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Sample records for personal exposure measurement

  1. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure measurements in Swiss adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Struchen, Benjamin; Zahner, Marco; Eeftens, Marloes; Fröhlich, Jürg; Röösli, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents belong to the heaviest users of wireless communication devices, but little is known about their personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this paper is to describe personal RF-EMF exposure of Swiss adolescents and evaluate exposure relevant factors. Furthermore, personal measurements were used to estimate average contributions of various sources to the total absorbed RF-EMF dose of the brain and the whole body. Personal exposure was measured using a portable RF-EMF measurement device (ExpoM-RF) measuring 13 frequency bands ranging from 470 to 3600MHz. The participants carried the device for three consecutive days and kept a time-activity diary. In total, 90 adolescents aged 13 to 17years participated in the study conducted between May 2013 and April 2014. In addition, personal measurement values were combined with dose calculations for the use of wireless communication devices to quantify the contribution of various RF-EMF sources to the daily RF-EMF dose of adolescents. Main contributors to the total personal RF-EMF measurements of 63.2μW/m 2 (0.15V/m) were exposures from mobile phones (67.2%) and from mobile phone base stations (19.8%). WLAN at school and at home had little impact on the personal measurements (WLAN accounted for 3.5% of total personal measurements). According to the dose calculations, exposure from environmental sources (broadcast transmitters, mobile phone base stations, cordless phone base stations, WLAN access points, and mobile phones in the surroundings) contributed on average 6.0% to the brain dose and 9.0% to the whole-body dose. RF-EMF exposure of adolescents is dominated by their own mobile phone use. Environmental sources such as mobile phone base stations play a minor role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across

  3. Measurement of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds and particle associated PAH in three UK regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborit, Juana Mari Delgado; Aquilina, Noel J; Meddings, Claire; Baker, Stephen; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Harrison, Roy M

    2009-06-15

    Personal exposures to 15 volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of 100 adult nonsmokers living in three UK areas, namely London, West Midlands, and rural South Wales, were measured using an actively pumped sampler carried around by the volunteers for 5/1 (VOC/PAH) consecutive 24-h periods, following their normal lifestyle. Results from personal exposure measurements categorized by geographical location, type of dwelling, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are presented. The average personal exposure concentration to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo(a)pyrene representing the main carcinogenic components of the VOC and PAH mixture were 2.2 +/- 2.5 microg/m3, 0.4 +/- 0.7 microg/m3, and 0.3 +/- 0.7 ng/m3 respectively. The association of a number of generic factors with personal exposure concentrations was investigated, including first-line property, traffic, the presence of an integral garage, and ETS. Only living in houses with integral garages and being exposed to ETS were identified as unequivocal contributors to VOC personal exposure, while only ETS had a clear effect upon PAH personal exposures. The measurements of personal exposures were compared with health-based European and UK air quality guidelines, with some exceedences occurring. Activities contributing to high personal exposures included the use of a fireplace in the home, ETS exposure, DIY (i.e., construction and craftwork activities), and photocopying, among others.

  4. Children's exposure assessment of radiofrequency fields: Comparison between spot and personal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegi, Mara; Huss, Anke; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Guxens, Mònica; Birks, Laura Ellen; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; Röösli, Martin; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana

    2018-05-24

    Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work. The aims of this study were to assess RF exposure in the Spanish INMA birth cohort by spot measurements and by personal measurements in the settings where children tend to spend most of their time, i.e., homes, schools and parks; to identify the settings and sources that contribute most to that exposure; and to explore if exposure assessment based on spot measurements is a valid proxy for personal exposure. When children were 8 years old, spot measurements were conducted in the principal settings of 104 participants: homes (104), schools and their playgrounds (26) and parks (79). At the same time, personal measurements were taken for a subsample of 50 children during 3 days. Exposure assessment based on personal and on spot measurements were compared both in terms of mean exposures and in exposure-dependent categories by means of Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's kappa and McNemar test. Median exposure levels ranged from 29.73 (in children's bedrooms) to 200.10 μW/m 2 (in school playgrounds) for spot measurements and were higher outdoors than indoors. Median personal exposure was 52.13 μW/m 2 and median levels of assessments based on spot measurements ranged from 25.46 to 123.21 μW/m 2 . Based on spot measurements, the sources that contributed most to the exposure were FM radio, mobile phone downlink and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, while indoor and personal sources contributed very little (altogether spot measurements, with the latter

  5. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing.

  6. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  7. Predicting personal exposure to airborne carbonyls using residential measurements and time/activity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weili; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Korn, Leo R.; Zhang, Lin; Weisel, Clifford P.; Turpin, Barbara; Morandi, Maria; Stock, Tom; Colome, Steve

    As a part of the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study, 48 h integrated residential indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure concentrations of 10 carbonyls were simultaneously measured in 234 homes selected from three US cities using the Passive Aldehydes and Ketones Samplers (PAKS). In this paper, we examine the feasibility of using residential indoor concentrations to predict personal exposures to carbonyls. Based on paired t-tests, the means of indoor concentrations were not different from those of personal exposure concentrations for eight out of the 10 measured carbonyls, indicating indoor carbonyls concentrations, in general, well predicted the central tendency of personal exposure concentrations. In a linear regression model, indoor concentrations explained 47%, 55%, and 65% of personal exposure variance for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and hexaldehyde, respectively. The predictability of indoor concentrations on cross-individual variability in personal exposure for the other carbonyls was poorer, explainingexposure concentrations. It was found that activities related to driving a vehicle and performing yard work had significant impacts on personal exposures to a few carbonyls.

  8. Solar UV exposure among outdoor workers in Denmark measured with personal UV-B dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Sherman, David Zim

    2017-01-01

    radiation exposure are needed to help resolve this problem. This can be done using personal ultraviolet radiation dosimeters. Methods: We consider technical and practical feasibility of measuring individual solar ultraviolet exposure at work and leisure in professions with different á priori temporal high......-level outdoor worktime, using aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) photodiode detector based personal UV-B dosimeters. Essential technical specifications including the spectral and angular responsivity of the dosimeters are described and pre-campaign dosimeter calibration applicability is verified. The scale...... with our specialist knowledge as occupational physicians. Conclusions: Large-scale use of personal UV-B dosimeters for measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure at work and leisure in Denmark is indeed feasible from a technical and practical viewpoint. Samples of exposure data shown support...

  9. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across various microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, and iii) evaluate the correlation between the PDE and ExpoM-RFs measurements. Personal exposure data were collected using the PDE and two ExpoM-RFs simultaneously across 34 microenvironments (17 each in Australia and Belgium) located in urban, suburban and rural areas. Summary statistics of the electric field strengths (V/m) were computed and compared across similar microenvironments in Australia and Belgium. The personal exposures across urban microenvironments were higher than those in the rural or suburban microenvironments. Likewise, the exposure levels across the outdoor were higher than those for indoor microenvironments. The five highest median exposure levels were: city centre (0.248V/m), bus (0.124V/m), railway station (0.105V/m), mountain/forest (rural) (0.057V/m), and train (0.055V/m) [Australia]; and bicycle (urban) (0.238V/m), tram station (0.238V/m), city centre (0.156V/m), residential outdoor (urban) (0.139V/m) and park (0.124V/m) [Belgium]. Exposures in the GSM900 MHz frequency band across most of the microenvironments in Australia were significantly lower than the exposures across the microenvironments in Belgium. Overall correlations between the PDE and the ExpoM-RFs measurements were high. The measured exposure levels were far below the general public reference levels recommended in the guidelines of the ICNIRP and the ARPANSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Liorni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy. Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1 median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2 geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3 seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4 the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5 no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean.

  11. Photometrically measured continuous personal PM(2.5) exposure: levels and correlation to a gravimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanki, Timo; Alm, Sari; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Janssen, Nicole A H; Jantunen, Matti; Pekkanen, Juha

    2002-05-01

    There is evidence that hourly variations in exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) may be associated with adverse health effects. Still there are only few published data on short-term levels of personal exposure to PM in community settings. The objectives of the study were to assess hourly and shorter-term variations in personal PM(2.5) exposure in Helsinki, Finland, and to compare results from portable photometers to simultaneously measured gravimetric concentrations. The effect of relative humidity on the photometric results was also evaluated. Personal PM(2.5) exposures of elderly persons were assessed for 24 h every second week, resulting in 308 successful measurements from 47 different subjects. Large changes in concentrations in minutes after cooking or changing microenvironment were seen. The median of daily 1-h maxima was over twice the median of 24-h averages. There was a strong significant association between the two means, which was not linear. Median (95th percentile) of the photometric 24-h concentrations was 12.1 (37.7) and of the 24-h gravimetric concentrations 9.2 (21.3) microg/m3. The correlation between the photometric and the gravimetric method was quite good (R2=0.86). Participants spent 94.1% of their time indoors or in a vehicle, where relative humidity is usually low and thus not likely to cause significant effects on photometric results. Even outdoors, the relative humidity had only modest effect on concentrations. Photometers are a promising method to explore the health effects of short-term variation in personal PM(2.5) exposure.

  12. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    Full Text Available Excessive ultraviolet (UV radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  13. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive; Pielak, Rafal M

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  14. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A.; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application. PMID:29293664

  15. Home outdoor models for traffic-related air pollutants do not represent personal exposure measurements in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducret-Stich, R; Gemperli, A; Ineichen, A; Phuleria, H C; Delfino, R J; Tjoa, T; Wu, J; Liu, L-J S

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have used measurements or estimates of traffic-related air pollutants at home or school locations to link associations between exposure and health. However, little is known about the validity of these outdoor concentrations as an estimate for personal exposure to traffic. This paper compares modelled outdoor concentrations at home with personal exposure to traffic air pollution of 63 children in two areas in Los Angeles in 2003/2004. Exposure monitoring consisted of sixteen 10-day monitoring runs, with each run monitoring 4 subjects concurrently with the active personal DataRAM for particulate matter 25 ), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). One child per run had concurrent indoor/outdoor home monitoring. Measurements at central sites (24-hr PM 25 , EC, OC) were taken daily and concentrations of PM 25 , EC, and OC from traffic sources were calculated using the CALINE4 model for individual residences. We modelled outdoor concentrations of PM 2 5 , EC and OC with multilinear regression including GIS and meteorological parameters and adjusted for auto-correlation between repeated measurements. The model fit (R 2 ) for home outdoor estimates was 0.94, 0.74 and 0.80 for PM 25 , EC and OC, respectively. Comparisons between these outdoor estimates and the personal measurements showed a good agreement for PM 25 (R 2 =0.65-0.70) with a mean bias of -0.7±11.8|ag for the smog receptor area, and 18.9±16.2|ag for the traffic impacted area. However the outdoor estimates were not related to personal exposure for EC (R 2 =0.01-0.29) and OC (R 2 =0.03- 0.14). Conclusions: Predictions of outdoor concentrations can be used as approximations of personal exposure to PM 25 . However, they are not appropriate for estimating personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants including EC and OC in studies of acute exposure-response relationships.

  16. Recommendations for Guidelines for EMF Personal Exposure Measurements, Rapid Project #4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of developing guidelines for electric and magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure measurements (lF'EM) is to ensure reliable and comparable data across I?EM studies. Study techniques may vary due to different populations or objectives, but the resulting data should be consistently reported and comparable, to the extent possible. Any guideline must allow creativity by the research-oriented investigator and provide specific guidance to industrial hygienists or other results-oriented investigators, requiring a standard protocol. Recognizing measurement studies with different purposes is an important aspect of these recommendations. The guidelines presented here intend to produce comparable data across studies while remaining flexible. The recommendations for designing and implementing an EMF PEM program describe a three-stage process. The first step is to clearly state the purpose of the PEM program. The next stage addresses the fundamental elements of an EMF PEM study, including an assessment of the scientific and organizational resources that will be required. This process is codified in a written study plan. These stages are described in 1 Section 5 of this report. The third stage of a PEM study involves the design, implementation and documentation of specific procedures and protocols fo~ sampling strategies, selection of measurement parameters; instrumentation, measurement and data collection, data management, data analysis, quality assurance, uncertainty evaluation, and archiving the study methods and results. The methods for designing these elements of an EMF PEM study are described in Section 6: Specific Guidelines for EMF I?EM Study Design.

  17. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2016-03-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  18. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Chhavi R.; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J.; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  19. Predicting personal exposure of Windsor, Ontario residents to volatile organic compounds using indoor measurements and survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corinne; MacNeill, Morgan; Wang, Daniel; Xu, Xiaohong; Guay, Mireille; Brook, Jeff; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    As part of a multi-year personal exposure monitoring campaign, we collected personal, indoor, and outdoor levels of 188 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In 2005, data were obtained for 48 non-smoking adults from Windsor, Ontario in order to assess their exposure to VOCs based on their daily routines and characteristics of their homes. During the 8-week winter and summer sampling sessions, five repeated 24-h measurements were obtained for each home. This paper focuses on the analysis of 18 VOCs: 11 have been declared toxic as defined under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, [1999. Statutes of Canada. Act assented to September 14, 1999. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. Available at Canada Gazette (Part III) 22(3): (Chapter 33). http://canadagazette.gc.ca/partIII/1999/g3-02203.pdf], and seven are commonly found in household and personal care products. Results of mixed effects models indicate that personal exposure to these VOCs can be largely predicted by indoor concentrations, with models including indoor concentrations found to have an r2 value for the fixed effects ranging from 58.4% to 87.2% for the CEPA toxic VOCs and from 41.7% to 90.1% for the commonly found VOCs. Given that people spend the majority of their time inside their home, characteristics of the home such as air exchange rates, type of garage, and type of stove have a greater potential to impact personal exposures.

  20. Solar UV exposure among outdoor workers in Denmark measured with personal UV-B dosimeters: technical and practical feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Sherman, David Zim; Køster, Brian; Lund, Paul-Anker; Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Eriksen, Paul

    2017-10-10

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is a well-known cause of skin cancer. This is problematic for outdoor workers. In Denmark alone, occupational skin cancer poses a significant health and safety risk for around 400,000 outdoor workers. Objective measures of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure are needed to help resolve this problem. This can be done using personal ultraviolet radiation dosimeters. We consider technical and practical feasibility of measuring individual solar ultraviolet exposure at work and leisure in professions with different á priori temporal high-level outdoor worktime, using aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) photodiode detector based personal UV-B dosimeters. Essential technical specifications including the spectral and angular responsivity of the dosimeters are described and pre-campaign dosimeter calibration applicability is verified. The scale and conduct of dosimeter deployment and campaign in-field measurements including failures and shortcomings affecting overall data collection are presented. Nationwide measurements for more than three hundred and fifty workers from several different professions were collected in the summer of 2016. On average, each worker's exposure was measured for a 2-week period, which included both work and leisure. Data samples of exposure at work during a Midsummer day show differences across professions. A construction worker received high-level occupational UV exposure most of the working day, except during lunch hour, accumulating to 5.1 SED. A postal service worker was exposed intermittently around noon and in the afternoon, preceded by no exposure forenoon when packing mail, accumulating to 1.6 SED. A crane fitter was exposed only during lunch hour, accumulating to 0.7 SED. These findings are in line with our specialist knowledge as occupational physicians. Large-scale use of personal UV-B dosimeters for measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure at work and leisure in Denmark is indeed

  1. Personal exposure control using TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Hideharu; Takeda, Shinso

    1979-01-01

    In the Tokai Works of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), for personal exposure control, the switching from film badges to TLD badges (and also finger-ring type local dosimeters) was made in fiscal 1974. The facilities involved are a fuel reprocessing plant, a PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed fuel production facility, and a centrifugal uranium enrichment development facility. The types of radiation concerned are various, such as γ(x), β and n. The situation of personal exposure control with TLD and the dose evaluation methods for respective radiations are explained. The number of personnel subject to exposure control, including transient people, is about 2500 - 3000 per three months. The TLD badges used are a special PNC type with TLDs to measure separately γ(x), β and n. With casings made of ABS resin, the external dimensions are 76 mm x 46 mm. (J.P.N.)

  2. Risk assessments for exposure of deployed military personnel to insecticides and personal protective measures used for disease-vector management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D; Davis, Ryan S

    2007-10-01

    Infectious diseases are problematic for deployed military forces throughout the world, and, historically, more military service days have been lost to insect-vectored diseases than to combat. Because of the limitations in efficacy and availability of both vaccines and therapeutic drugs, vector management often is the best tool that military personnel have against most vector-borne pathogens. However, the use of insecticides may raise concerns about the safety of their effects on the health of the military personnel exposed to them. Therefore, our objective was to use risk assessment methodologies to evaluate health risks to deployed U.S. military personnel from vector management tactics. Our conservative tier-1, quantitative risk assessment focused on acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures and cancer risks to military personnel after insecticide application and use of personal protective measures in different scenarios. Exposures were estimated for every scenario, chemical, and pathway. Acute, subchronic, and chronic risks were assessed using a margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Our MOE was the ratio of a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to an estimated exposure. MOEs were greater than the levels of concern (LOCs) for all surface residual and indoor space spraying exposures, except acute dermal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. MOEs were greater than the LOCs for all chemicals in the truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) exposure scenario. The aggregate cancer risk for permethrin exceeded 1 x 10(-6), but more realistic exposure refinements would reduce the cancer risk below that value. Overall, results indicate that health risks from exposures to insecticides and personal protective measures used by military personnel are low.

  3. Lessons learnt on biases and uncertainties in personal exposure measurement surveys of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields with exposimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, John F B

    2016-09-01

    Personal exposure measurements of radio frequency electromagnetic fields are important for epidemiological studies and developing prediction models. Minimizing biases and uncertainties and handling spatial and temporal variability are important aspects of these measurements. This paper reviews the lessons learnt from testing the different types of exposimeters and from personal exposure measurement surveys performed between 2005 and 2015. Applying them will improve the comparability and ranking of exposure levels for different microenvironments, activities or (groups of) people, such that epidemiological studies are better capable of finding potential weak correlations with health effects. Over 20 papers have been published on how to prevent biases and minimize uncertainties due to: mechanical errors; design of hardware and software filters; anisotropy; and influence of the body. A number of biases can be corrected for by determining multiplicative correction factors. In addition a good protocol on how to wear the exposimeter, a sufficiently small sampling interval and sufficiently long measurement duration will minimize biases. Corrections to biases are possible for: non-detects through detection limit, erroneous manufacturer calibration and temporal drift. Corrections not deemed necessary, because no significant biases have been observed, are: linearity in response and resolution. Corrections difficult to perform after measurements are for: modulation/duty cycle sensitivity; out of band response aka cross talk; temperature and humidity sensitivity. Corrections not possible to perform after measurements are for: multiple signals detection in one band; flatness of response within a frequency band; anisotropy to waves of different elevation angle. An analysis of 20 microenvironmental surveys showed that early studies using exposimeters with logarithmic detectors, overestimated exposure to signals with bursts, such as in uplink signals from mobile phones and Wi

  4. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  5. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  6. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lance; Ott, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) can occur while people are cooking, driving, smoking, operating small appliances such as hair dryers, or eating out in restaurants. These exposures can often be higher than outdoor concentrations. For 3 years, portable monitors were employed in homes, cars, and restaurants. More than 300 measurement periods in several homes were documented, along with 25 h of driving two cars, and 22 visits to restaurants. Cooking on gas or electric stoves and electric toaster ovens was a major source of UFP, with peak personal exposures often exceeding 100,000 particles/cm³ and estimated emission rates in the neighborhood of 10¹² particles/min. Other common sources of high UFP exposures were cigarettes, a vented gas clothes dryer, an air popcorn popper, candles, an electric mixer, a toaster, a hair dryer, a curling iron, and a steam iron. Relatively low indoor UFP emissions were noted for a fireplace, several space heaters, and a laser printer. Driving resulted in moderate exposures averaging about 30,000 particles/cm³ in each of two cars driven on 17 trips on major highways on the East and West Coasts. Most of the restaurants visited maintained consistently high levels of 50,000-200,000 particles/cm³ for the entire length of the meal. The indoor/outdoor ratios of size-resolved UFP were much lower than for PM₂.₅ or PM₁₀, suggesting that outdoor UFP have difficulty in penetrating a home. This in turn implies that outdoor concentrations of UFP have only a moderate effect on personal exposures if indoor sources are present. A time-weighted scenario suggests that for typical suburban nonsmoker lifestyles, indoor sources provide about 47% and outdoor sources about 36% of total daily UFP exposure and in-vehicle exposures add the remainder (17%). However, the effect of one smoker in the home results in an overwhelming increase in the importance of indoor sources (77% of the total).

  7. Electrothermal piezoresistive cantilever resonators for personal measurements of nanoparticles in workplace exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Wu, Wenze; Uhde, Erik; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2015-05-01

    Low-cost and low-power piezoresistive cantilever resonators with integrated electrothermal heaters are developed to support the sensing module enhancement of the second generation of handheld cantilever-based airborne nanoparticle (NP) detector (CANTOR-2). These sensors are used for direct-reading of exposure to carbon engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) at indoor workplaces. The cantilever structures having various shapes of free ends are created using silicon bulk micromachining technologies (i.e, rectangular, hammer-head, triangular, and U-shaped cantilevers). For a complete wearable CANTOR-2, all components of the proposed detector can be grouped into two main units depending on their packaging placements (i.e., the NP sampler head and the electronics mounted in a handy-format housing). In the NP sampler head, a miniaturized electrophoretic aerosol sampler and a resonant silicon cantilever mass sensor are employed to collect the ENPs from the air stream to the cantilever surfaces and measuring their mass concentration, respectively. After calibration, the detected ENP mass concentrations of CANTOR-2 show a standard deviation from fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS, TSI 3091) of 8-14%.

  8. Measurement of the external doses at low and high exposures by Agfa personal monitoring film, FD-III-B badge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, F.; Stochioiu, A.; Bercea, S.; Udup, E.; Tudor, I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A growing number of papers report occupational exposure monitoring by different dosemeter devices. Researches into improvement of the personal dosemeter systems are encouraged. Dose measurement and especially skin dose measurement, are therefore increasingly important. Methods and acceptable dosemeter are not clearly defined and differ from a dosimetry laboratory to other depending on their specifically work procedure and type of dosemeter utilized. Taking into account the characteristic of the work place (industry, research, medical application) dosemeter have to cover a large dose range. The dose assessment problems are manly in low doses range (under 0.2 mSv) and higher doses range. For example, typical for radiation oncology and nuclear accident dosimetry the dose ranges are on the order of 2-70 Gy and 0.1-5 Gy. This work presents the performance of the Agfa personal monitoring film, badge FD-III-B type used in the most of the occupational exposure monitoring from Romania. The FD-III-B dosimeter, manufactured in Romania, is used for monitoring personnel working in radioactive environment - the photodosimetric method is the one of the most reliable method presenting the advantage that the film may be considered as master probe over 30 year and may be utilized during litigation. The dosimeter contains metallic filters of Al, Cu, Pb with different thicknesses, a plastic filter and a open window. The badge FD-III-B is a class B dosimeter according to the dose range and an indices 3 dosimeter from energy range of the radiations in conformity with Romanian Standard in force. Film Agfa 'personal monitoring', tacked in this experiment, consists of a low speed film (D2) and a very sensitive film (D10) designed for recording X-ray, gamma and beta radiation over the doses range 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv. The experiments have been effectuated at different background optical density (base fog) of the films and at different sources of radiation: 13 :7Cs, 60 Co and 24 : 1 Am

  9. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  10. Comparative measurements of external radiation exposure using mobile phones, dental ceramic, household salt and conventional personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulánek, Boris; Judas, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Because retrospective dosimetry utilises commonly occurring materials and objects, it is particularly useful in cases of large-scale radiation accidents or malevolent acts with radioactive materials where casualties are inflicted on the general public and first emergency responders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether retrospective dosemeters can provide dose estimates with comparable accuracy like conventional personal dosemeters. Using an external source of radiation 137 Cs and an anthropomorphic phantom, we simulated serious irradiation of a human body in anterior-posterior and rotational geometries. Retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects, such as mobile phones, dental ceramic and household salt, and conventional personal dosemeters (thermoluminescent and electronic) were fixed to the anthropomorphic phantom. The doses obtained were compared with specific reference values. In most cases, relative deviations between the measured doses and the reference values did not exceed 20%. As the retrospective and conventional dosemeters show no significant differences in laboratory conditions, the retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects represent a very promising tool if handled properly. - Highlights: • A serious external exposure of human body was simulated. • Doses were measured using both retrospective and conventional dosemeters. • Utilised retrospective dosimetry materials were alumina resistors from mobile phones, household salt and dental ceramic. • Doses obtained were compared with reference values. • Both retrospective and conventional dosemeters gave similar results

  11. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... contaminant sources, this entrainment improves the indoor air quality. Measurements of exposure due to a passive contaminant source show a significant dependence on the flow field as well as on the contaminant source location. Poor system performance is found in the case of a passive contaminant released...

  12. Agreement of central site measurements and land use regression modeled oxidative potential of PM{sub 2.5} with personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Aileen, E-mail: Yang@uu.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Hoek, Gerard; Montagne, Denise [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Leseman, Daan L.A.C. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hellack, Bryan [Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology, Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), e.V., Blierheimer Str. 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J. [Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology, Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), e.V., Blierheimer Str. 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Cassee, Flemming R. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Brunekreef, Bert [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Janssen, Nicole A.H. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has been suggested as a health-relevant exposure metric. In order to use OP for exposure assessment, information is needed about how well central site OP measurements and modeled average OP at the home address reflect temporal and spatial variation of personal OP. We collected 96-hour personal, home outdoor and indoor PM{sub 2.5} samples from 15 volunteers living either at traffic, urban or regional background locations in Utrecht, the Netherlands. OP was also measured at one central reference site to account for temporal variations. OP was assessed using electron spin resonance (OP{sup ESR}) and dithiothreitol (OP{sup DTT}). Spatial variation of average OP at the home address was modeled using land use regression (LUR) models. For both OP{sup ESR} and OP{sup DTT}, temporal correlations of central site measurements with home outdoor measurements were high (R>0.75), and moderate to high (R=0.49–0.70) with personal measurements. The LUR model predictions for OP correlated significantly with the home outdoor concentrations for OP{sup DTT} and OP{sup ESR} (R=0.65 and 0.62, respectively). LUR model predictions were moderately correlated with personal OP{sup DTT} measurements (R=0.50). Adjustment for indoor sources, such as vacuum cleaning and absence of fume-hood, improved the temporal and spatial agreement with measured personal exposure for OP{sup ESR}. OP{sup DTT} was not associated with any indoor sources. Our study results support the use of central site OP for exposure assessment of epidemiological studies focusing on short-term health effects. - Highlights: • Oxidative potential (OP) of PM was proposed as a health-relevant exposure metric. • We evaluated the relationship between measured and modeled outdoor and personal OP. • Temporal correlations of central site with personal OP are moderate to high. • Adjusting for indoor sources improved the agreement with personal OP. • Our results

  13. EVALUATION OF A PERSONAL NEPHELOMETER FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current particulate matter (PM) exposure studies are using continuous personal nephelometers (pDR-1000, MIE, Inc.) to measure human exposure to PM. The personal nephelometer is a passive sampler which uses light scattering technology to measure particles ranging in size from 0....

  14. Measurement system for the determination of the individual exposure of low frequency electric and magnetic fields on humans (personal dosimeter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, E.

    1998-07-01

    The current doctorate introduces a free body electronic personal dosimeter for measuring the vector components of ELF-fields. In contrast to a conventional field strength meter not the undisturbed fields are used as a measure, but the inhomogeneous fields near the human body, measured over a long time (dosimetric concept). Based on an analytical and numerical 'dosimetric' model, the field signal together with the frequency information can be transformed for further evaluation in the average inner body current density. Here the current density is considered as a dose relevant measure. According to demands in industrial safety, requirements for a dosimeter are derived and developmental goals defined. These goals are realized by investigations and proficiency testings of electric and magnetic highly sensitive field sensors, the development of low-power electronics with good performance and the implementation of digital data processing on different platforms. The characterization of the influence of possible environmental variables on the realized prototype, the determination of the technical characteristics under various boundary conditions and an error analysis are further important parts of this work. The calibration of the INPEDO (individual personal dosimeter) measurement system in special calibration facilities (three axis Helmholtz coils for the magnetic and parallel plates according to the IEEE833-standard for the electric field) as well as first measurements taken under real operating conditions conclude this report. (orig.) [de

  15. Personal exposure measurements of school-children to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in winter of 2013, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Guo, Changyi; Jia, Xiaodong; Xu, Huihui; Pan, Meizhu; Xu, Dong; Shen, Xianbiao; Zhang, Jianghua; Tan, Jianguo; Qian, Hailei; Dong, Chunyang; Shi, Yewen; Zhou, Xiaodan; Wu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an exposure assessment of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter) among children and to explore the potential sources of exposure from both indoor and outdoor environments. In terms of real-time exposure measurements of PM2.5, we collected data from 57 children aged 8-12 years (9.64 ± 0.93 years) in two schools in Shanghai, China. Simultaneously, questionnaire surveys and time-activity diaries were used to estimate the environment at home and daily time-activity patterns in order to estimate the exposure dose of PM2.5 in these children. Principle component regression analysis was used to explore the influence of potential sources of PM2.5 exposure. All the median personal exposure and microenvironment PM2.5 concentrations greatly exceeded the daily 24-h PM2.5 Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, the USA, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The median Etotal (the sum of the PM2.5 exposure levels in different microenvironment and fractional time) of all students was 3014.13 (μg.h)/m3. The concentration of time-weighted average (TWA) exposure of all students was 137.01 μg/m3. The median TWA exposure level during the on-campus period (135.81 μg/m3) was significantly higher than the off-campus period (115.50 μg/m3, P = 0.013 < 0.05). Besides ambient air pollution and meteorological conditions, storey height of the classroom and mode of transportation to school were significantly correlated with children's daily PM2.5 exposure. Children in the two selected schools were exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 in winter of 2013 in Shanghai. Their personal PM2.5 exposure was mainly associated with ambient air conditions, storey height of the classroom, and children's transportation mode to school.

  16. Estimating Time-Varying PCB Exposures Using Person-Specific Predictions to Supplement Measured Values: A Comparison of Observed and Predicted Values in Two Cohorts of Norwegian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Breivik, Knut; Wania, Frank; Rylander, Charlotta; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies on the health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) call for an understanding of past and present human exposure. Time-resolved mechanistic models may supplement information on concentrations in individuals obtained from measurements and/or statistical approaches if they can be shown to reproduce empirical data. Objectives Here, we evaluated the capability of one such mechanistic model to reproduce measured PCB concentrations in individual Norwegian women. We also assessed individual life-course concentrations. Methods Concentrations of four PCB congeners in pregnant (n = 310, sampled in 2007–2009) and postmenopausal (n = 244, 2005) women were compared with person-specific predictions obtained using CoZMoMAN, an emission-based environmental fate and human food-chain bioaccumulation model. Person-specific predictions were also made using statistical regression models including dietary and lifestyle variables and concentrations. Results CoZMoMAN accurately reproduced medians and ranges of measured concentrations in the two study groups. Furthermore, rank correlations between measurements and predictions from both CoZMoMAN and regression analyses were strong (Spearman’s r > 0.67). Precision in quartile assignments from predictions was strong overall as evaluated by weighted Cohen’s kappa (> 0.6). Simulations indicated large inter-individual differences in concentrations experienced in the past. Conclusions The mechanistic model reproduced all measurements of PCB concentrations within a factor of 10, and subject ranking and quartile assignments were overall largely consistent, although they were weak within each study group. Contamination histories for individuals predicted by CoZMoMAN revealed variation between study subjects, particularly in the timing of peak concentrations. Mechanistic models can provide individual PCB exposure metrics that could serve as valuable supplements to measurements. Citation Nøst TH, Breivik K, Wania F

  17. Estimating Time-Varying PCB Exposures Using Person-Specific Predictions to Supplement Measured Values: A Comparison of Observed and Predicted Values in Two Cohorts of Norwegian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Breivik, Knut; Wania, Frank; Rylander, Charlotta; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

    2016-03-01

    Studies on the health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) call for an understanding of past and present human exposure. Time-resolved mechanistic models may supplement information on concentrations in individuals obtained from measurements and/or statistical approaches if they can be shown to reproduce empirical data. Here, we evaluated the capability of one such mechanistic model to reproduce measured PCB concentrations in individual Norwegian women. We also assessed individual life-course concentrations. Concentrations of four PCB congeners in pregnant (n = 310, sampled in 2007-2009) and postmenopausal (n = 244, 2005) women were compared with person-specific predictions obtained using CoZMoMAN, an emission-based environmental fate and human food-chain bioaccumulation model. Person-specific predictions were also made using statistical regression models including dietary and lifestyle variables and concentrations. CoZMoMAN accurately reproduced medians and ranges of measured concentrations in the two study groups. Furthermore, rank correlations between measurements and predictions from both CoZMoMAN and regression analyses were strong (Spearman's r > 0.67). Precision in quartile assignments from predictions was strong overall as evaluated by weighted Cohen's kappa (> 0.6). Simulations indicated large inter-individual differences in concentrations experienced in the past. The mechanistic model reproduced all measurements of PCB concentrations within a factor of 10, and subject ranking and quartile assignments were overall largely consistent, although they were weak within each study group. Contamination histories for individuals predicted by CoZMoMAN revealed variation between study subjects, particularly in the timing of peak concentrations. Mechanistic models can provide individual PCB exposure metrics that could serve as valuable supplements to measurements.

  18. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: many monitored persons = high exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation affects the entire population in Germany, and most of Germany's inhabitants are exposed to medical radiation in their lifetime. Occupational radiation exposure, however, is a kind of exposure affecting only a limited and well-defined group of the population, and this radiation exposure has been recorded and monitored as precisely as technically possible ever since the radiation protection laws made occupational radiation exposure monitoring a mandatory obligation. Official personal dosimetry applying passive dosemeters in fact does not offer direct protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, as dosemeter read-out and dose calculation is a post-exposure process. But it nevertheless is a rewarding monitoring duty under radiation protection law, as is shown by the radiation exposure statistics accumulated over decades: in spite of the number of monitored persons having been increasing over the years, the total exposure did not, due to the corresponding improvements in occupational radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  19. Measurement and Modeling of Personal Exposure to the Electric and Magnetic Fields in the Vicinity of High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Tourab

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: We project to set own national standards for exposure to electromagnetic fields, in order to achieve a regional database that will be at the disposal of partners concerned to ensure safety of people and mainly workers inside high voltage electrical substations.

  20. Personal measures of power-frequency magnetic field exposure among men from an infertility clinic: distribution, temporal variability and correlation with their female partners' exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Hauser, Russ; Maynard, Andrew D.; Neitzel, Richard L.; Meeker, John D.; Wang, Lu; Kavet, Robert; Morey, Patricia; Ford, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    Power-frequency magnetic field exposure science as it relates to men and couples have not been explored despite the advantage of this information in the design and interpretation of reproductive health epidemiology studies. This analysis examined the distribution and temporal variability of exposures in men, and the correlation of exposures within couples using data from a longitudinal study of 25 men and their female partners recruited from an infertility clinic. The average and 90. percentile demonstrated fair to good reproducibility, whereas the maximum showed poor reproducibility over repeated sampling days, each separated by a median of 4.6 weeks. Average magnetic field exposures were also strongly correlated within couples, suggesting that one partner's data could be used as a surrogate in the absence of data from the other for this metric. Environment was also an important effect modifier in these explored matters. These issues should be considered in future relevant epidemiology studies. (authors)

  1. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.; Thomassen, Y.; Fechter-Rink, E.; Kromhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and

  2. Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2012-09-01

    Personal exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in the three industrial cities in the Czech Republic, Ostrava, Karvina and Havirov, while the city of Prague served as a control in a large-scale molecular epidemiological study identifying the impacts of air pollution on human health. Office workers from Ostrava and city policemen from Karvina, Havirov and Prague were monitored in the winter and summer of 2009. Only adult non-smokers participated in the study (N=160). Radiello-diffusive passive samplers were used to measure the exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, meta- plus para-xylene and ortho-xylene (BTEX). All participants completed a personal questionnaire and a time-location-activity diary (TLAD). The average personal BTEX exposure levels in both seasons were 7.2/34.3/4.4/16.1 μg/m(3), respectively. The benzene levels were highest in winter in Karvina, Ostrava and Prague: 8.5, 7.2 and 5.3 μg/m(3), respectively. The personal exposures to BTEX were higher than the corresponding stationary monitoring levels detected in the individual localities (Pfireplace or gas stove, automobile use and being in a restaurant were important predictors for benzene personal exposure. Ostrava's outdoor benzene pollution was a significant factor increasing the exposure of the Ostrava study participants in winter (P<0.05).

  3. The Role of the Location of Personal Exposimeters on the Human Body in Their Use for Assessing Exposure to the Electromagnetic Field in the Radiofrequency Range 98–2450 MHz and Compliance Analysis: Evaluation by Virtual Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gryz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of radiofrequency (98–2450 MHz range personal exposimeters to measure the electric field (E-field in far-field exposure conditions was modelled numerically using human body model Gustav and finite integration technique software. Calculations with 256 models of exposure scenarios show that the human body has a significant influence on the results of measurements using a single body-worn exposimeter in various locations near the body ((from −96 to +133%, measurement errors with respect to the unperturbed E-field value. When an exposure assessment involves the exposure limitations provided for the strength of an unperturbed E-field. To improve the application of exposimeters in compliance tests, such discrepancies in the results of measurements by a body-worn exposimeter may be compensated by using of a correction factor applied to the measurement results or alternatively to the exposure limit values. The location of a single exposimeter on the waist to the back side of the human body or on the front of the chest reduces the range of exposure assessments uncertainty (covering various exposure conditions. However, still the uncertainty of exposure assessments using a single exposimeter remains significantly higher than the assessment of the unperturbed E-field using spot measurements.

  4. Personal exposure to Black Carbon in transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Int Panis, Luc; Van Poppel, Martine; Theunis, Jan; Wets, Geert

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated personal exposure of 62 individuals to the air pollutant Black Carbon, using 13 portable aethalometers while keeping detailed records of their time-activity pattern and whereabouts. Concentrations encountered in transport are studied in depth and related to trip motives. The evaluation comprises more than 1500 trips with different transport modes. Measurements were spread over two seasons. Results show that 6% of the time is spent in transport, but it accounts for 21% of personal exposure to Black Carbon and approximately 30% of inhaled dose. Concentrations in transport were 2-5 times higher compared to concentrations encountered at home. Exposure was highest for car drivers, and car and bus passengers. Concentrations of Black Carbon were only half as much when traveling by bike or on foot; when incorporating breathing rates, dose was found to be twice as high for active modes. Lowest 'in transport' concentrations were measured in trains, but nevertheless these concentrations are double the concentrations measured at home. Two thirds of the trips are car trips, and those trips showed a large spread in concentrations. In-car concentrations are higher during peak hours compared to off-peak, and are elevated on weekdays compared to Saturdays and even more so on Sundays. These findings result in significantly higher exposure during car commute trips (motive 'Work'), and lower concentrations for trips with motive 'Social and leisure'. Because of the many factors influencing exposure in transport, travel time is not a good predictor of integrated personal exposure or inhaled dose.

  5. Assessment of occupational exposure and provision of recommendations and guidance on measures for the radiological protection of occupationally exposed persons in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    311 X-ray installations including 14 therapeutic machines were surveyed all over Bangladesh. It was noted that most of the installations had no shielded control booths, required wall thickness of X-ray rooms, radiation protection measures and shielding arrangements for patients and occupational workers with particular reference to gonads, eyes, thyroid glands and warning indicators. The direct exposure per sec was found to range from 11 mR to 417 mR which is abnormally high for the attendants or occupational workers holding the patients. The mA and kV indicators of many X-ray machines did not function at all, the therapy machines were not properly calibrated and as a result, doses delivered to patients were sometimes erroneous. Several cases of abnormal burning of healthy tissues of patients due to improper exposure were observed. Most of the hospitals had no health physicist or competent person to look after the potential risks of radiation. At present there is no suitable arrangement for training, education and proper motivation of X-ray technicians and radiologists on the protection against ionizing radiation in the country. A considerable number (42%) of X-ray machines had no shutter/collimator and collimators of some of the machines did not function properly. Almost all the X-ray rooms were not planned according to the standard structural specifications. In most of the hospitals/clinics, the dark room facilities were not adequate. Even some dark rooms and film stores were found to receive unnecessarily high doses. There is no legal framework on radiation protection in Bangladesh and therefore it is not possible to impose radiation protection and safety rules at the X-ray installations of the country. Recommendations were made to cover radiation protection of the occupational worker, and special recommendations with respect to fluoroscopy and radiography, dental radiography, radiotherapy, X-ray film processing, personnel monitoring and medical care and

  6. Development of a method for personal, spatiotemporal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Colby; Riggs, Philip; Volckens, John

    2009-07-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of a high resolution, space and time-referenced sampling method for personal exposure assessment to airborne particulate matter (PM). This method integrates continuous measures of personal PM levels with the corresponding location-activity (i.e. work/school, home, transit) of the subject. Monitoring equipment include a small, portable global positioning system (GPS) receiver, a miniature aerosol nephelometer, and an ambient temperature monitor to estimate the location, time, and magnitude of personal exposure to particulate matter air pollution. Precision and accuracy of each component, as well as the integrated method performance were tested in a combination of laboratory and field tests. Spatial data was apportioned into pre-determined location-activity categories (i.e. work/school, home, transit) with a simple, temporospatially-based algorithm. The apportioning algorithm was extremely effective with an overall accuracy of 99.6%. This method allows examination of an individual's estimated exposure through space and time, which may provide new insights into exposure-activity relationships not possible with traditional exposure assessment techniques (i.e., time-integrated, filter-based measurements). Furthermore, the method is applicable to any contaminant or stressor that can be measured on an individual with a direct-reading sensor.

  7. Field study of sound exposure by personal stereo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    A number of large scale studies suggest that the exposure level used with personal stereo systems should raise concern. High levels can be produced by most commercially available mp3 players, and they are generally used in high background noise levels (i.e., while in a bus or rain). A field study...... on young people's habitual sound exposure to personal stereos has been carried out using a measurement method according to principles of ISO 11904-2:2004. Additionally the state of their hearing has also been assessed. This presentation deals with the methodological aspects relating to the quantification...... of habitual use, estimation of listening levels and exposure levels, and assessment of their state of hearing, by either threshold determination or OAE measurement, with a special view to the general validity of the results (uncertainty factors and their magnitude)....

  8. Daily personal exposure to black carbon: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan D.; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-05-01

    Continuous personal monitoring is the benchmark for air pollution exposure assessment. Black carbon (BC) is a strong marker of primary combustion like vehicle and biomass emissions. There have been few studies that quantified daily personal BC exposure and the contribution that different microenvironments make to it. In this pilot study, we used a portable aethalometer to measure BC concentrations in an individual's breathing zone at 30-s intervals while he performed his usual daily activities. We used a GPS and time-activity diary to track where he spent his time. We performed twenty 24-h measurements, and observed an arithmetic mean daily exposure concentration of 603 ng/m3. We estimated that changing commute modes from bus to train reduced the 24-h mean BC exposure concentration by 29%. Switching from open windows to closed windows and recirculated air in a car led to a reduction of 32%. Living in a home without a wood-fired heater caused a reduction of 50% compared with a wood-heated home. Our preliminary findings highlight the potential utility of simple approaches to reduce a person's daily BC exposure.

  9. Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.

  10. Effectiveness of a personalized ventilation system in reducing personal exposure against directly released simulated cough droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelic, J.; Tham, K. W.; Licina, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    manikin at distances between 1 and 4m. Cough droplet concentration was measured with an aerosol spectrometer in the breathing zone of a thermal manikin. Particle image velocimetry was used to characterize the velocity field in the breathing zone. Desktop personalized ventilation substantially reduced......The inhalation intake fraction was used as an indicator to compare effects of desktop personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation on personal exposure to directly released simulated cough droplets. A cough machine was used to simulate cough release from the front, back, and side of a thermal...

  11. Personal endotoxin exposure in a panel study of school children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjoa Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endotoxin exposure has been associated with asthma exacerbations and increased asthma prevalence. However, there is little data regarding personal exposure to endotoxin in children at risk, or the relation of personal endotoxin exposure to residential or ambient airborne endotoxin. The relation between personal endotoxin and personal air pollution exposures is also unknown. Methods We characterized personal endotoxin exposures in 45 school children with asthma ages 9-18 years using 376 repeated measurements from a PM2.5 active personal exposure monitor. We also assayed endotoxin in PM2.5 samples collected from ambient regional sites (N = 97 days and from a subset of 12 indoor and outdoor subject home sites (N = 109 and 111 days, respectively in Riverside and Whittier, California. Endotoxin was measured using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate kinetic chromogenic assay. At the same time, we measured personal, home and ambient exposure to PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC, and organic carbon (OC. To assess exposure relations we used both rank correlations and mixed linear regression models, adjusted for personal temperature and relative humidity. Results We found small positive correlations of personal endotoxin with personal PM2.5 EC and OC, but not personal PM2.5 mass or stationary site air pollutant measurements. Outdoor home, indoor home and ambient endotoxin were moderately to strongly correlated with each other. However, in mixed models, personal endotoxin was not associated with indoor home or outdoor home endotoxin, but was associated with ambient endotoxin. Dog and cat ownership were significantly associated with increased personal but not indoor endotoxin. Conclusions Daily fixed site measurements of endotoxin in the home environment may not predict daily personal exposure, although a larger sample size may be needed to assess this. This conclusion is relevant to short-term exposures involved in the acute exacerbation of

  12. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles and oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinzents, Peter S; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    10), nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or number concentration of UFPs at urban background or busy street monitoring stations was not a significant predictor of DNA damage, although personal UFP exposure was correlated with urban background concentrations of CO and NO2...... the morning after exposure measurement. Cumulated outdoor and cumulated indoor exposures to UFPs each were independent significant predictors of the level of purine oxidation in DNA but not of strand breaks. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ..., particularly during bicycling in traffic. The results indicate that biologic effects of UFPs occur at modest exposure, such as that occurring in traffic, which supports the relationship of UFPs and the adverse health effects of air pollution....

  13. Personal exposure versus monitoring station data for respirable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, K; Fugas, M

    1982-01-01

    Personal exposure to respirable particles of 12 subjects working at the same location, but living in various parts of Zagreb, was monitored for 7 consecutive days and compared with simultaneously obtained data from the outdoor network station nearest to subject's home. Although personal exposure is related to the outdoor pollution, other sources play a considerable role. Indoor exposure takes, on the average, more than 80% of the total time. The ratio between average personal exposure and respirable particle levels in the outdoor air decreases with the increased outdoor concentration (r = -0.93), indicating that this relationship might serve as a basis for a rough estimate of possible personal exposure.

  14. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Susan; Kromhout, Hans; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud

    2009-01-01

    A case study was carried out in 2006-2007 to assess the actual cement dust exposure among construction workers involved in a full-scale construction project and as a comparison among workers involved in various stages of cement and concrete production. Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed for several job types. Inhalable dust and cement dust (based on analysis of elemental calcium) concentrations were determined. Inhalable dust exposures at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m3, with a mean concentration of 1.0 mg/m3. For inhalable cement dust mean exposure was 0.3 mg/m3 (range 0.02-17 mg/m3). Reinforcement and pouring workers had the lowest average concentrations. Inhalable dust levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were, on average, below 0.5 mg/m3 for inhalable dust and below 0.2 mg/m3 for inhalable cement dust. Highest dust concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM=55 mg/m3; inhalable cement dust GM=33 mg/m3) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages of cement during reinforcement work and pouring.

  15. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of b...

  16. Effectiveness of a personalized ventilation system in reducing personal exposure against directly released simulated cough droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelic, J; Tham, K W; Licina, D

    2015-12-01

    The inhalation intake fraction was used as an indicator to compare effects of desktop personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation on personal exposure to directly released simulated cough droplets. A cough machine was used to simulate cough release from the front, back, and side of a thermal manikin at distances between 1 and 4 m. Cough droplet concentration was measured with an aerosol spectrometer in the breathing zone of a thermal manikin. Particle image velocimetry was used to characterize the velocity field in the breathing zone. Desktop personalized ventilation substantially reduced the inhalation intake fraction compared to mixing ventilation for all investigated distances and orientations of the cough release. The results point out that the orientation between the cough source and the breathing zone of the exposed occupant is an important factor that substantially influences exposure. Exposure to cough droplets was reduced with increasing distance between cough source and exposed occupant. The results from this study show that an advanced air distribution system such as personalized ventilation reduces exposure to cough-released droplets better than commonly applied overhead mixing ventilation. This work can inform HVAC engineers about different aspects of air distribution systems’ performance and can serve as an aid in making critical design decisions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site.

  18. A statistical framework for the validation of a population exposure model based on personal exposure data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Delphy; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstantinos; Payan, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    Currently, ambient pollutant concentrations at monitoring sites are routinely measured by local networks, such as AIRPARIF in Paris, France. Pollutant concentration fields are also simulated with regional-scale chemistry transport models such as CHIMERE (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere) under air-quality forecasting platforms (e.g. Prev'Air http://www.prevair.org) or research projects. These data may be combined with more or less sophisticated techniques to provide a fairly good representation of pollutant concentration spatial gradients over urban areas. Here we focus on human exposure to atmospheric contaminants. Based on census data on population dynamics and demographics, modeled outdoor concentrations and infiltration of outdoor air-pollution indoors we have developed a population exposure model for ozone and PM2.5. A critical challenge in the field of population exposure modeling is model validation since personal exposure data are expensive and therefore, rare. However, recent research has made low cost mobile sensors fairly common and therefore personal exposure data should become more and more accessible. In view of planned cohort field-campaigns where such data will be available over the Paris region, we propose in the present study a statistical framework that makes the comparison between modeled and measured exposures meaningful. Our ultimate goal is to evaluate the exposure model by comparing modeled exposures to monitor data. The scientific question we address here is how to downscale modeled data that are estimated on the county population scale at the individual scale which is appropriate to the available measurements. To assess this question we developed a Bayesian hierarchical framework that assimilates actual individual data into population statistics and updates the probability estimate.

  19. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of Personal Exposure Assessment Using a Computer Simulated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Jensen, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a computer simulated person. CFD is used to simulate a uniform flow field around a human being to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source. For various vertical locations of a point contaminant source...... three additional factors are varied, namely the velocity, details of the computer simulated person, and the CFD model of the wind channel. The personal exposure is found to be highly dependent on the relative source location. Variation in the range of two orders of magnitude is found. The exposure...

  1. Personal carbon monoxide exposures of preschool children in Helsinki, Finland - comparison to ambient air concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Mukala, K.; Tittanen, P.; Jantunen, M.J. [KTL National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Health

    2001-07-01

    The associations of personal carbon monoxide (CO) exposures with ambient air CO concentrations measured at fixed monitoring sites, were studied among 194 children aged 3-6yr in four downtown and four suburban day-care centers in Helsinki, Finland. Each child carried a personal CO exposure monitor between 1 and 4 times for a time period of between 20 and 24h. CO concentrations at two fixed monitoring sites were measured simultaneously. The CO concentrations measured at the fixed monitoring sites were usually lower (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 0.9 and 2.6mgm{sup -3}) than the personal CO exposure concentrations (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 3.3mgm{sup -3}).The fixed site CO concentrations were poor predictors of the personal CO exposure concentrations. However, the correlations between the personal CO exposure and the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations increased (-0.03 -- -0.12 to 0.13-0.16) with increasing averaging times from 1 to 8h. Also, the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations explained the mean daily or weekly personal CO exposures of a group of simultaneously measured children better than individual exposure CO concentrations. This study suggests that the short-term CO personal exposure of children cannot be meaningfully assessed using fixed monitoring sites. (author)

  2. Personality, depressive symptoms and prior trauma exposure of new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Police officers are predisposed to trauma exposure. The development of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be influenced by personality style, prior exposure to traumatic events and prior depression. Objectives. To describe the personality profiles of new Metropolitan Police Service ...

  3. Different relationships between personal exposure and ambient concentration by particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guak, Sooyoung; Lee, Kiyoung

    2018-04-06

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations at monitoring stations were often used as an indicator of population exposure to PM in epidemiological studies. The correlation between personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PM varied because of diverse time-activity patterns. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 with minimal impact of time-activity pattern on personal exposure. Performance of the MicroPEM, v3.2 was evaluated by collocation with central ambient air monitors for PM 10 and PM 2.5 . A field technician repeatedly conducted measurement of 24 h personal exposures to PM 10 and PM 2.5 with a fixed time-activity pattern of office worker over 26 days in Seoul, Korea. The relationship between the MicroPEM and the ambient air monitor showed good linearity. Personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PM 2.5 were highly correlated with a fixed time-activity pattern compared with PM 10 . The finding implied a high infiltration rate of PM 2.5 and low infiltration rate of PM 10 . The relationship between personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was different for high level episodes. In the Asian dust episode, staying indoors could reduce personal exposure to PM 10 . However, personal exposure to PM 2.5 could not be reduced by staying indoors during the fine dust advisory episode.

  4. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Personal monitoring coupled with GPS tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia; Schipperijn, Jasper; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Toftum, Jørn; Loft, Steffen; Clausen, Geo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) may have adverse health effects. Central monitoring stations do not represent the personal exposure to UFP accurately. Few studies have previously focused on personal exposure to UFP. Sixty non-smoking residents living in Copenhagen, Denmark were asked to carry a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of ˜48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure occurring in various microenvironments (residence, during active and passive transport, other indoor and outdoor environments) to the total daily exposure. On average, the fractional contribution of each microenvironment to the daily integrated personal exposure roughly corresponded to the fractions of the day the subjects spent in each microenvironment. The home environment accounted for 50% of the daily personal exposure. Indoor environments other than home or vehicles contributed with ˜40%. The highest median UFP concentration was obtained during passive transport (vehicles). However, being in transit or outdoors contributed 5% or less to the daily exposure. Additionally, the subjects recorded in a diary the periods when they were at home. With this approach, 66% of the total daily exposure was attributable to the home environment. The subjects spent 28% more time at home according to the diary, compared to the GPS. These results may indicate limitations of using diaries, but also possible inaccuracy and miss-classification in the GPS data.

  5. Exposure Due to Interacting Air flows Between Two Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The contaminant concentration inhaled by an occupant (ie. the personal exposure) is usually less than the return concentration in displacement ventilated rooms. Two main questions are investigated: 1) Does the exhalation from one person penetrate the breathing zone of another person placed nearby...

  6. Personal Exposure to Contaminant Sources in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    Three different tools for personal exposure assessment are presented. They are all able to consider the local influence of persons in ventilated rooms where concentration gradients prevail: A Breathing Thermal Manikin, a Computer Simulated Person, and a Trained Sensory Panel. The tools are applied...

  7. Determinants of personal exposure to ozone in school children. Results from a panel study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Grivas, Georgios; Samoli, Evangelia; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Spyratos, Dionisis; Papakosta, Despoina; Karakatsani, Anna; Chaloulakou, Archontoula; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2017-04-01

    In the wider framework of the RESPOZE (ReSPiratory effects of OZone Exposure in Greek children) panel study, we investigated possible determinants of O 3 exposure of school children, measured with personal passive samplers, in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece. Personal exposure to O 3 was measured for five weeks spread along the academic year 2013-14, in 186 school children in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece. At the same time, at-school outdoor measurements were performed and ambient levels of 8-h daily maximum O 3 from fixed sites were collected. We also collected information on lifestyle and housing characteristics through an extended general questionnaire (GQ) and each participant completed daily time activity diaries (TADs) during the study period. Mean outdoor concentrations were higher during the warmer months, in the suburbs of the cities and in Athens. Personal exposure concentrations were significantly lower compared to outdoor. Daily levels of at-school outdoor and ambient levels of O 3 from fixed sites were significant determinants of personal exposure to O 3 . For a 10μg/m 3 increase in at-school outdoor O 3 concentrations and PM 10 measurements a 20.9% (95% CI: 13%, 28%) increase in personal exposure to O 3 was found. For a half an hour more spent in transportation an average increase of 7% (95% CI: 0.3%, 14.6%) in personal exposure to O 3 was observed. Among other possible determinants, time spent in transportation (TAD variable) and duration of open windows were the ones associated with personal O 3 exposure levels. Our results support the use of outdoor and ambient measurements from fixed sites in epidemiological studies as a proxy of personal exposure to O 3 , but this has to be calibrated taking into account personal measurements and time-activity patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Personal and ambient PM2.5 exposure assessment in the city of Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to fine particles can have significant harmful effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system. To investigate daily exposure characteristics to PM2.5 with ambient concentrations in an urban environment, a personal exposure measurements were conducted for school children, office workers and at their residents, in the city of Taj ‘Agra’, India. In order to account for all the sources of particulate matter exposure, measurements on several different days during December 2013 to February 2014 were carried out. Personal environment monitors (PEM and APM 550 were used to measure PM2.5 concentration. The research findings provide insight into possible sources and their interaction with human activities in modifying the human exposure levels. Keywords: Personal exposure, PM2.5, Ambient concentration, Correlation analysis, Health effects

  9. Personal exposures of preschool children to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The role of gas stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Jantunen, M.J.; Mukala, K.; Tuomisto, J. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Pasanen, P. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    1993-12-31

    Personal 1-h mean CO exposures of preschool children in two day care centers of Helsinki were measured with continuously recording personal exposure monitors, and their personal 1-wk NO{sub 2} exposures with Palmes tubes. The results were compared to fixed site ambient air monitoring results and related to the presence of high CO, low heat value town gas fired stoves in the homes of the children. Results show that fixed site ambient air monitors are of little value in predicting personal exposures of children or even their relative differences between areas, and also that town gas fired stoves have a profound effect on the CO exposures, and little or no effect on the NO{sub 2} exposures of the children. (author)

  10. Decontamination of persons and other medical measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.

    1982-01-01

    Medical measures in case of radiation damages are discussed on the basis of five potential categories of radiation incidents or accidents, namely contaminations, incorporations, external local and general radiation over-exposures, contaminated wounds, and combinations of radiation damages and conventional injuries. Considerations are made for diagnostic and therapeutic initial measures especially in case of minor and moderate radiation accidents. The medical emergency planning is reviewed by means of definitions used in the practical handling of radiation incidents or accidents. The parameters are: extent of the incident or accident, number of persons involved, severity of the radiation damage. Based on guiding symptoms the criteria for the classification into minor, moderate or severe radiation accidents are discussed. (orig./RW)

  11. Comparison of personal radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in different urban areas across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Wout; Frei, Patrizia; Rooesli, Martin; Thuroczy, Gyoergy; Gajsek, Peter; Trcek, Tomaz; Bolte, John; Vermeeren, Guenter; Mohler, Evelyn; Juhasz, Peter; Finta, Viktoria; Martens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Background: Only limited data are available on personal radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday life. Several European countries performed measurement studies in this area of research. However, a comparison between countries regarding typical exposure levels is lacking. Objectives: To compare for the first time mean exposure levels and contributions of different sources in specific environments between different European countries. Methods: In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), measurement studies were performed using the same personal exposure meters. The pooled data were analyzed using the robust regression on order statistics (ROS) method in order to allow for data below the detection limit. Mean exposure levels were compared between different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoor. Results: Exposure levels were of the same order of magnitude in all countries and well below the international exposure limits. In all countries except for the Netherlands, the highest total exposure was measured in transport vehicles (trains, car, and busses), mainly due to radiation from mobile phone handsets (up to 97%). Exposure levels were in general lower in private houses or flats than in offices and outdoors. At home, contributions from various sources were quite different between countries. Conclusions: Highest total personal RF-EMF exposure was measured inside transport vehicles and was well below international exposure limits. This is mainly due to mobile phone handsets. Mobile telecommunication can be considered to be the main contribution to total RF-EMF exposure in all microenvironments.

  12. Indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure monitoring of particulate air pollution: the Baltimore elderly epidemiology-exposure pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ron; Creason, John; Zweidinger, Roy; Watts, Randall; Sheldon, Linda; Shy, Carl

    A 17-day pilot study investigating potential PM exposures of an elderly population was conducted near Baltimore, Maryland. Collection of residential indoor, residential outdoor, and ambient monitoring data associated with the subjects living at a common retirement facility was integrated with results from a paired epidemiological pilot study. This integration was used to investigate the potential pathophysiological health effects resulting from daily changes in estimated PM exposures with results reported elsewhere. Objectives of the exposure study were to determine the feasibility of performing PM exposure assessment upon an elderly population and establishing relationships between the various exposure measures including personal monitoring. PM 2.5 was determined to be the dominant outdoor size fraction (0.83 PM 2.5/PM 10 mass ratio by dichot monitoring). Individual 24-h PM 1.5 personal exposures ranged from 12 to 58 μg m -3. Comparison of data from matched sampling dates resulted in mean daily PM 1.5 personal, PM 2.5 outdoor, and PM 1.5 indoor concentrations of 34, 17, and 17 μg m -3, respectively. Activity patterns of the study population indicated a generally sedentary population spending a mean of 96% of each day indoors. Future studies would benefit from the use of a consistent sampling methodology across a larger number of PM measurement sites relevant to the elderly subjects, as well as a larger personal PM exposure study population to more successfully collect data needed in matched epidemiological-exposure studies.

  13. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2018-01-25

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  14. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2018-03-27

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  15. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2017-11-25

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  16. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-28

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided later in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  17. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2018-05-25

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  18. Real-time personal exposure and health condition monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitou, Isamu; Kanda, Hiroaki; Asai, Akio; Takeishi, Naoki; Ota, Yoshito [Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd., Measuring Systems Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Hanawa, Nobuhiro; Ueda, Hisao; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and HAM (Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd) have proposed novel monitoring system for workers of nuclear facility. In these facilities, exposure management for workers is mainly used access control and personal exposure recordings. This system is currently only for reports management but is not confirmative for surveillance when work in progress. Therefore, JAEA and HAM integrate access control and personal exposure recordings and two real-time monitoring systems which are position sensing and vital sign monitor. Furthermore change personal exposure management to real-time management, this system integration prevents workers from risk of accidents, and makes possible take appropriate action quickly. This novel system is going to start for tentative operation, using position sensing and real-time personal dosimeter with database in Apr. 2012. (author)

  19. Measuring Personalization of Web Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannak, Aniko; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Kakhki, Arash Molavi

    2013-01-01

    are simply unable to access information that the search engines’ algorithm decidesis irrelevant. Despitetheseconcerns, there has been little quantification of the extent of personalization in Web search today, or the user attributes that cause it. In light of this situation, we make three contributions...... as a result of searching with a logged in account and the IP address of the searching user. Our results are a first step towards understanding the extent and effects of personalization on Web search engines today....

  20. Microenvironmental characteristics important for personal exposures to aldehydes in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, J. H.; Akland, G.; Johnson, T. R.; Long, T.; Michael, L.; Cauble, L.; McCombs, M.

    Oxygenated additives in gasoline are designed to decrease the ozone-forming hydrocarbons and total air toxics, yet they can increase the emissions of aldehydes and thus increase human exposure to these toxic compounds. This paper describes a study conducted to characterize targeted aldehydes in microenvironments in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI, and to improve our understanding of the impact of the urban environment on human exposure to air toxics. Data were obtained from microenvironmental concentration measurements, integrated, 24-h personal measurements, indoor and outdoor pollutant monitors at the participants' residences, from ambient pollutant monitors at fixed-site locations in each city, and from real-time diaries and questionnaires completed by the technicians and participants. As part of this study, a model to predict personal exposures based on individual time/activity data was developed for comparison to measured concentrations. Predicted concentrations were generally within 25% of the measured concentrations. The microenvironments that people encounter daily provide for widely varying exposures to aldehydes. The activities that occur in those microenvironments can modulate the aldehyde concentrations dramatically, especially for environments such as "indoor at home." By considering personal activity, location (microenvironment), duration in the microenvironment, and a knowledge of the general concentrations of aldehydes in the various microenvironments, a simple model can do a reasonably good job of predicting the time-averaged personal exposures to aldehydes, even in the absence of monitoring data. Although concentrations of aldehydes measured indoors at the participants' homes tracked well with personal exposure, there were instances where personal exposures and indoor concentrations differed significantly. Key to the ability to predict exposure based on time/activity data is the quality and completeness of the microenvironmental

  1. Descriptive survey of personal hygiene and knowledge of exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the poultry workers have adequate personal hygiene while use of antiseptics as part of hand washing practices is relatively low. Forty-three percent of poultry workers have some knowledge of occupational exposure factors and 27.3% have some knowledge of non-occupational exposure factors to zoonotic ...

  2. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repeated for the operation when there has been a change in the procedure, equipment, or work practices of... when personal exposure has returned to the level that existed before the emergency. There must be... monitoring upon reasonable belief that the PEL's are being exceeded. (e) Notification of exposure monitoring...

  3. Psychiatric symptomatology in persons with organic solvent exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, L A; Kamis, H; Hodgson, M J

    1993-02-01

    This study investigated psychiatric symptomatology, self-concept, locus of control, and daily events in persons with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents. Exposed subjects were more likely than controls to report depression, anxiety, fatigue, confusion, and somatic concerns, which in turn were associated with certain exposure-related variables (e.g., cacosmia). There were no differences between the groups in self-concept, locus of control, or ratings of daily hassles and uplifts. Exposed persons may be able to accurately identify what they perceive as changes that are due to the exposure (e.g., anxiety) without attributing these specific adverse outcomes to dispositional variables.

  4. Towards Personal Exposures: How Technology Is Changing Air Pollution and Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, A; Hystad, P

    2017-12-01

    We present a review of emerging technologies and how these can transform personal air pollution exposure assessment and subsequent health research. Estimating personal air pollution exposures is currently split broadly into methods for modeling exposures for large populations versus measuring exposures for small populations. Air pollution sensors, smartphones, and air pollution models capitalizing on big/new data sources offer tremendous opportunity for unifying these approaches and improving long-term personal exposure prediction at scales needed for population-based research. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed to combine these technologies to not only estimate personal exposures for epidemiological research but also determine drivers of these exposures and new prevention opportunities. While available technologies can revolutionize air pollution exposure research, ethical, privacy, logistical, and data science challenges must be met before widespread implementations occur. Available technologies and related advances in data science can improve long-term personal air pollution exposure estimates at scales needed for population-based research. This will advance our ability to evaluate the impacts of air pollution on human health and develop effective prevention strategies.

  5. Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile Gas Exposure from A Novelty Personal-Protection Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile (CS tear-gas exposure from the unwitting discharge of a personal-protection handgun loaded with CS gas. The gun was in a bag of toys purchased from a local thrift store and was discharged by a child. The responding paramedic presumptively identified the substance as CS based solely on personal experience. This recognition led to suboptimal field management of the incident with the paramedic failing to follow the standard operating procedures for an unknown chemical exposure. As this was a benign agent, there were no serious consequences. This case highlights the pre-hospital and emergency department challenges associated with the management of an unknown chemical exposure and the potential consequences if the chemical is a toxic substance. A methodical approach following established protocols can reduce the potential for negative outcomes. Review of the literature found no other report of CS gas exposure from such a personal-protection weapon.

  6. Time-activity relationships to VOC personal exposure factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Llacqua, Vito; Lai, Hak Kan; Jantunen, Matti; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino

    Social and demographic factors have been found to play a significant role in differences between time-activity patterns of population subgroups. Since time-activity patterns largely influence personal exposure to compounds as individuals move across microenvironments, exposure subgroups within the population may be defined by factors that influence daily activity patterns. Socio-demographic and environmental factors that define time-activity subgroups also define quantifiable differences in VOC personal exposures to different sources and individual compounds in the Expolis study. Significant differences in exposures to traffic-related compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were observed in relation to gender, number of children and living alone. Categorization of exposures further indicated time exposed to traffic at work and time in a car as important determinants. Increased exposures to decane, nonane and undecane were observed for males, housewives and self-employed. Categorization of exposures indicated exposure subgroups related to workshop use and living downtown. Higher exposures to 3-carene and α-pinene commonly found in household cleaning products and fragrances were associated with more children, while exposures to traffic compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were reduced with more children. Considerable unexplained variation remained in categorization of exposures associated with home product use and fragrances, due to individual behavior and product choice. More targeted data collection methods in VOC exposure studies for these sources should be used. Living alone was associated with decreased exposures to 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-butanol, and traffic-related compounds. Identification of these subgroups may help to reduce the large amount of unexplained variation in VOC exposure studies. Further they may help in assessing impacts of urban planning that result in changes in behavior of individuals, resulting in shifts in

  7. Activity pattern and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide in indoor and outdoor microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornartit, C; Sokhi, R S; Burton, M A; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2010-01-01

    People are exposed to air pollution from a range of indoor and outdoor sources. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), which is hazardous to health, can be significant in both types of environments. This paper reports on the measurement and analysis of indoor and outdoor NO(2) concentrations and their comparison with measured personal exposure in various microenvironments during winter and summer seasons. Furthermore, the relationship between NO(2) personal exposure in various microenvironments and including activities patterns were also studied. Personal, indoor microenvironments and outdoor measurements of NO(2) levels were conducted using Palmes tubes for 60 subjects. The results showed significant differences in indoor and outdoor NO(2) concentrations in winter but not for summer. In winter, indoor NO(2) concentrations were found to be strongly correlated with personal exposure levels. NO(2) concentration in houses using a gas cooker was higher in all rooms than those with an electric cooker during the winter campaign, whereas there was no significant difference noticed in summer. The average NO(2) levels in kitchens with a gas cooker were twice as high as those with an electric cooker, with no significant difference in the summer period. A time-weighted average personal exposure was calculated and compared with measured personal exposures in various indoor microenvironments (e.g. front doors, bedroom, living room and kitchen); including non-smokers, passive smokers and smoker. The estimated results were closely correlated, but showed some underestimation of the measured personal exposures to NO(2) concentrations. Interestingly, for our particular study higher NO(2) personal exposure levels were found during summer (14.0+/-1.5) than winter (9.5+/-2.4).

  8. Sound exposure by personal stereo, field study of young people in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    A number of large scale studies suggest that the exposure level used with personal stereo systems should raise concern. It has been demonstrated that 1) high levels can be produced, 2) high levels are used, especially in situations with high background noise, 3) exposure levels are comparables...... with that of industrial noise exposure. In the present study, measurements of the everyday exposure levels will be measured according to principles of ISO 11904-2:2004 for students at various school levels. The measurements will be accompanied with questionnaire detailing the individual habits of use, and with assessment...... of hearing levels and OAE....

  9. Schoolyard Shade and Sun Exposure: Assessment of Personal Monitoring During Children's Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; McKercher, Grant R; Naughton, Kylie; Lochbaum, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for the development of melanoma later in life. However, it is challenging to accurately determine personal outdoor exposure to UVR, specifically erythemally weighted UVR (UV E ry ), due to technological constraints, variable time-activity patterns, and the influence of outdoor environmental design. To address this challenge, this study utilized mobile and stationary techniques to examine the UV E ry exposures of 14 children in a schoolyard in Lubbock, TX, in spring 2016. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of artificial shade on personal UV E ry exposures and to assess full sun exposure ratios (ERs) within the same playground microenvironment. On average, personal wrist dosimeters worn during play in the sun measured 18% of the total onsite UV E ry measured by a stationary UV pyranometer. Shade was found to significantly reduce the personal UV E ry exposures by 55%, UVB 280-315 nm exposures by 91%, and the overall solar radiation by 84%. Substantial benefits can be garnered through focused design of children's recreational space to utilize shade-both natural and artificial-to reduce UVR exposures during play, and to extend safe outdoor stays. Finally, although the wrist is a practical location for a dosimeter, it often underestimates full exposures, particularly during physical activity. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  10. Miniature nanoparticle sensors for exposure measurement and TEM sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierz, Martin; Meier, Dominik; Steigmeier, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles in workplaces may pose a threat to the health of the workers involved. With the general boom in nanotechnology, an increasing number of workers is potentially exposed, and therefore a comprehensive risk management with respect to nanoparticles appears necessary. One (of many) components of such a risk management is the measurement of personal exposure. Traditional nanoparticle detectors are often cumbersome to use, large, heavy and expensive. We have developed small, reliable and easy to use devices that can be used for routine personal exposure measurement in workplaces. (paper)

  11. Temporal variability of daily personal magnetic field exposure metrics in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Evenson, Kelly R; Savitz, David A; Meeker, John D

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiology studies of power-frequency magnetic fields and reproductive health have characterized exposures using data collected from personal exposure monitors over a single day, possibly resulting in exposure misclassification due to temporal variability in daily personal magnetic field exposure metrics, but relevant data in adults are limited. We assessed the temporal variability of daily central tendency (time-weighted average, median) and peak (upper percentiles, maximum) personal magnetic field exposure metrics over 7 consecutive days in 100 pregnant women. When exposure was modeled as a continuous variable, central tendency metrics had substantial reliability, whereas peak metrics had fair (maximum) to moderate (upper percentiles) reliability. The predictive ability of a single-day metric to accurately classify participants into exposure categories based on a weeklong metric depended on the selected exposure threshold, with sensitivity decreasing with increasing exposure threshold. Consistent with the continuous measures analysis, sensitivity was higher for central tendency metrics than for peak metrics. If there is interest in peak metrics, more than 1 day of measurement is needed over the window of disease susceptibility to minimize measurement error, but 1 day may be sufficient for central tendency metrics.

  12. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles and oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinzents, Peter S; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable instr......, particularly during bicycling in traffic. The results indicate that biologic effects of UFPs occur at modest exposure, such as that occurring in traffic, which supports the relationship of UFPs and the adverse health effects of air pollution.......Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable...... instruments in six 18-hr periods in 15 healthy nonsmoking subjects. Exposure contrasts of outdoor pollution were achieved by bicycling in traffic for 5 days and in the laboratory for 1 day. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed as strand breaks and oxidized purines in mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood...

  13. Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Solanský, I.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Šrám, Radim

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2012), s. 455-460 ISSN 1559-0631 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk 2B08005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : personal monitoring * personal exposure * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.187, year: 2012

  14. Personal exposure distribution of solar erythemal ultraviolet radiation in tree shade over summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, A.V.; Wong, J.C.F.

    2000-01-01

    The personal radiant exposure distribution of solar erythemal UV in tree shade for an upright posture was measured, with measurements over the whole summer for a total of 17 trees. For each tree, the personal radiant exposure distribution was measured for both the morning and afternoon periods. The exposure ratios averaged over all the trees and over the morning and afternoon periods ranged from 0.16 to 0.49 for the different anatomical sites. A numerical model was employed to estimate the UV radiant exposure to humans in tree shade over the entire summer. The body sites with the higher exposure ratios in the tree shade were the vertex of the head, shoulders and forearms with radiant exposures over the summer of 1300 MED to the vertex of the head and 1100 MED to the shoulders and forearms. These radiant exposures in the shade are substantially higher than the ambient erythemal UV measured in full sun on a horizontal plane over a full summer at a more temperate northern hemisphere latitude. The average radiant exposures per day to each anatomical site for a complete day in the tree shade ranged from 4.6 to 14.6 MED. This research has provided new data that is essential to quantify human UV exposure during outdoor activities. (author)

  15. Development of a personal multi-pollutant exposure sampler for particulate matter and criteria gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, I.T.; Sarnat, J.; Wolfson, J.M.; Rojas-Bracho, L.; Suh, H.H.; Koutrakis, P. [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health

    1999-12-01

    A novel personal sampler is reported which allows simultaneous measurement of PM{sub 2,5}, and PM{sub 10}, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. This method combines previously used samplers for personal mass measurement with passive samplers for criteria gases and uses a single pump. Preliminarily results are reported for laboratory chamber tests and field comparisons with reference methods for both mass and criteria gases. These results demonstrate the suitability of this sampler of exposure assessment studies. (authors)

  16. Safety measures in exposure room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Jamal Md Isa

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - The exposure room: location and dimension, material and thickness, windows, doors and other openings; Position of the Irradiating Apparatus, Use of Space Adjoining the Room, Warning Signs/Light, Dark Room. Materials and Apparatus: Classification of Areas, Local Rules, Other General Safety Requirements

  17. Tattoo Infections, Personal Resistance, and Contagious Exposure through Tattooing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    of infection depends on the following triad: microbial pathogen and its aggressiveness, individual resistance of the tattooed, and inoculation and exposures by the tattoo needle and in the tattoo parlor. Some infectious risks can be controlled. Persons with weaknesses can refrain from tattooing. Tattoo parlors...

  18. Source of Personal Exposure to PM2.5 among College Students in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaorong; Zhu, Xianlei; Li, Xiang; Hui, Fan; Fu, Xianqiang; Zhang, Qiangbin

    2015-04-01

    The health risk from exposure to airborne particles arouses increasing public concern in Beijing, a megacity in China, where concentration of PM2.5 frequently exceeds the guideline values of World Health Organization (WHO). To investigate daily exposure to PM2.5, a personal exposure study was conducted for college students. The purpose of this study was to measure the daily PM2.5 personal exposures of students, to quantify the contributions of various microenvironments to personal exposure since students spend more than 85% of their time indoors, and to apportion the contributions of PM2.5 indoors origin and outdoor origin. In this work, a total of 320 paired indoor and outdoor PM2.5 samples were collected at eight types of microenvironments in both China University of Petroleum (suburban area) and Tsinghua University (urban area). The microenvironments were selected based on the time-activity diary finished by 1500 students from both universities. Simultaneously, the air exchange rate was measured in each microenvironment. PM2.5, elements, inorganic ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the samples were determined. The peak concentrations were observed in dinning halls, whereas PM2.5 in dormitories was the largest contributor to personal exposure because students spend more than half of a day there. Furthermore, source apportionment by positive matrix factorization (PMF) will be carried out to understand the source of personal exposure to PM2.5. Especially, efforts will be put on determing the contributions of primary combustion, secondary sulfate and organics, secondary nitrate, and mechanically generated PM, which present different infiltration behavior and are indoor PM2.5 of ambient origin, with help of air exchange rate data. The results would be benefit for refining the understanding of the contribution of PM2.5 of ambient (outdoor) origin to the daily PM2.5 personal exposures. Acknowledgments:This study has been funded by Beijing Municipal Commission

  19. Modeling personal particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pb-pah) exposure in human subjects in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Tjoa, Thomas; Li, Lianfa; Jaimes, Guillermo; Delfino, Ralph J

    2012-07-11

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) has been linked to various adverse health outcomes. Personal PAH exposures are usually measured by personal monitoring or biomarkers, which are costly and impractical for a large population. Modeling is a cost-effective alternative to characterize personal PAH exposure although challenges exist because the PAH exposure can be highly variable between locations and individuals in non-occupational settings. In this study we developed models to estimate personal inhalation exposures to particle-bound PAH (PB-PAH) using data from global positioning system (GPS) time-activity tracking data, traffic activity, and questionnaire information. We conducted real-time (1-min interval) personal PB-PAH exposure sampling coupled with GPS tracking in 28 non-smoking women for one to three sessions and one to nine days each session from August 2009 to November 2010 in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California. Each subject filled out a baseline questionnaire and environmental and behavior questionnaires on their typical activities in the previous three months. A validated model was used to classify major time-activity patterns (indoor, in-vehicle, and other) based on the raw GPS data. Multiple-linear regression and mixed effect models were developed to estimate averaged daily and subject-level PB-PAH exposures. The covariates we examined included day of week and time of day, GPS-based time-activity and GPS speed, traffic- and roadway-related parameters, meteorological variables (i.e. temperature, wind speed, relative humidity), and socio-demographic variables and occupational exposures from the questionnaire. We measured personal PB-PAH exposures for 180 days with more than 6 h of valid data on each day. The adjusted R2 of the model was 0.58 for personal daily exposures, 0.61 for subject-level personal exposures, and 0.75 for subject-level micro-environmental exposures. The amount of time in vehicle (averaging 4.5% of total

  20. Personality traits and combat exposure as predictors of psychopathology over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffel, E; Kramer, M D; Arbisi, P A; Erbes, C R; Kaler, M; Polusny, M A

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that personality traits have both direct and indirect effects on the development of psychological symptoms, with indirect effects mediated by stressful or traumatic events. This study models the direct influence of personality traits on residualized changes in internalizing and externalizing symptoms following a stressful and potentially traumatic deployment, as well as the indirect influence of personality on symptom levels mediated by combat exposure. We utilized structural equation modeling with a longitudinal prospective study of 522 US National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq. Analyses were based on self-report measures of personality, combat exposure, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Both pre-deployment Disconstraint and externalizing symptoms predicted combat exposure, which in turn predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was a significant indirect effect for pre-deployment externalizing symptoms on post-deployment externalizing via combat exposure (p personality on residualized changes in externalizing symptoms were found. Baseline symptom dimensions had significant direct and indirect effects on post-deployment symptoms. Controlling for both pre-exposure personality and symptoms, combat experiences remained positively related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Implications for diagnostic classification are discussed.

  1. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of similar to 48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure......, compared to the GPS. These results may indicate limitations of using diaries, but also possible inaccuracy and miss-classification in the GPS data. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) may have adverse health effects. Central monitoring stations do not represent the personal exposure to UFP accurately. Few studies have previously focused on personal exposure to UFP. Sixty non-smoking residents living in Copenhagen, Denmark were asked to carry...

  2. Elevated personal exposure to particulate matter from human activities in a residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-01-01

    Continuous laser particle counters collocated with time-integrated filter samplers were used to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate matter (PM) concentrations for a variety of prescribed human activities during a 5-day experimental period in a home in Redwood City, CA, USA. The mean daytime personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) during prescribed activities were 6 and 17 times, respectively, as high as the pre-activity indoor background concentration. Activities that resulted in the highest exposures of PM(2.5), PM(5), and PM(10) were those that disturbed dust reservoirs on furniture and textiles, such as dry dusting, folding clothes and blankets, and making a bed. The vigor of activity and type of flooring were also important factors for dust resuspension. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) were 1.4 and 1.6 times, respectively, as high as the indoor concentration as measured by a stationary monitor. The ratio of personal exposure to the indoor concentration was a function of both particle size and the distance of the human activity from the stationary indoor monitor. The results demonstrate that a wide variety of indoor human resuspension activities increase human exposure to PM and contribute to the "personal cloud" effect.

  3. Development of the occupational radiation exposures in nuclear medicine. 65 years personal dose measuring points - a success story?; Entwicklung der beruflichen Strahlenexposition in der Medizin. 65 Jahre Personendosis-Messstellen eine Erfolgsgeschichte?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figel, Markus [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Muenchen (Germany). Auswertungsstelle fuer Strahlendosimeter

    2017-07-01

    Radiation exposure, radiation protection and measuring methodology are inseparable including mutual influence. Based on a functional area-wide personnel surveillance coverage problematic working places and occupations can be localized, radiation protection can be evaluated and the occupational radiation exposure can be reduced or avoided.

  4. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mettte; Daneshvar, Bahram; Hansen, Max

    2003-01-01

    wAmbient particulate air pollution assessed as outdoor concentrations of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 mum in diameter (PM2.5) in urban background has been associated with cardiovascular diseases at the population level. However, the significance of individual exposure...... and the involved mechanisms remain uncertain. We measured personal PM2.5 and carbon black exposure in 50 students four times in 1 year and analyzed blood samples for markers of protein and lipid oxidation, for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts, and for concentrations of hemoglobin and fibrinogen. We...... analyzed protein oxidation in terms of gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBGGS) and 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBAAS) and plasma proteins (PLAAS), and lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma. Median exposures were 16.1 mug/m(3) for personal PM2.5 exposure...

  5. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-05-01

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  6. Exposure assessment and modeling of particulate matter for asthmatic children using personal nephelometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Delfino, Ralph J.; Floro, Joshua N.; Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Samimi, Behzad S.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Allen, Ryan W.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    It has been shown that acute exposures to particulate matter (PM) may exacerbate asthma in children. However, most epidemiological studies have relied on time-integrated PM measurements taken at a centrally located stationary monitoring sites. In this article, we characterized children's short-term personal exposures to PM 2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters size-selective inlet was used to estimate real-time PM 2.5 concentrations on 20 asthmatic children, inside and outside of their residences, and at a central site. The personal and indoor pDRs were operated passively, while the home outdoor and central site instruments were operated actively. The subjects received 29.2% of their exposures at school, even though they only spent 16.4% of their time there. More precise personal clouds were estimated for the home-indoor and home-outdoor microenvironments where PM concentrations were measured. The personal cloud increased with increasing activity levels and was higher during outdoor activities than during indoor activities. We built models to predict personal PM exposures based on either microenvironmental or central-site PM 2.5 measurements, and evaluated the modeled exposures against the actual personal measurements. A multiple regression model with central site PM concentration as the main predictor had a better prediction power ( R2=0.41) than a three-microenvironmental model ( R2=0.11). We further constructed a source-specific exposure model utilizing the time-space-activity information and the particle infiltration efficiencies (mean=0.72±0.15) calculated from a recursive mass balance model. It was estimated that the mean hourly personal exposures resulting from ambient, indoor-generated, and personal activity PM 2.5 were 11.1, 5.5, and 10.0 μg/m 3, respectively, when the modeling error was minimized. The high PM 2.5 exposure to personal activities reported in our study is likely due to children's more active lifestyle as compared with older adult subjects in

  7. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although personal cigarette smoking is the most important cause and modulator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, secondhand smoke (SHS exposure could influence the course of the disease. Despite the importance of this question, the impact of SHS exposure on COPD health outcomes remains unknown. Methods We used data from two waves of a population-based multiwave U.S. cohort study of adults with COPD. 77 non-smoking respondents with a diagnosis of COPD completed direct SHS monitoring based on urine cotinine and a personal badge that measures nicotine. We evaluated the longitudinal impact of SHS exposure on validated measures of COPD severity, physical health status, quality of life (QOL, and dyspnea measured at one year follow-up. Results The highest level of SHS exposure, as measured by urine cotinine, was cross-sectionally associated with poorer COPD severity (mean score increment 4.7 pts; 95% CI 0.6 to 8.9 and dyspnea (1.0 pts; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.7 after controlling for covariates. In longitudinal analysis, the highest level of baseline cotinine was associated with worse COPD severity (4.7 points; 95% CI -0.1 to 9.4; p = 0.054, disease-specific QOL (2.9 pts; -0.16 to 5.9; p = 0.063, and dyspnea (0.9 pts; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.6 pts; p Conclusion Directly measured SHS exposure appears to adversely influence health outcomes in COPD, independent of personal smoking. Because SHS is a modifiable risk factor, clinicians should assess SHS exposure in their patients and counsel its avoidance. In public health terms, the effects of SHS exposure on this vulnerable subpopulation provide a further rationale for laws prohibiting public smoking.

  8. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  9. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L.; Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E.

    2006-01-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of 131 I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  10. The association of LUR modeled PM2.5 elemental composition with personal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagne, Denise; Hoek, Gerard; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Lanki, Timo; Pennanen, Arto; Portella, Meritxell; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Eeftens, Marloes; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Cirach, Marta; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Land use regression (LUR) models predict spatial variation of ambient concentrations, but little is known about the validity in predicting personal exposures. In this study, the association of LUR modeled concentrations of PM 2.5 components with measured personal concentrations was determined. The elements of interest were copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn). Methods: In Helsinki (Finland), Utrecht (the Netherlands) and Barcelona (Spain) five participants from urban background, five from suburban background and five from busy street sites were selected in each city (15 participants per city). Outdoor, indoor and personal 96-hour PM 2.5 samples were collected by the participants over periods of two weeks in three different seasons (winter, summer and spring/autumn) and the overall average was calculated. Elemental composition was measured by ED-XRF spectrometry. The LUR models for the average ambient concentrations of each element were developed by the ESCAPE project. Results: LUR models predicted the within-city variation of average outdoor Cu and Fe concentrations moderately well (range in R 2 27–67% for Cu and 24–54% for Fe). The outdoor concentrations of the other elements were not well predicted. The LUR modeled concentration only significantly correlated with measured personal Fe exposure in Utrecht and Ni and V in Helsinki. The LUR model predictions did not correlate with measured personal Cu exposure. After excluding observations with an indoor/outdoor ratio of > 1.5, modeled Cu outdoor concentrations correlated with indoor concentrations in Helsinki and Utrecht and personal concentrations in Utrecht. The LUR model predictions were associated with measured outdoor, indoor and personal concentrations for all elements when the data for the three cities was pooled. Conclusions: Within-city modeled variation of elemental composition of PM 2.5 did not predict measured

  11. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Lianne; Burnett, Richard T; Szpiro, Adam A; Kim, Sun-Young; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Brunekreef, Bert

    2012-06-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality has been investigated using cohort studies in which subjects are followed over time with respect to their vital status. In such studies, control for individual-level confounders such as smoking is important, as is control for area-level confounders such as neighborhood socio-economic status. In addition, there may be spatial dependencies in the survival data that need to be addressed. These issues are illustrated using the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention II cohort. Exposure measurement error is a challenge in epidemiology because inference about health effects can be incorrect when the measured or predicted exposure used in the analysis is different from the underlying true exposure. Air pollution epidemiology rarely if ever uses personal measurements of exposure for reasons of cost and feasibility. Exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology comes in various dominant forms, which are different for time-series and cohort studies. The challenges are reviewed and a number of suggested solutions are discussed for both study domains.

  12. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Frei, Patrizia; Bolte, John; Neubauer, Georg; Cardis, Elisabeth; Feychting, Maria; Gajsek, Peter; Heinrich, Sabine; Joseph, Wout; Mann, Simon; Martens, Luc; Mohler, Evelyn; Parslow, Roger C; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Radon, Katja; Schüz, Joachim; Thuroczy, György; Viel, Jean-François; Vrijheid, Martine

    2010-05-20

    The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.

  13. Measuring and exposures from National Media Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    2000-01-01

    Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media ...... surveys themselves that might invalidate or give unreliable measures, both when measuring a single exposure and accumulated exposures. Four media types will be discussed: TV, radio, print and the internet.......Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media...

  14. Development of personnel exposure management system with personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Toshiki

    1992-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, large scale personnel exposure management systems have been developed and established by utilities. Though being common in the base, the implementations are specific by plants. Contractors must control their workers' exposures by their own methods and systems. To comply with the utilities' parental systems, contractors' systems tend to differ by plants, thus make it difficult for contractors to design a standard system that is common to all relevant plants. Circumstances being as such, however, we have developed a system which is applicable to various customer utilities with minimal variations, using personal computers with database management and data communication softwares, with relatively low cost. We hope that this system will develop to the standard model for all Japanese contractors' personnel exposure management systems. (author)

  15. On Measuring the Sixth Basic Personality Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielmann, Isabel; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Zettler, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in personality research led to the proposition of two alternative six-factor trait models, the HEXACO model and the Big Six model. However, given the lack of direct comparisons, it is unclear whether the HEXACO and Big Six factors are distinct or essentially equivalent, that is......, whether corresponding inventories measure similar or distinct personality traits. Using Structural Equation Modeling (Study 1), we found substantial differences between the traits as measured via the HEXACO-60 and the 30-item Questionnaire Big Six (30QB6), particularly for Honesty-Humility and Honesty...

  16. Measurements of the personal dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the results of measurements related to the personal dose equivalent in the rooms adjacent to NILPRP 7 MeV linear accelerator, by means of the secondary standard chamber T34035 Hp(10). The chamber was calibrated by PTB at S- 137 Cs (E av = 661.6 keV, T 1/2 11050 days) and has N H = 3.17x10 6 Sv/C calibration factor for the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), at a depth of 10 mm in climatic reference conditions. The measurements were made for the two operation mode of the 7 MeV linac: electrons and bremsstrahlung

  17. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, G.D.; Lynam, D.R. [Air Conservation Department, Ethyl Corporation, 330 South Fourth Street, Richmond, VA (United States); Harrison, R.M. [The University of Birmingham, Environmental Health, School of Chemistry, Edgbaston, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM{sub 2.5} were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM{sub 2.5}, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rails, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear.

  18. Occupational exposure to ultrafine particles among airport employees--combining personal monitoring and global positioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported...... at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH......). METHOD: 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days...

  19. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvain, Iara; Bok, Bernard; X. Bichat University, Paris

    2002-01-01

    French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personnel monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital) personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 mu Sv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10% of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr). Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection. (author)

  20. Personal exposures of preschool children to carbon monoxide: roles of ambient air quality and gas stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Mukala, K.; Pasanen, P.; Tuomisto, J.; Jantunen, M.J. (National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Division of Environmental Health)

    1994-12-01

    Personal 1 h mean CO exposures of preschool children in two day care centers (Toolo and Vallila) in Helsinki were measured with continuously recording personal exposure monitors. In Vallila, the median CO exposure of children from homes with gas stoves was 2.0 mgm[sup -3], and with electric stoves, 0.9 mgm[sup -3]. In Tooloo, the corresponding values were 1.9 and 1.0 mgm[sup -3], respectively. The national ambient air quality guidelines for CO in Finland were exceeded in a few percent of the exposure measurements. The results were compared to fixed-site ambient air monitoring data and related to the presence of town-gas fired stoves in the children's homes. The results show that fixed-site ambient air monitors are of little value in predicting personal exposures of children or even their relative differences between areas. They also show that town-gas fired stoves may have a profound effect on the CO exposures of the children. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Temporal and spatial variability of personal exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Neubauer, Georg; Theis, Gaston; Bürgi, Alfred; Fröhlich, Jürg; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bolte, John; Egger, Matthias; Röösli, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the population's exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in industrialized countries. To examine levels of exposure and the importance of different RF-EMF sources and settings in a sample of volunteers living in a Swiss city. RF-EMF exposure of 166 volunteers from Basel, Switzerland, was measured with personal exposure meters (exposimeters). Participants carried an exposimeter for 1 week (two separate weeks in 32 participants) and completed an activity diary. Mean values were calculated using the robust regression on order statistics (ROS) method. Mean weekly exposure to all RF-EMF sources was 0.13 mW/m(2) (0.22 V/m) (range of individual means 0.014-0.881 mW/m(2)). Exposure was mainly due to mobile phone base stations (32.0%), mobile phone handsets (29.1%) and digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) phones (22.7%). Persons owning a DECT phone (total mean 0.15 mW/m(2)) or mobile phone (0.14 mW/m(2)) were exposed more than those not owning a DECT or mobile phone (0.10 mW/m(2)). Mean values were highest in trains (1.16 mW/m(2)), airports (0.74 mW/m(2)) and tramways or buses (0.36 mW/m(2)), and higher during daytime (0.16 mW/m(2)) than nighttime (0.08 mW/m(2)). The Spearman correlation coefficient between mean exposure in the first and second week was 0.61. Exposure to RF-EMF varied considerably between persons and locations but was fairly consistent within persons. Mobile phone handsets, mobile phone base stations and cordless phones were important sources of exposure in urban Switzerland.

  2. Personal exposure to PM2.5 and biomarkers of DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Hertel, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution assessed as outdoor concentrations of particulate matter PM(2.5)) has been associated with an increased cancer risk. However, outdoor PM(2.5) concentrations may not be the best measure of the individual particle exposure that is a sum...... of many sources besides outdoor particle levels, e.g., environmental tobacco smoke and cooking. We measured personal PM(2.5) and black smoke exposure in 50 students four times over 1 year and analyzed for biomarkers of different types of DNA damages. Ambient PM(2.5) concentrations were also measured...... collections were analyzed for 8-oxodG and 1-hydroxypyrene. Personal PM(2.5) exposure was found to be a predictor of 8-oxodG in lymphocyte DNA with an 11% increase in 8-oxodG/10 microg/m(3) increase in personal PM(2.5) exposure (P = 0.007). No other associations between exposure markers and biomarkers could...

  3. Dose measurement during defectoscopic work using electronic personal dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoldasova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Personal monitoring of the external radiation of radiation, personnel exposed to sources of ionizing radiation at a workplace is an important task of the radiological protection. Information based on the measured quantities characterizing the level of the exposure of radiation personnel enable to assess the optimum radiological protection at the relevant workplace and ascertain any deviation from the normal operation in time. Different types of personal dosimeters are used to monitor the external radiation of radiation personnel. Basically, there are two types of dosimeters, passive and active (electronic). Passive dosimeters provide information on the dose of exposure after its evaluation, while electronic dosimeters provide this information instantly. The goal of the work is to compare data acquired during different working activities using the DMC 2000 XB electronic dosimeters and the passive film dosimeters currently used at the defectoscopic workplace. (authors)

  4. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Daneshvar, Bahram; Hansen, Max

    2003-01-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution assessed as outdoor concentrations of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micro m in diameter (PM(2.5)) in urban background has been associated with cardiovascular diseases at the population level. However, the significance of individual exposure...... and the involved mechanisms remain uncertain. We measured personal PM(2.5) and carbon black exposure in 50 students four times in 1 year and analyzed blood samples for markers of protein and lipid oxidation, for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts, and for concentrations of hemoglobin and fibrinogen. We...... analyzed protein oxidation in terms of gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBGGS) and 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBAAS) and plasma proteins (PLAAS), and lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma. Median exposures were 16.1 micro g/m(3) for personal PM(2.5...

  5. Personal carbon monoxide exposures of preschool children in Helsinki, Finland: levels and determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, S.; Mukala, K.; Jantunen, M. J.

    Personal CO exposures of 194 preschool children were measured with personal exposure monitors during a 24 week sampling period from fall 1990 to spring 1991 in Helsinki, Finland. Arithmetic mean of the maximum 1 and 8 h exposure levels were 6.0 and 3.3 mg m -3. The then Finnish ambient air quality guideline values for 1/8 h maximum CO level (30/10 mg m -3) were exceeded in 2/4% of the children's daily maximum 1/8 h exposure levels. Gas stove at home, parents, especially mother, smoking in the home, and living in high rise buildings — reflecting higher local population and traffic density — increased the children's CO exposures. The presence of a fireplace in the home was associated with decreased CO exposures. Father's high education reduced the children's CO exposure while mother's education level had no significant effect. The peak (15 min) exposure levels of the children commuting to day care center by car or bus were higher than those of the children who walked or came by bike.

  6. Between-country comparison of whole-body SAR from personal exposure data in Urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Frei, Patrizia; Röösli, Martin; Vermeeren, Günter; Bolte, John; Thuróczy, György; Gajšek, Peter; Trček, Tomaž; Mohler, Evelyn; Juhász, Péter; Finta, Viktoria; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), personal radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements were performed in different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoors using the same exposure meters. From the mean personal field exposure levels (excluding mobile phone exposure), whole-body absorption values in a 1-year-old child and adult male model were calculated using a statistical multipath exposure method and compared for the five countries. All mean absorptions (maximal total absorption of 3.4 µW/kg for the child and 1.8 µW/kg for the adult) were well below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. Generally, incident field exposure levels were well correlated with whole-body absorptions (SAR(wb) ), although the type of microenvironment, frequency of the signals, and dimensions of the considered phantom modify the relationship between these exposure measures. Exposure to the television and Digital Audio Broadcasting band caused relatively higher SAR(wb) values (up to 65%) for the 1-year-old child than signals at higher frequencies due to the body size-dependent absorption rates. Frequency Modulation (FM) caused relatively higher absorptions (up to 80%) in the adult male. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The design of a miniature personal exposure monitor for continuous real-time data acquisition in electromagnetic field exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.H.; Conroy, T.J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1994-06-01

    The design of a small, light-weight personal exposure monitor suitable for use in EMF exposure assessment studies is nearing completion at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The monitor is designed to be non-obtrusive, battery operated, and able to continuously record extremely low-frequency (ELF) (1Ohz--500hz) magnetic-field data. It also captures high-frequency (500hz--1OMhz) transients that exceed a preset threshold, retaining the largest transients in memory. The monitor can record one or more days of data on a single easily replaceable, credit-card-size memory (PCMCIA). A battery charge will last a minimum of one day. Batteries are rechargeable and easily replaced. A data-compression algorithm is under development that will be tailored to the efficient compression of low-frequency EMF signals and will permit data to be logged for at least one day before swapping memory cards. The memory cards are readable by a base- station computer that can perform analysis of the data. The monitor is designed to accommodate four inputs supporting full-field sensors as well as a proposed ocular exposure measurement system. Our design effort has shown that a practical personal exposure monitor for EMF can be built based on current technology, continuous logging of real-time ELF waveforms is both feasible and practical, and such a device is appropriate for proposed EMF exposure studies

  9. Trends in Exposure to Chemicals in Personal Care and Consumer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic organic chemicals can be used in personal care and consumer products. Data on potential human health effects of these chemicals are limited-sometimes even contradictory-but because several of these chemicals are toxic in experimental animals, alternative compounds are entering consumer markets. Nevertheless, limited information exists on consequent exposure trends to both the original chemicals and their replacements. Biomonitoring (measuring concentrations of chemicals or their metabolites in people) provides invaluable information for exposure assessment. We use phthalates and bisphenol A-known industrial chemicals-and organophosphate insecticides as case studies to show exposure trends to these chemicals and their replacements (e.g., other phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers, various bisphenols, pyrethroid insecticides) among the US general population. We compare US trends to national trends from Canada and Germany. Exposure to the original compounds is still prevalent among these general populations, but exposures to alternative chemicals may be increasing.

  10. Human convective boundary layer and its impact on personal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan

    generated by heat sources are gaining more prominent influence in space airflow formation and on the indoor environment overall. In such spaces with low air supply velocity, air mixing is minimized and the pollution emitted from localized indoor sources is non-uniformly distributed. The large spatial......People spend most of their time indoors and they are constantly exposed to pollution that affects their health, comfort and productivity. Due to strong economic and environmental pressures to reduce building energy consumption, low air velocity design is gaining popularity; hence buoyancy flows...... in inaccurate exposure prediction. This highlights the importance of a detailed understanding of the complex air movements that take place in the vicinity of the human body and their impact on personal exposure. The two objectives of the present work are: (i) to examine the extent to which the room air...

  11. Assessing the importance of different exposure metrics and time-activity data to predict 24-H personal PM2.5 exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Te; Koutrakis, Petros; Catalano, Paul J; Suh, Helen H

    Personal PM(2.5) data from two recent exposure studies, the Scripted Activity Study and the Older Adults Study, were used to develop models predicting 24-h personal PM(2.5) exposures. Both studies were conducted concurrently in the summer of 1998 and the winter of 1999 in Baltimore, MD. In the Scripted Activity Study, 1-h personal PM(2.5) exposures were measured. Data were used to identify significant factors affecting personal exposures and to develop 1-h personal exposure models for five different micro-environments. By incorporating the time-activity diary data, these models were then combined to develop a time-weighted microenvironmental personal model (model M1AD) to predict the 24-h PM(2.5) exposures measured for individuals in the Older Adults Study. Twenty-four-hour time-weighted models were also developed using 1-h ambient PM(2.5) levels and time-activity data (model A1AD) or using 24-h ambient PM(2.5) levels and time-activity data (model A24AD). The performance of these three models was compared to that using 24-h ambient concentrations alone (model A24). Results showed that factors affecting 1-h personal PM(2.5) exposures included air conditioning status and the presence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for indoor micro-environments, consistent with previous studies. ETS was identified as a significant contributor to measured 24-h personal PM(2.5) exposures. Staying in an ETS-exposed microenvironment for 1 h elevated 24-h personal PM(2.5) exposures by approximately 4 microg/m 3 on average. Cooking and washing activities were identified in the winter as significant contributors to 24-h personal exposures as well, increasing 24-h personal PM(2.5) exposures by about 4 and 5 microg/m 3 per hour of activity, respectively. The ability of 3 microenvironmental personal exposure models to estimate 24-h personal PM(2.5) exposures was generally comparable to and consistently greater than that of model A24. Results indicated that using time-activity data with 1

  12. Time and Place as Modifiers of Personal UV Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Diffey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a common belief that, if we want to limit our sun exposure during outdoor recreational activities and holidays in order to avoid sunburn or reduce our risk of skin cancer, we need to reach for the bottle of sunscreen or cover up with clothing. As important as these measures are, there is another way to enjoy our time outdoors and still benefit from the experience. In this article, we consider the impact of time, place, and behaviour outdoors on our exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV radiation. Some of the simple actions we can take in controlling our UV exposure include being aware of the position of the sun in the sky, understanding how we can use the UV index to guide our outdoor exposure, and the importance of reducing our sun exposure around the middle of the day. Finally we review our preferred holiday activities and destinations, and the influence of outdoor leisure pursuits. By planning where and when we spend our leisure time in the sun, we can maximise our enjoyment whilst limiting our UV exposure.

  13. Time and Place as Modifiers of Personal UV Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian L

    2018-05-30

    It is a common belief that, if we want to limit our sun exposure during outdoor recreational activities and holidays in order to avoid sunburn or reduce our risk of skin cancer, we need to reach for the bottle of sunscreen or cover up with clothing. As important as these measures are, there is another way to enjoy our time outdoors and still benefit from the experience. In this article, we consider the impact of time, place, and behaviour outdoors on our exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Some of the simple actions we can take in controlling our UV exposure include being aware of the position of the sun in the sky, understanding how we can use the UV index to guide our outdoor exposure, and the importance of reducing our sun exposure around the middle of the day. Finally we review our preferred holiday activities and destinations, and the influence of outdoor leisure pursuits. By planning where and when we spend our leisure time in the sun, we can maximise our enjoyment whilst limiting our UV exposure.

  14. Personal exposure to dust and endotoxin in Robusta and Arabica coffee processing factories in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwari, Gloria; Mamuya, Simon H D; Bråtveit, Magne; Larsson, Lennart; Pehrson, Christina; Moen, Bente E

    2013-03-01

    Endotoxin exposure associated with organic dust exposure has been studied in several industries. Coffee cherries that are dried directly after harvest may differ in dust and endotoxin emissions to those that are peeled and washed before drying. The aim of this study was to measure personal total dust and endotoxin levels and to evaluate their determinants of exposure in coffee processing factories. Using Sidekick Casella pumps at a flow rate of 2l/min, total dust levels were measured in the workers' breathing zone throughout the shift. Endotoxin was analyzed using the kinetic chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Separate linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate exposure determinants for dust and endotoxin. Total dust and endotoxin exposure were significantly higher in Robusta than in Arabica coffee factories (geometric mean 3.41 mg/m(3) and 10 800 EU/m(3) versus 2.10 mg/m(3) and 1400 EU/m(3), respectively). Dry pre-processed coffee and differences in work tasks explained 30% of the total variance for total dust and 71% of the variance for endotoxin exposure. High exposure in Robusta processing is associated with the dry pre-processing method used after harvest. Dust and endotoxin exposure is high, in particular when processing dry pre-processed coffee. Minimization of dust emissions and use of efficient dust exhaust systems are important to prevent the development of respiratory system impairment in workers.

  15. Sound exposure measurements using hearing-aid technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Boelt; Drastrup, Mads; Morales, Esteban Chávez

    2016-01-01

    scenarios. The purpose of this work is to document the use of a modified behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing-aid as a portable sound pressure level (SPL) meter. In order to obtain sound level measurements with a BTE device comparable to sound field values that can be used with existing risk assessment strategies...... levels of sound exposures are experienced in modern society in many different situations such as attending concerts, sport events and others. This leads to an interest in measurement devices which are discreet and simple to use, in order to assess sound exposures encountered in typical daily life......, differences due to microphone positions and the presence of a person in the measurement must be taken into account. The present study presents measurements carried out to document the characteristics of the BTE device, using the same framework presented in the ISO 11904 standard series. The responses...

  16. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (pbased on the mean exposure values to RF-EMF in these sections. The displayed map would permit the execution of more accurate epidemiological studies, since it would be possible to compare the exposure measurements with the incidence data of a disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Inexpensive High-Temporal Resolution Electronic Sun Journal for Monitoring Personal Day to Day Sun Exposure Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Downs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sunlight, specifically solar ultraviolet (UV radiation contributes to lifetime risks of skin cancer, eye disease, and diseases associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Improved knowledge of personal sun exposure patterns can inform public health policy; and help target high-risk population groups. Subsequently, an extensive number of studies have been conducted to measure personal solar UV exposure in a variety of settings. Many of these studies, however, use digital or paper-based journals (self-reported volunteer recall, or employ cost prohibitive electronic UV dosimeters (that limit the size of sample populations, to estimate periods of exposure. A cost effective personal electronic sun journal (ESJ built from readily available infrared photodiodes is presented in this research. The ESJ can be used to complement traditional UV dosimeters that measure total biologically effective exposure by providing a time-stamped sun exposure record. The ESJ can be easily attached to clothing and data logged to personal devices (including fitness monitors or smartphones. The ESJ improves upon self-reported exposure recording and is a cost effective high-temporal resolution option for monitoring personal sun exposure behavior in large population studies.

  18. [Multiple mere exposure effect: category evaluation measured in the Go/No-go association task (GNAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Yoshida, Fujio

    2011-12-01

    The effect on likability of multiple subliminal exposures to the same person was investigated. Past studies on the mere exposure effect indicated a correlation between the frequency of repeated exposure to the same stimulus and likability. We proposed that exposure to various stimuli of the same person would have a stronger effect on likability. Participants were subliminally exposed to photographs of a person's face taken from seven angles (multi-angle-exposure) three times each (Experiment 1), or photographs of a person with seven facial expressions (multi-expression-exposure) three times each (Experiment 2). Then, the likability toward the exposed person was measured using the Go/No-go Association Task. The results indicated that the effect of the multiple exposures from various angles was equivalent to exposure to only one full-face photograph shown 21 times (Experiment 1). Moreover, likability was significantly higher in the case of exposure to various facial expressions than for exposure to only a single facial expression (Experiment 2). The results suggest that exposure to various stimuli in a category is more effective than repeated exposure to a single stimulus for increasing likability.

  19. Measuring motivations for media exposure: A thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks Vettehen, P.G.J.; Snippenburg, L.B. van

    2002-01-01

    The present article discusses the problem of separating the motivation conceptempirically from other relevant concepts in research on mass media audiences. For about half a century, audience researchers use questionnaire items with adistinct format as measurements of motivations for media exposure.

  20. Measurement of illumination exposure in postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Martin T

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of light exposure at critical times are thought to cause seasonal affective disorder. Investigators, in studies demonstrating the usefulness of bright light therapy, also have implicated light's role in non-seasonal depression. The precise cause of postpartum depression has not been delineated, but it seemed possible that new mothers would spend reduced time in daylight. The goal of this study was to examine the levels of illumination experienced by postpartum mothers and to discover any relationship between light exposure and mood levels experienced during the postpartum period. Methods Fifteen postpartum women, who did not have any baseline indication of depression, wore a wrist device (Actillume for 72 hours to measure their exposure to light. At the end of the recording period, they completed a self-reported measure of mood. The mean light exposure of these postpartum women (expressed as the 24-hour average logarithm of illumination in lux was compared with that of a representative sample of women of comparable age, residence, and seasonal months of recording. Mood levels were then rank-ordered and tested for correlation with light exposure levels. Results There was no significant difference between the amount of light [log10lux] experienced by postpartum (1.01 SD 0.236 and control women (1.06 SD 0.285. Mood was not correlated with illumination in the postpartum sample. Conclusions Postpartum women in San Diego did not receive reduced light, nor was low mood related to low illumination.

  1. Novel database for exposure to fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, D; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S H; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subject's frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene during petroleum refinery turnarounds and work in the oil harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, M; Almerud, P; Andersson, E M; Strandberg, B; Sallsten, G

    2016-11-01

    Petroleum refinery workers' exposure to the carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene has decreased during normal operations. However, certain occupational groups or events at the refineries still involve a risk of higher exposures. The aim of this study was to examine the personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene at refinery turnarounds and during work in the oil harbour. Personal exposure measurements of benzene and 1,3-butadiene were taken during work shifts, with a priori assumed higher benzene exposure, using PerkinElmer diffusive samplers filled with Carbopack X. Mean exposure levels were calculated, and repeated exposure measurements, when available, were assessed using mixed effect models. Group and individual compliance with the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) was tested for the different exposure groups. Mean benzene exposure levels for refinery workers during the three measured turnarounds were 150, 610 and 960 µg/m 3 , and mean exposures for oil harbour workers and sewage tanker drivers were 310 and 360 µg/m 3 , respectively. Higher exposures were associated with handling benzene-rich products. Most occupational groups did not comply with the Swedish OEL for benzene nor did the individuals within the groups. The exposure to 1,3-butadiene was very low, between Work within the petroleum refinery industry, with potential exposure to open product streams containing higher fractions of benzene, pose a risk of personal benzene exposures exceeding the OEL. Refinery workers performing these work tasks frequently, such as contractors, sewage tanker drivers and oil harbour workers, need to be identified and protected.

  3. Effects of personal air pollution exposure on asthma symptoms, lung function and airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L; Finch, J; Edwards, K; Jeanjean, A; Leigh, R; Gonem, S

    2018-03-11

    There is evidence that air pollution increases the risk of asthma hospitalizations and healthcare utilization, but the effects on day-to-day asthma control are not fully understood. We undertook a prospective single-centre panel study to test the hypothesis that personal air pollution exposure is associated with asthma symptoms, lung function and airway inflammation. Thirty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were provided with a personal air pollution monitor (Cairclip NO 2 /O 3 ) which was kept on or around their person throughout the 12-week follow-up period. Ambient levels of NO 2 and particulate matter were modelled based upon satellite imaging data. Directly measured ozone, NO 2 and particulate matter levels were obtained from a monitoring station in central Leicester. Participants made daily electronic records of asthma symptoms, peak expiratory flow and exhaled nitric oxide. Spirometry and asthma symptom questionnaires were completed at fortnightly study visits. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models and cross-correlation. Cairclip exposure data were of good quality with clear evidence of diurnal variability and a missing data rate of approximately 20%. We were unable to detect consistent relationships between personal air pollution exposure and clinical outcomes in the group as a whole. In an exploratory subgroup analysis, total oxidant exposure was associated with increased daytime symptoms in women but not men. We did not find compelling evidence that air pollution exposure impacts on day-to-day clinical control in an unselected asthma population, but further studies are required in larger populations with higher exposure levels. Women may be more susceptible than men to the effects of air pollution, an observation which requires confirmation in future studies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Personal exposure to pesticide among workers engaged in pesticide container recycling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L; Yoshida, K; Clough, V

    1994-12-01

    Pesticide container handling operations in western Canada were examined to determine the exposure of workers to residual pesticide in sorting, metal-container crushing, metal-container shredding, plastic-container shredding, metal washing, and metal melting. Environmental exposure monitoring and biological monitoring were applied, including measurement of pesticide deposition density on outer clothing (test coveralls and other protective wear), deposition on fabric and gauze patches under the outer clothing, inhalation of airborne pesticide residues, dislodgement of pesticide residues by hand washing, and pre- and postexposure urinary excretion of pesticide (2,4-D). Exposure levels were highly variable; some variability was accounted for by work practices or lapses in protection. The highest levels of exposure were observed for metal washing, metal crushing, and metal shredding; sorting and plastic shredding were intermediate, and metal melting was associated with very little exposure. Urinary 2,4-D excretion, as an indicator of internal dose, correlated most closely with exposure by the inhalation route, and both were highest for metal washing and shredding. Deposition of pesticide on garments was highest for metal crushing. Melting of washed metal does not appear to present a significant hazard of exposure. Recommendations are proposed for the protection of workers emphasizing health and safety guidelines, worker education, personal hygiene, exposure and health monitoring, and record-keeping, and specific recommendations for each process. These recommendations apply to all pesticide container recycling operations except melting of washed metal containers.

  5. Patterns and predictors of personal exposure to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion among women and children in rural China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J. (Univ. of Minnesota. Institute on the Environment, St. Paul, MN (United States)); Patz, J.; Bautista, L.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin. Dept. of Population Health Sciences, Madison, WI (United States)); Schauer, J.J. (Univ. of Wisconsin. Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, Madison, WI (United States)); Ezzati, M. (MRC-HPA Center for Environment and Health, Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)); Lu, L.; Cheng, C. (Yunnan Provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Yunnan (China))

    2011-12-15

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from domestic biomass combustion is an important health risk factor, yet direct measurements of personal IAP exposure are scarce. We measured 24-h integrated gravimetric exposure to particles <2.5 mum in aerodynamic diameter (particulate matter, PM{sub 2.5}) in 280 adult women and 240 children in rural Yunnan, China. We also measured indoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in a random sample of 44 kitchens. The geometric mean winter PM{sub 2.5} exposure among adult women was twice that of summer exposure [117 mug/m3 (95% CI: 107, 128) vs. 55 mug/m3 (95% CI: 49, 62)]. Children's geometric mean exposure in summer was 53 mug/m3 (95% CI: 46, 61). Indoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were moderately correlated with women's personal exposure (r = 0.58), but not for children. Ventilation during cooking, cookstove maintenance, and kitchen structure were significant predictors of personal PM{sub 2.5} exposure among women primarily cooking with biomass. These findings can be used to develop exposure assessment models for future epidemiologic research and inform interventions and policies aimed at reducing IAP exposure. (Author)

  6. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radon Katja

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.

  7. Reducing personal exposure to particulate air pollution improves cardiovascular health in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Li, Xi; Wang, Shengfeng; Lee, Matthew M Y; Barnes, Gareth D; Miller, Mark R; Cassee, Flemming R; Boon, Nicholas A; Donaldson, Ken; Li, Jing; Li, Liming; Mills, Nicholas L; Newby, David E; Jiang, Lixin

    2012-03-01

    Air pollution exposure increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is a major global public health concern. We investigated the benefits of reducing personal exposure to urban air pollution in patients with coronary heart disease. In an open randomized crossover trial, 98 patients with coronary heart disease walked on a predefined route in central Beijing, China, under different conditions: once while using a highly efficient face mask, and once while not using the mask. Symptoms, exercise, personal air pollution exposure, blood pressure, heart rate, and 12-lead electrocardiography were monitored throughout the 24-hr study period. Ambient air pollutants were dominated by fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) that was present at high levels [74 μg/m³ for PM(2.5) (PM with aerodynamic diamater reduced maximal ST segment depression (-142 vs. -156 μV, p = 0.046) over the 24-hr period. When the face mask was used during the prescribed walk, mean arterial pressure was lower (93 ± 10 vs. 96 ± 10 mmHg, p = 0.025) and heart rate variability increased (high-frequency power: 54 vs. 40 msec², p = 0.005; high-frequency normalized power: 23.5 vs. 20.5 msec, p = 0.001; root mean square successive differences: 16.7 vs. 14.8 msec, p = 0.007). However, mask use did not appear to influence heart rate or energy expenditure. Reducing personal exposure to air pollution using a highly efficient face mask appeared to reduce symptoms and improve a range of cardiovascular health measures in patients with coronary heart disease. Such interventions to reduce personal exposure to PM air pollution have the potential to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in this highly susceptible population.

  8. Modeling personal particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pb-pah exposure in human subjects in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH has been linked to various adverse health outcomes. Personal PAH exposures are usually measured by personal monitoring or biomarkers, which are costly and impractical for a large population. Modeling is a cost-effective alternative to characterize personal PAH exposure although challenges exist because the PAH exposure can be highly variable between locations and individuals in non-occupational settings. In this study we developed models to estimate personal inhalation exposures to particle-bound PAH (PB-PAH using data from global positioning system (GPS time-activity tracking data, traffic activity, and questionnaire information. Methods We conducted real-time (1-min interval personal PB-PAH exposure sampling coupled with GPS tracking in 28 non-smoking women for one to three sessions and one to nine days each session from August 2009 to November 2010 in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California. Each subject filled out a baseline questionnaire and environmental and behavior questionnaires on their typical activities in the previous three months. A validated model was used to classify major time-activity patterns (indoor, in-vehicle, and other based on the raw GPS data. Multiple-linear regression and mixed effect models were developed to estimate averaged daily and subject-level PB-PAH exposures. The covariates we examined included day of week and time of day, GPS-based time-activity and GPS speed, traffic- and roadway-related parameters, meteorological variables (i.e. temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and socio-demographic variables and occupational exposures from the questionnaire. Results We measured personal PB-PAH exposures for 180 days with more than 6 h of valid data on each day. The adjusted R2 of the model was 0.58 for personal daily exposures, 0.61 for subject-level personal exposures, and 0.75 for subject-level micro-environmental exposures. The amount

  9. Radiation exposure dose on persons engaged in radiation-related industries in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Bong Sik

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the status of radiation exposure doses since the establishment of the 'Regulations on Safety Management of Diagnostic Radiation Generation Device' in January 6, 1995. The level of radiation exposure in people engaged or having been engaged in radiation-related industries of inspection organizations, educational organization, military units, hospitals, public health centers, businesses, research organizations or clinics over a 5 year period from Jan. 1, 2000 to Dec. 31, 2004 was measured. The 149,205 measurement data of 57,136 workers registered in a measurement organization were analysed in this study. Frequency analysis, a Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test, and ANOVA was used for data analysis. Among 57,136 men were 40,870 (71.5%). 50.3% of them were radiologic technologists, otherwise medical doctors (22.7%), nurse (2.9%) and others (24.1%). The average of depth radiation and surface radiation during the 5-year period were found to decrease each year. Both the depth radiation and surface radiation exposure were significantly higher in males, in older age groups, in radiological technologists of occupation. The departments of nuclear medicine had the highest exposure of both depth and surface radiation of the divisions of labor. There were 1.98 and 2.57 per 1,000 person-year were exposed more than 20 mSv (limit recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection) in depth and surface radiation consequently. The total exposure per worker was significantly decreased by year. But Careful awareness is needed for the workers who exposed over 20 mSv per year. In order to minimize exposure to radiation, each person engaged in a radiation-related industry must adhere to the individual safety management guidelines more thoroughly. In addition, systematic education and continuous guidance aimed at increasing the awareness of safety must be provided

  10. Temporal Variability of Daily Personal Magnetic Field Exposure Metrics in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Savitz, David A.; Meeker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent epidemiology studies of power-frequency magnetic fields and reproductive health have characterized exposures using data collected from personal exposure monitors over a single day, possibly resulting in exposure misclassification due to temporal variability in daily personal magnetic field exposure metrics, but relevant data in adults are limited. We assessed the temporal variability of daily central tendency (time-weighted average, median) and peak (upper percentiles, maximum) persona...

  11. Ultraviolet Exposure, Measurement and Protection in Townsville, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation summarises some of the main results from three different studies conducted in Townsville, Australia, investigating recent topics in personal exposure to solar UV radiation: exposure during early childhood, exposure during school hours, and the UV protection of various shade structures. (author)

  12. Exposure Control Indoors with Wearable Personal Exhaust Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Barova, Maria I.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    A wearable personalized ventilation (PV) unit to reduce the risk from airborne disease contamination is reported. The PV unit consists of a nozzle, installed on a headset, which is used to locally exhaust the exhaled air before it mixes with the surroundings. Experiments at 22 °C were performed...... background air distribution at 3, 6 and 12 ACH. The use of the device showed a great potential in reducing the concentration of exhaled air in the room to the level measured under mixing ventilation alone at 12 ACH. The high potential to capture exhaled air, makes the wearable PV applicable as an efficient...

  13. Comparison of particulate matter exposure estimates in young children from personal sampling equipment and a robotic sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A; Shalat, Stuart L; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-05-01

    Accurate characterization of particulate matter (PM) exposure in young children is difficult, because personal samplers are often too heavy, bulky or impractical to be used. The Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler was developed to help address this problem. In this study, we measured inhalable PM exposures in 2-year-olds via a lightweight personal sampler worn in a small backpack and evaluated the use of a robotic sampler with an identical sampling train for estimating PM exposure in this age group. PM mass concentrations measured by the personal sampler ranged from 100 to almost 1,200 μg/m 3 , with a median value of 331 μg/m 3 . PM concentrations measured by PIPER were considerably lower, ranging from 14 to 513 μg/m 3 with a median value of 56 μg/m 3 . Floor cleaning habits and activity patterns of the 2-year-olds varied widely by home; vigorous play and recent floor cleaning were most associated with higher personal exposure. Our findings highlight the need for additional characterization of children's activity patterns and their effect on personal exposures.

  14. The European Person Equivalent: Measuring the personal environmental space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    The European person equivalent (PE) is a quantification of the environmental impact caused annually by the activities of an average European. It comprises contributions to all the major environmental impacts from global to local as well as our consumption of resources. Similarly, the targeted...... European person equivalent is a quantification of the average person’s environmental impact in a near future according to the current politically set environmental targets. In addition to expressing the current societal priorities in pollution reduction, the targeted PE expresses the environmental space...... available to all of us according to the current environmental policy. Both concepts were developed in the mid-nineties for use in life cycle impact assessment to help comparisons across different environmental impact categories. Since then they have shown their value as a pedagogic tool in the presentation...

  15. Work Inside Ocean Freight Containers—Personal Exposure to Off-Gassing Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Urban

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 million ocean freight container units are shipped annually between countries and continents. Residual levels of fumigants, as well as naturally occurring off-gassing chemicals emanating from the goods, constitute safety risks, which may affect uniformed workers upon entering the container. The aim of this study was to assess workers’ exposure during stripping of containers and is the first study of its kind. First, an experimental tracer gas method was investigated to determine its usefulness to approximate real exposures from gaseous fumigants and off-gassing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nitrous oxide was injected and left to distribute in the closed containers. The distribution of the tracer gas and initial (arrival) concentrations of off-gassing volatiles were measured prior to opening the containers. Second, personal exposure (breathing zone) and work zone air monitoring of both tracer gas and VOCs were carried out during stripping. Adsorbent tubes, bag samples, and direct-readings instruments (photoionization detector and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) were used. The distribution studies with nitrous oxide, and the high correlation between the former and VOCs (r 2 ~ 0.8) during stripping, showed that the tracer gas method may well be used to approximate real exposures in containers. The average breathing zone and work zone concentrations during stripping of naturally ventilated 40-foot containers were 1–7% of the arrival concentrations; however, peaks up to 70% were seen during opening. Even if average exposures during stripping are significantly lower than arrival concentrations, they may still represent serious violations of occupational exposure limits in high-risk containers. The results from this and previous studies illustrate the need to establish practices for the safe handling of ocean freight containers. Until comprehensive recommendations are in place, personnel that need to enter such containers should, in addition

  16. Work inside ocean freight containers--personal exposure to off-gassing chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Urban; Johanson, Gunnar

    2013-11-01

    More than 500 million ocean freight container units are shipped annually between countries and continents. Residual levels of fumigants, as well as naturally occurring off-gassing chemicals emanating from the goods, constitute safety risks, which may affect uniformed workers upon entering the container. The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure during stripping of containers and is the first study of its kind. First, an experimental tracer gas method was investigated to determine its usefulness to approximate real exposures from gaseous fumigants and off-gassing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nitrous oxide was injected and left to distribute in the closed containers. The distribution of the tracer gas and initial (arrival) concentrations of off-gassing volatiles were measured prior to opening the containers. Second, personal exposure (breathing zone) and work zone air monitoring of both tracer gas and VOCs were carried out during stripping. Adsorbent tubes, bag samples, and direct-readings instruments (photoionization detector and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) were used. The distribution studies with nitrous oxide, and the high correlation between the former and VOCs (r(2) ~ 0.8) during stripping, showed that the tracer gas method may well be used to approximate real exposures in containers. The average breathing zone and work zone concentrations during stripping of naturally ventilated 40-foot containers were 1-7% of the arrival concentrations; however, peaks up to 70% were seen during opening. Even if average exposures during stripping are significantly lower than arrival concentrations, they may still represent serious violations of occupational exposure limits in high-risk containers. The results from this and previous studies illustrate the need to establish practices for the safe handling of ocean freight containers. Until comprehensive recommendations are in place, personnel that need to enter such containers should, in addition to

  17. Detailed characterization of welding fumes in personal exposure samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quémerais, B; Mino, James; Amin, M R; Golshahi, H; Izadi, H

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the project was to develop a method allowing for detailed characterization of welding particles including particle number concentration, size distribution, surface chemistry and chemical composition of individual particles, as well as metal concentration of various welding fumes in personal exposure samples using regular sampling equipment. A sample strategy was developed to evaluate the variation of the collection methods on mass concentration. Samples were collected with various samplers and filters at two different locations using our collection system. The first location was using a robotic welding system while the second was manual welding. Collected samples were analysed for mass concentration using gravimetryand metal concentration using ICP/OES. More advanced analysis was performed on selected filters using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to determine surface composition of the particles, and X-Ray Diffraction to determine chemical composition of the fumes. Results showed that the robotic system had a lot of variation in space when the collection system was located close to the weld. Collection efficiency was found to be quite variable depending upon the type of filter. As well, metal concentrations in blank filters were dependent upon the type of filter with MCE presenting with the highest blank values. Results obtained with the XRD and XPS systems showed that it was possible to analyse a small of powdered welding fume sample but results on filters were not conclusive. (paper)

  18. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley M.; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A. [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States); Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas [Fraunhofer USA – CCL, 1449 Engineering Research Ct., East Lansing 48824, MI (United States); Dweik, Badawi M., E-mail: bdweik@ginerinc.com [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium.

  19. Impact of one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode on personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Röösli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When moving around, mobile phones in stand-by mode periodically send data about their positions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) measurements are affected by such location updates. Exposure from a mobile phone handset (uplink) was measured during commuting by using a randomized cross-over study with three different scenarios: disabled mobile phone (reference), an activated dual-band phone and a quad-band phone. In the reference scenario, uplink exposure was highest during train rides (1.19 mW/m(2)) and lowest during car rides in rural areas (0.001 mW/m(2)). In public transports, the impact of one's own mobile phone on personal RF-EMF measurements was not observable because of high background uplink radiation from other people's mobile phone. In a car, uplink exposure with an activated phone was orders of magnitude higher compared with the reference scenario. This study demonstrates that personal RF-EMF exposure is affected by one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode because of its regular location update. Further dosimetric studies should quantify the contribution of location updates to the total RF-EMF exposure in order to clarify whether the duration of mobile phone use, the most common exposure surrogate in the epidemiological RF-EMF research, is actually an adequate exposure proxy.

  20. Personal exposures to VOC in the upper end of the distribution—relationships to indoor, outdoor and workplace concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Jantunen, Matti; Lai, Hak Kan; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Katsouyanni, Klea; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Saarela, Kristiina; Sram, Radim; Künzli, Nino

    Evaluation of relationships between median residential indoor, indoor workplace and population exposures may obscure potential strategies for exposure reduction. Evaluation of participants with personal exposures above median levels in the EXPOLIS study in Athens, Helsinki, Oxford and Prague illustrated that these participants frequently showed a different relationship to indoor and workplace levels than that shown by the population median. Thus, prioritization of environments for control measures based on median exposures may exclude important areas where effectively focused control measures are possible, and may therefore have little impact on the highest and most harmful exposures. Further, personal exposures at the upper end of the distribution may exceed the US EPA inhalation reference concentration (Rfc), illustrated here using hexane, naphthalene and benzene. For example upper 90th percentile personal exposures to benzene in Athens and Prague were 64 and 27 μg m -3 with peak exposures of 217 and 38 μg m -3, respectively for non-ETS exposed participants relative to an Rfc of 30 μg m -3. Strategies to reduce exposures to individual compounds, therefore, may benefit from focus on the high end of the distribution to identify activities and behaviors that result in elevated exposures. Control strategies targeting activities that lead to exposures in the upper end of the distribution would reduce the variability associated with population median values by bringing the upper end of the exposure distribution closer to median values. Thus, compliance with health-based standards would be more protective of the higher exposed fraction of the population, in whom health effects would be more expected.

  1. An accurate filter loading correction is essential for assessing personal exposure to black carbon using an Aethalometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Nicholas; Mölter, Anna; Peel, Jennifer L; Volckens, John

    2017-07-01

    The AE51 micro-Aethalometer (microAeth) is a popular and useful tool for assessing personal exposure to particulate black carbon (BC). However, few users of the AE51 are aware that its measurements are biased low (by up to 70%) due to the accumulation of BC on the filter substrate over time; previous studies of personal black carbon exposure are likely to have suffered from this bias. Although methods to correct for bias in micro-Aethalometer measurements of particulate black carbon have been proposed, these methods have not been verified in the context of personal exposure assessment. Here, five Aethalometer loading correction equations based on published methods were evaluated. Laboratory-generated aerosols of varying black carbon content (ammonium sulfate, Aquadag and NIST diesel particulate matter) were used to assess the performance of these methods. Filters from a personal exposure assessment study were also analyzed to determine how the correction methods performed for real-world samples. Standard correction equations produced correction factors with root mean square errors of 0.10 to 0.13 and mean bias within ±0.10. An optimized correction equation is also presented, along with sampling recommendations for minimizing bias when assessing personal exposure to BC using the AE51 micro-Aethalometer.

  2. Assessment of personal exposure from radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields in Australia and Belgium using on-body calibrated exposimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Billah, Baki; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-11-01

    The purposes of this study were: i) to demonstrate the assessment of personal exposure from various RF-EMF sources across different microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, with two on-body calibrated exposimeters, in contrast to earlier studies which employed single, non-on-body calibrated exposimeters; ii) to systematically evaluate the performance of the exposimeters using (on-body) calibration and cross-talk measurements; and iii) to compare the exposure levels measured for one site in each of several selected microenvironments in the two countries. A human subject took part in an on-body calibration of the exposimeter in an anechoic chamber. The same subject collected data on personal exposures across 38 microenvironments (19 in each country) situated in urban, suburban and rural regions. Median personal RF-EMF exposures were estimated: i) of all microenvironments, and ii) across each microenvironment, in two countries. The exposures were then compared across similar microenvironments in two countries (17 in each country). The three highest median total exposure levels were: city center (4.33V/m), residential outdoor (urban) (0.75V/m), and a park (0.75V/m) [Australia]; and a tram station (1.95V/m), city center (0.95V/m), and a park (0.90V/m) [Belgium]. The exposures across nine microenvironments in Melbourne, Australia were lower than the exposures across corresponding microenvironments in Ghent, Belgium (p<0.05). The personal exposures across urban microenvironments were higher than those for rural or suburban microenvironments. Similarly, the exposure levels across outdoor microenvironments were higher than those for indoor microenvironments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Personal Exposure to Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds: Modeling and Further Analysis of the RIOPA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong

    2015-01-01

    known to affect VOC exposures, many personal, environmental, and socioeconomic determinants remain to be identified, and the significance and applicability of the determinants reported in the literature are uncertain. To help answer these unresolved questions and overcome limitations of previous analyses, this project used several novel and powerful statistical modeling and analysis techniques and two large data sets. The overall objectives of this project were (1) to identify and characterize exposure distributions (including extreme values), (2) evaluate mixtures (including dependencies), and (3) identify determinants of VOC exposure. METHODS VOC data were drawn from two large data sets: the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study (1999–2001) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 1999–2000). The RIOPA study used a convenience sample to collect outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure measurements in three cities (Elizabeth, NJ; Houston, TX; Los Angeles, CA). In each city, approximately 100 households with adults and children who did not smoke were sampled twice for 18 VOCs. In addition, information about 500 variables associated with exposure was collected. The NHANES used a nationally representative sample and included personal VOC measurements for 851 participants. NHANES sampled 10 VOCs in common with RIOPA. Both studies used similar sampling methods and study periods. Specific Aim 1 To estimate and model extreme value exposures, extreme value distribution models were fitted to the top 10% and 5% of VOC exposures. Health risks were estimated for individual VOCs and for three VOC mixtures. Simulated extreme value data sets, generated for each VOC and for fitted extreme value and lognormal distributions, were compared with measured concentrations (RIOPA observations) to evaluate each model’s goodness of fit. Mixture distributions were fitted with the conventional finite mixture of normal distributions and the

  4. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  5. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter in the general population of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J.; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J.; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Hung-Lam Yim, Steve; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulate matter pollution severely deteriorates the environmental conditions and negatively impacts human health in the Chinese megacity Guangzhou. Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in Guangzhou, China. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposure were evaluated using principal component analysis along with a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (mainly secondary inorganic ions) and anhydrosugars exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios < 1 accompanied by strong P-C correlations, indicating that these constituents in personal PM2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca2+) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, which indicated that among subjects who spent a great amount of time indoors, aside from particles of ambient origin, individual's total exposure to PM2.5 includes contributions of non-ambient exposure while indoors and outdoors (e.g., local traffic, indoor sources, personal activities). SO42- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO42- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca2+, and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca2+ to personal PM2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient

  6. Antisocial personalities: Measuring prevalence among offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of offenders who meet the criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder or dissocial personality disorder could be of significant value to help address the violent crime crisis in South Africa. A sample of 500 male maximum security offenders was selected to determine the prevalence of these ...

  7. Measuring personality : a comparison of three personality questionnaires in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Luteijn, F.

    Three studies were conducted in order to examine (1) what can be measured with three commonly used Dutch self-report personality questionnaires, and (2) which instrument is most suitable for measuring personality in The Netherlands. In Study 1, the relationships between the Five Factor Personality

  8. Tattoo Infections, Personal Resistance, and Contagious Exposure through Tattooing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infection of tattoos remains a common complication. Pyogenic bacteria can cause infections shortly after the tattoo is made. Severity of infection varies from minor to major, ultimately with life-threatening septicemia. Viral infections may be introduced, i.e. HVB, HVC, and HIV. The risk of infection depends on the following triad: microbial pathogen and its aggressiveness, individual resistance of the tattooed, and inoculation and exposures by the tattoo needle and in the tattoo parlor. Some infectious risks can be controlled. Persons with weaknesses can refrain from tattooing. Tattoo parlors and tattooing can be hygienic and clean albeit not sterile; much has improved helped by hygiene guidelines of professional tattooists' organizations and through control instituted by local and national authorities. Tattoo inks remain a potential source of infection difficult to control in a low-priced competitive market operating over the Internet and across national borders. Ten percent of new inks are contaminated with bacteria pathogenic to humans, independent of a claim of 'sterility'. Known brands and established manufacturers are considered safer. Work is in progress aiming at common European standards for tattoo hygiene. Doctors have a role not only in treating tattoo infections but also in reporting cases to the competent authority in their country to support the monitoring of tattoo infections at any time, as an instrument for the authority to detect local outbreaks of tattoo infections early and prevent that new tattoo customers become infected. It is a potential risk of the future that new and very aggressive bacteria not seen in the past may unexpectedly show up in the tattoo scene. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Personal exposure of graduate students attending the college of natural sciences or social sciences to volatile organic compounds on campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Kim, Jong-Dae

    2010-11-01

    The present study measured the levels of 24 selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the personal air samples obtained from graduate students attending the college of natural sciences (GSNSs) or social science (GSSSs) during their daily activities on campus along with associated indoor and outdoor air samples. In addition, the sources of their personal exposure were characterized using multivariate statistical models. In the personal samples of GSNSs and GSSSs, 16 and 15 different VOCs were always detected, respectively. The personal exposure of five chlorinated hydrocarbons and six aromatics was significantly higher for GSNSs than for GSSSs. Consistently, the indoor levels of these compounds were higher for GSNSs (in research and laboratory rooms) than for GSSSs (in research rooms). However, the personal exposure of two aromatic VOCs (1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) was higher for GSSSs. Moreover, the personal exposure of the five chlorinated and six aromatic compounds was significantly correlated with VOC concentrations both in the research and laboratory rooms of GSNSs and with those in the research rooms of GSSSs. For certain VOCs, outdoor sources were also a major contributor to the personal exposure of both GSNSs and GSSSs. The multivariate models identified five factors that accounted for 81% of the total variance and four factors that explained 76% of the total variance. It was further suggested that multiple indoor sources in research rooms such as office equipment, building finishing materials, and air fresheners were the main source for the personal exposure to VOCs for GSNSs, whereas building finishing materials were the main source for GSSSs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accuracy and practicality of a portable ozone monitor for personal exposure estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A.; Weisel, Clifford P.; Meng, Qingyu

    2018-02-01

    Accurate measurements of personal exposure to atmospheric pollutants such as ozone are important for understanding health risks. We tested a new personal ozone monitor (POM; 2B Technologies) for accuracy, precision, and ease of use. The POM's measurements were compared to simultaneous ozone measurements from a 2B Model 205 monitor and a ThermoScientific 49i monitor, and multiple POMs were placed side-by-side to check precision. Tests were undertaken in a controlled environmental facility, outdoors, and in a private residence. Additionally, ten volunteers wore a POM for five days and answered a questionnaire about its ease of use. The POM measured ozone accurately compared to the 49i ozone monitor, with average relative differences of less than 8%. In the controlled environment tests, the POM's ozone measurements did not change in the presence of additional atmospheric constituents with similar absorption lines to ozone, though there may have been a small decrease in precision and accuracy. Precision between POMs varied by environment (r2 = 0.98 outdoors; r2 = 0.3 to 0.9 in controlled lab conditions). Volunteers reported that the POM was reasonably comfortable to wear, although all reported that they felt that it was too noisy. Overall, the POM is a viable option for personal ozone monitoring.

  11. Personal exposure to particulate matter in commuters using different transport modes (bus, bicycle, car and subway) in an assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Liliana; Mesías, Stephanie; Iglesias, Verónica; Silva, Claudio; Cáceres, Dante D; Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare personal exposure to particulate matter (fine and ultrafine particles) in commuters using different transport modes (bicycle, bus, car and subway) in a busy, assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile. Volunteers carrying personal samplers completed scheduled commutes during the morning rush hours, while central site measurements were conducted in parallel. A total of 137 valid commutes were assessed. The impact of central site, traffic and other variables was explored with regression models. PM2.5 personal concentrations were equal to or slightly above central site measurements, while UFP personal concentrations were above them. Regression models showed impacts of both background levels and traffic emissions on personal PM2.5 and UFP exposure. Traffic impacts varied with transport modes. Estimates of traffic impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure were 2.0, 13.0, 16.9 and 17.5 μg m(-3), for car, bicycle, subway and bus, respectively; while for UFP exposure were 8400, 16 200, 25 600 and 30 100 counts per cm(3), for subway, car, bicycle and bus, respectively. After controlling the central site and transport mode, higher temperatures increased PM2.5 exposure and decreased UFP ones, while the wind direction affected UFP personal exposure. In conclusion, we found significant impacts of both central site background measurements and traffic emissions on personal exposure of volunteer commuters in an assigned route in Santiago, with impacts varying with transport modes.

  12. Personal exposure to total suspended particulates of adolescents living in Vanderbijlpark, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Terblanche, APS

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Personal monitoring of exposure to air pollution is becoming increasingly important in health studies as a method of characterizing total exposure. We monitored the exposure of 31 teenagers to total suspended particulates (TSP) over a 12-hour period...

  13. Inter-comparison of personal monitors for nanoparticles exposure at workplaces and in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Ana Maria; Beckmann, Stefanie; Kaminski, Heinz; Bard, Delphine; Bau, Sébastien; Clavaguera, Simon; Dahmann, Dirk; Dozol, Hélène; Dziurowitz, Nico; Elihn, Karine; Fierz, Martin; Lidén, Göran; Meyer-Plath, Asmus; Monz, Christian; Neumann, Volker; Pelzer, Johannes; Simonow, Barbara Katrin; Thali, Patrick; Tuinman, Ilse; van der Vleuten, Arjan; Vroomen, Huub; Asbach, Christof

    2017-12-15

    Personal monitors based on unipolar diffusion charging (miniDiSC/DiSCmini, NanoTracer, Partector) can be used to assess the individual exposure to nanoparticles in different environments. The charge acquired by the aerosol particles is nearly proportional to the particle diameter and, by coincidence, also nearly proportional to the alveolar lung-deposited surface area (LDSA), the metric reported by all three instruments. In addition, the miniDiSC/DiSCmini and the NanoTracer report particle number concentration and mean particle size. In view of their use for personal exposure studies, the comparability of these personal monitors was assessed in two measurement campaigns. Altogether 29 different polydisperse test aerosols were generated during the two campaigns, covering a large range of particle sizes, morphologies and concentrations. The data provided by the personal monitors were compared with those obtained from reference instruments: a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for LDSA and mean particle size and a ultrafine particle counter (UCPC) for number concentration. The results indicated that the LDSA concentrations and the mean particle sizes provided by all investigated instruments in this study were in the order of ±30% of the reference value obtained from the SMPS when the particle sizes of the test aerosols generated were within 20-400nm and the instruments were properly calibrated. Particle size, morphology and concentration did not have a major effect within the aforementioned limits. The comparability of the number concentrations was found to be slightly worse and in the range of ±50% of the reference value obtained from the UCPC. In addition, a minor effect of the particle morphology on the number concentration measurements was observed. The presence of particles >400nm can drastically bias the measurement results of all instruments and all metrics determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, Hp(d)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantuzzi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA - Bologna has organised a one day-workshop on the subject: Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H p (d). The aim of the workshop was the discussion of the new implications and modifications to be expected in the routine individual monitoring of external radiation, due to the issue of the Decree 241/00 (G.U. 31/8/2000) in charge since 01/01/2001. The decree set up in Italian law the standards contained in the European Directive EURATOM 96/29-Basic Standards for the Protection of Health of Workers and the General Public against Dangers arising from Ionizing Radiation. Among others, the definition of the operational quantities for external radiation for personal and environmental monitoring, H p (d) e H * (d) respectively as defined by ICRU (International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurements), requires to update the methods of measurements and calibration of the personal dosemeters and environmental monitors. This report collects the papers presented at the workshop dealing with the Personal Dose Equivalent, H p (d), the conversion coefficients, H p (d)/K a e H p (d)/ , obtained through Monte Carlo calculations published by ICRU and ICRP (International Commission for Radiation Protection), the new calibration procedures and the practical implication in the routine of individual monitoring in terms of H p (d). Eventually, in the last chapter, the answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) are briefly reported [it

  15. Personal solar UVR exposure studies using a new miniature electronic dosimeter/datalogger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.P.; Roy, C.R.; Toomey, S.; Borland, R.; Dixon, H.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) has been involved in a number of different collaborative studies around Australia using polysulphone (PS) film dosimeters in the measurement of personal exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) (Herlihy E et al, Photochem Photobiol 60:288-294, 1994; Gies HP et al, Photochem Photobiol 62:1015-1021, 1995). These PS dosimeters have proven useful in measuring cumulative exposures during different outdoor occupational and recreational activities. Recent advances in both UV photodiodes and miniature dataloggers have allowed the development of UV dosimeters which can log the incident UVR exposure with time (Diffey BL and Saunders PJ, Photochem Photobiol 61:615-618, 1995). This provides information on the variation of UVR exposure with time of day and also on the effect of variations in local environment, activity and possibly behaviour on exposure. A pilot study to examine the performance of the UV dosimeter/ datalogger and to refine a suitable questionnaire for a much larger follow up study was undertaken in 1995. Two of the new dosimeter/dataloggers were available and a third, less portable unit was used to monitor ambient solar UVR. The site chosen was a recreation park within 5 km of ARL where calibrated ambient UVR monitoring occurs. The UVR exposures of people undertaking outdoor activities were measured. The subjects wore the UV detector attached to clothing on their back, so that it was out of sight and therefore less likely to cause them to consciously modify their behaviour during their activity. On completion the subjects were asked a number of standard questions about their activities while wearing the UV dosimeters. Of particular interest was whether the data collected could be used to determine whether subjects have modified their behaviour when in the sun as a result of educational campaigns on sun exposure run by the Cancer Councils. Comparison of the subjects UV data record with the simultaneous

  16. Measurement of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure in Epidemiological Studies (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdlow, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of radiofrequency (RF) exposure is important to the quality of epidemiological studies of the possible association of RF exposure with disease. The extent and type of exposure measurement in past epidemiological studies of RF, and the features of measurement that would be desirable for better studies in the future are summarised. Measurement characteristics that are discussed include quantification of radiation frequency and of intensity and timing of exposures, measurement (or good estimation) of exposures for individuals rather than only for groups, quality of measurement, and measurement of RF exposures experienced outside the study setting. Integration of exposure measurement into the design of epidemiological studies is needed for better assessments of possible RF effects. (author)

  17. Personal exposure to mixtures of volatile organic compounds: modeling and further analysis of the RIOPA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong

    2014-06-01

    affect VOC exposures, many personal, environmental, and socioeconomic determinants remain to be identified, and the significance and applicability of the determinants reported in the literature are uncertain. To help answer these unresolved questions and overcome limitations of previous analyses, this project used several novel and powerful statistical modeling and analysis techniques and two large data sets. The overall objectives of this project were (1) to identify and characterize exposure distributions (including extreme values), (2) evaluate mixtures (including dependencies), and (3) identify determinants of VOC exposure. METHODS VOC data were drawn from two large data sets: the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study (1999-2001) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 1999-2000). The RIOPA study used a convenience sample to collect outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure measurements in three cities (Elizabeth, NJ; Houston, TX; Los Angeles, CA). In each city, approximately 100 households with adults and children who did not smoke were sampled twice for 18 VOCs. In addition, information about 500 variables associated with exposure was collected. The NHANES used a nationally representative sample and included personal VOC measurements for 851 participants. NHANES sampled 10 VOCs in common with RIOPA. Both studies used similar sampling methods and study periods. Specific Aim 1. To estimate and model extreme value exposures, extreme value distribution models were fitted to the top 10% and 5% of VOC exposures. Health risks were estimated for individual VOCs and for three VOC mixtures. Simulated extreme value data sets, generated for each VOC and for fitted extreme value and lognormal distributions, were compared with measured concentrations (RIOPA observations) to evaluate each model's goodness of fit. Mixture distributions were fitted with the conventional finite mixture of normal distributions and the semi

  18. Personality Measurement and Employment Decisions. Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes data concerning personality measurements as predictors of job performance, and offers responses to frequently raised questions about these measurements in the employment process. It is suggested that measures of personality are valid predictors of performance in all occupations, that they do not adversely impact minority group job…

  19. Does cultural exposure partially explain the association between personality and political orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaowen; Mar, Raymond A; Peterson, Jordan B

    2013-11-01

    Differences in political orientation are partly rooted in personality, with liberalism predicted by Openness to Experience and conservatism by Conscientiousness. Since Openness is positively associated with intellectual and creative activities, these may help shape political orientation. We examined whether exposure to cultural activities and historical knowledge mediates the relationship between personality and political orientation. Specifically, we examined the mediational role of print exposure (Study 1), film exposure (Study 2), and knowledge of American history (Study 3). Studies 1 and 2 found that print and film exposure mediated the relationships Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness have with political orientation. In Study 3, knowledge of American history mediated the relationship between Openness and political orientation, but not the association between Conscientiousness and political orientation. Exposure to culture, and a corollary of this exposure in the form of acquiring knowledge, can therefore partially explain the associations between personality and political orientation.

  20. Measuring and manipulating audiences : A personal reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulterman, Dick C A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the emotional reactions of audiences to a wide range of content types is an important area of research. In this article, I provide a personal reflection on various approaches to modeling, quantifying and understanding audience behavior based on a broad range of evaluation techniques.

  1. Socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors affecting children's exposure to VOCs in urban areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik

    2010-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p factors simultaneously, socioeconomic factors such as region had a greater effect on children's VOC exposures than indoor activities. From this study, we can suggest that socioeconomic factors as well as environmental factors should be considered when formulating environmental policy to

  2. Genotoxic effects of daily personal exposure to particle mass and number concentrations on buccal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Daniela S.; da Costa, Silvano César; Ribeiro, Marcos; Moreira, Camila A. B.; Beal, Alexandra; Squizzato, Rafaela; Rudke, Anderson Paulo; Rafee, Sameh Adib Abou; Martins, Jorge A.; Palioto, Graciana Freitas; Kumar, Prashant; Martins, Leila D.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess personal exposure to Particle Number Concentrations (PNC) in four size ranges between 0.3 and 10 μm, and particulate matter (PM1; PM2.5; PM4; PM10) in order to evaluate possible genotoxic effects through a comet assay in buccal cells. A convenience cohort of 30 individuals from a Brazilian medium-sized city was selected. These individuals aged between 20 and 61 and worked in typical job categories (i.e., administrative, commerce, education, general services and transport). They were recruited to perform personal exposure measurements during their typical daily routine activities, totaling 240 h of sampling. The 8-h average mass concentrations in air for volunteers ranged from 2.4 to 31.8 μg m-3 for PM1, 4.2-45.1 μg m-3 for PM2.5, 7.9-66.1 μg m-3 for PM4 and from 23.1 to 131.7 μg m-3 for PM10. The highest PNC variation was found for 0.3-0.5 range, between 14 and 181 particles cm-3, 1 to 14 particles cm-3 for the 0.5-1.0 range, 0.2 to 2 particles cm-3 for the 1.0-2.5 range, and 0.06 to 0.7 particles cm-3 for the 2.5-10 range. Volunteers in the 'education' category experienced the lowest inhaled dose of PM2.5, as opposed to those involved in 'commercial' activities with the highest doses for PM10 (1.63 μg kg-1 h-1) and PM2.5 (0.61 μg kg-1 h-1). The predominant cause for these high doses was associated with the proximity of the workplace to the street and vehicle traffic. The comet assay performed in buccal cells indicated that the volunteers in 'commerce' category experienced the highest damage to their DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) compared with the control category (i.e. 'education'). These results indicate the variability in personal exposure of the volunteers in different groups, and the potential damage to DNA was much higher for those spending time in close proximity to the vehicle sources (e.g. commercial services) leading to exposure to a higher fraction of fine particles. This study builds understanding on the exposure

  3. Meteorological aspects of benzene transport, dispersion and personal exposure in Valdez, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, D.R.; Ball, R.J. [TRC Environmental Corp., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Valdez Air Health Study (VAHS) was conducted in Valdez, Alaska to determine the personal exposure of the residential population of Valdez to certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The VAHS used the EPA`s Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) with continuous meteorology, air quality and intense tracer measurements to monitor personal and indoor/outdoor concentrations of VOCs in the community. The Valdez fjord is the site of the Alyeska Marine Terminal, the largest crude oil loading terminal in the United States, with a maximum capacity of 2.2 million barrels per day. The Alyeska Marine Terminal is the transfer point for Prudhoe Bay crude oil from the pipeline to marine tankers. During 1990, the terminal and marine tankers were estimated to emit approximately 450 metric tonnes/year of benzene to the air at an average throughput of 1.8 million barrels/day while benzene emissions from other sources in the basin were estimated to be approximately 3 tonnes/year.

  4. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sylvain

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personal monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 µSv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10 % of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr. Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection.A legislação francesa introduziu o uso de dosímetros eletrônicos para monitoração da exposição do trabalhador. Afim de avaliar a exposição do trabalhador proveniente de exames diagnósticos em medicina nuclear, doses individuais do corpo inteiro foram medidas diariamente com dosímetros eletrônicos (digitais durante 20 semanas consecutivas e correlatas com as atividades de trabalho de cada dia. As doses foram sempre inferiores à 20 µSv por dia em condições normais de trabalho. Os níveis de exposição de radiação mais elevados foram para os enfermeiros, manipuladores e maqueiros. A extrapolação da dose anual para todos os trabalhadores foi menos que 10 % do limite máximo legal para os trabalhadores expostos (2 mSv/ano. Dosímetros eletrônicos não são tecnicamente justificados para a o controle de rotina da exposição dos trabalhadores, mas a alta sensibilidade e a leitura imediata desses dosímetros podem vir a serem muito úteis para o controle da exposição em condi

  5. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  6. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter 0.6) was found between benzene and MTBE in both locations. These results suggest that automobile exhausts were the main contributors to benzene and MTBE air pollution in both neighborhoods. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were found to be high in both neighborhoods. Mean (+/- SD) concentrations of formaldehyde were 20.2 +/- 19.5 microg/m3 in Waterfront South and 24.8 +/- 20.8 microg/m3 in Copewood-Davis. A similar trend was observed for the two compounds during the saturation-sampling campaigns. The results indicate that mobile sources (i.e., diesel trucks) had a large impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations in both neighborhoods and that both are aldehyde hot spots. The study also showed that PM2.5, aldehydes, BTEX, and MTBE concentrations in both Waterfront South

  7. Determinants of personal ultraviolet-radiation exposure doses on a sun holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Philipsen, P A

    2013-01-01

    A great number of journeys to sunny destinations are sold to the Danish population every year. We suspect that this travel considerably increases personal annual ultraviolet-radiation (UVR) exposure doses. This is important because such exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, and studies have...

  8. Measurement with Persons: A European Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pendrill, L.R.; Emardson, R.; Berglund, B.; Gröning, M.; Höglund, A.; Cancedda, A.; Quinti, G.; Crenna, F.; Rossi, G.B.; Drnovek, J.; Gersak, G.; Goodman, T.; Harris, S.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Kallinen, K.; Ravaja, N.

    2010-01-01

    The European ‘Measuring the Impossible’ Network MINET promotes new research activities in measurement dependent on human perception and/or interpretation. This includes the perceived attributes of products and services, such as quality or desirability, and societal parameters such as security and

  9. Personal monitoring in complex geometry of photon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, P.G.; Drexler, G.

    1996-01-01

    The ratio (effective dose, E) / (personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) ) was calculated for some scenarios set in broad parallel photon beams. Worker's irradiation condition are shown in which the number and locations of the individual monitor have to be carefully determined in order to avoid that the value of effective dose is underestimated

  10. Effects of Video Exposure to Cluttering on Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of a Person Who Clutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lindsey M.; Blanchet, Paul G.; Tillery, Kim L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests a negative stereotype toward people with fluency disorders (i.e. stuttering and/or cluttering), although recent findings suggest that exposure to an actual person who stutters (e.g. a live or video presentation) leads to more positive perceptions of some personality traits. However, there is a paucity of…

  11. Cytogenetics observation and radiation influence evaluation of exposed persons in a discontinuous radiation exposure event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Liu Xiulin; Yang Guoshan; Ge Shili; Jin Cuizhen; Yao Bo

    2003-01-01

    The cytogenetics results and dose estimation of exposed and related persons in an discontinuous radiation exposure event were reported in this paper. According to dicentrics + ring and micronucleus results combined with clinical data, slight (middle) degree of subacute radiation symptom of the victim was diagnosed. A part of 52 examined persons were exposed to radiation in a certain degree

  12. Usage patterns of personal care products: Important factors for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesterbos, J.W.H.; Dudzina, T.; Delmaar, C.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Russel, F.G.M.; Goetz, N. von; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2013-01-01

    Complete information regarding the use of personal care products (PCPs) by consumers is limited, but such information is crucial for realistic consumer exposure assessment. To fill this gap, a database was created with person-oriented information regarding usage patterns and circumstances of use for

  13. External exposure measurements at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Lessard, E.T.

    1979-01-01

    External exposure rate surveys from 1975 to 1977 on the islands Nam, Eneu and Bikini of Bikini Atoll gave average external exposure rates of 24, 5.7, and 32 μR/hr respectively. The exposure rate on Eneu Island is uniform, whereas those on Bikini and Nam range from 7.0 to 80. μR/hr. Based on an assumed living pattern at Bikini Island, the adult male Bikinian is estimated to be in the presence of an external radiation field corresponding to 16 μR/hr due to debris and fallout from the 1954 BRAVO incident. This corresponds to a 30 year dose equivalent of 2.8 rem

  14. Comparison of personal air benzene and urine t,t-muconic acid as a benzene exposure surrogate during turnaround maintenance in petrochemical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Mi-Young; Chung, Eun-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Kil; Park, Dong-Uk

    2018-04-12

    Previous studies have shown that biomarkers of chemicals with long half-lives may be better surrogates of exposure for epidemiological analyses, leading to less attenuation of the exposure-disease association, than personal air samples. However, chemicals with short half-lives have shown inconsistent results. In the present study, we compared pairs of personal air benzene and its short-half-life urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), and predicted attenuation bias of theoretical exposure-disease association. Total 669 pairs of personal air benzene and urine t,t-MA samples were taken from 474 male workers during turnaround maintenance operations held in seven petrochemical plants. Maintenance jobs were classified into 13 groups. Variance components were calculated for personal air benzene and urine t, t-MA separately to estimate the attenuation of the theoretical exposure-disease association. Personal air benzene and urine t, t-MA showed similar attenuation of the theoretical exposure-disease association. Analyses for repeated measurements showed similar results, while in analyses for values above the limits of detection (LODs), urine t, t-MA showed less attenuation of the theoretical exposure-disease association than personal air benzene. Our findings suggest that there may be no significant difference in attenuation bias when personal air benzene or urine t,t-MA is used as a surrogate for benzene exposure.

  15. Personality, depressive symptoms and prior trauma exposure of new recruits at two Metropolitan Police Service academies in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Subramaney

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Police officers are predisposed to trauma exposure. The development of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be influenced by personality style, prior exposure to traumatic events and prior depression. Objectives. To describe the personality profiles of new Metropolitan Police Service (MPS officers, and to determine the association between personality profiles, trauma exposure and depressive symptoms. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 139 new recruits at two MPS academies in South Africa. A questionnaire elucidating traumatic life events and personality profiles was developed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD. Results. Almost all subjects (99.3% had previous trauma exposure, most commonly the unexpected death of a loved one and motor vehicle accidents. Prevalence of clinical depression was low (mean HAMD 3.57; standard deviation ±3.37. Personality characteristics revealed a high prevalence of anxiety (64.7%; 95% CI 56.8 - 72.6, depressive clinical patterns (34.5%; 95% CI 26.6 - 42.2, paranoia (33.1 %; 95% CI 26.6 - 42.2 and major depression (10.3%; 95% CI 5.1 - 15.1. There were no significant associations between any of the traumatic events and depressive symptoms, nor were there any significant associations between any of the personality variables and HAMD score (p>0.05. Conclusion. The presence of depressive symptoms among MPS officers was low, with no significant associations between traumatic events, personality variables and depressive symptoms.

  16. A comparison of personal exposure to air pollutants in different travel modes on national highways in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Soma Sekhara Rao; Patra, Aditya Kumar; Sahu, Satya Prakash

    2018-04-01

    People often travel a long distance on highways to the nearest city for professional/business activities. However, relatively few publications on passenger exposure to pollutants on highways in India or elsewhere are available. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of different travel modes to passengers' pollutant exposure for a long distance travel on a national highway in India. We measured PM 2.5 and CO exposure levels of the passengers over 200km on a national highway using two portable air monitors, EVM-7 and EPAM-5000. Personal concentration exposures and per min-, per hour-, per trip- and round trip mass exposures for three travel modes were calculated for 9 trips. Association between pollutants and weather variables were evaluated using levels Spearman correlation. ANOVA was carried out to evaluate the influence of travel mode, the timing of trips, temperature and RH on personal exposures. On an average, PM 2.5 personal concentration exposure levels were highest in the car (85.41±61.85μgm -3 ), followed by the bus (75.08±55.39μgm -3 ) and lowest in the car (ac) (54.43±34.09μgm -3 ). In contrast, CO personal exposure was highest in the car (ac) (1.81±1.3ppm). Travel mode explained the highest variability for CO (18.1%), CO 2 (9.9%), PM 2.5 (1.2%) exposures. In-city mass exposures were higher than trip averages; PM 2.5 :1.21-1.22, 1.13-1.19 and 1.03-1.28 times; CO: 1.20-1.57, 1.37-2.10 and 1.76-2.22 times for bus, car and car (ac) respectively. Traveling by car (ac) results in the lowest PM 2.5 exposures, although it exposes the passenger to high CO level. Avoiding national highways passing through cities can reduce up to 25% PM 2.5 and 50% CO mass exposures. This information can be useful for increasing environmental awareness among the passengers and for framing better pollution control strategies on highways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Personal exposures to NO2 in the EXPOLIS-study: relation to residential indoor, outdoor and workplace concentrations in Basel, Helsinki and Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kousa, A.; Rotko, T.; Alm, S.; Monn, C.

    2001-01-01

    Personal exposures, residential indoor, outdoor and workplace levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were measured for 262 urban adult (25-55 years) participants in three EXPOLIS centres (Basel, Switzerland; Helsinki, Finland; and Prague, Czech Republic) using passive samplers for 48-h sampling periods during 1996-1997. The average residential outdoor and indoor NO 2 levels were lowest in Helsinki (24 ± 12 and 18 ± 11 μgm -3 , respectively), highest in Prague (61 ± 20 and 43 ± 23μgm -3 ), with Basel in between (36 ± 13 and 27± 13μgm -3 ). Average workplace NO 2 levels, however, were highest in Basel (36 ± 24μgm -3 ), lowest in Helsinki (27 ± 15μgm -3 ), with Prague in between (30 ± 18μgm -3 ). A time-weighted microenvironmental exposure model explained 74% of the personal exposure variation in all centre and in average 88% of the exposures. Log-linear regression models, using residential outdoor measurements (fixed site monitoring) combined with residential and work characteristics (i.e. work location, using gas appliances and keeping windows open), explained 48% (37%) of the personal NO 2 exposure variation. Regression models based on ambient fixed site concentrations alone explained only 11-19% of personal NO 2 exposure variation. Thus, ambient fixed site monitoring alone was a poor predictor for personal NO 2 exposure variation, but adding personal questionnaire information can significantly improve the predicting power. (Author)

  18. For good measure: Origins and prospects of exposure science (2007 Wesolowski Award Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    Measurement is the foundation of exposure science. Associations between illness and environmental agents have been observed for millennia, but the ability to quantify exposure and dose has been possible only in the last century. Improved means of measurement and refined concepts of who, what, when, where, and why to measure have been the seminal contributions of exposure science to the study of disease causation and prevention. This paper examines critical advancements in exposure assessment associated with workplace health and safety, and the groundbreaking work of the US Public Health Service. Many of the key concepts of modern exposure science have their origin in these early studies. Occupational hygiene scientists have conducted receptor-based exposure analyses for more than 80 years, evaluating indoor air, defining microenvironments, and developing personal sampling techniques. Biological monitoring of community populations including children, dermal exposure monitoring, duplicate diet studies, and multi-pathway, aggregate exposure assessments can be traced to early public health studies. As we look to the future, we see that new technologies and techniques are expanding the scope of exposure science dramatically. We need to ensure that the highest of scientific standards are maintained, make a greater effort to include occupational hygiene scientists, microbiologists, and behavioral scientists in the field, and promote new sources of training and research support. Exposure science has a critical role to play in the prevention strategy that is central to public health.

  19. Mobile phones as monitors of personal exposure to air pollution: Is this the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarku, Mawutorli; Mazaheri, Mandana; Jayaratne, Rohan; Dunbabin, Matthew; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Uhde, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones have a large spectrum of applications, aiding in risk prevention and improving health and wellbeing of their owners. So far, however, they have not been used for direct assessment of personal exposure to air pollution. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the first, and the only available, mobile phone—BROAD Life—equipped with air pollution sensors (PM2.5 and VOC), to answer the question whether this technology is a viable option in the quest of reducing the burden of disease to air pollution. We tested its performance, applicability and suitability for the purpose by subjecting it to varied concentrations of different types of aerosol particles (cigarette smoke, petrol exhaust and concrete dust) and formaldehyde under controlled laboratory conditions, as well as to ambient particles during field measurements. Six reference instruments were used in the study: AEROTRAK Optical Particle Counter (OPC model number 9306), DustTrak, Aerodynamic Particle Counter (APS), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) and Formaldehyde Analyser. Overall, we found that the phone’s response was linear at higher particle number concentrations in the chamber, above 5 and 10 μg m-3, for combustion and concrete dust particles, respectively, and for higher formaldehyde concentrations, making it potentially suitable for applications in polluted environments. At lower ambient concentrations of particles around 10 ug m-3 and 20 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, the phone’s response was below its noise level, suggesting that it is not suitable for ambient monitoring under relatively clean urban conditions. This mobile phone has a number of limitations that may hinder its use in personal exposure and for continuous monitoring. Despite these limitations, it may be used for comparative assessments, for example when comparing outcomes of intervention measures or local impacts of air pollution sources. It should

  20. Mobile phones as monitors of personal exposure to air pollution: Is this the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawutorli Nyarku

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have a large spectrum of applications, aiding in risk prevention and improving health and wellbeing of their owners. So far, however, they have not been used for direct assessment of personal exposure to air pollution. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the first, and the only available, mobile phone-BROAD Life-equipped with air pollution sensors (PM2.5 and VOC, to answer the question whether this technology is a viable option in the quest of reducing the burden of disease to air pollution. We tested its performance, applicability and suitability for the purpose by subjecting it to varied concentrations of different types of aerosol particles (cigarette smoke, petrol exhaust and concrete dust and formaldehyde under controlled laboratory conditions, as well as to ambient particles during field measurements. Six reference instruments were used in the study: AEROTRAK Optical Particle Counter (OPC model number 9306, DustTrak, Aerodynamic Particle Counter (APS, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM and Formaldehyde Analyser. Overall, we found that the phone's response was linear at higher particle number concentrations in the chamber, above 5 and 10 μg m-3, for combustion and concrete dust particles, respectively, and for higher formaldehyde concentrations, making it potentially suitable for applications in polluted environments. At lower ambient concentrations of particles around 10 ug m-3 and 20 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, the phone's response was below its noise level, suggesting that it is not suitable for ambient monitoring under relatively clean urban conditions. This mobile phone has a number of limitations that may hinder its use in personal exposure and for continuous monitoring. Despite these limitations, it may be used for comparative assessments, for example when comparing outcomes of intervention measures or local impacts of air pollution sources. It

  1. Mobile phones as monitors of personal exposure to air pollution: Is this the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarku, Mawutorli; Mazaheri, Mandana; Jayaratne, Rohan; Dunbabin, Matthew; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Uhde, Erik; Morawska, Lidia

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones have a large spectrum of applications, aiding in risk prevention and improving health and wellbeing of their owners. So far, however, they have not been used for direct assessment of personal exposure to air pollution. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the first, and the only available, mobile phone-BROAD Life-equipped with air pollution sensors (PM2.5 and VOC), to answer the question whether this technology is a viable option in the quest of reducing the burden of disease to air pollution. We tested its performance, applicability and suitability for the purpose by subjecting it to varied concentrations of different types of aerosol particles (cigarette smoke, petrol exhaust and concrete dust) and formaldehyde under controlled laboratory conditions, as well as to ambient particles during field measurements. Six reference instruments were used in the study: AEROTRAK Optical Particle Counter (OPC model number 9306), DustTrak, Aerodynamic Particle Counter (APS), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) and Formaldehyde Analyser. Overall, we found that the phone's response was linear at higher particle number concentrations in the chamber, above 5 and 10 μg m-3, for combustion and concrete dust particles, respectively, and for higher formaldehyde concentrations, making it potentially suitable for applications in polluted environments. At lower ambient concentrations of particles around 10 ug m-3 and 20 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, the phone's response was below its noise level, suggesting that it is not suitable for ambient monitoring under relatively clean urban conditions. This mobile phone has a number of limitations that may hinder its use in personal exposure and for continuous monitoring. Despite these limitations, it may be used for comparative assessments, for example when comparing outcomes of intervention measures or local impacts of air pollution sources. It should be kept

  2. Personal exposure to wood dust among workers in NekaChoob factory in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammadyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Inhalation of hardwood dust may produce a range of adverse health effects in the upper and lower respiratory system, including asthma, along with Sino-nasal cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer. This study was carried out to evaluate personal exposure to wood dust among workers in chipboard and furniture production saloons in Neka Choob factory, Iran. Materials and Methods: Gravimetric method No. 0500 recommended by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health was used to determine the wood dust concentrations in the workers’ breathing zone. The sampling air was drawn through a polyvinyl chloride filter within the breathing zone, using a calibrated personal sampling pump. Results: The mean workers’ personal exposure to wood dust in furniture production saloon (2.87 ± 1.95 mgm-3 was higher than mean exposure of workers whom were working in chipboard saloon (0.93 ± 0.35 mgm-3. The mean workers’ exposure to wood dust for both saloons was 1.70 ± 1.53 mgm-3. Conclusion: The mean workers’ personal exposure to wood dust in Neka Choob factory was higher than Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL recommended by national (Iranian Committee for Review and Collection of OEL and European ::union:: Scientific Committee on OEL committees. All workers in furniture production saloon and three workers in chipboard saloon have a mean exposure higher than OEL.

  3. Women's personal and indoor exposures to PM 2.5 in Mysore, India: Impact of domestic fuel usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Penny Rechkemmer; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Pai, Pramod; Maynard, Andrew

    In traditional societies, women are more likely to be adversely affected by exposures to fine particulates from domestic fuel combustion due to their role in the family as the primary cooks. In this study, 24-h gravimetric personal and indoor PM 2.5 exposures were measured for 15 women using kerosene and another 15 women using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as their main cooking fuel in Mysore, India. The women also answered a detailed questionnaire regarding their residential housing characteristics, health status, cooking practices and socioeconomic status. Repeated measurements were obtained during two seasons. The main objective of this study was to determine whether exposures to PM 2.5 differed according to fuel usage patterns. A repeated-measures general linear model (GLM) was used to analyze the data. Women using kerosene as their primary cooking fuel had significantly higher exposures. During summer, the arithmetic mean (± standard error) for kerosene users personal exposure was 111±13 and 71±15 μg m -3 for LPG users. Kerosene users had higher exposures in winter (177±21 μg m -3) compared to summer exposures. However, for LPG users there was no difference in their seasonal geometric mean exposures at 71±13 μg m -3. Indoor concentrations followed similar patterns. In summer, kerosene-using households had an arithmetic mean concentration of 98±9 μg m -3 and LPG-using households had an arithmetic mean concentration of 71±9 μg m -3. Winter concentrations were significantly higher than summer concentrations for kerosene users (155±13 μg m -3). Again, LPG users showed only slightly higher indoor concentrations (73±6 μg m -3) than kerosene users. Socioeconomic status, age, season and income were significant predictors of cooking fuel choice.

  4. Measuring the Core Components of Maladaptive Personality: Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel); C.C. Berghout (Casper); C. Dolan (Conor); P.J.A. van der Kroft (Petra); A.W. Bateman (Anthony); P. Fonagy (Peter); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis report describes a series of studies among 2231 subjects on the development of the Severity Indices for Personality Problems (SIPP), a self-report questionnaire measuring the core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. Results show that the 16 facets have good

  5. Relationships among measures of managerial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, J B

    1976-08-01

    Comparisons were made to determine the degree of convergence among three measures associated with leadership success in large, hierarchic organizations in the business sector: the Miner Sentence Completion Scale; the Ghiselli Self-Description Inventory; and the F-Scale, Correlational analyses and comparisons between means were made using college students and business manager samples. The results indicated considerable convergence for the first two measures, but not for the F-Scale. The F-Scale was related to the Miner Sentence Completion Scale in the student group, but relationships were nonexistent among the managers. Analyses of the individual F-Scale items which produced the relationship among the students suggested that early family-related experiences and attitudes may contribute to the development of motivation to manage, but lose their relevance for it later, under the onslaught of actual managerial experience.

  6. An analysis of factors that influence personal exposure to toluene and xylene in residents of Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linos Athena

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal exposure to pollutants is influenced by various outdoor and indoor sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of Athens citizens to toluene and xylene, excluding exposure from active smoking. Methods Passive air samplers were used to monitor volunteers, their homes and various urban sites for one year, resulting in 2400 measurements of toluene and xylene levels. Since both indoor and outdoor pollution contribute significantly to human exposure, volunteers were chosen from occupational groups who spend a lot of time in the streets (traffic policemen, bus drivers and postmen, and from groups who spend more time indoors (teachers and students. Data on individual and house characteristics were obtained using a questionnaire completed at the beginning of the study; a time-location-activity diary was also completed daily by the volunteers in each of the six monitoring campaigns. Results Average personal toluene exposure varied over the six monitoring campaigns from 53 to 80 μg/m3. Urban and indoor concentrations ranged from 47 – 84 μg/m3 and 30 – 51 μg/m3, respectively. Average personal xylene exposure varied between 56 and 85 μg/m3 while urban and indoor concentrations ranged from 53 – 88 μg/m3 and 27 – 48 μg/m3, respectively. Urban pollution, indoor residential concentrations and personal exposures exhibited the same pattern of variation during the measurement periods. This variation among monitoring campaigns might largely be explained by differences in climate parameters, namely wind speed, humidity and amount of sunlight. Conclusion In Athens, Greece, the time spent outdoors in the city center during work or leisure makes a major contribution to exposure to toluene and xylene among non-smoking citizens. Indoor pollution and means of transportation contribute significantly to individual exposure levels. Other indoor residential characteristics such as recent painting and mode of heating

  7. Stochastic modeling of near-field exposure to parabens in personal care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csiszar, Susan A.; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a key step in determining risks to chemicals in consumer goods, including personal care products (PCPs). Exposure models can be used to estimate exposures to chemicals in the absence of biomonitoring data and as tools in chemical risk prioritization and screening. We apply...... a PCP exposure model based on the product intake fraction (PiF), which is defined as the fraction of chemical in a product that is taken in by the exposed population, to estimate chemical intake based on physicochemical properties and PCP usage characteristics. The PiF can be used to estimate route...... and pathway-specific exposures during both the use and disposal stages of a product. As a case study, we stochastically quantified population level exposures to parabens in PCPs, and compared estimates with biomarker values. We estimated exposure based on the usage of PCPs in the female US population, taking...

  8. Radiation internal exposure measurements archiving system (REMAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitar, A.; Maghrabi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a personal-computer-based software, REMAS, which helps users to estimate intake activity and resulting internal doses for all radionuclides existing in (International Commission on Radiological Protection) ICRP 78 and other important elements. In addition to its use in internal dose calculations, it facilitates management of data of monitored persons who are occupationally exposed to unsealed radioactive substances. Furthermore, REMAS offers the possibility to generate different reports of results. The program is suitable for laboratories working in the field of assessment of occupational intake and also for users of radioactive material who are routinely monitored. REMAS, which is bilingual program (English and Arabic), was built with GUI environment and was developed using Microsoft FoxPro. It runs on Microsoft Windows XP operating systems. (authors)

  9. Exposure of bakery and pastry apprentices to airborne flour dust using PM2.5 and PM10 personal samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier-Geyssant, Estelle; Barthélemy, Jean-François; Mouchot, Lory; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2007-11-01

    This study describes exposure levels of bakery and pastry apprentices to flour dust, a known risk factor of occupational asthma. Questionnaires on work activity were completed by 286 students. Among them, 34 performed a series of two personal exposure measurements using a PM2.5 and PM10 personal sampler during a complete work shift, one during a cold ("winter") period, and the other during a hot ("summer") period. Bakery apprentices experience greater average PM2.5 and PM10 exposures than pastry apprentices (p < 0.006). Exposure values for both particulate fractions are greater in winter (average PM10 values among bakers = 1.10 mg.m-3 [standard deviation: 0.83]) than in summer (0.63 mg.m-3 [0.36]). While complying with current European occupational limit values, these exposures exceed the ACGIH recommendations set to prevent sensitization to flour dust (0.5 mg.m-3). Over half the facilities had no ventilation system. Young bakery apprentices incur substantial exposure to known airways allergens, a situation that might elicit early induction of airways inflammation.

  10. Real-time personal dose measurement and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang; Liu Zhengshan; Yang Huating; Deng Changming; Zhang Xiu; Guo Zhanjie

    2001-01-01

    The composition and design of a real-time personal dose measurement and management system are described. Accordingly, some pertinent hardware circuits and software codes including their operation modes are presented

  11. Assessment of personal exposure to airborne nanomaterials: Evaluation of a novel sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Bertrand; Dozol, Hélène; Brouard, Christophe; Guiot, Arnaud; Clavaguera, Simon

    2017-01-01

    A novel sampler, the NANOBADGE, has been developed to assess personal exposure to nano-objects, agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA) at the workplace. The NANOBADGE collects particles on filters subsequently analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), which provides a mass-based quantification with chemical selectivity. The NANOBADGE was benchmarked against a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a DiSCmini by carrying out simultaneous measurements on test aerosols of ZnO or TiO 2 for particle sizes between 20 and 400 nm for which the DiSCmini has its highest accuracy. The effective density and shape of the NOAA present in the test aerosols were determined experimentally to compare number-based data obtained with the SMPS and the DiSCmini with mass-based data obtained with the NANOBADGE. The agreement between the SMPS and the NANOBADGE sampler was within ± 25 % on all test aerosols. The converted DiSCmini data matched the SMPS and sampler data for polydisperse aerosols in the specified size range as long as the DiSCmini assumptions meet the aerosol characteristics (i.e. lognormal size distribution with a given geometric standard deviation σg = 1.9). The detection limits of the NANOBADGE sampler were in the order of tens of nanograms per filter, which is low enough to reliably detect exposure levels below the recommended exposure limit (REL) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité (INRS) for ultrafine ZnO and TiO 2 even for short-term exposure situations. (paper)

  12. Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Schembari, A.; Triguero-Mas, M.; de Nazelle, A.; Dadvand, P.; Figueras, F.; Salvado, J. A.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been shown to adversely affect foetal development in the case of pregnant women. The present study aims to investigate the PM composition and sources influencing personal exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona. To this end, indoor, outdoor and personal exposure measurements were carried out for a selection of 54 pregnant women between November 2008 and November 2009. PM2.5 samples were collected during two consecutive days and then analysed for black smoke (BS), major and trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Personal information such as commuting patterns and cosmetics use was also collected. PM2.5 concentrations were higher for personal samples than for indoor and outdoor environments. Indoor, outdoor and personal BS and sulphate concentrations were strongly correlated, although some specific indoor and outdoor sulphate sources may exist. Average trace elements concentrations were similar indoor, outdoor and for personal exposure, but the correlations were moderate for most of them. Most of the PAHs concentrations showed strong correlations indoor-outdoor. A source apportionment analysis of the PM composition data by means of a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resulted in the identification of six sources for the outdoor and indoor environments: secondary sulphate, fueloil + sea salt (characterized by V, Ni, Na and Mg), mineral, cigarette (characterized by K, Ce, Cd, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene), road traffic (characterized by BS and low weight PAHs), and industrial (characterized by Pb, Sn, Cu, Mn and Fe). For personal exposure two specific sources were found: cosmetics (characterized by abundance of Ca, Li, Ti and Sr and the absence of Al) and train/subway (characterized by Fe, Mn, Cu and Ba). The contribution of the sources varied widely among women, especially for cigarette (from zero to up to 4 μg m-3), train/subway (up to more than 6 μg m-3) and cosmetics (up to more

  13. Estimators for longitudinal latent exposure models: examining measurement model assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Brisa N; Kim, Sehee; Sammel, Mary D

    2017-06-15

    Latent variable (LV) models are increasingly being used in environmental epidemiology as a way to summarize multiple environmental exposures and thus minimize statistical concerns that arise in multiple regression. LV models may be especially useful when multivariate exposures are collected repeatedly over time. LV models can accommodate a variety of assumptions but, at the same time, present the user with many choices for model specification particularly in the case of exposure data collected repeatedly over time. For instance, the user could assume conditional independence of observed exposure biomarkers given the latent exposure and, in the case of longitudinal latent exposure variables, time invariance of the measurement model. Choosing which assumptions to relax is not always straightforward. We were motivated by a study of prenatal lead exposure and mental development, where assumptions of the measurement model for the time-changing longitudinal exposure have appreciable impact on (maximum-likelihood) inferences about the health effects of lead exposure. Although we were not particularly interested in characterizing the change of the LV itself, imposing a longitudinal LV structure on the repeated multivariate exposure measures could result in high efficiency gains for the exposure-disease association. We examine the biases of maximum likelihood estimators when assumptions about the measurement model for the longitudinal latent exposure variable are violated. We adapt existing instrumental variable estimators to the case of longitudinal exposures and propose them as an alternative to estimate the health effects of a time-changing latent predictor. We show that instrumental variable estimators remain unbiased for a wide range of data generating models and have advantages in terms of mean squared error. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Personal exposure to PM2.5, black smoke and NO2 in Copenhagen: relationship to bedroom and outdoor concentrations covering seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Loft, Steffen; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Nielsen, Ivan V; Hertel, Ole

    2005-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have found negative associations between human health and particulate matter in urban air. In most studies outdoor monitoring of urban background has been used to assess exposure. In a field study, personal exposure as well as bedroom, front door and background concentrations of PM(2.5), black smoke (BS), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) were measured during 2-day periods in 30 subjects (20-33 years old) living and studying in central parts of Copenhagen. The measurements were repeated in the four seasons. Information on indoor exposure sources such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and burning of candles was collected by questionnaires. The personal exposure, the bedroom concentration and the front door concentration was set as outcome variable in separate models and analysed by mixed effect model regression methodology, regarding subject levels as a random factor. Seasons were defined as a dichotomised grouping of outdoor temperature (above and below 8 degrees C). For NO(2) there was a significant association between personal exposure and both the bedroom, the front door and the background concentrations, whereas for PM(2.5) and BS only the bedroom and the front door concentrations, and not the background concentration, were significantly associated to the personal exposure. The bedroom concentration was the strongest predictor of all three pollution measurements. The association between the bedroom and front door concentrations was significant for all three measurements, and the association between the front door and the background concentrations was significant for PM(2.5) and NO(2), but not for BS, indicating greater spatial variation for BS than for PM(2.5) and NO(2). For NO(2), the relationship between the personal exposure and the front door concentration was dependent upon the "season", with a stronger association in the warm season compared with the cold season, and for PM(2.5) and BS the same tendency was seen. Time exposed to

  15. Personal exposure to benzene from fuel emissions among commercial fishers: comparison of two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Ellen; Loomis, Dana; Egeghy, Peter; Nylander-French, Leena

    2007-03-01

    Commercial fishers are exposed to unburned hydrocarbon vapors and combustion products present in the emissions from their boat engines. The objective of this study was to measure personal exposure to benzene as a marker of fuel exposure, and to predict exposure levels across categories of carbureted two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines. A self-monitoring approach, employing passive monitors, was used to obtain measurements of personal exposure to benzene over time. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to predict exposure levels, identify significant effects and determine restricted maximum likelihood estimates for within- and between-person variance components. Significant fixed effects for engine type and refueling a car or truck were identified. After controlling for refueling, predicted benzene exposure levels to fishers on boats equipped with two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines were 58.4, 38.9 and 15.7 microg/m3, respectively. The logged within-person variance component was 1.43, larger than the between-person variance component of 1.13, indicating that the total variation may be attributable to monitor placement, environmental conditions and other factors that change over time as well as differences between individual work practices. The health consequences of exposure to marine engine emissions are not known. The predicted levels are well below those at which health effects have been attributed, however.

  16. Characterizing relationships between personal exposures to VOCs and socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Wei; Majeed, Mohammed A.; Chu, Pei-Ling; Lin, Hui-Chih

    Socioeconomic and demographic factors have been found to significantly affect time-activity patterns in population cohorts that can subsequently influence personal exposures to air pollutants. This study investigates relationships between personal exposures to eight VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-,p-xylene, chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene) and socioeconomic, demographic, time-activity pattern factors using data collected from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) VOC study. Socio-demographic factors (such as race/ethnicity and family income) were generally found to significantly influence personal exposures to the three chlorinated compounds. This was mainly due to the associations paired by race/ethnicity and urban residence, race/ethnicity and use of air freshener in car, family income and use of dry-cleaner, which can in turn affect exposures to chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene, respectively. For BTEX, the traffic-related compounds, housing characteristics (leaving home windows open and having an attached garage) and personal activities related to the uses of fuels or solvent-related products played more significant roles in influencing exposures. Significant differences in BTEX exposures were also commonly found in relation to gender, due to associated significant differences in time spent at work/school and outdoors. The coupling of Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Bootstrap Aggregating (Bagging) techniques were used as effective tools for characterizing robust sets of significant VOC exposure factors presented above, which conventional statistical approaches could not accomplish. Identification of these significant VOC exposure factors can be used to generate hypotheses for future investigations about possible significant VOC exposure sources and pathways in the general U.S. population.

  17. The Association Between Psychopathic Personality Traits and Victimization and Exposure to Violence in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar; Alqurashi, Fathiyah H; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A

    2016-06-01

    Psychopathic personality traits have been shown to increase the odds of a wide range of antisocial outcomes. Very little research, however, has examined the association between psychopathy and the risk of personal victimization. The current study address this gap in the literature by examining the association between scores on the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy scale and a self-reported measure of victimization by using cross-sectional data drawn from a sample of youth residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (N = 311). The results revealed a positive and statistically significant association between LSPR scores and the odds of being victimized. Additional analyses revealed that two mediators-arrest history and exposure to delinquent peers-were related to personal victimization, but neither of these measures mediated the effects of LSPR scores on victimization. Whether these findings would generalize to other nations remains an issue awaiting future research.

  18. Personal inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban and rural residents in a typical northern city in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X; Wang, B; Zhao, X; Shen, G; Xia, Z; Huang, N; Jiang, Q; Lu, B; Xu, D; Fang, J; Tao, S

    2014-10-01

    Personal inhalation exposure samples were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 126 selected volunteers during heating and non-heating seasons in a typical northern Chinese city, Taiyuan. Measured personal PAH exposure levels for the urban residents in the heating and non-heating seasons were 690 (540-1051) and 404 (266-544) ng/m(3) , respectively, while, for the rural residents, they were 770 (504-1071) and 312 (201-412) ng/m(3) , respectively. Thus, rural residents are exposed to lower PAH contamination in comparison with the urban residents in the non-heating seasons. In the heating season, personal PAH inhalation exposure levels were comparable between the urban and rural residents, in part owing to the large rate of residential solid fuel consumption in the rural area for household cooking and heating. The estimated incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) due to PAH exposure in Taiyuan were 3.36 × 10(-5) and 2.39 × 10(-5) for the rural and urban residents, respectively, significantly higher than the literature-reported national average level, suggesting an urgent need of PAH pollution control to protect human health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Protective measures during construction against radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, thoron as well as their daughter products have an cancerogeneous effect on the human respiratory tracts. In this respect protective measures in the area of construction are of great importance. This article deals with constructional solutions which consist of different individual measures. Sources of radon are outside air, water, fuels, building materials as well as the building ground. Possible protective measures are divided into area-related (floor structure, intermediate floors, exterior walls of cellar, foundation slab, building ground), line-related (joints, cracks, wall ducts) as well as supplementary measures (tightly closing doors, arrangement of natural cross-ventilation and vertical ventilating shafts). (BWI) [de

  20. Correlates and consequences of exposure to video game violence: hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, Bruce D; Sestir, Marc A; Davis, Edward B

    2005-11-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent video games causes increases in aggression, but the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. Also, potential differences in short-term and long-term exposure are not well understood. An initial correlational study shows that video game violence exposure (VVE) is positively correlated with self-reports of aggressive behavior and that this relation is robust to controlling for multiple aspects of personality. A lab experiment showed that individuals low in VVE behave more aggressively after playing a violent video game than after a nonviolent game but that those high in VVE display relatively high levels of aggression regardless of game content. Mediational analyses show that trait hostility, empathy, and hostile perceptions partially account for the VVE effect on aggression. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to video game violence increases aggressive behavior in part via changes in cognitive and personality factors associated with desensitization.

  1. Modeling personal exposure to traffic related air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is about the VE3SPA project. Land use regression (LUR) models are often used to predict the outdoor air pollution at the home address of study participants, to study long-term effects of air pollution. While several studies have documented that PM2.5 mass measured at a

  2. The impact of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields on chronic well-being in young people--a cross-sectional study based on personal dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sabine; Thomas, Silke; Heumann, Christian; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

    2011-01-01

    A possible influence of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure on health outcomes was investigated in various studies. The main problem of previous studies was exposure assessment. The aim of our study was the investigation of a possible association between RF EMF and chronic well-being in young persons using personal dosimetry. 3022 children and adolescents were randomly selected from the population registries of four Bavarian cities in Germany (participation 52%). Personal interview data on chronic symptoms, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounders were collected. A 24-h radio frequency exposure profile was generated using a personal dosimeter. Exposure levels over waking hours were expressed as mean percentage of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference level. Half of the children and nearly every adolescent owned a mobile phone which was used only for short durations per day. Measured exposure was far below the current ICNIRP reference levels. The most reported chronic symptom in children and adolescents was fatigue. No statistically significant association between measured exposure and chronic symptoms was observed. Our results do not indicate an association between measured exposure to RF EMF and chronic well-being in children and adolescents. Prospective studies investigating potential long-term effects of RF EMF are necessary to confirm our results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution--moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive Eric

    2013-01-15

    Quantifying human exposure to air pollutants is a challenging task. Ambient concentrations of air pollutants at potentially harmful levels are ubiquitous in urban areas and subject to high spatial and temporal variability. At the same time, every individual has unique activity-patterns. Exposure results from multifaceted relationships and interactions between environmental and human systems, adding complexity to the assessment process. Traditionally, approaches to quantify human exposure have relied on pollutant concentrations from fixed air quality network sites and static population distributions. New developments in sensor technology now enable us to monitor personal exposure to air pollutants directly while people are moving through their activity spaces and varying concentration fields. The literature review on which this paper is based on reflects recent developments in the assessment of human exposure to air pollution. This includes the discussion of methodologies and concepts, and the elaboration of approaches and study designs applied in the field. We identify shortcomings of current approaches and discuss future research needs. We close by proposing a novel conceptual model for the integrated assessment of human exposure to air pollutants taking into account latest technological capabilities and contextual information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Smith, B; Thomas, R; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Drone based measurement system for radiofrequency exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vandenbossche, Matthias; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc

    2016-03-10

    For the first time, a method to assess radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of the general public in real environments with a true free-space antenna system is presented. Using lightweight electronics and multiple antennas placed on a drone, it is possible to perform exposure measurements. This technique will enable researchers to measure three-dimensional RF-EMF exposure patterns accurately in the future and at locations currently difficult to access. A measurement procedure and appropriate measurement settings have been developed. As an application, outdoor measurements are performed as a function of height up to 60 m for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz base station exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Personal exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Solanský, I.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Šrám, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2013), s. 350-355 ISSN 1559-0631 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk 2B08005 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : personal monitoring * personal exposure * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.050, year: 2013

  7. Exposure of bakery and pastry apprentices to airborne flour dust using PM2.5 and PM10 personal samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes exposure levels of bakery and pastry apprentices to flour dust, a known risk factor of occupational asthma. Methods Questionnaires on work activity were completed by 286 students. Among them, 34 performed a series of two personal exposure measurements using a PM2.5 and PM10 personal sampler during a complete work shift, one during a cold ("winter" period, and the other during a hot ("summer" period. Results Bakery apprentices experience greater average PM2.5 and PM10 exposures than pastry apprentices (p 10 values among bakers = 1.10 mg.m-3 [standard deviation: 0.83] than in summer (0.63 mg.m-3 [0.36]. While complying with current European occupational limit values, these exposures exceed the ACGIH recommendations set to prevent sensitization to flour dust (0.5 mg.m-3. Over half the facilities had no ventilation system. Conclusion Young bakery apprentices incur substantial exposure to known airways allergens, a situation that might elicit early induction of airways inflammation.

  8. Assuring measurement quality in person-centred healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, L. R.

    2018-03-01

    Is it realistic to aspire to the same kind of quality-assurance of measurement in person-centred care, currently being implemented in healthcare globally, as is established in the physical sciences and engineering? Ensuring metrological comparability (‘traceability’) and reliably declaring measurement uncertainty when assessing patient ability or increased social capital are however challenging for subjective measurements often characterised by large dispersion. Drawing simple analogies between ‘instruments’ in the social sciences—questionnaires, ability tests, etc—and engineering instruments such as thermometers does not go far enough. A possible way forward, apparently equally applicable to both physical and social measurement, seems to be to model inferences in terms of performance metrics of a measurement system. Person-centred care needs person-centred measurement and a full picture of the measurement process when man acts as a measurement instrument is given in the present paper. This complements previous work by presenting the process, step by step, from the observed indication (e.g. probability of success, P success, of achieving a task), through restitution with Rasch measurement theory, to the measurand (e.g. task difficulty). Rasch invariant measure theory can yield quantities—‘latent’ (or ‘explanatory’) variables such as task challenge or person ability—with characteristics akin to those of physical quantities. Metrological references for comparability via traceability and reliable estimates of uncertainty and decision risks are then in reach even for perceptive measurements (and other qualitative properties). As a case study, the person-centred measurement of cognitive ability is examined, as part of the EU project EMPIR 15HLT04 NeuroMet, for Alzheimer’s, where better analysis of correlations with brain atrophy is enabled thanks to the Rasch metrological approach.

  9. The use of personal values in living standards measures | Ungerer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Living Standards Measure (LSM), a South African marketing segmentation method, is a multivariate wealth measure based on standard of living. This article reports on whether a rationale can be found for the inclusion of psychological variables, particularly personal values, in this type of multivariate segmentation.

  10. Personality, depressive symptoms and prior trauma exposure of new recruits at two Metropolitan Police Service academies in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    U Subramaney; E Libhaber; N Pitts; M Vorster

    2012-01-01

    Background. Police officers are predisposed to trauma exposure. The development of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be influenced by personality style, prior exposure to traumatic events and prior depression. Objectives. To describe the personality profiles of new Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) officers, and to determine the association between personality profiles, trauma exposure and depressive symptoms. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis o...

  11. Validity of at home model predictions as a proxy for personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Astrid L; Bolte, John F B; Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Smid, Tjabe; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies on the potential health effects of RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations require efficient and accurate exposure assessment methods. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 3D geospatial model NISMap is able to rank locations by indoor and outdoor RF-EMF exposure levels. This study extends on previous work by evaluating the suitability of using NISMap to estimate indoor RF-EMF exposure levels at home as a proxy for personal exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations. For 93 individuals in the Netherlands we measured personal exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations during a 24h period using an EME-SPY 121 exposimeter. Each individual kept a diary from which we extracted the time spent at home and in the bedroom. We used NISMap to model exposure at the home address of the participant (at bedroom height). We then compared model predictions with measurements for the 24h period, when at home, and in the bedroom by the Spearman correlation coefficient (rsp) and by calculating specificity and sensitivity using the 90th percentile of the exposure distribution as a cutpoint for high exposure. We found a low to moderate rsp of 0.36 for the 24h period, 0.51 for measurements at home, and 0.41 for measurements in the bedroom. The specificity was high (0.9) but with a low sensitivity (0.3). These results indicate that a meaningful ranking of personal RF-EMF can be achieved, even though the correlation between model predictions and 24h personal RF-EMF measurements is lower than with at home measurements. However, the use of at home RF-EMF field predictions from mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies leads to significant exposure misclassification that will result in a loss of statistical power to detect health effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental study on human exposure to occupant generated pollutants in rooms with ductless personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Lu, Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    The performance of “ductless” personalized ventilation in conjunction with displacement ventilation with regard to exposure to different body bioeffluents was studied. Experiments were performed in a full-scale room furnished as a double office. Room air temperature was kept at 26 oC. Two breathing...... modes for the ductless personalized and displacement ventilation were tested. The location of the bioeffluent source affected the spread of body bioeffluents in the space. The ductless personalized ventilation provided cleaner air to both occupants than displacement ventilation alone. Occupants using...... the ”ductless” system will perceive the supplied air quality as superior compared to displacement ventilation alone....

  13. Measuring and modeling exposure from environmental radiation on tidal flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.J.; Hess, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the shielding effects of the tide cycle, a high pressure ion chamber was used to measure the exposure rate from environmental radiation on tidal flats. A theoretical model is derived to predict the behavior of exposure rate as a function of time for a detector placed one meter above ground on a tidal flat. The numerical integration involved in this derivation results in an empirical formula which implies exposure rate ∝tan-1(sint). We propose that calculating the total exposure incurred on a tidal flat requires measurements of only the slope of the tidal flat and the exposure rate when no shielding occurs. Experimental results are consistent with the model

  14. Measurement Error Correction for Predicted Spatiotemporal Air Pollution Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Joshua P; Chang, Howard H; Strickland, Matthew J; Szpiro, Adam A

    2017-05-01

    Air pollution cohort studies are frequently analyzed in two stages, first modeling exposure then using predicted exposures to estimate health effects in a second regression model. The difference between predicted and unobserved true exposures introduces a form of measurement error in the second stage health model. Recent methods for spatial data correct for measurement error with a bootstrap and by requiring the study design ensure spatial compatibility, that is, monitor and subject locations are drawn from the same spatial distribution. These methods have not previously been applied to spatiotemporal exposure data. We analyzed the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight in the US state of Georgia using records with estimated date of conception during 2002-2005 (n = 403,881). We predicted trimester-specific PM2.5 exposure using a complex spatiotemporal exposure model. To improve spatial compatibility, we restricted to mothers residing in counties with a PM2.5 monitor (n = 180,440). We accounted for additional measurement error via a nonparametric bootstrap. Third trimester PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower birth weight in the uncorrected (-2.4 g per 1 μg/m difference in exposure; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.9, -0.8) and bootstrap-corrected (-2.5 g, 95% CI: -4.2, -0.8) analyses. Results for the unrestricted analysis were attenuated (-0.66 g, 95% CI: -1.7, 0.35). This study presents a novel application of measurement error correction for spatiotemporal air pollution exposures. Our results demonstrate the importance of spatial compatibility between monitor and subject locations and provide evidence of the association between air pollution exposure and birth weight.

  15. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)-A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7-10 years).

  16. Inter-comparison of personal monitors for nanoparticles exposure at workplaces and in the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todea, A.M.; Beckmann, S.; Kaminski, H.; Bard, D.; Bau, S.; Clavaguera, S.; Dahmann, D.; Dozol, H.; Dziurowitz, N.; Elihn, K.; Fierz, M.; Lidén, G.; Meyer-Plath, A.; Monz, C.; Neumann, V.; Pelzer, J.; Simonow, B.K.; Thali, P.; Tuinman, I.; Vleuten, A. van der; Vroomen, H.; Asbach, C.

    2017-01-01

    Personal monitors based on unipolar diffusion charging (miniDiSC/DiSCmini, NanoTracer, Partector) can be used to assess the individual exposure to nanoparticles in different environments. The charge acquired by the aerosol particles is nearly proportional to the particle diameter and, by

  17. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for MSM and transgender persons in early adopting countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornenborg, Elske; Krakower, Douglas S.; Prins, Maria; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    : Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a potent and underutilized HIV prevention tool. In this paper we review the state of knowledge regarding PrEP implementation for men who have sex with men and transgender persons in early adopting countries. We focus on implementation of PrEP in demonstration

  18. Personal Exposure to PM2.5 in the Megacity of Mexico: A Multi-Mode Transport Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Y. Hernández-Paniagua

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent personal exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with adverse human health effects, in particular on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Here, we present an assessment of personal exposure and inhalation of PM2.5 for five modes of transport (walking, cycling, public bus (trolleybus and diesel bus, conventional car (CC and hybrid-electric car (HEC and two routes of similar distance, along a major road in the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA. Arithmetic average exposure concentrations ranged from 16.5 ± 6.5 µg m−3 for walking to 81.7 ± 9.1 µg m−3 for cycling (henceforth shown as average ±1 SD, with no significant differences with geometric averages. The maximum exposure concentration of 110.9 µg m−3 was observed for the conventional car. The highest exposure concentrations depended on route and the mode of transport, being observed for cycling and walking. The PM2.5 measurements showed large spatial heterogeneity in the exposure levels for walking and cycling, while public buses and private transport showed less spatial heterogeneity. The greatest peaks in PM2.5 coincided with 4-way intersections for all modes of transport, being positively influenced by traffic density. The mass of PM2.5 inhaled depended mostly on the mode of transport, and ranged between 1.0 ± 0.3 and 30.1 ± 14.2 µg km−1 for the HEC and bicycle, respectively. Local area PM2.5 increments identified as ‘residuals’ after subtraction of data recorded at the closest fixed monitoring site from exposure concentrations along the studied road suggested that inhalation for bicycle and diesel buses is strongly influenced by vehicular emissions. Residuals estimated for the trolleybus, CC and HEC confirmed a lower inhalation than for the other modes of transport evaluated due to protection by the cabin.

  19. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest......This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... that regardless of the temperature combinations, personalized ventilation may decrease significantly the number of occupants dissatisfied with the air quality. Under non-isothermal conditions the percentage of dissatisfied may decrease up to 4 times....

  20. Concentrations and assessment of exposure to siloxanes and synthetic musks in personal care products from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Yuan Tao; Wang Wenhua; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the concentrations and profiles of 15 siloxanes (four cyclic siloxanes, D 4 -D 7 ; 11 linear siloxanes, L 4 -L 14 ), four synthetic musks (two polycyclic musks, HHCB and AHTN; two nitro musks, MX and MK), and HHCB-lactone, in 158 personal care products marketed in China. Siloxanes were detected in 88% of the samples analyzed, at concentrations as high as 52.6 mg g -1 ; Linear siloxanes were the predominant compounds. Among synthetic musks, more than 80% of the samples contained at least one of these compounds, and their total concentrations were as high as 1.02 mg g -1 . HHCB was the predominant musk in all of the samples analyzed, on average, accounting for 52% of the total musk concentrations. Based on the median concentrations of siloxanes and musks and the average daily usage amounts of consumer products, dermal exposure rates in adults were calculated to be 3.69 and 3.38 mg d -1 for siloxanes and musks, respectively. - Highlights: → Siloxanes and synthetic musks are determined in personal care products. → Highest siloxane concentration was 52.6 mg g -1 . → Highest musk concentration was 1.02 mg g -1 . → Daily dermal exposure rates of siloxanes and musks were in mg levels. → Dermal exposure is a major pathway of human exposure to siloxanes and musks. - Dermal application of several personal care products is a major source of human exposure to cyclic and linear siloxanes.

  1. Fine PM measurements: personal and indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, M; Hänninen, O; Koistinen, K; Hashim, J H

    2002-12-01

    This review compiles personal and indoor microenvironment particulate matter (PM) monitoring needs from recently set research objectives, most importantly the NRC published "Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (1998)". Techniques and equipment used to monitor PM personal exposures and microenvironment concentrations and the constituents of the sampled PM during the last 20 years are then reviewed. Development objectives are set and discussed for personal and microenvironment PM samplers and monitors, for filter materials, and analytical laboratory techniques for equipment calibration, filter weighing and laboratory climate control. The progress is leading towards smaller sample flows, lighter, silent, independent (battery powered) monitors with data logging capacity to store microenvironment or activity relevant sensor data, advanced flow controls and continuous recording of the concentration. The best filters are non-hygroscopic, chemically pure and inert, and physically robust against mechanical wear. Semiautomatic and primary standard equivalent positive displacement flow meters are replacing the less accurate methods in flow calibration, and also personal sampling flow rates should become mass flow controlled (with or without volumetric compensation for pressure and temperature changes). In the weighing laboratory the alternatives are climatic control (set temperature and relative humidity), and mechanically simpler thermostatic heating, air conditioning and dehumidification systems combined with numerical control of temperature, humidity and pressure effects on flow calibration and filter weighing.

  2. Using smartphones to collect time-activity data for long-term personal-level air pollution exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Mark L; Rudra, Carole B; Yoo, Eun-Hye; Demirbas, Murat; Merriman, Joel; Nayak, Pramod; Crabtree-Ide, Christina; Szpiro, Adam A; Rudra, Atri; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mu, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Because of the spatiotemporal variability of people and air pollutants within cities, it is important to account for a person's movements over time when estimating personal air pollution exposure. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using smartphones to collect personal-level time-activity data. Using Skyhook Wireless's hybrid geolocation module, we developed "Apolux" (Air, Pollution, Exposure), an Android(TM) smartphone application designed to track participants' location in 5-min intervals for 3 months. From 42 participants, we compared Apolux data with contemporaneous data from two self-reported, 24-h time-activity diaries. About three-fourths of measurements were collected within 5 min of each other (mean=74.14%), and 79% of participants reporting constantly powered-on smartphones (n=38) had a daily average data collection frequency of <10 min. Apolux's degree of temporal resolution varied across manufacturers, mobile networks, and the time of day that data collection occurred. The discrepancy between diary points and corresponding Apolux data was 342.3 m (Euclidian distance) and varied across mobile networks. This study's high compliance and feasibility for data collection demonstrates the potential for integrating smartphone-based time-activity data into long-term and large-scale air pollution exposure studies.

  3. Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: a cross-sectional study based on dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Silke; Kühnlein, Anja; Heinrich, Sabine; Praml, Georg; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

    2008-09-01

    The use of mobile phone telecommunication has increased in recent years. In parallel, there is growing concern about possible adverse health effects of cellular phone networks. We used personal dosimetry to investigate the association between exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults. A random population-based sample of 329 adults living in four different Bavarian towns was assembled for the study. Using a dosimeter (ESM-140 Maschek Electronics), we obtained an exposure profile over 24 h for three mobile phone frequency ranges (measurement interval 1 s, limit of determination 0.05 V/m). Exposure levels over waking hours were totalled and expressed as mean percentage of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference level. Each participant reported acute symptoms in a day-long diary. Data on five groups of chronic symptoms and potential confounders were assessed during an interview. The overall exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields was markedly below the ICNIRP reference level. We did not find any statistically significant association between the exposure and chronic symptoms or between the exposure and acute symptoms. Larger studies using mobile phone dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Study on the angular dependence of personal exposure dosimeter - Focus on thermoluminescent dosimeter and photoluminescent dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Dieter, Kevin; Choe, Chong-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Radiation management departments place more emphasis on the accuracy of measurements than on the increase in the average dose and personal exposure dose from the use of radiation equipment and radioactive isotopes. Although current measurements are taken using devices, such as film badge dosimeters, pocket dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), this study compared the angular dependence between the widely used TLDs and photoluminescent dosimeter (PLDs) in order to present primary data and evaluate the utility of PLD as a new dosimeter device. For X-ray fluoroscopy, a whole body phantom was placed on a table with a setting for the G-I technical factors fixed at a range of approximately 40 cm with a range of ±90 o at an interval scale of 15 o from the center location of an average radiological worker for PLDs (GD-450) and TLDs (Carot). This process was repeated 10 times, and at each time, the cumulative dosage was interpreted from 130 dosimeters using TLDs (UD-710R, Panasonic) and PLDs (FGD-650). The TLD and PLD showed a 52% and 23% decrease in the depth dosage from 0 o to -90 o , respectively. Therefore, PLDs have a lower angular dependence than TLDs.

  5. Personal Care Product Use in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: Implications for Exposure Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern regarding the potential for developmental health risks associated with certain chemicals (e.g., phthalates, antibacterials used in personal care products is well documented; however, current exposure data for pregnant women are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of personal care product use in pregnancy and the post-partum period. Usage patterns of personal care products were collected at six different time points during pregnancy and once in the postpartum period for a cohort of 80 pregnant women in Ottawa, Canada. The pattern of use was then described and groups of personal care product groups commonly used together were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed that product use varied by income and country of birth. General hygiene products were the most commonly used products and were consistently used over time while cosmetic product use declined with advancing pregnancy and post-delivery. Hand soaps and baby products were reported as used more frequently after birth. This study is the first to track personal care product use across pregnancy and into the postpartum period, and suggests that pregnant populations may be a unique group of personal care product users. This information will be useful for exposure assessments.

  6. #2 - An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background• Differing degrees of exposure error acrosspollutants• Previous focus on quantifying and accounting forexposure error in single-pollutant models• Examine exposure errors for multiple pollutantsand provide insights on the potential for bias andattenuation of effect estimates in single and bipollutantepidemiological models The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  7. Assessment of exposure to composite nanomaterials and development of a personal respiratory deposition sampler for nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    The overall goals of this doctoral dissertation are to provide knowledge of workers' exposure to nanomaterials and to assist in the development of standard methods to measure personal exposure to nanomaterials in workplace environments. To achieve the first goal, a field study investigated airborne particles generated from the weighing of bulk carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. This study also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood and biosafety cabinet) for control of exposure to particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured with direct-read instruments, and particle morphology was determined by electron microscopy. Sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites released respirable size airborne particles with protruding CNTs very different in morphology from bulk CNTs that tended to remain in clusters (>1mum). Respirable mass concentrations in the operator's breathing zone were significantly greater when sanding took place in the custom hood (p <0.0001) compared to the other LEV conditions. This study found that workers' exposure was to particles containing protruding CNTs rather than to bulk CNT particles. Particular attention should be placed in the design and selection of hoods to minimize exposure. Two laboratory studies were conducted to realize the second goal. Collection efficiency of submicrometer particles was evaluated for nylon mesh screens with three pore sizes (60, 100 and 180 mum) at three flow rates (2.5, 4, and 6 Lpm). Single-fiber efficiency of nylon mesh screens was then calculated and compared to a theoretical estimation expression. The effects of particle morphology on collection efficiency were also experimentally measured. The collection efficiency of the screens was found to vary by less than 4% regardless of particle morphology. Single

  8. The Los Angeles TEAM Study: personal exposures, indoor-outdoor air concentrations, and breath concentrations of 25 volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L; Nelson, W; Ziegenfus, R; Pellizzari, E; Michael, L; Whitmore, R; Zelon, H; Hartwell, T; Perritt, R; Westerdahl, D

    1991-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Air Resources Board studied the exposures of 51 residents of Los Angeles, California, to 25 volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in air and drinking water in 1987. A major goal of the study was to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations, and breath concentrations of VOCs in persons living in households that had previously been measured in 1984. Other goals were to confirm the marked day-night and seasonal differences observed in 1984; to determine room-to-room variability within homes; to determine source emission rates by measuring air exchange rates in each home; and to extend the coverage of chemicals by employing additional sampling and analysis methods. A total of 51 homes were visited in February of 1987, and 43 of these were revisited in July of 1987. The results confirmed previous TEAM Study findings of higher personal and indoor air concentrations than outdoor concentrations of all prevalent chemicals (except carbon tetrachloride); higher personal, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations in winter than in summer; and (in winter only) higher outdoor concentrations at night than in the daytime. New findings included the following: (1) room-to-room variability of 12-hour average concentrations was very small, indicating that a single monitor may be adequate for estimating indoor concentrations over this time span; (2) "whole-house" source emission rates were relatively constant during both seasons, with higher rates for odorous chemicals such as p-dichlorobenzene and limonene (often used in room air fresheners) than for other classes of chemicals; (3) breath concentrations measured during morning and evening were similar for most participants, suggesting the suitability of breath measurements for estimating exposure in the home; (4) limited data obtained on two additional chemicals-toluene and methylene chloride-indicated that both were prevalent at fairly high concentrations and that

  9. Knowledge and Use of Personal Protective Measures Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mosquito borne diseases (MBDs) are major public health problem in India. State of Delhi is endemic for dengue and other MBDs. The increasing incidence of MBDs in Delhi in recent years warrants a pro.active approach for their prevention. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures (PPMs) presents ...

  10. Self-informant Agreement for Personality and Evaluative Person Descriptors: Comparing Methods for Creating Informant Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Leonard J; Zelazny, Kerry; Yam, Wern How; Gros, Daniel F

    2010-05-01

    Little attention typically is paid to the way self-report measures are translated for use in self-informant agreement studies. We studied two possible methods for creating informant measures: (a) the traditional method in which self-report items were translated from the first- to the third-person and (b) an alternative meta-perceptual method in which informants were directed to rate their perception of the targets' self-perception. We hypothesized that the latter method would yield stronger self-informant agreement for evaluative personality dimensions measured by indirect item markers. We studied these methods in a sample of 303 undergraduate friendship dyads. Results revealed mean-level differences between methods, similar self-informant agreement across methods, stronger agreement for Big Five dimensions than for evaluative dimensions, and incremental validity for meta-perceptual informant rating methods. Limited power reduced the interpretability of several sparse acquaintanceship effects. We conclude that traditional informant methods are appropriate for most personality traits, but meta-perceptual methods may be more appropriate when personality questionnaire items reflect indirect indicators of the trait being measured, which is particularly likely for evaluative traits.

  11. Seasonal variation in bioaerosol exposure during biowaste collection and measurements of leaked percolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Herbert; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Breum, Niels O.

    2000-01-01

    The seasonal variation in waste collectors' exposure to microorganisms, endotoxin and dust was measured with personal sampling equipment. The measurement was carried out in three different combinations of storage and collection system for biowaste: container/compactor truck (CIC), paper sack....../compactor truck (P/C) and paper sack/platform truck (P/P). The maximum personal exposure was found to occur during the summer at the following median levels: total microorganisms 9.2 x 10(5) cells m(-3), culturable fungi (moulds) 7.8 x 10(4) cfu m(-3), Aspergillus fumigatus 2.9 x 10(-3) cfu m(3), mesophilic...... and endotoxin occurred in the CIC system (P trucks. Concentrations of endotoxin ranged from 3.9 to 6.1 x 10(5) EU ml(-1) (25 to 52 mu g ml(-1)) and the microflora of the percolate was dominated by bacteria (1...

  12. Household air pollution and personal exposure to nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatics (PAHs) in rural households: Influence of household cooking energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Du, W; Shen, G; Zhuo, S; Zhu, X; Shen, H; Huang, Y; Su, S; Lin, N; Pei, L; Zheng, X; Wu, J; Duan, Y; Wang, X; Liu, W; Wong, M; Tao, S

    2017-01-01

    Residential solid fuels are widely consumed in rural China, contributing to severe household air pollution for many products of incomplete combustion, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives. In this study, concentrations of nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives (nPAHs and oPAHs) for household and personal air were measured and analyzed for influencing factors like smoking and cooking energy type. Concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in kitchens were higher than those in living rooms and in outdoor air. Exposure levels measured by personal samplers were lower than levels in indoor air, but higher than outdoor air levels. With increasing molecular weight, individual compounds tended to be more commonly partitioned to particulate matter (PM); moreover, higher molecular weight nPAHs and oPAHs were preferentially found in finer particles, suggesting a potential for increased health risks. Smoking behavior raised the concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in personal air significantly. People who cooked food also had higher personal exposures. Cooking and smoking have a significant interaction effect on personal exposure. Concentrations in kitchens and personal exposure to nPAHs and oPAHs for households using wood and peat were significantly higher than for those using electricity and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Personal exposure to grass pollen: relating inhaled dose to background concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very few studies on human exposure to allergenic pollen have been conducted using direct methods, with background concentrations measured at city center monitoring stations typically taken as a proxy for exposure despite the inhomogeneous nature of atmospheric pollen concentrations. A...

  14. Personal exposure to PM2,5, black smoke and NO2 in Copenhagen: relationship to bedroom and outdoor concentrations covering seasonal variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M.; Loft, S.; Andersen, H. V.

    2005-01-01

    concentrations of PM(2.5), black smoke (BS), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) were measured during 2-day periods in 30 subjects (20-33 years old) living and studying in central parts of Copenhagen. The measurements were repeated in the four seasons. Information on indoor exposure sources such as environmental......Epidemiological studies have found negative associations between human health and particulate matter in urban air. In most studies outdoor monitoring of urban background has been used to assess exposure. In a field study, personal exposure as well as bedroom, front door and background...

  15. Hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood among women with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cave Sinai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A relationship between exposure to sexual violence and thyroid hormone alterations has been observed among women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Women with borderline personality disorder (BPD report a high estimate of childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess relationships between thyroid hormone measures and exposure to violence in childhood in women with BPD. Method: A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD (53% with comorbid PTSD diagnosis and at least two prior suicide attempts were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS. The KIVS contains four subscales with concrete examples of exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (aged 6–14 years and during adult life (15 years or older. Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3, thyroxine (FT4 and T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH with immunoassays. The FT3/FT4 ratio was used to estimate peripheral deiodination. Plasma cortisol was also assessed. Results: Sixty-seven percent of patients reported medium high or high level of exposure to interpersonal violence as a child. The FT3/FT4 ratio showed a significant negative correlation with exposure to violence as a child. Patients with PTSD had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels. An ad hoc analysis revealed that the correlation between KIVS exposure to interpersonal violence as a child and FT3/FT4 ratio was significant only in patients with comorbid PTSD. Altered thyroid activity, especially FT3/FT4, levels was associated with exposure to violence in childhood in women with BPD. Conclusion: Severe childhood trauma-related stress may promote lasting altered thyroid levels and/or contribute to the development of psychopathology associated with BPD traits or PTSD.

  16. Bartonella quintana and Typhus Group Rickettsiae Exposure among Homeless Persons, Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Márquez, Andrea C; Bravo-Estupiñan, Diana M; Calixto, Omar-Javier; López-Castillo, Christian A; Botero-García, Carlos A; Hidalgo, Marylin; Cuervo, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, we investigated Bartonella quintana and typhus group rickettsiae in body lice from homeless persons in Bogotá, Colombia. We found B. quintana-infected body lice and seroprevalence of this microorganism in 19% of homeless persons and typhus group rickettsiae in 56%. Public health professionals should start preemptive measures and active vector control.

  17. A Comparison of "Total Dust" and Inhalable Personal Sampling for Beryllium Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Colleen M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    2012-05-09

    In 2009, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) reduced the Beryllium (Be) 8-hr Time Weighted Average Threshold Limit Value (TLV-TWA) from 2.0 μg/m3 to 0.05 μg/m3 with an inhalable 'I' designation in accordance with ACGIH's particle size-selective criterion for inhalable mass. Currently, per the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is following the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 2.0 μg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA, which is also the 2005 ACGIH TLV-TWA, and an Action Level (AL) of 0.2 μg/m3 and sampling is performed using the 37mm (total dust) sampling method. Since DOE is considering adopting the newer 2009 TLV guidelines, the goal of this study was to determine if the current method of sampling using the 37mm (total dust) sampler would produce results that are comparable to what would be measured using the IOM (inhalable) sampler specific to the application of high energy explosive work at LLNL's remote experimental test facility at Site 300. Side-by-side personal sampling using the two samplers was performed over an approximately two-week period during chamber re-entry and cleanup procedures following detonation of an explosive assembly containing Beryllium (Be). The average ratio of personal sampling results for the IOM (inhalable) vs. 37-mm (total dust) sampler was 1.1:1 with a P-value of 0.62, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference in the performance of the two samplers. Therefore, for the type of activity monitored during this study, the 37-mm sampling cassette would be considered a suitable alternative to the IOM sampler for collecting inhalable particulate matter, which is important given the many practical and economic advantages that it presents. However, similar comparison studies would be necessary for this conclusion to be

  18. Exposure to suicidal behaviors: A common suicide risk factor or a personal negative life event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Bettiol, Silvana

    2017-02-01

    Numerous suicide risk factors have been proposed but not adequately validated for epidemiology, treatment and prevention efforts. Exposures to suicidal behaviors (ESB), from family and friend suicide attempts and completions, were tested for validity as a suicidal risk factor and also for measurement and construct adequacy. An anonymous online survey yielded 713 participants (aged 18-71), who reported ESB, completed the Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS), and comprised a broad spectrum on those variables. Tests of dimensionality and internal consistency showed the four ESB variables (attempts/completions through family/friends) were independent and did not form a common factor or an identifiable ESB latent trait. ESB variables were, however, associated with demographic and psychiatric histories. A battery of tests revealed no meaningful associations between ESB and total suicidality or suicide risk factors (social support, depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life and emotional stability). In addition, in contrast to previous reports, young adults ( n = 200; aged 18-20) showed no increased suicidality due to ESB. Results showed no validity for ESB as a common risk factor for suicidality or other psychopathology, or as a latent trait. ESB showed evidence as a personal negative life event with individual effects and interpretations.

  19. Sequential Measurement of Intermodal Variability in Public Transportation PM2.5 and CO Exposure Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, W W; Frey, H Christopher; Lau, Alexis K H

    2016-08-16

    A sequential measurement method is demonstrated for quantifying the variability in exposure concentration during public transportation. This method was applied in Hong Kong by measuring PM2.5 and CO concentrations along a route connecting 13 transportation-related microenvironments within 3-4 h. The study design takes into account ventilation, proximity to local sources, area-wide air quality, and meteorological conditions. Portable instruments were compacted into a backpack to facilitate measurement under crowded transportation conditions and to quantify personal exposure by sampling at nose level. The route included stops next to three roadside monitors to enable comparison of fixed site and exposure concentrations. PM2.5 exposure concentrations were correlated with the roadside monitors, despite differences in averaging time, detection method, and sampling location. Although highly correlated in temporal trend, PM2.5 concentrations varied significantly among microenvironments, with mean concentration ratios versus roadside monitor ranging from 0.5 for MTR train to 1.3 for bus terminal. Measured inter-run variability provides insight regarding the sample size needed to discriminate between microenvironments with increased statistical significance. The study results illustrate the utility of sequential measurement of microenvironments and policy-relevant insights for exposure mitigation and management.

  20. Measurements of children's exposures to particles and nitrogen dioxide in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros; Oyola, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    An exposure study of children (aged 10-12 years) living in Santiago, Chile, was conducted. Personal, indoor and outdoor fine and inhalable particulate matter ( 2.5 and 10 , respectively), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were measured during pilot (N=8) and main (N=20) studies, which were conducted during the winters of 1998 and 1999, respectively. For the main study, personal indoor and outdoor 24-h samples were collected for five consecutive days. Similar mean personal, indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations (69.5, 68.5 and 68.1 μg m -3 , respectively) were found. However, for coarse particles (calculated as the difference between measured PM 10 and PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 ) indoor and outdoor levels (35.4 and 47.4 μg m -3 ) were lower than their corresponding personal exposures (76.3 μg m -3 ). Indoor and outdoor NO 2 concentrations were comparable (35.8 and 36.9 ppb) and higher than personal exposures (25.9 ppb). Very low ambient indoor and personal O 3 levels were found, which were mostly below the method's limit of detection (LOD). Outdoor particles contributed significantly to indoor concentrations, with effective penetration efficiencies of 0.61 and 0.30 for PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 , respectively. Personal exposures were strongly associated with indoor and outdoor concentrations for PM 2.5 , but weakly associated for PM 2.5-10 . For NO 2 , weak associations were obtained for indoor-outdoor and personal-outdoor relationships. This is probably a result of the presence of gas cooking stoves in all the homes. Median I/O, P/I and P/O ratios for PM 2.5 were close to unity, and for NO 2 they ranged between 0.64 and 0.95. These ratios were probably due to high ambient PM 2.5 and NO 2 levels in Santiago, which diminished the relative contribution of indoor sources and subjects' activities to indoor and personal PM 2.5 and NO 2 levels

  1. Measurements of children's exposures to particles and nitrogen dioxide in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros [Harvard University, School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, 02115 Boston, MA (United States); Oyola, Pedro [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente CONAMA, Santiago (Chile)

    2002-03-27

    An exposure study of children (aged 10-12 years) living in Santiago, Chile, was conducted. Personal, indoor and outdoor fine and inhalable particulate matter (<2.5 {mu}m in diameter, PM{sub 2.5} and <10 {mu}m in diameter, PM{sub 10}, respectively), and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) were measured during pilot (N=8) and main (N=20) studies, which were conducted during the winters of 1998 and 1999, respectively. For the main study, personal indoor and outdoor 24-h samples were collected for five consecutive days. Similar mean personal, indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations (69.5, 68.5 and 68.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively) were found. However, for coarse particles (calculated as the difference between measured PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 2.5-10}) indoor and outdoor levels (35.4 and 47.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were lower than their corresponding personal exposures (76.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Indoor and outdoor NO{sub 2} concentrations were comparable (35.8 and 36.9 ppb) and higher than personal exposures (25.9 ppb). Very low ambient indoor and personal O{sub 3} levels were found, which were mostly below the method's limit of detection (LOD). Outdoor particles contributed significantly to indoor concentrations, with effective penetration efficiencies of 0.61 and 0.30 for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-10}, respectively. Personal exposures were strongly associated with indoor and outdoor concentrations for PM{sub 2.5}, but weakly associated for PM{sub 2.5-10}. For NO{sub 2}, weak associations were obtained for indoor-outdoor and personal-outdoor relationships. This is probably a result of the presence of gas cooking stoves in all the homes. Median I/O, P/I and P/O ratios for PM{sub 2.5} were close to unity, and for NO{sub 2} they ranged between 0.64 and 0.95. These ratios were probably due to high ambient PM{sub 2.5} and NO{sub 2} levels in Santiago, which diminished the relative contribution of indoor sources and subjects' activities to indoor and personal PM

  2. Comparison of magnetic field meters used for Elf exposure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, I.; Azoulay, A.; Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The question of the biological effects of E.L.F. electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz) has lead to many experimental and epidemiological works, in occupational exposure and in residential exposure. One of the main difficulties is to integrate the maximum of information about the environmental exposures during the everyday life without limitation to the exposure of the home. The objective of this study is to analyse experimentally the metrology associated with human exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field, in the optic of a study of the French population exposure. Method 4 meters were tested: the E.M.D.E.X. II, currently used in epidemiological studies, the E.M.D.E.X. L.I.T.E., which is more recent, the H.T.300, an Italian meter, and the F.D.3, which is made by Combinova A calibration was performed with an Helmoltz coil. The immunity of these meters to GSM signal was also tested. The influence of the sample rate was evaluated. Results and conclusion The meter chosen for performing the measurements of the exposure study will be selected in function of the following criteria: - easiness of use - precision - low sample rate - memory size and reliability of data stocking - immunity to GSM perturbations. (authors)

  3. Characterization of the personal dosimeter Rn-disk for monitoring radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, P.; Arcovito, G.; Amici, M.; Orlando, C.; Cardellini, F.; Fiorentino, A.; Trevisi, R.

    2009-01-01

    Rn-disk is a new passive device for measuring occupational exposure to radon 222, are presented the results of tests for the characterization of the dosimeter as a tool for estimating the individual dose for workers. [it

  4. Personality in general and clinical samples: Measurement invariance of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenhuis, Annemarie; Kamphuis, Jan H; Noordhof, Arjen

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the same general dimensions can describe normal and pathological personality, but most of the supporting evidence is exploratory. We aim to determine in a confirmatory framework the extent to which responses on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) are identical across general and clinical samples. We tested the Dutch brief form of the MPQ (MPQ-BF-NL) for measurement invariance across a general population subsample (N = 365) and a clinical sample (N = 365), using Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA) and Multiple Group Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (MGESEM). As an omnibus personality test, the MPQ-BF-NL revealed strict invariance, indicating absence of bias. Unidimensional per scale tests for measurement invariance revealed that 10% of items appeared to contain bias across samples. Item bias only affected the scale interpretation of Achievement, with individuals from the clinical sample more readily admitting to put high demands on themselves than individuals from the general sample, regardless of trait level. This formal test of equivalence provides strong evidence for the common structure of normal and pathological personality and lends further support to the clinical utility of the MPQ. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Personality may confound common measures of mate-choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan David

    Full Text Available The measurement of female mating preferences is central to the study of the evolution of male ornaments. Although several different methods have been developed to assess sexual preference in some standardized way, the most commonly used procedure consists of recording female spatial association with different males presented simultaneously. Sexual preference is then inferred from time spent in front of each male. However, the extent to which the measurement of female mate-choice is related to exploration tendencies has not been addressed so far. In the present study we assessed the influence of variation in exploration tendencies, a trait closely associated to global personality, on the measurement of female mating preference in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata using the widely used four-chamber choice-apparatus. The number of movements performed within both exploration and mate-choice apparatus was consistent within and across the two contexts. In addition, personality explained variation in selectivity, preference strength and consistency. High-exploratory females showed lower selectivity, lower preference scores and displayed more consistent preference scores. Our results suggest that variation in personality may affect the measurement of female mating preference and may contribute to explain existing inconsistencies across studies.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of personal exposure to UV radiation of workers and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisto, R.; Borra, M.; Casale, G. R.; Militello, A.; Siani, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to meteorological conditions variability and to the variability of exposure patterns, which can be largely different during a working day, personal dosemeters use can be necessary to obtain a correct quantitative evaluation of the radiation dose absorbed by an exposed worker. Different classes of personal dosemeters exist and, among them, electronic dosemeters and poly-sulphone film dosemeters. An experimental campaign is presented conduced in a cultivated area of Tuscany and some aspects are discussed about an experimental campaign performed on a population of volunteers on a central Italy beach near Rome. The aim of the present work is to show some relevant issues in a dosimetric approach to the exposure evaluation of outdoor workers and, in general, of the public during recreational activities. (authors)

  7. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the megacity of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Yim, S H L; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) were conducted in eight districts of Guangzhou during the winter of 2011. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM 2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM 2.5 exposures were evaluated using principal component analysis and a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (e.g., SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , NH 4 + , C 2 O 4 2- ) and anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, mannosan) exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios personal PM 2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, illustrating significant impact of local traffic, indoor sources, and/or personal activities on individual's exposure. SO 4 2- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO 4 2- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca 2+ , and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM 2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca 2+ to personal PM 2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient concentrations and personal exposures, indicating caution should be taken when using ambient concentrations as proxies for personal exposures in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes among persons with sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Asnani, Monika R.; Knight Madden, Jennifer; Reid, Marvin; Greene, Lisa-Gaye; Lyew-Ayee, Parris

    2017-01-01

    There is much variability in the expression of sickle cell disease (SCD) and recent works suggest that environmental and social factors may also influence this variability. This paper aims to use geographic information systems technology to examine the association between socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes in all persons who have attended or currently attend the Sickle Cell Unit in Jamaica. Rural patients presented for clinical care at older ages and had less annual visits to c...

  9. Is it really not possible to use electronic personal dosimeters in clinical exposure situations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, M.; Poppe, B.; Looe, H.K.; Boetticher, H. von

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Due to significant measuring inaccuracies that can occur under certain conditions, the use of electronic personal dosimeters in statutory measurements in X-ray diagnostics is currently legally restricted. The present study investigates the clinically relevant situations in which measurement errors of more then 20 % can be anticipated. Materials and Methods: Four series of experiments were made, comparing the results of the electronic personal dosimeter EPD Mk2.3 to those of reference dosimeters (TLDs and diagnostic dosimeters). On the one hand, personal doses have been determined in the routine operation of controlled areas in various departments. On the other hand, measurements on phantoms have been conducted in extreme but realistic situations under radiation protection. Experiments were conducted in unweakened scattered radiation as well as in unattenuated and attenuated direct radiation. Results: The tested electronic personal dosimeter type meets the requirements regarding measurement accuracy for 'official' personal dosimeters in all of the examined clinically relevant scattered radiation fields. Only if exposed to radiation directly, an underestimation of the dose can occur and can be greater than 90 %. Conclusion: In the range of scattered radiation of diagnostic X-ray equipment, even in pulsed fields, the use of electronic personal dosimeters is reasonable. Considerable measurement errors can only arise in radiation fields that are not realistic under regular conditions and even in connection with most accidents. (orig.)

  10. Concentrations and assessment of exposure to siloxanes and synthetic musks in personal care products from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Yuan Tao; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-12-15

    We investigated the concentrations and profiles of 15 siloxanes (four cyclic siloxanes, D{sub 4}-D{sub 7}; 11 linear siloxanes, L{sub 4}-L{sub 14}), four synthetic musks (two polycyclic musks, HHCB and AHTN; two nitro musks, MX and MK), and HHCB-lactone, in 158 personal care products marketed in China. Siloxanes were detected in 88% of the samples analyzed, at concentrations as high as 52.6 mg g{sup -1}; Linear siloxanes were the predominant compounds. Among synthetic musks, more than 80% of the samples contained at least one of these compounds, and their total concentrations were as high as 1.02 mg g{sup -1}. HHCB was the predominant musk in all of the samples analyzed, on average, accounting for 52% of the total musk concentrations. Based on the median concentrations of siloxanes and musks and the average daily usage amounts of consumer products, dermal exposure rates in adults were calculated to be 3.69 and 3.38 mg d{sup -1} for siloxanes and musks, respectively. - Highlights: > Siloxanes and synthetic musks are determined in personal care products. > Highest siloxane concentration was 52.6 mg g{sup -1}. > Highest musk concentration was 1.02 mg g{sup -1}. > Daily dermal exposure rates of siloxanes and musks were in mg levels. > Dermal exposure is a major pathway of human exposure to siloxanes and musks. - Dermal application of several personal care products is a major source of human exposure to cyclic and linear siloxanes.

  11. Extending Participatory Sensing to Personal Exposure Using Microscopic Land Use Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Dekoninck

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Personal exposure is sensitive to the personal features and behavior of the individual, and including interpersonal variability will improve the health and quality of life evaluations. Participatory sensing assesses the spatial and temporal variability of environmental indicators and is used to quantify this interpersonal variability. Transferring the participatory sensing information to a specific study population is a basic requirement for epidemiological studies in the near future. We propose a methodology to reduce the void between participatory sensing and health research. Instantaneous microscopic land-use regression modeling (µLUR is an innovative approach. Data science techniques extract the activity-specific and route-sensitive spatiotemporal variability from the data. A data workflow to prepare and apply µLUR models to any mobile population is presented. The µLUR technique and data workflow are illustrated with models for exposure to traffic related Black Carbon. The example µLURs are available for three micro-environments; bicycle, in-vehicle, and indoor. Instantaneous noise assessments supply instantaneous traffic information to the µLURs. The activity specific models are combined into an instantaneous personal exposure model for Black Carbon. An independent external validation reached a correlation of 0.65. The µLURs can be applied to simulated behavioral patterns of individuals in epidemiological cohorts for advanced health and policy research.

  12. Characteristics of carbonyl compounds in public vehicles of Beijing city: Concentrations, sources, and personal exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) including concentrations, major sources, and personal exposure were investigated for 29 vehicles including taxi, bus and subway in Beijing. It was found that the taxis (Xiali, TA) and buses (Huanghe, BA) fueled by gasoline with longer service years had the higher indoor carbonyl levels (178±42.7 and 188±31.6 μg m -3) while subways energized by electricity without exhaust and the jingwa buses (BB) driven in the suburb had the lower levels with total concentrations of 98.5±26.3 and 92.1±20.3 μg m -3, respectively. Outdoor carbonyls of taxi cars and buses were nearly at the same level with their total concentrations varying from 80 to 110 μg m -3. The level of outdoor subways carbonyls was equal with the ambient air levels. Exhaust leakage, indoor material emissions, photochemical formation, and infiltration of outdoor air were considered to be the major sources to in-vehicle carbonyls. Personal exposures and cancer risk to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were calculated for professional bus and taxi drivers, respectively. Taxi drivers had the highest cancer risk with personal exposure to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde of 212 and 243 μg day -1, respectively. The public concern should pay considerable attention to professional drivers' health.

  13. A holistic person perspective in measuring entrepreneurship education impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Lynfort

    2014-01-01

    and impact of entrepreneurship education and social entrepreneurship education, a number of interrelated factors are identified that are important to address in assessment and measurement of impact. In addition to these factors, a supplementary dimension is suggested – the holistic person perspective...... of the article is that it can be fruitful to understand entrepreneurial activities in a dynamic and holistic manner with attention to extended time and space dimensions in order to fully capture assessment and impact of entrepreneurship education....

  14. The relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of cardiovascular complications in persons with arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poreba, Rafal; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    The chronic exposure to lead represents a risk factor of arterial hypertension development. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is the most prognostically reliable method of measuring of arterial blood pressure. The study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of cardiovascular complications in patients with arterial hypertension. The studies included 73 men (mean age, 54.26 ± 8.17 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I-persons occupationally exposed to lead (n = 35) and group II-individuals not exposed to lead (n = 38). An analysis of results obtained during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring disclosed significantly higher values of mean systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and variability of systolic blood pressure in the group of hypertensive patients occupationally exposed to lead as compared to patients with arterial hypertension but not exposed to lead. The logistic regression showed that a more advanced age, higher concentration of blood zinc protoporphyrin, and a higher mean value of pulse pressure represented independent risk factors of left ventricular hypertrophy in the group of persons with arterial hypertension and chronically exposed to lead (OR age = 1.11; OR ZnPP = 1.32; OR PP = 1,43; p < 0.05). In view of the above data demonstration that occupational exposure to lead represents an independent risk factor of increased pulse pressure may be of key importance in the process of shaping general social awareness as to harmful effects of lead compounds on human health.

  15. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  16. Nickel concentrations in fingernails as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, K; Gammelgaard, Bente; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    in nails (p less than 0.001). The difference between the 2 levels was also significant (p less than 0.001). No correlation between the nickel concentration in fingernails and the duration of exposure could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the higher the nickel level in the fingernails, the greater...... is the possibility that the person is occupationally exposed to nickel. Nail analysis is suggested as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel.......The nickel concentration in fingernails from 2 groups of people occupationally exposed to nickel was determined. In one group, comprising 83 persons moderately exposed to nickel, the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) was 29.2 micrograms/g +/- 56.7 micrograms/g and the median 13.8 micrograms/g (range...

  17. Socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes among persons with sickle cell disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika R Asnani

    Full Text Available There is much variability in the expression of sickle cell disease (SCD and recent works suggest that environmental and social factors may also influence this variability. This paper aims to use geographic information systems technology to examine the association between socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes in all persons who have attended or currently attend the Sickle Cell Unit in Jamaica. Rural patients presented for clinical care at older ages and had less annual visits to clinic. Persons travelled relatively long distances to seek SCD care and those travelling longer had less health maintenance visits. Urban patients had a higher prevalence of significant pain crises (69.4% vs. 55.8%, p value<0.001 and respiratory events (21.2% vs. 14%, p value<0.001. Prevalence of leg ulcers did not vary between rural and urban patients but was higher in males than in females. Females also had lower odds of having respiratory events but there was no sex difference in history of painful crises. Persons with more severe genotypes lived in higher poverty and travelled longer for healthcare services. Persons in areas with higher annual rainfall, higher mean temperatures and living farther from factories had less painful crises and respiratory events. The paper highlights a need for better access to healthcare services for Jamaicans with SCD especially in rural areas of the island. It also reports interesting associations between environmental climatic exposures and health outcomes.

  18. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppard, L.; Burnett, R.T.; Szpiro, A.A.; Kim, J.Y.; Jerrett, M.; Pope, C.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180

    2012-01-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution.

  19. ACREM: A new air crew radiation exposure measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Duftschmid, K.; Kerschbaumer, S.; Schmitzer, C.; Strachotinsky, C.; Grosskopf, A.; Winkler, N.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic radiation has already been discovered in 1912 by the Austrian Nobel Laureate Victor F. Hess. After Hess up to now numerous measurements of the radiation exposure by cosmic rays in different altitudes have been performed, however, this has not been taken serious in view of radiation protection.Today, with the fast development of modern airplanes, an ever increasing number of civil aircraft is flying in increasing altitudes for considerable time. Members of civil aircrew spending up to 1000 hours per year in cruising altitudes and therefore are subject to significant levels of radiation exposure. In 1990 ICRP published its report ICRP 60 with updated excess cancer risk estimates, which led to significantly higher risk coefficients for some radiation qualities. An increase of the radiation weighting factors for mean energy neutron radiation increases the contribution for the neutron component to the equivalent dose by about 60%, as compared to the earlier values of ICRP26. This higher risk coefficients lead to the recommendation of the ICRP, that cosmic radiation exposure in civil aviation should be taken into account as occupational exposure. Numerous recent exposure measurements at civil airliners in Germany, Sweden, USA, and Russia show exposure levels in the range of 3-10 mSv/year. This is significantly more than the average annual dose of radiation workers (in Austria about 1.5 mSv/year). Up to now no practicable and economic radiation monitoring system for routine application on board exits. A fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, active in-flight dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is discussed in this paper

  20. Organisational measures and medical care after indicents involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, W.

    1980-01-01

    West Germany has emergency plans for all kinds of catastrophes, from conventional causes to nuclear accidents. Emergency provisions refer to organisational measures, technical equipment, and medical equipment for the treatment of radiation injuries. These provisions require constant training of responsible persons. Emergency plans and provisions in the Federal Republic of Germany have not been optimized yet. (DG) [de

  1. Predicting Return of Fear Following Exposure Therapy With an Implicit Measure of Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael W.; Harbaugh, Casaundra N.; Buffington, Adam G.; Jones, Christopher R.; Fazio, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to advance understanding of the processes underlying the efficacy of exposure therapy and particularly the phenomenon of return of fear (ROF) following treatment by drawing on a social psychological view of phobias as attitudes. Specifically, a dual process theory of attitude-related behavior predicts that a positive response to exposure therapy may reflect change in either the automatic (the attitude representation itself) or controlled (skills and confidence at coping with the fear) responses to the phobic stimulus, or both. However, if the attitude representation remains negative following treatment, ROF should be more likely. We tested this hypothesis in a clinical sample of individuals with public speaking phobia using a single-session exposure therapy protocol previously shown to be efficacious but also associated with some ROF. Consistent with predictions, a post-treatment implicit measure of attitudes toward public speaking (the Personalized Implicit Association Test [PIAT]) predicted ROF at 1-month follow-up. These results suggest that change in the automatically activated attitude toward the phobic stimulus is an important goal of exposure therapy and that an implicit measure like the PIAT can provide a useful measure of such change by which to gauge the adequacy of exposure treatment and predict its long-term efficacy. PMID:23085186

  2. Investigating the association of cardiovascular effects with personal exposure to particle components and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chang-fu, E-mail: changfu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Li, Ya-Ru; Kuo, I-Chun [Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Chieh [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lian-Yu; Su, Ta-Chen [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Background: Few studies included information on components and sources when exploring the cardiovascular health effects from personal exposure to particulate matters (PM). We previously reported that exposure to PM between 1.0 and 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5-1}) was associated with increased cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, an arterial stiffness index), while exposure to PM smaller than 0.25 {mu}m (PM{sub 0.25}) decreased the heart rate variability (HRV) indices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between PM elements and cardiovascular health effects and identify responsible sources. Methods: In a panel study of seventeen mail carriers, the subjects were followed for 5-6 days while delivering mail outdoors. Personal filter samples of PM{sub 2.5-1} and PM{sub 0.25} were analyzed for their elemental concentrations. The source-specific exposures were further estimated by using absolute principal factor analysis. We analyzed the component- and source-specific health effects on HRV indices and CAVI using mixed models. Results: Several elements in PM{sub 2.5-1} (e.g., cadmium and strontium) were associated with the CAVI. Subsequent analyses showed that an interquartile range increase in exposure to PM from regional sources was significantly associated with a 3.28% increase in CAVI (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.47%-5.13%). This significant effect remained (3.35%, CI: 1.62%-5.11%) after controlling for the ozone exposures. For exposures to PM{sub 0.25}, manganese, calcium, nickel, and chromium were associated with the CAVI and/or the HRV indices. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM{sub 2.5-1} and PM{sub 0.25} components may be associated with different cardiovascular effects. Health risks from exposure to PM from sources other than vehicle exhaust should not be underappreciated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased arterial stiffness was related to the components in particles between 1.0 and 2.5 {mu}m. Black

  3. Elemental properties of copper slag and measured airborne exposures at a copper slag processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugford, Christopher; Gibbs, Jenna L; Boylstein, Randy

    2017-08-01

    In 1974, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended a ban on the use of abrasives containing >1% silica, giving rise to abrasive substitutes like copper slag. We present results from a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health industrial hygiene survey at a copper slag processing facility that consisted of the collection of bulk samples for metals and silica; and full-shift area and personal air samples for dust, metals, and respirable silica. Carcinogens, suspect carcinogens, and other toxic elements were detected in all bulk samples, and area and personal air samples. Area air samples identified several areas with elevated levels of inhalable and respirable dust, and respirable silica: quality control check area (236 mg/m 3 inhalable; 10.3 mg/m 3 respirable; 0.430 mg/m 3 silica), inside the screen house (109 mg/m 3 inhalable; 13.8 mg/m 3 respirable; 0.686 mg/m 3 silica), under the conveyor belt leading to the screen house (19.8 mg/m 3 inhalable), and inside a conveyor access shack (11.4 mg/m 3 inhalable; 1.74 mg/m 3 respirable; 0.067 mg/m 3 silica). Overall, personal dust samples were lower than area dust samples and did not exceed published occupational exposure limits. Silica samples collected from a plant hand and a laborer exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist Threshold Limit Value of 0.025 µg/m 3 . All workers involved in copper slag processing (n = 5) approached or exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 10 µg/m 3 for arsenic (range: 9.12-18.0 µg/m 3 ). Personal total dust levels were moderately correlated with personal arsenic levels (R s = 0.70) and personal respirable dust levels were strongly correlated with respirable silica levels (R s = 0.89). We identified multiple areas with elevated levels of dust, respirable silica, and metals that may have implications for personal exposure at other facilities if preventive

  4. Standardizing measurement, sampling and reporting for public exposure assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/No. CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br

    2008-11-15

    UNSCEAR assesses worldwide public exposure from natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation based on information submitted to UNSCEAR by United Nations Member States and from peer reviewed scientific literature. These assessments are used as a basis for radiation protection programs of international and national regulatory and research organizations. Although UNSCEAR describes its assessment methodologies, the data are based on various monitoring approaches. In order to reduce uncertainties and improve confidence in public exposure assessments, it would be necessary to harmonize the methodologies used for sampling, measuring and reporting of environmental results.

  5. Contamination measurements on persons after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of contamination measurements after accidents is threefold: to detect and localize contaminations; to determine the level of contamination as a base for medical decisions; and to check the scope and efficiency of the decontamination measures. Persons involved in accidents should never measure their contamination themselves. The radiation protection personnel, whether it belongs to the medical team or to the disaster control squads, must be familiar with the measuring instruments and experienced in handling these instruments. A high priority has to be placed on training and constant practice. The monitors used must meet the special requirements of an emergency situation. This includes resistance against environmental factors - temperature, humidity, vibrations - as well as the simplicity of handling the instrument, and the clear presentation of the results. (author)

  6. Personal exposures to asbestos fibers during brake maintenance of passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely-García, María Fernanda; Sánchez, Mauricio; Breysse, Patrick N; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P

    2012-11-01

    Brake linings and brake pads are among the asbestos-containing products that are readily available in Colombia. When sold separated from their support, brake linings require extensive manipulation involving several steps that include drilling, countersinking, riveting, bonding, cutting, beveling, and grinding. Without this manipulation, brake linings cannot be installed in a vehicle. The manipulation process may release asbestos fibers, which may expose brake mechanics to the fibers. Three brake repair shops located in Bogotá (Colombia) were sampled for 3 or 4 consecutive days using US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 and 7402. Standard procedures for quality control were followed during the sampling process, and asbestos samples were analyzed by an American Industrial Hygiene Association accredited laboratory. Personal samples were collected to assess full-shift and short-term exposures. Area samples were also collected close to the brake-lining manipulation equipment and within office facilities. Activities were documented during the sampling process. Using Phase Contrast Microscopy Equivalent counts to estimate air asbestos concentrations, all personal samples [i.e. 8-h time-weighted averages (TWAs) and 30-min personal samples] were in compliance with the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards. Personal asbestos concentrations based on transmission electron microscopy counts were extremely high, ranging from 0.006 to 3.493 f cm(-3) for 8-h TWA and from 0.015 to 8.835 f cm(-3) for 30-min samples. All asbestos fibers detected were chrysotile. Cleaning facilities and grinding linings resulted in the highest asbestos exposures based on transmission electron microscopy counts. There were also some samples that did not comply with the NIOSH's recommended exposure limits. The results indicate that the brake mechanics sampled are exposed to extremely high asbestos concentrations (i.e. based on transmission

  7. Truncated Levy flights and agenda-based mobility are useful for the assessment of personal human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlink, Uwe; Ragas, Ad M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-oriented approaches can assess the individual-specific exposure to air pollution. In such an individual-based model we analyse the impact of human mobility to the personal exposure that is perceived by individuals simulated in an exemplified urban area. The mobility models comprise random walk (reference point mobility, RPM), truncated Levy flights (TLF), and agenda-based walk (RPMA). We describe and review the general concepts and provide an inter-comparison of these concepts. Stationary and ergodic behaviour are explained and applied as well as performance criteria for a comparative evaluation of the investigated algorithms. We find that none of the studied algorithm results in purely random trajectories. TLF and RPMA prove to be suitable for human mobility modelling, because they provide conditions for very individual-specific trajectories and exposure. Suggesting these models we demonstrate the plausibility of their results for exposure to air-borne benzene and the combined exposure to benzene and nonane. - Highlights: → Human exposure to air pollutants is influenced by a person's movement in the urban area. → We provide a simulation study of approaches to modelling personal exposure. → Agenda-based models and truncated Levy flights are recommended for exposure assessment. → The procedure is demonstrated for benzene exposure in an urban region. - Truncated Levy flights and agenda-based mobility are useful for the assessment of personal human exposure.

  8. Personal factors influencing agreement between expert and self-reported assessments of an occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Heather K; Sass-Kortsak, Andrea; Lou, W Y Wendy; Purdham, James T

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify personal factors associated with expert and respondent agreement on past occupational exposure. Epidemiologic data was collected from 1995 to 1998 in a community-based, case-control study of prostate cancer. Using longest jobs and excluding agreement on "never" exposure, self-reported and expert estimates of ever/ never exposure, by skin or ingestion, to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were compared. Agreement between respondents and the expert was 53.9 percent (N=1,038), with overreporting being more common than underreporting relative to the expert (31.8 percent versus 14.4 percent). In multiple logistic regression models, white-collar occupational status was significantly associated with overreporting (odds ratio [OR] = 0.142; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.095-0.211; blue-collar versus white-collar), while age was associated with underreporting (OR=1.077; 95 percent CI: 1.043-1.112; one-year increase). Neither job satisfaction nor risk perception appeared to confound other associations. In future studies, overreporting by white-collar workers might be avoided by providing clearer definitions of exposure, whereas elderly respondents may require aids to enhance exposure recall.

  9. Study of the exposures received by the persons involved in the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamard, J.; Sousselier, Y.

    1983-01-01

    An important step in the optimization process applied to exposures in the field of the transport of radioactive materials is an accurate inventory of the exposures actually received by the workers. The results of this study underlines that nearly all the doses received are well below the threshold values for the classification of the workers as occasionally exposed and a fortiori as professionally exposed and consequently no personal monitoring should be necessary for them. Thus the inventory of exposures is somewhat difficult as the workers implied in the transport process are not classified as exposed workers and not subject to personnal or collective dosimetry. Therefore a good knowledge of the exposures received during the transport of irradiated fuels should require a systematic follow up of this kind of transport all along their route including a careful dosimetric monitoring of the workers taking part in the transport. On the other hand, the reduction of the doses obtained by increasing the mechanization involves very high monetary costs as compared to the reduction of the detriment. Perhaps a more important reduction of the exposures could be attained by a better protection in the cars or lorries used for the transport of categories A and B packages. But it seems that in the case of the transports, the optimization is applied mainly during the conception and the testing of the packages and only little progress will be possible without involving disproportionated monetary costs. 4 references, 10 tables

  10. Improving the accuracy of smart devices to measure noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin; Kardous, Chucri; Neitzel, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Occupational noise exposure is one of the most frequent hazards present in the workplace; up to 22 million workers have potentially hazardous noise exposures in the U.S. As a result, noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational injuries in the U.S. Workers in manufacturing, construction, and the military are at the highest risk for hearing loss. Despite the large number of people exposed to high levels of noise at work, many occupations have not been adequately evaluated for noise exposure. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether or not iOS smartphones and other smart devices (Apple iPhones and iPods) could be used as reliable instruments to measure noise exposures. For this experiment three different types of microphones were tested with a single model of iPod and three generations of iPhones: the internal microphones on the device, a low-end lapel microphone, and a high-end lapel microphone marketed as being compliant with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard for a Class 2-microphone. All possible combinations of microphones and noise measurement applications were tested in a controlled environment using several different levels of pink noise ranging from 60-100 dBA. Results were compared to simultaneous measurements made using a Type 1 sound level measurement system. Analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test were used to determine if the results differed by microphone or noise measurement application. Levels measured with external microphones combined with certain noise measurement applications did not differ significantly from levels measured with the Type 1 sound measurement system. Results showed that it may be possible to use iOS smartphones and smart devices, with specific combinations of measurement applications and calibrated external microphones, to collect reliable, occupational noise exposure data under certain conditions and within the limitations of the

  11. Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Correia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it had been proved by its detection in human tissues and fluids. Due to the lack of information about the concentrations found in consumer products, monitoring data is needed for exposure assessment purposes. Dermal contact, mostly by personal care products, seems to be the major route of human exposure to galaxolide, and, due to the immaturity of young children’s skin, exposure consequences can be worse in this population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate galaxolide levels in personal care products used by children of Oporto (Portugal, aged 0–5 years, and relate it with consumer habits. Consumer patterns were obtained through 250 questionnaires to caregivers of Oporto children. The 79 most used products were extracted by a dispersive solid phase extraction methodology known as QuEChERS and galaxolide was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The concentrations ranged between 0.001 ± 0.001 mg·kg−1, on a baby wipe, and 300.480 ± 8.819 mg·kg−1, on glycerin soap, which may correspond to an estimated daily dermal exposure of 277.10 ± 0.02 µg·day−1 on the population of Oporto children. This value is in the range of the results observed for adults, although no information of toxicological risk for children is available.

  12. Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.; Drozdovitch, V.

    2004-01-01

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

  13. Experimental evaluation of the exposure level onboard Czech Airlines aircraft - measurements verified the routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Kovar, I.

    2008-01-01

    Air-crew members are exposed to ionizing radiation due to their work on board of air-crafts. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1990 recommends that exposure to cosmic radiation in the operation of jet aircraft should be recognised as occupational exposure. Czech air transport operators are therefore obliged to ensure: - Air-crew members to be well informed about the exposure level and health risks; - An analysis of complete exposure level of aircraft crew and its continuing monitoring in cases of exceeding the informative value 1 mSv; - A compliance of limit 1 mSv during pregnancy Since 1998, after receiving a proper accreditation, the Department of Radiation Dosimetry of Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Academy of Sciences (DRD) is the competent dosimetric service realized requirements of Notice No.307 of the State Office for Nuclear Safety concerning air-crew exposure (paragraphs 87-90). The DRD has developed routine method of personal dosimetry of aircraft crew in 1998 which has been applied after receiving a proper accreditation in the same year. DRD therefore helps Czech airlines a.s. (CSA) with their legislative obligations mentioned above, and in return, once per four years, in terms of business contract, CSA allows scientific measurements performed by DRD onboard its air-crafts with the aim to verify the method of routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure. (authors)

  14. Using Google Location History to track personal exposure to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, E. A.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2017-12-01

    Big data is increasingly used in air pollution research to monitor air quality and develop mitigation strategies. Google Location History provides an archive of geolocation and time information from mobile devices that can be used to track personal exposure to air pollution. Here we demonstrate the utility of Google Location History for assessing true exposure of individuals to air pollution hazardous to human health in an increasingly mobile world. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at coarse resolution (2° × 2.5°; latitude × longitude) to calculate and sample surface concentrations of fine particle mass (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations at the same time and location of each of six volunteers for 2 years (June 2015 to May 2017) and compare this to annual mean PM2.5 and ozone estimated at their postal addresses. The latter is synonymous with Global Burden of Disease studies that use a static population distribution map. We find that mobile PM2.5 is higher than static PM2.5 for most (five out of six) volunteers and can lead to a 10% increase in the risk for ischemic heart disease and stroke mortality. The difference may be more if instead a high resolution CTM or an abundant air quality monitoring network is used. There is tremendous potential to exploit geolocation and time data from mobile devices for cohort health studies and to determine best practices for limiting personal exposure to air pollution.

  15. Professional exposure of medical workers: radiation levels, radiation risk and personal dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Guang

    2005-01-01

    The application of radiation in the field of medicine is the most active area. Due to the rapid and strong development of intervention radiology at present near 20 years, particularly, the medical workers become a popularize group which most rapid increasing and also receiving the must high of professional exposure dose. Because, inter alias, radiation protection management nag training have not fully follow up, the aware of radioactive protection and appropriate approach have tot fully meet the development and need, the professional exposure dose received by medical workers, especially those being engaged in intervention radiology, are more higher, as well as have not yet fully receiving the complete personal dose monitoring, the medical workers become the population group which should be paid the most attention to. The writer would advice in this paper that all medical workers who being received a professional radiation exposure should pay more attention to the safety and healthy they by is strengthening radiation protection and receiving complete personal dose monitoring. (authors)

  16. Personal child and mother carbon monoxide exposures and kitchen levels: methods and results from a randomized trial of woodfired chimney cookstoves in Guatemala (RESPIRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk R; McCracken, John P; Thompson, Lisa; Edwards, Rufus; Shields, Kyra N; Canuz, Eduardo; Bruce, Nigel

    2010-07-01

    During the first randomized intervention trial (RESPIRE: Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) in air pollution epidemiology, we pioneered application of passive carbon monoxide (CO) diffusion tubes to measure long-term personal exposures to woodsmoke. Here we report on the protocols and validations of the method, trends in personal exposure for mothers and their young children, and the efficacy of the introduced improved chimney stove in reducing personal exposures and kitchen concentrations. Passive diffusion tubes originally developed for industrial hygiene applications were deployed on a quarterly basis to measure 48-hour integrated personal carbon monoxide exposures among 515 children 0-18 months of age and 532 mothers aged 15-55 years and area samples in a subsample of 77 kitchens, in households randomized into control and intervention groups. Instrument comparisons among types of passive diffusion tubes and against a continuous electrochemical CO monitor indicated that tubes responded nonlinearly to CO, and regression calibration was used to reduce this bias. Before stove introduction, the baseline arithmetic (geometric) mean 48-h child (n=270), mother (n=529) and kitchen (n=65) levels were, respectively, 3.4 (2.8), 3.4 (2.8) and 10.2 (8.4) p.p.m. The between-group analysis of the 3355 post-baseline measurements found CO levels to be significantly lower among the intervention group during the trial period: kitchen levels: -90%; mothers: -61%; and children: -52% in geometric means. No significant deterioration in stove effect was observed over the 18 months of surveillance. The reliability of these findings is strengthened by the large sample size made feasible by these unobtrusive and inexpensive tubes, measurement error reduction through instrument calibration, and a randomized, longitudinal study design. These results from the first randomized trial of improved household energy technology in a developing country and

  17. Design and application of a web-based real-time personal PM2.5 exposure monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qinghua; Zhuang, Jia; Du, Yanjun; Xu, Dandan; Li, Tiantian

    2018-06-15

    Growing demand from public health research for conduct large-scale epidemiological studies to explore health effect of PM 2.5 was well-documented. To address this need, we design a web-based real-time personal PM 2.5 exposure monitoring system (RPPM2.5 system) which can help researcher to get big data of personal PM 2.5 exposure with low-cost, low labor requirement, and low operating technical requirements. RPPM2.5 system can provide relative accurate real-time personal exposure data for individuals, researches, and decision maker. And this system has been used in a survey of PM 2.5 personal exposure level conducted in 5 cities of China and has provided mass of valuable data for epidemiological research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpinen, L.; Kuisti, H.; Tarao, H.; Paeaekkoenen, R.; Elovaara, J.

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements. (authors)

  19. Personal exposure to particulate PAHs and anthraquinone and oxidative DNA damages in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjie; Han, In-Kyu; Hu, Min; Shao, Min; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that DNA oxidative damage be related to the chemical constituents of ambient particles. The purpose of this study was to examine whether particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and quinone-structure chemicals increase body burden of oxidative stress in human exposed to heavy traffic volume. We recruited two nonsmoking security guards who worked at a university campus gate near a heavily trafficked road. Each subject wore a personal air sampler for 24h per day to estimate exposures to 24 PAHs and anthraquinone (AnQ) in PM(2.5). Daily pre- and post-work shift spot urines were collected for 29d from each subject. Urine samples were analyzed for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Additionally, using 19 organic tracers other than 24 PAHs and AnQ, a receptor source apportionment model of chemical mass balance was applied to determine the contributions of sources on the PM: gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, coal burning, vegetable debris, cooking, natural gas and biomass burning. The relationship among urinary 8-OHdG, individual PAH, and AnQ was demonstrated as follows: the average urinary concentration of 8-OHdG was increased more than three times after 8-h work-shift than those before the work shift. All the 24 PAH and AnQ levels were positively and significantly associated with the post-work urinary 8-OHdG. The results from source apportionment suggest vehicular emission to be the dominant source of personal exposure to PM(2.5). Our finding indicates that personal air exposures to 24 individual PAHs and AnQ originating from traffic emissions are important in increasing oxidative burdens in human body. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Fee Sensitive Risk Exposures of Project Authorized Person in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-On Cheung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Authorized Persons (AP play a critical role in the design and construction of building works in Hong Kong. Under the Building Ordinance, design and construction of building works need to be coordinated and monitored by an AP registered with the Buildings Department. Professionally qualified Architects, Engineers and Surveyors are eligible to register as AP after completing the prescribed assessment. In addition, the project AP is often appointed by the project owner to be the project team leader. In these capacities, a project AP is exposed to various risks. This paper seeks to identify the fee sensitive risk exposures of project APs. Through an ANOVA study, these risks exposures are those due to liabilities under the Building Ordinance at the construction stage, those towards the third parties and the clients.

  1. Sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure among Europeans on short term holidays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Maier, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the main cause of skin cancer, the incidence of which is rising with national differences across Europe. With this observation study we aimed to determine the impact of nationality on sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure on sun and ski holidays....... 25 Danish and 20 Spanish sun-seekers were observed during a sun holiday in Spain, and 26 Danish and 27 Austrian skiers were observed during a ski holiday in Austria. The participants recorded their location and clothing in diaries. Personal time-logged UVR data were recorded as standard erythema...... doses (SEDs) by an electronic UVR dosimeter worn on the wrist. Danish sun-seekers were outdoors for significantly longer, received significant higher percentages of ambient UVR, and received greater accumulated UVR doses than Spanish sun-seekers. Danish skiers were also outdoors for significantly longer...

  2. Aggregate consumer exposure to UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate via personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manová, Eva; von Goetz, Natalie; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are substances designed to protect our skin from UV-induced damage and can be found in many categories of personal care products (PCPs). The potential endocrine-disrupting effects attributed to UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) are being debated. We evaluated the aggregate exposure of the Swiss-German population (N=1196; ages ≤1-97years) to EHMC via the use of PCPs; thus we provide the first comprehensive information about the current EHMC exposure sources and aggregate exposure levels. In our probabilistic modeling method performed at an individual level, PCP use data obtained by a postal questionnaire were linked to concentration data on EHMC gained from chemical analyses of PCPs used by the questionnaire respondents. The modeled median and 99.9th percentile of the internal aggregate exposure for the general population were 0.012 and 0.873mgday(-1)kg(-1) and 0.008 and 0.122mgday(-1)kg(-1) for the summer/autumn and winter/spring period, respectively. The major contributors to internal aggregate exposure were sunscreen products in summer/autumn (females: 64%; males: 85%; children aged ≤12years 93%). In winter/spring, lip care dominated for females (30%) and sunscreen for males (38%) and children aged ≤12years (50%). Overall, the internal aggregate exposure estimates for the studied population are shown to be below the Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) for EHMC i.e., the level of exposure above which humans should not be exposed; however, when an intense short-term exposure via sunscreen is accounted for during a sunbathing day, at the high-end percentiles (99.9th) the predicted aggregate exposure exceeds the DNEL for thyroid-disrupting effects such as for children aged ≤4years, who might be particularly susceptible to endocrine disrupting events. It is nevertheless critical to acknowledge that quantitative data on transdermal penetration of EHMC from PCPs are currently insufficient. Since long-term effects of endocrine

  3. Dispersal of Exhaled Air and Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the human exhalation on flow fields, contaminant distributions, and personal exposures in displacement ventilated rooms is studied together with the effects of physical movement. Experiments are conducted in full-scale test rooms with life-sized breathing thermal manikins....... Numerical simulations support the experiments. Air exhaled through the mouth can lock in a thermally stratified layer, if the vertical temperature gradient in breathing zone height is sufficiently large. With exhalation through the nose, exhaled air flows to the upper part of the room. The exhalation flow...

  4. Commuters’ Personal Exposure to Ambient and Indoor Ozone in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystallia K. Kalimeri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to monitor the residential/office indoor, outdoor, and personal levels of ozone for people living, working, and commuting in Athens, Greece. Participants (16 persons of this study worked at the same place. Passive sampling analysis results did not indicate any limit exceedance (Directive 2008/50/EC: 120 µg/m3, World Health Organization (WHO Air Quality Guidelines 2005: 100 µg/m3. The highest “house-outdoor” concentration was noticed for participants living in the north suburbs of Athens, confirming the photochemical ozone formation at the northern parts of the basin during southwestern prevailing winds. The residential indoor to outdoor ratio (I/O was found to be significantly lower than unity, underlying the outdoor originality of the pollutant. The highest “office-indoor” concentration was observed in a ground-level building, characterized by the extensive use of photocopy machines and printers. Personal ozone levels were positively correlated only with indoor-office concentrations. A clear correlation of personal ozone levels to the time spent by the individuals during moving/staying outdoors was observed. On the other hand, no correlation was observed when focusing only on commuting time, due to the fact that transit time includes both on-foot and in-vehicle time periods, therefore activities associated with increased exposure levels, but also with pollutants removal by recirculating air filtering systems, respectively.

  5. A principal components analysis of the factors effecting personal exposure to air pollution in urban commuters in Dublin, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, Aonghus; Broderick, Brian M; Gill, Laurence W

    2009-10-01

    Principal component analysis was used to examine air pollution personal exposure data of four urban commuter transport modes for their interrelationships between pollutants and relationships with traffic and meteorological data. Air quality samples of PM2.5 and VOCs were recorded during peak traffic congestion for the car, bus, cyclist and pedestrian between January 2005 and June 2006 on a busy route in Dublin, Ireland. In total, 200 personal exposure samples were recorded each comprising 17 variables describing the personal exposure concentrations, meteorological conditions and traffic conditions. The data reduction technique, principal component analysis (PCA), was used to create weighted linear combinations of the data and these were subsequently examined for interrelationships between the many variables recorded. The results of the PCA found that personal exposure concentrations in non-motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by wind speed, whereas personal exposure concentrations in motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by traffic congestion. The findings of the investigation show that the most effective mechanisms of personal exposure reduction differ between motorised and non-motorised modes of commuter transport.

  6. Comprehensive measures of sound exposures in cinemas using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Markus E; Popelka, Gerald R; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss from sound overexposure has a considerable prevalence. Identification of sound hazards is crucial, as prevention, due to a lack of definitive therapies, is the sole alternative to hearing aids. One subjectively loud, yet little studied, potential sound hazard is movie theaters. This study uses smart phones to evaluate their applicability as a widely available, validated sound pressure level (SPL) meter. Therefore, this study measures sound levels in movie theaters to determine whether sound levels exceed safe occupational noise exposure limits and whether sound levels in movie theaters differ as a function of movie, movie theater, presentation time, and seat location within the theater. Six smart phones with an SPL meter software application were calibrated with a precision SPL meter and validated as an SPL meter. Additionally, three different smart phone generations were measured in comparison to an integrating SPL meter. Two different movies, an action movie and a children's movie, were measured six times each in 10 different venues (n = 117). To maximize representativeness, movies were selected focusing on large release productions with probable high attendance. Movie theaters were selected in the San Francisco, CA, area based on whether they screened both chosen movies and to represent the largest variety of theater proprietors. Measurements were analyzed in regard to differences between theaters, location within the theater, movie, as well as presentation time and day as indirect indicator of film attendance. The smart phone measurements demonstrated high accuracy and reliability. Overall, sound levels in movie theaters do not exceed safe exposure limits by occupational standards. Sound levels vary significantly across theaters and demonstrated statistically significant higher sound levels and exposures in the action movie compared to the children's movie. Sound levels decrease with distance from the screen. However, no influence on

  7. Year-long continuous personal exposure to PM 2.5 recorded by a fast responding portable nephelometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniš, Martin; Kolomazníková, Jana

    2010-08-01

    Personal exposure to particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter under 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) was monitored using a DustTrak nephelometer. The battery-operated unit, worn by an adult individual for a period of approximately one year, logged integrated average PM 2.5 concentrations over 5 min intervals. A detailed time-activity diary was used to record the experimental subject's movement and the microenvironments visited. Altogether 239 days covering all the months (except April) were available for the analysis. In total, 60 463 acceptable 5-min averages were obtained. The dataset was divided into 7 indoor and 4 outdoor microenvironments. Of the total time, 84% was spent indoors, 10.9% outdoors and 5.1% in transport. The indoor 5-min PM 2.5 average was higher (55.7 μg m -3) than the outdoor value (49.8 μg m -3). The highest 5-min PM 2.5 average concentration was detected in restaurant microenvironments (1103 μg m -3), the second highest 5-min average concentration was recorded in indoor spaces heated by stoves burning solid fuels (420 μg m -3). The lowest 5-min mean aerosol concentrations were detected outdoors in rural/natural environments (25 μg m -3) and indoors at the monitored person's home (36 μg m -3). Outdoor and indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 measured by the nephelometer at home and during movement in the vicinity of the experimental subject's home were compared with those of the nearest fixed-site monitor of the national air quality monitoring network. The high correlation coefficient (0.78) between the personal and fixed-site monitor aerosol concentrations suggested that fixed-site monitor data can be used as proxies for personal exposure in residential and some other microenvironments. Collocated measurements with a reference method (β-attenuation) showed a non-linear systematic bias of the light-scattering method, limiting the use of direct concentration readings for exact exposure analysis.

  8. Comparison of Respirable Mass Concentrations Measured by a Personal Dust Monitor and a Personal DataRAM to Gravimetric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Andrew; Sousan, Sinan; Peters, Thomas M

    2017-12-15

    In 2016, the Mine Safety and Health Administration required the use of continuous monitors to measure respirable dust in mines and better protect miner health. The Personal Dust Monitor, PDM3700, has met stringent performance criteria for this purpose. In a laboratory study, respirable mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and a photometer (personal DataRam, pDR-1500) were compared to those measured gravimetrically for five aerosols of varying refractive index and density (diesel exhaust fume, welding fume, coal dust, Arizona road dust (ARD), and salt [NaCl] aerosol) at target concentrations of 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 mg m-3. For all aerosols except coal dust, strong, near-one-to-one, linear relationships were observed between mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and gravimetrically (diesel fume, slope = 0.99, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.98, R2 = 0.99; and NaCl, slope = 0.95, R2 = 0.99). The slope deviated substantially from unity for coal dust (slope = 0.55; R2 = 0.99). Linear relationships were also observed between mass concentrations measured with the pDR-1500 and gravimetrically, but one-to-one behavior was not exhibited (diesel fume, slope = 0.23, R2 = 0.76; coal dust, slope = 0.54, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.61, R2 = 0.99; NaCl, slope = 1.14, R2 = 0.98). Unlike the pDR-1500, mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 appear independent of refractive index and density, suggesting that it could have applications in a variety of occupational settings. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  9. A Critical Test of Self-Enhancement, Exposure, and Self-Categorization Explanations for First- and Third-Person Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A.; Byrne, Sahara; Brundidge, Jennifer S.; Shoham, Mirit D.; Marlow, Mikaela L.

    2007-01-01

    The third-person perception is the tendency for people to believe that others are more influenced by media content than themselves (W. P. Davison, 1983). The current study provides a critical test of self-enhancement, exposure, and self-categorization explanations for first- (i.e., self more influenced than others) and third-person perceptions.…

  10. The fear of food measure: a novel measure for use in exposure therapy for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Byrne, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    Exposure therapy for mealtime anxiety has preliminarily been effective at increasing food intake and decreasing anxiety in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). To enhance our knowledge of exposure therapy for AN researchers and clinicians need a comprehensive measure that assesses outcomes relevant to exposure therapy for AN. In the current four studies we developed Fear of Food Measure (FOFM) that assesses three cognitive and behavioral outcomes: trait anxiety about eating, food avoidance behaviors, and feared concerns related to eating. In a community (N = 399) and undergraduate female sample (N = 203) the FOFM exhibited a good three-factor structure and convergent and divergent validity. In a sample of women (N = 72) we showed that the anxiety about eating subscale significantly predicted in vivo food intake over and above other established predictors of eating (e.g., restraint). In a clinical sample diagnosed with an eating disorder (N = 41) we showed that anxiety about eating was associated with food intake and anxiety during an exposure meal and that all subscales of the FOFM significantly decreased over the course of a four-session exposure intervention. Finally, we found that participants diagnosed with an eating disorder had higher levels of fear of food than did matched controls (N = 23). The FOFM is a psychometrically valid measure that can assess if patients are improving while undergoing exposure therapy and could be used to pinpoint problematic behaviors that can be addressed in exposure therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. MRSA colonization and infection among persons with occupational livestock exposure in Europe: Prevalence, preventive options and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerge, Tobias; Lorenz, Marthe Barbara; van Alen, Sarah; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Becker, Karsten; Köck, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Colonization with livestock-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus (LA-MRSA) among persons occupationally exposed to pigs, cattle or poultry is very frequent. In Europe, LA-MRSA mostly belong to the clonal lineage CC398. Since colonized persons have an increased risk of developing MRSA infections, defining the burden of work-related infection caused by LA-MRSA CC398 is of interest to exposed personnel, insurance companies and infection control staff. This review summarizes data on the types of occupation-related infections caused by LA-MRSA CC398, the incidence of such infections as well as potential preventive strategies. We identified twelve case reports on infections among livestock-exposed persons. Overall, there is a lack of data describing the incidence of occupation-related infections due to MRSA CC398. Currently, no specific guidance towards the prevention of LA-MRSA CC398 colonization of persons with routine exposure exists. In vitro, MRSA CC398 strains are susceptible (>95%) to mupirocin. Single reports have described effective decolonization of persons carrying LA-MRSA CC398, but long-term success rates are low in case of continuous livestock contact. Overall, the occupational health risk due to LA-MRSA CC398 is not well understood. Currently, prevention of human LA-MRSA CC398 infection is mostly based on the recommendation to perform screening and decolonization therapies prior to elective medical interventions in order to avoid nosocomial infections, but there is no conclusive evidence to perform specific measures aiming to forestall community-acquired infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bill proposition related to the protection of persons against exposure to radon in dwellings - Nr 4390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dord, Dominique; Colombier, Georges; Forissier, Nicolas; Luca, Lionnel; Carayon, Bernard; Blanc, Etienne; Remiller, Jacques; Perrut, Bernard; Voisin, Michel; Diard, Eric; Poletti, Berengere; Fort, Marie-Louise; Ciotti, Eric; Guibal, Jean-Claude; Gest, Alain; Roccaserra, Camille de; Delatte, Remi

    2012-01-01

    After having recalled the extent of the risk associated with exposure to radon in France, and that a regulation already exists for professional premises and buildings receiving public, this document contains the measures proposed to define a regulatory framework for dwellings. It addresses radon concentration values, radon volume activity thresholds, radon diagnosis practices, actors, protocols and reports

  13. Measuring Personality in Context: Improving Predictive Accuracy in Selection Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffner, Rebecca Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of a context-sensitive (i.e., goal dimensions) measure of personality compared to a traditional measure of personality (NEO-PI-R) and generalized self-efficacy (GSE) to predict variance in task performance. The goal dimensions measure takes a unique perspective in the conceptualization of personality. While traditional measures differentiate within person and collapse across context (e.g., Big Five), the goal dimensions measure employs a hierarchical structure...

  14. Can Personal Exposures to Higher Nighttime and Early Morning Temperatures Increase Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental temperatures are inversely related to BP; however, the effects of short-term temperature changes within a 24-hour period and measured with high accuracy at the personal level have not been described. Fifty-one nonsmoking patients living in the Detroit area had up to...

  15. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  17. Chemical exposure reduction: Factors impacting on South African herbicide sprayers' personal protective equipment compliance and high risk work practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Rivas, Federico; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The high exposure risks of workers to herbicides in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health concern because of the potential resulting negative impacts on workers' health. This study investigated workers' personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance as a risk mitigation measure; particularly workers who apply herbicides for Working for Water (WfW) - a South African invasive alien vegetation control programme. The study aim was to understand workers' low PPE compliance by analysing their risk perceptions of herbicide use, working conditions and socio-cultural context. Research methods included ethnographic observations, informal interviews, visual media, questionnaires and a focus group. Study results indicated that low PPE compliance persists despite workers' awareness of herbicide exposure risks and as a result of the influence from workers' socio-cultural context (i.e. gender dynamics and social status), herbicide risk perceptions and working conditions (i.e. environmental and logistical). Interestingly, teams comprised of mostly women had the highest compliance rate. These findings highlighted that given the complexity of PPE compliance, especially in countries with several economic and social constraints, exposure reduction interventions should not rely solely on PPE use promotion. Instead, other control strategies requiring less worker input for effectiveness should be implemented, such as elimination and substitution of highly hazardous pesticides, and altering application methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exposure to traffic pollution: comparison between measurements and a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alili, F; Momas, I; Callais, F; Le Moullec, Y; Sacre, C; Chiron, M; Flori, J P

    2001-01-01

    French researchers from the Building Scientific and Technical Center have produced a traffic-exposure index. To achieve this, they used an air pollution dispersion model that enabled them to calculate automobile pollutant concentrations in front of subjects' residences and places of work. Researchers used this model, which was tested at 27 Paris canyon street sites, and compared nitrogen oxides measurements obtained with passive samplers during a 6-wk period and calculations derived from the model. There was a highly significant correlation (r = .83) between the 2 series of values; their mean concentrations were not significantly different. The results suggested that the aforementioned model could be a useful epidemiological tool for the classification of city dwellers by present-or even cumulative exposure to automobile air pollution.

  19. Personal customizing exercise with a wearable measurement and control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Kiryu, Tohru; Tamura, Naoki

    2005-06-28

    Recently, wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of customizing machine-based exercise on an individual basis by relying on biosignal-based controls. We propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the customization process. The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise performance and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. The workload is continuously tracked with exercise programs set according to personally customized workload patterns and estimation results from the measured biosignals by a fuzzy control method. Exercise programs are adapted by relying on a computer workstation, which communicates with the wearable unit via wireless connections. A prototype of the wearable unit was tested together with an Internet-based cycle ergometer system to demonstrate that it is possible to customize exercise on an individual basis. We tested the wearable unit in nine people to assess its suitability to control cycle ergometer exercise. The results confirmed that the unit could successfully control the ergometer workload and continuously support gradual changes in physical activities. The design of wearable units equipped with measurement and control functions is an important step towards establishing a convenient and continuously supported wellness environment.

  20. Personal customizing exercise with a wearable measurement and control unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura Naoki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of customizing machine-based exercise on an individual basis by relying on biosignal-based controls. We propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the customization process. Methods The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise performance and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. The workload is continuously tracked with exercise programs set according to personally customized workload patterns and estimation results from the measured biosignals by a fuzzy control method. Exercise programs are adapted by relying on a computer workstation, which communicates with the wearable unit via wireless connections. A prototype of the wearable unit was tested together with an Internet-based cycle ergometer system to demonstrate that it is possible to customize exercise on an individual basis. Results We tested the wearable unit in nine people to assess its suitability to control cycle ergometer exercise. The results confirmed that the unit could successfully control the ergometer workload and continuously support gradual changes in physical activities. Conclusion The design of wearable units equipped with measurement and control functions is an important step towards establishing a convenient and continuously supported wellness environment.

  1. Measurements for assessing the exposure from 3G femtocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursianis, Achilles; Vanias, Pantelis; Samaras, Theodoros

    2012-06-01

    Femtocells are low-power access points, which combine mobile and broadband technologies. The main operation of a femtocell is to function as a miniature base station unit in an indoor environment and to connect to the operator's network through a broadband phone line or a coaxial cable line. This study provides the first experimental measurements and results in Greece for the assessment of exposure to a femtocell access point (FAP) indoors. Using a mobile handset with the appropriate software, power level measurements of the transmitted (Tx) and the received by the mobile handset signal were performed in two different and typical (home and office) environments. Moreover, radiofrequency electric field strength and frequency selective measurements with a radiation meter (SRM-3000) were carried out in the proximity of the FAP installation point. The cumulative distribution functions of the Tx power at most cases (except one) show that in 90% of all points the power of the mobile phone was lower by at least 7 dB during FAP operation. At a distance of ∼1 m from the FAP (in its main beam), power flux density measurements show that there is very little difference between the two situations (FAP ON and OFF). As a conclusion, the use of femtocells indoors improves reception quality, reduces the Tx power of the user's mobile terminal and results in an indiscernible increase of the electromagnetic field in front of the unit, at values that are extremely low compared with reference levels of exposure guidelines.

  2. A study of health effect estimates using competing methods to model personal exposures to ambient PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Matthew; Hopke, Philip K; Zhao, Weixiang; Vedal, Sverre; Gelfand, Erwin; Rabinovitch, Nathan

    2007-09-01

    Various methods have been developed recently to estimate personal exposures to ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5) using fixed outdoor monitors as well as personal exposure monitors. One class of estimators involves extrapolating values using ambient-source components of PM2.5, such as sulfate and iron. A key step in extrapolating these values is to correct for differences in infiltration characteristics of the component used in extrapolation (such as sulfate within PM2.5) and PM2.5. When this is not done, resulting health effect estimates will be biased. Another class of approaches involves factor analysis methods such as positive matrix factorization (PMF). Using either an extrapolation or a factor analysis method in conjunction with regression calibration allows one to estimate the direct effects of ambient PM2.5 on health, eliminating bias caused by using fixed outdoor monitors and estimated personal ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Several forms of the extrapolation method are defined, including some new ones. Health effect estimates that result from the use of these methods are compared with those from an expanded PMF analysis using data collected from a health study of asthmatic children conducted in Denver, Colorado. Examining differences in health effect estimates among the various methods using a measure of lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) as the health indicator demonstrated the importance of the correction factor(s) in the extrapolation methods and that PMF yielded results comparable with the extrapolation methods that incorporated correction factors.

  3. Variability in and agreement between modeled and personal continuously measured black carbon levels using novel smartphone and sensor technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Rivas, Ioar; de Castro, Montserrat; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-03-03

    Novel technologies, such as smartphones and small personal continuous air pollution sensors, can now facilitate better personal estimates of air pollution in relation to location. Such information can provide us with a better understanding about whether and how personal exposures relate to residential air pollution estimates, which are normally used in epidemiological studies. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the variability in personal air pollution levels during the day and (2) the relationship between modeled home and school estimates and continuously measured personal air pollution exposure levels in different microenvironments (e.g., home, school, and commute). We focused on black carbon as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. We recruited 54 school children (aged 7-11) from 29 different schools around Barcelona as part of the BREATHE study, an epidemiological study of the relation between air pollution and brain development. For 2 typical week days during 2012-2013, the children were given a smartphone with CalFit software to obtain information on their location and physical activity level and a small sensor, the micro-aethalometer model AE51, to measure their black carbon levels simultaneously and continuously. We estimated their home and school exposure to PM2.5 filter absorbance, which is well-correlated with black carbon, using a temporally adjusted PM2.5 absorbance land use regression (LUR) model. We found considerable variation in the black carbon levels during the day, with the highest levels measured during commuting periods (geometric mean = 2.8 μg/m(3)) and the lowest levels at home (geometric mean = 1.3 μg/m(3)). Hourly temporally adjusted LUR model estimates for the home and school showed moderate to good correlation with measured personal black carbon levels at home and school (r = 0.59 and 0.68, respectively) and lower correlation with commuting trips (r = 0.32 and 0.21, respectively). The correlation between modeled home

  4. Relational humility: conceptualizing and measuring humility as a personality judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don E; Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Gartner, Aubrey L; Jennings, David J; Emmons, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    The study of humility has progressed slowly due to measurement problems. We describe a model of relational humility that conceptualizes humility as a personality judgment. In this set of 5 studies, we developed the 16-item Relational Humility Scale (RHS) and offered initial evidence for the theoretical model. In Study 1 (N = 300), we developed the RHS and its subscales--Global Humility, Superiority, and Accurate View of Self. In Study 2, we confirmed the factor structure of the scale in an independent sample (N = 196). In Study 3, we provided initial evidence supporting construct validity using an experimental design (N = 200). In Study 4 (N = 150), we provided additional evidence of construct validity by examining the relationships between humility and empathy, forgiveness, and other virtues. In Study 5 (N = 163), we adduced evidence of discriminant and incremental validity of the RHS compared with the Honesty-Humility subscale of the HEXACO-PI (Lee & Ashton, 2004).

  5. Advances in the simulation of personal protective equipment for the mitigation of exposure to radioactive particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeterink, M.J.; Kelly, D.G.; Dickson, E.F.G; Corcoran, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Airborne radioactive particulates represent a significant potential hazard to first responders in nuclear related incidents. Personal protective equipment (PPE), in particular radio-opaque fabrics, can be used to reduce wearer exposure to the emitted radiation, but do not offer complete protection. The objective of this project is to create a realistic dosimetric model of the human arm, protected by a sleeve, which can eventually be developed into a tool to assess the full-body dose imparted to the wearer in the event of radiological particulate exposure. A two-fold approach will be employed whereby: (1) a particulate transport model will be used to determine the regional radioactive particulate concentrations; and (2) these concentration data will then be incorporated into a dosimetric model that will use the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code to determine the dose imparted to the tissue. Benchmarking experiments will be carried out to validate the results generated by the computer models. Such experimentation will be conducted for both the particulate transport and dosimetric models. Model advancement aims to consider whole body dose and will be invaluable in the development of future radiation exposure policies and procedures. (author)

  6. Wintertime pollution level, size distribution and personal daily exposure to particulate matters in the northern and southern rural Chinese homes and variation in different household fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Zhuo, Shaojie; Xu, Yang; Li, Xinyue; Pan, Xuelian; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated and compared wintertime air pollution and personal exposure in the rural northern and southern Chinese homes. Daily indoor and outdoor particle samples were simultaneously collected by using stationary samplers, and personal exposure was directly measured using portable carried samplers. The daily average concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 were 521 ± 234 and 365 ± 185 μg/m 3 in the northern village, that were about 2.3-2.7 times of 188 ± 104 and 150 ± 29 μg/m 3 in indoor and outdoor air in the southern villages. Particle size distribution was similar between indoor and outdoor air, and had relatively smaller difference between the two sites, relative to the particle mass concentration difference. PM 2.5 contributed to ∼80% of the TSP mass, and in PM 2.5 , near 90% were PM 1.0 . In homes using electricity in the southern villages, outdoor air pollution could explain 70-80% of the variation in indoor air pollution. The daily exposure to PM 2.5 measured using personal carried samplers were 451 ± 301 μg/m 3 in the northern villages with traditional solid fuels used for daily cooking and heating, and in the southern villages without heating, the exposure to PM 2.5 were 184 ± 83 and 166 ± 45 μg/m 3 , respectively, for the population using wood and electricity for daily cooking. Time-weighted daily average exposure estimated from area concentration and time spent indoor and outdoor was generally correlated the directly measured exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory Health - Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Eric; Camerini, Gerard; Diop, Malick; Roche, Patrice; Rodi, Thomas; Schippa, Christine; Thomas, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring), 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to various exposure

  8. Respiratory Health – Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Eric; Camerini, Gerard; Diop, Malick; Roche, Patrice; Rodi, Thomas; Schippa, Christine; Thomas, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring), 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to various exposure

  9. Respiratory Health - Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Angelini

    Full Text Available Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring, 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to

  10. Maladaptive Personality Trait Models: Validating the Five-Factor Model Maladaptive Trait Measures With the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-05-01

    Eight measures have been developed to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model (FFM) facets specific to personality disorders (e.g., Five-Factor Borderline Inventory [FFBI]). These measures can be used in their entirety or as facet-based scales (e.g., FFBI Affective Dysregulation) to improve the comprehensiveness of assessment of pathological personality. There are a limited number of studies examining these scales with other measures of similar traits (e.g., DSM-5 alternative model). The current study examined the FFM maladaptive scales in relation to the respective general personality traits of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the pathological personality traits of the DSM-5 alternative model using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results indicated the FFM maladaptive trait scales predominantly converged with corresponding NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 traits, providing further validity for these measures as extensions of general personality traits and evidence for their relation to the pathological trait model. Benefits and applications of the FFM maladaptive scales in clinical and research settings are discussed.

  11. Human cancer risk estimation for 1,3-butadiene: An assessment of personal exposure and different microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Lai Nguyen; Lee, Shun Cheng; Zhang, Zhuozhi

    2018-03-01

    This study estimated the lifetime cancer risk (LCR) attributable to 1,3-butadiene (BD) personal exposure and to other microenvironments, including residential home, outdoor, in-office, in-vehicle, and dining. Detailed life expectancy by country (WHO), inhalation rate and body weight by gender reported by USEPA were used for the calculation, focusing on adult population (25≤Agepersonal exposure exceeded the USEPA benchmark of 1×10 -6 in many cities. For outdoor BD exposure, LCR estimations in 45 out of 175 cities/sites (sharing 26%) exceeded the USEPA benchmark. Out of the top 20 cities having high LCR estimations, developing countries contributed 19 cities, including 14, 3, 1, 1 cities in China, India, Chile, and Pakistan. One city in the United States was in the list due to the nearby industrial facilities. The LCR calculations for BD levels found in residential home, in-vehicle and dining microenvironments also exceeded 1×10 -6 in some cities, while LCR caused by in-office BD levels had the smallest risk. Four cities/regions were used for investigating source distributions to total LCR results because of their sufficient BD data. Home exposure contributed significantly to total LCR value (ranging 56% to 86%), followed by in-vehicle (4% to 38%) and dining (4 to 7%). Outdoor microenvironment shared highly in Tianjin with 6%, whereas in-office contributed from 2-3% for all cities. High LCR estimations found in developing countries highlighted the greater cancer risk caused by BD in other cities without available measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vascular and lung function related to ultrafine and fine particles exposure assessed by personal and indoor monitoring: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Yulia; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Jensen, Ditte Marie

    2014-01-01

    -related effects. Methods: Associations between vascular and lung function, inflammation markers and exposure in terms of particle number concentration (PNC; d = 10-300 nm) were studied in a cross-sectional design with personal and home indoor monitoring in the Western Copenhagen Area, Denmark. During 48-h, PNC...... and PM2.5 were monitored in living rooms of 60 homes with 81 non-smoking subjects (30-75 years old), 59 of whom carried personal monitors both when at home and away from home. We measured lung function in terms of the FEV1/FVC ratio, microvascular function (MVF) and pulse amplitude by digital artery...... tonometry, blood pressure and biomarkers of inflammation including C-reactive protein, and leukocyte counts with subdivision in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in blood. Results: PNC from personal and stationary home monitoring showed weak correlation (r = 0.15, p = 0.24). Personal UFP...

  13. Evaluating methods for estimating space-time paths of individuals in calculating long-term personal exposure to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Dijst, Martin; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major concerns for human health. Associations between air pollution and health are often calculated using long-term (i.e. years to decades) information on personal exposure for each individual in a cohort. Personal exposure is the air pollution aggregated along the space-time path visited by an individual. As air pollution may vary considerably in space and time, for instance due to motorised traffic, the estimation of the spatio-temporal location of a persons' space-time path is important to identify the personal exposure. However, long term exposure is mostly calculated using the air pollution concentration at the x, y location of someone's home which does not consider that individuals are mobile (commuting, recreation, relocation). This assumption is often made as it is a major challenge to estimate space-time paths for all individuals in large cohorts, mostly because limited information on mobility of individuals is available. We address this issue by evaluating multiple approaches for the calculation of space-time paths, thereby estimating the personal exposure along these space-time paths with hyper resolution air pollution maps at national scale. This allows us to evaluate the effect of the space-time path and resulting personal exposure. Air pollution (e.g. NO2, PM10) was mapped for the entire Netherlands at a resolution of 5×5 m2 using the land use regression models developed in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE, http://escapeproject.eu/) and the open source software PCRaster (http://www.pcraster.eu). The models use predictor variables like population density, land use, and traffic related data sets, and are able to model spatial variation and within-city variability of annual average concentration values. We approximated space-time paths for all individuals in a cohort using various aggregations, including those representing space-time paths as the outline of a persons' home or associated parcel

  14. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  15. Concordance of In-Home "Smart" Scale Measurement with Body Weight Measured In-Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    Newer "smart" scales that transmit participants' body weights directly to data collection centers offer the opportunity to simplify weight assessment in weight management research; however, little data exist on the concordance of these data compared to weights measured at in-person assessments. We compared the weights of 58 participants (mean±SD BMI = 31.6±4.8, age = 52.1±9.7 years, 86.2% White, 65.5% Female) measured by study staff at an in-person assessment visit to weights measured on the same day at home using BodyTrace "smart" scales. These measures occurred after 3 months of an internet-based weight management intervention. Weight (mean±SD) measured at the 3-month in-person assessment visit was 81.5±14.7kg compared to 80.4±14.5kg measured on the same day using in-home body weight scales; mean bias =1.1±0.8kg, 95% limits of agreement = -0.5 to 2.6. Two outliers in the data suggest that there may be greater variability between measurements for participants weighing above 110 kg. Results suggest good concordance between the measurements and support the use of the BodyTrace smart scale in weight management research. Future trials using BodyTrace scales for outcome assessment should clearly define protocols for measurement and associated instructions to participants (e.g., instruct individuals to weigh at the same time of day, similarly clothed). Finally, measure concordance should be investigated in a group of individuals weighing more than 110kg.

  16. Residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base stations, and broadcast transmitters: a population-based survey with personal meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, J F; Clerc, S; Barrera, C; Rymzhanova, R; Moissonnier, M; Hours, M; Cardis, E

    2009-08-01

    Both the public perceptions, and most published epidemiologic studies, rely on the assumption that the distance of a particular residence from a base station or a broadcast transmitter is an appropriate surrogate for exposure to radiofrequency fields, although complex propagation characteristics affect the beams from antennas. The main goal of this study was to characterise the distribution of residential exposure from antennas using personal exposure meters. A total of 200 randomly selected people were enrolled. Each participant was supplied with a personal exposure meter for 24 h measurements, and kept a time-location-activity diary. Two exposure metrics for each radiofrequency were then calculated: the proportion of measurements above the detection limit (0.05 V/m), and the maximum electric field strength. Residential address was geocoded, and distance from each antenna was calculated. Much of the time, the recorded field strength was below the detection level (0.05 V/m), the FM band standing apart with a proportion above the detection threshold of 12.3%. The maximum electric field strength was always lower than 1.5 V/m. Exposure to GSM and DCS waves peaked around 280 m and 1000 m from the antennas. A downward trend was found within a 10 km range for FM. Conversely, UMTS, TV 3, and TV 4&5 signals did not vary with distance. Despite numerous limiting factors entailing a high variability in radiofrequency exposure assessment, but owing to a sound statistical technique, we found that exposures from GSM and DCS base stations increase with distance in the near source zone, to a maximum where the main beam intersects the ground. We believe these results will contribute to the ongoing public debate over the location of base stations and their associated emissions.

  17. A panel study of airborne particulate matter concentration and impaired cardiopulmonary function in young adults by two different exposure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Bloom, Michael S.; Nelson, Erik J.; Liu, Echu; Han, Bin; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Yimin; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Wen; Komppula, Mika; Leskinen, Ari; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Roponen, Marjut; Jalava, Pasi; Bai, Zhipeng; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-05-01

    This study sought to clarify the correlation of individual exposure measurements and PM2.5 measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites in short-term panel study settings. To achieve this goal, 30 young, healthy adult participants were assigned to three groups with 4 samplers in each group to collect individual exposures during four weekends in March 2016. Participants also completed cardiopulmonary function tests during the same periods. For comparison, ambient air pollution data were obtained from the Air Pollution Surveillance Network in Guangzhou, China. The 8-h ambient pollutant averages and group sampler concentrations were used as separate indicators of air pollution exposure. Results showed that the 8-h mean concentration of personal PM2.5 exposure was 65.09 ± 22.18 μg/m3, which was 24.34 μg/m3 statistically higher than the ambient concentrations over the same period (p < 0.05). However, these concentrations were strongly correlated (Spearman's r = 0.937, p < 0.01). Separate mixed-effect models were fit for ambient and personal exposures to estimate their associations with cardiopulmonary outcomes. Higher PM2.5 and PM10 exposures were related to lower lung function of maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF). A 10 μg/m3 higher PM was associated with 0.11 L/S to 0.52 L/S lower MMEF. No effects on cardiovascular function were found. In conclusion, personal PM2.5 exposure might be higher than ambient concentrations. Young, healthy adults in urban areas may experience reduced lung function (lower MMEF), even after just 8 h of exposure to PM2.5 and PM10.

  18. Personal inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro-derivatives in rural residents in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakij, Walaiporn; Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya; Chuesaard, Thanyarat; Kaganoi, Yuichi; Uozaki, Waka; Homma, Chiharu; Boongla, Yaowatat; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2017-09-18

    A personal inhalation exposure and cancer risk assessment of rural residents in Lampang, Thailand, was conducted for the first time. This highlighted important factors that may be associated with the highest areal incidence of lung cancer. Personal exposure of rural residents to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs) through inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was investigated in addition to stationary air sampling in an urban area. The personal exposure of the subjects to PM 2.5 ranged from 44.4 to 316 μg/m 3 , and the concentrations of PAHs (4.2-224 ng/m 3 ) and NPAHs (120-1449 pg/m 3 ) were higher than those at the urban site, indicating that personal exposure was affected by microenvironments through individual activities. The smoking behaviors of the rural residents barely affected their exposure to PAHs and NPAHs compared to other sources. The most important factor concerning the exposure of rural populations to PAHs was cooking activity, especially the use of charcoal open fires. The emission sources for rural residents and urban air were evaluated using diagnostic ratios, 1-nitropyrene/pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene. Their analyses showed a significant contribution to emission from residents' personal activities in addition to the atmospheric environment. Furthermore, the personal inhalation cancer risks for all rural subjects exceeded the USEPA guideline value, suggesting that the residents have a potentially increased cancer risk. The use of open fires showed the highest cancer risk. A reduction in exposure to air pollutants for the residents could potentially be achieved by using clean fuel such as liquid petroleum gas or electricity for daily cooking.

  19. Personal exposure to airborne ultrafine particles in the urban area of Milan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, A; Garramone, G; Taronna, M; Peruzzo, C; Cavallo, D M

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of health effects related to ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter 5 particles/cm 3 . UFPs measures were divided on the basis of crossed environments or micro-environments, days of the week and day time (hours). The highest measured mean concentrations and data variability were observed during walking time and moving on motorized vehicles (bus and car), indicating that the highest exposure to UFPs can be reached near motorized traffic. The lowest exposures were observed in green areas and in office microenvironments. An appreciable difference between working and non-working days was observed. Concentration patterns and variation by days of the week and time periods appears related to time trends in traffic intensity.

  20. An introduction to the indirect exposure assessment approach: modeling human exposure using microenvironmental measurements and the recent National Human Activity Pattern Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, N E

    1999-01-01

    Indirect exposure approaches offer a feasible and accurate method for estimating population exposures to indoor pollutants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In an effort to make the indirect exposure assessment approach more accessible to people in the health and risk assessment fields, this paper provides examples using real data from (italic>a(/italic>) a week-long personal carbon monoxide monitoring survey conducted by the author; and (italic>b(/italic>) the 1992 to 1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) for the United States. The indirect approach uses measurements of exposures in specific microenvironments (e.g., homes, bars, offices), validated microenvironmental models (based on the mass balance equation), and human activity pattern data obtained from questionnaires to predict frequency distributions of exposure for entire populations. This approach requires fewer resources than the direct approach to exposure assessment, for which the distribution of monitors to a representative sample of a given population is necessary. In the indirect exposure assessment approach, average microenvironmental concentrations are multiplied by the total time spent in each microenvironment to give total integrated exposure. By assuming that the concentrations encountered in each of 10 location categories are the same for different members of the U.S. population (i.e., the NHAPS respondents), the hypothetical contribution that ETS makes to the average 24-hr respirable suspended particle exposure for Americans working their main job is calculated in this paper to be 18 microg/m3. This article is an illustrative review and does not contain an actual exposure assessment or model validation. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10350522

  1. Humidity correction in the standard measurement of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibaraki, Yasuyuki; Katoh, Akira

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the humidity correction to be made in the standard measurement of the exposure to the measured ionization current in the humid air for the purpose of excluding the influence of the water vapour that is not included in the definition of the exposure. First, formulae giving the humidity correction factors for a parallel plate free air chamber and a cavity chamber have been derived respectively in the case where the contributions of air and water vapour to the ionization are independent. Next, in the case where the contributions are not independent, i.e., the Jesse effect is taken into account, a formula to obtain the W-value for humid air has been derived on the basis of the Niatel's experimental result. Using this formula, formulae to obtain the humidity correction factors for the free air chamber and the cavity chamber are derived. The humidity calculated by the latter formulae show good agreements with the results by Niatel and Guiho, respectively. (author)

  2. Personal exposure to metal fume, NO2, and O3 among production welders and non-welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Todd; Conroy, Lorraine; Lacey, Steven; Plavka, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize personal exposures to welding-related metals and gases for production welders and non-welders in a large manufacturing facility. Welding fume metals and irritant gases nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) were sampled for thirty-eight workers. Personal exposure air samples for welding fume metals were collected on 37 mm open face cassettes and nitrogen dioxide and ozone exposure samples were collected with diffusive passive samplers. Samples were analyzed for metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and welding fume metal exposure concentrations were defined as the sum of welding-related metals mass per volume of air sampled. Welding fume metal exposures were highly variable among similar types of welding while NO(2) and O(3) exposure were less variable. Welding fume metal exposures were significantly higher 474 μg/m(3) for welders than non-welders 60 μg/m(3) (p=0.001). Welders were exposed to higher concentrations of NO(2) and O(3) than non-welders but the differences were not statistically significant. Welding fume metal exposure concentrations for welders performing gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) were higher than welders performing gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Non-welders experienced exposures similar to GTAW welders despite a curtain wall barrier separating welding and non-welding work areas.

  3. Improving disclosure and consent: "is it safe?": new ethics for reporting personal exposures to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Rudel, Ruthann A; Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Frye, Margaret; Osimo, Cheryl A; Pérez, Carla; Seryak, Liesel M

    2007-09-01

    The recent flood of research concerning pollutants in personal environmental and biological samples-blood, urine, breastmilk, household dust and air, umbilical cord blood, and other media-raises questions about whether and how to report results to individual study participants. Clinical medicine provides an expert-driven framework, whereas community-based participatory research emphasizes participants' right to know and the potential to inform action even when health effects are uncertain. Activist efforts offer other models. We consider ethical issues involved in the decision to report individual results in exposure studies and what information should be included. Our discussion is informed by our experience with 120 women in a study of 89 pollutants in homes and by interviews with other researchers and institutional review board staff.

  4. ERP responses to person names as a measure of trait inference in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang

    2015-01-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), this study examines how trait information inferred from behaviors is associated with person names. In linguistic discourses, person names were associated with descriptions of either positive or negative behaviors. In a subsequent explicit evaluation task, the previously described person names were presented in isolation, and the participants were asked to judge the emotional valence of these names. We found that the names associated with positive descriptions elicited a larger positivity in the ERP than the names associated with negative descriptions. The results indicate that the emotional valence of person names attached to person perception can be dynamically influenced by short descriptions of the target person, probably due to trait inference based on the provided behavioral descriptions.

  5. Measuring personality functioning in older adults: construct validity of the Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gina; Debast, Inge; van Alphen, S P J

    2017-07-01

    The dimensional personality disorders model in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 section III conceptually differentiates impaired personality functioning (criterion A) from the presence of pathological traits (criterion B). This study is the first to specifically address the measurement of criterion A in older adults. Moreover, the convergent/divergent validity of criterion A and criterion B will be compared in younger and older age groups. The Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF) was administered in older (N = 171) and younger adults (N = 210). The factorial structure was analyzed with exploratory structural equation modeling. Differences in convergent/divergent validity between personality functioning (SIPP-SF) and pathological traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5; Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire) were examined across age groups. Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, Responsibility, Self-Control, and Social Concordance were corroborated as higher order domains. Although the SIPP-SF domains measured unique variation, some high correlations with pathological traits referred to overlapping constructs. Moreover, in older adults, personality functioning was more strongly related to Psychoticism, Disinhibition, Antagonism and Dissocial Behavior compared to younger adults. The SIPP-SF construct validity was demonstrated in terms of a structure of five higher order domains of personality functioning. The instrument is promising as a possible measure of impaired personality functioning in older adults. As such, it is a useful clinical tool to follow up effects of therapy on levels of personality functioning. Moreover, traits were associated with different degrees of personality functioning across age groups.

  6. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C) – a new measure of children’s personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Marta eMaćkiewicz; Jan eCieciuch

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children’s developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model. Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children’s self-assessment scores f...

  7. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients' personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior - including suicide - and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  8. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Bourvis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  9. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD. PMID:29250007

  10. Development of a TL personal dosimeter identifiable PA exposure, and comparison with commercial TL dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.W.; Kim, H.K.; Lee, J.K.; Kim, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    A single-dosimeter worn on the anterior surface of the body of a worker was found to significantly underestimate the effective dose to the worker when the radiation comes from the back. Several researchers suggested that this sort of underestimation can be corrected to a certain extent by using an extra dosimeter on the back. However, use of multiple dosimeters also has disadvantages such as complication in control or incurrence of extra cost. Instead of the common multi-dosimeter approach, in this study, a single dosimeter introducing asymmetric filters which enabled to identify PA exposure was designed, and its dose evaluation algorithm for AP-PA mixed radiation fields was established. A prototype TL personal dosimeter was designed and constructed. The Monte Carlo simulations were utilized in the design process and verified by experiments. The dosimeter and algorithm were applicable to photon radiation having an effective energy beyond 100 keV in AP-PA mixed radiation fields. A simplified performance test based on ANSI N13.11 showed satisfactory results. Considering that the requirements of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) with regard to the dosimeter on angular dependency is reinforced, the dosimeter and the dose evaluation algorithm developed in this study provides a useful approach in practical personal dosimetry against inhomogeneous high energy radiation fields. (author)

  11. Seasonal variation in outdoor, indoor, and personal air pollution exposures of women using wood stoves in the Tibetan Plateau: Baseline assessment for an energy intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kun; Carter, Ellison; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Zhang, Yuanxun; Niu, Hongjiang; Lai, Alexandra M; Shan, Ming; Wang, Yuqin; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-09-01

    Cooking and heating with coal and biomass is the main source of household air pollution in China and a leading contributor to disease burden. As part of a baseline assessment for a household energy intervention program, we enrolled 205 adult women cooking with biomass fuels in Sichuan, China and measured their 48-h personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) in winter and summer. We also measured the indoor 48-h PM2.5 concentrations in their homes and conducted outdoor PM2.5 measurements during 101 (74) days in summer (winter). Indoor concentrations of CO and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) were measured over 48-h in a subset of ~80 homes. Women's geometric mean 48-h exposure to PM2.5 was 80μg/m(3) (95% CI: 74, 87) in summer and twice as high in winter (169μg/m(3) (95% CI: 150, 190), with similar seasonal trends for indoor PM2.5 concentrations (winter: 252μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295; summer: 101μg/m(3); 95% CI: 91, 112). We found a moderately strong relationship between indoor PM2.5 and CO (r=0.60, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.72), and a weak correlation between personal PM2.5 and CO (r=0.41, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.71). NO2/NO ratios were higher in summer (range: 0.01 to 0.68) than in winter (range: 0 to 0.11), suggesting outdoor formation of NO2 via reaction of NO with ozone is a more important source of NO2 than biomass combustion indoors. The predictors of women's personal exposure to PM2.5 differed by season. In winter, our results show that primary heating with a low-polluting fuel (i.e., electric stove or wood-charcoal) and more frequent kitchen ventilation could reduce personal PM2.5 exposures. In summer, primary use of a gaseous fuel or electricity for cooking and reducing exposure to outdoor PM2.5 would likely have the greatest impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Real-time measurement of outdoor worker's exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmathapelo Makgabutlane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pretoria in South Africa receives considerable solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR because of its low latitude (22–35°S and relatively clear skies. Certain meteorological factors affect the amount of solar UVR that reaches the ground; the most dominant factors being stratospheric ozone, cloud cover and solar zenith angle. It is known that overexposure to solar UVR may lead to the development of adverse health conditions, the most significant being skin cancer. Outdoor workers spend a significant amount of time outside and are thus susceptible to this risk. In this case study, we estimated, for the first time, the real-time solar UVR exposure of an outdoor worker in Pretoria. Measurements were made on 27 and 28 May 2013 using a handheld ultraviolet index (UVI meter calibrated against a science-grade biometer at the South African Weather Service in Pretoria. Personal exposure estimation was used to discern the pattern in diurnal and annual sunburn risk for the outdoor worker. Ambient UVR levels ranged from 0 UVI to 4.66 UVI and the outdoor worker’s potential exposure estimates regularly exceeded 80% of these levels depending on the time of day. The risk of sunburn was evident; however, actual incidents would depend on individual skin photosensitivity and melanin content, as well as sun protection used. Further research is needed to determine the personal exposure estimations of outdoor workers in other provinces in which solar UVR levels may be equally high, or higher than those in Pretoria.

  13. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  14. Experimental Measures of News Personalization in Google News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozza, Vittoria; Hoang, Van Tien; Petrocchi, Marinella

    2016-01-01

    Search engines and social media keep trace of profile- and behavioral-based distinct signals of their users, to provide them personalized and recommended content. Here, we focus on the level of web search personalization, to estimate the risk of trapping the user into so called Filter Bubbles. Our...

  15. The influence of personality, measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), on symptoms among subjects in suspected sick buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson, R; Norbäck, D; Klinteberg, B; Edling, C

    2004-12-01

    The aim was to study possible relationships between personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), a self-report personality inventory based on psychobiological theory, and medical symptoms, in subjects with previous work history in suspected sick buildings. The study comprised 195 participants from 19 consecutive cases of suspected sick buildings, initially collected in 1988-92. In 1998-89, the KSP inventory and a symptoms questionnaire were administered in a postal follow-up study. There were 16 questions on symptoms, including symptoms from the eyes, nose, throat, skin, and headache, tiredness, and a symptom score (SC), ranging from 0 to 16, was calculated. The questionnaire also requested information on personal factors, including age, gender, smoking habits, allergy and diagnosed asthma. The KSP ratings in the study group did not differ from the mean personality scale norm scores, calculated from an external reference group. Females had higher scores for somatic anxiety (P < 0.01), muscular tension (P < 0.001), psychic anxiety (P < 0.01), psychasthenia (P < 0.05), indirect aggression (P < 0.05), and guilt (P < 0.05), while males scored higher on detachment (P < 0.001). Subjects with higher SC were found to display higher degree of somatic anxiety (P < 0.001), muscular tension (P < 0.001), psychic anxiety (P < 0.001), psychasthenia (P < 0.001), inhibition of aggression (P < 0.05), detachment (P < 0.05), suspicion (P < 0.01), indirect aggression (P < 0.01), and verbal aggression (P < 0.05). In addition, ocular, respiratory, dermal, and systemic symptoms (headache and tiredness) were significantly related to anxiety- and aggressivity-related scales. There were associations between personality scales and change of symptom score (SC) during the 9-year period. The associations between KSP personality traits and symptoms were more pronounced in females. In conclusion, there are gender differences in personality and SBS symptoms

  16. Radiation exposure of patients due to medical measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.R.; Tsavachidis, C.; Hinz, G.; Eigelsreiter, H.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of this research project supported by the Federal Ministry of the Interior was to collect the data required as a basis for an up-to-date assessment of the radiation exposure of the population as a result of medical measures. Apart from the fact that this had to be done in order to fulfill a commitment required by the EURATOM principles, the report in hand also presents a useful survey of the improvements achieved over the last years in terms of radiation hygiene in the field of imaging technology applied for medical diagnostics. The data obtained from four hospital centers (2 university hospitals, 1 city hospital, and one county hospital) and from three medical practices (radiologist, internal specialist, orthopedics), the changes experienced in the selection of imaging methods for diagnostic purposes in the period 1976 to 1983 or 1985 are illustrated, and analyses show the developmental trends. The results show that there is reason to assume the radiation exposure of the population to be receding. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Changes in higher mental functions in persons with late sequels of exposure to small ionizing radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turuspekova, S.

    2002-01-01

    This is a report on the results of studies on the state of higher mental function in individuals with a previous history of exposure to small doses ionizing radiations. The disorders observed are assigned under several groups as follows: dyspraxia, gnostic, visual-spatial agnosia, mnestic, mental processes impairment, neurodynamic. Mnestic and acoustic-gnostical disturbances, and those of the mental processes are rather markedly expressed. Mnestic derangements play a major role in the general pattern of cognitive disorders, being characterized by both modal-specific, and modal-nonspecific features. The topical principle of the classification proposed enables to distinguish the syndrome of middle nonspecific brain structures involvement and the cortical syndromes among the higher mental function disorders, invariably encountered in combination and not isolated. The aforementioned points to the diffuse nature of the neuropsychological disorders, with involvement in the process of both nonspecific and specific structures, characterized by predomination of the frontal and temporal brain cortex sections. Impairment of the higher mental functions in young persons of active age with a past history of exposure to small doses ionizing radiations, necessitate to work out effective measures precluding occurrence and intensification of the cognitive defect. (author)

  18. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  20. Assessment of exposure to atmospheric particles: contribution of individual measurements; Evaluation de l'exposition aux particules atmospheriques: apport des mesures individuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosqueron, L.; Momas, I. [Universite Rene Descartes, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Lab. d' Hygiene et de Sante Publique, 75 - Paris (France); Le Moullec, Y. [Laboratoire d' Hygiene de la Ville de Paris, 75 (France); Momas, I. [Direction de l' Action Sociale, de l' Enfance et de la Sante, Cellule Epidemiologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    There are few studies of individual exposure to atmospheric particles, because of the relatively bulky and noisy sampling devices. These personalized measurements, generally associated with micro-environmental measurements, are aimed at studying the distribution of individual exposure and identifying its main determinants. Methods: A synopsis of the methods implemented in such studies (populations studied, measurements strategies, questionnaires on time-activity patterns, residences and work place) was detailed. The major results are presented and discussed from an epidemiological point of view. Results: The individual exposure measured with portable devices generally were generally found to be higher than the estimations made by combining micro-environmental (outdoor and indoor) measurements and data from time-activity diaries. The difference between results of these two approaches, known as 'personal cloud', remains poorly understood. Correlations between individual measurements and outdoor concentrations are weak; nevertheless, day to day variations of these two series of measurements are better related. The main determinants of individual exposure to particles are identified but a quantification of their contribution remains difficult, except for passive smoking. Conclusion: Personal measurements cannot be used to estimate particle exposure in large scale epidemiological studies. This exposure needs to be modeled. (authors)

  1. A Comparison of Survey Measures and Biomarkers of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure causes several adverse physical health outcomes. Conceptual differences in survey measures of 'psychosocial' (SHS exposure from smokers in an individual's life) and 'physical' (environments where an individual is exposed to SHS) SHS exposure exist. Few studies have examined the association between psychosocial and physical SHS exposures measures in comparison to biomarkers of SHS exposure. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was examined among a convenience sample of 20 adults. Data included survey items on SHS exposure and hair nicotine and saliva cotinine levels. Spearman analysis was used to assess correlations among variables. Medium and strong correlations were found among SHS exposure measures with the exception of saliva cotinine levels. Strong correlations were found among and between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. Hair nicotine levels had medium strength associations with only perceived frequency of SHS exposure. As psychosocial measures of exposure were associated with biomarkers, such measures (particularly perceived frequency of SHS exposure) should be added to surveys in addition to physical SHS exposure measures to enhance accuracy of SHS measurement. Future explorations with robust sample sizes should further examine the strength of relationship between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons at risk of bat exposures in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kis Robertson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses. Evidence of lyssavirus circulation has recently emerged in Southeast Asian bats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thailand to assess rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons regularly exposed to bats and bat habitats. The objectives were to identify deficiencies in rabies awareness, describe the occurrence of bat exposures, and explore factors associated with transdermal bat exposures. METHODS: A survey was administered to a convenience sample of adult guano miners, bat hunters, game wardens, and residents/personnel at Buddhist temples where mass bat roosting occurs. The questionnaire elicited information on demographics, experience with bat exposures, and rabies knowledge. Participants were also asked to describe actions they would take in response to a bat bite as well as actions for a bite from a potentially rabid animal. Bivariate analysis was used to compare responses between groups and multivariable logistic regression was used to explore factors independently associated with being bitten or scratched by a bat. FINDINGS: Of 106 people interviewed, 11 (10% identified bats as a potential source of rabies. A history of a bat bite or scratch was reported by 29 (27%, and 38 (36% stated either that they would do nothing or that they did not know what they would do in response to a bat bite. Guano miners were less likely than other groups to indicate animal bites as a mechanism of rabies transmission (68% vs. 90%, p=0.03 and were less likely to say they would respond appropriately to a bat bite or scratch (61% vs. 27%, p=0.003. Guano mining, bat hunting, and being in a bat cave or roost area more than 5 times a year were associated with history of a bat bite or scratch. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the need for educational outreach to raise awareness of bat rabies, promote exposure prevention, and ensure appropriate health-seeking behaviors for bat

  3. The Nature Contact Questionnaire: a measure of healthy workplace exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Chen, W William; Dodd, Virginia; Weiler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding and promoting healthy workplaces is an important and growing area of interest in occupational health. Nature contact is a central component to the study of and promotion of healthy places. Previous findings suggest that nature contact influences health via stress appraisal process. Currently, there are no known comprehensive valid and reliable measures of nature contact, which presents obstacles to research and worksite health promotion. This study was designed to develop and test an instrument to measure nature contact at work, entitled the Nature Contact Questionnaire (NCQ), 16-item self-reported checklist to measure actual exposure. A sample of 503 (30% response rate) office staff completed the questionnaire. Office staff were sent an email with a link to the electronic survey twice, two weeks apart. Content and construct validity (KMO=0.68), internal consistency (Alpha=0.64), and test-retest reliability (r=0.85, pnature contact, which allows research to compare forms of nature contact to best inform practice and design of healthy places.

  4. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution - moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E

    2013-01-01

    exposure studies to accurately assess human health risks. ? We discuss potential and shortcomings of methods and tools with a focus on how their development influences study design. ? We propose a novel conceptual model for integrated health impact assessment of human exposure to air pollutants. ? We......Quantifying human exposure to air pollutants is a challenging task. Ambient concentrations of air pollutants at potentially harmful levels are ubiquitous in urban areas and subject to high spatial and temporal variability. At the same time, every individual has unique activity-patterns. Exposure...... results from multifaceted relationships and interactions between environmental and human systems, adding complexity to the assessment process. Traditionally, approaches to quantify human exposure have relied on pollutant concentrations from fixed air quality network sites and static population...

  5. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and heart rate variability and inflammation among non-smoking construction workers: a repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2013-10-02

    Although it has been well recognized that exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with cardiovascular mortality, the mechanisms and time course by which SHS exposure may lead to cardiovascular effects are still being explored. Non-smoking workers were recruited from a local union and monitored inside a union hall while exposed to SHS over approximately 6 hours. Participants were fitted with a continuous electrocardiographic monitor upon enrollment which was removed at the end of a 24-hr monitoring period. A repeated measures study design was used where resting ECGs and blood samples were taken from individuals before SHS exposure (baseline), immediately following SHS exposure (post) and the morning following SHS exposure (next-morning).Inflammatory markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) were analyzed. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed from the ECG recordings in time (SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency (LF, HF) domain parameters over 5-minute periods. SHS exposure was quantified using a personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor.Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine within-person changes in inflammatory and HRV parameters across the 3 time periods. Exposure-response relationships with PM2.5 were examined using mixed effects models. All models were adjusted for age, BMI and circadian variation. A total of 32 male non-smokers were monitored between June 2010 and June 2012. The mean PM2.5 from SHS exposure was 132 μg/m3. Immediately following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with declines in HRV (7.8% [standard error (SE) =3%] SDNN, 8.0% (SE = 3.9%) rMSSD, 17.2% (SE = 6.3%) LF, 29.0% (SE = 10.1%) HF) and increases in WBC count 0.42 (SE = 0.14) k/μl. Eighteen hours following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 24.2% higher CRP levels. Our study suggest that short-term SHS exposure is associated

  6. Exposure Research Going Mobile: A Smartphone-Based Measurement of Media Exposure to Political Information in a Convergent Media Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, J.; Albaek, E.; H. de Vreese, C.

    2016-01-01

    platform modes. The study furthermore confirms limitations of mere usage time measurements of social media platforms in effects research and explores a range of actual content types that citizens encounter in social networks. It recommends more frequent use of mobile exposure measurements and argues...... for a content-related assessment of social media use in effects research. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.......In today’s convergent media environment, media exposure becomes increasingly channel-independent and social media-bound, and media content is more frequently accessed on mobile devices. This calls for new approaches to measuring media exposure. This study applies an innovative approach to survey (n...

  7. Comparing personal alpha dosimetry with the conventional area monitoring-time weighting methods of exposure estimation: a Canadian assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, A.B.; Viljoen, J.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental personal alpha dosimetry program for monitoring exposures of uranium mining facility workers in Canada has been completed. All licenced operating mining facilities were participating. Dosimetry techniques, description of dosimeters used by licences, performance and problems associated with the implementation of the programme as well as technical and administrative advantages and difficulties experienced are discussed. Area monitoring-time weighting methods used and results obtained to determine individual radon and thoron daughter exposure and exposure results generated by using dosimeters are assessed and compared

  8. Exposure research going mobile: A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in a convergent media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohme, J.; Albæk, E.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s convergent media environment, media exposure becomes increasingly channel-independent and social media-bound, and media content is more frequently accessed on mobile devices. This calls for new approaches to measuring media exposure. This study applies an innovative approach to survey (n

  9. Measurement of temperament and character in mood disorders: a model of fundamental states as personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C R; Bayon, C; Svrakic, D M

    1998-10-01

    Personality assessment may allow reliable measurement of risk of mood disorders. A group of adults (804) representative of the general population were assessed by questionnaire. Personality types were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Specific TCI configurations define personality types that can be described as hyperthymic, cyclothymic, irritable, and depressive. Each type had a unique profile of emotions, suicide attempts, and hospitalization. TCI traits are associated with mood disorders. Different ways of measuring Kraepelinean subtypes may disagree. Whether differences in personality cause psychopathology, or vice versa, remains uncertain. Personality profiles help in assessing suicidality and planning treatment.

  10. A global framework to model spatial ecosystems exposure to home and personal care chemicals in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaz, Cedric; Franco, Antonio; Kilgallon, John; Hodges, Juliet; Jolliet, Olivier

    2018-05-01

    This paper analyzes spatially ecosystem exposure to home and personal care (HPC) chemicals, accounting for market data and environmental processes in hydrological water networks, including multi-media fate and transport. We present a global modeling framework built on ScenAT (spatial scenarios of emission), SimpleTreat (sludge treatment plants), and Pangea (spatial multi-scale multimedia fate and transport of chemicals), that we apply across Asia to four chemicals selected to cover a variety of applications, volumes of production and emission, and physico-chemical and environmental fate properties: the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the antimicrobial triclosan (TCS), the personal care preservative methyl paraben (MeP), and the emollient decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). We present maps of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) and compare them with monitored values. LAS emission levels and PECs are two to three orders of magnitude greater than for other substances, yet the literature about monitored levels of LAS in Asia is very limited. We observe a good agreement for TCS in freshwater (Pearson r=0.82, for 253 monitored values covering 12 streams), a moderate agreement in general, and a significant model underestimation for MeP in sediments. While most differences could be explained by uncertainty in both chemical/hydrological parameters (DT50 water , DT50 sediments , K oc , f oc , TSS) and monitoring sites (e.g. spatial/temporal design), the underestimation of MeP concentrations in sediments may involve potential natural sources. We illustrate the relevance of local evaluations for short-lived substances in fresh water (LAS, MeP), and their inadequacy for substances with longer half-lives (TCS, D5). This framework constitutes a milestone towards higher tier exposure modeling approaches for identifying areas of higher chemical concentration, and linking large-scale fate modeling with (sub) catchment-scale ecological scenarios; a

  11. Measurement of Radon, Thoron, Isotopic Uranium and Thorium to Determine Occupational and Environmental Exposure and Risk at Fernald Feed Material Production Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, Naomi H.

    2004-01-01

    To develop a new and novel area and personal radon/thoron detector for both radon isotopes to better measure the exposure to low airborne concentrations of these gases at Fernald. These measurements are to be used to determine atmospheric dispersion and exposure to radon and thoron prior to and during retrieval and removal of the 4000 Ci of radium in the two silos at Fernald

  12. Exposure to mobile telecommunication networks assessed using personal dosimetry and well-being in children and adolescents: the German MobilEe-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Silke; Kühnlein, Anja; Heinrich, Sabine; Praml, Georg; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

    2008-11-04

    Despite the increase of mobile phone use in the last decade and the growing concern whether mobile telecommunication networks adversely affect health and well-being, only few studies have been published that focussed on children and adolescents. Especially children and adolescents are important in the discussion of adverse health effects because of their possibly higher vulnerability to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. We investigated a possible association between exposure to mobile telecommunication networks and well-being in children and adolescents using personal dosimetry. A population-based sample of 1.498 children and 1.524 adolescents was assembled for the study (response 52%). Participants were randomly selected from the population registries of four Bavarian (South of Germany) cities and towns with different population sizes. During a Computer Assisted Personal Interview data on participants' well-being, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounder were collected. Acute symptoms were assessed three times during the study day (morning, noon, evening).Using a dosimeter (ESM-140 Maschek Electronics), we obtained an exposure profile over 24 hours for three mobile phone frequency ranges (measurement interval 1 second, limit of determination 0.05 V/m) for each of the participants. Exposure levels over waking hours were summed up and expressed as mean percentage of the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) reference level. In comparison to non-participants, parents and adolescents with a higher level of education who possessed a mobile phone and were interested in the topic of possible adverse health effects caused by mobile telecommunication network frequencies were more willing to participate in the study. The median exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields of children and adolescents was 0.18% and 0.19% of the ICNIRP reference level respectively. In comparison to previous studies this is one of

  13. Exposure to mobile telecommunication networks assessed using personal dosimetry and well-being in children and adolescents: the German MobilEe-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Kries Rüdiger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increase of mobile phone use in the last decade and the growing concern whether mobile telecommunication networks adversely affect health and well-being, only few studies have been published that focussed on children and adolescents. Especially children and adolescents are important in the discussion of adverse health effects because of their possibly higher vulnerability to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Methods We investigated a possible association between exposure to mobile telecommunication networks and well-being in children and adolescents using personal dosimetry. A population-based sample of 1.498 children and 1.524 adolescents was assembled for the study (response 52%. Participants were randomly selected from the population registries of four Bavarian (South of Germany cities and towns with different population sizes. During a Computer Assisted Personal Interview data on participants' well-being, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounder were collected. Acute symptoms were assessed three times during the study day (morning, noon, evening. Using a dosimeter (ESM-140 Maschek Electronics, we obtained an exposure profile over 24 hours for three mobile phone frequency ranges (measurement interval 1 second, limit of determination 0.05 V/m for each of the participants. Exposure levels over waking hours were summed up and expressed as mean percentage of the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference level. Results In comparison to non-participants, parents and adolescents with a higher level of education who possessed a mobile phone and were interested in the topic of possible adverse health effects caused by mobile telecommunication network frequencies were more willing to participate in the study. The median exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields of children and adolescents was 0.18% and 0.19% of the ICNIRP reference level respectively

  14. Integrating Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Prolonged Exposure to Treat Co-Occurring Borderline Personality Disorder and PTSD: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the high rate of trauma and PTSD among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), no studies have specifically evaluated the treatment of PTSD in a BPD population. These case studies illustrate the use of a protocol based on prolonged exposure therapy that can be integrated into standard dialectical behavior therapy to treat…

  15. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was

  16. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore, Paromita; Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk; Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Sheldon, Linda; Robson, Mark; Needham, Larry; Barr, Dana; Freeman, Natalie; Georgopoulos, Panos; Lioy, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found in the

  17. Assessment of human body influence on exposure measurements of electric field in indoor enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; García, Jorge; Ramos, Victoria; Blas, Juan

    2015-02-01

    Personal exposure meters (PEMs) used for measuring exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) are typically used in epidemiological studies. As is well known, these measurement devices cause a perturbation of real EMF exposure levels due to the presence of the human body in the immediate proximity. This paper aims to model the alteration caused by the body shadow effect (BSE) in motion conditions and in indoor enclosures at the Wi-Fi frequency of 2.4 GHz. For this purpose, simulation techniques based on ray-tracing have been carried out, and their results have been verified experimentally. A good agreement exists between simulation and experimental results in terms of electric field (E-field) levels, and taking into account the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the spatial distribution of amplitude. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test provides a P-value greater than 0.05, in fact close to 1. It has been found that the influence of the presence of the human body can be characterized as an angle of shadow that depends on the dimensions of the indoor enclosure. The CDFs show that the E-field levels in indoor conditions follow a lognormal distribution in the absence of the human body and under the influence of BSE. In conclusion, the perturbation caused by BSE in PEMs readings cannot be compensated for by correction factors. Although the mean value is well adjusted, BSE causes changes in CDF that would require improvements in measurement protocols and in the design of measuring devices to subsequently avoid systematic errors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. LIMITATIONS ON THE USES OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT - PART II: EFFECTS OF MISSING DATA AND IMPRECISION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multimedia data from two probability-based exposure studies were investigated in terms of how missing data and measurement-error imprecision affected estimation of population parameters and associations. Missing data resulted mainly from individuals' refusing to participate in c...

  19. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Herché (Joel); M.J. Swenson (Michael); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling

  20. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikkala, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Leszczynski, K.; Paile, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  1. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C – a new measure of children’s personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMaćkiewicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to adjust personality measurements to children’s developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C. To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model. Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children’s self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged approximately 7 to 10 years.

  2. Negative control exposure studies in the presence of measurement error: implications for attempted effect estimate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Eleanor; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Davey Smith, George

    2018-04-01

    Negative control exposure studies are increasingly being used in epidemiological studies to strengthen causal inference regarding an exposure-outcome association when unobserved confounding is thought to be present. Negative control exposure studies contrast the magnitude of association of the negative control, which has no causal effect on the outcome but is associated with the unmeasured confounders in the same way as the exposure, with the magnitude of the association of the exposure with the outcome. A markedly larger effect of the exposure on the outcome than the negative control on the outcome strengthens inference that the exposure has a causal effect on the outcome. We investigate the effect of measurement error in the exposure and negative control variables on the results obtained from a negative control exposure study. We do this in models with continuous and binary exposure and negative control variables using analysis of the bias of the estimated coefficients and Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that measurement error in either the exposure or negative control variables can bias the estimated results from the negative control exposure study. Measurement error is common in the variables used in epidemiological studies; these results show that negative control exposure studies cannot be used to precisely determine the size of the effect of the exposure variable, or adequately adjust for unobserved confounding; however, they can be used as part of a body of evidence to aid inference as to whether a causal effect of the exposure on the outcome is present.

  3. A Review of Personality Measurement in Aircrew Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    hypochondriasis , b) psychopathic deviate, c) neuroticism, d) manifest anxiety, e) antisocial, f) depression, and g) hysteria. Significant correlations ranged from... hypochondriasis , depression, hysteria, psychopathic personality, masculinity-femininity, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, hypomauia, and social...that the successful pilot is relatively free from, or tends to deny, somatic complaints or symptoms that are characteristic of maladjusted individuals

  4. Animal personality, behaviour or traits: What are we measuring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oers, K.

    2008-01-01

    With the development of a new bottom-up methodology, the author aims at providing its with a tool for comparative personality research. This tool will indeed help us to identify differences between related species. However, to understand how differences within species are maintained and differences

  5. Teaching Students Personal and Social Responsibility with Measurable Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaiolo, Frank P.; Neilson, Steve; Daugherty, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005 the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) launched a national initiative that championed the importance of a twenty-first century liberal education. What was unique about this initiative was the underlying assumption that educating for personal and social responsibility was "core" for an educated citizenry and should be…

  6. Measuring Campus Climate for Personal and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding institutional climate enhances decision-making capacity when planning new programs and improving learning environments on college campuses. This chapter defines climate, discusses the purpose and advantages of climate assessment, and identifies important factors to consider in planning and conducting a personal and social…

  7. Application of the expanded Creme RIFM consumer exposure model to fragrance ingredients in cosmetic, personal care and air care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Rose, J; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2017-06-01

    As part of a joint project between the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) and Creme Global, a Monte Carlo model (here named the Creme RIFM model) has been developed to estimate consumer exposure to ingredients in personal care products. Details of the model produced in Phase 1 of the project have already been published. Further data on habits and practises have been collected which enable the model to estimate consumer exposure from dermal, oral and inhalation routes for 25 product types. . In addition, more accurate concentration data have been obtained which allow levels of fragrance ingredients in these product types to be modelled. Described is the use of this expanded model to estimate aggregate systemic exposure for eight fragrance ingredients. Results are shown for simulated systemic exposure (expressed as μg/kg bw/day) for each fragrance ingredient in each product type, along with simulated aggregate exposure. Highest fragrance exposure generally occurred from use of body lotions, body sprays and hydroalcoholic products. For the fragrances investigated, aggregate exposure calculated using this model was 11.5-25 fold lower than that calculated using deterministic methodology. The Creme RIFM model offers a very comprehensive and powerful tool for estimating aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Quality assurance of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the quality assurance work of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level. It mainly introduces instrumentation used in external exposure measurement and its properties, the measurement results of three times of national in-site intercomparison, and in-site sample check results of measurement results from 29 provinces, cities and autonomous regions and Wuhan, Baotou cities

  9. Quantitative determination of circulating endothelial cells in persons with low dose radioactivity exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Massarani, Gh.; Najjar, F.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk of occupational exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on the endothelium detachment through the quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) in the peripheral blood of 63 workers in the Atomic Energy Commission in Syria (AECS) using a Magnetic Immuno-separation technique (IMS) and compare the results with 28 healthy (controls) is not exposed during their careers for any type of ionizing radiation. Our study showed for the first time the significantly increasing in the circulating endothelial cells count (P <0.0001) when employees are exposed to low doses of radiation less than 50 mSv. This result with previous studies about the late effects of radiation, assuming the existence of impact late radiation exposure on the cohesion of the endothelium, despite the lack of correlation with radiation dose measured during the past four years of work in AECS (between 2006-2010). This is due to several reasons, including the small sample size and lack of commitment by some workers develop individual control films during some periods of their work. The prospective studies for such workers can allow us to know if the rise in the number of CEC will be considered an early indicator for the risk of a cardiovascular disease when workers exposed to low-doses of ionizing radiation( tens of millisievert) that up to date are considered harmless (author).

  10. High resolution spatio-temporal mapping of NO2 pollution for estimating personal exposures of the Dutch population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenario, Ivan; Helbich, Marco; Schmitz, Oliver; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects (e.g., cardiovascular and respiration diseases) in the urban environments. Therefore, the assessment of people's exposure to air pollution is central in epidemiological studies. The estimation of exposures on an individual level can be done by combining location information across space and over time with spatio-temporal data on air pollution concentrations. When detailed information on peoples' space-time paths (e.g. commuting patterns calculated by means of spatial routing algorithms or tracked through GPS) and peoples' major activity locations (e.g. home location, work location) are available, it is possible to calculate more precise personal exposure levels depending on peoples' individual space-time mobility patterns. This requires air pollution values not only at a high level of spatial accuracy and high temporal granularity but such data also needs to be available on a nation-wide scale. As current data is seriously limited in this respect, we introduce a novel data set of NO2 levels across the Netherlands. The provided NO2 concentrations are accessible on hourly timestamps on a 5 meter grid cell resolution for weekdays and weekends, and each month of the year. We modeled a single Land Use Regression model using a five year average of NO2 data from the Dutch NO2 measurement network consisting of N=46 sampling locations distributed over the country. Predictor variables for this model were selected in a data-driven manner using an Elastic Net and Best Subset Selection procedure from 70 candidate predictors including traffic, industry, infrastructure and population-based variables. Subsequently, to model NO2 for each time scale (hour, week, month), the LUR coefficients were fitted using the NO2 data, aggregated per time scale. Model validation was grounded on independent data collected in an ad hoc measurement campaign. Our results show a considerable difference in urban concentrations between

  11. Computational Strategy for Quantifying Human Pesticide Exposure based upon a Saliva Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eTimchalk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript reviews the computational modeling approaches that are coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics and provides additional insight on species-dependent differences in partitioning that are of key importance for extrapolation. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva involves paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of xenobiotics transferred by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computationally modeled using compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of the Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases have significant impact on determining partitioning and species dependent differences based upon physiological variance. Future strategies are focused on an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for xenobiotics. It is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of chemical exposures in human

  12. Validity of self-reported intensity of exposure to second-hand smoke at home against environmental and personal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José M; González-Marrón, Adrián; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Galán, Iñaki; Pascual, José Antonio; Fernández, Esteve

    2017-11-02

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of two questions about the perception of intensity of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home using as a reference environmental markers (airborne nicotine and benzene) and biomarkers of exposure (cotinine in saliva and urine). This was a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of 49 non-smoking volunteers. We found a high correlation between self-reported SHS exposure and airborne nicotine (r sp =0.806, p0.05). In conclusion, the significant correlation of the two questions proposed with environmental markers and personal markers indicates their potential validity to assess exposure to SHS at home. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8–14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10–24%. - Highlights: • High inhalation exposure of fine PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 among rural residents. • Smoking prevails on cooking in increasing exposure to finer particles. • PM exposure could be reduced by

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of personal exposure in diagnostic radiology and representative part of the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.; Fueloep, M.

    2008-01-01

    The basic requirements for a representative part of the body for placing a personal dosimeter are to provide a reliable approximation of an effective dose for almost all practical situations, independent of type, energy and incident angle of radiation and with prescribed overall accuracy. For quite a lot of situations it is a problem to find such a place, e. g. using a lead apron is a situation where it is important to make a correct decision for placing the personal dosimeter. For the dosimeter on the apron the dose is highly overestimated and the measured dose under the apron underestimates the estimate of the effective dose. To solve the problem can help Monte Carlo simulations using a mathematical phantom of a human body with and without lead apron. Doses in organs and tissues as results of MC simulations are used to determine a fraction of the effective dose for unshielded parts of the body (hands, legs, head, etc. ) in comparison with simulations without the apron. The mathematical phantom of the human body was used for the simulation of a patient and a physician in a geometry, where the physician is at a thigh of the patient and a scattered radiation is impinging obliquely from the front to the left hand of the body of physician. (authors)

  15. Quantitative electroencephalographic measures in homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Virkkunen, Matti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Appelberg, Björn; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Salmi, Tapani

    2005-07-15

    Many symptoms of antisocial personality disorder have been proposed to be related to decreased daytime vigilance. To explore this hypothesis, quantitative analyses were conducted of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of drug-free and detoxified homicidal male offenders with antisocial personality disorder as the primary diagnosis. Subjects comprised 16 men recruited from a forensic psychiatric examination in a special ward of a university psychiatric hospital. Fifteen healthy age- and gender-matched controls with no criminal record or history of physical violence consisted of hospital staff and students. An overall reduction of alpha power was observed in the waking EEG of offenders. A bilateral increase in occipital delta and theta power was also found in these individuals. This study provides further support to the growing evidence of brain dysfunction in severe aggressive behavior. Homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder seem to have difficulties in maintaining normal daytime arousal. Decreased vigilance, together with social and psychological variables, may explain their aberrant behavior in everyday life. New studies are, however, needed to specify the vigilance problems of this patient group.

  16. Associations between personal exposures to VOCs and alterations in cardiovascular physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007...

  17. Associations between Personal Exposures to VOCs and Alterations in Cardiovascular Physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007 (5 seas...

  18. Bone surface deposition of 241Am in a person with occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.; Oltman, B.G.; Kathren, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    We have measured the 241 Am concentrations in the vicinity of bone surfaces in 11 samples of cortical bone from a man whose occupational exposure occurred 25 to 27 years before death. Concentrations in bone surface deposits ranged between 44 and 185 Bq.cm -3 ; concentrations in subjacent bone ranged between 0 and 8.4 Bq.cm -3 . Thicknesses of the bone surface deposits were in the range 0.6 to 1.2 μm. An analysis of dose rates indicates that bone surface deposits contributed 40% or more of the terminal dose rate to bone surface tissues. Half-lives for the reduction of bone surface concentrations are estimated at 4.8 to 24 years, compared with the 50-and 100-year estimates recommended in current ICRP publications. These data are important for the estimation of the dose rate to bone surface tissues for radiation protection. (author)

  19. Gamma radiation exposure of accompanying persons due to Lu-177 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovan Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumours (NET are cancers usually observed and arisen in the stomach, intestine, pancreas and breathing system. Recently, radionuclide therapy applications with Lu-177 peptide compound are rapidly growing; especially effective clinical results are obtained in the treatment of well-differentiated and metastatic NET. In this treatment, Lu-177-DOTA, a beta emitter radioisotope in the radiopharmaceutical form, is given to the patient by intravenous way. Lu-177 has also gamma rays apart from beta rays. Gamma rays have 175 keV average energy and these gamma rays should be under the control in terms of radiation protection. In this study, we measured the exposure dose from the Lu-177 patient.

  20. Influence of internet exposure on sexual behaviour of young persons in an urban district of Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulogun, Oyedunni Sola; Ogbu, Ifeyinwa Arinze; Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of young people exposed to pornographic materials through the internet in Nigeria is increasing. However, the influence of the exposure on their sexual behaviour has not been fully explored. This study therefore explored the effects of internet exposure on the sexual behaviour of young persons in Ibadan North Local Government Area of southwest Nigeria. A survey of 413 young persons was done using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions on internet exposure and its influence on behaviour. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Mean age of males was 21.7 ± 3.4 years while that of females was 20.9 ± 3.2 years. Forty-nine percent of the respondents used the internet for the first time between the ages of 15-19 years. Main source of information about the internet was friends (63.3%) and 99.3% accessed the internet from cybercafé. Seventy-two percent had ever stumbled on pornographic sites. Reactions included glancing through before closing (45.2%), closure of the sites (38.5%), and minimizing page to view later (12.5%). Post-exposure influence on behaviour included engagement in oral sex (48.3%), body tattoo (18.3%), having multiple sexual partners (11.6%) and homosexuality (5.0%). More males (95% CI OR =1.245-6.465) and frequent users (95% CI OR =1.168-3.497) were likely to report a change in sexual behaviour. Internet use was common among the young persons. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure to sexual content on internet targeting young persons especially the males and cybercafé operators are advocated.

  1. Benzene exposures in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, F.; Pala, M.; Cipolla, M.; Stella, A.

    2001-01-01

    Benzene exposures in urban areas were reviewed. Available data confirm that both in USA and Europe, benzene concentrations measured by fixed outdoor monitoring stations underestimate personal exposures of urban residents. Indoor sources, passive smoke and the high exposures during commuting time may explain this difference. Measures in European towns confirm that very frequently mean daily personal exposures to benzene exceed 10 μg/m 3 , current European air quality guideline for this carcinogenic compound [it

  2. Determination of silver in personal care nanoproducts and effects on dermal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasukan, Nootcharin [National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), National Nanotechnology Center (Thailand); Srisung, Sujittra, E-mail: sujittras@g.swu.ac.th [Srinakharinwirot University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Kulthong, Kornphimol; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Maniratanachote, Rawiwan, E-mail: rawiwan@nanotec.or.th [National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), National Nanotechnology Center (Thailand)

    2015-11-15

    Silver (Ag) is one of the widely used nanomaterials in cosmetics, personal care, and household products. This research aimed to investigate the Ag concentration contained in 20 commercial nanoproducts using a simple and reliable procedure. The exposure and adverse effects of a single topical application of Ag on the skin were also evaluated. Herein, we demonstrated that the technique of wet acid digestion, extraction and detection of Ag with graphite furnace absorption spectrometry were effective for any and all nanoproduct matrices. The Ag morphology was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Penetration of Ag was evaluated using a polyethersulfone (PES) membrane through a Franz cell and reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue. A skin irritation test was performed on RhE, an acceptable in vitro model which was in compliance with OECD test guideline 439. The results showed that the initial Ag concentration in the tested nanoproducts ranged between 0.0058 and 94 µg/g. However, particulate Ag was only found in two products, both of a liquid formulation. Silver penetration through a PES membrane (0.12–53 % by weight) was weakly correlated with the initial Ag concentration in each sample, but more so to the product formulation. The liquid products demonstrated the highest percent of average Ag penetration, followed by the semi-solid and solid formulations, respectively. In contrast, neither any Ag diffusion from these products into the RhE tissue nor any irritation or toxicity was detected. This study suggests a screening method to evaluate the Ag level in products and their potential adverse effects on the skin that could be incorporated as a part of risk assessment for nanotechnology products.

  3. Determination of silver in personal care nanoproducts and effects on dermal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasukan, Nootcharin; Srisung, Sujittra; Kulthong, Kornphimol; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Maniratanachote, Rawiwan

    2015-01-01

    Silver (Ag) is one of the widely used nanomaterials in cosmetics, personal care, and household products. This research aimed to investigate the Ag concentration contained in 20 commercial nanoproducts using a simple and reliable procedure. The exposure and adverse effects of a single topical application of Ag on the skin were also evaluated. Herein, we demonstrated that the technique of wet acid digestion, extraction and detection of Ag with graphite furnace absorption spectrometry were effective for any and all nanoproduct matrices. The Ag morphology was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Penetration of Ag was evaluated using a polyethersulfone (PES) membrane through a Franz cell and reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue. A skin irritation test was performed on RhE, an acceptable in vitro model which was in compliance with OECD test guideline 439. The results showed that the initial Ag concentration in the tested nanoproducts ranged between 0.0058 and 94 µg/g. However, particulate Ag was only found in two products, both of a liquid formulation. Silver penetration through a PES membrane (0.12–53 % by weight) was weakly correlated with the initial Ag concentration in each sample, but more so to the product formulation. The liquid products demonstrated the highest percent of average Ag penetration, followed by the semi-solid and solid formulations, respectively. In contrast, neither any Ag diffusion from these products into the RhE tissue nor any irritation or toxicity was detected. This study suggests a screening method to evaluate the Ag level in products and their potential adverse effects on the skin that could be incorporated as a part of risk assessment for nanotechnology products

  4. How to statistically analyze nano exposure measurement results: Using an ARIMA time series approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Entink, R.H.; Fransman, W.; Brouwer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement strategies for exposure to nano-sized particles differ from traditional integrated sampling methods for exposure assessment by the use of real-time instruments. The resulting measurement series is a time series, where typically the sequential measurements are not independent from each

  5. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-05-27

    The National Research Council of the National Academies report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy, highlighted the importance of quantitative exposure data for evaluating human toxicity risk and noted that biomonitoring is a critical tool for quantitatively evaluating exposure from both environmental and occupational settings. Direct measurement of chemical exposures using personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true exposure, and non-invasive methods have also been advocated for quantifying the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of drugs and xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are readily cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach.. The current manuscript describes the use of computational modeling approaches that are closely coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva is thought to involve paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of drugs and xenobiotics cleared from plasma into saliva by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computational modeled using a combination of compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of a modified Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis of key model parameters specifically identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) had the most significant impact on the determination of partitioning and that there were clear species dependent differences based upon physiological variance between

  6. An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, Ellen C; Henriksen, Lisa; Wang, Yun; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

  7. Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) personal exposure evaluation on mechanics and administrative officers at the motor vehicle testing center at Pulo Gadung, DKI Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky, Zuly Prima; Yolla, Patricia Bebby; Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in both the short and long term has been known to cause deaths and health effects, especially related to the heart, blood vessels, and lungs. Based on this information, researchers conducted this study at a motor vehicle testing center unit at Pulo Gadung, in Jarkarta, to determine the concentration of PM2.5 that workers were exposed to. The major source of PM2.5 in this area is from the exhaust of gas emissions from motor vehicles, which is one of the largest contributors to the levels of PM in urban areas. Ten mechanics were picked from 16 mechanics that work in this station. Four administration workers from different posts were also picked to participate. The researcher conducted the PM2.5 personal exposure measurement during weekdays from 6 to 14 April 2015 (2 workers/day). This research was conducted to measure the particle number concentration with size Organization Air Quality Guidelines, the PM2.5 exposure of the mechanics and administrative officers exceeded the recommended exposure (25 μm/m3).

  8. Biological effects from electromagnetic fields: Research progress and exposure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, F.; Lovisolo, G.A.; Raganella, L.

    1992-01-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that exposure to high levels of electromagnetic, micro- and radiofrequency waves produces harmful effects to the health of man, the formulation of exposure limits is still an open process and dependent upon the evolving level of knowledge in this field. This paper surveys the current level of knowledge gained through 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' radiological and epidemiological studies on different types of electromagnetic radiation derived effects - chromosomal, mutagenic, carcinogenic. It then reviews efforts by international organizations, e. g., the International Radiation Protection Association, to establish exposure limits for radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Brief notes are given on the electromagnetic radiation monitoring campaign being performed by public health authorities in the Lazio Region of Italy

  9. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8-14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10-24%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Predictor of Exposure and Ritual Prevention Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Foa, Edna B.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ≥ 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 ses...

  11. High beta radiation exposure of medical staff measures for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, I.; Rimpler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New therapies applying beta radionuclides have been introduced in medicine in recent years, especially in nuclear medicine, e. g. radio-synoviorthesis, radioimmunotherapy and palliative pain therapy. The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, their dispensary as well as injection require the handling of vials and syringes with high activities of beta emitters at small distances to the skin. Thus the medical staff may be exposed to a high level of beta radiation. Hence the local skin dose, Hp(0,07), was measured at these workplaces with thin-layer thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD (LiF:Mg,P,Cu) fixed to the tip of the fingers at both hands of the personnel. In addition, official beta/photon ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. Very high local skin doses were measured at the tip of index finger and thumb. The findings indicate that the exposure of the staff can exceed the annual dose limit for skin of 500 mSv when working at a low protection standard. By the use of appropriate shieldings and tools (e.g. tweezers or forceps) the exposure was reduced of more than one order of magnitude. The German dosimetry services provide official beta/photon ring dosemeters for routine monitoring of the extremity exposure of occupationally exposed persons. But even monitoring with these official dosemeters does not provide suitable results to control compliance with the dose limit in the majority of cases because they can mostly not be worn at the spot of highest beta exposure (finger tip). Therefore, a study was performed to identify the difference of readings of official ring dosemeters and the maximum local skin dose at the finger tips. At workplaces of radio-synoviorthesis a correction factor of 3 was determined provided that the staff worked at high radiation protection standard and the ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. The correction factor increases significantly when the radiation

  12. Skin sensitisation quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on aggregate dermal exposure to methylisothiazolinone in personal care and household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, J; Bokkers, B G H; Bil, W; Delmaar, J E

    2018-02-01

    Contact allergy to preservatives is an important public health problem. Ideally, new substances should be evaluated for the risk on skin sensitisation before market entry, for example by using a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) as developed for fragrances. As a proof-of-concept, this QRA was applied to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI), a common cause of contact allergy. MI is used in different consumer products, including personal care products (PCPs) and household cleaning products (HCPs). Aggregate exposure to MI in PCPs and HCPs was therefore assessed with the Probabilistic Aggregated Consumer Exposure Model (PACEM). Two exposure scenarios were evaluated: scenario 1 calculated aggregate exposure on actual MI product concentrations before the restricted use in PCPs and scenario 2 calculated aggregate exposure using the restrictions for MI in PCPs. The QRA for MI showed that in scenarios 1 and 2, the proportion of the population at risk for skin sensitisation is 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. The restricted use of MI in PCPs does not seem very effective in lowering the risk on skin sensitization. To conclude, it is important to consider aggregate exposure from the most important consumer products into consideration in the risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced airflow distribution methods for reduction of personal exposure to indoor pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to recognize possible airflow distribution methods to protect the occupants from exposure to various indoor pollutants. The fact of the increasing exposure of occupants to various indoor pollutants shows that there is an urgent need to develop advanced airflow ...... distribution methods to reduce indoor exposure to various indoor pollutants. This article presents some of the latest development of advanced airflow distribution methods to reduce indoor exposure in various types of buildings.......The main objective of this study is to recognize possible airflow distribution methods to protect the occupants from exposure to various indoor pollutants. The fact of the increasing exposure of occupants to various indoor pollutants shows that there is an urgent need to develop advanced airflow...

  14. Variability in and agreement between modeled and personal continuously measured black carbon levels using novel smartphone and sensor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Rivas, Ioar; de Castro, Montserrat; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Novel technologies, such as smartphones and small personal continuous air pollution sensors, can now facilitate better personal estimates of air pollution in relation to location. Such information can provide us with a better understanding about whether and how personal exposures relate to

  15. Measurement of nonclinical personality characteristics of women with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, T; Wiederman, M W

    1996-10-01

    Past research on personality and eating disorders has most often emphasized personality psychopathology and personality disorders. We further investigated nonclinical personality characteristics among women with anorexia nervosa (n = 35) or bulimia nervosa (n = 45) using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen, 1982, 1985). The MPQ measures several personality traits that have been shown to consist of a substantial genetic component (Tellegen et al., 1988). In logistic regression analyses, women with anorexia nervosa evidenced greater degrees of control (vs. impulsivity) and general constraint, and a lower degree of absorption in sensory experiences relative to those with bulimia nervosa. Relative to the normative population (Tellegen, 1982), our sample evidenced very low scores on Well-being, Social Closeness, and Positive Affectivity and high scores on Stress Reaction, Alienation, and Negative Affectivity. Our results emphasize the importance of considering nonclinical personality features and temperament, and varying methods of assessment, in the understanding of predisposing factors for eating disorders.

  16. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus

    2017-01-01

    was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure. Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated...... min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons...... displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls. MCS participants and controls have...

  17. Dosemetry for exposures to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft - Part 1: Conceptual basis for measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft crew are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the aircraft structure and its contents. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60, the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive, which included exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. The Directive requires account to be taken of the exposure of aircraft crew liable to receive more than 1 mSv per year. It then identifies the following four protection measures: (i) to assess the exposure of the crew concerned; (ii) to take into account the assessed exposure, when organizing working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed crew; (iii) to inform the workers concerned of the health risks their work involves; and (iv) to apply the same special protection during pregnancy to female crew in respect of the 'child to be born' as to other female workers. The EU Council Directive has already been incorporated into laws and regulations of EU Member States and is being included in the aviation safety standards and procedures of the Joint Aviation Authorities and the European Air Safety Agency. For regulatory and legislative purposes, the radiation protection quantities of interest are equivalent dose (to the foetus) and effective dose. The cosmic radiation exposure of the body is essentially uniform and the maternal abdomen provides no effective shielding to the foetus. As a result, the magnitude of equivalent dose to the foetus can be put equal to that of the effective dose received by the mother. Doses on board aircraft are generally predictable, and events comparable to unplanned exposure in other radiological workplaces cannot normally occur (with the rare exceptions of extremely intense and energetic solar particle events). Personal dosemeters for

  18. [Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Nazmy; López, María José; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Fernández, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the concentration of respirable particles equal to or smaller than 2.5μm (PM(2.5)) as a marker of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in a sample of hospitality venues in Barcelona 2 years after the Spanish smoking law came into effect. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study from October to December 2007. The study population consisted of 40 hospitality venues in Barcelona selected by a random route sampling, with representation of the different types of smoking regulation included in the law (smoking allowed, smoking ban and venues with smoking areas). SHS levels were quantified by measuring PM(2.5) concentrations, which were measured using a laser photometer (Side Pack AM 510 Personal Aerosol Monitor). The measurements were carried out for 5 minutes outside the venue and for 30 minutes inside the venue. In addition, observational variables related to the characteristics of the venue and signs of tobacco consumption were recorded. The concentration of PM(2.5) in venues where smoking was still allowed was five times higher than that in venues where smoking was banned (182μg/m(3) and 34μg/m(3), respectively) and exceeded the concentration established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as harmful (35μg/m(3)). However, in venues where smoking was banned, the concentration was lower than the EPA standard and there were no significant differences with the outdoor PM(2.5) concentration. Two years after the introduction of the Spanish smoking law, SHS exposure in venues where smoking was allowed was q still very high, representing a significant health risk for hospitality workers. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Consequences of exposure measurement error for confounder identification in environmental epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Non-differential measurement error in the exposure variable is known to attenuate the dose-response relationship. The amount of attenuation introduced in a given situation is not only a function of the precision of the exposure measurement but also depends on the conditional variance of the true...... exposure given the other independent variables. In addition, confounder effects may also be affected by the exposure measurement error. These difficulties in statistical model development are illustrated by examples from a epidemiological study performed in the Faroe Islands to investigate the adverse...

  20. Situational judgement tests and personality measurement : some answers and more questions

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Timothy A.; Hofmans, Joeri; Wille, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Work psychologists have devoted considerable attention to studying how personality traits can best be conceptualized and assessed in 'high-stakes' contexts such as selection or hiring decisions. Lievens argued that two selection methods, Situational Judgement Tests and Assessment Centre exercises, by standardizing and contextualizing personality measurement, offer many advantages to personality psychology. In hopes of clarifying this argument, we ask two fundamental questions: (1) W...

  1. Occupational exposure to chrome VI compounds in French companies: results of a national campaign to measure exposure (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hédouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

    2015-01-01

    A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSAT chemistry laboratories, CRAMIF laboratory, and INRS over the 2010-2013 period. The survey included 99 companies involved in various activity sectors. The inhalable fraction of airborne particles was sampled, and exposure levels were determined using ion chromatography analysis combined with post-column derivatization and UV detection. The quality of the measurement results was guaranteed by an inter-laboratory comparison system involving all the laboratories participating in this study. Exposure levels frequently exceeded the French occupational exposure limit value (OELV) of 1 µg m(-3), in activities such as thermal metallization and manufacturing and application of paint in the aeronautics sector. The results also reveal a general trend for a greater proportion of soluble Chromium VI (Cr VI) compounds compared with insoluble compounds. Qualitative and quantitative information relating to the presence of other metallic compounds in the air of workplaces is also provided, for example for Cr III, Ni, Fe, etc. The sampling strategy used and the measurement method are easy to implement, making it possible to check occupational exposure with a view to comparing it to an 8 h-OELV of 1 µg m(-3). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  2. Human convection flow in spaces with and without ventilation: personal exposure to floor-released particles and cough-released droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Pantelic, Jovan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the human convective boundary layer (CBL), room airflow patterns, and their velocities on personal exposure are examined. Two pollutants are studied which simulate particles released from the feet and generated at distances of 2 and 3 m by a human cough. A thermal manikin whose body...... shape, size, and surface temperatures correspond to those of an average person is used to simulate the CBL. The findings of the study reveal that for accurate predictions of personal exposure, the CBL needs to be considered, as it can transport the pollution around the human body. The best way...... to control and reduce personal exposure when the pollution originates at the feet is to employ transverse flow from in front and from the side, relative to the exposed occupant. The flow from the above opposing the CBL create the most unfavorable velocity field that can increase personal exposure by 85...

  3. Personal exposure monitoring of PM2.5 in indoor and outdoor microenvironments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E

    2015-01-01

    to define six microenvironments (MEs) to assess everyday exposure of individuals to short-term PM2.5 concentrations. The Dylos was combined with a GPS receiver to track movement and exposure of individuals across the MEs. Seventeen volunteers collected 35 profiles. Profiles may have a different overall...

  4. Traumatic event exposure and gambling: associations with clinical, neurocognitive, and personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological research has shown high comorbidity rates between at-risk/problem (ARP) gambling and trauma. However, few studies have assessed the neurocognitive implications of this comorbidity, and even fewer have been conducted with young adults. The present study sought to determine the neurocognitive, clinical, personality types associated with trauma in ARP gamblers. The present study analyzed young adult gamblers age 18 to 29 drawn from a study investigating impulsivity. Of the 230 gamblers, 52 (22.6%) reported experiencing a traumatic event during their life to which they responded with intense fear, helplessness, or horror. The remaining participants indicated no experience with trauma. ARP gamblers who had experienced trauma showed significant neurocognitive deficits on tasks related to decision-making, risk adjustment, sustained attention, and spatial working memory. We did not detect significant differences in gambling severity. Trauma was associated with lower perceived quality of life and self-esteem, and higher rates of current comorbid diagnoses, suicidality, substance use disorders, and nicotine use. This study suggests that trauma may not exacerbate the severity of gambling in ARP gamblers. However, significant differences in supplemental clinical and neurocognitive measures may indicate that trauma is an important consideration when assessing problems beyond those related directly to gambling severity.

  5. Response distortion in personality measurement: born to deceive, yet capable of providing valid self-assessments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPHAN DILCHERT

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article to the special issue of Psychology Science devoted to the subject of “Considering Response Distortion in Personality Measurement for Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology Research and Practice” presents an overview of the issues of response distortion in personality measurement. It also provides a summary of the other articles published as part of this special issue addressing social desirability, impression management, self-presentation, response distortion, and faking in personality measurement in industrial, work, and organizational settings.

  6. Measuring Personal Networks and Their Relationship with Scientific Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Felez, Africa; Molas-Gallart, Jordi; Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of social networks has remained a crucial and yet understudied aspect of the efforts to measure Triple Helix linkages. The Triple Helix model aims to explain, among other aspects of knowledge-based societies, "the current research system in its social context" (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff 2000:109). This paper develops a novel…

  7. The use of personal values in living standards measures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-26

    Aug 26, 2011 ... Values Questionnaire, Living Standards Measure, purchase decision- .... According to Schwartz (1992), scholars in the areas of psychology, anthropology ... The application of the values perspective to the marketing of .... is a fairly complex task involving large data tables, and that some of the LSM groups.

  8. An evaluation of the consequences of using short measures of the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter; Niehorster, Sarah; Gaye-Valentine, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Researchers often use very abbreviated (e.g., 1-item, 2-item) measures of personality traits due to their convenience and ease of use as well as the belief that such measures can adequately capture an individual's personality. Using data from 2 samples (N = 437 employees, N = 355 college students), we show that this practice, particularly the use of single-item measures, can lead researchers to substantially underestimate the role that personality traits play in influencing important behaviors and thereby overestimate the role played by new constructs. That is, the use of very short measures of personality may substantially increase both the Type 1 and Type 2 error rates. We argue that even slightly longer measures can substantially increase the validity of research findings without significant inconvenience to the researcher or research participants. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Reliability and Validity of a Newly Developed Measure of Citizenship Among Persons with Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Maria J; Clayton, Ashley; Rowe, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Following development of a 46-item of measure citizenship, a framework for supporting the full membership in society of persons with mental illness, this study tested the measure's reliability and validity. 110 persons from a mental health center completed a questionnaire packet containing the citizenship measure and other measures to assess internal consistency and validity of the citizenship instrument. Correlation matrices were examined for associations between the citizenship instrument and other measures. Stepwise regression examines demographic factors, sense of community, and social capital as predictors of citizenship, recovery, and well-being. Analyses revealed that the measure is psychometrically sound. The measure captures subjective information about the degree to which individuals experience rights, sense of belonging, and other factors associated with community membership that have been previously difficult to assess. The measure establishes a platform for interventions to support the full participation in society of persons with mental illnesses.

  10. Delineating Personality Traits in Childhood and Adolescence: Associations across Measures, Temperament, and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Kushner, Shauna C.; De Fruyt, Filip; Mervielde, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation addressed several questions in the burgeoning area of child personality assessment. Specifically, the present study examined overlapping and nonoverlapping variance in two prominent measures of child personality assessment, followed by tests of convergent and divergent validity with child temperament and psychopathology.…

  11. Personal monitoring of 218Po and 214Po radionuclide deposition onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough, J.P.; Worley, A.; Moss, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Personal dosemeters have been utilized to monitor the deposition of the radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions. Each detector consists of TASTRAK alpha-sensitive plastic incorporated into an ordinary working wristwatch. Subsequent analysis provides energy discrimination of the detected alpha-particle decays, and allows events from the individual radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po, attached to the detector surface, to be uniquely identified. Assuming similar deposition onto skin and detector surfaces, the activity per unit area of deposited radionuclides can be determined for exposed skin. Forty-one personal dosemeters were issued to volunteers selected through the hospital medical physics departments at Reading, Northampton, Exeter and Plymouth. Each volunteer was also issued with a personal radon dosemeter to determine their individual radon exposure. The volunteers wore the two dosemeters simultaneously and continuously for a period of around one month. Correlations were observed between the radon exposure of the individual and the activity per unit area of 218 Po and 214 Po on the detector surface. From these correlations it can be estimated that at the UK average radon exposure of 20 Bq m -3 , the number of decays/cm 2 /year on continuously exposed skin surface is between 3500 and 28 000 for 218 Po, and between 7000 and 21 000 for 214 Po. These results can be combined with theoretical modelling of the dose distribution in the skin to yield the alpha-particle radiation dose to any identified target cells. (author)

  12. Exposure estimates based on broadband elf magnetic field measurements versus the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, Jesus M.; Rufo, Montana; Jimenez, Antonio; Pachon, Fernando T.; Carrero, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields using broadband measurement techniques gives satisfactory results when the field has essentially a single frequency. Nevertheless, magnetic fields are in most cases distorted by harmonic components. This work analyses the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field in an outdoor urban context and compares the evaluation of the exposure based on broadband measurements with that based on spectral analysis. The multiple frequency rule of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory guidelines was applied. With the 1998 ICNIRP guideline, harmonics dominated the exposure with a 55 % contribution. With the 2010 ICNIRP guideline, however, the primary frequency dominated the exposure with a 78 % contribution. Values of the exposure based on spectral analysis were significantly higher than those based on broadband measurements. Hence, it is clearly necessary to determine the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field to assess exposure in urban contexts. (authors)

  13. Estimation methods with ordered exposure subject to measurement error and missingness in semi-ecological design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyang-Mi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In epidemiological studies, it is often not possible to measure accurately exposures of participants even if their response variable can be measured without error. When there are several groups of subjects, occupational epidemiologists employ group-based strategy (GBS for exposure assessment to reduce bias due to measurement errors: individuals of a group/job within study sample are assigned commonly to the sample mean of exposure measurements from their group in evaluating the effect of exposure on the response. Therefore, exposure is estimated on an ecological level while health outcomes are ascertained for each subject. Such study design leads to negligible bias in risk estimates when group means are estimated from ‘large’ samples. However, in many cases, only a small number of observations are available to estimate the group means, and this causes bias in the observed exposure-disease association. Also, the analysis in a semi-ecological design may involve exposure data with the majority missing and the rest observed with measurement errors and complete response data collected with ascertainment. Methods In workplaces groups/jobs are naturally ordered and this could be incorporated in estimation procedure by constrained estimation methods together with the expectation and maximization (EM algorithms for regression models having measurement error and missing values. Four methods were compared by a simulation study: naive complete-case analysis, GBS, the constrained GBS (CGBS, and the constrained expectation and maximization (CEM. We illustrated the methods in the analysis of decline in lung function due to exposures to carbon black. Results Naive and GBS approaches were shown to be inadequate when the number of exposure measurements is too small to accurately estimate group means. The CEM method appears to be best among them when within each exposure group at least a ’moderate’ number of individuals have their

  14. [Comparative studies of personal and steady-state sampling for determining dust exposure in different job groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherneva, P; Lukanova, R

    1994-01-01

    The variability of the dust concentration in time and space, as well as the change of worker's place during the working process, define the necessity of introducing personal sampling in the hygiene control practice. However, the laboratory equipment with personal devices is still not sufficient. The aim of this work is to assess the dust exposure of the basic professional groups from the ore- and coal production in Bulgaria by personal sampling in comparative studies of the static ambient sampling used up to now. 63 full-shift investigations of the dust factor were performed on professional groups of miners of the polymetal and coal pits by static ambient devices-[Hygitest production] and personal [from firms "Casella", "Strolein" and "Gilian"] devices, after standardized methods. The results are data processed-by means of logarithmic normal distribution of the relation of the respirable dust concentrations, determined personally and by static ambient sampling. The limits of variation of this correlation are from 0.5 to 4.1 at average geometric value -0.95 and standard geometric deviation-1.8 i.e. both types of sampling are intersubstitutional for the examined groups and sites, as in the underground ores the professional risk of respirable dust is underestimated up to 4 times at static ambient sampling.

  15. Assessment of personal exposures to optical radiation in large entertainment venues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, R.; O'Hagan, J. B.; Khazova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace exposure to optical radiation from artificial sources is regulated in Europe under the Artificial Optical Radiation Directive 2006/25/EC implemented in the UK as The Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010. The entertainment environment often presents an extremely complex situation for the assessment of occupational exposures. Multiple illumination sources, continuously changing illumination conditions and people moving during performances add further complexity to the assessment. This document proposes a methodology for assessing the risks arising from exposure to optical radiation and presents detailed case studies of practical assessment for two large entertainment venues. (authors)

  16. Predicting adult pulmonary ventilation volume and wearing complianceby on-board accelerometry during personal level exposure assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodes, C. E.; Chillrud, S. N.; Haskell, W. L.; Intille, S. S.; Albinali, F.; Rosenberger, M. E.

    2012-09-01

    BackgroundMetabolic functions typically increase with human activity, but optimal methods to characterize activity levels for real-time predictions of ventilation volume (l min-1) during exposure assessments have not been available. Could tiny, triaxial accelerometers be incorporated into personal level monitors to define periods of acceptable wearing compliance, and allow the exposures (μg m-3) to be extended to potential doses in μg min-1 kg-1 of body weight? ObjectivesIn a pilot effort, we tested: 1) whether appropriately-processed accelerometer data could be utilized to predict compliance and in linear regressions to predict ventilation volumes in real-time as an on-board component of personal level exposure sensor systems, and 2) whether locating the exposure monitors on the chest in the breathing zone, provided comparable accelerometric data to other locations more typically utilized (waist, thigh, wrist, etc.). MethodsPrototype exposure monitors from RTI International and Columbia University were worn on the chest by a pilot cohort of adults while conducting an array of scripted activities (all volumes in-situ. For the subset of participants with complete data (n = 22), linear regressions were constructed (processed accelerometric variable versus ventilation rate) for each participant and exposure monitor type, and Pearson correlations computed to compare across scenarios. ResultsTriaxial accelerometer data were demonstrated to be adequately sensitive indicators for predicting exposure monitor wearing compliance. Strong linear correlations (R values from 0.77 to 0.99) were observed for all participants for both exposure sensor accelerometer variables against ventilation volume for recumbent, sedentary, and ambulatory activities with MET values ˜volume data. Computing accelerometric standard deviations allowed good sensitivity for compliance assessments even for sedentary activities. These pilot findings supported the hypothesis that a common linear

  17. Measuring psychosocial variables that predict older persons' oral health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak, H A

    1996-12-01

    The importance of recognising psychosocial characteristics of older people that influence their oral health behaviours and the potential success of dental procedures is discussed. Three variables and instruments developed and tested by the author and colleagues are presented. A measure of perceived importance of oral health behaviours has been found to be a significant predictor of dental service utilization in three studies. Self-efficacy regarding oral health has been found to be lower than self-efficacy regarding general health and medication use among older adults, especially among non-Western ethnic minorities. The significance of self-efficacy for predicting changes in caries and periodontal disease is described. Finally, a measure of expectations regarding specific dental procedures has been used with older people undergoing implant therapy. Studies with this instrument reveal that patients have concerns about the procedure far different than those focused on by dental providers. All three instruments can be used in clinical practice as a means of understanding patients' values, perceived oral health abilities, and expectations from dental care. These instruments can enhance dentist-patient rapport and improve the chances of successful dental outcomes for older patients.

  18. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity among mental health service users: conceptual development and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejkowski, Jason; McCarthy, Kevin S; Draine, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    A measure of an individual's level of internalization of the norm of reciprocity may signal exchange preferences and indicate whether "active" or "passive" mental health services are preferable to consumers. We evaluated the psychometric properties of one such measure, the Personal Norm of Reciprocity (PNR) scale. We recruited 70 persons receiving mental health services and 65 comparison participants to complete questionnaires assessing reciprocity tendencies and correlates of mental illness. Two of three subscales of a shortened PNR showed evidence of reliability and validity. Consumers endorsed higher levels of the reciprocity norm than persons not seeking services. Persons in "active" service settings displayed greater rigidity in application of the reciprocity norm than individuals in "passive" service settings or comparison participants. The shortened PNR can be a useful measure of individual reciprocity preferences. Measurement of the internalization of the norm of reciprocity may assist practitioners in identifying what types of services are more likely to retain and benefit mental health service consumers.

  19. Distribution of Exhaled Contaminants and Personal Exposure in a Room using Three Different Air Distribution Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Adana, M. Ruiz de

    2012-01-01

    The level of exposure to human exhaled contaminants in a room depends not only on the air distribution system but also on people’s different positions, the distance between them, people’s activity level and height, direction of exhalation, and the surrounding temperature and temperature gradient...... between the manikins are changed to study the influence on the level of exposure. The results show that the air exhaled by a manikin flows a longer distance with a higher concentration in case of displacement ventilation than in the other two cases, indicating a significant exposure to the contaminants....... Human exhalation is studied in detail for different distribution systems: displacement and mixing ventilation as well as a system without mechanical ventilation. Two thermal manikins breathing through the mouth are used to simulate the exposure to human exhaled contaminants. The position and distance...

  20. Measure of enzymatic activity coincident with 2450 MHz microwave exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, T R; Allis, J W; Elder, J A

    1975-09-01

    Enzyme preparations were exposed to microwave radiation at 2450 MHz and enzymatic activity was simultaneously monitored spectrophotometrically with a crossed-beam exposure detection system. Enzymes studied were glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from human red blood cells and yeast, adenylate kinase from rat liver mitochondria and rabbit muscle, and rat liver microsomal NADPH cytochrome c reductase. No difference was found between the specific activity at 25/sup 0/C of unirradiated controls and enzyme preparations irradiated at an absorbed dose rate of 42 W/kg.

  1. Personal exposure to airborne ultrafine particles in the urban area of Milan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A.; Garramone, G.; Taronna, M.; Peruzzo, C.; Cavallo, D. M.

    2009-02-01

    The relevance of health effects related to ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter car), indicating that the highest exposure to UFPs can be reached near motorized traffic. The lowest exposures were observed in green areas and in office microenvironments. An appreciable difference between working and non-working days was observed. Concentration patterns and variation by days of the week and time periods appears related to time trends in traffic intensity.

  2. Characteristics and personal exposures of carbonyl compounds in the subway stations and in-subway trains of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanli; Mu, Cuicui; Zhai, Jinqing; Li, Jian; Zou, Ting

    2010-11-15

    Carbonyl compounds including their concentrations, potential sources, diurnal variations and personal exposure were investigated in six subway stations and in-subway trains in Shanghai in June 2008. The carbonyls were collected onto solid sorbent (Tenax TA) coated with pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH), followed by solvent extraction and gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the PFPH derivatives. The total carbonyl concentrations of in-subway train were about 1.4-2.5 times lower than in-subway stations. A significant correlation (R>0.5, psubway stations. The diurnal variations in both the subway station and in-subway train showed that the concentrations of most carbonyls were much higher in the morning rush hour than in other sampling periods. Additionally, pronounced diurnal variations of acetaldehyde concentration before and after the evening peak hour in the subway train suggested that passengers contributed to high acetaldehyde levels. The personal exposure showed that the underground subway stations were important microenvironment for exposure to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Personal Care Products Are Only One of Many Exposure Routes of Natural Toxic Substances to Humans and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Bucheli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “A Critical View on Natural Substances in Personal Care Products” is dedicated to addressing the multidisciplinary special challenges of natural ingredients in personal care products (PCP and addresses also environmental exposure. In this perspective article, we argue that environmental exposure is probably not so much dominated by PCP use, but in many cases by direct emission from natural or anthropogenically managed vegetation, including agriculture. In support of this hypothesis, we provide examples of environmental fate and behaviour studies for compound classes that are either listed in the International Nomenclature of Cosmetics Ingredients (INCI or have been discussed in a wider context of PCP applications and have been classified as potentially harmful to humans and the environment. Specifically, these include estrogenic isoflavones, the carcinogenic ptaquiloside and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, terpenes and terpenoids, such as artemisinin, and mycotoxins. Research gaps and challenges in the domains of human and environmental exposure assessment of natural products common to our currently rather separated research communities are highlighted.

  4. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful sit...

  5. Work-related symptoms and dose-response relationships for personal exposures and pulmonary function among woodworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, J; Alwis, K U; Hocking, A D

    1999-05-01

    Four sawmills, a wood chipping mill, and five joineries in New South Wales, Australia, were studied for the effects of personal exposure to wood dust, endotoxins. (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi on lung function among woodworkers. Personal inhalable and respirable dust sampling was carried out. The lung function tests of workers were conducted before and after a workshift. The mean percentage cross-shift decrease in lung function was markedly high for woodworkers compared with the controls. Dose-response relationships among personal exposures and percentage cross-shift decrease in lung function and percentage predicted lung function were more pronounced among joinery workers compared with sawmill and chip mill workers. Woodworkers had markedly high prevalence of regular cough, phlegm, and chronic bronchitis compared with controls. Significant associations were found between percentage cross-shift decrease in FVC and regular phlegm and blocked nose among sawmill and chip mill workers. Both joinery workers and sawmill and chip mill workers showed significant relationships between percentage predicted lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75%) and respiratory symptoms. Wood dust and biohazards associated with wood dust are potential health hazards and should be controlled.

  6. ADHD Symptoms in Middle Adolescence Predict Exposure to Person-Related Life Stressors in Late Adolescence in 5-HTTLPR S-allele Homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksma, Djûke M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; de Bildt, Annelies; Buitelaar, Jan K; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hartman, Catharina A; Dietrich, Andrea

    2017-12-19

    Literature suggests that life stressors predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and that this relationship is moderated by the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). It is less clear whether, on reverse, ADHD symptoms may influence the risk of exposure to life stressors. Furthermore, the role of life stressors may vary across development depending on the type of life stressor. We used threewave longitudinal data of 1,306 adolescents from the general population and clinicreferred cohort of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. The 5-HTTLPR genotype (SS, LS, LL), parent-reported ADHD symptoms at three time points (T1: Mage = 11.2; T2: Mage = 13.5; T3: Mage = 16.2 years), and the number of personrelated ('dependent') and environment-related ('independent') life stressors occurring between measurements (T1-T2, T2-T3) were assessed. Using path analyses, we examined bidirectional relations between exposure to these life stressors and ADHD symptoms between the separate waves moderated by 5-HTTLPR status. Exposure to life stressors did not predict ADHD symptoms. Rather, we found that in 5-HTTLPR Sallele homozygotes, ADHD symptoms in middle adolescence (T2) predicted exposure to the number of person-related life stressors later in adolescence (T2-T3, p = 0.001). There was no relation with environment-related life stressors. Our study suggests that S-allele homozygotes with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in middle adolescence are more vulnerable to becoming exposed to person-related ('dependent') life stressors in late adolescence. Findings emphasize the need to be aware of social-emotional adversities that may occur in genetically vulnerable adolescents with ADHD symptoms in the transition into adulthood.

  7. Measuring sun exposure in epidemiological studies: Matching the method to the research question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Xiang, Fan; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M

    2015-12-01

    Sun exposure has risks and benefits for health. Testing these associations requires tools for measuring sun exposure that are feasible and relevant to the time-course of the health outcome. Recent sun exposure, e.g. the last week, is best captured by dosimeters and sun diaries. These can also be used for medium-term sun exposure e.g. over several weeks, but incur a high participant burden. Self-reported data on "typical time outdoors" for working and non-working days, is less detailed and not influenced by day-to-day variation. Over a longer period, e.g. the lifetime, or for particular life stages, proxies of sun exposure, such as latitude of residence or ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels (from satellites or ground-level monitoring) can be used, with additional detail provided by lifetime sun exposure calendars that include locations of residence, usual time outdoors, and detail of sunburn episodes. Objective measures of lifetime sun exposure include microtopography of sun-exposed skin (e.g. using silicone casts) or conjunctival UV autofluorescence. Potential modifiers of the association between sun exposure and the health outcome, such as clothing coverage and skin colour, may also need to be measured. We provide a systematic approach to selecting sun exposure measures for use in epidemiological health research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Alannah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents. There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  9. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-10-04

    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  10. Integrating local urban climate modelling and mobile sensor data for personal exposure assessments in the context of urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberham, Maximilian; Hertel, Daniel; Schlink, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Deeper knowledge about urban climate conditions is getting more important in the context of climate change, urban population growth, urban compaction and continued surface sealing. Especially the urban heat island effect (UHI) is one of the most significant human induced alterations of Earth's surface climate. According to this the appearance frequency of heat waves in cities will increase with deep impacts on personal thermal comfort, human health and local residential quality of citizens. UHI can be very heterogenic within a city and research needs to focus more on the neighborhood scale perspective to get further insights about the heat burden of individuals. However, up to now, few is known about local thermal environmental variances and personal exposure loads. To monitor these processes and the impact on individuals, improved monitoring approaches are crucial, complementing data recorded at conventional fixed stations. Therefore we emphasize the importance of micro-meteorological modelling and mobile measurements to shed new light on the nexus of urban human-climate interactions. Contributing to this research we jointly present the approaches of our two PhD-projects. Firstly we illustrate on the basis of an example site, how local thermal conditions in an urban district can be simulated and predicted by a micro-meteorological model. Secondly we highlight the potentials of personal exposure measurements based on an evaluation of mobile micro-sensing devices (MSDs) and analyze and explain differences between model predictions and mobile records. For the examination of local thermal conditions we calculated ENVI-met simulations within the "Bayerischer Bahnhof" quarter in Leipzig (Saxony, Germany; 51°20', 12°22'). To accomplish the maximum temperature contrasts within the diverse built-up structures we chose a hot summer day (25 Aug 2016) under autochthonous weather conditions. From these simulations we analyzed a UHI effect between the model core (urban area

  11. Risk exposures for human ornithosis in a poultry processing plant modified by use of personal protective equipment: an analytical outbreak study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C J; Sillis, M; Fearne, V; Pezzoli, L; Beasley, G; Bracebridge, S; Reacher, M; Nair, P

    2013-09-01

    Ornithosis outbreaks in poultry processing plants are well-described, but evidence for preventive measures is currently lacking. This study describes a case-control study into an outbreak of ornithosis at a poultry processing plant in the East of England, identified following three employees being admitted to hospital. Workers at the affected plant were recruited via their employer, with exposures assessed using a self-completed questionnaire. Cases were ascertained using serological methods or direct antigen detection in sputum. 63/225 (28%) staff participated, with 10% of participants showing evidence of recent infection. Exposure to the killing/defeathering and automated evisceration areas, and contact with viscera or blood were the main risk factors for infection. Personal protective equipment (goggles and FFP3 masks) reduced the effect of exposure to risk areas and to self-contamination with potentially infectious material. Our study provides some evidence of effectiveness for respiratory protective equipment in poultry processing plants where there is a known and current risk of ornithosis. Further studies are required to confirm this tentative finding, but in the meantime respiratory protective equipment is recommended as a precautionary measure in plants where outbreaks of ornithosis occur.

  12. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    OpenAIRE

    Herché, Joel; Swenson, Michael; Verbeke, Willem

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).

  13. The primary exposure standard for Co-60 gamma radiation: characteristics and measurements procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of a cavity ionization chamber used, as a primary exposure standard, at the Laboratorio di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the ENEA in Italy. The primary standard is designed to make absolute measurements of exposure due to the Co-60 gamma radiation. The procedures for the realizationof the exposure unit are also described. Finally results of some international comparisons are reported

  14. Measurement of Foreign Exchange Exposure on the Turkish Private Banks’ Stock Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Canbas; Murat Doganlar; Yildirim B.Onal

    2002-01-01

    All performance criteria of the banks are affected by the exchange rate fluctuations through foreign currency transactions and operations. However, exchange rate fluctuations -even without such activities can influence the banks through their affect on foreign competition, foreign loan demand and other banking conditions. Exchange rate exposure is classified as operation, transaction, and accounting exposures. Most of the studies, which measure these exposures, focused on the affect of the ex...

  15. Measurement of exposure dose rate by TLD in 60Co garden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chengfang; Li Pinfang; Wu Maoliang; Zhao Quan

    1987-01-01

    The use of TLD method to measure exposure dose rate in 60 Co garden is described. As compared with chemical dosimetry, the relative deviation of measurement would not exceed 10%. The good repeatability has been proved by comparing the measurements of different times and distances with correction of decay law and 1/1 2 law. Besides, the distribution of exposure dose rate was influenced by scattering of the living plants

  16. Health behavior in persons with spinal cord injury: development and initial validation of an outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, S D; Wahlgren, D R; Epping-Jordan, J E; Rossi, A L

    1998-10-01

    To describe the development and initial psychometric properties of a new outcome measure for health behaviors that delay or prevent secondary impairments associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Persons with SCI were surveyed during routine annual physical evaluations. Veterans Affairs Medical Center Spinal Cord Injury Unit, which specializes in primary care for persons with SCI. Forty-nine persons with SCI, aged 19-73 years, 1-50 years post-SCI. The newly developed Spinal Cord Injury Lifestyle Scale (SCILS). Internal consistency is high (alpha = 0.81). Correlations between clinicians' ratings of participants' health behavior and the new SCILS provide preliminary support for construct validity. The SCILS is a brief, self-report measure of health-related behavior in persons with SCI. It is a promising new outcome measure to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical and educational efforts for health maintenance and prevention of secondary impairments associated with SCI.

  17. Prevalence of Hand-transmitted Vibration Exposure among Grass-cutting Workers using Objective and Subjective Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmir, N. A.; Yahya, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Extended exposure to hand-transmitted vibration from vibrating machine is associated with an increased occurrence of symptoms of occupational disease related to hand disorder. The present case study is to determine the prevalence and correlation of significant subjective as well as objective variables that induce to hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) among hand-held grass-cutting workers in Malaysia. Thus, recommendations are made for grass-cutting workers and grass maintenance service management based on findings. A cross sectional study using adopted subjective Hand Arm Vibration Exposure Risk Assessment (HAVERA) questionnaire from Vibration Injury Network on hand disorder signs and symptoms was distributed to a sample of one hundred and sixty eight male workers from grass and turf maintenance industry that use vibrating machine as part of their work. For objective measure, hand-transmitted vibration measurement was collected on site during operation by the following ISO 5349-1, 2001. Two groups were identified in this research comprising of high exposure group and low-moderate exposure group. Workers also gave information about their personal identification, social history, workers’ health, occupational history and machine safety inspection. There was positive HAVS symptoms relationship between the low-moderate exposure group and high exposure group among hand-held grass-cutting workers. The prevalence ratio (PR) was considered high for experiencing white colour change at fingers and fingers go numb which are 3.63 (1.41 to 9.39) and 4.24 (2.18 to 8.27), respectively. The estimated daily vibration exposure, A(8) differs between 2.1 to 20.7 ms-2 for right hand while 2.7 to 29.1 ms-2 for left hand. The subjects claimed that the feel of numbness at left hand is much stronger compared to right hand. The results suggest that HAVS is diagnosed in Malaysia especially in agriculture sector. The A(8) indicates that the exposure value is more than exposure limit value

  18. Experimental effects of exposure to pornography: the moderating effect of personality and mediating effect of sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

    2015-01-01

    Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found to be significantly mediated by sexual arousal with sexual arousal referring to the subjective assessment of feeling sexually excited, ready for sexual activities, and/or bodily sensations associated with being sexually aroused. In underscoring the importance of individual differences, the results supported the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects.

  19. Measuring Exposure to Protobacco Marketing and Media: A Field Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Deborah M.; Setodji, Claude M.; Shadel, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to validate ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as a method for measuring exposure to tobacco-related marketing and media and to use this method to provide detailed descriptive data on college students’ exposure to protobacco marketing and media. Methods: College students (n = 134; ages 18–24 years) recorded their exposures to protobacco marketing and media on handheld devices for 21 consecutive days. Participants also recalled exposures to various types of protobacco marketing and media at the end of the study period. Results: Retrospectively recalled and EMA-based estimates of protobacco marketing exposure captured different information. The correlation between retrospectively recalled and EMA-logged exposures to tobacco marketing and media was moderate (r = .37, p marketing through multiple channels in a relatively short period: Exposures (M = 8.24, SD = 7.85) occurred primarily in the afternoon (42%), on weekends (35%), and at point-of-purchase locations (68%) or in movies/TV (20%), and exposures to Marlboro, Newport, and Camel represented 56% of all exposures combined and 70% of branded exposures. Conclusions: Findings support the validity of EMA as a method for capturing detailed information about youth exposure to protobacco marketing and media that are not captured through other existing methods. Such data have the potential to highlight areas for policy change and prevention in order to reduce the impact of tobacco marketing on youth. PMID:22039076

  20. Measuring exposure to protobacco marketing and media: a field study using ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steven C; Scharf, Deborah M; Setodji, Claude M; Shadel, William G

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to validate ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as a method for measuring exposure to tobacco-related marketing and media and to use this method to provide detailed descriptive data on college students' exposure to protobacco marketing and media. College students (n = 134; ages 18-24 years) recorded their exposures to protobacco marketing and media on handheld devices for 21 consecutive days. Participants also recalled exposures to various types of protobacco marketing and media at the end of the study period. Retrospectively recalled and EMA-based estimates of protobacco marketing exposure captured different information. The correlation between retrospectively recalled and EMA-logged exposures to tobacco marketing and media was moderate (r = .37, p marketing through multiple channels in a relatively short period: Exposures (M = 8.24, SD = 7.85) occurred primarily in the afternoon (42%), on weekends (35%), and at point-of-purchase locations (68%) or in movies/TV (20%), and exposures to Marlboro, Newport, and Camel represented 56% of all exposures combined and 70% of branded exposures. Findings support the validity of EMA as a method for capturing detailed information about youth exposure to protobacco marketing and media that are not captured through other existing methods. Such data have the potential to highlight areas for policy change and prevention in order to reduce the impact of tobacco marketing on youth.