Swart, Fenna; de Graaff, H.C.J.; Onstenk, Jeroen; Knezic, Dubravka
This paper describes teacher educators’ understanding of language for classroom communication in higher education. We argue that teacher educators who are aware of their personal practical knowledge of language have a better understanding of their students’ language use and provide better support
Swart, Fenna; de Graaff, Rick; Onstenk, Jeroen; Knezic, Dubravka
This paper describes teacher educators' understanding of language for classroom communication in higher education. We argue that teacher educators who are aware of their personal practical knowledge of language have a better understanding of their students' language use and provide better support for knowledge construction. Personal practical…
Fischer, Louise Harder; Pries-Heje, Lene
work. We see a possible way forward for improving workplace practices with IT-knowledge artefact based applications, by combining new insight of how different personality traits prefer different knowledge sharing processes with new insight on personalizing persuasive technology. We explore new research......The workplace is getting increasingly globalized, virtualized and networked. At the same time, work itself has become discrete, autonomous and complex. In a fast changing world, the individual knowledge worker and his interactions becomes the new locus of value creation. Management promote...
Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan C; Bardey, David; Castiblanco, John; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana
Personalized medicine encompasses a broad and evolving field informed by a patient distinctive information and biomarker profile. Although terminology is evolving and some semantic interpretations exist (e.g., personalized, individualized, precision), in a broad sense personalized medicine can be coined as: "To practice medicine as it once used to be in the past using the current biotechnological tools." A humanized approach to personalized medicine would offer the possibility of exploiting systems biology and its concept of P5 medicine, where predictive factors for developing a disease should be examined within populations in order to establish preventive measures on at-risk individuals, for whom healthcare should be personalized and participatory. Herein, the process of personalized medicine is presented together with the options that can be offered in health care systems with limited resources for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ilgen, Daniel R
Recent studies of veterinary practices and services have suggested that more attention must be focused on business practices and on the skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) of veterinarians related to veterinary practice management (VPM). Responses to these concerns have been directed at the selection and education of veterinarians in veterinary school. While this position is supported in the present article, it is argued that the values and interests of persons who are likely to enter the field, as well as the nature of the experiences encountered across the career of veterinarians, will moderate the potential effectiveness of veterinary school practices and experiences regarding SKAs in VPM. The paper explores some potential implications of these moderators on the effectiveness of selection and education for increasing SKAs in VPM.
The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...
Full Text Available Background: : Slum dwellers are likely to be among the most deprived people in urban areas. Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries like ours. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice about personal hygiene and environmental sanitation in selected slums of Dhaka city. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was conducted in purposively selected urban slum areas of Moghbazar slum, Bashabo slum and T&T slum of Dhaka city during February 2014 to April 2014. Convenient sampling technique was applied. Semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used and face to face interview was conducted. Total 475 subjects, irrespective of age and sex, were included in this study. Results: Out of 475 respondents, more than fifty percent slum dwellers resided in tin shaded room while 21.7% in ‘kacha’ houses. Sixty six percent of the respondents used to drink water from tube-well and 24% used supplied water provided by the city corporation. The study revealed that near 59% of the respondents used sanitary latrine. About 67% slum dwellers regularly practiced hand washing before taking meal and 59.2% respondents used soap after defecation. About fifty percent respondents brushed their teeth regularly with tooth paste. Regarding personal cleanliness, 81% subjects took bath regularly while 78% washed clothes irregularly. A statistically significant relation was found between washing of hands before meal (p=0.001, washing of hands after defecation (p=0.02, tooth brushing (p=0.001, bathing (p=0.009, washing of cloths (p=0.001, use of footwear (p=0.63 with knowledge of personal hygiene of the slum dwellers. Conclusion: Continuous community hygiene education along with adequate access to water supply and sanitation improves hygiene behaviour and policy makers and health care providers should have definite strategy and implementation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses. Evidence of lyssavirus circulation has recently emerged in Southeast Asian bats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thailand to assess rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons regularly exposed to bats and bat habitats. The objectives were to identify deficiencies in rabies awareness, describe the occurrence of bat exposures, and explore factors associated with transdermal bat exposures. METHODS: A survey was administered to a convenience sample of adult guano miners, bat hunters, game wardens, and residents/personnel at Buddhist temples where mass bat roosting occurs. The questionnaire elicited information on demographics, experience with bat exposures, and rabies knowledge. Participants were also asked to describe actions they would take in response to a bat bite as well as actions for a bite from a potentially rabid animal. Bivariate analysis was used to compare responses between groups and multivariable logistic regression was used to explore factors independently associated with being bitten or scratched by a bat. FINDINGS: Of 106 people interviewed, 11 (10% identified bats as a potential source of rabies. A history of a bat bite or scratch was reported by 29 (27%, and 38 (36% stated either that they would do nothing or that they did not know what they would do in response to a bat bite. Guano miners were less likely than other groups to indicate animal bites as a mechanism of rabies transmission (68% vs. 90%, p=0.03 and were less likely to say they would respond appropriately to a bat bite or scratch (61% vs. 27%, p=0.003. Guano mining, bat hunting, and being in a bat cave or roost area more than 5 times a year were associated with history of a bat bite or scratch. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the need for educational outreach to raise awareness of bat rabies, promote exposure prevention, and ensure appropriate health-seeking behaviors for bat
Ezeugwu, L; Aguwa, E N; Arinze-Onyia, S U; Okeke, T A
There has been increasing incidence of occupational diseases among woodworkers due to exposure to preventable hazards in the workplace. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of health education on the knowledge and practice of workplace hygiene and protective measures among woodworkers in Enugu timber market. This was a before and after study conducted among 290 woodworkers using interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire and manual on workplace hazards prevention. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 and P-value of 0.05 was set as the significance level. Two hundred and ninety respondents participated in the study; 282 (97.2%) were males, most completed secondary education and had worked for less than 10 years (71% and 58.3%, respectively). The mean knowledge score of participants pre- and postintervention were 89.5% ± 9.03 and 98.5% ± 1.84, respectively (P Personal hygiene practices showed mixed responses most of which improved post intervention. The most common reason for eating in workplace was excessive workload (60.3%), while lack of PPEs (29.3%) and lack of training (23.8%) were the most common reasons for nonuse of PPEs. Majority of the participants had good knowledge of workplace hygiene but had poor use of PPEs. Health education intervention improved the use of PPEs and should be recommended.
Milburn, Peter C.; Colyer, Hazel
Interprofessional education (IPE) is well-established in the professional discipline of radiography and other health and social care professions, driven by central government policies promoting interprofessional, collaborative working. The development of an appropriate knowledge base for interprofessional work is therefore important and, as a starting point, the article investigates the concept and significance of professional knowledge as a means to unravel and shed light on the potential emergence of a new body of knowledge, 'interprofessional knowledge'. The paper discusses whether the term 'interprofessional knowledge' (IPK) is meaningful and its utility for interprofessional practice, arguing that such knowledge is located within the discourse of interprofessional learning and practice. As such it is fluid and contextualised. The implications of this for all health and social care professionals, including radiographers, are elaborated to assist in future curriculum development and enhance understanding of the knowledge that underpins effective, collaborative, interprofessional practice. The paper concludes by suggesting there are a number of key implications for professional practice namely, IPE cannot teach interprofessional knowledge, rather it should facilitate interprofessional practice, through which such knowledge is construed, and person-centred care can be more effectively achieved. Second, interprofessional practice is highly contextualised by practice setting and point of service delivery. Any attempt to decontextualise it for the purpose of curriculum development would be illogical; interprofessional knowledge is in a symbiotic relationship with its prior professional knowledge. Third, the organisation of IPE would be better driven by alliances of complementary professions in order to maximise its potential effectiveness and credibility with practitioners
Majchrzak, Ann; Chelleppa, Ramnath K.; Cooper, Lynne P.; Hars, Alexander
Consistent with the call of the Minnesota Symposium for new theory in knowledge management, we offer a new conceptualization of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) as a portfolio of personalized knowledge delivery services. Borrowing from research on online consumer behavior, we describe the challenges imposed by personalized knowledge delivery services, and suggest design parameters that can help to overcome these challenges. We develop our design constructs through a set of hypotheses and discuss the research implications of our new conceptualization. Finally, we describe practical implications suggested by our conceptualization - practical suggestions that we hope to gain some experience with as part of an ongoing action research project at our partner organization.
This book provides knowledge engineers with practical methods for initiating, designing, building, managing, and demonstrating successful commercial expert systems. It is a record of what actually works (and does not work) in the construction of expert systems, drawn from the author's decade of experience in building expert systems in all major areas of application for American, European, and Japanese organizations.The book features:* knowledge engineering programming techniques* useful skills for demonstrating expert systems * practical costing and metrics* guidelines for using knowledge repr
The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Hindu, Muslim and Sikh teachers of religious education and the relationship between their biographies, professional beliefs and use of personal life knowledge in English, secondary school classrooms. This relationship was explored through a study of five beginning teachers and provided…
of the level of research methods and will explain that the research methods and processes in creative practice research are very similar to grounded theory which is an established research method in the social sciences. Finally, an argument will be made for a more explicit research attitude in architectural......This paper focuses on the specific knowledge residing in architectural practice. It is based on the research of 35 PhD fellows in the ADAPT-r (Architecture, Design and Art Practice Training-research) project. The ADAPT-r project innovates architectural research in combining expertise from academia...... and from practice in order to highlight and extract the specific kind of knowledge which resides and is developed in architectural practice (creative practice research). The paper will discuss three ongoing and completed PhD projects and focusses on the outcomes and their contribution to the field...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND India is home to second most populous country with diabetes. As more and more people with diabetes are leading normal life with the help of drugs, the burden of diabetic retinopathy is increasing. The awareness about the problem is not keeping pace with the burden of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a teaching hospital of West Bengal wherein diabetics attending the lifestyle and diabetic clinics were asked about the different aspects of diabetic retinopathy. RESULTS There were 307 females (58.4%. The mean (SD age of the respondent was 53.7 (11.5 years. 30% of the participants said that at least one of their first-degree relative (either parent or sibling is a known diabetic. The median duration of the diabetes of the respondents was 4 years. 79% of the participants were on any oral hypoglycaemic agent. 285 (54.2% participants knew that diabetes can affect eye. 134 (25.6% individuals have belief that diabetes can affect eye even if the blood sugar is under control. 82 (15.6% were not feeling the need to visit an eye doctor even if they are diabetic. 270 (51.3% did not know whether it is essential to visit an eye specialist for periodic checkups if a person has diabetes. Sex and occupation was not significantly associated with awareness about the eye diseases. More educated participants had better knowledge about diabetic retinopathy. CONCLUSION Though, the awareness about the diabetic retinopathy is average, the actual practice of visiting an eye specialist for regular eye checkups is very low in diabetic patients attending a teaching hospital of West Bengal.
Full Text Available The relation between person and epistemicity has been a topic of investigation throughout the humanities, including linguistics, but has mostly been focused on how conceptualisations of these two notions overlap, or diverge. This paper reviews some of these conceptualisations, but also adds a finergrained picture of how they intersect in the world’s languages. Purported categories such as egophoric marking and lesser known expressions such as non-selected arguments (i.e. "ethical datives" are compared to evidentials and modals from a synchronic and diachronic perspective in order to explain how the roles of the speech-act participants as specific arguments relate to their respective function as epistemic authorities. The aim of the paper is to introduce separate contributions relating to such systems as they are found in various parts of the world.
Abiola, A O; Nwogu, E E; Ibrahim, M T O; Hassan, R
Personal hygiene related diseases are serious public health problems in developing countries. To assess the effect of health education on knowledge, attitude, and practices of personal hygiene among rural secondary school students in Sokoto state, north western Nigeria. A quasi-experimental controlled study with pretest and post-test design was carried out. A total 120 subjects per group were selected by multistage sampling technique. Two pre-tested instruments, structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and observer's checklist for personal hygiene practices were used for data collection. Health education intervention was carried out one week after baseline data collection and repeated after four weeks for the intervention group only. Postintervention data collection was carried out in both intervention and control groups three months after the 2nd intervention. However, for ethical consideration, the control group was also provided with the health education intervention similar to that provided to the intervention group. A total of 120 and 116 subjects in the intervention and control groups respectively participated in all phases of the study. The mean knowledge score (%) of the study subjects was high and similar (73.18 +/- 25.82; 77.06 +/- 21.79; p = 0.21) in both the intervention and control groups at baseline, but differed very significantly (91.16 +/- 11.03; 81.74 +/- 21.78; p Personal hygiene health education is therefore recommended to be taught in secondary schools.
Full Text Available The major goal of the paper was to develop a theoretical framework that conceptualizes the indirect impact on human resource management practice on knowledge sharing in the organization. In the current competitive environment, the ability to use knowledge assets and to continuously renovate it is required for organizational success. Therefore, the field of human resource management should dedicate great effort to understanding how to enhance the knowledge flows within the organization. Theoretical indications were provided about HRM practices that influence the quality and quantity of knowledge sharing within an organization. Further, a conceptual model of relations between HRM practices and factors influencing knowledge sharing within an organization was introduced. It is supposed that HRM practices have direct impacts on personality traits of employees, organizational culture, characteristics of managers, and instruments used for knowledge sharing. Subsequently, these factors have direct effects on the perceived intensity of knowledge sharing. The paper offers 12 testable propositions for the indirect relation between HRM practices and knowledge sharing in the organization. The suggested model could assist future research to examine the influence of HRM practices upon managing knowledge is a more complex way. Via a theoretical contribution to the debate on the influence on HRM practices upon managing knowledge, the study contributes to further research development in this field.
their professional knowledge with regards to collective reflection and creating coherent practices and everyday lives for children and families. I propose an alternative perspective on development of professional knowledge, which takes aspects of professional knowledge and everyday practice......Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing...... and professional knowledge must involve an understanding of the importance of routines, habits and practical tasks. The analysis takes its point of departure in observations and interviews in a daycare institution with a combined nursery and preschool (age 0-6 years) In order to grasp the knowledge quality...
Robb, Cliff A.; Woodyard, Ann S.
The current research examines the relationship between personal financial knowledge (both objective and subjective), financial satisfaction, and selected demographic variables in terms of best practice financial behavior. Data are taken from the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority's (FINRA) National Financial Capability Study, a nationally…
which has the strategy of working with knowledge in the form of "best practices" meant to boost performance. The thesis explores the situation that workers are in, since they are meant to share and develop "best practices" knowledge in a portal based Knowledge Management System (KMS). The study...... indentifies a set of problems that prevents knowledge sharing from taking place to the degree to which management was specifically aiming. It was explored whether these problems could, to some degree, be mitigated by employing persuasive design, which is a new stance towards design where the aim...... is to directly seek to change the user's behavior, i.e., persuading more knowledge sharing. The main contribution is an indication of an anomaly with regards to the strategic approach towards knowledge management, where knowledge sharing is seen as an effort by which companies can gain a competitive advantage...
Schild, Susie A.
Knowledge management thinking has resulted in the perception that the organization is the relevant beneficiary of knowledge. Individual approaches to and experiences with personal knowledge management are not well documented in empirical studies, which uncovered the specific problem that the situatedness of knowledge worker contemporaries within…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice
A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice
A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335
Majority of the poultry workers have adequate personal hygiene while use of antiseptics as part of hand washing practices is relatively low. Forty-three percent of poultry workers have some knowledge of occupational exposure factors and 27.3% have some knowledge of non-occupational exposure factors to zoonotic ...
Shaw, Lynn; Jennings, Mary Beth; Poost-Foroosh, Laya; Hodgins, Heather; Kuchar, Ashley
Despite widespread availability of assistive technology and the role of occupational therapists and audiologists in workplace health, little is known about how these groups influence the health of workers with hearing loss. Based on a previously conducted study, this paper explores the need for networking and community of practice theory to promote knowledge sharing and use between occupational therapists, audiologists, educators, regulators, workers, and employers. Five occupational therapists and five audiologists participated in in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was used to investigate the processes that hinder or support these professionals in addressing the accommodation needs of and workplace accessibility for workers with hearing loss. Constraints to addressing the needs of workers with hearing loss included: lack of knowledge about professional practice processes, lack of networking, lack of knowledge on current research, and lack of knowledge on the realm of expertise of audiologists by occupational therapists and of occupational therapists by audiologists. Innovations in workplace practice in hearing loss require engagement of occupational therapists, audiologists, and employers in knowledge transfer, networking, and learning. This column introduces two theories that may guide the use and development of evidence, knowledge, and expertise toward innovations in hearing work practice.
Greven, Inez M; Downing, Paul E; Ramsey, Richard
Neuroscience research has examined separately how we detect human agents on the basis of their face and body (person perception) and how we reason about their thoughts, traits or intentions (person knowledge). Neuroanatomically distinct networks have been associated with person perception and person knowledge, but it remains unknown how multiple features of a person (e.g. thin and kind) are linked to form a holistic identity representation. In this fMRI experiment, we investigated the hypothesis that when encountering another person specialised person perception circuits would be functionally coupled with circuits involved in person knowledge. In a factorial design, we paired bodies or names with trait-based or neutral statements, and independent localiser scans identified body-selective and mentalising networks. When observing a body paired with a trait-implying statement, functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that body-selective patches in bilateral fusiform gyri were functionally coupled with nodes of the mentalising network. We demonstrate that when forming a representation of a person circuits for representing another person's physical appearance are linked to circuits that are engaged when reasoning about trait-based character. These data support the view that a 'who' system for social cognition involves communication between perceptual and inferential mechanisms when forming a representation of another's identity. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.
Schreiber, Trine; Harbo, Karen
The aim of the paper is to discuss a new subject called personal knowledge management and to compare it with the better-known concept information literacy. Firstly, the paper describes and discusses the course called personal knowledge management. People from three institutions, the Library...... the participants partly how to manage information in such a way that it supports a learning process, and partly how to negotiate with the colleagues about the information needs, locate the information, and mediate it in such a way that the colleagues will use it. At the end of the course the participants construct...... a ´knowledge map´, which constitutes the mediation of the information to the workplace. The course has got a very positively reception. Secondly, the paper compares the course of personal knowledge management with the concept of information literacy. There exist a number of different definitions of the last...
Full Text Available The purpose of this small-scale study was to explore how people perceived Personal Knowledge Management (PKM, whether people were aware of the PKM concept, and how PKM can have an impact on organisational knowledge management and productivity. A questionnaire survey with quantitative and qualitative questions was used. The study revealed that a majority (63% of respondents were not aware of the PKM concept; 33% were aware, while 2% had a vague idea about it. Eighty three (83% felt that it was important to manage personal knowledge and that PKM could increase individual productivity and organisational performance. The major recommendations included creating awareness about PKM. It should be at the heart of each employee-development programme, alignment of personal and organisational goals and adequate facilities and training in PKM.
Houdmont, J.; Davis, S.; Griffiths, A.
Background: Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk for skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK.\\ud Aims: To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential str...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review and clarify the knowledge of practice related literature on the concept of congruence between personal and organizational values and to develop the framework for strengthening the congruence between personal and organizational values in order to improve understanding about how the theory is turned into practice. This paper thoroughly analyses an extensive literature in relation to value congruence and its practical management and discusses the relationships between theoretical knowledge and practical implications. By organizing a wide range of practice related aspects into meaningful categories, the paper presents specific practical suggestions how to strengthen the congruence of personal and organizational values. The paper gives clear practical guidance for those who intend to develop and implement the congruence between personal and organizational values, since the model may be useful in selecting the most suitable practices for specific situations in organizations.
The increasing significance of ALARA in recent years has spawned numerous articles and complex technological means to achieve as low as reasonably achievable. The available body of literature on ALARA has grown so large and complex that it is an overwhelming and virtually impossible task for a single individual to remain abreast of it. Regulatory requirements and interpretations of ALARA further add to the difficulties of the operational radiation protection staff seeking ALARA. The practical person can, however, promote and provide ALARA by recalling and applying certain simple principles, including the following, which will be discussed in depth: (1) ALARA is basic and fundamental to any program of radiological protection, and as such the ALARA program or practices must be specifically identifiable. (2) ALARA is a never ending quest, and much like the speed of light or halving the distance to the goal, can really never be reached in a theoretical sense. (3) ALARA is not necessarily synonymous with dose reduction, and certainly does not involve ever continuous reduction in dose. (4) There is no single monetary value applicable to a unit of dose; rather each incremental unit of dose must be examined in the total context of the exposure situation. (5) ALARA involves professional opinion and judgment; responsible and qualified professional health physicists may differ in their opinions as to what constitutes ALARA
Knowledge Management (KM) Practices in Institutions of Higher Learning in .... quality and skills to cope with the labour market demands. .... Total. 44. 100.0. Source: Field Data (2012/13). Staff's Level of Awareness of Knowledge Management.
and support organizational learning environment, is positively related to the degree ofknowledge transfer to the subsidiary. Moreover, the higher degree of knowledge transfer isexpected when human resource management practices are applied as an integrated system ofinterdependent practices. Hypotheses derived......The purpose of the paper is to determine and empirically examine the effect of human resourcemanagement practices on knowledge transfer within multinational corporations. It is suggested thatthe employment of human resource practices, which affect absorptive capacity of knowledgereceivers...
Efforts have focused on the health worker, health system and logistics with little attention being paid to maternal factors like knowledge, perception, beliefs and practice. Objectives: To assess mothers' knowledge, perception and practice of routine and campaign immunization in Enugu. Methods: A structured questionnaire ...
In this study, the knowledge and practice of the 2000 CPR guidelines of doctors and nurses in Benin City, Nigeria was evaluated. This cross sectional study was conducted in six health facilities in Benin City. A structured self administered questionnaire was used to test the knowledge and practice of CPR of 145 doctors and ...
We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of prophylaxis in venous thromboembolism among medical doctors in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital,. Sokoto, North-West Nigeria. Methodology: The knowledge, attitude and practice of VTE prophylaxis among medical doctors was assessed using ...
Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Subjects: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, ...
Lindsey, Robert V; Shroyer, Jeffery D; Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C
Human memory is imperfect; thus, periodic review is required for the long-term preservation of knowledge and skills. However, students at every educational level are challenged by an ever-growing amount of material to review and an ongoing imperative to master new material. We developed a method for efficient, systematic, personalized review that combines statistical techniques for inferring individual differences with a psychological theory of memory. The method was integrated into a semester-long middle-school foreign-language course via retrieval-practice software. Using a cumulative exam administered after the semester's end, we compared time-matched review strategies and found that personalized review yielded a 16.5% boost in course retention over current educational practice (massed study) and a 10.0% improvement over a one-size-fits-all strategy for spaced study.
Kajeguka, Debora C; Desrochers, Rachelle E; Mwangi, Rose
OBJECTIVE: To investigate knowledge and prevention practices regarding dengue and chikungunya amongst community members, as well as knowledge, treatment and diagnostic practices among healthcare workers. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 125 community members and 125 healthcare...... good knowledge. We conducted qualitative survey (n = 40) to further assess knowledge and practice regarding dengue and chikungunya fever. RESULTS: 15.2% (n = 19) of community members had good knowledge regarding dengue, whereas 53.6%, (n = 67) of healthcare workers did. 20.3% (n = 16) of participants...... from lowland areas and 6.5% (n = 3) from highland areas had good knowledge of dengue (χ(2) = 4.25, P = 0.03). Only 2.4% (n = 3) of all participants had a good knowledge score for chikungunya. In the qualitative study, community members expressed uncertainty about dengue and chikungunya. Some healthcare...
Houdmont, J; Davis, S; Griffiths, A
Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk of skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK. To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential strategies for improving sun safety in this occupational group. Postal delivery workers completed a questionnaire that collected data on occupational sun safety knowledge and practice in addition to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. One-way analysis of variances were applied to assess differences in knowledge and practice by these characteristics. A total of 1153 postal delivery workers completed the questionnaire, a 60% response rate. Thirty-three per cent reported receiving sun safety training within the previous 12 months. The majority of respondents reported correct knowledge on three of the six domains and good practice on four of the six behavioural domains. However, only one-fifth of respondents reported wearing sunglasses and ensuring a plentiful intake of water. Knowledge and practice differed significantly according to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. There is a need to raise the profile of occupational skin cancer in this occupational group and to increase the priority given to occupational sun safety policies alongside targeted and tailored interventions, the effect of which can be evaluated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
Result: Gross deficiencies were found in the knowledge, attitudes and practice of laboratory safety by laboratory staff in areas of use of personal protective equipment, specimen collection and processing, centrifuge – related hazards, infective hazards waste disposal and provision and use of First Aid Kits. Conclusion: ...
Gaydos, H Lea
This paper explores the need for and nature of personal narratives and their relevance to nursing practice. It proposes that the co-creative aesthetic process can be used to understand and co-create personal narratives through an emphasis on self-defining memories and metaphor. Many authors in nursing and other human sciences have recognized the need for and importance of personal narrative, its relationship to aesthetic knowing and its value in qualitative research and in practice. The role of memory and metaphor in the creation of meaning in personal narratives, however, has not been sufficiently explored in nursing literature. The nature of personal narrative is explored, focusing on the way meaning is created from self-defining memories using metaphor. Then, the importance of personal narratives in nursing practice is considered, followed by discussion about how meaning in personal narratives may be co-created between clients and nurses using an aesthetic process developed by the author. The co-creative aesthetic process is an example of nursing as art and can be used to co-create personal narratives in practice. The experience of co-creating a self story with a nurse can be healing, as the self story is heard by a caring person, memories are understood in new ways, and the self story is both confirmed and recreated.
Wang, Hong; Jia, Huibo; Xu, Duanyi
This paper describes the structure of Personal Optical Disk Library (PODL), a kind of large capacity (40 GB) optical storage equipment for personal usage. With the knowledge engineering technology integrated in the PODL, it can be used on knowledge query, knowledge discovery, Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) and Online Analysis Process (OLAP).
Nigerian physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices regarding diabetes ... conducted among physicians in four towns in four different States in Nigeria, ... Only 36.8% of the participants knew that children with diabetes should eat family diet.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices toward Post Exposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... Data related to HIV PEP was collected by pre‑designed, pre‑tested, self‑administered ...
Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.
Reinau, Kristian Hegner
. This paper presents a case study in which theory about knowledge, communities of practice and networks is used to understand how knowledge is developed in high-tech companies placed in a cluster. The case study illuminates how internal and external relations and factors affect the knowledge development...... which factors that affect the knowledge development process in communities in the case companies. By analysing the interplay between formal and informal relations utilized by the companies, the knowledge embedded in the persons constituting the communities as well as knowledge embedded in objects used......Currently there is growing focus on how cluster internal and cluster external relations affect the creation of knowledge in companies placed in clusters. However, the current theories on this topic are too simple and the interplay between internal and external relations is relatively unknown...
Pérez-Fuillerat, Natalia; Solano-Ruiz, M Carmen; Amezcua, Manuel
Tacit knowledge can be defined as knowledge which is used intuitively and unconsciously, which is acquired through one's experience, characterized by being personal and contextual. Some terms such as 'intuition', 'know how' and 'implicit knowledge' have been used to describe tacit knowledge. Different disciplines in the fields of management or health have studied tacit knowledge, identifying it as a powerful tool to create knowledge and clinical decision-making. The aim of this review is to analyse the definition and characteristics that make up tacit knowledge and determine the role it plays in the nursing discipline. An integrative review was undertaken of the literature published up to November 2016 in the databases CUIDEN, SciELO, PubMed, Cochrane and CINAHL. The synthesis and interpretation of the data was performed by two researchers through content analysis. From a total of 819 articles located, 35 articles on tacit knowledge and nursing were chosen. There is no consensus on the name and description of results in tacit knowledge. The main characteristics of tacit knowledge have a personal and social character, which is used from an organised mental structure, called mindline. This structure relates to the use of tacit knowledge on clinical decision-making. Previous studies on tacit knowledge and nursing provide the nursing community with perspectives without going into depth. The production of a framework is suggested, as it would clarify implied concepts and its role on the management of nursing knowledge. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
the moderate knowledge on good practices of malaria prevention and management hence improvement with accurate knowledge through ... received basic health training and work in the community .... CHWs (a binome comprising of a man and a women for general ..... health workers empowerment activities are required to.
Zaidi, Mohd Azian; Baharuddin, Mohd Nurfaisal; Bahardin, Nur Fadhilah; Yasin, Mohd Fadzil Mat; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Deraman, Rafikullah
The aims of this paper is to identify a key dimension of knowledge transfer component to improve construction organization performance. It investigates the effectiveness of present knowledge transfer practices currently adopted by the Malaysian construction organizations and examines the relationship between knowledge transfer factors and organizational factors. A survey among 151 respondents including a different contractor registration grade was employed for the study. The survey shows that a seven-teen (17) factors known as creating shared awareness for information sharing, communication, personal skills,individual attitude,training, organizational culture, information technology,motivation, monitoring and supervision, service quality,information accessibility, information supply, socialization process,knowledge tools, coaching and monitoring, staff briefing and information sharing were identify as a key dimension for knowledge transfer success. This finding suggest that through improvement of each factor, the recognition of the whole strategic knowledge transfer process can be increase thus helping to strengthen the Malaysian construction organization for competitive advantages.
This paper summarizes the recent trends and highlights the challenges and opportunities in decision support and knowledge management for patient-centered, personalized, and personal health care. The discussions are based on a broad survey of related references, focusing on the most recent publications. Major advances are examined in the areas of i) shared decision making paradigms, ii) continuity of care infrastructures and architectures, iii) human factors and system design approaches, iv) knowledge management innovations, and v) practical deployment and change considerations. Many important initiatives, projects, and plans with promising results have been identified. The common themes focus on supporting the individual patients who are playing an increasing central role in their own care decision processes. New collaborative decision making paradigms and information infrastructures are required to ensure effective continuity of care. Human factors and usability are crucial for the successful development and deployment of the relevant systems, tools, and aids. Advances in personalized medicine can be achieved through integrating genomic, phenotypic and other biological, individual, and population level information, and gaining useful insights from building and analyzing biological and other models at multiple levels of abstraction. Therefore, new Information and Communication Technologies and evaluation approaches are needed to effectively manage the scale and complexity of biomedical and health information, and adapt to the changing nature of clinical decision support. Recent research in decision support and knowledge management combines heterogeneous information and personal data to provide cost-effective, calibrated, personalized support in shared decision making at the point of care. Current and emerging efforts concentrate on developing or extending conventional paradigms, techniques, systems, and architectures for the new predictive, preemptive, and
Larsen, Randy J.; Buss, David M.; Wismeijer, Andreas; Song, John; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine
Using a unique organizational framework that emphasizes six domains of knowledge about human nature, Personality Psychology presents an accessible, contemporary look at personality as a collection of interrelated topics and themes. The book focuses on the scientific basis of our knowledge about
Full Text Available Knowledge and its management, innovation and technology are key elements for economic growth and sustainable development in technology and globalization era. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of best practices of knowledge management in Slovakia, a$ empting to present a model that may serve to improve access to knowledge management and technology in Albania. This paper analyses practices of research & development, intellectual capital, the link between knowledge, innovation and technology transfer and trends of economic development in Slovakia. This study has used the qualitative method, supported on secondary source of data. From the assessment perspective, the findings are believable that investing on intellectual capital and managing knowledge properly, stable effects on the development of economy, industry and other fields is reached. Knowledge is managed by higher scientific institutions supported by the state. Today, in Slovakia are operating the most powerful companies. Albanians possess human capital that may face the difficult technological challenges and innovations. Both, Albania and Kosovo governments need to create a more coherent and national access to knowledge management and innovation through the establishment of National Council of Science, Knowledge and Technology Transfer.
The paper argues that a high quality personal relationship between professionals and clients is a necessary condition of professional knowledge. This epistemological claim is developed against the background of current methods of quality assessment that rely on objectively measurable 'indicators'. A philosophical analysis regarding the nature of professional knowledge in the care sector. The analysis proceeds from Michael Polanyi's concept of tacit knowledge to account for the personal dimension of professional expertise in the care sector. Quantitative methods of quality assessment understand 'quality of care' as being independent from the professional who generates it. Consequently, quality assessment as currently practiced necessarily renders the personal dimension of professional knowledge invisible, thereby excluding it from managerial attention and support. To indicate the relevance of Polanyi's concept of tacit knowledge, the paper offers some observations from the practice of care in a group home for people with intellectual disabilities. The paper concludes that a high quality relationship between professionals and their clients is crucial for quality of care. This relationship generates the positive interaction that enables professionals to gain adequate insight in the needs of their clients.
A good teacher has various characteristics. We can observe directly teachers' behaviors or read their professional papers. However, the effective way is to have teachers tell their personal life history or educational autobiography. The personal knowledge of a good teacher will be revealed through the personal life history. According to numerous…
Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hörnsten, Åsa; Storbækken, Solveig
OBJECTIVE: Person-centred care [PCC] can engage people in living well with a chronic condition. However, translating PCC into practice is challenging. We aimed to compare the translational potentials of three approaches: motivational interviewing [MI], illness integration support [IIS] and guided...... tools. CONCLUSION: Each approach has a primary application: MI, when ambivalence threatens positive change; IIS, when integrating newly diagnosed chronic conditions; and GSD, when problem solving is difficult, or deadlocked. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Professionals must critically consider the context...
Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard
This article discusses the problem of implementing scientific knowledge in practice. The discussion is based on a case study of barriers to implementing research-based principles of sustainable organic arable farming. The current literature tends to see this problem either as a dissemination issu...
Methods: A cross sectional survey of the reproductive health knowledge and practices of 412 junior secondary school pupils from 12 schools in Enugu State, Nigeria was undertaken using a uniform set of structured self-administered questionnaire. Results: The results revealed that while the pupils demonstrated fair ...
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Exclusive Breast-Feeding At Jimma, Ethiopia. Teklebrhan Tema. Abstract. No abstract - Available on PDF. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
With a high incidence of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion especially among unmarriedwomen in developing countries, there is need to promote emergency contraception (EC). To assess the unmarriedwomen\\'s knowledge, attitude and practice ofEC. A random sample of a cross-section of 594 unmarried women ...
Penner, Karen P.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.
The nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and practices of secondary teachers of health and physical education, home economics, science, and social studies were assessed. Of the 518 teachers who completed the survey instruments, 43 percent had never taken a food or nutrition course, and 63 percent had no inservice training in nutrition or food…
Background: Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion can be avoided by using different contraceptive methods, including emergency contraceptives. Information on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among women is particularly important because of high rates of teenage and ...
Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have significantly contributed to the decrease of malaria prevalence and related mortality among under five children in Rwanda. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of CHWs about malaria prevention in a selected District of Rwanda. Methods: ...
Findings indicated that need for achievement and need for affiliation significantly independently predicted knowledge sharing intention among bankers, whereas need for power, organizational culture and organizational trust did not. This implies that emphasis should not be placed on need for power, organizational culture, ...
The practice of medicine stands at the threshold of a transformation from its current focus on the treatment of disease events to an emphasis on enhancing health, preventing disease and personalizing care to meet each individual's specific health needs. Personalized health care is a new and strategic approach that is driven by personalized health planning empowered by personalized medicine tools, which are facilitated by advances in science and technology. These tools improve the capability to predict health risks, to determine and quantify the dynamics of disease development, and to target therapeutic approaches to the needs of the individual. Personalized health care can be implemented today using currently available technologies and know-how and thereby provide a market for the rational introduction of new personalized medicine tools. The need for early adoption of personalized health care stems from the necessity to reduce the egregious and wasteful burden of preventable chronic diseases, which is not effectively addressed by our current approach to care. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available Practical skills constitute essential knowledge in occupational therapy. The knowledge is situation- and experience-based, generated from within the situation. In a particular program for educating Palestinian Occupational Therapists in Gaza, facilitating such knowledge proved to be difficult. Due to travel restrictions and an unstable political situation, teachers and students were separated. Educational communication technology (ECT like videoconferences, internet and videos became new and necessary tools. This article is based on results from an action research project which followed the process of using flexible forms of learning and developing an internet based learning programme named Ergonet. The learning process of the students using it was examined with the aim of answering the following research question: How can flexible forms of learning be developed and used to facilitate practical knowledge in Occupational Therapy education? The development and implementation of Ergonet as a supporting device in students’ learning of practical skills is described through the experience of the teachers involved. The results indicate how rote-learning and lack of reflective and critical thinking, firmly established among Palestinian students, have been challenged and changed by the didactic use of Ergonet.
their motivation. Temporary and permanent types of international assignments respectively influence the ability and motivation of expatriate managers to share their knowledge.Keywords: Human Resources; Personnel; Human Resource Management; MultinationalCorporations; Organizational...... and receivers.HRM practices relevant for absorptive capacity of subsidiary employees form two groups - cognitive (job analysis, recruitment, selection, international rotation, career management, training and performance appraisal) and stimulative (promotion, performance......-based compensation, internal transfer, orientation programs, job design and flexible working practices). The application of cognitive HRM practices enhances the ability of knowledge receivers to absorb transferred knowledge, while the use of stimulative HRM practices increases...
Leibler, Jessica H; Nguyen, Daniel D; León, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M; Perez, Debora
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA ( n = 194) to identify hygiene-related self-care practices and risk factors for reduced hygiene in this population. Most participants (72%) reported taking a daily shower. More than 60% reported hand washing with soap five or more times each day, and use of hand sanitizer was widespread (89% reported using sanitizer in the last week). A majority (86%) used a laundromat or laundry machine to wash clothing, while 14% reported washing clothing in the sink. Heavy drinking, injection drug use, and sleeping outdoors were identified as significant risk factors for reduced hygiene practices. People experiencing homelessness who also engage in these activities may be among the most difficult to reach for intervention, yet targeted efforts may decrease illness risk associated with reduced hygiene. Housed friends and family play a critical role in assisting homeless individuals maintain hygiene by providing showers and laundry facilities.
El-Bishouty, Moushir M.; Ogata, Hiroaki; Yano, Yoneo
This paper introduces a ubiquitous computing environment in order to support the learners while doing tasks; this environment is called PERKAM (PERsonalized Knowledge Awareness Map). PERKAM allows the learners to share knowledge, interact, collaborate, and exchange individual experiences. It utilizes the RFID ubiquities technology to detect the…
White, Mary Joe; Gutierrez, Ann; Davis, Kerry; Olson, Rhonda; McLaughlin, Celeste
Delegation is an essential process that allows nurses to function more effectively and efficiently. The Association of Rehabilitation Nurses' (ARN) Southeast Texas Chapter research committee developed a survey to study registered nurses (RN) practices and knowledge of delegation to unlicensed assistive personnel. State boards of nursing determine delegation practices, so the survey was sent only to Texas ARN members. Benners' Novice to Expert theory was used to study delegation practices based on years of experience, certification, and education. Survey Monkey was used with a questionnaire developed by the research committee. Descriptive statistics analyzed data from the survey's 73 respondents, and chi-square measured significance of differences based on years of experience and certification (yes or no). Data show that delegation knowledge does not necessarily translate to practice, especially when looking at specific tasks performed by certified rehabilitation registered nurses (CRRNs) and non-CRRNs. The data support continued study of this important issue; 93.7% of respondents say delegation requires further discussion.
Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen
This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.
, this chapter discusses the cencept of learning and purports to theorize learning in a Social Theory of Learning (STL). The attempt to reconstruct learning in an STL addresses three main issues: an STL must try to specify the subject-world relationship, describe the 'mechanism' of learning, and identify......During the 20th century, traditional epistemological theories of knowledge have been under siege. In recent years, efforts have been made to reconstruct the concept of 'knowledge' to emphasize its contextual, situated and social character. Drawing on the results and methods of these efforts...... the 'telos' of learning. This attempt will in fact give answers to three fundamental questions: 1) What is learning? 2) How do we learn? and 3) Why do we learn? These questions are discussed in relation to engineering practices of getting to know and learning....
Hartford, Emily; Muanantatha, Olegario; Valigy, Valigy Ismael; Salimo, Sara; Ziman, Alyssa; DeUgarte, Daniel A.
BACKGROUND In Mozambique, there is a limited supply of blood and elevated risks for transmission of infections. Prior studies have documented that many transfusions in Mozambique are potentially avoidable. Transfusion training workshops with a survey and exam were held for providers to understand their perceptions and to improve knowledge and clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Health care providers completed a survey and a knowledge assessment. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was utilized to compare the relative importance of each factor in the survey, and pre- and posttraining exam scores were compared using Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS A total of 216 health care providers participated; the majority worked in a referral hospital (74%) and reported transfusing blood at least once per week (56%). Most acknowledged the limited blood supply and transfusion risks. Providers rated low hemoglobin (Hb) levels and pallor as significantly important indications for transfusion (p transfuse with age under 5 years when compared to other ages (p transfusion practice were increased reliability of the blood supply, education about transfusion indications, and assessment of perfusion. Before training, the majority of participants identified an incorrect Hb threshold for preoperative or critically ill patients. Overall exam scores improved from a mean of 58% to 74% (p blood transfusions. Preoperative patients, the critically ill, and children appear to be at highest risk for receiving an avoidable blood transfusion. These results will help guide planning for future provider training. PMID:25648912
Martyn, Julie-Anne; Zanella, Sally; Wilkinson, Adele
Personal care workers (PCWs) make up the bulk of the workforce in residential and community care services. The knowledge and skill set needed for safe and effective practice in care settings is extensive. A diverse range of registered training organisations (RTOs) offering Certificate III and IV in Individual Support (aging, home and community) are tasked with producing job-ready PCWs. However, the curricula of these programs vary. Additionally, a national code of conduct for healthcare workers became effective in October 2015 as a governance framework for PCWs. The language of the code statements is ambiguous making it unclear how this framework should be translated by RTOs and applied in the preservice practice preparation of PCWs. Employers of PCWs need to feel confident that the content of the preservice education of PCWs satisfactorily prepares them for the diverse contexts of their practice. Likewise, the health professionals who supervise PCWs must be assured about the knowledge and skills of the PCW if they are to safely delegate care activities. The perspectives presented in this discussion make it clear that investigation into the nebulous nature of PCW education, regulation and practice is needed to identify the shortcomings and enable improved practice.
Background: Mosquito borne diseases (MBDs) are major public health problem in India. State of Delhi is endemic for dengue and other MBDs. The increasing incidence of MBDs in Delhi in recent years warrants a pro.active approach for their prevention. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures (PPMs) presents ...
Batey, Mark; Furnham, Adrian; Safiullina, Xeniya
This study sought to examine the contribution of fluid intelligence, general knowledge and Big Five personality traits in predicting four indices of creativity: Divergent Thinking (DT) fluency, Rated DT, Creative Achievement and Self-Rated creativity and a combined Total Creativity variable. When creativity was assessed by DT test, the consistent…
Hodgson, Darren R; Wellings, Robert; Harbron, Christopher
on both pre- and on trial aspects. The former includes the pivotal role of tissue banks in accurate estimation of evaluability and prevalence for biomarker assays and the latter several practices designed to engage and incentivize key stakeholders particularly CRAs and pathologists. The result is that in the new world of developing personalized treatments for cancer patients the real-time acquisition and monitoring of biomarker data receives similar support to that traditionally reserved for clinical outcome data and far more patients contribute to the testing of personalized medicine hypotheses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lippold, Melissa A; Fosco, Gregory M; Ram, Nilam; Feinberg, Mark E
Higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities have been associated with lower levels of youth risky behavior. Yet little is known about how parental knowledge fluctuates during early adolescence and how those fluctuations are associated with the development of problem behavior. We use the term lability to describe within-person fluctuations in knowledge over time with higher lability indicating greater fluctuations in knowledge from year-to-year. This longitudinal study of rural adolescents (N = 840) investigated if change in parental knowledge across four waves of data from grades 6 to 8 is characterized by lability, and if greater lability is associated with higher youth substance use, delinquency, and internalizing problems in grade 9. Our models indicated that only some of the variance in parental knowledge was accounted for by developmental trends. The remaining residual variance reflects within-person fluctuations around these trends, lability, and measurement and occasion-specific error. Even controlling for level and developmental trends in knowledge, higher knowledge lability (i.e., more fluctuation) was associated with increased risk for later alcohol and tobacco use, and for girls, higher delinquency and internalizing problems. Our findings suggest that lability in parental knowledge has unique implications for adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on mechanisms that may link knowledge lability to substance use. Interventions may be most effective if they teach parents to consistently and predictably decrease knowledge across early adolescence.
Marieke van der Schaaf; Paul Kirschner; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn; Dr. Harmen Schaap
This article aims to provide an insight into how students construct their professional knowledge and what the content and nature of personal professional knowledge is through the concept of PPTs (personal professional theories).
P.J. van Baalen (Peter); J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)
textabstractThis article addresses the emergence of networks of practice and the role of knowledge sharing via knowledge portals. Its focus is on factors that stimulate the successful emergence of networks of practice. Literature on knowledge management and communities of practice suggest the
Leibler, Jessica H.; Nguyen, Daniel D.; Le?n, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M.; Perez, Debora
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston,...
contraceptives among female college students in Arba Minch ... those who mentioned pills as an emergency contraceptive method, 26.4% correctly ... The summary index for knowledge disclosed that 21.9% had good knowledge about EC.
This is followed by an account of sources of knowledge synthesized from the socio-cultural literature. This is a brief description of a study which examined how vocational knowledge is constructed by individuals participating in three different settings and the findings reported. It is concluded that vocational knowledge is ...
This paper explores how practice alignment and intent across organizational boundaries may serve as an explanation for collaborative knowledge creation in a knowledge ecosystem. The paper is based on a longitudinal case study of a large multinational knowledge ecosystem consisting of many...... communities of practices and organisations. By applying a practice theory approach to five data sets collected over a five-year period, the study investigates how two distinctions may serve as a potential gateway into understanding knowledge creation across boundaries. The two distinctions – practice...... are identified and discussed. Potential implications for organisational and knowledge ecosystem conceptions are identified and discussed for further research....
Knowledge, attitude and practices of adolescent secondary school students in Uvwie ... METHOD: A cross sectional study was carried out on 358 senior secondary ... secondary school students in Uvwie have a fairly good knowledge of AIDS, ...
Larsen, Stina Meyer; Stokholm, Gitte; Madsen, Anette Judithe
and various practice ﬁ elds and (B) to develop students ’ competences in practice research and collaboration, thus building up a framework in which research-based change in occupational therapy practice can be pursued through students ’ practice research. The practice research undertaken in the students...... and the students ’ bachelor ’ s theses. Results of the evaluations showed that (A) the developed institutional partnerships promoted the goals of the initiative, including research-based proposals for change in the practice ﬁ eld and that (B) the students acquired competences in practice research and collaboration....... Conclusions. On top of what students learned through the initiative, all of this was to the bene ﬁ t of the university college, the occupational therapy program, and the practice ﬁ elds and citizens. The results point toward a continuation of the educational initiative. Key words: theory – practice relation...
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers′ and fabric printers′ knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
Larsen, Stina Meyer; Stokholm, Gitte; Madsen, Anette Judithe
and various practice fields and (B) to develop students' competences in practice research and collaboration, thus building up a framework in which research-based change in occupational therapy practice can be pursued through students' practice research. The practice research undertaken in the students...... and the students' bachelor's theses. Results of the evaluations showed that (A) the developed institutional partnerships promoted the goals of the initiative, including research-based proposals for change in the practice field and that (B) the students acquired competences in practice research and collaboration....... CONCLUSIONS: On top of what students learned through the initiative, all of this was to the benefit of the university college, the occupational therapy program, and the practice fields and citizens. The results point toward a continuation of the educational initiative....
Feb 23, 2018 ... SPs are the minimum infection prevention practices that apply to all patients regardless ... Nonavailability of materials, limited organizational support, and lack of knowledge regarding infection control practices among HCWs ...
Knowledge, Attitude and Self-management Practices of Patients with Type 2 ... and its complications, self-care practices to recognize and manage diabetes crisis, ... Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 200 randomly selected type 2 ...
Aug 28, 2007 ... Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of women regarding ... Exclusive breastfeeding (giving a child no other food or drink ... feeding practices and nutritional advice), attitudes.
Jun 2, 2014 ... ... equipment [9-12]. Moreover The World Health Organisation (WHO) has ... knowledge, practice and attitude towards pesticide use. Yassin et. al in a ...... are unable to make good crop decisions and exercise proper practices ...
Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in a rural population in south eastern Nigeria. ... Tropical Journal of Medical Research ... Despite its numerous advantages, most lactating mothers are not practicing it.
Background: Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly.
Minbaeva, Dana; Michailova, Snejina
) the willingness ofexpatriates to transfer the knowledge they possess from the headquarters to therespective subsidiaries. By stepping on two bodies of literature, namely theknowledge transfer literature and the expatriation literature, we suggest that MNCsmay enhance the expatriates' willingness to transfer...... 92 subsidiaries of Danish MNCslocated in 11 countries.Key words: knowledge transfer, MNC, expatriation, dissemination capacity...
Cumberland, Denise; Githens, Rod
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify barriers that hinder tacit knowledge transfer in a franchise environment and offer a compendium of solutions that encourage franchisees and franchisors to leverage tacit knowledge as a resource for competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing from the research on franchise…
In this interesting article, Hisham Ghassib (2010) describes the transformation of science from its craft status in a pre-modern era to the major knowledge industry it is today. He then compares the production of scientific knowledge with industrial production, but makes the important distinction between the process of developing scientific…
be seen as a cognitive foundation for modeling concepts. Conceptual Spaces is applied in this thesis to analyze media in terms of its dimensions and knowledge domains, which in return defines properties and concepts. One of the most important domains in terms of describing media is the emotional one...... only “more of the same” type of content which does not necessarily lead to the meaningful personalization. Another way to approach similarity is to find a similar underlying meaning in the content. Aspects of meaning in media can be represented using Gardenfors Conceptual Spaces theory, which can......) using Latent Semantic Analysis (one of the unsupervised machine learning techniques). It presents three separate cases to illustrate the similarity knowledge extraction from the metadata, where the emotional components in each case represents different abstraction levels – genres, synopsis and lyrics...
Full Text Available Background: Effective knowledge organisations (EKO create dynamic capabilities through the acquisition, creation, sharing and retention of knowledge. These EKOs are designed to enable an organisation to improve best practices in business. As knowledge is different from other organisational resources, decision-makers ought to understand the importance of knowledge to an organisation. In order to fully utilise knowledge-management (KM practices and to enhance efficiency, management should appreciate and understand the importance of KM. A proper understanding of KM will add value to organisational knowledge. Objective: This study focused on investigating the knowledge-management practices at selected banks in South Africa. The objective was to establish the extent to which selected banks had implemented knowledge-management practices such as the acquisition, sharing and retention of knowledge. Method: Quantitative and qualitative data for this study were collected through the use of a multi-methods approach. Data were collected from middle and senior managers through the use of questionnaires and an interview protocol. All usable quantitative data were analysed using Survey Monkey and Microsoft Excel 2010 whilst thematic analysis was used to extract detailed, rich and complex data accounts from interviews. Results: Though the study revealed the presence of KM practices at selected banks, KM concepts were not universally understood, thus impeding the organisation-wide implementation of KM practices. Knowledge-management practices were only discussed as a footnote because no formal policies existed to add value to KM initiatives. Conclusion: The study concludes that organisations such as banks should perform a knowledge inventory. Knowledge inventories will become handy during the process of developing KM policies and practices for integrating work processes, collaborating and sharing (including the efficient use of knowledge technology platforms and
Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.; Van der Schaaf, M. F.; Kirschner, P. A.
Competence-based vocational education is based on a constructivist learning paradigm, where the development of students' personal professional knowledge is emphasised. However, there is a lack of insight into how students construct their own professional knowledge and what the content and nature of personal professional knowledge is. This article…
Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in University of Lagos and to determine the factors that influence knowledge and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: The ...
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is the ideal for infants in the first six months, however the practice is low. The role of mothers' knowledge of breastfeeding on practise is not clear.This study was designed to assess knowledge and practice of nursing mothers concerning breastfeeding in the selected Local Government ...
This qualitative study explored the degree to which knowledge management strategies addressed teacher professional learning at the high school level. In the setting of a Connecticut public high school, interviews were conducted which explored teacher perceptions of knowledge sharing practices in the school and how those practices influenced their…
This study was conducted to investigate teachers' knowledge, attitude, and practices of inclusive education in Nekemte town and its surrounding government primary schools; and how their knowledge and attitude towards inclusion affect the practice of inclusive education. The participants of the study were primary school ...
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of eye health care amongst doctors in Lagos. Methodology: Open and closed-ended questionnaires were given to respondents. The questionnaire contained information about age, sex, general knowledge as well as practice of eye care. Results: A total of 104 ...
Likewise, the results further indicated 19 benefits of KM practice for improving construction project performance and include: improve project quality, cost and time; practice and process improvement; encourage effective teamwork and innovation; improve the client satisfaction; boost productivity of employees and processes; ...
Wise, James B
The knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture has potential as a theoretical framework for understanding the formation of self-efficacy in individuals. Two patterns were observed within 14 of 17 individual persons: a pattern of strong self-efficacy was displayed across outdoor recreation activities for which a self-descriptive attribute was viewed as an asset to successful performances, and a pattern of relatively weak self-efficacy was observed across outdoor recreation activities for which the same attribute was considered a hindrance to performances. Although the theory predicts self-efficacy within individuals, more research is needed to assess why the theory is not accurate in all cases.
Shin, Minsoo; Holden, Tony; Schmidt, Ruth A.
Critically contrasts the three main schools of thought on knowledge and assesses the resulting implications for knowledge management. Presents a conceptual model to integrate theoretical and practical themes to serve as a framework for developing a future research agenda for the development of knowledge management business tools and applications.…
Physicians tended to have higher knowledge score for steps of use, defining normal values, and concepts of ... Conclusion: Due to different patterns of knowledge and practice of nurses and physicians, training programs should be specifically tailored for each group to bridge the gap of knowledge and improve deficient ...
chemistry in life, the role of the adult as teacher, educator, and facilitator of learning, reference book for ... Chemistry was not an abstract idea to me, rather a practice, knowledge about doing certain things ... classroom with a trained teacher. .... indigenous traditional knowledge as well as in modern scientific knowledge.
Jain, Lakhmi; Watada, Junzo; Howlett, Robert
This book contains innovative research from leading researchers who presented their work at the 17th International Conference on Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, KES 2013, held in Kitakyusha, Japan, in September 2013. The conference provided a competitive field of 236 contributors, from which 38 authors expanded their contributions and only 21 published. A plethora of techniques and innovative applications are represented within this volume. The chapters are organized using four themes. These topics include: data mining, knowledge management, advanced information processes and system modelling applications. Each topic contains multiple contributions and many offer case studies or innovative examples. Anyone that wants to work with information repositories or process knowledge should consider reading one or more chapters focused on their technique of choice. They may also benefit from reading other chapters to assess if an alternative technique represents a more suitable app...
Sep 1, 2015 ... 2016 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Abstract ..... with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration ..... 131 (85.1%), lack of fund to purchase contraceptive methods.
ABSTRACTThe paper supports the idea that organizations can institute various internal structures,policies and practices to overcome transfer barriers and facilitate the degree of knowledgetransfer. I discuss a framework for future empirical research on the relations betweenhuman resource management...
Eldein, Hebatallah Nour; Mansour, Nadia M; Mohamed, Samar F
Family physicians are the first point of medical contact for most patients, and they come into contact with a large number of smokers. Also, they are well suited to offer effective counseling to people, because family physicians already have some knowledge of patients and their social environments. The present study was conducted to assess family physicians' knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking cessation counseling aiming to improve quality of smoking cessation counseling among family physicians. The study was descriptive analytic cross sectional study. It was conducted within family medicine centers. Sample was comprehensive. it included 75 family physicians. They were asked to fill previously validated anonymous questionnaire to collect data about their personal characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking cessation counseling, barriers and recommendations of physicians. Equal or above the mean scores were used as cut off point of the best scores for knowledge, attitude and practice. SPSS version 18 was used for data entry and statistical analysis. The best knowledge, attitude and practice scores among family physicians in the study sample were (45.3 %, 93.3% and 44% respectively). Age (P = 0.039) and qualification of family physicians (P = 0.04) were significant variables regarding knowledge scores while no statistically significance between personal characteristics of family physicians and their attitude or practice scores regarding smoking cessation counseling. More than half of the family physicians recommended training to improve their smoking cessation counseling. Favorable attitude scores of family physicians exceed passing knowledge scores or practice scores. Need for knowledge and training are stimulus to design an educational intervention to improve quality of smoking cessation counseling.
Background. Dental students are seen as role-models for promoting good oral health behaviour, yet there is little published evidence in South Africa (SA) that describes student knowledge and attitudes towards their own oral healthcare. Objective. To investigate undergraduate dental therapy and oral hygiene students' ...
Information Technology is enabling large-scale, distributed collaboration across many different kinds of boundaries. Researchers have used the label new organizational forms to describe such collaborations and suggested that they are better able to meet the demands of flexibility, speed and adaptability that characterize the knowledge economy.…
Subjects and Methods: In this cross sectional observational study, 675 female non medical undergraduates were interviewed using pretested semi structured questionnaire to assess their knowledge and experience with emergency contraception. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA).
Two hundred and seventy (67.5%) of them had correct knowledge of the use of condoms while 48 (31.1%) of the sexually active respondents have ever used any form of contraceptive with no statistically significant difference between the male and female respondents (P = 0.338). The most common barrier to contraceptive ...
About 309 (46.8%) of the students had heard about emergency contraceptives and from those who heard emergency contraceptives, 27.2% had good knowledge. Majority, four hundred fifteen (62.9%) of the students had positive attitude towards it. However, only 31(4.7%) had used emergency contraceptive methods.
Of the 169 HCWs exposed, 41 had taken post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Only about one third knew the initial steps to be followed after exposure as recommended in National Guidelines. Hospitals were the major source of information on PEP. Most of the HCWs had satisfactory knowledge on PEP. Approximately fifteen ...
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Oct-Dec 2013 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 |. 541 ... Among Female Undergraduates in South Eastern Nigeria. Ezebialu IU, Eke ... Available reports show ... may be due to poor contraceptive knowledge and cultural or .... Percentage. Age. <20. 120. 17.8. 20‑29. 543. 80.4. 30‑39. 12. 1.8.
Phipps, David; Morton, Sarah
Employing knowledge brokers is one way that universities and research centres have responded to the increasing emphasis on the wider usefulness and uptake of research beyond the academy. While there is an increase in the numbers of such professionals, there has been little focus on their roles, skills and development. In this paper, two knowledge…
Ongaye Oda Orkaydo
Full Text Available This article presents the personal naming practices in Konso, a Cushitic-speaking people in southwest Ethiopia. Personal naming in Konso can be formal or informal. Formal personal names are given during a ceremony called sookata, while informal names are given either before or after the sookata ceremony. This article argues that the Konso have family names in their naming practice. This article analyses the typology of personal names in Konso and shows an intrinsic interplay between poetry, songs and personal names. The unitary state policies of the previous regimes and the proliferation of religions have resulted in trends in which people give Amharic or religious names to their children or replace indigenous Konso personal names either by Amharic or religious names. The new trends of changing indigenous names into Amharic and/or religious (mainly biblical names compromise the knowledge and role of the Konso language as an expression of culture and an identity marker.
Gregory R. Waryasz
Full Text Available Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2% and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%. Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%, rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%, shin splints (8.1%, ankle sprain (7.5%, and cervical muscle strain (7.4%. There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness.
Waryasz, Gregory R.; Daniels, Alan H.; Gil, Joseph A.; Suric, Vladimir; Eberson, Craig P.
Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2%) and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%). Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%), rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%), shin splints (8.1%), ankle sprain (7.5%), and cervical muscle strain (7.4%). There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness. PMID:27761219
Anderson, Joan M; Browne, Annette J; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Lynam, M Judith; Rodney, Paddy; Varcoe, Colleen; Wong, Sabrina; Tan, Elsie; Smye, Victoria; McDonald, Heather; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; Reimer, Joanne; Peltonen, Adrienne; Brar, Anureet
This article is based on a knowledge translation (KT) study of the transition of patients from hospital to home. It focuses on the lessons learned about the challenges of translating research-derived critical knowledge in practice settings. The authors situate the article in current discourses about KT; discuss their understanding of the nature of critical knowledge; and present themes from their body of research, which comprises the knowledge that was translated. The findings have the potential to guide future KT research that focuses on the uptake of critical knowledge in nursing practice.
Dumbrava, Ecaterina Ileana; Meric-Bernstam, Funda
Next-generation sequencing (NGS), also known as massively parallel sequencing, is rapidly being incorporated into oncology practice. Interpretation of genomic reports and selecting treatments based on the tumor's genomic analysis becomes more and more complicated for the treating oncologist because of the use of larger panels covering dozens to hundreds of genes and the amount of rapidly emerging clinical/translational data. To help guide personalized treatments in oncology, The Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Institute for Personalized Cancer Therapy (IPCT) at MD Anderson Cancer Center has developed a knowledge base, available at https://personalizedcancertherapy.org or https://pct.mdanderson.org (PCT). This knowledge base provides information on the function of common genomic alterations and their therapeutic implications. Here, we describe how such genomic information can be used by health-care providers to identify genomically matched therapies. PMID:29212833
Full Text Available Background: Practice development projects are often situated within a specific context and team, while scholarship awards focus more on the personal and professional development of individuals. Personal and professional development is an important component of practice development, however, and this paper reports on a survey of nurses and midwives who had been awarded personal scholarships and examines the scholars’ perceptions of the impact on practice development. Few studies of scholarships and their impact have been published previously. Aims: 1. To present the outcomes of a research project that evaluated scholarships awarded to nurses and midwives, within the context of practice development 2. To critique the role of personal scholarships as a means to support practice development and/ or service improvement Methods: An online cross-sectional survey of nurses and midwives who had been awarded scholarships by a UK charity was conducted; 82 scholars responded, a 59% response rate. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and free text comments were analysed thematically. Results: Scholars overwhelmingly perceived a positive impact on their personal and professional development but most also believed there had been a positive impact on patient care, safety and experience, and on colleagues and their organisation; some referred to the latter as a ‘ripple’ effect of their scholarship. An analysis of these results indicated some synergy with practice development values. Conclusions: The award of scholarships to individuals appears to have a wider impact on scholars’ colleagues and their organisation with a resulting impact on practice development. This is important as few individuals are awarded personal scholarships. The explicit promotion of personal scholarships within a practice development framework could further develop the relationship between the two, affirming a wider impact of the awards. The sustainability
The current study examined the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices among 200 persons with type-1 diabetes mellitus who have completed outpatient counseling. The results indicated that providing education and support for exercise will over-come barriers to exercise and may increase compliance of exercise to ...
Müller, Frauke; Salem, Kamel; Barbezat, Cindy; Herrmann, François R; Schimmel, Martin
Despite their unrivalled place in restorative treatment, dental implants are still scarcely used in elderly patients. The aim of this survey was therefore to identify potential barriers for accepting an implant treatment. Participants were recruited from a geriatric hospital, two long-term-care facilities and a private clinic. The final study sample comprised 92 persons, 61 women and 31 men with an average age of 81.2 ± 8.0 years. In a semi-structured interview, the participants' knowledge of implants and attitude towards a hypothetical treatment with dental implants were evaluated. Twenty-seven participants had never heard of dental implants, and another 13 participants could not describe them. The strongest apprehensions against implants were cost, lack of perceived necessity and old age. Univariate and multiple linear regression analysis identified being women, type and quality of denture, having little knowledge on implants and being hospitalised as the risk factors for refusing implants. However, old age as such was not associated with a negative attitude. The acceptance of dental implants in the elderly population might be increased by providing further information and promoting oral health in general. Regardless of the age, dental implants should be placed when patients are still in good health and live independently. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.
. Keywords: Adverse drug reactions; Knowledge, attitude and practice; Health care workers; Yellow card reporting scheme. Received: 24 August 2010. Revised accepted: 22 April 2011. *Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com ...
Knowledge, Attitude And Practice (Kap) Of School Teachers On Malaria, Helminthiasis And Associated Risk Factors In Primary Schools In Onitsha, Anambra State, South-Eastern Nigeria. ... Animal Research International. Journal Home ...
study are to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices towards pet husbandry, ... pet-owning households, with concerted efforts by veterinary, human and public health profes- ... Those benefits include companionship, physical activity, pro-.
Oct 10, 2011 ... and the oral health practices among 12 year-old children. Design: Descriptive ... the absence or presence of dental caries (5-7). The patient's ... secondary school teenagers had partial knowledge ... and diet counselling.
A cross-sectional study to assess the knowledge, practice, and impact of family ... The proportion of unintended pregnancies admitted among the interviewees was ... for health workers, and conducting studies to explore innovative approaches.
demographic data, and well‑designed questions about their knowledge base, attitudes and practice toward occupational risk of HBV. The data were processed and analyzed using the SPSS (version 17) (IBM SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) program ...
Whitaker, Randall; Thomas-Meyers, Gina
Recent and ongoing research into the subject of knowledge glyphs illustrates how the state of the art in theory and practice interact and open up new requirements for innovation with respect to each...
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Jun 1, 2015 ... Teenagers (10-19yrs) had the highest malaria prevalence rate and were followed by ... Keywords: Cluster sampling, Malaria, Prevalence, Knowledge, Practices, ... annual rainfall and humidity were relatively .... Alcohol/ Don't.
Malaria is still a major health problem during pregnancy in Ihiala Local Government Area ... Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of pregnant women on malaria, ... Oral interviews and observations were used to retrieve information from the ...
Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... of children with congenital heart defects attending the Paediatric Cardiology Clinic of ... Keywords: Congenital heart disease, Oral health knowledge, Oral health practices.
The knowledge attitude and practice regarding diabetes and diabetic retinopathy among the final year medical students of King Faisal University Medical College of Al Hasa region of Saudi Arabia: A cross sectional survey.
Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of University Students On Cancer Prevention. ... that the risk for developing cancer can be significantly reduced through exercise, ... Health campaign about cancer prevention could improve the behaviour
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. World Health ... hospitals were interviewed on their knowledge, attitude and practice related to TB using pre-tested ..... patients exercise care to limit the spread of. TB, only ...
Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary ... The commonest reason for not donating blood was fear to damage of health as reported in ... to arouse the interest of the general public in voluntary blood donation exercises.
May 7, 2012 ... Original Research: Infant-feeding knowledge and the practices of mothers and caregivers. 2013;26(1). S Afr J Clin ... interventions, such as promotion of exclusive breastfeeding. Abstract ..... nutritional benefits. The other half ...
Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among women with children aged between 9 ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Conclusion: Most mothers knew the benefits and definitions of exclusive breastfeeding.
Key words: Sedentary Lifestyle, Knowledge, Practice, Abuja, Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. (GPAQ) .... for non response. A sample ... Total physical activity in METs-minute/week which is equal to the sum of the total MET minutes of.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Adolescents to HIV/AIDS. 43 ... which 40% cited the media as source of information. Seventy ... through sex, mother to child, ... and parents, societal pressure, norms ... reported condom use as an effective.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in First Aid Management of Epistaxis by ... A vast majority of these patients settle with simple standard first aid measures. ... The principal researcher administered a questionnaire to the clinical staffs who were ...
Knowledge, attitude and control practices of sickle cell disease among youth corps members ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... access to haemopoeitic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in our environment, stronger efforts ...
Objective: The therapeutic management of patients with Low Back Pain (LBP) has long been characterized ... Keywords: Low back pain, Clinical practice Guidelines, Knowledge, Adherence ..... discourage the use of modalities such as TENS,.
Fluoroscopy is frequently used in orthopaedic surgery, particularly in a trauma setting. Exposure of patients and staff to ionising radiation has been studied extensively; however, little work has been done to evaluate current knowledge and practices among orthopaedic trainees.
Keywords: Knowledge, Practices, Teratogens, Pregnant Yemeni women, Folic acid deficiency. Tropical Journal of ..... United Arab Emirates (UAE) have published rates of awareness .... emphasis on good hygiene in the American population.
Mills, Jane; Field, John; Cant, Robyn
The purpose of the study was to ascertain the place of knowledge and evidence in the context of Australian general practice nursing. General practice nursing is a rapidly developing area of specialized nursing in Australia. The provision of primary care services in Australia rests largely with medical general practitioners who employ nurses in a small business model. A statistical research design was used that included a validated instrument: the developing evidence-based practice questionnaire (Gerrish et al. 2007). A total of 1,800 Victorian practice nurses were surveyed with a return of 590 completed questionnaires, equaling a response rate of 33%. Lack of time to access knowledge for practice was a barrier for participants in this study. In-service education and training opportunities were ranked as the number one source of knowledge for general practice nurses. Experiential learning and interactions with clients, peers, medical practitioners, and specialist nurses were also considered very important sources of knowledge. Research journals were ranked much lower than experiential learning and personal interactions. Participants assessed their own skills at sourcing and translating evidence into practice knowledge as low. Younger general practice nurses were more likely than older nurses to assess themselves as competent at using the library and Internet to locate evidence. The predominantly oral culture of nursing needs to be identified and incorporated into methods for disseminating evidence from research findings in order to increase the knowledge base of Australian general practice nurses. Findings from this study will be significant for policy makers and funders of Australian nursing in general practice. The establishment of a career structure for general practice nurses that includes salaried positions for clinical nurse specialists would assist in the translation of evidence into knowledge for utilization at the point of care.
Work-related stress is a well documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions and individual coping resources, that may have a negative impact on workers' health and well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management, psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). That is why risk assessment and management require a careful analysis of work organization (i.e. working time, work load, autonomy, environment, human relations) and individual aspects (i.e. demography, personality, attitudes, motivation, coping strategies). The consequent actions, targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker, on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieveds to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social actors involved (employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts), according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.
Jahn, Karsten; Nielsen, Peter Axel
Software process improvement is a practical concern in software companies today and it has been addressed in research. Part of this research has applied a knowledge management perspective. Researchers point out that two different strategies exist where a mixture is difficult to maintain......: Personalization (focus on people and their collaboration) and codification (focus on documents and their accessibility). This paper addresses different knowledge management problems of a software company and how they can be alleviated. A prototype, which distinguishes between different organizational levels (e.......g., software managers and software developers) and applies different knowledge management strategies, was built. It consists of a wiki and an enterprise system. This article shows how each part of the system focuses on one of the strategies and describes the differences for tool support. This combination could...
Spielhofer, Thomas; Kerr, David; Gardiner, Clare
This document provides guidance on effective practice in delivering personal finance education in secondary schools. It is based on the findings from research carried out by NFER (the National Foundation for Educational Research) on behalf of pfeg (Personal Finance Education Group) as part of an evaluation of Learning Money Matters (LMM). This…
Farias, Manoel Raimundo Santana; Martins, Gilberto de Andrade
The aim of this study was to characterize the accounting as branch of knowledge in three different fields: science, technology and practice. Through theoretical essay, we was argued that, although distinct, these fields interact, in that, as epistemology that justified the analysis here undertaken, the practical activities may be technology subject matter and that to be effective if based on one or more sciences. The difference between science and technology is given by the nature of knowledg...
Full Text Available In this paper we present our experience designing and developing two different systems to enable personal pervasive computing environments, Plan B and the Octopus. These systems were fully implemented and have been used on a daily basis for years. Both are based on synthetic (virtual file system interfaces and provide mechanisms to adapt to changes in the context and reconfigure the system to support pervasive applications. We also present the main differences between them, focusing on architectural and reconfiguration aspects. Finally, we analyze the pitfalls and successes of both systems and review the lessons we learned while designing, developing, and using them.
Stewart, Samuel Alan; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza
Online communities of practice contain a wealth of information, stored in the free text of shared communications between community members. The Knowledge Maps (KMaps) system is designed to facilitate Knowledge Translation in online communities through multi-level analyses of the shared messages of these communications. Using state-of-the-art semantic mapping technologies (Metamap) the contents of the messages shared within an online community are mapped to terms from the MeSH medical lexicon, providing a multi-level topic-specific summary of the knowledge being shared within the community. Using the inherent hierarchical structure of the lexicon important insights can be found within the community. The KMaps system was applied to two medical mailing lists, the PPML (archives from 2009-02 to 2013-02) and SURGINET (archives from 2012-01 to 2013-04), identifying 27,924 and 50,597 medical terms respectively. KMaps identified content areas where both communities found interest, specifically around Diseases, 22% and 24% of the total terms, while also identifying field-specific areas that were more popular: SURGINET expressed an interest in Anatomy (14% vs 4%) while the PPML was more interested in Drugs (19% vs 9%). At the level of the individual KMaps identified 6 PPML users and 9 SURGINET users that had noticeably more contributions to the community than their peers, and investigated their personal areas of interest. The KMaps system provides valuable insights into the structure of both communities, identifying topics of interest/shared content areas and defining content-profiles for individual community members. The system provides a valuable addition to the online KT process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thingstrup, Signe Hvid
This paper discusses the demand for knowledge-based practice and two different answers to this demand, namely evidence-based thinking and critical-political thinking. The paper discusses the implications these have for views on knowledge and professional development. The paper presents and discus...
Buckley, Sheryl; du Toit, Adeline
The change from an industrial economy to a knowledge economy forced many organizations to change their modus operandi if they were going to survive in a sustainable way. The introduction of communities of practice (CoPs) by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger shed new light on knowledge sharing and dissemination of information. Sharing, interacting,…
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess nursing staff knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI); to assess the knowledge of maternity obstetric unit (MOU) managers regarding BFHI principles and their attitude towards BFHI implementation; and to describe the ...
... observational checklist were the instruments for data collection. Findings revealed poor knowledge of concept, components, timing of visits on focused antenatal care and non compliance with the guidelines for the practice of focused antenatal care, because of health workers lack of knowledge on focused antenatal care.
To improve control measures against malaria, Tanzania has increased the distribution of free and subsidized insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) to pregnant women. However, data on knowledge, attitudes and practices of these women regarding malaria are scarce. This study was carried out to describe knowledge, ...
Questionnaires were administered to four hundred and seventy pregnant women from two hospitals and a traditional birth home (TBH) in Abeokuta, Nigeria, to assess their knowledge, attitude and practices about malaria. A high percentage of respondents 49.1% attributed malaria to mosquito bites; knowledge of ...
The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception and ... about 84.2% of mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 4-6 months, ... proportions of mothers have good knowledge on the benefits that breast milk ...
This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Morocco. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer ...
The question of practical knowledge and its teaching has arisen more perceptibly since the appearance of the aim to professionalize teachers. How can imperceptible knowledge such as professional routines be taught? To establish a social fabric and effective class management, it is essential to call on creative and adaptive professional routines.…
Background: Most patients with cancer of the cervix present late with poor prognosis. Health workers' knowledge and utilization of the screening services might influence their clients. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, practice and education of clients on cervical cancer and its screening among female ...
This paper systematically examines the role of external personal knowledge networks vis-à-vis alternative sources of work-related knowledge. Specific hypotheses on whether the importance of external personal networks vary for job positions, knowledge functions and sources of competitiveness are examined. The study is based on a survey and interviews with 105 R&D workers in 46 Information Technology (IT) firms in the Greater Cambridge Region (UK).The results show that alternative sources o...
Kapoor, P; Rajput, V J
In developing countries where diarrhea is a major health problem, mothers are often ignorant about the cause and management of the disease and tend to restrict fluid intake instead of taking steps to prevent dehydration. 300 mothers of children hospitalized in Rewa, India, were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire on their diarrhea knowledge. 74.3% were rural and 80.6% were aged 20-30 years. 70% were illiterate and belonged to the upper lower or lower middle class. Causes of diarrhea cited by the mothers included teething (64.3%), evil eye (46%), contact with another case (36.6%), malnutrition (28.3), worm infestation (22.6%), eating mud (18.6%), mother's food habits (17.6%), eating sweets (17.3%), dirty water (15.3%), hot/cold foods (10.6%), change of food (8.3), and dirty environment (6%). During diarrhea, 266 mothers allowed breast milk, 118 pulses and rice gruel, 104 diluted cow's milk, 57 undiluted cow's milk, 25 boiled pulses water, 23 boiled rice water, 16 banana, 13 oral rehydration solution, 10 a whole diet, 8 tea, and 7 curd. Half of the mothers considered passage of liquid stools 3-5 times a day as diarrhea. Only 3% of the mothers listed dehydration as an important complication of the disease. Of the mothers using oral rehydration therapy, the fluid was often not reconstituted properly, and inadequate amounts were administered. Improved health education for mothers, with information on general hygiene, adequate diet during illness, and the use of oral rehydration solution in diarrhea would reduce diarrhea deaths.
Chu, Wen; Hsu, Li-Ling
There is a paucity of published research on clinical or practical nursing knowledge. The ways that nurses acquire, develop, and maintain emergency room (ER) nursing care skills is a research area, in particular, that deserves further investigation. This study examined clinical setting learning processes to better understand the practical knowledge content of ER nurses. This study used a phenomenological approach and in-depth interviews of 10 nurses. Each participant had at least 3 years of ER experience. Researchers used Moustakas' method to analyze interview data. Findings were checked for credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. The authors identified four major practical knowledge themes for ER professionals. These were (a) basic emergency treatment procedure routines and symptom management; (b) disease mechanisms, pharmacodynamics, and treatment responses; (c) newly identified diseases, updated emergency treatments and techniques, and medical treatment discussions; and (d) identifying nursing values including nursing attitudes and continuing patient care. Participants in this study had experience with the first three themes and successfully combined various types of nursing knowledge in their nursing care duties. Only few participants indicated experience with the fourth theme. Findings clarify that clinical or practical knowledge in ER nurses evolves first from declarative knowledge (e.g., basic emergency treatment routines and operating procedures) to procedural knowledge (e.g., instructions from supervisors, actual practice, and drills) to conditional knowledge (e.g., observation and treatment involving direct interactions with patients). Nurses should combine and apply the various knowledge types in their nursing practice to assess comprehensively each patient's condition and administer effective treatment and service.
Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya J Kaewpitoon; Prasit Pengsaa; Chutigan Pilasri
AIM:To investigate the knowledge,attitude and practice (KAP) in prevention and control of liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand.METHODS:A descriptive KAP survey pertaining to liver fluke infection was carried out in June 2005 to October 2006 using structured questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaires consisting of general parameters,knowledge,attitude,practice,and a history of participation in the prevention and control of liver fluke infection.RESULTS:A total of 1077 persons who were interviewed and completed the questionnaires were enrolled in the study. The majority were females (69.5%) and many of them were 15-20 years of age (37.26%). The questionnaires revealed that information resources on Uver fluke infection included local public health volunteers (31.37%),public health officers (18.72%),televisions (14.38%),local heads of sub-districts (12.31%),doctors and nurses (9.18%),newspaper (5.72),internets (5.37%),and others (12.95%). Fifty-five point eleven percent of the population had a good level of liver fluke knowledge concerning the mode of disease transmission and 79.72% of the population had a good level of prevention and control knowledge with regards to defecation and consumption. The attitude and practice in liver fluke prevention and control were also at a good level with a positive awareness,participation,and satisfaction of 72.1% and 60.83% of the persons studied. However,good health behavior was found in 39.26% and 41.42% of the persons studied who had unhygienic defecation and ate raw cyprinoid's fish. Theresult also showed that 41.25% of the persons studied previously joined prevention and control campaigns.CONCLUSION:The persons studied have a high level of liver fluke knowledge and positive attitude. However,improvement is required regarding personal hygiene specifically with hygienic defecation and consumption of undercooked fish.
Full text: This paper intends to overview the status of fusion activities and to present emerging issues related to the management of resources and knowledge in fusion projects; they can be better addressed by looking at appropriate methodologies and tools in the thematic areas of knowledge management. After a short introduction outlining the present transition phase of the worldwide fusion activity, I will present a preliminary analysis of emerging requirements and challenges, which creates the foundations for knowledge management practices for the fusion sector. Differences between the fusion and the nuclear sector will be also discussed, and appropriate practices for some selected challenges will be proposed and analyzed. (author
6.7±1.3), poor safety knowledge of changing baby clothing (6.5±1.0), safe food handling and preparation 4.6±0.6, cross contamination and hand washing techniques (4.2±0). They also had poor food safety practice on hand washing practice ...
Sep 3, 2015 ... Kesieme, et al.: Knowledge and practice of prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis: A survey. 171. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Mar-Apr 2016 • Vol 19 • Issue 2. Introduction. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among surgical patients.
Theriot, Shirley; Tice, Kathleen C.
Through a case-study approach, the authors focus on understanding the complexity of teachers' knowledge development, particularly as it pertains to teachers' beliefs about literacy development and their teaching practices in literacy. Participants of the study are middle-school teachers who shared their beliefs and practices through (1) a…
reported low levels of awareness and practice of breast self examination as an important method of prevention. Breast self examination is a cost-effective method of early detection of cancer of the breast especially in resource poor countries. We assessed knowledge and practice of breast-self examination (BSE) among ...
Abstract. This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) in relation to HIV/AIDS. ... of immorality have had a negative influence on the attitudes and behaviour of participants, particularly with regard to sexual practices and preventative risk behaviours.
Background: Extracellular calcium is vital for the functioning of many metabolic processes and neuromuscular activities. Awareness and practice of patients with vitamin D deficiency are very important. Objective: To explore knowledge, attitude and practice of patients receiving vitamin D supplement and attending primary ...
Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community of Jos South LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: Despite the commendable findings in this community, the community is still at risk due to the poor practices of a few that were persisting in the community. Both government and community efforts are ...
of integrated management of childhood Illnesses (IMcI) strategy at ... Assessment of mothers' knowledge, attitude and practices on symptoms and signs of IMCI strategy addressed ... improvements in family and community practices ... organisms (germs) and absence of water however .... in Hidalgo, Mexico, PhD Thesis.
Full Text Available Background: Person-centredness is an approach that views each individual as a unique being, and is supported by the values of mutual respect and individual right to self-determination. This approach is currently a prevailing principle in policy, education and practice settings globally. The relevance of person-centredness to postgraduate student learning is immense, as new graduate nurses are expected to assume leadership and advocacy roles in healthcare environments and engage with key stakeholders in the exchange of knowledge to inform practice. The application of person-centred practices by faculty within postgraduate nursing programmes is therefore instrumental in providing students with the necessary supportive environments to acquire the skills for person-centred care. Method: Practice development was used as a foundation for implementing innovative teaching methods for postgraduate nursing students. Nurses enrolled in the advancement of professional nursing practice seminars and practicum, participating in various active learning and critical reflection activities throughout the semester. Implications for practice: Practice development provides an innovative foundation for postgraduate nursing education Educators should consider this unique and person-centred approach as an alternative to the typical pedagogical approach
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate doctors’ knowledge, attitude, and practices and predictors of adherence to Malaysian hypertension guidelines (CPG 2008. Methods. Twenty-six doctors involved in hypertension management at Penang General Hospital were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Doctors’ knowledge and attitudes towards guidelines were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire. Their practices were evaluated by noting their prescriptions written to 520 established hypertensive outpatients (20 prescriptions/doctor. SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Results. Nineteen doctors (73.07% had adequate knowledge of guidelines. Specialists and consultants had significantly better knowledge about guidelines’ recommendations. Doctors were positive towards guidelines with mean attitude score of 23.15±1.34 points on a 30-point scale. The median number of guidelines compliant prescriptions was 13 (range 5–20. Statistically significant correlation (rs = 0.635, P<0.001 was observed between doctors’ knowledge and practice scores. A total of 349 (67.1% prescriptions written were guidelines compliant. In multivariate analysis hypertension clinic (OR = 0.398, P=0.008, left ventricular hypertrophy (OR = 0.091, P=0.001 and heart failure (OR = 1.923, P=0.039 were significantly associated with guidelines adherence. Conclusion. Doctors’ knowledge of guidelines is reflected in their practice. The gap between guidelines recommendations and practice was seen in the pharmacotherapy of uncomplicated hypertension and hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy, renal disease, and diabetes mellitus.
Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Shamspour, Navvab; Shushtarizadeh, Naser
Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims. In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions). Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice. Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed.
Full Text Available Background: This article underscores the fact that society is becoming more and more knowledge-based, and that the organisations that can identify, value, create and evolve their knowledge assets are likely to be more successful than those that do not. Knowledge management (KM is about enhancing the use of organisational knowledge through sound practices of KM and organisational learning. KM practices encompass the capture and/or acquisition of knowledge, its retention and organisation, its dissemination and re-use, and lastly responsiveness to the new knowledge.Objective: The focus of this study was on KM principles and practices that may be in place in the Metropolitan College of New York (MCNY. The argument is that KM and its survival principles and tools may help the College to improve performance. However, there is uncertainty about whether the use of KM principles and tools can partly solve the College’s approach to improving the quality of education it provides.Methods: A mixed methods research methodology encompassing a questionnaire, observation, interviews, and use of institutional documents was used in the investigation.Results: The findings of the study indicate that KM concepts were not universally understood at MCNY.Conclusion: There is a need to create a knowledge inventory at MCNY. This may help the College to develop appropriate institution-wide policies and practices for proper and well organised methods of integrating work processes, collaborating and sharing (including the efficient use of social media, and developing an enabling institutional culture.
Pervez, T.; Anwar, M.S.
Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)
Full Text Available The paper introduces a novel Personal Knowledge Management (PKM concept and prototype system. The system’s objective is to aid life-long-learning, resourcefulness, creativity, and teamwork of individuals throughout their academic and professional life and as contributors and beneficiaries of organizational and societal performance. Such a scope offers appealing and viable opportunities for stakeholders in the educational, professional, and developmental context. To further validate the underlying PKM application design, the systems thinking techniques of the transdiscipline of Informing Science (IS are employed. By applying Cohen’s IS-Framework, Leavitt’s Diamond Model, the IS-Meta Approach, and Gill’s and Murphy’s Three Dimensions of Design Task Complexity, the more specific KM models and methodologies central to the PKMS concept are aligned, introduced, and visualized. The extent of this introduction offers an essential overview, which can be deepened and broadened by using the cited URL and DOI links pointing to the available resources of the author’s prior publications. The paper emphasizes the differences of the proposed meme-based PKM System compared to its traditional organizational document-centric counterparts as well as its inherent complementing synergies. As a result, it shows how the system is closing in on Vannevar Bush’s still unfulfilled vison of the ‘Memex’, an as-close-as-it-gets imaginary ancestor celebrating its 70th anniversary as an inspiring idea never realized. It also addresses the scenario recently put forward by Levy which foresees a decentralizing revolution of knowledge management that gives more power and autonomy to individuals and self-organized groups. Accordingly, it also touches on the PKM potential in terms of Kuhn’s Scientific Revolutions and Disruptive Innovations.
Madeira, Maria Zélia de Araújo; Lima, Maria da Glória Soares Barbosa
This article has as objectives investigate the faculty knowledge that embase the pedagogical practice of the nursing-professors, glimpsing to understand the meaning of this social practice in what it refers to the process to become a professional professor. The qualitative nature study, with methodological emphasis in verbal story, used as instruments of data collection semi-arranged interviews, and the data analysis starting from the content analysis. Among the results obtained from the analysis, it has proven that the faculty knowledge and the pedagogical practice positively incises for the consolidation of the process to become professional professor in the scope of the faculty in the nursing course at UFPI.
Cobb, Martha D; Grant, Marcia; Tallman, Nancy J; Wendel, Christopher S; Colwell, Janice; McCorkle, Ruth; Krouse, Robert S
This study builds on the authors' previous studies that demonstrate that persons living with a colostomy who practice colostomy irrigation (CI) experience quality-of-life benefits. Studies also reveal that patients may not be taught about CI. The purpose of this study was to determine current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of WOC nurses on CI. The target population was ostomy nurses who were members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurse's Society. Nine hundred eighty-five nurses out of a possible pool of 4191 members responded, providing a response rate of 24%. Their average age was 53 years (range, 25-79 years). Respondents averaged 12 years' experience as a WOC nurse (range, 1-40 years) and 90% (n = 875) were certified. Participants practiced in a variety of settings, including acute and long-term care facilities, home health, and ambulatory clinics. They saw an average of 37 ± 60.5 (mean ± SD) ostomy patients per year (range, 0-1100). A 1-time online survey (SurveyMonkey) of members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses (WOCN) Society was conducted. In addition to demographic and educational information, questions also included (1) CI advantages and disadvantages; (2) CI content routinely taught; (3) challenges in assisting patients to learn CI; and (4) where preparation was received for teaching this procedure. Nurses were asked whether they believe CI is evidence-based. More than half identified irrigation as an evidence-based practice (59%), but half indicated they do not routinely teach CI. Multiple factors correlated with nurses' decisions to teach CI, including years of experience (P = .03), specific CI education (P < .001), and considering the intervention evidence-based (P < .001). Factors influencing CI instruction are multifactorial; they include nurses' attitudes, experience base, education, medical indications, setting characteristics, and patient interest and physical abilities. Education on this procedure is urgently needed for
Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep deficiency is a significant, largely overlooked issue for persons with dementia (PWD, and is associated with physical and mental health problems, increased caregiver burden, and increased likelihood of institutionalization. Despite the high prevalence of sleep deficiency in PWD, most health care professionals lack knowledge of the relationship between sleep problems and dementia. This project aimed to determine the feasibility of an archived online presentation, a knowledge translation (KT strategy to increase therapists’ understanding of the impact of blue-spectrum light on sleep in PWD. Method: Therapists who participated in a previous sleep and dementia survey were recruited via email. Participants completed a pre-knowledge test, accessed an online presentation regarding the relationship between sleep and light, and completed a post-test. Results: On average there was a 22% improvement in knowledge scores and participants were positive about the KT strategy being accessible, applicable, and evidence based. Conclusion: For a sample of therapists self-identified as specializing in geriatric rehabilitation, online audio-visual resources appear to be a feasible KT strategy to disseminate information and increase occupational therapists’ knowledge regarding the evidence-based relationship between blue-spectrum light and sleep in PWD. Further study is required to determine if this increased knowledge translates to practice settings.
McInerney, Claire R
Knowledge Management (KM) is an effort to increase useful knowledge in the organization. It is a natural outgrowth of late twentieth century movements to make organizational management and operations more effective, of higher quality, and more responsive to constituents in a rapidly changing global environment. This document traces the evolution of KM in organizations, summarizing the most influential research and literature in the field. It also presents an overview of selected common and current practices in knowledge management, including the relationship between knowledge management and de
Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony
Background Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. Method General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected duri...
Davies, Alicia; Wong, Carol A; Laschinger, Heather
The purpose of this study was to test Kanter's theory by examining relationships among structural empowerment, leader-member exchange (LMX) quality and nurses' participation in personal knowledge transfer activities. Despite the current emphasis on evidence-based practice in health care, research suggests that implementation of research findings in everyday clinical practice is unsystematic at best with mixed outcomes. This study was a secondary analysis of data collected using a non-experimental, predictive mailed survey design. A random sample of 400 registered nurses who worked in urban tertiary care hospitals in Ontario yielded a final sample of 234 for a 58.5% response rate. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the combination of LMX and structural empowerment accounted for 9.1% of the variance in personal knowledge transfer but only total empowerment was a significant independent predictor of knowledge transfer (β=0.291, t=4.012, Pleader-member exchange quality resulted in increased participation in personal knowledge transfer in practice. The results reinforce the pivotal role of nurse managers in supporting empowering work environments that are conducive to transfer of knowledge in practice to provide evidence-based care. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hulla, Janis E; Kinter, Lewis B; Kelman, Bruce
Employers, courts, and the general public judge the credibility of professionals based on credentials such as academic degrees, publications, memberships in professional organizations, board certifications, and professional registrations. However, the relevance and merit of these credentials can be difficult to determine objectively. Board certification can be a reliable indicator of proficiency if the certifying organization demonstrates, through regularly scheduled independent review, that its processes meet established standards and when a certificate holder is required to periodically demonstrate command of a body of knowledge that is essential to current professional practice. We report herein a current Standard of Knowledge in general toxicology compiled from the experience and opinions of 889 certified practicing professional toxicologists. An examination is the most commonly used instrument for testing a certification candidate's command of the body of knowledge. However, an examination-based certification is only creditable when the body of knowledge, to which a certification examination tests, is representative of the current knowledge, skills, and capabilities needed to effectively practice at the professional level. Thus, that body of knowledge must be the current "Standard of Knowledge" for the profession, compiled in a transparent fashion from current practitioners of the profession. This work was conducted toward ensuring the scientific integrity of the products produced by professional toxicologists.
Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M
This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M
Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient’s body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r=0.385, p value <0.0001. Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented.
Bengough, Theresa; Bovet, Emilie; Bécherraz, Camille; Schlegel, Susanne; Burnand, Bernard; Pidoux, Vincent
Several studies have been performed to understand the way family physicians apply knowledge from medical research in practice. However, very little is known concerning family physicians in Switzerland. In an environment in which information constantly accumulates, it is crucial to identify the major sources of scientific information that are used by family physicians to keep their medical knowledge up to date and barriers to use these sources. Our main objective was to examine medical knowledge translation (KT) practices of Swiss family physicians. The population consisted of French- and German-speaking private practice physicians specialised in family medicine. We conducted four interviews and three focus groups (n = 25). The interview guides of the semi-structured interviews and focus groups focused on (a) ways and means used by physicians to keep updated with information relevant to clinical practice; (b) how they consider their role in translating knowledge into practice; (c) potential barriers to KT; (d) solutions proposed by physicians for effective KT. Family physicians find themselves rather ambivalent about the translation of knowledge based on scientific literature, but generally express much interest in KT. They often feel overwhelmed by "information floods" and perceive clinical practice guidelines and other supports to be of limited usefulness for their practice. They often combine various formal and informal information sources to keep their knowledge up to date. Swiss family physicians report considering themselves as artisans, caring for patients with complex needs. Improved performance of KT initiatives in family medicine should be tailored to actual needs and based on high quality evidence-based sources.
de Mello, Débora Falleiros; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia
This reflective study aimed to present some aspects of the concepts technical attainment, practical success and practical knowledge, with a view to a broader understanding of child nursing care. Health care is considered in the perspective of reconstructive practices, characterized as contingencies, highlighting the importance of the connection between technical attainment and practical success and the valuation of practical knowledge, based on philosophical hermeneutics, in the context of practical philosophy. Child health nursing can deal with technical attainment and practical success jointly, and also understand practical knowledge in the longitudinality of care. Health promotion, disease prevention, recovery and rehabilitation of child health should be indissociably associated with contextualized realities, shared between professionals and families, aiming to follow the child's growth and development, produce narratives, identify experiences, choices and decision making to broaden health care.
Jørgensen, Frances; Becker, Karen; Matthews, Judy
, is the basis of this research. The study investigates the HRM practices being used by four innovative firms: two KIFs and two traditional production companies. The findings suggest that there are some similarities between the HRM practices of the case firms, but there are also important differences......There is little research on HRM practices in knowledge-intensive firms (KIFs), especially in comparison to that conducted in traditional production environments. Whether such HRM practices are appropriate for KIFs, particularly ones that differentiate themselves on their ability to innovate...
Drawing upon Practice-based theorizing in general and Actor Network Theory and theories of Communities of Practices in particular the paper develops an analytical strategy for understanding “life” in projects. The analytical strategy is applied on empirical material from an 18-month ethnographic...... study of a construction project. The project is interpreted as constellation of networked practices, which always is in the making. Participation in this project is a learning process where existing practices are reproduced and developed. This understanding of “life” in the project, frames a concluding...... analysis and discussion of the utilization of knowledge in the project....
Full Text Available This study attempts to understand how expert knowledge is transmitted in the absence or lack of explicit and formal means of knowledge acquisition, with particular interest in the evolved relationship of a master-apprentice, observable in pockets of traditional communities of practice. An ethnographic study based on content analysis of the transcriptions of members of a craft community from Varanasi, India has been used to strengthen the undermined pedagogical role of observation and emulation in the transfer of inexplicit knowledge. It is argued that in-situ observation and emulation foster situations for facilitating co-production of knowledge, further implying co-authorship. Gaining community membership in craft communities is not merely a matter of gaining a professional degree; instead, it is a slow process of enculturation.Keywords: Observation, Emulation, Inexplicit learning, Master-apprentice. Communities of Practice
The aim of this paper is to offer an alternative knowing-how knowing-that framework of nursing knowledge, which in the past has been accepted as the provenance of advanced practice. The concept of advancing practice is central to the development of nursing practice and has been seen to take on many different forms depending on its use in context. To many it has become synonymous with the work of the advanced or expert practitioner; others have viewed it as a process of continuing professional development and skills acquisition. Moreover, it is becoming closely linked with practice development. However, there is much discussion as to what constitutes the knowledge necessary for advancing and advanced practice, and it has been suggested that theoretical and practical knowledge form the cornerstone of advanced knowledge. The design of this article takes a discursive approach as to the meaning and integration of knowledge within the context of advancing nursing practice. A thematic analysis of the current discourse relating to knowledge integration models in an advancing and advanced practice arena was used to identify concurrent themes relating to the knowing-how knowing-that framework which commonly used to classify the knowledge necessary for advanced nursing practice. There is a dichotomy as to what constitutes knowledge for advanced and advancing practice. Several authors have offered a variety of differing models, yet it is the application and integration of theoretical and practical knowledge that defines and develops the advancement of nursing practice. An alternative framework offered here may allow differences in the way that nursing knowledge important for advancing practice is perceived, developed and coordinated. What has inevitably been neglected is that there are various other variables which when transposed into the existing knowing-how knowing-that framework allows for advanced knowledge to be better defined. One of the more notable variables is
Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul
Abstract Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly se...
M Mirfakhraei; Z Cheraghi; A Doosti Irani; P Cheraghi; J Poorolajal
Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine quest...
Human factors play a major role in almost all sorts of knowledge management. Even in cases such as a nuclear incident, still the human part is prominent. It is showed that how general knowledge is eroded within routine practices and end up to disastrous consequences in abnormal conditions. Therefore relevant organizations should be aware of this natural tendency and find ways to confront it. (author)
Gomes, Nathália Silva; Silva, Andrea Mara Bernardes da; Zago, Luana Barbosa; Silva, Érica Carneiro de Lima e; Barichello, Elizabeth
ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the evidence in the literature regarding the knowledge and practices of the nursing team about subcutaneous administration of drugs and fluids in adults. Method: Integrative review of the literature using the descriptors “nursing”, “hypodermoclysis”, “drug administration routes”, “adult health,” and “knowledge,” in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, with no publication deadline. Of the 569 articles found, eight made up the sample. Results: A predominance of i...
Joel Thiago Klein
In this paper I defend three different points: first, that the concept of highest good is derived from an a priori but subjective argument, namely a maxim of pure practical reason; secondly, that the theory regarding the highest good has the validity of a practical regulative knowledge; and thirdly, that the practical regulative knowledge can be understood as the same “holding something to be true” as Kant attributes to hope and believe.
Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod
The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.
Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu; Chih, Meng-Chun
Good physical fitness generally makes the body less prone to common diseases. A personalized exercise plan that promotes a balanced approach to fitness helps promotes fitness, while inappropriate forms of exercise can have adverse consequences for health. This paper aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge-based system for generating custom-designed exercise plans based on a user's profile and health status, incorporating international standard Health Level Seven International (HL7) data on physical fitness and health screening. The generated plan exposing Representational State Transfer (REST) style web services which can be accessed from any Internet-enabled device and deployed in cloud computing environments. To ensure the practicality of the generated exercise plans, encapsulated knowledge used as a basis for inference in the system is acquired from domain experts. The proposed Ubiquitous Exercise Plan Generation for Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT) will not only improve health-related fitness through generating personalized exercise plans, but also aid users in avoiding inappropriate work outs.
Garrett, Bernard; Klein, Gerri
The aims were to explore advanced practice nurses' perceptions on wireless Personal Digital Assistant technologies, to establish the type and range of tools that would be useful to support their practice and to identify any requirements and limitations that may impact the implementation of wireless Personal Digital Assistants in practice. The wireless Personal Digital Assistant is becoming established as a hand-held computing tool for healthcare professionals. The reflections of advanced practice nurses' about the value of wireless Personal Digital Assistants and its potential to contribute to improved patient care has not been investigated. A qualitative interpretivist design was used to explore advanced practice nurses' perceptions on the value of wireless Personal Digital Assistant technologies to support their practice. The data were collected using survey questionnaires and individual and focus group interviews with nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists and information technology managers based in British Columbia, Canada. An open-coding content analysis was performed using qualitative data analysis software. Wireless Personal Digital Assistant's use supports the principles of pervasivity and is a technology rapidly being adopted by advanced practice nurses. Some nurses indicated a reluctance to integrate wireless Personal Digital Assistant technologies into their practices because of the cost and the short technological life cycle of these devices. Many of the barriers which precluded the use of wireless networks within facilities are being removed. Nurses demonstrated a complex understanding of wireless Personal Digital Assistant technologies and gave good rationales for its integration in their practice. Nurses identified improved client care as the major benefit of this technology in practice and the type and range of tools they identified included clinical reference tools such as drug and diagnostic/laboratory reference applications and wireless
Larson, Elaine L; Ferng, Yu-Hui; McLoughlin, Jennifer Wong; Wang, Shuang; Morse, Stephen S
Although upper respiratory infections (URIs) take a major social and economic toll, little research has been conducted to assess the impact of educational interventions on knowledge, attitudes, and practices of community members regarding prevention and treatment of URIs, particularly among recently immigrated urban Latinos who may not be reached by the mainstream healthcare system. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a culturally appropriate, home-based educational intervention on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prevention and treatment of URIs among urban Latinos. Using a pretest-posttest design, Spanish-language educational materials available from sources such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were adapted based on feedback from community focus groups and provided to households during an in-person home visit every 2 months (generally three to four visits). Outcome data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices were collected in home-based interviews using an 85-item instrument adapted and pilot tested from three other validated instruments. Nonparametric and multiple linear regression analyses were used to summarize data and identify predictors of knowledge scores. Four hundred twenty-two households had complete data at baseline and 6 months. Knowledge and attitude scores were improved significantly, and use of alcohol hand sanitizer and rates of influenza vaccine were increased significantly (all p effectiveness of such a person-intensive intervention, the long-term outcomes, and whether less intensive interventions might be equally effective.
and techniques involving many different management areas have been introduced. Taking a variety of angles and perspectives this book shows how knowledge management is actually practised in many different European firms. By focusing on knowledge, new dimensions of well-known management principles and concepts......Evidence in recent years of increasing interest in knowledge and how to manage it can be observed not only in the management literature but also in companies. The introduction of new views has taken place under headings such as "knowledge management" and intellectual capital. Several new methods...... emerge. Leading researchers and experts from European business schools offer new insight into the range of practical problems that can be addressed and methods that can be applied when knowledge is put on the management agenda....
Okonta, Henry I; Ikombele, John B; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A
The number of persons suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus continues to rise worldwide and causes significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world. Behaviour change and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits help to prevent or slow down the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the knowledge and practice of healthy lifestyles in many diabetic patients have been inadequate. This study sought to establish the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification amongst type 2 diabetic patients. The diabetic clinic of Mamelodi hospital, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa. A cross-sectional study was done using a structured questionnaire amongst 217 type 2 diabetic patients seen at the diabetic clinic of Mamelodi hospital. Baseline characteristics of the participants were obtained and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification were assessed. Of the 217 participants, 154 (71%) were obese and 15 (7%) were morbidly obese. The majority of respondents (92.2%) had poor knowledge of the benefits of exercise, weight loss and a healthy diet. What is interesting is that the majority (97.7%) demonstrated bad practices in relation to lifestyle modifications, although over four-fifths (84.3%) had a positive attitude toward healthy lifestyle modifications. Despite the positive attitudes of respondents toward healthy lifestyle modifications, the knowledge and practice regarding lifestyle modifications amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus participants seen at Mamelodi hospital were generally poor.
Vinarti, Retno; Hederman, Lucy
We present a knowledge-base to represent collated infectious disease risk (IDR) knowledge. The knowledge is about personal and contextual risk of contracting an infectious disease obtained from declarative sources (e.g. Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases). Automated prediction requires encoding this knowledge in a form that can produce risk probabilities (e.g. Bayesian Network - BN). The knowledge-base presented in this paper feeds an algorithm that can auto-generate the BN. The knowledge from 234 infectious diseases was compiled. From this compilation, we designed an ontology and five rule types for modelling IDR knowledge in general. The evaluation aims to assess whether the knowledge-base structure, and its application to three disease-country contexts, meets the needs of personalized IDR prediction system. From the evaluation results, the knowledge-base conforms to the system's purpose: personalization of infectious disease risk.
Kugeler, Kiersten J; Apangu, Titus; Forrester, Joseph D; Griffith, Kevin S; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Okoth, Jimmy F; Apio, Harriet; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Brett, Meghan; Mead, Paul
Plague is a virulent zoonosis reported most commonly from Sub-Saharan Africa. Early treatment with antibiotics is important to prevent mortality. Understanding knowledge gaps and common behaviors informs the development of educational efforts to reduce plague mortality. A multi-stage cluster-sampled survey of 420 households was conducted in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda to assess knowledge of symptoms and causes of plague and health care-seeking practices. Most (84%) respondents were able to correctly describe plague symptoms; approximately 75% linked plague with fleas and dead rats. Most respondents indicated that they would seek health care at a clinic for possible plague; however plague-like symptoms were reportedly common, and in practice, persons sought care for those symptoms at a health clinic infrequently. Persons in the plague-endemic region of Uganda have a high level of understanding of plague, yet topics for targeted educational messages are apparent. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Personal Knowledge Management (PKM has been envisaged as a crucial tool for the growing creative class of knowledge workers, but adequate technological solutions have not been forthcoming. Background: Based on former affordance-related publications (primarily concerned with communication, community-building, collaboration, and social knowledge sharing, the common and differing narratives in relation to PKM are investigated in order to suggest further PKM capabilities and affordances in need to be conferred. Methodology: The paper follows up on a series of the author’s PKM-related publications, firmly rooted in design science research (DSR methods and aimed at creating an innovative PKM concept and prototype system. Contribution: The affordances presented offer PKM system users the means to retain and build upon knowledge acquired in order to sustain personal growth and facilitate productive collaborations between fellow learners and/or professional acquaintances. Findings: The results call for an extension of Nonaka’s SECI model and ‘ba’ concept and provide arguments for and evidence supporting the claims that the PKM concept and system is able to facilitate better knowledge traceability and KM practices. Recommendations and Impact on Society: Together with the prior publications, the paper points to current KM shortcomings and presents a novel trans-disciplinary approach offering appealing opportunities for stakeholders engaged in the context of curation, education, research, development, business, and entrepreneurship. Its potential to tackle opportunity divides has been addressed via a PKM for Development (PKM4D Framework. Future DSR Activities: After completing the test phase of the prototype, its transformation into a viable PKM system and cloud-based server based on a rapid development platform and a noSQL-database is estimated to take 12 months.
Schaap, Harmen; De Bruijn, Elly; Van der Schaaf, Marieke; Kirschner, Paul A.
Schaap, H., De Bruijn, E., Van der Schaaf, M. F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Students' personal professional theories in competence-based vocational education: the construction of personal knowledge through internalisation and socialisation. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 61(4),
An evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices of South African university students regarding the use of emergency contraception and of art as an advocacy tool. ... of Technology (DUT) in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... pre- and post-counselling be provided by health care professionals to empower ...
Keywords: Teledentistry, attitude, knowledge, practice, dental professionals. Background. Oral health disparities are a global issue with most dental specialists located in urban areas. Limited number of dental professionals in rural area leaves people without access to quality dental care in those areas (Berndt, Leone, &.
Background: Electronic education (E-education) is used worldwide as a basic tool for medical education for its advanced improving in medical training. In spite of its wide use in the system of the medical faculties in Sudan, e-education has not taken its right place yet. Objectives: To explore knowledge, attitude and practice ...
Aims: To assess oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices among 12 years old pupils in Lunacy, Zambia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted involving 12 years old children from seven randomly selected urban and peri urban primary schools in Luanshya. A close ended self ...
Knowledge, perception and practice of injection safety and healthcare waste management among teaching hospital staff in south east Nigeria: an intervention study. ... Following the intervention, a significantly high number became aware of post-exposure prophylaxis and color coded bins and liners. Conclusion: There is a ...
Bibliotherapy is an old concept in library which has been used by many other professionals on different scenario to bring about a positive change or an improvement. This study investigated the knowledge, attitude, and practice of bibliotherapy concept by school counselors for challenging students in some selected ...
Introduction: Oral hygiene involves the prevention of oral diseases which have been found to be common in pregnancy. Dental care in pregnancy aims at achieving healthy oral environment. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude towards and practice of oral hygiene among antenatal clinic attendees in public ...
Method:A self-administered questionnaire was utilised to assess oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among 46 orthodontic patients consisting of 18 males (39.1%) and 28 females (60.9%) with a mean age of 18.4 ± 7.6 years who were on active fixed orthodontic appliances at the University of Benin Teaching ...
This is a descriptive cross-sectional study on 200 IDUs of Dhaka city was conducted to evaluate their knowledge. ... Regarding practice majority (94.5%) of the IDUs shared needle, 69% had multiple sex partners, out of which only 2.5% used new disposable syringe and only 4.8% always used condom during intercourse.
Moore, Keith M.
Conventional technology transfer is based on the assumption that autonomous individuals independently make behavioral decisions. In contrast, Actor-Network Theory (ANT) suggests that people and technologies are interconnected in ways that reinforce and reproduce some types of knowledge and consequent behavioral practices, but not others. Research…
Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of local residents about insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for malaria control in an endemic area of Ethiopia Methods: A descriptive cross-survey was conducted from July 2008 to September 2008. A structured questionnaire collecting ...
Jun 2, 2014 ... has tried to control the use of pesticides with its code ... This is a useful tool, especially for developing countries, for elimination of. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of ... toxicity, and the majority did not use appropriate PPE nor good hygiene when handling pesticides.
Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) educational courses provide produce growers with the fundamental information for producing and processing safe produce. To determine the effectiveness of the current 7-hour GAP course provided in Iowa, growers were surveyed before and 7-14 days after the course to determine changes in knowledge and opinions.…
Purpose: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of ADR monitoring and ... of nurses in pharmacovigilance will go a long way in improving reporting of ADRs. .... Know. None. Suspected ADR. Medical practitioner. Pharmacy. Nursing. 31. 01 .... patients, especially patients on hospital .... international experience.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ... and build upon the work non‑commercially, as long as the author is credited ... knowledge and practice of BSE among women in Sokoto, Nigeria. ..... access to the health care resources. .... be different from our findings so could limit generalization.
Background: The role of parents in preventing child sexual abuse in the community in low-and-middle income countries has not been adequately emphasized. The objective of this study was to assess parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices on child sexual abuse and its prevention in Shinyanga district, Tanzania in ...
Effects of Training on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Malaria Prevention and Control among Community Role Model Care Givers in South Western Nigeria. ... Multistage sampling method was adopted in selecting study participants, while data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. RESULTS: Mean age ...
Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile communication, mobile tools and work practices in the context of organizations, especially knowledge-based organizations. Today, organizations are highly complex and diverse. Not surprisingly, various solutions to incorporating mobile tools and mobile communication in organizations have been devised. Challenges to technological development and research on mobile communication are presented.
Introduction: A Salmonella typhi outbreak was reported in a Burundian refugee camp in Rwanda in October 2015. Transmission persisted despite increased hygiene promotion activities and hand-washing facilities instituted to prevent and control the outbreak. A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was carried out ...
The study was conducted to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Atbara city between March and April, 2008. The questionnaires respondents were 28% male and 72% were female, 48% of them had primary school education while 42% were illiterates. The most prevalent isolated ...
Equine infectious diseases continue to be one of the most important threats to the overall health of domesticated horses and proper vaccination is one the most important preventive measure against such infectious diseases. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of equine vaccination among horse ...
This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer and its screening among female clinical nursing students in Southern Nigeria. Methodology: ... There is need to adopt urgent and drastic intervention strategies to save our women from unnecessary death. Keywords: ...
Background: There has been increasing incidence of occupational diseases among woodworkers due to exposure to preventable hazards in the workplace. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of health education on the knowledge and practice of workplace hygiene and protective measures among ...
Malaria during pregnancy poses a substantial risk to mother and foetus especially in sub Saharan Africa. The study was therefore carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and home based practices towards malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Aba South Local Government Area, Abia State.
This article explores the politics surrounding the education of pregnant/mothering students. Utilizing Title IX, which guarantees the rights of pregnant/mothering students to an education equal to her peers, as an analytical lens, the author specifically identifies how absences in knowledge, research, and practice about the education of…
Results: All the respondents were aware of HIV but their awareness of PMTCT specifically was not as high. Only 8.3% of the respondents had good level of knowledge about HIV and PMTCT and up to 13% of them claimed to be able to cure HIV using native remedies. The practices of HIV counseling of patients and referral ...
Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) foot complications are a leading cause of mortality in developing countries and the prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase in the next decades in these countries. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practice of foot care among diabetes patients attending ...
Mar 31, 2014 ... International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research ... AMONG NURSES IN THE SURGICAL UNIT OF A TEACHING ... 3Nursing Science, Faculty ... study suggest that nurses had poor knowledge and attitude of infection ... wound infection and evaluate their practice regarding postoperative.
Keywords: hyperthyroidism; iodine; iodised salt; knowledge-attitude-practice study; South Africa ... While iodine deficiency has been reported to facilitate the development ... the health of children if they did not get enough iodine, almost all of the .... in South Africa. The use of local mass media could be considered during the.
Purpose: The objective of this study was, first, to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of commercial drivers in Dar es Salaam with regard to medicines that impair driving, and second, to evaluate the adequacy of antihistamine label information. Methods: Drivers were interviewed using a questionnaire after obtaining ...
There is a global strategy to improve health through prompt identification and treatment of diseases. The pharmacy profession has remodelled its roles in an attempt to meet these global expectations through pharmaceutical care. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the knowledge and practice of ...
The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice of general practitioners ... identified include the fact that they are time consuming, disrupt schedules, parents are difficult and ... oral administration of methylphenidate. ... Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences.
AJRH Managing Editor
The major objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about HIV testing services and the uptake of this service amongst girls aged 15-19 in selected secondary schools in Malawi. A questionnaire was administered to 457 students and 18 focus group discussions and 45 in-depth interviews ...
Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria and contributes signi cantly as a major cause of death among women of reproductive age. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and cervical cancer screening practices among women of reproductive ...
Background: Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) continued to be a major public health problem worldwide. The present study assessed the knowledge, belief and practice of intervention to contain AMR among physicians in Sokoto State, North-West Nigeria. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study involving 105 physicians ...
Glover, Todd A.; Nugent, Gwen C.; Chumney, Frances L.; Ihlo, Tanya; Shapiro, Edward S.; Guard, Kirra; Koziol, Natalie; Bovaird, Jim
Teachers Speak was a national survey study designed to investigate the characteristics of rural elementary school teachers' existing professional development; differences in professional development practices between rural and non-rural settings; and the potential influence of professional development characteristics on rural teachers' knowledge,…
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Private Medical Practitioners in Calabar towards Post-Abortion Care. ... The major reasons given by some of the doctors for not terminating unwanted pregnancies were religious, moral and ethical considerations rather than respect for the Nigerian abortion law. Only 18.2% of the doctors ...
Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among pregnant women at Grace Specialist Hospital. ... Background: Unwanted pregnancy is a common event in our environment and many of them will end in an unsafe abortion. ... Education and religion did not significantly affect the use of a family planning method.
Feb 1, 2018 ... South Sudan Medical Journal Vol 11. No 1. February 2018. ORIGINAL RESEARCH. KAP Barriers. In Lakes State, a barrier to both detection and treatment of TB is the knowledge, attitudes, and practices .... In hospital, TB and HIV are treated under the same roof because according to hospital data, 12% of ...
This study examined the knowledge and practices of 209 public secondary school teachers in Onitsha metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria towards HIV/AIDS in order to assess their level of preparedness to deliver qualitative HIV/AIDS education within the context of a comprehensive sexuality education program. This has ...
Malaria remains one of the most devastating public health scourges especially in the tropics. Several studies have documented the prevalence of malaria among different vulnerable groups; however, an understanding of the communities' knowledge, perceptions and practices relating to malaria is crucial to the success of ...
Background: The aim of this study was to describe physical activity knowledge, attitudes and practices of the elderly in Bloemfontein old age homes. Methods: Three hundred and ninety residents (65 years and older) from 11 Bloemfontein old age homes participated in the study. All participants gave informed oral consent ...
Purpose: To assess diarrhea-related knowledge, attitude and practice through successive educational interventions. Methods: This was an interventional study conducted at nine different locations of Morang district, Nepal from March 2010 to January 2011. Multistage random sampling approach was adopted to sample 630 ...
Promotion and strengthening of reproductive health education and services, especially among adolescents requires access to current baseline data on knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among adolescents, including secondary school students. This data is very scanty for Tanzania. The aim of this work was ...
Context: Carcinoma of the cervix is a preventable disease but it remains the most common genital cancer in African women. Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical smear as screening procedure for cervical cancer by female health workers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Study Design, Setting and ...
The study was conducted to reveal and document ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of traditional healers in selected sites of Eastern Hararghie. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews and field observation from 9 traditional healers in 4 study sites of Eastern Hararghie. Data were ...
Background: Health care workers in maternity units are exposed to potentially infectious body fluids in the course of their duties. The study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of maternity unit staff in Jos Metropolis regarding Universal Precautions (UP) against the background of the high HIV seroprevalence in ...
Knowledge, attitude and practices of dental professionals in Rwanda towards the ... towards teledentistry, it will not be easy to implement teledentistry innovations. ... Also only 13 (12.6%) and eight (7.8%) were sharing digital x-ray and digital ...
Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude ...
Caterina Groposo Pavão
Full Text Available Digital preservation has to be undertaken by institutional repositories, which are responsible for the preservation of the scientific output from academic institutions. However, due to the constant evolution of the field, to gain domain knowledge and recognise best practices is a complex task for people responsible for digital preservation in those institutions. Digital preservation research, practices and solutions address specific problems, such as formats, curation, reference models, authenticity, policies and preservation plans, tools, etc., while stakeholders need an integrated, contextualized and applicable overview. This paper focuses on the implementation of digital preservation in repositories, from the perspective of the team responsible for the project, regarding the necessary knowledge and best practices. Initially, it defines and contextualizes digital preservation repositories. The following section presents a conceptual model of digital preservation, synthesized from conceptual models developed in influential projects in the field, which allows us to identify the domain knowledge in digital preservation. Finally, aspects represented in the model are discussed in the light of the performance of teams implementing digital preservation repositories. It provides recommendations, guides and examples that may be useful for the implementation of digital preservation. It points to the need to strengthen the relationship between domain knowledge in digital preservation repositories with practices developed in numerous projects developed worldwide.
This study investigates the interplay between individual and contextual variables during teaching practice and its impact on the personal and socio-professional development of prospective teachers. The purpose of the study was to survey how prospective teachers experienced the process of becoming aware of their ...
Stender, Anita; Brückmann, Maja; Neumann, Knut
This study investigates the relationship between two different types of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): the topic-specific professional knowledge (TSPK) and practical routines, so-called teaching scripts. Based on the Transformation Model of Lesson Planning, we assume that teaching scripts originate from a transformation of TSPK during lesson planning: When planning lessons, teachers use their TSPK to create lesson plans. The implementation of these lesson plans and teachers' reflection upon them lead to their improvement. Gradually, successful lesson plans are mentally stored as teaching scripts and can easily be retrieved during instruction. This process is affected by teacher's beliefs, motivation and self-regulation. In order to examine the influence of TSPK on teaching scripts as well as the moderating effects of beliefs, motivation and self-regulation, we conducted a cross-sectional study with n = 49 in-service teachers in physics. The TSPK, beliefs, motivation, self-regulation and the quality of teaching scripts of in-service teachers were assessed by using an online questionnaire adapted to teaching the force concept and Newton's law for 9th grade instruction. Based on the measurement of the quality of teaching scripts, the results provide evidence that TSPK influences the quality of teaching scripts. Motivation and self-regulation moderate this influence.
Full Text Available Background: The Norwegian municipal welfare system provides home healthcare and residential services to a growing population of older people. The skills and competence of the personnel providing these services need to keep pace with demand, and continuing education is vital. A concern, though, is the way positivist knowledge permeates both education and healthcare services; recognising other types of knowledge, such as tacit knowledge together with practical wisdom, is important to complement the focus on evidence-based practice. Aims and objectives: This article addresses the need for healthcare professionals to develop open-minded reflection in writing and in action, as keys to expressing tacit knowledge and thus making it more visible. Moreover, tacit knowledge may also represent practical wisdom, or ‘phronesis’. The aim is to bring forward examples of the often invisible and unrecognised expertise held by experienced nurses and other healthcare professionals. Method: This discussion paper is based on reflection notes written by students doing continuing education in advanced gerontology. Some of the situational dilemmas that students bring forward in their texts are retold, and these stories represent traces of tacit care knowledge, and practical wisdom or phronesis. Findings: Reflection may strengthen students’ ethical autonomy and imagination, which is important in healthcare professionals’ caregiving. Reflective writing is part of the educational pathway and contributes to the development of personal tacit knowledge and wisdom. The experiences put forward in the student’s stories become part of their ability to act and care; this embodied knowledge is understood as part of what phronesis might be. Implications for practice: Fostering healthcare professionals’ self-awareness through reflection can help them come to a realisation and understanding that opens up new alternatives for action Reflection may increase awareness of
Gauri Naik; Sanika S. Bhide
Today, we live in a world of ?information overload? which demands high level of knowledge-based work. However, advances in computer hardware and software have opened possibilities to automate ?routine cognitive tasks? for knowledge processing. Engineering intelligent software systems that can process large data sets using unstructured commands and subtle judgments and have the ability to learn ?on the fly? are a significant step towards automation of knowledge work. The applications of this t...
Bennie, Jason A; Wiesner, Glen H; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Harvey, Jack T; Biddle, Stuart J H
Few studies have examined the sources of practice knowledge fitness trainers use to inform their training methods and update knowledge. This study aims to describe sources of practice knowledge among Australian fitness trainers. In July 2014, 9100 Australian fitness trainers were invited to complete an online survey. Respondents reported the frequency of use of eight sources of practice knowledge (e.g. fitness magazines, academic texts). In a separate survey, exercise science experts (n = 27) ranked each source as either (1) 'high-quality' or (2) 'low-quality'. Proportions of users of 'high-quality' sources were calculated across demographic (age, sex) and fitness industry-related characteristics (qualification, setting, role). A multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed the odds of being classified as a user of high-quality sources, adjusting for demographic and fitness industry-related factors. Out of 1185 fitness trainers (response rate = 13.0%), aged 17-72 years, 47.6% (95% CI, 44.7-50.4%) were classified as frequent users of high-quality sources of practice knowledge. In the adjusted analysis, compared to trainers aged 17-26 years, those aged ≥61 years (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.05-4.38) and 40-50 years (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.02-2.31) were more likely to be classified as a user of high-quality sources. When compared to trainers working in large centres, those working in outdoor settings (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.23-2.65) and medium centres (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.12-2.29) were more likely to be classified as users of high-quality sources. Our findings suggest that efforts should be made to improve the quality of knowledge acquisition among Australian fitness trainers.
Kendrick, Denise; Illingworth, Rachel; Hapgood, Rhydian; Woods, Amanda J; Collier, Jacqueline
Baby walkers are a commonly used item of nursery equipment. Between 12% and 50% of parents whose infant uses a walker report that their child has suffered a walker-related injury. Health visitors' knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to walkers and related health education has not been explored so far. The aim of the study was to describe health visitors' knowledge of walkers and walker-related injuries, their attitudes towards walkers and current practice with regard to walker health education, and to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and practice. A survey was carried out with 64 health visitors prior to participation in a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of an educational package in reducing baby walker use. The response rate was 95%. Half of the health visitors always discussed walkers postnatally, most frequently at the 6-9 month check. Most did not usually discuss the frequency of walker-related injuries. Most had negative attitudes towards walkers, but believed that parents hold positive attitudes to them and that it is hard to persuade parents not to use them. Health visitors had a limited knowledge of walker use and walker-related injuries. Those giving advice on walkers most often had higher knowledge scores than those giving advice less often (P = 0.03). Those with higher knowledge scores held more negative attitudes towards walkers (rs = 0.29, P = 0.023) and believed parents to have more positive attitudes towards walkers (rs = -0.49, P negotiating alternatives to their use. The provision of audio-visual aids for discussing walkers might also be helpful.
Mehmood, T.; Babar, A.
To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Polio among people in Khyber PakhtunKhwa and to recommend measures in order to improve the awareness of disease. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Nowshera, CMH Mardan and Kohat General Hospital from March to June 2013. Subjects and Methods: Persons presenting for consultation to tertiary care hospitals at medical reception rooms were approached by convenience sampling. Structured questionnaire was developed and data was collected by interviews. Results: The findings of the study revealed that out of 296 persons participated in study 57.4% were males while 42.2% were females. They were residents of Mardan, Nowshera, Kohat and Swabi districts of Khyber Pakhtukhwa. Persons who believed that vaccine is prohibited in religion were 13.9%, 81.1% persons knew about Polio disease and 84.5% persons believed that disease could be prevented by giving vaccines to children. Persons who gave vaccine to their children were 88.9% and 66.9% also knew the schedule of the vaccine. Pressure groups which included tribal elders stopped 19.3% people from giving vaccine to their children and for 11.1% persons the facility of giving vaccine was not available. Persons who believed that Polio can cause infertility were 11.5% and 20.9% believed that Polio vaccine cannot prevent Polio disease. Persons who have seen patient of Polio were 38.9% and 88.5 % persons wanted to eradicate disease from Pakistan. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that people have adequate knowledge about Polio and wanted to eradicate it from Pakistan by participating in vaccination activities but still there are few people who believe that Polio vaccine cannot prevent disease resulting in failure to adminster vaccine for their children. (author)
Lev, Efraim; Amar, Zohar
To asses the scientific value of the practical medical fragments found in the Cairo Genizah (10th century), as a useful source for ethnopharmacological purposes (in exposing rare and usually inaccessible original medieval practical knowledge of medicinal substances to present-day researchers), and to reconstruct the practical drugs and their uses. A methodology distinguishing between theoretical (about 1500 fragments) and practical medical knowledge (about 230 fragments) was created and used. The information regarding the practical medicinal substances was extracted from prescriptions (140), lists of drugs (70) and few letters of physicians. The reconstructed lists of practical (278) and theoretical (414) drugs allow us to recognize and quantify the gap between them in medieval times (136). We propose that the data obtained from ancient prescriptions is comparable to ethnopharmacological surveys. The finding of plants such as myrobalan, saffron, licorice, spikenard and lentisk, all of which have scientifically proven anti-microbial/bacterial and anti-fungal activity, sheds a helpful light on the medical decision-making of the medieval practitioners in respect of the plants they applied as drugs. With the wealth of information meticulously assembled from these time capsules we expect to make a significant contribution to contemporary efforts at locating modern drugs in ancient roots and gauging their feasibility.
Idrees, Z.; Zakir, U.; Khushdil, A.; Shehzadi, H.
To assess the knowledge of osteoporosis and evaluation of the practice of osteoporosis preventive measures, among females of reproductive age group. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was undertaken from September 2015 to February 2016 on 174 females (age range 15-49 years) from Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan through non- probability convenient sampling. Females with any metabolic, muscular or diagnosed bone disease were excluded from the study. The self -administered questionnaire consisted of questions regarding basic demographics, knowledge and practice of preventive factors related to osteoporosis. Result: Majority (86.8%) females knew about osteoporosis. 80% considered major risk factor to be low calcium intake. Regarding practices, 44.3% of women practiced daily intake of milk in their diet, 69.5 % females practiced physical activity like walking on daily basis and 65.5% have direct exposure of sunlight but only 12.1% of women used calcium supplements. Conclusion: The study revealed that majority of the women knew about osteoporosis and its risk factors but many of them were not practicing appropriate lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease their risk of osteoporosis. Thus, there is a need of standardized approach to promote healthy behaviors to decrease the risk of osteoporosis before menopause. (author)
Kitson, Alison L; Harvey, Gillian
To explore the evidence around facilitation as an intervention for the successful implementation of new knowledge into clinical practice. The revised version of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework, called the integrated or i-PARIHS framework, is used as the explanatory framework. This framework posits that evidence is a multidimensional construct embedded within innovation and operationalized by clinicians (individuals and within teams), working across multiple layers of context. Facilitation is the active ingredient that promotes successful implementation. An emerging body of evidence supports facilitation as a mechanism to getting new knowledge into clinical practice. Facilitation roles are divided into beginner, experienced, and expert facilitators. Facilitators can be internal or external to the organization they work in, and their skills and attributes complement other knowledge translation (KT) roles. Complex KT projects require facilitators who are experienced in implementation methods. Facilitation is positioned as the active ingredient to effectively introduce new knowledge into a clinical setting. Levels of facilitation experience are assessed in relation to the complexity of the KT task. Three core facilitation roles are identified, and structured interventions are established taking into account the nature and novelty of the evidence, the receptiveness of the clinicians, and the context or setting where the new evidence is to be introduced. Roles such as novice, experienced, and expert facilitators have important and complementary parts to play in enabling the successful translation of evidence into everyday practice in order to provide effective care for patients. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Wadmann, Sarah; Bang, Lia E
Initiatives in the name of 'rational pharmacotherapy' have been launched to alter what is seen as 'inappropriate' prescribing practices of physicians. Based on observations and interviews with 20 general practitioners (GPs) in 2009-2011, we explored how attempts to rationalise prescribing interact with chronic care management in Denmark. We demonstrate how attempts to rationalise prescribing by informing GPs about drug effects, adverse effects and price do not satisfy GPs' knowledge needs. We argue that, for GPs, 'rational' prescribing cannot be understood in separation from the processes that enable patients to use medication. Therefore, GPs do much more to obtain knowledge about medications than seek advice on 'rational pharmacotherapy'. For instance, GPs also seek opportunities to acquaint themselves with the material objects of medication and medical devices. We conceptualise the knowledge needs of GPs as a need for practice-relevant knowledge and argue that industry sales representatives are granted opportunity to access general practice because they understand this need of GPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Abass, Kabila; Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel; Accam, Burnett Tetteh
The aim of this hospital-based, cross-sectional study was to examine nurses' knowledge, personal and professional practices and attitude towards complementary and alternative medical therapies in urban Ghana. Using convenience sampling technique, cross-sectional data were collected from 210 registered and practicing nurses with self-administered questionnaire based on the Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ). Descriptive statistics and the associations between variables were calculated using Pearson's Chi-square test and/or Fisher's exact test with p training curriculum can improve CAM knowledge and professional practice among nurses, and in turn, enhance evidence-based patient care within the framework of intercultural healthcare system in Ghana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; Ormel, Bart J. B.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.
This study characterises the links between research and practice across 12 projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities (TCs). Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants' roles and knowledge generated by the teacher community. Three patterns emerged pertaining…
Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Ormel, Bart; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke; Pieters, Jules
This study characterizes the links between research and practice across twelve projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities. Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants’ roles, and knowledge generated by the teacher
Masupe, T; Parker, G
Historically, many prospective employees in Great Britain have undergone pre-employment health screening (PEHS) assessments before a job offer. Section 60 of the Equality Act 2010 stipulates that PEHS assessments before a job offer may contravene the disability provisions of the Act except under specific circumstances. PEHS assessments in the current format may not fully comply with the provisions of the legislation. To describe the knowledge, perceptions and practices of occupational health physicians in UK following implementation of the Equality Act 2010. Data were collected through an anonymous online survey of occupational health physicians (OHPs) actively reporting to the Occupational Physicians Reporting Activity (OPRA) at the Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, the University of Manchester. There were 126 responses available for analysis (response rate 43%). Most participants (81%) were accredited occupational health specialists providing occupational health advice to various industry sectors; 96% reported involvement in PEHS assessments; 81% reported awareness of section 60 of the Equality Act 2010. Further analysis of these participants revealed varying knowledge levels and practices relating to specific requirements of section 60. Changes in professional practice resulting from the Act were reported by 38%, while 46% reported no change. There have been minimal immediate changes to PEHS practices by OHPs in response to section 60 of the Act. Some OHPs displayed inadequate knowledge of specific requirements of section 60 of the Act. OHPs could benefit from further training on specific requirements of this legislation.
Paz-Soldán, Valerie A; Morrison, Amy C; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J; Lenhart, Audrey; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Sihuincha, Moises; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S; Astete, Helvio; McCall, Philip J
As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate insecticide-treated curtains for dengue prevention in Iquitos, Peru, we surveyed 1,333 study participants to examine knowledge and reported practices associated with dengue and its prevention. Entomological data from 1,133 of these households were linked to the survey. Most participants knew that dengue was transmitted by mosquito bite (85.6%), but only few (18.6%) knew that dengue vectors bite during daytime. Most commonly recognized dengue symptoms were fever (86.6%), headache (76.4%), and muscle/joint pain (67.9%). Most commonly reported correct practices for mosquito control were cleaning homes (61.6%), using insecticide sprays (23%), and avoiding having standing water at home (12.3%). Higher education was associated with higher knowledge about dengue, including transmission and vector control. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with increased reported use of preventive practices requiring money expenditure. We were less likely to find Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae, or pupae in households that had dengue has been transmitted in Iquitos since the 1990s and the Regional Health Authority routinely fumigates households, treats domestic water containers with larvicide, and issues health education messages through mass media, knowledge of dengue transmission and household practices for prevention could be improved. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Full Text Available Today, we live in a world of ‘information overload’ which demands high level of knowledge-based work. However, advances in computer hardware and software have opened possibilities to automate ‘routine cognitive tasks’ for knowledge processing. Engineering intelligent software systems that can process large data sets using unstructured commands and subtle judgments and have the ability to learn ‘on the fly’ are a significant step towards automation of knowledge work. The applications of this technology for high throughput genomic analysis, database updating, reporting clinically significant variants, and diagnostic imaging purposes are explored using case studies.
Naik, Gauri; Bhide, Sanika S
Today, we live in a world of 'information overload' which demands high level of knowledge-based work. However, advances in computer hardware and software have opened possibilities to automate 'routine cognitive tasks' for knowledge processing. Engineering intelligent software systems that can process large data sets using unstructured commands and subtle judgments and have the ability to learn 'on the fly' are a significant step towards automation of knowledge work. The applications of this technology for high throughput genomic analysis, database updating, reporting clinically significant variants, and diagnostic imaging purposes are explored using case studies.
Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to investigate the perception of informational professionals’ knowledge sharing practices in social media platforms. The specific objectives of the study included learning professionals’ perceptions and awareness of knowledge sharing using social media, understanding their opinions and beliefs, and gaining familiarity with and reasons for using these tools. Open & close ended web-based questions were sent out by email to the international training program (ITP participants. Findings indicated that most of the respondents’ were aware of using social media and that they used social media for knowledge sharing. Speed and ease of use, managing personal knowledge, easier communication with users and colleagues and powerful communication tool are the areas that motivated them to use it. It also stated some barriers like lack of support, familiarity, trust, unfiltered information and fear of providing information. The study was limited to the perceptual aspect of the issue, specifically from the individuals’ opinions and sentiments.
Critical analysis of the literature reveals that many questions about the knowledge and practice of mathematics teacher educators (MTEs) remain in need of further research: how do they know what to teach; how do they learn how to teach teachers; how do they prepare to teach their courses; how does the research on teacher education inform their…
Steinhueser, Melanie; Waizenegger, Lena; Vodanovich, Shahper
The voluntary use of private device by employees without formal approval of the IT department, commonly termed Shadow IT, is an increasingly widespread phenomenon. In this paper, we study the role of private smartphones (and related applications like WhatsApp) in knowledge-intensive practices...
Phelps, Geoffrey; Johnson, David; Carlisle, Joanne
The research reported in this paper is focused directly on assessing the validity of the "Teaching Knowledge about Reading and Reading Practices" (TKRRP) assessment. Following the recommendations of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (APA/AERA, 1999), the authors see validation as a process of constructing an…
Mirzaei, Amin; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Zavareh, Mohammad Sadegh Abedzadeh; Jalilian, Mohsen; Mansourian, Morteza; Mazloomi, Sajad; Mokhtari, Neda; Mokhtari, Fariba
Every year many people around the world become infected with food-borne infections. Insufficient knowledge and skills related to food safety and hygiene are among the factors affecting the incidence of food-borne diseases, especially in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and practices associated with food safety and hygiene in Ilam city male adolescents. Three hundred and eighty of male adolescents aged 13 to 19 were selected randomly and entered the cross-sectional study. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire From December 2016 to February 2017. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyse the data in SPSS software (version 19.0). The findings of the study showed a positive and significant relationship between knowledge and practices related to food safety and hygiene (r = 0.122; p = 0.018). Also, the findings showed that food safety knowledge and practice of adolescents were significantly affected by the level of their education, parental education level, parental employment status and household economic conditions, (p < 0.005). Also, the results showed that the participants generally obtained 57.74% of the knowledge score and 57.63% of practices score. The subjects had the most knowledge about food supply and storage (60%), and the highest practice was related to personal and environmental hygiene, (61.73%). The inadequacy of knowledge and performance of adolescents about food safety and hygiene shows the need for implementation of health education interventions in this area.
Lyons, John S
The challenges of knowledge translation in behavioural health care are unique to this field for a variety of reasons including the fact that effective treatment is invariably embedded in a strong relationship between practitioners and the people they serve. Practitioners' knowledge gained from experience and intuition become an even more important consideration in the knowledge translation process since clinicians are, in fact, a component of most treatments. Communication of findings from science must be conceptualized with sensitivity to this reality. Considering knowledge translation as a communication process suggests the application of contemporary theories of communication which emphasize the creation of shared meaning over the transmission of knowledge from one person to the next. In this context outcomes management approaches to create a learning environment within clinical practices that facilitate the goals of knowledge transfer while respecting that the scientific enterprise is neither the sole nor primary repository of knowledge.
Edwards, Sharon L
Storytelling is intrinsic to human beings, and stories can explain events, stances taken and actions engaged in. When experience is represented as story it can become more organised and be used for analysis, critique and learning. Experience is important in nursing, as it is in many other practice-based professions, and it can contribute much to nurses' learning. Through a process of sharing and engaging with the author's personal stories, this article encourages nurses to begin to organise their own experiences in story form for use in learning and as part of their personal and professional development.
Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony
Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected during the Super League competitive season in the first team squad of 21 professional Rugby league players (mean age 25 ± 5 yrs, BMI 27 ± 2.4 kg/m2, experience in game 6 ± 4 yrs). According to their nutritional knowledge scores, the players were assigned to either good or poor nutritional knowledge group (n = 11, n = 10, respectively). Their dietary habits were assessment using a food frequency questionnaire. The findings revealed that nutritional knowledge was adequate (mean 72.82%) in this group of athletes with the highest scores in dietary advice section (85.71%), followed by food groups (71.24%) and food choice (69.52%). The majority of athletes were not aware of current carbohydrate recommendations. This translated into their dietary habits as many starchy and fibrous foods were consumed only occasionally by poor nutritional knowledge group. In terms of their eating habits, the good nutritional knowledge group consumed significantly more fruit and vegetables, and starchy foods (p Nutritional knowledge was positively correlated to fruit and vegetables consumption (rs = .52, p nutritional knowledge in professional rugby league players with the exception of recommendation for starchy and fibrous foods. Players who scored higher in nutritional knowledge test were more likely to consume more fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate-rich foods.
CHILDHOPE (with funding from the United Nations Children's Fund and the aid of nongovernmental organizations in the Philippines, Thailand, Colombia, and Kenya) conducted surveys of street youth in order to ascertain their knowledge, attitudes, and practices in regard to sex and the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The youth also participated in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention and sex education activities. Youth from all 4 sites reported early sexual activity and multiple partners. Sex was used in all 4 sites to obtain pleasure (recreation), income (prostitution), food or shelter (survival sex), and power (gang rape). Philippine youth reported prostitution and survival sex, including homosexual sex, with foreigners and locals. Kenyan girls reported both prostitution (their main occupation) and survival sex. Kenyan males reported prostitution with foreigners and locals, and rapes of girls. In Bogota, males reported rapes of girls, and gang rapes of females for punishment or initiation. They also reported using sex workers and exchanging sex with men or women for food and shelter. Females from Bogota reported that their "friends" sometimes used survival sex to support their children; nearly all had been previously involved in survival sex on the street. Sexual abuse was common in Kenya and the Philippines; some youth in Manila were abused at shelters. In all 4 sites, there was a high awareness of AIDS and STDs, but information was often incorrect, especially in regard to transmission and treatment of STDs. Although nearly all of the youth knew about modes of transmission of HIV, those from the Philippines and Colombia did not have a personal realization or fear that they could contract it, while those from Kenya and Thailand believed they were at high risk and wanted assistance. 20/21 Kenyan girls were tested by the Undugu Society for HIV after detection of current STD
Cramm, Heidi; Egan, Mary
Poor handwriting is a common reason for referral to school-based occupational therapy. A survey was used to explore the extent to which current practice patterns in Ontario, Canada, align with evidence on effective intervention for handwriting. Knowledge-to-practice gaps were identified related to focus on performance components versus…
Saied, Khaled G; Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Altaire, Abdulrahman; Alqadsi, Ala; Alariqi, Enas F; Hassaan, Maha
In recent years there have been several reports of outbreaks of dengue fever (DF) in Yemen. This study aimed to describe the prevailing knowledge, attitude and preventive practices regarding DF, and to investigate the factors associated with poor preventive practices in rural areas of Yemen. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 804 randomly selected heads of household. A pretested, structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors independently associated with poor practice. Out of 804 participants, 753 (93.7%) were aware of the symptoms of DF and 671 (83.4%) knew that DF was transmitted by mosquito bites. Only 420 (52.2%) knew that direct person-to-person transmission was not possible. Furthermore, 205 (25.5%) thought that someone with DF should be avoided and 460 (57.2%) thought the elimination of breeding sites was the responsibility of health authorities. Poor knowledge of DF and a low level of education were significantly associated with poor preventive practices. In rural areas of Yemen, people have a vague understanding of DF transmission and a negative attitude towards preventative practices. Efforts should be made to correct misconceptions about transmission of the disease and to highlight the importance of community participation in control activities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Several years of professional nursing practices, while living in the poorest neighbourhoods in the outlying areas of Brazil's Amazon region, have led the author to develop a better understanding of marginalized populations. Providing care to people with leprosy and sex workers in riverside communities has taken place in conditions of uncertainty, insecurity, unpredictability and institutional violence. The question raised is how we can develop community health nursing practices in this context. A systematization of personal experiences based on popular education is used and analyzed as a way of learning by obtaining scientific knowledge through critical analysis of field practices. Ties of solidarity and belonging developed in informal, mutual-help action groups are promising avenues for research and the development of knowledge in health promotion, prevention and community care and a necessary contribution to national public health programmers.
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio; Miranda Machado Pablo Andrés; Borre Arrieta Orlando
Introduction: cervical cancer (CC) is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about Hu...
Jolsna Joseph; Vijayalakshmi Devarashetty; S. Narayana Reddy; M. Sushma
Background: The objective of present study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of parents regarding childhood immunization. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in immunization clinic at Vanivilas hospital, a government tertiary care center (G) attached to Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute and a private pediatric clinic (P) in Bengaluru. Data were collected from 200 parents/guardians (100 from each set up) using structured questionnaire adminis...
Younis, M.; Anwar, S.; Aneela, I.; Saeed, M.S.
Background: Optimal asthma control in pregnant women is very much essential for the good health of both mother and the fetus. Maternal and fetal complications occur due to poor control of asthma. There are concerns that management of bronchial asthma in pregnant women should be optimal by the health professionals. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and practices of young female doctors about the bronchial asthma management in pregnancy. Study Design: Randomized evidence based. Study Setting: Punjab Public Service Commission (PPSC) interviews for women medical officers and female doctors working in different medical units and chest unit of Mayo Hospital a tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based survey of knowledge and practices of one hundred and one female doctors in the management of bronchial asthma was made. Amongst these, 32 doctors were FCPS 1 in medicine and gynecology. Remaining 69 doctors were in the pipeline and they have completed one year house job in different specialties. The case scenario was Asthma management approach during pregnancy in a stable patient of moderate severity. Inclusion Criteria 1. All those female doctors who have completed one year house job. 2. Female doctors working in gynecology, medicine, surgery and allied specialties. Results: Overall 14 (13.6%) doctors (5 (35.7%) PGs and 9 (64.3%) Non PGs) have the standard prescription of inhaled corticosteroids with long acting inhaled B2 agonists and montelukast as controller medication and short acting inhaled B2 agonist as needed as reliever medication according to the standard guidelines. Conclusion: The majority of young female doctors had the suboptimal knowledge and practice of asthma management in pregnancy. We suggest initiating the training programs to optimize their knowledge and practices. (author)
Blais, Mark A; Hopwood, Christopher J
Psychological assessment is a complex professional skill. Competence in assessment requires an extensive knowledge of personality, neuropsychology, social behavior, and psychopathology, a background in psychometrics, familiarity with a range of multimethod tools, cognitive flexibility, skepticism, and interpersonal sensitivity. This complexity makes assessment a challenge to teach and learn, particularly as the investment of resources and time in assessment has waned in psychological training programs over the last few decades. In this article, we describe 3 conceptual models that can assist teaching and learning psychological assessments. The transtheoretical model of personality provides a personality systems-based framework for understanding how multimethod assessment data relate to major personality systems and can be combined to describe and explain complex human behavior. The quantitative psychopathology-personality trait model is an empirical model based on the hierarchical organization of individual differences. Application of this model can help students understand diagnostic comorbidity and symptom heterogeneity, focus on more meaningful high-order domains, and identify the most effective assessment tools for addressing a given question. The interpersonal situation model is rooted in interpersonal theory and can help students connect test data to here-and-now interactions with patients. We conclude by demonstrating the utility of these models using a case example.
Eller, Linda S.
Social media sites furnish an online space for a community of practice to create relationships and trust, collaboration and connections, and a personal learning environment. Social networking sites, both public and private, have common elements: member profiles, groups, discussions, and forums. A community of practice brings participants together…
'Full text:' All too often the R&D community questions why good results based on sound science are not readily adopted by decision makers. We publish, hold conferences, even conduct workshops to engage policy developers and practitioners,who rarely show up. A closer look uncovers a common fault - although we may target decision makers we design information and tools to suit our interests, needs and/or standards then wonder why we end up always preaching to the converted. Are we missing the boat? In a word - yes! Employing the principles of knowledge transfer to infuse critical adaptive and/or mitigative strategies into policy and practice requires the right attitude, the right approach, the right tools and the right audience. The knowledge management cycle provides a framework that focuses on transfer of science principles or innovation into practice. It embodies the array of critical functions and activities inherent in a cycle that integrates knowledge generation, exchange and application. Knowledge exchange specialists play a pivotal role by helping translate technical knowledge into an appropriate suite of facts and figures well suited for consumption by decision makers. More importantly, they can facilitate adoption and the mainstream use of information and tools through collaborative efforts with knowledge application specialists in target organizations. This relationship can enable a knowledge management cycle that stimulates innovation and fosters informed decision making. Examples will be presented that describe what can happen when partners either fail to use, or succeed in using, a knowledge exchange system to manage projects in a manner that helps ensure inter-organizational collaboration. Examples include: a) a pilot study to demonstrate an emerging technology, b) striving for perfection in the face of ill-fated decisions, c) development of science-based policy and d) extension messaging at its best. (author)
A conception of insight is proposed, based on a systems and information-processing framework and using current neuroscience concepts, as an integration of information that results in a new symbolization of experience with a significant change in self-image and a transformation of non-declarative procedural knowledge into declarative knowledge. Since procedural memory and knowledge, seen to include emotional and relationship issues, is slow to change, durable emotional and behavioral change often requires repeated practice, a need not explicitly addressed in standard psychoanalytic technique. Working through is thus seen as also encompassing nondynamic factors. The application of these ideas to therapeutic technique suggests possible therapeutic interventions beyond interpretation. An illustrative clinical vignette is presented.
Bradshaw, Michelle L
The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline description of American occupational therapy educators' knowledge, attitudes, and personal use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a first step in exploring the larger issue of future occupational therapy practitioners' preparedness for meeting clients' occupational needs in today's evolving healthcare environment. Results of this cross-sectional survey highlighted limitations of occupational therapy educators' knowledge of common CAM concepts and therapies across all demographic variables, varying attitudes towards CAM in general and its inclusion in occupational therapy education, and personal use of common CAM therapies. Without increased occupational therapy educator knowledge about CAM and engagement in the current healthcare practices, occupational therapy practitioners are at risk for having a limited role in integrative healthcare.
Babaie, Mohadese; Hosseini, Mahdi; Hamissi, Jalaleddin; Hamissi, Zahra
Introduction: Treatment team charged to help patients and their family making decision about donate organs in the final stage of life. Hence, their knowledge and attitude is important to plan of increasing the rate of organ donation. Materials and Methods: About 150 nurses recruited in this cross-sectional study randomly. After taking informed consent, questionnaires were filled. The data collection tool was a multipart questionnaire including demographic information, 18 questions about attitude and practice and 15 question about knowledge toward organ donation. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using K-squire, Pearson correlation test, T-test, variance analyze on 95% confidence interval. Results: Most of participants (76%) were 25-44 years old. About 81.3% of them were female (n=122). The attitude average score between males and females was 85.25±35.61 and 70.37±46.53, respectively. The practice average score in females was 34.43±47.71 and between males was 29.63±46.53. The knowledge average scores were 50.60±16.19 and 56.54±17.48 for two groups (p>0.05). The knowledge average scores between different age groups was significant (porgan donation, it seems that educational curriculum and facilities should applied to enhance attitude and behavior favorable change of personnel towards this issue. PMID:26153179
Murray, Regan; Glass-Kaastra, Shiona; Gardhouse, Christine; Marshall, Barbara; Ciampa, Nadia; Franklin, Kristyn; Hurst, Matt; Thomas, M Kate; Nesbitt, Andrea
Understanding consumers' food safety practices and knowledge supports food safety education for the prevention of foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to describe Canadian consumer food safety practices and knowledge. This study identifies demographic groups for targeted food safety education messaging and establishes a baseline measurement to assess the effectiveness of food safety interventions over time. Questions regarding consumer food safety practices and knowledge were included in a population-based telephone survey, Foodbook, conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. The results were analyzed nationally by age group and by gender. The results showed that approximately 90% of Canadians reported taking the recommended cleaning and separating precautions when handling raw meat to prevent foodborne illness. Only 29% of respondents reported using a food thermometer when cooking any meat, and even fewer (12%) reported using a food thermometer for small cuts of meat such as chicken pieces. The majority (>80%) of Canadians were aware of the foodborne illness risks related to chicken and hamburger, but fewer (poultry.
Natalia de Sá Policarpo
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in two Family Health Units, in the city of Picos - PI, Brazil, with 85 diabetics of both sexes, by means of a semi-structured Knowledge, Attitude and Practice questionnaire. There was a predominance of females in the study (62.4%. On the topic of foot care, 49.4% had no knowledge on hygiene or what to observe in their feet. In relation to nail care, 56.5% were unaware of the correct way to cut nails. Regarding attitudes, 80% were willing to engage in self-care. In terms of practice, results showed that activities such as washing, drying, moisturizing and massaging were not executed together. It is therefore necessary to develop educational strategies to create awareness, both for diabetics and health professionals, on the effective prevention of diabetic foot.
It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions
Westen, Drew; Shedler, Jonathan; Bradley, Bekh; DeFife, Jared A.
Objective The authors describe a system for diagnosing personality pathology that is empirically derived, clinically relevant, and practical for day-to-day use. Method A random national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (N=1,201) described a randomly selected current patient with any degree of personality dysfunction (from minimal to severe) using the descriptors in the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure–II and completed additional research forms. Results The authors applied factor analysis to identify naturally occurring diagnostic groupings within the patient sample. The analysis yielded 10 clinically coherent personality diagnoses organized into three higher-order clusters: internalizing, externalizing, and borderline-dysregulated. The authors selected the most highly rated descriptors to construct a diagnostic prototype for each personality syndrome. In a second, independent sample, research interviewers and patients’ treating clinicians were able to diagnose the personality syndromes with high agreement and minimal comorbidity among diagnoses. Conclusions The empirically derived personality prototypes described here provide a framework for personality diagnosis that is both empirically based and clinically relevant. PMID:22193534
Haraldsdottir, Ragna Kemp; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Jóhanna; Hvannberg, Ebba Thora
demonstrate that organizational strategies portray elaborate intentions regarding knowledge seeking and sharing, while less emphasis is put on knowledge registration or management. Interviewees expressed lack of appropriate actions to support PKR. Access and use of PKR is limited and the organizations still...... organizations support PKR, and how PKR facilitates the flow of information and knowledge. This paper examines how different information management professionals access and use PKR. It is a multiple case study, with 43 semi-structured interviews and an analysis of strategic documents. The purpose is to shed...... light on strategic intentions with PKR, its collaborative tasks and qualities. A conceptual model was built for this purpose. The aim is to better understand how PKR works and to examine how information on education, training and the skills of employees is managed in organizations. The findings...
Batur, Pelin; Cleland, Kelly; McNamara, Megan; Wu, Justine; Pickle, Sarah
To assess knowledge and provision of emergency contraception (EC), particularly the most effective methods. A web-based survey was distributed to a cross-sectional convenience sample of healthcare providers across specialties treating reproductive-aged women. The survey was sent to 3260 practicing physicians and advanced practice clinicians in 14 academic centers between February 2013 and April 2014. We analyzed responses by provider specialty using multivariable logistic regression. The final sample included 1684 providers (response rate=51.7%). Ninety-five percent of the respondents had heard of levonorgestrel (LNG) EC. Among reproductive health specialists, 81% provide LNG EC in their practice, although only half (52%) had heard of ulipristal acetate (UPA) and very few provide it (14%). The majority in family medicine (69%) and emergency medicine (74%) provide LNG, in contrast to 42% of internists and 55% of pediatricians. However, the more effective methods [UPA and copper intrauterine device (IUD)] were little known and rarely provided outside of reproductive health specialties; 18% of internists and 14% of emergency medicine providers had heard of UPA and 4% provide it. Only 22% of emergency providers and 32% of pediatricians had heard of the copper IUD used as EC. Among reproductive health specialists, only 36% provide copper IUD as EC in their practice. Specialty, provider type and proportion of women of reproductive age in the practice were related to knowledge and provision of some forms of EC. Awareness and provision of the most effective EC methods, UPA and the copper IUD (which are provider dependent), are substantially lower than for LNG EC, especially among providers who do not focus on reproductive health. In our sample of 1684 healthcare providers from diverse specialties who treat reproductive-aged women, knowledge and provision of the most effective forms of EC (UPA and the copper IUD) are far lower than for LNG EC. Women should be offered the
Kiersten J. Kugeler
Full Text Available Background: Plague is a virulent zoonosis reported most commonly from Sub-Saharan Africa. Early treatment with antibiotics is important to prevent mortality. Understanding knowledge gaps and common behaviors informs the development of educational efforts to reduce plague mortality. Methods: A multi-stage cluster-sampled survey of 420 households was conducted in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda to assess knowledge of symptoms and causes of plague and health care-seeking practices. Results: Most (84% respondents were able to correctly describe plague symptoms; approximately 75% linked plague with fleas and dead rats. Most respondents indicated that they would seek health care at a clinic for possible plague; however plague-like symptoms were reportedly common, and in practice, persons sought care for those symptoms at a health clinic infrequently. Conclusions: Persons in the plague-endemic region of Uganda have a high level of understanding of plague, yet topics for targeted educational messages are apparent. Keywords: Plague, Yersinia pestis, Knowledge, Practices, Behaviors, Africa
Mardani, Davoud; Molavi, Mehdi
Background and aims Much of early medical and nursing practice was based on nonscientific traditions that resulted in variable and haphazard patient outcomes. These traditions and rituals, which were based on folklore, gut instinct, trial and error, and personal preference, were often passed down from one generation of practitioner to another. It has become essential for practitioners to use the best data available to make patient care decisions and carry out the scientific and evidence-based...
Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig
Recently the causal influence of education on political knowledge has been questioned. Rather, pre-adult predispositions such as personality traits and intelligence are proposed as the real causal agents. This article investigates in two studies whether education retains its explanatory power...... on political knowledge when personality traits and intelligence are taken into account. One study draws on a draftee sample and has excellent measures of both personality traits and intelligence; the other study draws on a representative sample and has excellent measures of personality traits. Openness...
Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte
Danish agriculture and seed science have a history of successful collaboration spanning more than a hundred years. In this study, we interviewed 26 growers, consultants, and scientists from the Danish seed community focusing on their current knowledge status and on their views on improving scient......, as only the innovative growers prioritized time allocation for additional knowledge search. To improve scientific knowledge dissemination and interdisciplinary collaboration among Danish seed-CoP we recommend a combination of face-to-face and online communication processes.......Danish agriculture and seed science have a history of successful collaboration spanning more than a hundred years. In this study, we interviewed 26 growers, consultants, and scientists from the Danish seed community focusing on their current knowledge status and on their views on improving...... scientific knowledge communication. Theoretically, we consider these actors participants in different communities of practice relating to the production of seeds (Seed-CoP), and we conclude that strong network collaboration is present among Danish seed-CoP effectuated by the valuable work undertaken...
Full Text Available Menstrual hygiene is an issue that is insufficiently acknowledged. Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio - cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls lacking knowledge and remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes res ult into adverse health outcomes. Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections (RTI, is a vital aspect of health education. Menarche is a significant milestone in the transitory developmental journey of an adolescent. Poor personal hygiene and defective menstrual management practices give rise to repeated reproductive tract infections (RTIs, which are otherwise preventable. Menstruation is generally considered as unclean in the Indian society. Isolation of the menstrua ting girls and restrictions being imposed on them in the family, have reinforced a negative attitude towards this phenomenon. There is a substantial lacuna in the knowledge about menstruation among adolescent. This study was conducted to assess the knowled ge, attitudes and practices of adolescent school girls of a secondary school in an urban setting. It was found that there was lack of knowledge in specific areas. This study throws light on lack of basic amenities in school for girls which in turn leads to unhygienic practices during menstruation. These reinforce the fact that health education has to be more effective and also that the need of the hour is basic amenities in schools.
Kawatsu, Lisa; Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Watabe, Hiroyuki; Kaguraoka, Sumi; Kubota, Yuka; Sakakibara, Marie; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu
Delay in seeking care is one of the critical issues in tuberculosis (TB) control among homeless persons in Japan. Yet knowledge of and attitude towards TB among homeless persons have remained unclear and limited efforts have been made to disseminate information related to TB among homeless persons. To evaluate the effect of TB leaflets, produced and distributed to homeless persons by a group of ex-homeless TB patients, and to understand what homeless persons know about TB. Self-administered questionnaire was conducted among homeless persons before and after distribution of the TB leaflets. Changes in the responses to each question were also subjected to principal component analysis to group questions into types according to response patterns and identify constructs of TB-related knowledge. Results of 88 participants were analyzed. TB knowledge score related to risks and symptoms significantly improved after the intervention (from 54.3% to 70.6%, p < 0.05), while knowledge on treatment cost did not. Two components were identified, namely, the "improvement in TB impression" and "improvement in TB knowledge". TB leaflets were effective in improving certain aspects of TB knowledge. However, its effect on knowledge regarding treatment cost, which may be crucial in improving delay, was limited and thus the messages need to be revised.
Mustafa, R.; Hashmi, H.A.
To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives. (author)
Jayashree S Gothankar
Full Text Available Objective: To assess knowledge and practices related to menstruation and reproductive health amongst college going adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study done on 323 adolescent girls admitted in the year 2012 to professional colleges belonging to the health sciences faculty of a private university in Pune, India, using self-administered proforma. Results: Mean age of onset of menarche was 13.35 years. Many girls (86.65% had knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. For 68% of girls, mother was a source of menstrual information. Half of the girls reported some form of restriction in activities during menstruation due to religious reasons. 11% girls suffered from some form of reproductive tract infections (RTIs. Practices related to menstruation revealed that cloth piece is used for menstrual protection by 3% of girls. Soaked sanitary pads were disposed sanitarily by 96% of girls. Adolescent of medical faculty had significantly more knowledge than nursing faculty adolescents regarding emergency contraceptives (P < 0.05. Only four girls reported a history of sexual contact, of these, three were aware of emergency contraceptives, while one used them to prevent pregnancy. Conclusions: Adolescent girls received knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche from their mothers. Restriction in activity during menstruation due to religious reasons is practiced by many girls. Sanitary pad was used by almost all girls, and all disposed the same in a sanitary manner. More than half of the girls were aware about emergency contraceptives. Prevalence of RTI was found to be low and very few girls reported history of sexual exposure.
Phillips, Louise Jane
to residents with dementia. Drawing on Bakhtinian dialogic communication theory, an empirical analysis is presented of how knowledge is co-produced collaboratively in team case meetings. The focus is on the shifting relations between different voices, articulating different knowledge forms and professional...... identities, and on the relational construction of ”person-centred care” and the collective identity of the team in opposition to the practices and identities of residential care workers and relatives of residents. In conclusion, the paper discusses the implications of the empirical results in relation...
Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul
Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. Results: More than half of respondents (58.7%) have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%), followed by sore throat (20.2%), cold (13%) and common cold (7.6%). 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7%) received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%). Conclusion: These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings. PMID:28503216
Full Text Available Background: In 2004, prevalence of hypertension was 25% in urban and 10% in rural population in India, leads to 57% of all stroke deaths and 42% of cardiovascular deaths.(1,2 Life style modifications control hypertension and prevent complications. Aims and Objectives: To find out the level of knowledge about life style modifications needed for control of blood pressure among males with hypertension and their current life style practice. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among males with hypertension in the age group of 30-59 years who attended Hypertension Clinic of Medicine Outpatient Department in Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital, Porur, Chennai in November 2013 using an interview schedule. Result: Among 100 males with hypertension, 34% were in the age group of less than 50 years and 64% had hypertension for less than 5 years. Nearly 84% had knowledge about influence of smoking and alcohol on hypertension and 82% had knowledge about at least 3 dietary factors which control hypertension. About 70% of males were aware that more than 30 minutes of physical activity/day is needed to control hypertension. Currently 89% were physically active for more than 30 minutes/day, 72% did not consume alcohol, 89% were nonsmokers but 25% were adding extra salt in their diet and none of them increased fibre intake. Conclusion: Dietary modification practices were less among hypertensive males.
San Martin Laura
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple guidelines and systematic reviews recommend sealant use to reduce caries risk. Yet, multiple reports also indicate that sealants are significantly underutilized. This study examined the knowledge, opinions, values, and practice (KOVP of dentists concerning sealant use in the southwest region of Andalusia, Spain. This is a prelude to the generation of a regional plan for improving children’s oral health in Andalusia. Methods The survey’s target population was dentists working in western Andalusia, equally distributed in the provinces of Seville, Cadiz, and Huelva (N=2,047. A convenience sample of meeting participants and meeting participant email lists (N=400 were solicited from the annual course on Community and Pediatric Dentistry. This course is required for all public health sector dentists, and is open to all private sector dentists. Information on the dentist’s KOVP of sealants was collected using four-part questionnaire with 31, 5-point Likert-scaled questions. Results The survey population demographics included 190 men (48% and 206 women (52% with an average clinical experience of 10.6 (± 8.4 years and 9.3 (± 7.5 years, respectively. A significant sex difference was observed in the distribution of place of work (urban/suburb (p=0.001, but no sex differences between working sector (public/private. The mean ± SD values for each of the four KOVP sections for pit and fissure sealants were: knowledge = 3.57 ± 0.47; opinion = 2.48 ± 0.47; value = 2.74 ± 0.52; and practice = 3.48 ± 0.50. No sex differences were found in KOVP (all p >0.4. Independent of sex: knowledge statistically differed by years of experience and place of work; opinion statistically differed by years of experience and sector; and practice statistically differed by years of experience and sector. Less experienced dentists tended to have slightly higher scores (~0.25 on a Likert 1–5 scale. Statistically significant correlations were
Kelvin I. Afrashtehfar
Full Text Available It has been claimed that in order to decrease the gap between what we know and what we do, research findings must be translated from knowledge to action. Such practices better enable dentists to make evidence-based decisions instead of personal ideas and judgments. To this end, this literature review aims to revisit the concepts of knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry (EBD and depict their role and influence within dental education. It addresses some possible strategies to facilitate knowledge translation (KT, encourage dental students to use EBD principles, and to encourage dental educators to create an environment in which students become self-directed learners. It concludes with a call to develop up-to-date and efficient online platforms that could grant dentists better access to EBD sources in order to more efficiently translate research evidence into the clinic.
Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Assery, Mansour K
It has been claimed that in order to decrease the gap between what we know and what we do, research findings must be translated from knowledge to action. Such practices better enable dentists to make evidence-based decisions instead of personal ideas and judgments. To this end, this literature review aims to revisit the concepts of knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) and depict their role and influence within dental education. It addresses some possible strategies to facilitate knowledge translation (KT), encourage dental students to use EBD principles, and to encourage dental educators to create an environment in which students become self-directed learners. It concludes with a call to develop up-to-date and efficient online platforms that could grant dentists better access to EBD sources in order to more efficiently translate research evidence into the clinic.
Gaudinski, M A
Nurses utilize transcultural, transactional, systems, primary, and interdisciplinary approaches to physiological and psychosocial components of patient care. Expanded roles, as well as advances in knowledge and technology have prepared nurses for critical, specialized, primary, aerospace, and independent nursing practice. Exciting as they are, nursing's expanded roles and practices frequently contribute to the burnout and distress phenomena increasingly observed in practicing health care professionals. Causes and symptoms of the burnout distress phenomena are many and varied. Selye, Shubin, Maslach, and others adeptly identified and wrote on the phenomena as it specifically relates to nurses and the many facets of nursing practice. Rather than utilizing crisis intervention coping techniques, preventive strategies and adaptations are suggested. This paper reviews and discusses: 1. Factors associated with burnout-distress phenomena identified in professional literature; 2. Identification of factors associated with expanded roles and practice which contribute to burnout stress; 3. Identification of factors in military and civilian air ambulance and aeromedical evacuation systems which contribute to burnout stress; 4. Recommendations for strategies to prevent and cope with burnout distress factors.
OʼRourke, Hannah M; Fraser, Kimberly D
Recommendations for the evaluation of quality improvement interventions have been made in order to improve the evidence base of whether, to what extent, and why quality improvement interventions affect chosen outcomes. The purpose of this article is to articulate why these recommendations are appropriate to improve the rigor of quality improvement intervention evaluation as a research endeavor, but inappropriate for the purposes of everyday quality improvement practice. To support our claim, we describe the differences between quality improvement interventions that occur for the purpose of practice as compared to research. We then carefully consider how feasibility, ethics, and the aims of evaluation each impact how quality improvement interventions that occur in practice, as opposed to research, can or should be evaluated. Recommendations that fit the evaluative goals of practice-based quality improvement interventions are needed to support fair appraisal of the distinct evidence they produce. We describe a current debate on the nature of evidence to assist in reenvisioning how quality improvement evidence generated from practice might complement that generated from research, and contribute in a value-added way to the knowledge base.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of a framework for investigating the personal financial management knowledge of individuals. Content analysis is used to derive the components included in the personal financial management requirements framework. The framework developed includes six components, namely basic concepts in personal finances, management of personal finances, risk management, future planning, investing in financial resources and miscellaneous factors. A qualitative validation process revealed that the framework indeed covers what the average South African citizen is required to know about personal financial planning. The real test of this framework will be to use it in developing an instrument to test individuals’ knowledge of personal financial management. This process of empirically testing the framework, using such an instrument, warrants a separate article.
Uçar, Aslı; Ozçelik, Ayşe Özfer
This study aims to identify the influence of education on the practices and knowledge of consumers to protect or maintain the cold chain in the Turkish capital of Ankara. Data were gathered by using a questionnaire. Participants were 700 randomly selected volunteering adults. The majority of the participants had a university degree (69.0%) and did not know the definition of cold chain but had some knowledge about it, and differences existed between primary school and university graduates. The scores of consumers' attitudes to maintain cold chain were determined to increase in parallel with education level. The rate of people knowing refrigerator temperature, the coldest part of refrigerator, and controlling whether shops correctly store the products was highest in university graduates. Adults were observed to believe that shop assistants were responsible for maintaining a cold chain. However, the actual importance of consumers in this process reveals the importance of education for individuals.
Clinical practice guidelines are key tools for the translation of scientific evidence into everyday patient care. Therefore guidelines can act as cornerstones of evidence based knowledge management in healthcare, if they are trustworthy, and its recommendations are not biased by authors' conflict of interests. Good medical guidelines should be disseminated by means of virtual (digital/electronic) health libraries - together with implementation tools in context, such as guideline based algorithms, check lists, patient information, a.s.f. The article presents evidence based medical knowledge management using the German experiences as an example. It discusses future steps establishing evidence based health care by means of combining patient data, evidence from medical science and patient care routine, together with feedback systems for healthcare providers.
Raglio, Alfredo; Filippi, Stefania; Bellandi, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco
Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D). The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound-music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic-rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches), active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic-rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life of persons with dementia.
Fadzilah Abd Rahman
Full Text Available Knowledge of Diverse Learners (KDL is increasingly recognized as an essential component of knowledge base for effective teaching as in today’s schools, teachers must be prepared to teach a diverse population of student (Banks et al. 2005. In other words, teachers need to be aware that their students in a classroom are and always have been different from one another in a variety of ways. KDL refers to an understanding of diversity of students in terms of their abilities and interests and how they respond to diverse situations; an application of different teaching strategies; and how various types of classroom activities might be managed. Although KDL has come to be seen as important, details of its development, depth and quality among pre-service teachers (PSTs has remained something of mystery, as has the capability of PSTs to adapt and employ KDL into their actual teaching. As an effort to develop coherent understanding of the feature of prospective teachers regarding KDL, this paper addresses three questions. First, to what extent are the PSTs prepared for KDL as they are finishing the teacher education programmes? Secondly, how do the PSTs apply the KDL in their teaching practices? Thirdly, how do PSTs reflect on their practice in undertaking the elements of KDL during the teaching practices? This paper illustrates the results of a study involving a sample of 74 PSTs at a university in Malaysia. At the beginning of the study, 74 PSTs were given a questionnaire. 11 PSTs have been observed and interviewed. Result indicates that PSTs were able to develop KDL and show their understanding of it, yet not readily apply such knowledge in modified situations.
Cappon, Sien; L'Ecluse, Charlotte; Clays, Els; Tency, Inge; Leye, Els
health professionals in Belgium are confronted with female genital mutilation (FGM). To date, no survey to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices on FGM was conducted among midwives in the Northern region of Belgium. the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of Flemish midwives regarding female genital mutilation (FGM). we used a quantitative design, using KAP study (semi-structured questionnaire). labour wards, maternity wards and maternal intensive care units (MIC) in 56 hospitals in Flemish region of Belgium. 820 midwives, actively working in labour wards, maternity wards and maternal intensive care units (MIC). 820 valid questionnaires (40.9%) were returned. More than 15% of the respondents were recently confronted with FGM. They were mostly faced with the psychological and sexual complications caused by FGM. Few respondents were aware of existing guidelines regarding FGM in their hospitals (3.5%). The results also showed that only 20.2% was aware of the exact content of the law. The majority of midwives condemned the harmful traditional practice: FGM was experienced as a form of violence against women or a violation of human rights. Only 25.9% declared that FGM forms a part of their midwifery program. The vast majority of respondents (92.5%) indicated a need for more information on the subject. this study indicated that midwives in Flanders are confronted with FGM and its complications and highlighted the gaps in the knowledge of Flemish midwives regarding FGM. This may interfere with the provision of adequate care and prevention of FGM for the new-born daughter. there is an important need for appropriate training of (student)midwives concerning FGM as well as for the development and dissemination of clear guidelines in Flemish hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayat, Humera; Khan, Parwez Sajad; Imtiyaz, Bhat; Hayat, Gazala; Hayat, Rehana
Human fertility is determined by many factors such as customs, morals and habits of social groups with regard to marital obligation of life. Acceptance of family planning methods varies within and between societies and there are many factors which are responsible for such variation at community, family and individual level. Socioeconomic environment, culture and education are few of them that play a vital role. Jammu and Kashmir state in general and Kashmir valley in particular is a Muslim-dominated population with traditionally a conservative society. Apart from family customs and influence of the elders, religious background has always been behind the passive resistance, or at the best indifference towards contraception. This study makes an attempt to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural Kashmir. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural Kashmir. Community-based Cross-Sectional study. December 2006 to May 2008. 1900 currently married women in the age group of 15-49 years of age. Rural households. 1900 currently married women, aged 15-49 years, selected by multi-stage random sampling technique from three districts of Kashmir valley who were interviewed at home using a pretested oral questionnaire. The assessment of various socioeconomic and other variables made as per the available standard procedures and scales. Percentage, Chi square test and Bivariate analysis. Knowledge of the contraceptive methods was fairly good especially for terminal methods i.e. female sterilization (97.7 %). Main source of information on contraception was obtained from mass media (60.4 %). Contraceptive practice was significantly related to number of living children, literacy, socioeconomic status and type of family. What is needed is to promote and stress contraceptive methods and their advantages using mass media approach and to explore more and more participation of private sector.
Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary J; Sayles, Harlan; Duysen, Ellen; Achutan, Chandran
The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices for hearing and respiratory health/safety among farmers in seven Midwestern states served by a federally funded Agricultural Center. Findings provided a baseline to longitudinally track the Agricultural Center's program outcomes and to design community education to improve safety and health among farmers. This was a cross-sectional study using a 30 item mailed survey to describe farmers' operations, demographics, health conditions, related information sources, and knowledge/attitude/practices for personal protective equipment (PPE) (i.e., ear plugs/muffs and dust masks/respirators). Frequencies and percentages were calculated for each item and according to responses from younger versus older farmers. The unit of study was farm operators (N = 280) randomly selected from a publicly available database of corn/soybean and hog farmers in seven Midwestern states. Findings revealed important knowledge gaps among respondents regarding (1) hazardous exposure sources; (2) long-term health consequences of noise/dust exposure; (3) proper selection/fitting of PPE. Public health nurses and primary care providers in rural communities should address specific knowledge gaps in order to enhance farmers' perceived understanding of their susceptibility to hazardous exposures. Increasing farmers' knowledge through preferred venues may help to improve PPE effectiveness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Muhammad Saiful Ridhwan
Full Text Available The importance of managing medical information has become very critical in the healthcare delivery system. Medical information nowadays are optimized towards serving different areas such as; diagnosing of diseases, planning and administration, treatment and monitoring of patient outcomes, services and costs. This article provides a review into various Health and Social Care systems which encompasses the Knowledge Management value. For analysis, more than 30 systems that are related to Health and Social Care were gathered via Internet research, only 20 of these systems were finally selected based on recent system development and popularity of the system.Keywords: Health Care, Knowledge, Knowledge Management, Social Care, systemdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.4 How to cite this article:Ridhwan, M.S., and Oyefolahan, I.O. (2013. Knowledge Management System in Health & Social Care: Review on 20 Practiced Knowledge Management. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 92-101. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.4
Al-Ghabeesh, Suhair Husni; Abu-Moghli, Fathieh; Salsali, Mahvash; Saleh, Mohammad
Understanding sources of knowledge used in everyday practice is very helpful in improving the quality of health care services. There is a consensus in the literature that nurses mostly relied in their practice on experiential knowledge gained through their interactions with other members of health care professionals and patients. The general aim of this study is to explore the sources of knowledge Jordanian registered nurses use during their practice. A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data from 539 Jordanian registered nurses from 10 hospitals using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean year of experience of the sample was 7.08 years. Of the 615 questionnaires distributed, 555 were returned. This yields a response rate of 87.6%. Results revealed that the top five ranked sources used by Jordanian registered nurses include: the information that nurses learned during nursing education, personal experience in nursing over time, what was learned through providing care to patients, information gained through discussion between physicians and nurses about patients, and information from policy and procedure manuals. Jordanian registered nurses recognize the value of research and that research utilization (RU) is an important issue and must not be ignored. The study has many implications for practice, education and research. Health care managers and decision makers need to play a more visible and instrumental role in encouraging RU to improve patients' quality of life. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
Campbell, Brendan T; Borrup, Kevin; Corsi, John M; Kelliher, Kristine M; Saleheen, Hassan; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry
Each year about 4,000 teens ages 16-19 die on U.S. roads. Injury prevention counseling is recommended as a valuable and cost-effective part of routine health supervision. This study describes pediatrician knowledge and practice regarding teen driving safety. A 31-item self-administered survey was mailed to pediatricians. 160 of 392 pediatricians (41%) completed the survey. During a health supervision visit 93% of pediatricians reported discussing seat belt use, 89% impaired driving, 54% teen licensing laws, and 16% parent teen contract. Half reported having a teen in their practice killed in a crash. A majority surveyed report discussing and counseling teens on first wave teen driver safety issues (seat belts, alcohol use), but most do not discuss graduated driver licensing laws or related issues. Broadly adopted, this inexpensive counseling approach, could lead to reductions in teen motorvehicle crash injuries.
Oyemade, A; Omokhodion, F O; Olawuyi, J F; Sridhar, M K; Olaseha, I O
A Cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the environmental and personal hygiene practices of mothers of children aged less than five years in two markets in Ibadan--one with poor sanitary conditions (Bodija) and the other one with better sanitation facilities (Gbagi). The study sought to identify the risk factors for diarrhoea among these children. Two hundred and sixty-six mothers in Bodija and 260 in Gbagi were interviewed. A questionnaire was used for collecting information on social and demographic characteristics, personal and environmental hygiene practices, including sources of food and water for their children, waste-disposal practices and occurrence of diarrhoea among their children aged less than five years. The educational status of the women in Bodija was lower than that of the women in Gbagi (p homes, and 45 (17%) bought it from vendors in the market. The corresponding figures for women of the Gbagi market were 41 (16%), 98 (38%) and 19 (7%). Two hundred and thirty-four (90%) women in Gbagi prepared breakfast at home for their children compared to 216 (81%) women in Bodija. This difference was statistically significant (p Waste disposal and personal hygiene practices were poorer among the women in Bodija. Yet the occurrence of diarrhoea was not significantly different in both the markets. Risk factors for diarrhoea identified in this study were water and food bought from vendors, child defaecation practices, mothers' cleaning up practices after child's defaecation, and refuse-disposal practices. The inherent risk of sale of unwholesome food and water by vendors is a great concern for public health authorities in Nigeria. Efforts to control diarrhoea must not only be focused on improving mothers' knowledge about food hygiene but also on environmental hygiene practices within the community.
Full Text Available Alfredo Raglio,1,2 Stefania Filippi,2 Daniele Bellandi,3 Marco Stramba-Badiale4 1Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2APSP “Margherita Grazioli”, Povo, Trento, Italy; 3Geriatric Department, Sospiro Foundation, Sospiro, Cremona, Italy; 4Department of Geriatrics and Cardiovascular Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy Abstract: Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D. The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound–music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic–rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches, active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic–rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life
Agüera, E I; Sánchez-Hermosín, P; Díz-Pérez, J; Tovar, P; Camacho, R; Escribano, B M
The aim of the present work was to transfer a wider concept of teamwork and self-learning to the laboratory, encouraging students' capabilities when seeking, acquiring, and processing knowledge. This educational innovation was carried out with a total of 38 students (fourth year of degree in Biology) in the area of physiology (Advances in Reproduction course) at University of Córdoba in Córdoba, Spain. The design of the project's application methodology consisted of establishing a way in which problems would be tackled in the practical classes. For this purpose, the different tasks were set up so that students could relate them to the concepts learned in the theory classes. On the first day of class, the project was presented to the students. Groups of two to three students worked in the laboratory and set up an outline of the protocol of the practical work that they had done. This outline was performed individually and sent to the lecturers through a learning management system (Moodle). The teachers gave feedback and assessed student submissions. Upon finishing the course, students completed a survey. The project-based learning method promotes practical self-learning on the part of students. This methodology demonstrated to us that it stimulates a critical and self-critical capacity in students, both individually and in groups, and that writing didactic practical material helped students to enhance their theory knowledge. The experiment was a success in view of the scores obtained upon finishing the subject. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.
Full Text Available According to the features of Chinese personal name, we present an approach for Chinese personal name recognition based on conditional random fields (CRF and knowledge base in this paper. The method builds multiple features of CRF model by adopting Chinese character as processing unit, selects useful features based on selection algorithm of knowledge base and incremental feature template, and finally implements the automatic recognition of Chinese personal name from Chinese document. The experimental results on open real corpus demonstrated the effectiveness of our method and obtained high accuracy rate and high recall rate of recognition.
Kugbey, Nuworza; Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Adulai, Korkor
Self-care practices among persons living with type-2 diabetes are very crucial in diabetes manages as poor self-care results in complications. However, little research exists within the Ghanaian context. This study examined whether type-2 diabetes patients' illness perception and diabetes knowledge significantly predict diabetes self-care practices. A cross-sectional survey design was employed and a total of 160 participants (45 males and 115 females) were sampled from a general hospital in Accra. A self-administered questionnaire measuring illness perception, diabetes knowledge and diabetes self-care practices as well as demographic checklist were used collect data. Results showed that illness perception and diabetes knowledge significantly predicted overall diabetes self-care practices. Analysis of domain specific self-care practices showed that patients' diet was significantly predicted by illness perception and diabetes knowledge. Exercise was significantly predicted by only illness perception while blood sugar testing and diabetes foot-care were significantly predicted by diabetes knowledge. Cognitive and emotional representation of diabetes and diabetes knowledge are key determinants of patients' diabetes self-care practices. It is therefore important that appropriate psychosocial interventions are developed to help patients' adherence to recommended self-care practices.
Delaney, Colleen; Barrere, Cynthia
The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy of advanced practice nursing students toward depression in older adults. Findings suggest that advanced practice nursing students are interested in caring for the whole person and desired more information on the physical and emotional-spiritual needs of older patients with depression. Suggestions for holistic nursing depression care education are presented.
Full Text Available Introduction: A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based exam differed from those not selected. Methods: Students applying for medical school (N=311 completed questionnaires assessing motivations for becoming a doctor, learning approaches, personality traits, empathy, and coping styles. Selection was based on the results of MCQ tests. Principal component analysis was used to draw a profile of the students. Differences between selected and non-selected students were examined by Multivariate ANOVAs, and their impact on selection by logistic regression analysis. Results: Students demonstrating a profile of diligence with higher conscientiousness, deep learning approach, and task-focused coping were more frequently selected (p=0.01. Other personal characteristics such as motivation, sociability, and empathy did not significantly differ, comparing selected and non-selected students. Conclusion: Selection through a knowledge-based exam privileged diligent students. It did neither advantage nor preclude candidates with a more humane profile.
Full Text Available Objective: The youths' sexual behaviors are counted as the main priorities of the public health due to the high prevalence of unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions, and sexually transmitted infections. This research was carried out to explain the youths' contraceptive knowledge and practice in premarital sexual relationships. Methods: This qualitative research was carried out on 30 single boys and girls aged 18–24, living in Isfahan, Iran, who had already started sexual activities. Data collection was done with semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by using conventional content analysis. Results: Two main categories were extracted including inadequate awareness regarding contraception (with subcategories “unreliable information sources” and “gender inequality in familiarity with contraceptive methods” and inappropriate contraceptive practice (with sub-categories “use of unreliable contraceptive methods” and “gender inequality in applying contraceptive methods”. Conclusion: Sexual health education programs should equip the youths with adequate knowledge on contraception and use of reliable contraceptive methods. Furthermore, attempts should be made along with tackling gender inequality is very significant for youths' sexual and reproductive health security.
Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc; Berkhof, Johannes; Bower, Mark; Canfell, Karen; Einstein, Mark; Farley, Christopher; Monsonego, Joseph; Franceschi, Silvia
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the necessary cause of most cervical cancers, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. The knowledge about HPV has led to development of novel HPV-based prevention strategies with important impact on clinical and public health practice. Two complementary reviews have been prepared following the 2015 Eurogin Conference to evaluate how knowledge about HPV is changing practice in HPV infection and disease control through vaccination and screening. This review focuses on screening for cervical and anal cancers in increasingly vaccinated populations. The introduction of HPV vaccines a decade ago has led to reductions in HPV infections and early cancer precursors in countries with wide vaccination coverage. Despite the high efficacy of HPV vaccines, cervical cancer screening will remain important for many decades. Many healthcare systems are considering switching to primary HPV screening, which has higher sensitivity for cervical precancers and allows extending screening intervals. We describe different approaches to implementing HPV-based screening efforts in different healthcare systems with a focus in high-income countries. While the population prevalence for other anogenital cancers is too low for population-based screening, anal cancer incidence is very high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men, warranting consideration of early detection approaches. We summarize the current evidence on HPV-based prevention of anal cancers and highlight important evidence gaps. © 2016 UICC.
Thi Anh Nhu Nguyen
Full Text Available The paper examines the factors, which affect decision-making on regular personal saving behaviour in the context of an emerging market in Vietnam. Focusing on financial literacy, the paper uses a combined measure of actual financial knowledge and a self-assessment of overall financial knowledge. The sample of the study consists of 240 commercial banks customers selected in 12 branches of four banks in Ho Chi Minh City. The questionnaire covers: (1 actual financial knowledge; (2 self-rating of financial knowledge; (3 financial risk tolerance; and (4 demographic characteristics of the respondents. The results of a logistic regression analysis show that perceived and actual financial literacy have separate effects on regular personal saving. Particularly, actual financial knowledge has a statistically significant positive relationship with regular personal saving with odds ratio higher than 6.5 times. However, perceived financial knowledge and financial risk tolerance factor are not statistically significant with regular personal saving. Finally, this paper offers evidence that the interaction variable, which is used to combine education level with their major study, has a statistically significant relationship with regular personal saving.
Rogers, Katherine H; Biesanz, Jeremy C
There are strong differences between individuals in the tendency to view the personality of others as similar to the average person. That is, some people tend to form more normatively accurate impressions than do others. However, the process behind the formation of normatively accurate first impressions is not yet fully understood. Given that the average individual's personality is highly socially desirable (Borkenau & Zaltauskas, 2009; Wood, Gosling & Potter, 2007), individuals may achieve high normative accuracy by viewing others as similar to the average person or by viewing them in an overly socially desirable manner. The average self-reported personality profile and social desirability, despite being strongly correlated, independently and strongly predict first impressions. Further, some individuals have a more accurate understanding of the average individual's personality than do others. Perceivers with more accurate knowledge about the average individual's personality rated the personality of specific others more normatively accurately (more similar to the average person), suggesting that individual differences in normative judgments include a component of accurate knowledge regarding the average personality. In contrast, perceivers who explicitly evaluated others more positively formed more socially desirable impressions, but not more normatively accurate impressions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
The Clinicians practicing is to determine the level of knowledge on ionizing radiation (IR) and their attitudes and practice. All the cadres of clinicians faired poorly when it came to estimating the radiation dose when imaging different body parts. There were no statistically significant differences in unnecessary referrals between health workers who reported having trained in IR 33/53 (62.3%) compared those who had not trained in IR 61/109 (56%), chi = 0.58 (df= 1), p = 0.45. The Clinicians lack knowledge on ionizing radiation. There is a significant knowledge gap between the senior clinicians and junior clinicians when it comes to some aspects of ionizing radiation. Health workers with no IR training are less likely to correctly identify all the techniques that use ionizing radiation compared to those with IR training (50.9% versus 27.5%; OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.72)
Lecocq, R; Gauvin, M
...) practices, namely on Knowledge Creation, Learning and Collaboration, the present work performs a detailed comparison of the states of these practices between the different military environments...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
Vermeulen, Margit I; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M; Zuithoff, N P A Peter; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Pieters, H M Ron
To investigate which determinants are related to poor performance and forced attrition in the first year residency in general practice (GP). Observational retrospective cohort study. We collected data relating to personal characteristics such as age, sex and clinical experience from residents who started the GP training in Utrecht, the Netherlands, in the period March 2005-August 2007. We also collected competence scores from the domains 'medical expertise', 'doctor-patient communication' and 'professionalism', as well as scores on a national GP knowledge test. The outcome measures were 'poor performance' and 'forced attrition'. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse correlations between personal characteristics, competence scores on the 3 domains and knowledge scores in the first trimester on the one hand and poor performance or forced attrition on the other. 215 residents started the GP training. In the first trimester a quarter of the residents had an insufficient score in 1 or more of the domains. Competence scores were mutually correlated, but did not correlate with the knowledge score. 18 residents showed poor performance and 3 were forced to stop their training. Poor performance and forced attrition were correlated with age (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.3), insufficient knowledge (adjusted OR: 8.9; 3.0-26.3) and medical expertise (adjusted OR: 2.1; 1.1-4.0) at the beginning of the training. Age, insufficient knowledge of general practice, and insufficient competence in the domain of 'medical expertise' at the beginning of the training are risk factors for poor performance by residents and attrition from their GP training.
Breckwoldt, J; Lingemann, C; Wagner, P
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most effective intervention for out of hospital sudden cardiac arrest; therefore, basic life support (BLS) courses for lay persons have become well established in industrialized countries, often since decades. Despite this favorable situation bystander CPR rates still remain low in some countries (e.g. in Germany), indicating serious implementation problems. The quality of instruction in these courses could be one reason for low bystander CPR rates. We therefore analyzed official lay BLS courses in terms of the teaching quality in the domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes (according to Bloom's taxonomy). A total of 20 officially accredited lay BLS courses in Berlin, Germany, were analyzed by a participating observer, who remained blinded to the instructor and course participants until the end of the course. Courses were offered by German rescue organizations and private providers according to European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines. Teaching quality was rated by a standardized checklist including 21 observable criteria of teaching quality for transfer of knowledge (n = 10), skills (n = 8) and attitudes (n = 3). In order to achieve comparability between items the results of each criterion were quantified by Likert scales ranging from +2 (very good) to -2 (very poor). The average score of all courses was +0.47 (SD ±0.46) for transfer of knowledge, +0.03 (SD ±0.61) for skills and -1.08 (SD ±0.73) for attitudes. In the domain of knowledge transfer, learning atmosphere and course structure were rated to be generally good, whilst marked deficits were found with respect to correctness of content. In the domain of skills the more positive ratings were given for teaching of single BLS elements (e.g. compressions and ventilation), in contrast to the training of BLS context, where e.g. realistic scenarios were only used by 3 out of 20 instructors. The domain of attitude transfer had the worst
Shabani, Fatemeh; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Emadi, Alireza; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Bitarafan-Rajabi, Ahmad; Abedelahi, Ali; Bokharaeian, Mitra; Masoumi, Hamed; Seifi, Danial; Khani, Tahereh; Sanchooli, Mohamad; Moshfegh, Shima; Ziari, Abbas
Due to increasing cardiac disease and its mortality rate, the frequency of cardiac imaging has grown and, as a result, interventional cardiologists potentially receive high radiation doses in cardiac examinations. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) level of radiation protection (RP) among interventional radiology staff in Iranian health care centers across the country. We used a validated questionnaire survey consisting of 30 multiple-choice questions to perform a cross-sectional study. Participants were healthcare personnel working professionally with radiation at different levels (i.e., secretary, radiology technologists, nurse, and physician). The questionnaire was divided into three sections to assess KAP regarding RP. Significant differences exist in RP KAP mean scores based on educational age (p 0.050). We found a significant difference between RP KAP mean scores and different regions (p < 0.050). Educational and practice age, sex, type of hospital, and geographical region affect he KAP of interventional radiology staff regarding RP. Since many of the subjective radiation harms for both medical team and patients, this can be easily controlled and prevented; a checkup for personnel of interventional radiology departments, considering samples from different parts of the country with different levels of education, continuous training, and practical courses may help map the status of KAP. The results of this study may also help authorized health physics officers design strategic plans to enhance the quality of such services in radiation departments.
Full Text Available Objectives: Due to increasing cardiac disease and its mortality rate, the frequency of cardiac imaging has grown and, as a result, interventional cardiologists potentially receive high radiation doses in cardiac examinations. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP level of radiation protection (RP among interventional radiology staff in Iranian health care centers across the country. Methods: We used a validated questionnaire survey consisting of 30 multiple-choice questions to perform a cross-sectional study. Participants were healthcare personnel working professionally with radiation at different levels (i.e., secretary, radiology technologists, nurse, and physician. The questionnaire was divided into three sections to assess KAP regarding RP. Results: Significant differences exist in RP KAP mean scores based on educational age (p 0.050. We found a significant difference between RP KAP mean scores and different regions (p < 0.050. Conclusions: Educational and practice age, sex, type of hospital, and geographical region affect he KAP of interventional radiology staff regarding RP. Since many of the subjective radiation harms for both medical team and patients, this can be easily controlled and prevented; a checkup for personnel of interventional radiology departments, considering samples from different parts of the country with different levels of education, continuous training, and practical courses may help map the status of KAP. The results of this study may also help authorized health physics officers design strategic plans to enhance the quality of such services in radiation departments.
Hartmeyer, Rikke; Bolling, Mads; Bentsen, Peter
knowledge dimensions is important, especially in science teaching outside the classroom, where “hands-on” approaches and experiments are often part of teaching and require procedural knowledge, among other things. Therefore, this study investigates PMM as a method for exploring specific knowledge dimensions......Current research points to Personal Meaning Mapping (PMM) as a method useful in investigating students’ prior and current science knowledge. However, studies investigating PMM as a method for exploring specific knowledge dimensions are lacking. Ensuring that students are able to access specific...... in formal science education integrating teaching outside the classroom. We applied a case study design involving two schools and four sixth-grade classes. Data were collected from six students in each class who constructed personal meaning maps and were interviewed immediately after natural science...
Dao, Tien Tuan; Hoang, Tuan Nha; Ta, Xuan Hien; Tho, Marie Christine Ho Ba
Human musculoskeletal system resources of the human body are valuable for the learning and medical purposes. Internet-based information from conventional search engines such as Google or Yahoo cannot response to the need of useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality human musculoskeletal resources related to medical processes, pathological knowledge and practical expertise. In this present work, an advanced knowledge-based personalized search engine was developed. Our search engine was based on a client-server multi-layer multi-agent architecture and the principle of semantic web services to acquire dynamically accurate and reliable HMSR information by a semantic processing and visualization approach. A security-enhanced mechanism was applied to protect the medical information. A multi-agent crawler was implemented to develop a content-based database of HMSR information. A new semantic-based PageRank score with related mathematical formulas were also defined and implemented. As the results, semantic web service descriptions were presented in OWL, WSDL and OWL-S formats. Operational scenarios with related web-based interfaces for personal computers and mobile devices were presented and analyzed. Functional comparison between our knowledge-based search engine, a conventional search engine and a semantic search engine showed the originality and the robustness of our knowledge-based personalized search engine. In fact, our knowledge-based personalized search engine allows different users such as orthopedic patient and experts or healthcare system managers or medical students to access remotely into useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality HMSR information for their learning and medical purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Alabdrabalnabi, Abdullah A; Albacker, Rehab B; Al-Jughaiman, Umar A; Hassan, Samar N
Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the
Hengartner, Michael Pascal
Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasized the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice, maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challen...
A study was conducted to determine and compare the literacy beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices of early childhood educators who espouse emergent literacy and reading readiness philosophies; to explore the relationship among beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices; and to examine the degree to which beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices were…
Professional development programs promoting inquiry-based teaching are challenged with providing teachers content knowledge and using pedagogical approaches that model standards based instruction. Inquiry practices are also important for undergraduate students. This paper focuses on the evaluation of an extensive professional development program for chemistry teachers that included chemistry content tests for students and the teachers and the impact of undergraduate research experiences on college students' attitudes towards chemistry. Baseline results for the students showed that there were no gender differences on the achievement test but white students scored significantly higher than non-white students. However, parent/adult involvement with chemistry homework and projects, was a significant negative predictor of 11th grade students' test chemistry achievement score. This paper will focus on students' achievement and attitude results for teachers who are mid-way through the program providing evidence that on-going, sustained professional development in content and pedagogy is critical for improving students' science achievement.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility
The concepts of Knowledge Management (KM) and knowledge communities have matured over the past decade and are being recognized as major enablers for personal learning and job performance in achieving organizational business objectives...
Poudel, Prakash; Griffiths, Rhonda; Wong, Vincent W; Arora, Amit; Flack, Jeff R; Khoo, Chee L; George, Ajesh
People with uncontrolled diabetes are at greater risk for several oral health problems, particularly periodontal (gum) disease. Periodontal disease also impacts diabetes control. Good oral hygiene and regular dental visits are recommended to prevent and manage oral health problems. Several studies have been conducted to assess the oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people with diabetes yet a review of these findings has not yet been undertaken. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize current evidence on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people with diabetes in relation to their oral health care. A systematic search of all literature was carried out in five databases using key search terms. The inclusion criteria were: 1) published in the English language; 2) from 2000 to November, 2017; 3) conducted on persons with any type of diabetes and of all ages; 4) explored at least one study outcome (knowledge or attitude or practices toward oral health care); and 5) used quantitative methods of data collection. No restrictions were placed on the quality and setting of the study. A total of 28 studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies included a total of 27,894 people with diabetes and were conducted in 14 countries. The review found that people with diabetes have inadequate oral health knowledge, poor oral health attitudes, and fewer dental visits. They rarely receive oral health education and dental referrals from their care providers. Provision of oral health education by diabetes care providers and referral to dentists when required, was associated with improved oral health behaviours among patients. Overall, people with diabetes have limited oral health knowledge and poor oral health behaviours. It is therefore essential to educate patients about their increased risk for oral health problems, motivate them for good oral health behaviours and facilitate access to dental care.
Full Text Available Background: Considering the importance of anger, aggression, violence and other misbehaviours in schoolchildren education, the present study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan province regarding violence, in order to figure out the required interventions for violence-reduction. Methods: In a survey during 2008-2009, 5500 junior and senior high school students of Isfahan province were assessed in a multistage sampling process to determine their level of knowledge about various types of violent behaviors, causes of violence, its consequences, and preventive behaviors. Validity and reliability of the data collection tool (questionnaire were assessed. Results: The study revealed that the mean scores of violent behaviors knowledge, knowledge of violent behavior outcomes, and knowledge of violence preventive behaviors, were 6.6 ± 2.1, 5.5 ± 1.9, and 4.7 ± 1.3, respectively. Sources of violent behaviors in 92% of urban students and 89% of rural students were personal reasons and family behaviors, and 85% of urban and 88% of rural students considered mass media and computer games blameworthy, and the differences were statistically significant in all cases (P < 0.0001. In terms of practice, overall, 69.7% of girls and 84.2% of boys had violent behaviors. Physical and verbal violence were 31.3% and 40.7%in girls, and 66% and 52.8% in boys, respectively (intersexes P values were P < 0.001 and P = 0.7 respectively, and intra-sex P value was P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Results showed that girls and city dwellers were more aware of recognizing violent behaviors, outcomes, and causes, compared with boys and villagers, and in terms of general practice, violence was observed among boys more than girls. Further complementary studies in this area seem required.
Full Text Available Laboratories are classified as very hazardous workplaces. Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the knowledge and practice of laboratory safety by analysts and technicians in the laboratories of the Turkish Medicine and Medical Devices Agency. Methods: 85.0% (n=93 of the workers (n=109 was reached. A pre-tested, laboratory safety oriented, self-administered questionnaire was completed under observation. Results: Participants were mostly female (66,7%, had 12.8±8.2 years of laboratory experience and worked 24.6±10.3 hours per week. 53.8% of the employees generally worked with flammable and explosive substances, 29.0% with acute toxic or carcinogenic chemicals and 30.1% with physical dangers. Of all surveyed, 14.0% had never received formal training on laboratory safety. The proportion of ‘always use’ of laboratory coats, gloves, and goggles were 84.9%, 66.7%, and 6.5% respectively. 11.9% of the participants had at least one serious injury throughout their working lives and 24.7% had at least one small injury within the last 6 months. Among these injuries, incisions, bites and tears requiring no stiches (21.0% and the inhalation of chemical vapors (16.1% took first place. The mean value for the number of correct responses to questions on basic safety knowledge was 65.4±26.5, out of a possible 100. Conclusion: Overall, the participants have failed in some safety practices and have been eager to get regular education on laboratory safety. From this point onwards, it would be appropriate for the employers to organize periodic trainings on laboratory safety.Keywords: Health personnel, laboratory personnel, occupational health, occupational safety, pharmacy
Full Text Available Background: India leads the world in its burden of tuberculosis (TB. General practitioners are the backbone of health care system. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice of the allopathic private practitioners regarding TB. Method: In June 2012– October 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in West Bengal, India among 180 private practitioners who treat TB patients; using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Results: About 58.3 % and 56.7 % study population knew full form of RNTCP (Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program and DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course respectively. The correct modes of transmission were expressed by 75.0 % of them. The most common symptom of TB was rightly answered by 46.7 %. About 43.3 % and 33.3 % replied correctly about number of sputum samples collected and timing of collection. More than half participants knew number of categories and 8.3 % knew categorisation correctly. About 66.7 % could correctly state the names of recommended 1st line anti-TB drugs; frequency of drug administration told correctly by 68.3 %. Very few Private Practitioners (PPs knew treatment regimens correctly for each category. Almost all participants knew that treatment under DOTS was given supervised. About 78.3 % PPs expressed correctly that treatment for TB was given in two phases; the duration of treatment of 6-8 months was stated by 53.3 %. Conclusion: Many gaps were found in the knowledge and practices of PPs regarding Tuberculosis. PPs should be properly trained and sensitized to use RNTCP guidelines.
Seah, Xin Yi; Tham, Xiang Cong; Kamaruzaman, Netty Ryanie; Yobas, Piyanee Klainin
Eating disorders are complex disorders requiring specialised care, thus knowledge and attitudes are crucial for management. This study aims to examine nurses' knowledge, attitudes, reported practice, and perceptions towards patients with eating disorders in Singapore. A concurrent mixed-methods study was carried out in Southeast Asia's only psychiatric unit with eating disorders programme. Twenty nurses were recruited using census sampling. Quantitative data were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics, while qualitative data were analysed with content and thematic analysis. Certain personal factors were associated with nurses' levels of perceived knowledge. Different attitudes towards managing these patients were identified during interview sessions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kjelgaard, Jacob Brix
Purpose: The purpose of the research project was to co-create functional knowledge management processes and to improve the social working environment at Strategy-Lab, a research center affiliated with the Department of Management, Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University in Denmark. Methodo...... Purpose: The purpose of the research project was to co-create functional knowledge management processes and to improve the social working environment at Strategy-Lab, a research center affiliated with the Department of Management, Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University in Denmark...... where the results are tested in practice and then modified accordingly. This methodology was combined with Dunn and Dunn's Learning Styles Construct and Rundle and Dunn's Building Excellence Survey. In addition, Buber's philosophy of intersubjectivity was applied to the analysis as a language tool...... providing a common language for creating a communion working environment. Findings: The clinical inquiry action research methodology together with the application of Dunn and Dunn's learning styles construct and Rundle and Dunn's Building Excellence Survey were valuable tools for creating organizational...
Manandhar, Dhiraj Narayan; Chhetri, Pramod Kumar; Poudel, Prakash; Baidya, Samir Keshari; Agrawaal, Krishna Kumar
Dialysis nurses should have a good knowledge regarding hemodialysis treatment. The status of Nepalese dialysis nurses on this aspect is unknown. This study was done to assess the knowledge and practice on different aspects of the hemodialysis treatment. We distributed validated questionnaires to the participants in a biannual conference in Kathmandu on 24th September as most of the dialysis nurses attend the event. We calculated mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and frequencies and percentage for the responses and compared counseling with different parameters. Total 94 out of 116 participants who were giving care to dialysis patients were in the study. Total 39 (42%) received formal nursing training in hemodialysis and 71 (78%) respondents always counseled patients regarding fluid intake. A total of 37 (96%) trained nurses always counseled the importance of regular dialysis. Seventy-six (81.7%) respondents did counseling on vaccination against Hepatitis B. Counseling on vaccination against influenza and pneumococcus was 47 (50%). When comparing educational status, respondents below bachelor level did more frequent counseling than level above (P=0.03). All the respondents knew the importance of hand washing and BP monitoring during hemodialysis. Ninety-one (96.7%) respondents knew how to deal with BP changes during hemodialysis. Seventy-three (77.6%) respondents were very confident on managing complications. Only 31 (33%) respondents knew how to deal with patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Dialysis nurses have knowledge on basic procedures of hemodialysis but there is a space for improvement in dealing with complications to provide quality service to hemodialysis patients.
Sandia National Laboratory are working on ways to increase production using Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management is: finding ways to create, identify, capture, and distribute organizational knowledge to the people who need it; to help information and knowledge flow to the right people at the right time so they can act more efficiently and effectively; recognizing, documenting and distributing explicit knowledge (explicit knowledge is quantifiable and definable, it makes up reports, manuals, instructional materials, etc.) and tacit knowledge (tacit knowledge is doing and performing, it is a combination of experience, hunches, intuition, emotions, and beliefs) in order to improve organizational performance and a systematic approach to find, understand and use knowledge to create value.
Full Text Available Over the years, extensive task shifting and sharing has taken place in nursing. In several countries, especially Botswana and other African countries, nurses are often responsible for duties and interventions they consider to be beyond their Scope of Practice (SoP or regard as ‘non-nursing’ tasks. Issues and concerns affecting SoP may have considerable impact on the quality of care and welfare of nurses. The aim of this article is to present the results of a literature review regarding the Scope of Practice of Registered Nurses. Method: A literature search was performed, using the following internet databases EbscoHost, Nursing@Ovid and Google Scholar. ResearchGate, Science Direct, Sage and Sabinet were also consulted, as well as websites of professional organizations and the Botswana Collection at the University of Botswana Library. Articles published in English between 2000 and 2018 were reviewed. Key search concepts included: scope of practice of nurses and knowledge, attitude, practice and regulation. Findings and discussion: Knowledge of nurses regarding their SoP appears variable and attitudes are usually positive, as long as scope expansion is congruent with legislation. Literature illustrates that nurses regularly practise outside their scope, either beyond or below, whereas SoP may overlap, both intra-disciplinary as well as interdisciplinary. Although the SoP of nurses appears to be regulated in many countries, regulation often appears insufficient to meet the evolving nature of the nursing profession. Conclusion: In the current changing worldwide health arena, scoping issues remain relevant and warrant imminent attention. Keywords: Scope of practice of nurses, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Regulation
Yadav, B L
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an approach to health care in which health professionals use the best evidence available to guide their clinical decisions and practice. Evidence is drawn from a range of sources, including published research, educational content and practical experience. This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the sources of knowledge or evidence for practice used by psychiatric nurses in Ireland. The paper is part of a larger study, which also investigated barriers, facilitators and level of skills in achieving EBP among Irish psychiatric nurses. Data were collected in a postal survey of a random sample of Irish psychiatric nurses using the Development of Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the majority of survey respondents based their practice on information which was derived from interactions with patients, from their personal experience and from information shared by colleagues and members of the multidisciplinary team, in preference to published sources of empirically derived evidence. These findings are consistent with those of the previous similar studies among general nurses and suggest that Irish psychiatric nurses face similar challenges to their general nursing counterparts in attaining of EBP.
Communities of practice - Design principle. Sponsor: Initiate community creation, provide “recognized” status to the community in organization, allocate resources to support activity of communities, provide feedback on key issues and etc. Moderator: Organize and plan community work, creates events, start discussions, assign and track execution of tasks and etc. Expert: Facilitate knowledge exchange, interpret information, answer questions, lead discussions, recommend useful material and publications and etc. Community Members: Participate in community work, collaboratively develop documents, perform tasks, can initiate and participate in discussions, ask questions and etc. Best practices: 1. Deploy and configure IT infrastructure; 2. Create collaborative environment; 3. Choose confident subject-matter experts as community moderators
Rosenthal, Meagen; Hall, Kevin W; Bussières, Jean-François; Tsuyuki, Ross T
Evidence for the value of pharmacists' interventions in the care of patients is strong and continues to grow, but the rate at which these new practice opportunities are being integrated into daily practice has not kept pace. The knowledge translation literature suggests that before effective change strategies can be implemented, a better understanding of the current environment must be obtained. Two important factors within the practice environment are the professional culture and personality traits of group members. To gain insight, at a national level, into the culture of hospital pharmacy, using the Organizational Culture Profile, and into hospital pharmacists' personality traits, using the Big Five Inventory. A cross-sectional survey of hospital pharmacists from across Canada was conducted intermittently over the period August 2012 to September 2013. The online survey contained questions about demographic characteristics and practice setting, as well as questions from the Organizational Culture Profile and Big Five Inventory. The survey link was distributed directly to hospital pharmacists or made available through provincial monthly newsletters. All data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially. In total, 401 surveys were returned. Descriptive analyses from the Organizational Culture Profile revealed that most respondents perceived value in the factors of supportiveness, competitiveness, and stability. Descriptive analyses from the Big Five Inventory revealed that respondents may have been more likely to exhibit behaviours in line with the trait of conscientiousness. Several significant subgroup differences were noted in relation to levels of education, regions of practice within Canada, years in practice, and proportion of time spent conducting clinical duties. The results from this survey provide preliminary insight into the professional culture and personality traits of Canadian hospital pharmacists. It will be important to explore these findings in
Harrison, Robert F
This paper traces the development of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the Republic of Ireland from when the first attempts at using this technique were carried out in 1985 up to the present. Clinical changes are chronicled principally using the personal work of the author and his colleagues as representative of the day. The impact of the Catholic Church and the alterations in Medical Council governance guidelines over the years as these reflect societal changes are highlighted. The potential role of other regulators including Irish case law and the EU Tissue directive are discussed as well as the almost invariable private practice nature of the services provided and the various ways in which costs have been alleviated.
Clarke, Marie; Killeavy, Maureen; Moloney, Anne
This study investigates the sources of mentors' knowledge about teaching. A mixed-method research design combining quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used to examine this area. The findings of the study suggest that: mentors' knowledge about teaching is practice orientated and emerges from their professional experiences,…
Williams, Annette M; Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli; Koonce, Taneya Y; Kou, Qinghua; Giuse, Dario A
Diffusing knowledge management practices within an organization encourages and facilitates reuse of the institution's knowledge commodity. Following knowledge management practices, the Eskind Biomedical Library (EBL) has created a Digital Library that uses a holistic approach for integration of information and skills to best represent both explicit and tacit knowledge inherent in libraries. EBL's Digital Library exemplifies a clear attempt to organize institutional knowledge in the field of librarianship, in an effort to positively impact clinical, research, and educational processes in the medical center.
Milazzo, Adriana; Giles, Lynne C; Zhang, Ying; Koehler, Ann P; Hiller, Janet E; Bi, Peng
To assess food safety practices, food shopping preferences, and eating behaviors of people diagnosed with Salmonella or Campylobacter infection in the warm seasons, and to identify socioeconomic factors associated with behavior and practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Salmonella and Campylobacter cases with onset of illness from January 1 to March 31, 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined relationships between socioeconomic position and food safety knowledge and practices, shopping and food preferences, and preferences, perceptions, and knowledge about food safety information on warm days. Respondents in our study engaged in unsafe personal and food hygiene practices. They also carried out unsafe food preparation practices, and had poor knowledge of foods associated with an increased risk of foodborne illness. Socioeconomic position did not influence food safety practices. We found that people's reported eating behaviors and food preferences were influenced by warm weather. Our study has explored preferences and practices related to food safety in the warm season months. This is important given that warmer ambient temperatures are projected to rise, both globally and in Australia, and will have a substantial effect on the burden of infectious gastroenteritis including foodborne disease. Our results provide information about modifiable behaviors for the prevention of foodborne illness in the household in the warm weather and the need for information to be disseminated across the general population. An understanding of the knowledge and factors associated with human behavior during warmer weather is critical for public health interventions on foodborne prevention.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Menstruation is a vital part of the reproductive health of a woman. There is evident neglect of problems related to menstruation especially in young girls and they are lacking scientific knowledge regarding menstruation. The study was undertaken with the objective to assess the prevalence & patterns of menstrual problems, knowledge, belief, restrictions, menstrual hygiene and treatment seeking practice among college going unmarried girls of Chandigarh. MATERIALS AND METHODS A stratified multistage random sampling design was adopted for selection of participants from the selected colleges of Chandigarh. A total of 1000 girls who had attained menarche were selected. Information was collected through personal interviews conducted in privacy using semi -structured survey schedule. RESULTS The mean age of menarche was ± 13.89 years. Prior knowledge regarding menses was reported by 82.6% girls and 56.9% girls reported mother as the first source of information followed by 21.6% friends. 86.1% have regular menstrual history 86.8% of the respondents experienced pre menstrual syndrome while overall prevalence of menstrual problem in the present study was found 68.4%. Abdominal pain was the most common menstrual problem reported by 51.3% of participants having menstrual problems. 47.7% girls did not visit holy places during periods. 95.5% preferred sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent. Treatment seeking behavior of the girls was poor and only about 34.9% of girls having menstrual problems approached for treatment. 72.4% of respondents were aware of emergency contraceptives. CONCLUSION The study revealed that there was an inappropriate knowledge and hygiene practice due to various Misconceptions, beliefs and taboos among college girls regarding menstruation. Reproductive health education in the school curriculum should be introduced for improving awareness regarding menstrual care practices.
Ayou, C; Gauducheau, E; Arrieta, A; Roussey, M; Marichal, M; Vabres, N; Balençon, M
On 5 March 2007, the law concerning the child protection system was reformed. Since then, child protection services have been responsible for the management of child abuse and neglect. Reporting and asking for child protection is now easier for every physician by submitting a "preoccupying information" form. A study conducted in 2014 in the general practitioners (GP) in the Ille-et-Vilaine department showed that they were quite unfamiliar with the child protection updates and that they needed special training. We wished to study the knowledge and practices of the pediatricians in Brittany and compare these results to the previous study. An anonymous postal investigation was conducted between May and July 2014. The questionnaire was referred to the previous study so the results would be comparable. A total of 134 pediatricians (including 99 women) of the 316 pediatricians of Brittany answered our questionnaire regarding their activity and their knowledge about child abuse and neglect. These results were analyzed and compared to the data of GPs in Ille-et-Vilaine. Only 4.4 % of the pediatricians obtained more than 80 % correct answers and 12 % of the pediatricians obtained fewer than 50 % correct answers. Among the pediatricians, 41 % of them had not reported a single time since 2007. The pediatricians who obtained better results (Pprotection is a neglected subject, including by pediatricians. To fight against professional denial and isolation, a substantial effort is still needed concerning caregivers' training as well as pediatric care organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention is the most appropriate measure to control H1N1 flu pandemic and awareness of H1N1 flu is ranked very high in preventive measures. Keeping this in view, study was designed to assess the awareness level and to compare it among urban and rural participants. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among adult population, to assess whether there is any difference among rural and urban population and to assess the response generated by the media coverage and the Government efforts.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from April to July 2015 on 300 houses from the urban area and 150 houses from rural area, chosen from study population by random sampling. Mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical were calculated. Results: 94% of urban and 91.3% of the rural participants had previously heard about swine flu, main source being TV. 46% of urban and 74% of rural participants had myth about spread of swine flu by eating pork. 41.3% of urban and 8.7% of rural population thought that government measures are sufficient for controlling swine flu. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding swine flu pandemic is good among study participants but role of health care providers is minimal and requires more dedicated effort. Lack of awareness among study population regarding some key focus areas like health promoting habits, vaccination and myths regarding the spread is of serious concern and needs to be addressed by the media, health workers and the Government efforts
Gomes, Nathália Silva; Silva, Andrea Mara Bernardes da; Zago, Luana Barbosa; Silva, Érica Carneiro de Lima E; Barichello, Elizabeth
To describe the evidence in the literature regarding the knowledge and practices of the nursing team about subcutaneous administration of drugs and fluids in adults. Integrative review of the literature using the descriptors "nursing", "hypodermoclysis", "drug administration routes", "adult health," and "knowledge," in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, with no publication deadline. Of the 569 articles found, eight made up the sample. A predominance of international journals (75%) with more than five years of publication (62.5%). The analysis of the methodological characteristics showed a predominance of literature reviews (25%), quantitative studies (62.5%), cross-sectional studies (50%), and non-experimental studies (50%). Although it is an old technique with proven efficacy, hypodermoclysis is still little used, a puzzling fact due to its advantages and indications for any age. descrever as evidências, na literatura, sobre os conhecimentos e as práticas da equipe de enfermagem na administração de medicamentos e de fluidos por via subcutânea no adulto. revisão integrativa da literatura utilizando os descritores enfermagem, hipodermóclise, vias de administração de medicamentos, saúde do adulto e conhecimento; nos idiomas inglês, espanhol e português, sem data limite de publicação. Dos 569 artigos encontrados, oito compuseram a amostra. predomínio de revistas internacionais (75%) e com mais de cinco anos de publicação (62,5%). Ao analisarem-se as características metodológicas, predominaram: revisões de literatura (25%), estudos quantitativos (62,5%), estudos transversais (50%) e não-experimentais (50%). apesar de se tratar de uma técnica antiga com eficácia comprovada, a hipodermóclise ainda é pouco utilizada, fato incoerente pelas suas vantagens e suas indicações para qualquer idade.
Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A
In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but
Heshmat, Ramin; Salehi, Forouzan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rostami, Mahsa; Shafiee, Gita; Ahadi, Zeinab; Khosravi, Shayesteh; Rezvani, Vahab; Sadeghi Ghotbabadi, Farzaneh; Ghaderpanahi, Maryam; Abdollahi, Zahra
Background: Improper nutritional knowledge is one of the most important causes of nutritional problems, which can affect practice and cause more complications. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Iranian households with socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: The study population was 14,136 households (57 clusters of 8 individuals in each province) who lived in urban and rural regions of 31 provinces of Iran. The sample size of the study was selected using multistage cluster sampling technique. A structured questionnaire and interview with the qualified person in each family was used to collect data. The questionnaire included demographic, SES and nutritional KAP questions. Using principle component analysis, some variables including household assets, occupation and education level of the heads of the families and respondents and the number of family members were used to construct family SES. The SES was categorized as good, moderate and weak. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables. Results: The percentage of knowledge about growing up, acquiring energy and being healthy as reasons for eating food was 24.1%, 44.8% and 54.7%, respectively. Only 69.7%, 60.5% and 52.5% of the participants had knowledge of identification of meat and legumes, grain and dairy group, respectively. More than 97% of the participants had a favorable attitude toward importance of nutrition in health. The nutritional knowledge linearly increased with increasing SES. Families with good SES significantly consumed more fruit, vegetable, dairy group, red meat, chicken and poultry, fish and egg while sugar consumption was significantly higher in families with weak SES (pnutritional KAP. Some policies should be considered to increase nutritional KAP especially in lower SES group in the society.
Gorzkowski, Julie A; Whitmore, Regina M; Kaseeska, Kristen R; Brishke, Janet K; Klein, Jonathan D
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have grown rapidly in popularity, creating concerns for pediatricians and families. Evaluating pediatricians' understanding of e-cigarettes is an important first step in effectively addressing these products in practice. This qualitative study assesses pediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and current clinical practices related to e-cigarettes. We conducted six focus groups with 37 pediatric clinicians in 2014. Groups were led by a trained facilitator using a semistructured discussion guide. Responses were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify relevant themes. Pediatricians know that e-cigarettes generally contain nicotine and that adolescents and young adults are most likely to use them. However, most feel uninformed about the health effects of e-cigarettes and report wanting scientific evidence for safety or harm from credible sources. Pediatricians are skeptical of claims that e-cigarettes are safe, either for users or for those exposed to second-hand e-cigarette vapor or emissions. Participants noted that clinical conversations about e-cigarettes were rare, citing barriers including a lack of systematic screening, competing priorities during clinical visits, and, for some, limited confidence in their ability to address e-cigarettes during clinical encounters. No participants recommended e-cigarettes for cessation. Pediatricians feel poorly informed about e-cigarettes and are concerned about their potential health effects. While clinical discussions about e-cigarettes are rare, recent increases in their use leaves many clinicians wanting guidance about what to say to patients and families. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baaki Timothy Kurannen
Full Text Available Sustainability is seen as a far-reaching issue now, and one which the facilities management [FM] profession cannot overlook. This paper explores current sustainable facilities management [SFM] knowledge and practice with specific focus on performance as part of a research focus toward proposing a sustainable FM performance management framework for sustainable healthcare waste management in Malaysia. This paper utilized a review of extant literature on the subject of SFM, FM performance and FM development in Malaysia as source of information. Findings reflect the increasing recognition of the need for the strategic FM function, and how facilities managers are best positioned to drive organizations’ sustainability agendas. In Malaysian context, this recognition is barely evident as findings show FM practice is still immature and predominantly operational. Unlike developed FM markets, FM relevance in Malaysia is being driven by the public sector. Also findings show a disharmony between organizations’ sustainability priority areas and the responsibilities for facilities managers to execute them where the sustainability policy of organizations prioritize one FM service and the facilities managers’ responsibilities prioritize another. As most of SFM implementation is driven by legislation this seems to strengthen the position that, organizations continue to view support services as non-value-adding, as unavoidable liabilities. The implication of this is the pressure on the FM function to continually express its strategic relevance to organizations by tangible value-adding performance output. This creates a new perspective to measuring and managing facilities performance. This paper therefore elevates the importance of FM performance management in SFM context taking into account the peculiar position of the facilities manager. This is seen as a way forward for FM to better express its value to the organization
Rajoo, Maheswaari; Sulicova, Andrea; Mroskova, Slavka; Supinova, Maria; Plackova, Anna; Bystra, Martina; Baranova, Lenka; Grezdova, Iveta; Santova, Tatiana; Janakova, Maria; Simova, Zuzana; Cinova, Jana; Cibrikova, Silvia; Decsiova, Zuzana; Lengyelova, Anna; Hlinovska, Jana; Rovna, Silvia; Igazova, Maria; Nadova, Monika; Rakova, Jana; Lehotska, Maria; Moraucikova, Eva; Mizenkova, Ludmila; Novotna, Zuzana; Paukova, Luba; Semjonova, Alexandra; Schlosserova, Alena; Vicanova, Michaela; Balkova, Hilda; Banasova, Vlasta; Horanska, Valeria; Hudakova, Pavlina; Hudakova, Anna; Majernikova, Ludmila; Poliakova, Nikoleta; Suchanova, Renata; Tirpakova, Libusa; Perinova, Nadezda; Vatehova, Drahormira; Komanicky, Dusan; Koudelkova, Vlasta; Capska, Jana; Maskalikova, Tatiana; Hulkova, Vlasta; Treslova, Marie
Tropical neuroinfections are still cause of substantial mortality in travelers. Therefore, good knowledge of early symptoms is very important for nurses acting as first contact persons. Nurse's practical skills and knowledge of signs and early recognition of tropical neuroinfections, providing first aid and quick action has been studied among graduates of two Tropical Nursing PhD programs (in EU-Countries vs. tropical country) using a standardized questionnaire. Statistical package EPI info was used to determine potential differences between both groups of graduates. Acceptable knowledge on early symptoms and signs of cerebral malaria and meningococcal meningitis in returning travelers was found among 121 graduates of two PhD programs who were included in the study. Of these, 99 questionnaires were filled in Slovakia, Czech Republic and Germany and another 22 were filled in Malaysia, as a part of the Tropical Nursing PhD Study Programs. Nursing students and recent graduates in two PhD programs demonstrated acceptable, although not large-scaled, knowledge of early signs and symptoms of tropical neuroinfections.
Seyyed Mohammad Moosavi Jad
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between the knowledge of leadership and knowledge management practices. This research strategy, in terms of quantity, procedure and obtain information, is descriptive and correlational. Statistical population, consist of all employees of a food industry in Kurdistan province of Iran, who were engaged in 2016 and their total number is about 1800 people. 316 employees in the Kurdistan food industry (Kurdistan FI were selected, using Cochran formula. Non-random method and valid questions (standard for measurement of the data are used. Reliability and validity were confirmed. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out, using SPSS 16. The statistical analysis of collected data showed the relationship between knowledge-oriented of leadership and knowledge management activities as mediator variables. The results of the data and test hypotheses suggest that knowledge management activities play an important role in the functioning of product innovation and the results showed that the activities of Knowledge Management (knowledge transfer, storage knowledge, application of knowledge, creation of knowledge on performance of product innovation. Keywords: Knowledge-oriented leadership, Product innovation performance, Knowledge management practices, Iran
Shor, Ron; Levit, Shabtay
Social work students' stereotypical perceptions of excluded populations could be decisive in the way they treat those who are excluded. In an attempt to change such perceptions and enhance knowledge about how to work with an excluded population, a dialogue-in-class model was implemented between students of social work in Israel and persons with…
Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Richmond, Aaron S.; Lepkowski, William J.; Packman, Jill
The authors investigated whether undergraduates' scores on the Verbal and Quantitative tests of the Graduate Record Examinations and their undergraduate grade point average can be used to predict knowledge, personal development, and skills of graduates of counseling programs. Multiple regression analysis produced significant models predicting…
This study explored the relationships among selected attitudinal and personality characteristics, attitudes toward environmental problems, and environmental knowledge and behavioral commitment of two diverse samples: 85 users of a recycling center and 60 conservative church members. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to determine the best…
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Liang, Chaoyun; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Tseng, Ju-Shih; Chen, To-Yu
The effect of creating blog-based portfolios on knowledge management (KM) abilities among university students was examined in the present study. Participants included 43 students majoring in Multimedia and Game Science at a University in Taiwan. Students spent nine weeks creating their personal portfolios by using a blog. The "t"-test…
Murimi, Mary W.; Guthrie, Joanne; Landry, Danielle; Paun, Mihaela M.
Objective: To assess nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviors of seventh graders in nine randomly selected middle schools in Louisiana. Methods: This descriptive study used personal data assistants (PDAs) to administer a pre-validated questionnaire developed from national instruments to 127 seventh grade students from nine randomly-selected…
Babatunde, Folarin Omoniyi; MacDermid, Joy Christine; MacIntyre, Norma
Nonadherence to treatment remains high among patients with musculoskeletal conditions with negative impact on the treatment outcomes, use of personal and cost of care. An active knowledge translation (KT) strategy may be an effective strategy to support practice change. The purpose of this study was to deliver a brief, interactive, multifaceted and targeted KT program to improve physiotherapist knowledge and confidence in performing adherence enhancing activities related to risk, barriers, assessment and interventions. We utilised a 2-phase approach in this KT project. Phase 1 involved the development of an adherence tool kit following a synthesis of the literature and an iterative process involving 47 end-users. Clinicians treating patients with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited from two Physiotherapy and Occupational therapy national conferences in Canada. The intervention, based on the acronym SIMPLE TIPS was tested on 51 physiotherapists in phase 2. A pre- and post-repeated measures design was used in Phase 2. Graham's knowledge-to-action cycle was used as the conceptual framework. Participants completed a pre-intervention assessment, took part in a 1-h educational session and completed a post-intervention assessment. A questionnaire was used to measure knowledge of evidence-based treatment adherence barriers, interventions and measures and confidence to perform evidence-based adherence practice activities. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage), Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked tests. Barriers and facilitators of adherence were identified under three domains (therapist, patient, health system) in phase 1. Seventy percent of the participants completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that 46.8% of respondents explored barriers including the use of behaviour change strategies and 45.7% reported that they measured adherence but none reported the use of validated outcomes. A significant improvement in
Full Text Available Yellow fever (Yf outbreak was recently reported in South Omo of Southern Ethiopia. This area was also highly affected by Yf outbreak in the 1960s. However, there is no reliable information on the level of community knowledge attitudes and practices about the disease in the area. The objective of the current study was to assess level of community knowledge, attitudes and practices about Yf.Between March and May 2017, a community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in two districts of the South Omo area. During the survey, 612 randomly selected adults were interviewed about Yf using structured questionnaire.Out of the 612 study participants, 508 (83.0% reported that they heard about Yf which is locally known as "a disease that causes vomiting blood". Most (90.4% of the study participants also said that Yf is different from malaria. Two hundred thirteen (41.9% participants said that Yf can be transmitted from a patient to another person, while only 80 (37.6% mentioned that the disease is transmitted through mosquitoes bite. Out of 333 (65.7% study participants who believed that Yf is a preventable disease, 280 (84.1% mentioned vaccine as a preventive method. The majority believed that the disease is a killer (97.2% and a newly emerging (69.4%. Among the total of 612 study participants, 221(36.1% were considered as having a high level of overall knowledge of Yf. Having educational level above 7th grade (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.39, 7.57, p = 0.006 and being resident of Bena-Tsemay district (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.78, P = 0.014 were significantly associated with having a high level of overall knowledge of Yf. Agro-pastoralism as an occupation compared to farming was associated with having a low level of overall knowledge of Yf (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI, 0.33, 0.79, P = 0.003.The findings indicate that most of the study community members had a low level of overall knowledge of Yf, especially about its cause, mode of transmission and preventive
Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali
Oral cancer presents with high mortality rates, and the likelihood of survival is remarkably superior when detected early. Dental professionals have an important role and responsibility in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and opinions regarding oral cancer among dentists in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving private and public dental practitioners, working in different governorates in Yemen. Of the 800 dentists surveyed, a total of 221 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate 27.6%). A vast majority of dentists (96.38%) identified tobacco as the major risk factor for oral cancer, and 82.8% knew that squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form. While 47.1% of the dentists agreed that they were adequately trained in oral cancer screening, the majority (86%) believed that they need further training in oral cancer screening. These results suggest that additional training and continuing educational programs on prevention and early detection of oral cancer for dentists are to be highly recommended.
Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krentz-Wee, Rebecca E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
In recent years, the concept of Zero Knowledge Protocols (ZKP) as a useful approach to nuclear warhead verification has become increasingly popular. Several implementations of ZKP have been proposed, driving technology development toward proof of concept demonstrations. Whereas proposed implementations seem to fall within the general class of template-based techniques, all physical implementations of ZKPs proposed to date have a complication: once the instrumentation is prepared, it is no longer authenticatable; the instrument physically contains sensitive information. In this work we explore three different concepts that may offer more authenticatable and practical ZKP implementations and evaluate the sensitive information that may be at risk when doing so: sharing a subset of detector counts in a preloaded image (with spatial information removed), real-time image subtraction, and a new concept, CONfirmation using a Fast-neutron Imaging Detector with Anti-image NULL-positive Time Encoding (CONFIDANTE). CONFIDANTE promises to offer an almost ideal implementation of ZKP: a positive result is indicated by a constant rate at all times enabling the monitoring party the possibility of full access to the instrument before, during, and after confirmation. A prototype of CONFIDANTE was designed, built, and its performance evaluated in a series of measurements of several objects including a set of plutonium dioxide Hemispheres. Very encouraging results proving feasibility are presented. 1 Rebecca is currently a graduate student in Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley
Full Text Available Background: Knowledge about epilepsy and its management is not satisfactory among school students in developing countries. The present study was planned to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of students regarding first-aid management of epilepsy seizures in school setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 students of government schools of Chandigarh, a city of northern India, were taken. They were administered with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire (for knowledge and attitude assessment and an observational checklist after role play (for practice assessment on first-aid management of epilepsy. A scoring system was devised to quantify the knowledge and practices of students. Results: Seventy-one percent of them had either heard or read about epilepsy. Half of the students believed epilepsy as a hindrance to education. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred by more than half of the students; however, many believed that visit to religious places and exorcism as ways to cure epilepsy. Nearly 74% of students would call a doctor as first-aid measure for seizure in a person with epilepsy. Conclusion: We concluded that the knowledge about various aspects of epilepsy was average among school students in Chandigarh. However, there was no significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice between students who lived in urban, urban slum and rural areas. It is recommended that first-aid management of seizures in epilepsy should be a part of school curriculum.
Goel, Sonu; Singh, Navpreet; Lal, Vivek; Singh, Amarjeet
Knowledge about epilepsy and its management is not satisfactory among school students in developing countries. The present study was planned to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding first-aid management of epilepsy seizures in school setting. A total of 177 students of government schools of Chandigarh, a city of northern India, were taken. They were administered with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire (for knowledge and attitude assessment) and an observational checklist after role play (for practice assessment) on first-aid management of epilepsy. A scoring system was devised to quantify the knowledge and practices of students. Seventy-one percent of them had either heard or read about epilepsy. Half of the students believed epilepsy as a hindrance to education. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred by more than half of the students; however, many believed that visit to religious places and exorcism as ways to cure epilepsy. Nearly 74% of students would call a doctor as first-aid measure for seizure in a person with epilepsy. We concluded that the knowledge about various aspects of epilepsy was average among school students in Chandigarh. However, there was no significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice between students who lived in urban, urban slum and rural areas. It is recommended that first-aid management of seizures in epilepsy should be a part of school curriculum.
Herman, Joan; Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Ringstaff, Cathy; Timms, Michael
This exploratory study of elementary school science examines questions central to policy, practice and research on formative assessment: What is the quality of teachers' content-pedagogical and assessment knowledge? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge and assessment practice? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge,…
Luciana M. Lunardi Campos
Full Text Available This paper is about the possible knowledge that Science and Biology teachers may acquire form their daily work. Fourth three teachers were considered in this research and all belong to the Public School of the city of Botucatu, S.P. All of them were unanimous in stressing the importance of their professional activity as a meaningful aspect. They learned more about themselves, their methods, their employed resources and their pupils through it. Three dimensions can be pointed out here: personal, professional and pedagogical and it can be named nine aspects of the knowledge from experience. An organized and active knowledge may be achieved by reckoning the teacher as the main producer of knowledge about his occupation and assuming as well how important his practice and knowledge from experience are.
Hagan, José E; Gaonkar, Narayan; Doshi, Vikas; Patni, Anas; Vyas, Shailee; Mazumdar, Vihang; Kosambiya, J K; Gupta, Satish; Watkins, Margaret
India is responsible for 30% of the annual global cohort of unvaccinated children worldwide. Private practitioners provide an estimated 21% of vaccinations in urban centers of India, and are important partners in achieving high vaccination coverage. We used an in-person questionnaire and on-site observation to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private immunization service providers regarding delivery of immunization services in the urban settings of Surat and Baroda, in Gujarat, India. We constructed a comprehensive sampling frame of all private physician providers of immunization services in Surat and Baroda cities, by consulting vaccine distributors, local branches of physician associations, and published lists of private medical practitioners. All providers were contacted and asked to participate in the study if they provided immunization services. Data were collected using an in-person structured questionnaire and directly observing practices; one provider in each practice setting was interviewed. The response rate was 82% (121/147) in Surat, and 91% (137/151) in Baroda. Of 258 participants 195 (76%) were pediatricians, and 63 (24%) were general practitioners. Practices that were potential missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) included not strictly following vaccination schedules if there were concerns about ability to pay (45% of practitioners), and not administering more than two injections in the same visit (60%). Only 22% of respondents used a vaccination register to record vaccine doses, and 31% reported vaccine doses administered to the government. Of 237 randomly selected vaccine vials, 18% had expired vaccine vial monitors. Quality of immunization services in Gujarat can be strengthened by providing training and support to private immunization service providers to reduce MOVs and improve quality and safety; other more context specific strategies that should be evaluated may involve giving feedback to providers on quality of services
The mission of the competent person in radiation protection has been broadly developed these last years to take an essential function in firm:study of working place, delimitation of regulated areas, monitoring of exposure, relations with authorities. The competent person in radiation protection must follow a training, defined by decree and shared in two parts: a theoretical part used as compulsory subjects and a practical part specific to the different sectors of activity (research, industry, medical centers, nuclear facilities) as well as the radiation use type. This volume corresponds to the practical module devoted to the industrial and research facilities concerned by the possession of management of sealed or unsealed sources. In accordance with the regulations stipulating that this module must allow to apply the theoretical knowledge to concrete situations in work. It includes eight chapters as following: radiation protection in industrial and research facilities, use of sources and associated risks, fitting out professional premises, evaluation of exposure, control of radiation protection; use of detection equipment and radioactive contamination and exposure measurement equipment, associated to methods and calculation tools; radioactive waste management; accidental or damaged situations management; methodology of working place analysis completed by the application to practical cases found in laboratories. (N.C.)
knowledge concerning breast self examination ... Likert's scale. results: A total of ... knowledge, attitude and beliefs concerning the health ... questionnaire was developed, pretested and .... Larkin M. Breast self-examination does more harm.
Looking at knowledge as a shared resource: experts discuss how to define, protect, and build the knowledge commons in the digital age. Knowledge in digital form offers unprecedented access to information through the Internet but at the same time is subject to ever-greater restrictions through intellectual property legislation, overpatenting, licensing, overpricing, and lack of preservation. Looking at knowledge as a commons―as a shared resource―allows us to understand both its limitless possibilities and what threatens it. In Understanding Knowledge as a Commons, experts from a range of disciplines discuss the knowledge commons in the digital era―how to conceptualize it, protect it, and build it. Contributors consider the concept of the commons historically and offer an analytical framework for understanding knowledge as a shared social-ecological system. They look at ways to guard against enclosure of the knowledge commons, considering, among other topics, the role of research libraries, the advantage...
Santana, Maria J; Manalili, Kimberly; Jolley, Rachel J; Zelinsky, Sandra; Quan, Hude; Lu, Mingshan
Globally, health-care systems and organizations are looking to improve health system performance through the implementation of a person-centred care (PCC) model. While numerous conceptual frameworks for PCC exist, a gap remains in practical guidance on PCC implementation. Based on a narrative review of the PCC literature, a generic conceptual framework was developed in collaboration with a patient partner, which synthesizes evidence, recommendations and best practice from existing frameworks and implementation case studies. The Donabedian model for health-care improvement was used to classify PCC domains into the categories of "Structure," "Process" and "Outcome" for health-care quality improvement. The framework emphasizes the structural domain, which relates to the health-care system or context in which care is delivered, providing the foundation for PCC, and influencing the processes and outcomes of care. Structural domains identified include: the creation of a PCC culture across the continuum of care; co-designing educational programs, as well as health promotion and prevention programs with patients; providing a supportive and accommodating environment; and developing and integrating structures to support health information technology and to measure and monitor PCC performance. Process domains describe the importance of cultivating communication and respectful and compassionate care; engaging patients in managing their care; and integration of care. Outcome domains identified include: access to care and Patient-Reported Outcomes. This conceptual framework provides a step-wise roadmap to guide health-care systems and organizations in the provision PCC across various health-care sectors. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ridley, Janice Rebecca Becky
The purpose of this dissertation was to assess K-12 teachers' perceptions of knowledge, beliefs, and practices toward brain-based learning strategies, how their knowledge relates to their beliefs and practices, and how their beliefs relate to their classroom practices. This research also investigated relationships between teachers' gender, years…
The article discuss different viiws on classifying knowledge. It provides a guidance to knowledge acquistion based on a specific classification scheme.......The article discuss different viiws on classifying knowledge. It provides a guidance to knowledge acquistion based on a specific classification scheme....
Full Text Available Cyberattack forms are complex and varied, and the detection and prediction of dynamic types of attack are always challenging tasks. Research on knowledge graphs is becoming increasingly mature in many fields. At present, it is very significant that certain scholars have combined the concept of the knowledge graph with cybersecurity in order to construct a cybersecurity knowledge base. This paper presents a cybersecurity knowledge base and deduction rules based on a quintuple model. Using machine learning, we extract entities and build ontology to obtain a cybersecurity knowledge base. New rules are then deduced by calculating formulas and using the path-ranking algorithm. The Stanford named entity recognizer (NER is also used to train an extractor to extract useful information. Experimental results show that the Stanford NER provides many features and the useGazettes parameter may be used to train a recognizer in the cybersecurity domain in preparation for future work. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Knowledge graph, Knowledge deduction
Kim, Taegyu; Kim, Young Hoon
Despite the efforts of the World Anti-Doping Agency and national anti-doping agencies at the international level, a relatively low and steady rate of positive doping tests still persists all over the world. Evidence on adolescents using doping substances exists, and the proportion of adolescents engaging in doping practices is small but significant. In relation to the international research trends on anti-doping, this study aims to evaluate doping knowledge, practices, and attitudes among Korean adult and adolescent elite athletes to provide effective information on anti-doping policies and education programs. This study was a cross-sectional study of 454 Korean elite athletes (249 adults in 23 events and 205 adolescents in 22 events). Data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire containing items regarding doping practices and knowledge, brief definitions of performance-enhancing substances/methods and recreational substances, and the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). Adolescent (47.3%) and adult (57.0%) athletes received information on banned substances of their respective sports from the Korea Anti-Doping Agency, and 39.0 and 53.4% of adolescents and adults, respectively, had knowledge of banned substances and had permissive attitudes toward doping compared to those who were unaware. Adolescent and adult athletes have inadvertently (1.5 and 3.6%, respectively) or knowingly (1.0 and 2.8%, respectively) taken banned performance-enhancing substances, and 2.4 and 3.2%, respectively, knew someone who had taken banned substances. And the adolescent athletes in motor skill category (PEAS: 40.24 ± 10.91) were more permissive toward doping than those in team category (PEAS: 35.08 ± 10.21). An in-depth anti-doping education for Korean athletes should be more widely implemented, and effective anti-doping policy should meet the athletes' demographic characteristics, personalities, and values.
Kikelomo T. Adesina
Conclusion: There is poor knowledge of HPV and practice of vaccination among mothers in llorin. Willingness of mothers to vaccinate their daughters is suboptimal. Mother's knowledge is an important determinant of HPV vaccination of adolescents.
Bitter-Rijpkema, M. (2009). USEM workshop: designing for knowledge collaboration in distributed communities of practice. 1st Presentation: Introduction. June, 3, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands. 2nd Presentation: From distance learning courses to knowledge collaboration in distributed communities.
Park, Jamie S; Moore, Julia E; Sayal, Radha; Holmes, Bev J; Scarrow, Gayle; Graham, Ian D; Jeffs, Lianne; Timmings, Caitlyn; Rashid, Shusmita; Johnson, Alekhya Mascarenhas; Straus, Sharon E
Current knowledge translation (KT) training initiatives are primarily focused on preparing researchers to conduct KT research rather than on teaching KT practice to end users. Furthermore, training initiatives that focus on KT practice have not been rigorously evaluated and have focused on assessing short-term outcomes and participant satisfaction only. Thus, there is a need for longitudinal training evaluations that assess the sustainability of training outcomes and contextual factors that may influence outcomes. We evaluated the KT training initiative "Foundations in KT" using a mixed-methods longitudinal design. "Foundations in KT" provided training in KT practice and included three tailored in-person workshops, coaching, and an online platform for training materials and knowledge exchange. Two cohorts were included in the study (62 participants, including 46 "Foundations in KT" participants from 16 project teams and 16 decision-maker partners). Participants completed self-report questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the first workshop. Participant-level outcomes include survey results which indicated that participants' self-efficacy in evidence-based practice (F(1,8.9) = 23.7, p = 0.001, n = 45), KT activities (F(1,23.9) = 43.2, p training initiative helped participants achieve their KT project objectives, plan their projects, and solve problems over time. Contextual factors include teams with high self-reported organizational capacity and commitment to implement at the start of their project had buy-in from upper management that resulted in secured funding and resources for their project. Training initiative outcomes include participants who applied the KT knowledge and skills they learned to other projects by sharing their knowledge informally with coworkers. Sustained spread of KT practice was observed with five teams at 24 months. We completed a longitudinal evaluation of a KT
Hambrick, David Z; Meinz, Elizabeth J; Oswald, Frederick L
What accounts for individual differences in the sort of knowledge that people may draw on in everyday cognitive tasks, such as deciding whom to vote for in a presidential election, how to invest money in the stock market, or what team to bet on in a friendly wager? In a large sample of undergraduate students, we investigated correlates of individual differences in recently acquired knowledge of current events in domains such as politics, business, and sports. Structural equation modeling revealed two predictive pathways: one involving cognitive ability factors and the other involving two major nonability factors (personality and interests). The results of this study add to what is known about the sources of individual differences in knowledge and are interpreted in the context of theoretical conceptions of adult intelligence that emphasize the centrality and importance of knowledge (e.g., Ackerman, 1996; Cattell, 1971).
Singh, Surjit; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Bhandari, Bharti; Kaur, Rimplejeet
With the advancement of healthcare and medical research, doctors need to be aware of the basic ethical principles. This cross-sectional study is an attempt to assess the knowledge, awareness, and practice of health-care ethics among health-care professionals. After taking written informed consent, a standard questionnaire was administered to 117 doctors. No personal information was recorded on the questionnaire so as to ensure the confidentiality and anonymity of participants. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Statistically significant difference observed between the opinions of consultant and senior resident (SRs) on issues like, adherence to confidentiality; paternalistic attitude of doctors (doctors should do their best for the patient irrespective of patient's opinion); doctor's decision should be final in case of disagreement and interest in learning ethics ( P patient wishes, informing patient regarding wrongdoing, informing close relatives, seeking consent for children and patients' consent for procedures. Furthermore, no significant difference observed between the two with respect to the practice of health-care ethics. Surprisingly, the response of clinical and nonclinical faculty did not differ as far as awareness and practice of ethics were concerned. The significant difference is observed in the knowledge, awareness, and practice of ethics among consultants and SRs. Conferences, symposium, and workshops, on health-care ethics, may act as a means of sensitizing doctors and thus will help to bridge this gap and protect the well-being and confidentiality of the patients. Such an effort may bring about harmonious change in the doctor-patient relationship.
The goal of the project was to provide preliminary insight into the process of tacit knowledge acquisition and to support the development of tools to assess the use of various knowledge-acquisition...
Isara, A R; Isah, E C
To assess the knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 350 respondents who were selected by means of a systematic sampling method and interviewed using a semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaire. An observational checklist was thereafter used to inspect their personal hygiene status. The mean age of the food handlers was 26.4 +/- 6.1 years. Two hundred and twenty eight (65.1%) were females while 34.9% were males. A majority (98%) of the respondents had formal education. There was good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among the respondents. Knowledge was significantly influenced by previous training in food hygiene and safety (p = 0.002). Food handlers who had worked for longer years in the fast food restaurants had better practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.036). The level of education of respondents did not significantly influenced their practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.084). Although, 299 (85.4%) food handlers were generally clean, skin lesions was seen in 4 (7.3%) of them. This study showed good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety by food handlers in the fast food restaurants in Benin City, but there is need for improvement through training and retraining of food handlers by the management of the restaurants and the local government authorities.
Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K
Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Berling, Trine Villumsen
Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...
importance to oral health cannot be overemphasized. Dental care is the practice of ... Keywords: Dental care, Health workers, Knowledge, Practice. Access this article online ..... The role of diet and nutrition in the etiology and prevention of oral ...
Background: There is some evidence to suggest that the greater one's knowledge in the blood donation process and the need to donate blood, the more likely one would donate blood. Generally, the lack of knowledge among participants in most studies on blood donation issues seems to be a major concern. There is a ...
Eighty one (79.4%) respondents correctly related transmission of TB through coughing. Regarding knowledge of correct disease diagnosis, 87.3% knew they had TB. Regarding symptoms of TB, 52.0% were not knowledgeable of correct symptoms of TB such as prolonged cough. On treatment 39.6% did not know that.
The findings of the study revealed that the quarry workers were semi-literate with majority having non-formal education. It was also observed that they had no knowledge of the dangers associated with quarrying and their knowledge on the use and extent of usage of protective gadgets was deficient. It was concluded that the ...
Their levels of knowledge and indications for. PEP as well as ... uninfected patient and even re-infection of an already infected .... Surgical cuts/wounds. 7 ... Table 4: Knowledge of time of administration of PEP. Time .... respondents to be uncertain about the existence of such ... Surely, before the advent of this long awaited.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) greatly improved the educational opportunities for students with disabilities. Teachers require knowledge of the law to deliver necessary and appropriate services to students with disabilities. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine teachers' knowledge of special education…
Tordrup Heeager, Lise; Nielsen, Peter Axel
to knowledge transfer, we modify and extend the framework to transferring knowledge of agile practices. This framework is subsequently applied for interpreting and analyzing the case study data. The analysis shows how these barriers (e.g., the organizational culture, time and resources, knowledge strategy......Agile software practices are widely used in a great variety of organizations, and the shift from traditional plan-driven approaches entails a redefinition of processes in these organizations. Intrafirm knowledge transfer of agile software practices between projects is a key concern...... in this redefinition. While knowledge transfer is essential for an organization to develop or keep its competitive advantage, it is also both difficult and time consuming, due to a wide range of barriers. Transferring knowledge on agile practices is even more complex due to there being a high degree of tacit knowledge...
Cao, Feng; Sun, Xingzhi; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Li, Bo; Li, Jing; Pan, Yue
Since Adverse Drug Event (ADE) has become a leading cause of death around the world, there arises high demand for helping clinicians or patients to identify possible hazards from drug effects. Motivated by this, we present a personalized ADE detection system, with the focus on applying ontology-based knowledge management techniques to enhance ADE detection services. The development of electronic health records makes it possible to automate the personalized ADE detection, i.e., to take patient clinical conditions into account during ADE detection. Specifically, we define the ADE ontology to uniformly manage the ADE knowledge from multiple sources. We take advantage of the rich semantics from the terminology SNOMED-CT and apply it to ADE detection via the semantic query and reasoning.
Yurii Y. Semchuk
Full Text Available The Purpose is to analyse problems of individual freedom in mystical currents of Hesychasm and Sufism comprehensively in the territory of Ukraine. It deals with issues of Hesychasm and Sufism origin, mystical practices features and their overflowing borrowing on the way to Truth by God finding. Methodology. With a view to the reconstruction of a holistic world view of the desert in their deification of personal freedom, the author uses methodology of humanitarian analysis (analysis and synthesis, comparison, abstraction, generalization, and the phenomenological method – the study specifics of the mystical way of knowing reality and comparative method − the study and comparison of different types of mystical-religious movements in the synthesis of the history of philosophy, philosophy of religion, psychology, phenomenology and the history of religion. Scientific novelty. Watching the life of the monks Optina Pustyn can trace the genesis hesychast tradition from the time of Paisius Velichkovsky. The influence and the use of spiritual advisors fundamental hesychast texts "Philokalia" in secular name and in the empyreal world alike are researched. It is proved that in the spiritual practices of Hesychasm and Sufism Set the true path to God. The mystics’ efforts in aspiration of perception of the Truth were reconstructed, as in Christian practices of an unexpected irradiation of cognition Omnipresent and in the knowledge of Jehovah in Sufism through «gentle-hearted message» which is opened to receiving spiritual vision and the gift of God without volitional intentions of the observer. Conclusions. The author concludes that despite the existence of schools and practices, personal manifestation of union with God through the freedom of own will devoted in listening of spiritual life – own heart, is dominant in Hesychasm and Sufism mystical currents. The main secret of mystics was not a transfer of theoretical knowledge through the
Sobti, J C; Chapparawal, B C; Holst, E
The report presents the first attempt of the IMA-AKN Sinha Institute of continuing medical and health education and research to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding torture. Although, majority of the doctors in India are aware of various national and international human rights institutions, but they seem not to be aware of the human rights of the detainees. It is interesting to note that the doctors are aware of the long term physical and psychological effects of torture and also agreed that physical examination is not sufficient to detect torture sequelae. A large number of doctors have seen cases of torture, and were willing to treat them and felt reasonably competent. A significant number of doctors justified use of coercive technique and manhandling in dealing with detainees by law enforcement agencies. A small number of doctors expressed their unwillingness to get involved in the treatment of the victims of torture due to medicolegal consequence. The dissemination of information on human rights and medical ethics and incorporating them into the medical curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate training was emphasised by majority of the respondents. Almost unanimous view was expressed by respondents on the importance of the role of medical ethics and the profession's responsibility to its members. An important finding of the study is the need for IMA to help establishing counselling and rehabilitation centres for treatment of torture victims and educate its members. A large number of doctors mentioned the need of initiating community action in case of rape, child abuse, dowry victims and sexual harassment. Further, a majority of respondents expressed the view that the medical association should take the responsibilities of protecting the doctors who fearlessly testify cases of torture besides disciplining doctors who facilitate torture. Respondents felt that the reasons for doctors' participation in torture need further study. It
G Jonsson; M Y H Moosa; F Y Jeenah
Aim. The aim of the study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and personal beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS in a group of mentally ill patients attending outpatient clinics in Soweto, Johannesburg. Method. All patients attending four randomly chosen clinics in Soweto were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. The 63-item questionnaire, developed from others specifically for this study, included questions on socio-demographic and c...
The Medical University of Plovdiv (MUP) has as its motto 'Committed to humanity". But what does humanity in modern medicine mean? Is it possible to practise a form of medicine that is without humanity? In the current article, it is argued that modern medicine is increasingly being practised in a de-personalised fashion, where the patient is understood not as a unique human individual, a person, but rather as a subject or an object and more in the manner of a complex biological machine. Medicine has, it is contended, become distracted from its duty to care, comfort and console as well as to ameliorate, attenuate and cure and that the rapid development of medicine's scientific knowledge is, paradoxically, principally causative. Signal occurrences in the 'patient as a person' movement are reviewed, together with the emergence of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) and patient-centered care (PCC) movements. The characteristics of a model of medicine evolving in response to medicine's current deficiencies--person-centered healthcare (PCH)--are noted and described. In seeking to apply science with humanism, via clinical judgement, within an ethical framework, it is contended that PCH will prove to be far more responsive to the needs of the individual patient and his/her personal circumstances than current models of practice, so that neither a reductive anatomico-pathological, disease-centric model of illness (EBM), nor an aggressive patient-directed, consumerist form of care (PCC) is allowed continued dominance within modern healthcare systems. In conclusion, it is argued that PCH will enable affordable advances in biomedicine and technology to be delivered to patients within a humanistic framework of clinical practice that recognises the patient as a person and which takes full account of his/her stories, values, preferences, goals, aspirations, fears, worries, hopes, cultural context and which responds to his/her psychological, emotional, spiritual and social necessities
Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency department as one of the most important wards of the hospital confronts with lots of referring patients. Timely service presentation in this ward depends on efficient and effective functions of its personnel. Thus, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of education on the knowledge and practice of emergency department’s nurses in the patients’ triage field. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the knowledge and practice of 50 nurses was evaluated before and after of 9 hours educational workshop regarding patients’ triage based on the emergency severity index (ESI. Persons who had at least six months work experience in the emergency department and did not participate in any triage workshop during the six years before starting the project were entered to the study. Data gathering was performed through preparing three questionnaires separately included demographic information as well as assessment of knowledge and practice. Evaluated demographic characteristics were age, gender, marital status, work history, academic degree, type of employment, work shift, and average of work shift weekly. To assess the knowledge and practice, two separate questionnaires were used that their reliability and validity were confirmed before. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16 and appropriate analytic tests. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The average knowledge scores of nurses reached from 7.5±2.1 to 14±1.6 (p= 0.001, r=0.49 after education. Also the average scores of participants increased from 31.8±9.9 to 69.7±8.1 (p= 0.001, r=0.87. There was no significant relationship between characteristics of nurses and their knowledge scores in six weeks after education (p>0.05. While it was seen between the work history of nursing (p=0.038, working in emergency department (p=0.001, as well as type of employment (p=0.019 and average scores of practice within six weeks after education. No significant
Dawood, Naseema; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kay; Chohan, Ebrahim
This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) in relation to HIV/AIDS. Questionnaires were personally administered to a saturation sample of 90 adolescents with MMR drawn from one specialised educational institution in Durban, South Africa. The study revealed critical gaps and erroneous beliefs regarding knowledge of HIV/AIDS, especially with regard to its existence, transmission and cure. Participants indicated a high degree of exposure to various sources of information, particularly media messages. The results indicate that gender-role prescriptions and prevailing social constructions of immorality have had a negative influence on the attitudes and behaviour of participants, particularly with regard to sexual practices and preventative risk behaviours. Furthermore, the sample was found to have low levels of self-efficacy in relation to sexual negotiation and decision-making, more specifically with regard to condom use. It should be noted, however, that only a small proportion of the sample was sexually active and the use of contraceptives was accordingly found to be extremely low. The findings are discussed against the backdrop of the empirical literature on HIV/AIDS, developmental theory, and pertinent theories and models of health behaviour. This study may help to promote a better understanding of the psycho-educational dynamics of HIV infection in this special group of adolescents, and also help to inform attempts to tailor suitable educational programmes, as well as promote further research to add to our knowledge as we address the problems of HIV/AIDS among this group.
Oct 4, 2011 ... knowledge of 495 patients attending the HIV clinic, in Lagos University Teaching Hospital,. Nigeria. ... is of crucial importance for anti-malaria responses (Good & Doolan, 1999). In non- ... power of the data obtained. Patients ...
However, the disease still causes a great burden to the country's health system7. ... However, inadequate knowledge is a main challenge for ... households in the control of the disease. .... were: sleeping under mosquito nets including untreat-.
Ana Luiza de Jesus Trindade
Full Text Available The milk is considered the best food for the baby, or the most skilled for the proper growth and development of children, keeping it away from infections and diseases larger. This study aims to identify the knowledge acquired by mothers visited by scholars of the Project Scope: "We will breastfeed, Mom?" About breast feeding. This is a documentary research, qualitative in nature. We analyzed 93 routes from home visits, for the year 2006. Information was submitted to the technical analysis of thematic content, from which emerged a category: "knowledge gained by the mothers about breast feeding", and eight subcategories. We conclude that the knowledge of the women on breastfeeding, are still scarce, which reinforces the importance of this project, since it allows greater knowledge about breastfeeding, thus providing, reduction in the rates of morbidity and mortality
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University ... . Lack of knowledge and misperceptions about EC also exists among ... included in the study were specialist obstetricians and gynaecologists,.
... and barriers in rural Ghana: The case of foods for preventing vitamin A and iron deficiencies. ... of the occurrence of iron deficiency anaemia especially in pregnant women; however, only 8 FGs had knowledge of the causes of anaemia.
Conclusion: Knowledge of folic acid deficiency among pregnant women in Mukalla District of Yemen is relatively low. ... low level of folate during pregnancy are at risk for poor pregnancy .... 5 pregnancies and only 0.7% had more than 10.
workflows. Consequently, knowledge flows always lie on the critical path to organizational performance and a competitive advantage . (Nissen, 2006...information utilizing web services (e.g., eCommerce ), social networking sites (e.g., MySpace), collaboration (e.g., Wikipedia) and sharing (e.g...just “pile-up” to cause experiences of “knowledge- overload.” Hence, when seeking to gain a competitive advantage , people and organizations try to
Jad, Seyyed Mohammad Moosavi; Geravandi, Sahar; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Alizadeh, Rashin; Sarvarian, Mohammad; Rastegarimehr, Babak; Afkar, Abolhasan; Yari, Ahmad Reza; Momtazan, Mahboobeh; Valipour, Aliasghar; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Karimyan, Azimeh; Mazraehkar, Alireza; Nejad, Ali Soleimani; Mohammadi, Hafez
The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between the knowledge of leadership and knowledge management practices. This research strategy, in terms of quantity, procedure and obtain information, is descriptive and correlational. Statistical population, consist of all employees of a food industry in Kurdistan province of Iran, who were engaged in 2016 and their total number is about 1800 people. 316 employees in the Kurdistan food industry (Kurdistan FI) were selected, using Cochran formula. Non-random method and valid questions (standard) for measurement of the data are used. Reliability and validity were confirmed. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out, using SPSS 16. The statistical analysis of collected data showed the relationship between knowledge-oriented of leadership and knowledge management activities as mediator variables. The results of the data and test hypotheses suggest that knowledge management activities play an important role in the functioning of product innovation and the results showed that the activities of Knowledge Management (knowledge transfer, storage knowledge, application of knowledge, creation of knowledge) on performance of product innovation.
a user inferred from user interactions with the eLeanrning systems is used to adapt o®ered learning resources and guide a learner through them. This keynote gives an overview about knowledge and rules taken into account in current adaptive eLearning prototypes when adapting learning instructions....... Adaptation is usually based on knowledge about learning esources and users. Rules are used for heuristics to match the learning resources with learners and infer adaptation decisions.......Adaptation that is so natural for teaching by humans is a challenging issue for electronic learning tools. Adaptation in classic teaching is based on observations made about students during teaching. Similar idea was employed in user-adapted (personalized) eLearning applications. Knowledge about...
Slade, J.; Gendron, T.; Greenlaw, G.
In the mid-1990s, New Brunswick Power Nuclear implemented a Management System Process Model at the Point Lepreau Generating Station that provides the basic elements of a knowledge management program. As noted by the IAEA, the challenge facing the nuclear industry now is to make improvements in knowledge management in areas that are more difficult to implement. Two of these areas are: increasing the value of existing knowledge, and converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge (knowledge acquisition). This paper describes some practical examples of knowledge management improvements in the Point Lepreau heat transport system ageing management program. (author)
Dennis C. Chen
Full Text Available Lean Sigma programs produce localized gains within corporations. The knowledge generated by these local successes should be manipulated by the organization, so that the gains can be replicated, and savings multiplied across the organization. However, why does knowledge often fail to be successfully manipulated within an organization? This paper discusses a case study analysis in knowledge manipulation activities of a multi- national consumer products company through the lens of the Knowledge Management (KM Ontology. We then identify and document common obstacles, and offer potential solutions.
Ruyssen, M.L.; Moons, F.; Borgermans, P.
Preserving and enhancing the institutional memory has become a strategic concern for SCK-CEN. Managing the Knowledge Capital is a long term journey, starting from a strategic commitment and integrating various operational projects. Since 2002, several pilot projects in different areas of expertise have been conducted to set up nuclear knowledge repositories and to sustain interactive research communities. Beyond the establishment of a corporate knowledge sharing culture, dedicated web-based portals based on both well established and emerging open source internet technologies ensure the long term persistence of data and the continuous capture of knowledge by providing on-line tools and related QA procedures. (author)
Richmond, Marvin Elliot
Research has suggested that beliefs play a major role in selecting and defining teaching tasks and organizing the knowledge needed to perform those tasks. Teachers, consciously or unconsciously, depend on beliefs because they work in ill-structured domains where traditional problem solving techniques and academic knowledge do not work as well. The goal of this project was to establish, if possible, a causal link between teacher beliefs and interactive decision making through empirical, qualitative research. The hypothesis was, that when faced with those sorts of situations, the participants would fall back on belief systems that did not necessarily have a rational basis. The research focused on astronomy teachers in community colleges. Since most science reform efforts are directed toward primary and secondary schools, community college science teaching remains a neglected area of study. Yet community colleges are predicted to play an increasingly important role in higher education in the near future. For many students, community college science classes may represent their last encounter with formal, academic, science programs. The three participants were interviewed and observed in the classroom over an extended period. Initial interviews were conducted with each participant to capture stated beliefs. After the extensive classroom observations, stimulated recall interviews were held with each participant viewing short, edited segments of the classroom videotapes. No direct causal link between beliefs (in the conventional sense of the word) and participant decision making is apparent from this empirical research. However, the construct of personal practical theories, which includes beliefs as one component, shows promise as a significant determining factor in interactive decision making. Themes have been developed that represent each participant's personal practical theories. The strongest theme, applicable to all participants, is based on the notion of
Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung
This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.
The current study aims to explore the influence of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various aspects of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the…
Saad, Rayana; BouJaoude, Saouma
The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between teachers' attitudes toward science, knowledge and beliefs about inquiry, and science classroom teaching practices. Specifically, the study addressed three questions: What are teachers' beliefs and knowledge about inquiry? What are teachers' teaching related classroom practices? Do…
Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Özdemir, Ömer Faruk; Ünal, Cezmi
This study aims to investigate pre-service physics teachers' metacognitive knowledge about their teaching practices. The participants included six pre-service physics teachers. A taxonomy of metacognition for teaching was developed to analyze the level of pre-service physics teachers' metacognitive knowledge about their teaching practices.…
Background: The proper handling and disposal of bio-medical waste is very imperative. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste disposal leads to staid health and environment apprehension. Aim: To assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste management ...
Rawson, Helen; Bennett, Paul N; Ockerby, Cherene; Hutchinson, Alison M; Considine, Julie
Older adults are high users of emergency department services and their care requirements can present challenges for emergency nurses. Although clinical outcomes for older patients improve when they are cared for by nurses with specialist training, emergency nurses' knowledge and self-assessment of care for older patients is poorly understood. To assess emergency nurses' knowledge and self-rating of practice when caring for older patients. A cross-sectional self-report survey of emergency nurses (n=101) in Melbourne, Australia. Mean scores were 12.7 (SD 2.66) for the 25-item knowledge of older persons questionnaire, and 9.04 (SD 1.80) for the 15-item gerontic health related questions. Scores were unaffected by years of experience as a registered nurse or emergency nurse. More than 80% of nurses rated themselves as 'very good' or 'good' in assessing pain (94.9%), identifying delirium (87.8%), and identifying dementia (82.8%). Areas with a 'poor' ratings were identifying depression (46.5%), assessing polypharmacy (46.5%) and assessing nutrition (37.8%). There was variation in knowledge and self-rating of practice related to care of older patients. The relationship between knowledge and self-ratings of practice in relation to actual emergency nursing care of older people and patient outcomes warrants further exploration. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schwen, Thomas M.; Kalman, Howard K.; Hara, Noriko; Kisling, Eric L.
Considers aspects of knowledge management that have the potential to enhance human-performance-technology research and practice. Topics include intellectual capital; learning organization versus organizational learning; the importance of epistemology; the relationship of knowledge, learning, and performance; knowledge creation; socio-technical…
Hong, Huang-Yao; Chen, Fei-Ching; Chai, Ching Sing; Chan, Wen-Ching
This study investigated the effects of engaging students to collectively learn and work with knowledge in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment called Knowledge Forum on their views about knowledge building theory and practice. Participants were 24 teacher-education students who took a required course titled "Integrating Theory…
Human, Anja; van der Walt, Marthie; Posthuma, Barbara
Poor mathematics performance in schools is both a national and an international concern. Teachers ought to be equipped with relevant subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge as one way to address this problem. However, no mathematics knowledge and practice standards have as yet been defined for the preparation of Foundation Phase…
Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Carsten Munch; Brynildsen, Grethe; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie Skovsgaard; Larsen, Karin; Reierson, Inger Åse; Sommer, Irene; Stenholt, Britta
To present a case of knowledge translation in nursing education and practice and discusses mechanisms relevant to bringing knowledge into action. The process of knowledge translation aspires to close the gap between theory and practice. Knowledge translation is a cyclic process involving both the creation and application of knowledge in several phases. The case presented in this paper is the translation of the Model of Practical Skill Performance into education and practice. Advantages and problems with the use of this model and its adaptation and tailoring to local contexts illustrate the cyclic and iterative process of knowledge translation. The cultivation of a three-sided relationship between researchers, educators, and clinical nurses was a major asset in driving the process of knowledge translation. The knowledge translation process gained momentum by replacing passive diffusion strategies with interaction and teamwork between stakeholders. The use of knowledge creates feedback that might have consequences for the refinement and tailoring of that same knowledge itself. With end-users in mind, several heuristics were used by the research group to increase clarity of the model and to tailor the implementation of knowledge to the users. This article illustrates the need for enduring collaboration between stakeholders to promote the process of knowledge translation. Translation of research knowledge into practice is a time-consuming process that is enhanced when appropriate support is given by leaders in the involved facilities. Knowledge translation is a time-consuming and collaborative endeavour. On the basis of our experience we advocate the implementation and use of a conceptual framework for the entire process of knowledge translation. More descriptions of knowledge translation in the nursing discipline are needed to inspire and advise in this process. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Smalyanna Sgren da Costa Andrade
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Assessing the adequacy of knowledge, attitude and practice of women regarding male and female condoms as STI/HIV preventive measures. METHOD An evaluative Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP household survey with a quantitative approach, involving 300 women. Data collection took place between June and August 2013, in an informal urban settlement within the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. RESULTS Regarding the male condom, most women showed inadequate knowledge and practice, and an adequate attitude. Regarding the female condom, knowledge, attitude and practice variables were unsatisfactory. Significant associations between knowledge/religious orientation and attitude/education regarding the male condom were observed. CONCLUSION A multidisciplinary team should be committed to the development of educational practices as care promotion tools in order to improve adherence of condom use.
Karamitri, Ioanna; Talias, Michael A; Bellali, Thalia
Knowledge is an intangible asset in Organizations, and provides a comparative advantage to those who possess it. Hospitals are complex organizations with unique characteristics because of the heterogeneity of health professionals' orientation, the composite networking and the decision-making processes. A deeper understanding of knowledge management (KM) could streamline productivity and coordinate the use of resources more efficient. We conducted a systematic literature search of peer-reviewed papers that described key elements of KM using three databases (Medline, Cinahl and Health Source: nursing/academic edition) for a 10-year period (1/1/2004-25/11/2014). The included articles were subjected to qualitative content analysis. We retrieved 604 articles of which 20 articles were eligible for analysis. Most of the studies (n=13) used a qualitative methodology. The total sample size was 2155 participants. The key elements that arose were as follows: perceptions of KM, synthesis, dissemination, collaboration, means of KM and leadership. Moreover, this study identified barriers for KM implementation, like time restrictions and limited skills. Healthcare managers ought to cultivate a knowledge environment, operate as role models, provide the tools for KM and reward people who act as knowledge brokers. Opportunities for collaboration and knowledge sharing should be encouraged. Successful KM should be patient-centered to gain its maximum value. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Chen, Stephen; Waller, Lee
In order to offer insights into the management of HR challenges in Knowledge Intensive Firms/Organisations (KIO’s), this Special Issue explores three strands of research: International HRM, leadership and the knowledge-intensive firm/organisation. In this introduction against the background of
Background: Health insurance is a social security system that guarantees the provision of needed health services to persons on the payment of token contributions at regular intervals. ... There is a need to adequately subsidize the premiums that respondents were willing to pay in order to meet up with the cost of treatment.
syringes without sterilization. ... Injection safety as a concept includes all actions that ... access safe, affordable equipment to promote the ... Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... latitude 7043'N and longitude 8034'E. The hospital ... respondents personal experience of the consequences of .... facilities in Nigeria in 2004.
Wu, Charlotte A; Lin, Steven Y; So, Samuel K; Chang, Ellen T
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes liver cancer and disproportionately affects the Asian community in the U.S. In order to advance HBV and liver cancer awareness and prevention, it is important to identify existing gaps in knowledge and preventive practices among Asian Americans. Therefore, the authors administered a written questionnaire to 199 adults in the Asian-American community of the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Although the majority of adults had at least a college education, knowledge regarding HBV transmission, prevention, symptoms, risks, and occurrence was low. Fewer than 60% reported having been tested for HBV, only 31% reported having been vaccinated against HBV, and only 44% reported having had their children vaccinated. Asians, especially those born in China or Southeast Asia, had significantly poorer knowledge regarding HBV and liver cancer than non-Asians. Those with higher knowledge levels were significantly more likely to have been tested for HBV and to have had their children vaccinated. Younger adults, women, Caucasians, more highly educated individuals, those not born in China or Hong Kong, and those with a personal or family history of liver disease were more likely to have taken preventive action against HBV. Our results suggest that HBV and liver cancer knowledge among Asian Americans, especially Chinese Americans, is poor, and that better knowledge is associated with increased preventive practices. Thus, there is a need for increased HBV education and improved community-based interventions to prevent HBV-related liver disease in the high-risk Asian-American community.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores the linkage between Knowledge management practices and company performance. Keeping in view the theoretical and empirical importance, the present study examines the predicting linkage of Knowledge management practices (sharing of best practices and building of consistent process, continues employee learning, effective management of knowledge, innovative culture development, and management of core competencies with company performance.Methodology: The study was carried out on purposively selected sample of 412 employees at different managerial positions. They were administered questionnaires including Knowledge Management Practices and company performance. Data was operated by using SPSS version 20.Correlation and regression analysis was done to establish the relationship between various Knowledge management practices and company performance.Findings: Results of this study illustrated that all selected Knowledge management were positively related to company performance. Based on the findings, and management of core competencies was the strongest predictor of company performance, followed by innovative culture development, effective management of knowledge and sharing of best practices and building of consistent process, continues employee learning.Research limitations/implications: The paper focuses on examining the perceptual impacts of Knowledge management (KM practices on company performance. The interpretation of results should be taken with caution.Value: The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between Knowledge management and company performance, study the importance of Knowledge management as a source of sustainable competitive advantages for companies and to investigate how the introduction of Knowledge management practices facilitates company performance to improve. The practices that have a more positive influence on company performance are also discussed.
Fuchs, Lynn S; Geary, David C; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Douglas; Schatschneider, Christopher; Hamlett, Carol L; Deselms, Jacqueline; Seethaler, Pamela M; Wilson, Julie; Craddock, Caitlin F; Bryant, Joan D; Luther, Kurstin; Changas, Paul
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1st-grade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30-min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. At-risk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice ( n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice ( n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2-digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped at-risk children compensate for weak reasoning ability.
The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the I2009 Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Software Engineering (KESE 2009) was held on December 19~ 20, 2009, Shenzhen, China. Volume 2 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of Knowledge Engineering and Communication Technology to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 135 high-quality papers are included in the volume. Each paper has been peer-reviewed by at least 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor Prof.Yanwen Wu. On behalf of the this volume, we would like to express our sincere appreciation to all of authors and referees for their efforts reviewing the papers. Hoping you can find lots of profound research ideas and results on the related fields of Knowledge Engineering and Communication Technology.
Michael Pascal Hengartner
Full Text Available Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasised the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challenges common psychiatric practice. A comprehensive search and synthesis of the scientific literature demonstrates that maladaptive personality traits and personality disorders, in particular high neuroticism and negative affectivity, first, are risk factors for divorce, unemployment and disability pensioning; second, relate to the prevalence, incidence and co-occurrence of common mental disorders; third, impair functioning, symptom remission and recovery in co-occurring common mental disorders; and fourth, predispose to treatment resistance, non-response and poor treatment outcome. In conclusion, maladaptive personality is not only involved in the development and course of mental disorders, but also predisposes to chronicity and re-occurrence of psychopathology and reduces the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. The pernicious impact of maladaptive personality on mental health and functioning demands that careful assessment and thorough consideration of personality should be compulsory in psychiatric practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP studies to malaria research and control has not received much attention in most southern African countries. This study investigated the local communities' understanding of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, perceptions of cause, treatment-seeking patterns, preventive measures and practices in order to inform the country's proposed malaria elimination programme in Swaziland. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative (LSDI sentinel sites in Swaziland. These sentinel sites share borders with Mozambique. A structured questionnaire was administered to 320 randomly selected households. Only one adult person was interviewed per household. The interviewees were the heads of households and in the absence of the heads of households responsible adults above 18 years were interviewed. Results A substantial number of research participants showed reasonable knowledge of malaria, including correct association between malaria and mosquito bites, its potential fatal consequences and correct treatment practices. Almost 90% (n = 320 of the respondents stated that they would seek treatment within 24 hours of onset of malaria symptoms, with health facilities as their first treatment option. Most people (78% perceived clinics and vector control practices as central to treating and preventing malaria disease. Indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage and bed net ownership were 87.2% and 38.8%, respectively. IRS coverage was in agreement with the World Health Organization's (WHO recommendation of more than 80% within the targeted communities. Conclusion Despite fair knowledge of malaria in Swaziland, there is a need for improving the availability of information through the preferred community channels, such as tinkhundlas (districts, as well as professional health routes. This recommendation
On the face of it, conflicting constraints are placed on agents' knowledge of their own action: it is demanded that that which is known is "on the outside", but that the way in which it is known is "from the inside". I propose to look at the way in which Anscombe sets up this epistemological...... paradox and attempts to solve it. I discuss two ways in which Anscombe proposes to dissolve the paradox of agents' knowledge, whereof the first one is rejected. Finally, I discuss different problems for the second way and suggest that we can save the Anscombian framework by rethinking the role...
Full Text Available Background: Inevitable pesticide use in Indian agriculture has posed an increased risk of exposure to the farmers, which may lead to adverse health manifestations. Therefore, it is essential that the farmers must be aware of the harmful effects of pesticides. Aims and Objectives: To assess knowledge, practice and identify self-reported morbidity symptoms associated with pesticide use among farm women in the identified villages of Telangana, India. Materials and Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to carry out the survey among farmwomen. Results: 129 women working in agricultural farms were included in the study. Meagre knowledge regarding route of pesticide exposure was observed. Majority of them were not aware of toxicity symbols and never read the precautions on the pesticide containers. Inaccessibility was the main reason for insubstantial use of personal protective equipments (PPEs. Unsafe storage and disposal practices of containers were observed. Weakness (57.3%, headache (52% and itching of skin (51.1% were the common morbidity symptoms. Significant association was found between morbidity symptoms and use of PPE and hygienic practices, indicating importance of such practices. Conclusion: Improving knowledge which influences their practices and encouraging PPE use might be useful to remediate these issues. Monitoring studies may further aid to obtain the outcome of the awareness programmes and subsequently improved intervention methods can also be implemented.
Wei, Bing; Liu, Hao
We have examined an experienced chemistry teacher's pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of teaching with practical work in China. Based on the well-known PCK model by Magnusson S. J., Krajcik J. and Borko H., (1999), "Nature, sources, and development of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching," in Gess-Newsome J. and Lederman…
among Primary Health Care Workers in Kaduna State, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION .... educational institutions, religion and culture. A ..... Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2010; ... Attitudes, perception and practice of workers in.
AJRH Managing Editor
School of Nursing and Midwifery Yaba, Lagos. ... practices related to SCD and SCD premarital counseling, and between age and attitude and ..... The general opinion of some youths who ... of schools from the elementary stage (primary.
Differences in unsafe practices among anaesthesiologists who had read the guidelines ... employed (private vs. public) and gender; (b) To estimate the .... Private sector. 66% ..... reports from developing or low-income countries have been.
lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis with people contacting dirty-water or through sexual intercourse. Occasional ... to treat these diseases was reported to be a common practice. ...... Primary Publications and Grey Literature. Rwanda J.
Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising among older Australians. We conducted a large survey of older people's knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. A total of 2,137 Australians aged 60 years and older completed the survey, which included 15 questions assessing knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. We examined both levels of knowledge and factors associated with an overall knowledge score. In total, 1,652 respondents reported having sex in the past five years and answered all knowledge questions. This group had good general knowledge but poorer knowledge in areas such as the protection offered by condoms and potential transmission modes for specific STIs. Women had better knowledge than men. Men in their 60s, men with higher education levels, and men who thought they were at risk of STIs reported better knowledge than other men. Knowledge was also better among men and women who had been tested for STIs or reported 'other' sources of knowledge on STIs. Many older Australians lack knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. Implications for public health: To reverse current trends toward increasing STI diagnoses in this population, policies and education campaigns aimed at improving knowledge levels may need to be considered. © 2017 The Authors.
Khan, L.K.; Sethi, S.M.; Kokab, F.; Qureshi, A.
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Four gypsy settlements around Multan Road, Lahore were surveyed from July to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and thirteen randomly selected gypsies, aged 15-50 years, were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire based on UNAIDS survey indicators. Socio-demographic information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, its spread and preventive practices was asked. Scoring systems were devised to categorize the level of knowledge and preventive practices as satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Statistically significant difference between knowledge and preventive practices was calculated by Pearson's chi-square test using Epi Info. version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.5 +- 6.5 years, including 60.2% males and 39.8% females. Aggregate score for the level of knowledge indicated that 17 (7.98%) of these gypsies had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its transmission, whereas 40 (18.77%) and 156 (73.23%) were classified as having unsatisfactory and poor knowledge respectively. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003) when this knowledge was compared with preventive practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore was largely unsatisfactory. Improving knowledge about HIV/AIDS among gypsy community may result in positive behavioural change for disease prevention. (author)
Full Text Available It is analysed modern information about existent respiratory practices. The methodological, physiological and psychological aspects of respiratory practices are examined. 2 groups of students of higher humanitarian institute are participated in experiment: healthy (students of basic group, n1=180 and with different chronic pathology in the stage of remission (students of group of medical physical education, n2=50. Duration of experiment made about two months. Frequency of the controlled respiratory practice - 1-2 times per a week. The algorithm of respiratory practice is presented. Exercises and recommendations are resulted on their application.
Background: Blood donation is an essential component of health care which saves millions of lives each year.Students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria constitute a significant percentage of the population who areconsidered to meet the criteria for voluntary blood donation. We sought to assess the knowledge, attitude ...
Blotnicky-Gallant, Pamela; Martin, Cheron; McGonnell, Melissa; Corkum, Penny
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a significant impact on children's social, emotional, and academic performance in school, and as such, teachers are in a good position to provide evidence-based interventions to help ensure optimal adjustment of their students. The current study examined teachers' knowledge and beliefs about…
Aim: To assess patients' knowledge on denture hygiene and the hygiene methods used for cleaning removable partial dentures. Methods: This was a ... Other information obtained were the duration of denture use, frequency of denture cleaning and type of material used for denture cleaning. Results: The age of the ...
Background: Medical students represent a population that is at high‑risk group for acquiring and spreading hepatitis B infection (HBV). Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes among male student regarding occupational risks of HBV infection. Subjects and Methods: During March 2013, ...
... lack of display of universal precautions guidelines; emergency nature of the procedure; insufficient water supply; patient perceived to be at low risk of blood borne pathogens; pressure of time; and universal precautions equipments interferingwith technical skills. Although knowledge of universal precautions is high for both ...
Gilbert, Michael; Gilbert, Barbara
This paper extends existing research regarding content knowledge for teaching (CKT) and the role it plays in advancing student learning. Two teachers, with high and low measured CKT respectively, are observed on the same day teaching similar content. Many studies have recently been published linking student achievement to teacher's CKT and many US…
Friends/relatives (40.6%), followed by nurses (31.7%) and then doctors (17.3%) were the common sources of contraceptive awareness. The most widely known contraceptive methods were injectables, condoms, POP and OCP. The specific knowledge of emergency contraception was poor. The factors associated with low ...
Abbey, Elizabeth Lea; Wright, Cynthia Joy; Kirkpatrick, Christina M
Participation in collegiate American football is physically demanding and may have long-term health implications, particularly in relation to cardiovascular and neurological health. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III (DIII) football players are a relatively unstudied population, particularly in terms of their dietary habits and knowledge. The aim of the present study was to descriptively evaluate the dietary intake of DIII football players including a subset of linemen and assess the nutritional knowledge and sources of information of these athletes. The study sample was 88 DIII football players including a subset of nine linemen. All participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, and a nutritional knowledge questionnaire that included a quiz and questions about their main sources of nutrition information. Heights and body masses were also recorded. The linemen submitted written 3-day diet records for assessment of their dietary intake. Of the 88 participants, >50% reported consuming starches/grains, meat and dairy daily, but football players had dietary habits that may both mitigate and increase their risk of chronic diseases. These athletes have room to improve their nutrition knowledge. Their reliance on athletic team staff for nutrition guidance highlights the importance of nutrition education for both athletes and staff and the potential role of a registered dietitian nutritionist.
Objectives. To assess the level of HlV-related knowledge, as well as high-risk behaviour and attitudes towards HIV, in a group of South African National Defence Force (SANDF) recruits. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Tempe military base in Bloemfontein. Subjects. Three hundred and thirty-nine recruits from one ...
Malgré une note de connaissance parmi ces travailleurs à faible revenu dominé par les mâles, leur pratiques sexuelles sont de nature à encourager la transmission du VIH. Keywords: knowledge, automobile mechanics, sexual behaviour, small scale industries. African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol. 11 (2) 2007: pp.
Background: The School health programme is designed to promote the optimal physical, emotional, social and educational development of students. Teachers play a major role in the promotion and successful implementation of the Programme. Objective: To determine and compare teachers knowledge, attitude and ...
Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Florian, Lani
Whilst recent decades have seen significant progress in research on inclusive education, many teachers still feel that the research literature does not fully address their professional concerns about how to enact a policy of inclusion in their classrooms. To help to bridge this gap, we drew on the concept of craft knowledge to undertake a detailed…
experience and their knowledge of cold chain was not as per required levels to support effective cold chain management. ... district directorates who then supply them to the various ..... Finn L, Crook S. A district survey of vaccine cold chain ...
Background: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted cause of carcinoma of the cervix. An important determinant of the success of a primary preventive strategy like HPV vaccination is the knowledge and willingness of parents to vaccinate adolescents before sexual debut. Materials and methods of study: A ...
64 of 172 or 37.2%). Fewer respondents (46.5%) had knowledge of mentoring, which depended on years spent in residency (X2=24.605, df=6, p=0.000); older age (X2=44.680, df=9, p=0.000); working in public hospital (X2=15.662, df=3, ...