been considered from constructivist standpoint in sociology of technology. For adequate solution of technological problem of enviromental pollution by hydrocarbons is necessary to define beside technical also system of social norms. Sociological analysis of accidents in transportation of hydrocarbons is suggested in purpose of clear definition of responsibilities of certain social ...
Colle, Livia; Pellecchia, Giovanni; Moroni, Fabio; Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Semerari, Antonio; Procacci, Michele
Social sharing capacities have attracted attention from a number of fields of social cognition and have been variously defined and analyzed in numerous studies. Social sharing consists in the subjective awareness that aspects of the self's experience are held in common with other individuals. The definition of social sharing must take a variety of elements into consideration: the motivational element, the contents of the social sharing experience, the emotional responses it evokes, the behavioral outcomes, and finally, the circumstances and the skills which enable social sharing. The primary objective of this study is to explore some of the diverse forms of human social sharing and to classify them according to levels of complexity. We identify four different types of social sharing, categorized according to the nature of the content being shared and the complexity of the mindreading skills required. The second objective of this study is to consider possible applications of this graded model of social sharing experience in clinical settings. Specifically, this model may support the development of graded, focused clinical interventions for patients with personality disorders characterized by severe social withdrawal.
Full Text Available Social sharing capacities have attracted attention from a number of fields of social cognition and have been variously defined and analyzed in numerous studies. Social sharing consists in the subjective awareness that aspects of the self’s experience are held in common with other individuals. The definition of social sharing must take a variety of elements into consideration: the motivational element, the contents of the social sharing experience, the emotional responses it evokes, the behavioral outcomes, and finally, the circumstances and the skills which enable social sharing. The primary objective of this study is to explore some of the diverse forms of human social sharing and to classify them according to levels of complexity. We identify four different types of social sharing, categorized according to the nature of the content being shared and the complexity of the mindreading skills required. The second objective of this study is to consider possible applications of this graded model of social sharing experience in clinical settings. Specifically, this model may support the development of graded, focused clinical interventions for patients with personality disorders characterized by severe social withdrawal.
Two separate studies suggest that the development of positive sibling relations may be related to siblings' social-cognitive skills (Stewart & Marvin, 1984) and the nature of mothers' conversations with their children (Dunn & Kendrick, 1982). The purpose of the present study was to provide a synthesis of these two studies and to demonstrate the…
Full Text Available Nowadays the concept of social capital is one of the most popular concepts in sociological studies. Some experts believe that social capital is among the most important factors with a significant part in individuals’ success in achieving their goals. So, the main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between social capital and the nutritional knowledge of athletes. For this purpose, the theoretical framework and hypotheses of the research are set based on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory. The statistical population of the research includes 2300 athletes in the 2014 Sports Championship held at Shahid Beheshti University; 310 persons were selected by means of Morgan’s table and the stratified sampling method. The survey method and questionnaires were employed to collect the data. The findings of the research indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between social capital and the nutritional knowledge of athletes.
Full Text Available A proposal for the relationship between social pedagogy and social work will be made in this manuscript. It is assumed that social work is a certain type of practice cultivated by representatives of the social professions. Social pedagogy can provide an analysis of the field of social work, helping to orient activities within the field and to determine the proper selection of ways of conduct, a kind of a meta-theory. Such an approach enables interaction and cooperation between representatives of multiple disciplines within the humanities and social sciences who are engaged in social work. It also has consequences for the acceptance of multi-faceted and multi-dimensional approaches to activities in the field of social work, which is recognized as an important field for social pedagogues, allowing them to carry out social actions from various perspectives, socio-pedagogical among them. The socio-pedagogical perspective on social work will be analyzed in this article.
de Jong, Gjalt; Phan Anh Tu, [No Value; van Ees, Hans
Prior work on corruption has largely overlooked personal relationships as an essential determinant of bribery incidence in transition economies. In these countries, relationships with public officials are instrumental in enabling transactions and lowering transaction costs, due to incoherent and
operational readiness Megan M. Thompson DRDC Toronto Monique A. M. Gignac Division of Population Health, University of Toronto Donald R. McCreary DRDC...support are related to increased mortality rates in population health studies (Berkman & Syme, 1994; House, Landis , & Umberson, 2003). Interestingly...of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 1146-1163. 55. House, J. S., Landis , K. R., & Umberson, D. (2003). Social relationships and health. In P
Panattoni, Katherine; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard
In this paper, we examined relationships and differences between personal and vicarious life stories, i.e., the life stories one knows of others. Personal and vicarious life stories of both members of 51 young couples (102 participants), based on McAdams' Life Story Interview (2008), were collected. We found significant positive relationships between participants' personal and vicarious life stories on agency and communion themes and redemption sequences. We also found significant positive relationships between participants' vicarious life stories about their partners and those partners' personal life stories on agency and communion, but not redemption. Furthermore, these relationships were not explained by similarity between couples' two personal life stories, as no associations were found between couples' personal stories on agency, communion and redemption. These results suggest that the way we construct the vicarious life stories of close others may reflect how we construct our personal life stories.
Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov
Full Text Available Summarizes theoretical approaches to the definition of psychosocial well-being. It shows the relationship of psychosocial well-being, social tension, social security and social health. As the methodology of research used the environmental approach. Actualized the problem of psychosocial well-being of students in modern conditions. It shows the results of the study of subjective well-being of the students using the technique of «Scale of subjective well-being» (Perrudet-Badoux, Mendelssohn and Chiche, adaptation VM Sokolova. The findings relate to the need to include indicators of psychosocial well-being of the person in the system of corresponding psycho-pedagogical and socio-psychological support of the university.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at determing psychopathology and personal and relationship problems in violent husband. Materials & Methods: In this cross – sectional study 230 male were selected through a multi clustral sampling from four different regions of Tehran. Then they completed Conflict Tactics Scales-2, personal and relationship Profile and Symptoms Check list-90-Revised. Based on their response to Conflict Tactics Scales-2, they were devided in to two groups. Then the psychopathological profile and personal and Relationship problems were compaired. Results: Psychopathology, personal and relationshoip Profile were drawn. It showed that violence is associated with Psychopathology and excessive personal and relationship problems in violent husband (P&le0/05. Conclusion: Violent husband in compare with nonviolent husband have more severe psychological symptomathology and more personal and relationship problems.
Birmingham, Wendy C; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect. Drawing upon existing conceptual models, we expand these to delineate how social relationships may influence stress processes and ultimately health. This review summarizes the existing literature that points to the potential deleterious physiological effects of our relationships when they are sources of stress or exacerbate stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D
We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
Wayment, Heidi A; McDonald, Rachael L
Wayment, HA and McDonald, RL. Sharing a personal trainer: personal and social benefits of individualized, small-group training. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3137-3145, 2017-We examined a novel personal fitness training program that combines personal training principles in a small-group training environment. In a typical training session, exercisers warm-up together but receive individualized training for 50 minutes with 1-5 other adults who range in age, exercise experience, and goals for participation. Study participants were 98 regularly exercising adult members of a fitness studio in the southwestern United States (64 women and 32 men), aged 19-78 years (mean, 46.52 years; SD = 14.15). Average membership time was 2 years (range, 1-75 months; mean, 23.54 months; SD = 20.10). In collaboration with the program directors, we developed a scale to assess satisfaction with key features of this unique training program. Participants completed an online survey in Fall 2015. Hypotheses were tested with a serial mediator model (model 6) using the SPSS PROCESS module. In support of the basic tenets of self-determination theory, satisfaction with small-group, individualized training supported basic psychological needs, which in turn were associated with greater autonomous exercise motivation and life satisfaction. Satisfaction with this unique training method was also associated with greater exercise self-efficacy. Autonomous exercise motivation was associated with both exercise self-efficacy and greater self-reported health and energy. Discussion focuses on why exercise programs that foster a sense of social belonging (in addition to motivation and efficacy) may be helpful for successful adherence to an exercise program.
Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G
The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and
Taub, Diane E.; McLorg, Penelope A.; Bartnick, April K.
Through exploring the lived experiences of disabled women, this study investigates how physical and social barriers affect their social relationships. In-depth tape-recorded interviews investigating a variety of social and interpersonal issues were conducted with 24 women with physical or visual impairments who lived in a rural region of the…
Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie
Research in social epidemiology suggests that the absence of positive social relationships is a significant risk factor for broad-based morbidity and mortality. The nature of these social relationships and the mechanisms underlying this association are of increasing interest as the population gets older and the health care costs associated with chronic disease escalate in industrialized countries. We review selected evidence on the nature of social relationships and focus on one particular facet of the connection continuum - the extent to which an individual feels isolated (i.e., feels lonely) in a social world. Evidence indicates that loneliness heightens sensitivity to social threats and motivates the renewal of social connections, but it can also impair executive functioning, sleep, and mental and physical well-being. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in lonely older adults.
Haß, Julia; Hartmann, Monika
The high prevalence of childhood obesity is a major concern in developed and developing countries. An increase in fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is perceived as one of the numerous strategies to prevent and reduce the risk of adiposity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance of personal and social determinants in explaining children's F&V intake. Written questionnaire data were collected from 702 parent-child pairs that included 3rd and 4th graders (aged 7 to 10) and their parents. Children's F&V intake was recorded over three food records. Hierarchical linear regression models were applied to assess the impact of personal and social determinants on children's F&V intake. Regression models focusing on personal and social determinants revealed that the most promising personal determinants pertained to the knowledge of different types of F&V and preferences for F&V. Moreover, an exclusive focus on social determinants indicated that parental modeling and peer influence had significant and positive relationships with children's F&V intake, whereas verbal directives to eat F&V exhibited a significant and negative relationship. In combination, the following four personal and social determinants were demonstrated to be significant: knowledge of different types of F&V, preferences for F&V and parental modeling, all of which had positive relationships, and verbal directives to eat F&V, which had a negative impact. The results identify important associative determinants of children's F&V intake. These are in part personal and in part social and are shown by our analysis to be of equal and perhaps mutual importance. Therefore, we suggest that interventions aimed at improving children's F&V intake should address children's preferences for F&V, impart knowledge concerning the variety of F&V and encourage parents to act as role models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jin, Yulian; Ding, Zheyuan; Fei, Ying; Jin, Wen; Liu, Hui; Chen, Zexin; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Zhaopin; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian
The purpose of this study was to examine whether social relationships were associated with sleep status in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in November 2012 at Huzhou Teachers College, China. The questionnaire involved demographic characteristics, personal lifestyle habits, social relationships and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The associations between social relationships and sleep status were analyzed by using regression models after adjustment for potential factors. Poor sleep quality was prevalent among Chinese undergraduate students. Men tended to have better sleep than women. Lower social stress, better management of stress and good social support were correlated with better sleep status, and stress or support from friends, family and classmates were all related with sleep variables. While only weak associations between number of friends and sleep were detected. The results were consistent in men and women. Educators and instructors should be aware of the importance of social relationships as well as healthy sleep in undergraduates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engelmann, Jan; Schmid, Basil; Chumbley, Justin; Fehr, Ernst
We assess the role of anti-social personality traits in explaining heterogeneity in commonly observed social preferences. We identified a personality profile that clearly reflects anti-social personality characteristics, with high positive loadings on Machiavellianism and high negative loadings on empathy, trustworthiness and agreeableness. Anti-sociality predicts decision strategies in a manner that is consistent with its name: significantly lower levels of trust and decreased trustworthines...
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI. Materials and Methods: A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001. However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2, Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE over lifetime (P = 0.058 and subjective well-being (P = 0.987 were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001, dominant (P = 0.03, egoistic (P < 0.001 and introvert (P < 0.001 personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.
Full Text Available O objetivo desta investigação foi verificar o papel da música na atração interpessoal, escolha de parceiros e relacionamentos afetivos. Cinqüenta adultos não-músicos escolheram possíveis parceiros através de classificados pessoais, descreveram as características de ouvintes de 7 gêneros musicais diferentes e responderam a questões referentes ao uso da música em seus relacionamentos afetivos. Embora a música não tenha tido um efeito direto sobre a atração interpessoal e a escolha de parceiros, ela aparentou ter alguns efeitos indiretos nas relações interpessoais. Alguns estereótipos de personalidade associados aos gêneros musicais foram encontrados, sugerindo que o gosto musical pode influenciar na escolha de parceiros. Além disso, emergiram quatro categorias relacionadas ao uso da música no contexto das relações interpessoais: objetivos de excitação, fundo acústico, facilitadora de atividades que promovem a aproximação e artefato mnemônico. Os dados desta investigação reforçam a idéia de que a música exerce um papel importante nas relações interpessoais.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music on interpersonal relationships by means of attraction, choice of partners, and romantic relationships. Fifty adult non-musicians chose potential partners in newspaper ads, described the characteristics of listeners of 7 different musical styles, and answered open-ended questions related to the uses of music in interpersonal relationships of a romantic nature. Although music did not seem to impact interpersonal attraction and choice of partners directly, it was found to impact social bonding in indirect ways. Personality types associated with musical styles emerged, suggesting that musical taste influences interpersonal relationships. Additionally, four categories related to the uses of music in the context of interpersonal relationships emerged including arousal goals, background, facilitator
Gutz, Lea; Renneberg, Babette; Roepke, Stefan; Niedeggen, Michael
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are known to be highly sensitive to social rejection. Social information processing is assumed to play a key role for this shared psychopathological phenomenon. The first steps in social information processing are to encode social cues and to create a mental representation of the social situation. The aim of the current study was to test whether the perception of social participation in patients with BPD and patients with SAD is biased in this initial stage of social processing. Focus was on the P3b, a brain potential related to stimulus evaluation that has been shown to be a sensitive indicator for the processes of interest. Twenty five unmedicated patients with BPD, 25 unmedicated patients with SAD and 25 healthy controls (HC) played an EEG-compatible version of Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing paradigm that experimentally induces social inclusion and exclusion. All participants showed a pronounced P3b when excluded. Only patients with BPD showed an enhanced P3b also during the inclusion condition, indicating altered processing of social inclusion. The EEG results for the BPD group were consistent with their self-report data. Patients with BPD felt more excluded during the inclusion condition of Cyberball than both HC and patients with SAD. Furthermore, heightened rejection expectancy (subscale of the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire) was associated with a smaller difference in the P3b amplitude between inclusion and exclusion. Results indicate a negatively biased perception of social inclusion in BPD already during the initial stage of social processing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study’s empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Methods Seventeen family members with a relative who 8–14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. Results The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. Conclusions The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could
Sjolander, Catarina; Ahlstrom, Gerd
To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study's empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Seventeen family members with a relative who 8-14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could encourage nurses and other health-care professionals to focus on family members
Schneewind, Klaus A.; Gerhard, Anna-Katharina
Explores the relationship between couples' stable personality variables associated with interpersonal competencies and marital satisfaction with conflict resolution style as the mediating factor. Results indicate strong mediational effects across time. The relationship personality variables correspond closely with conflict resolution styles, which…
Full Text Available Yechang Shao,1,2 Honglei Yin,3 Chengsong Wan4 1School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Psychiatry, Nanfang Hospital, 4Department of Microbiology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type D personality and assess the relationship between this personality type and self-efficacy/social support in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Patients and methods: From January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2014, 532 consecutive patients with T2DM were recruited from two hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The participants completed questionnaires containing questions about sociodemographic characteristics, Type D personality, self-efficacy, and social support scales, and their medical records were reviewed for additional data.Results: Of the 532 patients, 18.2% had Type D personality. Patients with this personality type reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy (P<0.001, total social support (P<0.001, subjective support (P<0.001, and support utilization (P=0.003, but similar level of objective support (P=0.314, compared to those of patients without Type D personality. Negative affectivity and social inhibition, two intrinsic traits of Type D personality, negatively correlated with self-efficacy and social support scores. Type D personality was significantly associated with less self-efficacy and social support (P<0.001, controlling for other sociodemographic factors. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients with Type D personality than in patients with non-Type D personality.Conclusion: This study provides new evidence linking Type D personality with self-efficacy, social support, and poor
Watson, Noreen L; Heffner, Jaimee L; McClure, Jennifer B; Bricker, Jonathan B
Although social anxiety is associated with higher prevalence of smoking and lower cessation rates, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of these relationships. Research suggests that socially anxious smokers have higher levels of smoking-specific experiential avoidance and are inclined to smoke to avoid internal smoking cues. However, it is unknown which types of internal smoking cues they avoid. Thus, this study aimed to address this gap in the literature. Participants (N = 450) were adult smokers from a group-based trial for smoking cessation. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical linear regression models examined relationships between baseline levels of social anxiety and acceptance of internal smoking cues-physical sensations, emotions, and cognitions. Social anxiety was associated with lower levels of acceptance of thoughts, sensations, and emotions that cue smoking. After controlling for levels of nicotine dependence, depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder, social anxiety still explained unique variability in overall acceptance of internal smoking cues and in acceptance of physical sensations and emotions that serve as smoking cues. Social anxiety no longer explained unique variability in acceptance of thoughts that trigger smoking. Smokers with high levels of social anxiety are less accepting of internal smoking cues. For physical and emotional cues, this effect was independent of level of dependence and mental health comorbidity. Results help explain why smokers with social anxiety are less likely to quit and can inform the development of targeted cessation treatments for smokers with social anxiety.
Lampe, Lisa; Sunderland, Matthew
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is regarded as a severe variant of social phobia (SP), consistent with a dimensional model. However, these conclusions are largely drawn from studies based on individuals with SP, with or without comorbid AvPD. The present study hypothesized that there are qualitative differences between AvPD and SP that are undermined by limiting research to participants with SP. The authors sought to test this hypothesis by comparing three groups-SP only, AvPD only, and SP+AvPD-using data extracted from an epidemiological sample of 10,641 adults aged 18 years and over. Screening questions were used in the epidemiological survey to identify ICD-10 personality disorders; from this the author developed a proxy measure for DSM-IV AvPD. Axis I diagnoses, including DSM-IV SP, were identified using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In this sample, the majority of those with AvPD did not also have SP: The authors found 116 persons with AvPD only, 196 with SP only, and 69 with SP+AvPD. There was little difference between any of the groups on sex, marital status, employment, education, or impairment variables. The SP+AvPD group reported more distress and comorbidity than the SP only and AvPD only groups, which did not differentiate from each other. More feared social situations were endorsed in the SP only group compared to the AvPD only group. Although the finding of few differences between SP only and AvPD only groups among the variables measured in this epidemiological survey fails to provide support for the hypothesis of qualitative differences, the finding that the AvPD only group appears more similar to the SP only group than to the SP+AvPD group also fails to provide support for the alternative continuity hypothesis. The greater distress and additional comorbidity with depression associated with SP+AvPD may be due to the additional symptom load of a second disorder rather than simply representing a more severe variant of
Kandula, Namratha R; Cooper, Andrew J; Schneider, John A; Fujimoto, Kayo; Kanaya, Alka M; Van Horn, Linda; deKoning, Lawrence; Siddique, Juned
Understanding the social lives of South Asian immigrants in the United States (U.S) and their influence on health can inform interpersonal and community-level health interventions for this growing community. This paper describe the rationale, survey design, measurement, and network properties of 700 South Asian individuals in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) social networks ancillary study. MASALA is a community-based cohort, established in 2010, to understand risk factors for cardiovascular disease among South Asians living in the U.S. Survey data collection on personal social networks occurred between 2014 and 2017. Network measurements included size, composition, density, and organizational affiliations. Data on participants' self-rated health and social support functions and health-related discussions among network members were also collected. Participants' age ranged from 44 to 84 (average 59 years), and 57% were men. South Asians had large (size=5.6, SD=2.6), kin-centered (proportion kin=0.71, SD=0.28), and dense networks. Affiliation with religious and spiritual organizations was perceived as beneficial to health. Emotional closeness with network members was positively associated with participants' self-rated health (p-value networks with higher density and more kin were significantly associated with health-related discussions. The MASALA networks study advances research on the cultural patterning of social relationships and sources of social support in South Asians living in the U.S. Future analyses will examine how personal social networks and organizational affiliations influence South Asians' health behaviors and outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02268513.
Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.
Do police officers possess certain personality characteristics that make them unique compared to the non-police population? This question has been the subject of an extensive line of research. Several researchers have found evidence of a so-called police personality, while other researchers have failed to detect personality differences between the police and the public. Also, some researchers have found that officers differ from each other in terms of job performance, and that personality dif...
Gaddis, S. Michael
After 25 years of intense scrutiny, social capital remains an important yet highly debated concept in social science research. This research uses data from youth and mentors in several chapters of Big Brothers/Big Sisters to assess the importance of different mentoring relationship characteristics in creating positive outcomes among youths. The…
Betz, Nancy E.; Borgen, Fred H.
This study was designed to compare a new inventory measuring concepts of the "healthy personality" with the most widely used inventory of the Big Five personality traits, the NEO personality inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R). Using adjectives as the stimulus materials, Borgen and Betz (2008) developed a 17-scale inventory called the Healthy…
Bassey, Emmanuel; Ellison, Caroline; Walker, Ruth
This study investigates the social capital implications of vision loss among working-age adults in Nigeria. The study explores the challenges of acquiring and maintaining social relationships post-vision loss, and investigates the extent to which visual rehabilitation services support social goals. A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was undertaken. Eight adults (18-59 years) were recruited from disability service organizations in Nigeria. Telephone interviews were recorded and transcribed, and thematic content analysis was used to analyze the data gathered in this study. Three broad themes were developed from participants' accounts of their experiences: (1) changes to relationships with friends and others; (2) finding strength in family relationships; and (3) rehabilitation and the confidence to interact. The findings indicate that the relationship between participants and their family members improved post vision impairment, enhancing bonding social capital. However, participants experienced reduced bridging and linking social capital due to diminished or broken relationships with managers, coworkers, friends, and others in the community. As social connectedness and relationships are highly valued in Nigeria's diverse society, we suggest that adults with visual impairment would significantly benefit from visual rehabilitation services placing greater emphasis on addressing the social goals of participants. Implications for Rehabilitation Visual impairment in working-age adults can strengthen family relationships (homogenous groups), creating bonding capital that is associated with access to important resources including emotional and moral support, and some financial and material resources. Visual impairment can negatively impact relationships with managers, coworkers, and others in the community (heterogeneous groups), resulting in diminished bridging and linking capital. Visual impairment can reduce access to resources such as an income
Hojat, Mohammadreza; Michalec, Barret; Veloski, J Jon; Tykocinski, Mark L
To test the hypotheses that medical students recognized by peers as the most positive social influencers would score (1) high on measures of engaging personality attributes that are conducive to relationship building (empathy, sociability, activity, self-esteem), and (2) low on disengaging personality attributes that are detrimental to interpersonal relationships (loneliness, neuroticism, aggression-hostility, impulsive sensation seeking). The study included 666 Jefferson Medical College students who graduated in 2011-2013. Students used a peer nomination instrument to identify classmates who had a positive influence on their professional and personal development. At matriculation, these students had completed a survey that included the Jefferson Scale of Empathy and Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire short form and abridged versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scale. In multivariate analyses of variance, the method of contrasted groups was used to compare the personality attributes of students nominated most frequently by their peers as positive influencers (top influencers [top 25% in their class distribution], n = 176) with those of students nominated least frequently (bottom influencers [bottom 25%], n = 171). The top influencers scored significantly higher on empathy, sociability, and activity and significantly lower on loneliness compared with the bottom influencers. However, the effect size estimates of the differences were moderate at best. The research hypotheses were partially confirmed. Positive social influencers appear to possess personality attributes conducive to relationship building, which is an important feature of effective leadership. The findings have implications for identifying and training potential leaders in medicine.
Louvet, Eva; Cambon, Laurent; Milhabet, Isabelle; Rohmer, Odile
Building on the two fundamental dimensions of social judgment distinguishing communion from agency, the purpose of the present work was to show that the strength of the relationship between social status and agency depends on specific components at issue: assertiveness, competence, and effort. Four experimental studies were conducted using two complementary paradigms. In Studies 1 and 2, we manipulated social status, and participants had to rate the target on competence, assertiveness, and effort. In Studies 3 and 4, we reversed the design. Results consistently showed that social status was primarily related to assertiveness, somewhat related to competence, and only slightly related to effort. The present research provides a better understanding of how the dimensions of social judgment are used to explain differences in social status.
van Velzen, C.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Scholing, A.
The impact of personality disorders (PDs) on exposure in pipe treatment for social phobia was investigated in three groups of social phobics: social phobia without any PD (n = 30), social phobia with a single diagnosis of avoidant PD (n = 18) and social phobia with multiple PDs (n = 13). We
Background: Social interaction and network of individuals with neurosis have been reported to be inadequate. Aim: To measure deficiencies in the social network of individuals with neurosis. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with neurosis attending the OPD of the Department of Psychiatry, King George's Medical College, Lucknow, who were diagnosed as per the criteria of ICD-9, were included in the study. A control group of 40 healthy persons matched for age, sex, education and marital status was also taken. Interaction with the primary group (defined as consisting of all kin, nominated friends, work associates and neighbours) was measured by the Social Interaction Schedule of Henderson et al. as modified for the Indian population. Results: Patients reported significantly higher mean duration of unpleasant but affectively intense interaction with one person within or outside the primary group and affectively unpleasant and intense interaction with more than one person within or outside the primary group or affectively superficial but unpleasant interaction with one or more person of the primary group. Healthy subjects reported more of pleasant interaction with one person within or outside the primary group and affectively intense and pleasant interaction with more than one person within or outside the primary group or affectively superficial but pleasant interaction with one or more persons of the primary group; the difference was statistically significant as compared to patients with neurosis. Conclusion: The primary group of patients with neurosis was significantly smaller in numerical size as compared with that of controls and in terms of the total time spent with members of the primary group, patients with neurosis reported more interactions of unpleasant type and less of pleasant type as compared with healthy controls. PMID:20844645
Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Mason, Catherine; Haro, Josep Maria
Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders globally and has implications for various aspects of everyday-life. To date, studies assessing the association between social relationships and depression have provided conflicting results. The aim of this paper was to review the evidence on associations between social relationships and depression in the general population. Studies investigating the association of social support, social networks, or social connectedness with depression were retrieved and summarized (searches using Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycNet were conducted in May 2014). Fifty-one studies were included in this review. The strongest and most consistent findings were significant protective effects of perceived emotional support, perceived instrumental support, and large, diverse social networks. Little evidence was found on whether social connectedness is related to depression, as was also the case for negative interactions. Due to the strict inclusion criteria relating to study quality and the availability of papers in the domain of interest, the review did not capture 'gray literature' and qualitative studies. Future research is warranted to account for potential bias introduced by the use of subjective measures as compared to objective measures of received support and actual networks. Due to the heterogeneity between available studies on the measure of social relationships, the inclusion of comparable measures across studies would allow for more valid comparisons. In addition, well-designed prospective studies will provide more insight into causality. Future research should address how social support and networks interact and together affect risks for depression. Social connectedness and negative interactions appear to be underutilized as measures in population-based studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article deals with the dynamics of personality changes in people serving a prison sentence whereas these changes are as result of the social work performed in prisons. Analyzed are some personality characteristics displayed in the context of emotional intelligence and social empathy in people with delinquent behavior of different age and of different social, educational, psychosomatic and family status.
Seipel, Michael M. O.; Johnson, Jennifer D.; Walton, Elaine
Selecting the best students and hiring the best social workers are important professional responsibilities. Findings from this exploratory study identify personal attributes that are significant in enabling MSW students and social work employees to succeed. Social work educators and agency administrators generally agree that personal attributes…
The field of personality and culture was given a significant impetus during the 1930s with the establishment of the Advisory Committee on Personality and Culture (1930-1934) by the Social Science Research Council. This committee provided an early formulation of personality and culture that emphasized the interdisciplinary focus on the processes of personality formation within small-scale social settings. The committee's formulation also coupled personality and culture with a liberal social engineering approach geared toward cultural reconstruction. Major social scientists and clinicians were involved in the activities of the committee, including Edward Sapir, W. I. Thomas, E. W. Burgess, E. A. Bott, Robert S. Woodworth, Harry Stack Sullivan, C. M. Hincks, and Adolf Meyer.
Butler, Emily E.; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard
Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behaviour...
Thomas, Jenna C; Letourneau, Nicole; Bryce, Crystal I; Campbell, Tavis S; Giesbrecht, Gerald F
Whereas significant advances have been made in understanding how exposure to early adversity "gets under the skin" of children to result in long term changes in developmental outcomes, the processes by which positive social relationships become biologically embedded remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the pathways by which maternal and infant social environments become biologically embedded in infant cortisol reactivity. Two hundred seventy-two pregnant women and their infants were prospectively assessed during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. In serial mediation analyses, higher perceived social support from partners during pregnancy was associated with lower infant cortisol reactivity or larger decreases in cortisol in response to a stressor at 6 months of age via lower self-reported prenatal maternal depression and higher mother-infant interaction quality. The findings add to our understanding of how perinatal social relationships become biologically embedded in child development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Barelds, Dick P. H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel
The present study examined the relation between the type of relationship onset on the one hand and the degree to which partners have similar personalities and relationship quality on the other hand. It was hypothesized that partners who fell in love at first sight, relative to partners who got
Utz, S.; Beukeboom, C.J.
On social network sites (SNS), information about one's romantic partner is readily available and public for friends. The paper focuses on the negative (SNS jealousy) and positive (SNS relationship happiness) consequences of SNS use for romantic relationships. We examined whether relationship satisfaction, trait jealousy, SNS use and need for popularity predicted these emotional consequences of SNS use and tested the moderating role of self-esteem. For low self-esteem individuals, need for pop...
Mancilla V., Daniela; Sastoque H., Sebastian; Iregui G., Marcela
Communication is one of the essential needs of human beings. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems (AAC) seek to help in the generation of oral and written language to people with physical disorders that limit their natural communication. These systems present significant challenges such as: the composition of consistent messages according to syntactic and semantic rules, the improvement of message production times, the application to social contexts and, consequently, the incorporation of user-specific information. This work presents an original ontology personalization approach for an AAC instant messaging system incorporating personalized information to improve the efficacy and efficiency of the message production. This proposal is based on a projection of a general ontology into a more specific one, avoiding storage redundancy and data coupling, representing a big opportunity to enrich communication capabilities of current AAC systems. The evaluation was performed for a study case based on an AAC system for assistance in composing messages. The results show that adding user-specific information allows generation of enriched phrases, so improving the accuracy of the message, facilitating the communication process.
Law, Marcus; Lam, Michelle; Wu, Diana; Veinot, Paula; Mylopoulos, Maria
Purpose Residency poses challenges for residents’ personal relationships. Research suggests residents rely on family and friends for support during their training. The authors explored the impact of residency demands on residents’ personal relationships and the effects changes in those relationships could have on their wellness. Method The authors used a constructivist grounded theory approach. In 2012–2014, they conducted semistructured interviews with a purposive and theoretical sample of 1...
Villanueva-Felez, Africa; Molas-Gallart, Jordi; Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro
The analysis of social networks has remained a crucial and yet understudied aspect of the efforts to measure Triple Helix linkages. The Triple Helix model aims to explain, among other aspects of knowledge-based societies, "the current research system in its social context" (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff 2000:109). This paper develops a novel…
Tito Paes de Barros Neto
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se outros transtornos de personalidade, além do transtorno de personalidade esquiva, ocorrem entre fóbicos sociais. Vinte e dois pacientes com diagnóstico de fobia social de acordo com os critérios do DSM-III-R foram avaliados através do Inventário Multifásico Minnesota de Personalidade (MMPI, da Entrevista Estruturada para Distúrbios de Personalidade do DSM-III-R (SIDP-R e do Exame do Estado Psíquico (PSE. Catorze pacientes (64% da amostra receberam pelo menos um diagnóstico de transtorno de personalidade - todos estes receberam o diagnóstico de transtorno de personalidade esquiva. Metade dos pacientes que recebeu o diagnóstico de transtornos de personalidade apresentou dois ou mais transtornos de personalidade. O transtorno de personalidade paranóide foi diagnosticado em seis pacientes (27%. Dez pacientes (46%, avaliados através do MMPI, apresentaram escore patológico na escala paranóia (Pa. Outros traços patológicos de personalidade foram observados nas escalas depressão (D, histeria (Hy e introversão-extroversão (Si do MMPI. Idéias de referência não-delirantes (IR do PSE ocorreram em 19 pacientes. O transtorno de personalidade paranóide foi diagnosticado com freqüência maior neste estudo do que na maioria dos estudos realizados com fóbicos sociais. Isso parece ter ocorrido por sobreposição de critérios diagnósticos pouco específicos e também por auto-referência e traços paranóides de personalidade, como hipersensibilidade e preocupação com a opinião alheia.The aim of this study was to investigate if other comorbid personality disorders, other than avoidant personality disorder, occur among social phobics. Twenty-two patients with a social phobia diagnosis according to DSM-III-R criteria were evaluated by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, the Structured Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SIDP-R and the Present State
Frende Vega, María de los Ángeles; Carmelo Ordaz, Carmen; Ruiz Navarro, José
This study tests the effects of virtuous CEOs on corporate social responsibility views (narrow vs broad). Using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique, we find that virtuous CEOs correlated positively with a broad view of corporate social responsibility (CSR). We also examine the moderating role the board of directors plays in the relationship between virtuous CEOs and CSR but finds no positive association. Our results indicate that CEOs matter and that their virtuous values may be a m...
Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Smith, Timothy B.; Layton, J. Bradley
Editors' Summary Background Humans are naturally social. Yet, the modern way of life in industrialized countries is greatly reducing the quantity and quality of social relationships. Many people in these countries no longer live in extended families or even near each other. Instead, they often live on the other side of the country or even across the world from their relatives. Many also delay getting married and having children. Likwise, more and more people of all ages in developed countries...
Davidson, Ian J
This article is a cocitation network analysis of The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology ( JASP ) from 1925 to 1942. The analysis was conducted to help shed light on the historical roots of the intellectual and institutional relationships among social, personality, and abnormal psychology. JASP was a main venue for the boundary work of early- to mid-twentieth-century American psychologists. One of the main goals of these various research communities was to appropriate psychoanalytic and sociological concepts into preferred methods and approaches that favored an individualistic, quantifiable, and ultimately normal subject. Five major research communities are identified using the citations, and historically contextualized: Community #1, Measuring Social Aspects; Community #2, Psychometrics; Community #3, Operationalizing Psychoanalysis; Community #4, Introversion Studies; and Community #5, Experimental Social Psychology. This analysis demonstrates how disciplinary psychologists, at least within JASP , were united by the work of delimiting their research from closely aligned fields studying the same concepts-even while psychologists' methodological commitments to experimentalism or psychological testing might have ostensibly divided them. Possible future research incorporating post-World War II research and dynamic networking approaches is recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Rushton, Carole; Edvardsson, David
Relationships are central to enacting person-centred care of the older person with cognitive impairment. A fuller understanding of relationships and the role they play facilitating wellness and preserving personhood is critical if we are to unleash the productive potential of nursing research and person-centred care. In this article, we target the acute care setting because much of the work about relationships and older people with cognitive impairment has tended to focus on relationships in long-term care. The acute care setting is characterized by archetypal constraints which differentiate it from long-term care, in terms of acuity and haste, task-orientated work patterns and influence from "the rule of medicine," all of which can privilege particular types of relating. In this article, we drew on existing conceptualizations of relationships from theory and practice by tapping in to the intellectual resources provided by nurse researchers, the philosophy of Martin Buber and ANT scholars. This involved recounting two examples of dyadic and networked relationships which were re-interpreted using two complementary theoretical approaches to provide deeper and more comprehensive conceptualizations of these relationships. By re-presenting key tenets from the work of key scholars on the topic relationships, we hope to hasten socialization of these ideas into nursing into the acute care setting. First, by enabling nurses to reflect on how they might work toward cultivating relationships that are more salutogenic and consistent with the preservation of personhood. Second, by stimulating two distinct but related lines of research enquiry which focus on dyadic and networked relationships with the older person with cognitive impairment in the acute care setting. We also hope to reconcile the schism that has emerged in the literature between preferred approaches to care of the older person with cognitive impairment, that is person-centred care versus relationship-centred care
Esfandiari, Narges; Nouri, Abolghasem; Golparvar, Mohsen; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H
Background: The internet is a phenomena that changes human, specially the younger generation's, life in the 21st century. Online communication is a common way of interacting among adolescents who experience feelings of social anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social anxiety and online communication in adolescents. Methods: Three hundred and thirty students aged 13-16 years were selected from eight middle and high schools in Isfahan by multistage cluster sampling. Each of them completed a survey on the amount of time they spent communicating online, the topics they discussed, the partners they engaged with and their purpose for communicating over the internet. They also completed the social anxiety scale of adolescents. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression. Results: Results of the Pearson analysis showed that online communication has a significant positive relationship with apprehension and fear of negative evaluation (AFNE), and a significant negative relationship with tension and inhibition in social contact (TISC) (P online communication is AFNE, TISC. Conclusions: It is suggested that students from middle school get assessed in terms of the level of social anxiety. Then, the quality and quantity of their online communication should be moderated through group training and consulting and referral to medical centers, if needed. The results of this study may lead to optimal use of online communications and reduce the personal, social and psychological problems of adolescents. PMID:23671769
Esfandiari, Narges; Nouri, Abolghasem; Golparvar, Mohsen; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H
The internet is a phenomena that changes human, specially the younger generation's, life in the 21(st) century. Online communication is a common way of interacting among adolescents who experience feelings of social anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social anxiety and online communication in adolescents. Three hundred and thirty students aged 13-16 years were selected from eight middle and high schools in Isfahan by multistage cluster sampling. Each of them completed a survey on the amount of time they spent communicating online, the topics they discussed, the partners they engaged with and their purpose for communicating over the internet. They also completed the social anxiety scale of adolescents. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression. Results of the Pearson analysis showed that online communication has a significant positive relationship with apprehension and fear of negative evaluation (AFNE), and a significant negative relationship with tension and inhibition in social contact (TISC) (P communication is AFNE, TISC. It is suggested that students from middle school get assessed in terms of the level of social anxiety. Then, the quality and quantity of their online communication should be moderated through group training and consulting and referral to medical centers, if needed. The results of this study may lead to optimal use of online communications and reduce the personal, social and psychological problems of adolescents.
Homan, Philipp; Reddan, Marianne C; Brosch, Tobias; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Schiller, Daniela
In social interactions, we often need to quickly infer why other people do what they do. More often than not, we infer that behavior is a result of personality rather than circumstances. It is unclear how the tendency itself may contribute to psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe interpersonal dysfunction. Here, we investigated if this dysfunction is related to the tendency to over-attribute behaviors to personality traits. Healthy controls and patients with BPD judged positive and negative behaviors presented within a situational constraint during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Before the experiment, we measured trait levels of empathy, paranoia, and need for cognition. Behaviorally, we found that empathy levels predicted the tendency to attribute behavior to traits in healthy controls, whereas in patients with BPD this relationship was significantly weakened. Whole brain analysis of group-by-empathy interaction revealed that when participants judged the behavior during the attribution phase, several brain regions implicated in mentalizing distinguished patients from controls: In healthy controls, neural activity scaled negatively with empathy, but this relationship was reversed in BPD patients. Due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot establish a causal link between empathy and social attributions. These findings indicate that the self-reported tendency to feel for others is related to the tendency to integrate situational information beyond personality. In BPD patients, by contrast, the association between empathy and attribution was significantly weaker, rendering empathy less informative in predicting the overall attribution style. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McDougall, Matthew A; Walsh, Michael; Wattier, Kristina; Knigge, Ryan; Miller, Lindsey; Stevermer, Michalene; Fogas, Bruce S
This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eghdam, Aboozar; Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine
This study was conducted as a social network analysis of a Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain to address the lack of research examining social media and the potential value of on-line support for persons with mild acquired cognitive impairment.
Heijde, C.M. van der; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Bondarouk, T.; Olivas-Luján, M.R.
- Purpose - The purpose of this chapter is to draw attention to employability being an important social innovation that potentially thrives with transformational leadership, partly depending on certain personal characteristics such as managerial role and personality. - Methodology/Approach - The
Higher education literature has focused narrowly on social responsibility to the exclusion of personal responsibility. This chapter challenges higher education researchers and practitioners to include behaviors related to personal responsibility in their research and educational agendas.
The aim of the current dissertation was to show how adolescent personality was linked to youths’ developmental outcomes. Our findings suggest that adolescent personality has concurrent and predictive relations to a variety of important developmental outcomes. Specifically, adolescent personality was
Full Text Available In the article the relationship between system of technical and system of social norms in ecological project has been considered from constructivist standpoint in sociology of technology. For adequate solution of technological problem of enviromental pollution by hydrocarbons is necessary to define beside technical also system of social norms. Sociological analysis of accidents in transportation of hydrocarbons is suggested in purpose of clear definition of responsibilities of certain social actors and for modification of existing laws for enviromental protection (the paper is published in Croatian.
Kiciman, Emre; Choudhury, Munmun De; Counts, Scott
We present discussion graphs, a hyper-graph-based representation of social media discussions that captures both the structural features of the relationships among entities as well as the context of the discussions from which they were derived. Building on previous analyses of social media network...... and pseudo-cliques, when applied to the analysis of textual social media content. We apply our framework across several domains captured in Twitter, including the mining of peoples' statements about their locations and activities and discussions of the U.S. 2012 elections....
Disabled persons conducting non-agricultural economic activity may apply for the refund of social insurance contributions from the State Fund for Rehabilitation of the Disabled Persons. The exception to the general rule of financing social insurance contributions of persons conducting non-agricultural economic activity by the insured persons themselves, entirely from their own funds, constitutes one of the instruments introduced by the law-maker to enhance vocational activation of disabled pe...
The data is analysed in IBM SPSS 21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results are analysed and reported with IBM SPSS 21 by using scientific methods. These methods are analysed with Independent T Test, One way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation.
Rodríguez Uña, I; Pérez Bartolomé, F; Urriés Ortiz, M; Arriola Villalobos, P; Bermúdez Vallecilla, M; Fernández-Vega Cueto, L; Martín Villaescusa, C; Marticorena Álvarez, P
To study the correlation between the myopic refractive error and certain personality traits, and to determine whether there is a correlation between the degree of myopia and an increased frequency in personality disorders. Cross-sectional observational multicenter study conducted on 82 subjects (26 men, 56 women) age over 18 years with myopia (spherical defect ≤ -0.5 D), with 30 subjects having high myopia (de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mattan, Bradley D; Kubota, Jennifer T; Cloutier, Jasmin
Inferring the relative rank (i.e., status) of others is essential to navigating social hierarchies. A survey of the expanding social psychological and neuroscience literatures on status reveals a diversity of focuses (e.g., perceiver vs. agent), operationalizations (e.g., status as dominance vs. wealth), and methodologies (e.g., behavioral, neuroscientific). Accommodating this burgeoning literature on status in person perception, the present review offers a novel social neuroscientific framework that integrates existing work with theoretical clarity. This framework distinguishes between five key concepts: (1) strategic pathways to status acquisition for agents, (2) status antecedents (i.e., perceptual and knowledge-based cues that confer status rank), (3) status dimensions (i.e., domains in which an individual may be ranked, such as wealth), (4) status level (i.e., one's rank along a given dimension), and (5) the relative importance of a given status dimension, dependent on perceiver and context characteristics. Against the backdrop of this framework, we review multiple dimensions of status in the nonhuman and human primate literatures. We then review the behavioral and neuroscientific literatures on the consequences of perceived status for attention and evaluation. Finally, after proposing a social neuroscience framework, we highlight innovative directions for future social status research in social psychology and neuroscience.
Kane, Jennifer B; Margerison-Zilko, Claire
Recent efforts to explain the stark social and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes that have persisted for decades in the U.S. have looked beyond prenatal factors, to explore preconception social conditions that may influence perinatal health via dysregulation of physiologic processes. The extant evidence supporting this link however remains limited, both due to a lack of data and theory. To address the latter, this manuscript generates a structured set of theoretical insights that further develop the link between two preconception social conditions - place and social relationships - and perinatal health. The insights propose the following. necessarily encompasses all social contexts to which females are exposed from infancy through young adulthood; encompasses a variety of related exposures that, when possible, should be jointly considered; and may compound the effect of poverty-in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood-on perinatal health. Social relationships: span relationships from early life through adulthood, and extend to intergenerational associations; often involve (or induce) major changes in the lives of individuals and should be examined with an emphasis on the developmental stage in which the change occurred; and necessarily encompass a lack of social integration, or, social isolation. We also identify potential biological and social-structural mechanisms linking these preconception social conditions to perinatal health, and conclude by identifying promising directions for future research.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: University students are among vulnerable groups to tendency towards substance use. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the role of personal, familial, and social risk and protective factors in the prediction of tendency to this behavior among students.Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was carried out on 431 students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Data were collected by Risk and Protective Factors Inventory (RPFI and Youth Risk Taking Scale (YRTS and then, were analyzed by Pearson correlation method and stepwise multivariate regression.Results: Data analysis using Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed significant relationships between personal (e.g. attitude towards substance use and tendency to drug use; r=0.6, P<0.01, familial (e.g. parent attitude towards substance and tendency towards smoking cigarettes; r=0.2, P<0.05, and social (e.g. perceived accessibility and tendency towards alcohol; r=0.4, P<0.01 factors with tendency to substance use. Moreover, the results of stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that personal factors (i.e. attitude towards substance use, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, social factors (i.e. friends’ substance use and perceived accessibility, and familial factors (i.e. family monitoring and parents’ attitude towards substance use were the best predictors of tendency towards substance use in students, respectively.Conclusion: In conclusion, current results indicated that a series of individual, familial, and social factors affect tendency towards substance use among students. Accordingly, identifying vulnerable students using suitable screening tests and providing them with primary prevention programs is of the utmost importance.
Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J.; Hatemi, Peter K.
The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor. PMID:22400142