“I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent
Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; And Others
Examined interaction between job performance and specific work experiences on three indicators of personal and family well-being among 336 accountants. Perceptions of nonsupportive and inequitable work environment, role conflict, and extensive time commitment to work were each related to one or more indicators of well-being. (Author)
Lundberg, Pranee C; Doan, Thoa Thi Kim; Dinh, Thu Thi Xuan; Oach, Nhung Kim; Le, Phong Hoang
To examine the experiences of caregiving among Vietnamese family members of persons living with HIV/AIDS. As the number of persons living with HIV/AIDS increases, the need of family caregivers who can take responsibility for the home care of these persons increases. Vietnam has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. A descriptive cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative methods was used. A purposive sample of 104 family caregivers, both male and female, participated voluntarily by answering a questionnaire of caregiver burden, and 20 of them participated in in-depth interview. Female caregivers were mainly mothers and wives while male caregivers were mainly husbands, fathers and siblings. The largest group of family caregivers reported moderate to severe burden. There was no difference between genders in total caregiver burden, but there were several differences between older and younger caregivers in some items of caregiver burden. Five categories of experiences emerged: Different types of caregiving to persons living with HIV/AIDS, cultural and religious issues associated with caregiving, keeping secret to avoid stigma and discrimination, lack of knowledge about disease and provision of care, and fear, anxiety and frustration. Stigma and discrimination should be decreased by providing knowledge to the general public about HIV/AIDS, in particular about ways of transmission and protection. Special knowledge should be given to family caregivers to enable them to give care to persons living with HIV/AIDS at home. This could be done through culturally appropriate training/intervention programmes in which coping methods should be included. Support group interventions should also be carried through. The results obtained can be used as baseline information. Health care providers should consider gender, age and culture of family members of persons living with HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS, provision of care at home and in hospital, and
Firn, Janice; DeVries, Keli; Morano, Dawnielle; Spano-English, Toni
During inhospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts, a designated family support person (FSP) may provide guidance and support to family members. Research on nurses and chaplains in this role has been published. Social workers also regularly fulfill this service, however, little is known about how they perceive and enact this role. To explore their experiences, qualitative interviews (n = 10) were conducted with FSP social workers. Critical realist thematic analysis identified five themes: walking in cold, promoting family presence, responding to the whole spectrum of grief, going beyond the family support role, and repercussions of bearing witness. Social workers perform a variety of tasks to promote family presence during resuscitation attempts and provide psychosocial support over the continuum of care. The FSP role impacts social workers emotionally and professionally. Implications for hospital policy, staffing, and clinical practice are discussed.
Gláucia Sousa Oliveira
Full Text Available This is a study with the objective to know the experiences of the family caregiver of a person with intestinal ostomy due to colorectal cancer. A qualitative research, grounded on the humanization referential, made in 2013, through serialized semi-structured interviews and inductive analysis. It was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee under legal opinion no. 237,771. Seven family caregivers participated in this study in a county of southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Three categories emerged from the data: Relation with the disease and its treatments; Impact facing treatment and rehabilitation and Nets of support. The representation of the disease associated to finitude is reaffirmed. In order to lessen anguish and suffering, the family caregivers search support, mainly in spirituality. The impact resulting from the illness and the rehabilitation process imposes a new order to the caregivers, with personal and social renouncing, which provides a closer and more dedicated relation with the patient.
“I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent years, there has been greater recognition of the important position of parents and siblings of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities and the importance of the wellbeing of all ...
Forbes, G B
The motives, family experiences, and personality characteristics of 341 college students with and without tattoos or piercings were studied. Participants completed Lippa's 1991 measures of the Big Five personality factors, a shortened version of the Body Cathexis Scale, a series of questions about their childhood experiences, and questions about risk-taking behaviors. In addition, reasons to have or not have body modifications and the perceptions of people with body modifications were investigated. Of the 116 men and 186 women, 25% and 33%, respectively, had at least one tattoo or body piercing. There were very few differences in the childhood experiences or personality characteristics of people with or without body modifications. Although people with body modifications did not differ from people without modifications on the Big Five personality measures, people without modifications perceived people with modifications as much different from themselves on these measures. These results indicate that tattoos and piercings in college students are associated with significantly more risk-taking behavior, greater use of alcohol and marijuana, and less social conformity. However, the traditional stereotype that body modifications are indicators of social or personal pathology does not describe contemporary college students.
Background Hope is a psychosocial resource that is essential for the psychological, spiritual, and physical well-being of family members caring for persons with dementia. A significant positive relationship has been found between hope and well-being in family caregivers of persons with dementia living in the community. However, the hope experience of family caregivers of persons living with dementia in long-term care (LTC) facilities has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the hope experience of family caregivers of persons with dementia living in a LTC facility. Methods Twenty-three open-ended face to face interviews were conducted with 13 family caregivers of residents with dementia in a LTC facility. Family was broadly defined to include relatives and friends. Seven of these participants also reflected on their hope in diaries over a two week period. Interview transcripts and journal texts were analyzed using Thorne’s interpretive description approach. Results The over-arching theme was “hope and connection”. Participants lost hope and felt despair when they perceived they were unable to connect with their family member in the LTC facility. They regained their hope when a connection could be made. Several sub-themes were identified including: accepting where we are, living life in the moment, believing in something, standing together, and balancing dual worlds. Conclusions Hope was important and essential for family caregivers of persons with dementia residing in a LTC facility. The overarching theme of “hope and connection” underscores the importance of maintaining relationships and connection between family members and the person in LTC. Given the paucity of hope research conducted within this population, the study findings provide a foundation for future research. PMID:24138640
Vögeli, Samuel; Frei, Irena Anna; Spichiger, Elisabeth
Almost two-thirds of the 110,000 people living with dementia in Switzerland receive home care from family members. Outreach counselling can reduce the burden for family caregivers and delay nursing home placement. However, little is known of how this works and how caregivers experience the counselling. The Canton of Aargau Alzheimer's Association has been conducting a pilot project to demonstrate the necessity, effectiveness and practicability of outreach counselling in (their canton). As a part of the evaluation of the project this study explored how family members experience the process of caring for a relative with dementia and outreach counselling. Interpretive phenomenology–a qualitative approach–was used to analyse data from interviews with twelve family caregivers. Most family members felt supported in caregiving by outreach counselling. Three aspects of the counselling were especially important to the participants: being understood and taken seriously by the counsellor; receiving answers to their most pressing questions concerning the illness and being supported when difficult decision had to be taken; regaining personal time and learning how to better interact with the person with dementia. Two participants would have wished for more help by the counsellor. To meet the needs of the family members, consultants should have sufficient experience in dementia patient care and should be strongly networked across the local health and welfare system. This study shows that family members can experience outreach counselling as a great support in their caregiving roles.
Karamanolaki, Hara; Spyropoulou, Areti C; Iliadou, Aggeliki; Vousoura, Eleni; Vondikaki, Stamatia; Pantazis, Nikos; Vaslamatzis, Grigoris
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effect of recalled traumatic experiences, perceived parental rearing styles, and family parameters on the occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) versus other personality disorders (other-PDs). A total of 88 adult outpatients with personality disorders completed the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, which measures perceptions regarding parental rearing. Results indicated that incidence of traumatic childhood experiences was higher among those in the BPD group compared to those in the other-PD group. Firstborns were less likely to carry a diagnosis of BPD over other-PDs. Also, significantly more BPD compared to other-PD patients reported being the father's favorite child over siblings. Results suggest that traumatic experiences, birth order, and family interactions in the presence of siblings seem to differentially affect the formation of borderline diagnosis compared to other-PDs. Limitations and clinical implications of the study are discussed in detail.
Flatt, Jason D.; Liptak, Amy; Oakley, Mary Ann; Gogan, Jessica; Varner, Tresa; Lingler, Jennifer H.
Objective To describe the subjective experiences of older adults with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease or related cognitive disorders (ADRD) and their family caregivers who participated in an art museum engagement activity. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with 10 persons with ADRD and 10 family caregivers following the completion one-time, three hour engagement activity. Participants also completed a brief satisfaction survey, and associations were examined using nonparametric statistics. Results Three key themes were identified: cognitive stimulation, social connections, and a sense of self. In addition, we identified programmatic issues such as activity-specific concerns and program logistics that could help improve future art program offerings. Past experience with art and perceived social cohesion were correlated with participants’ overall satisfaction with the program. Discussion Efforts aimed at improving the quality of life of those with Alzheimer’s and their family caregivers should consider the potential role of art museums. PMID:25216658
Englebert, Jérôme; Follet, Valérie; Valentiny, Caroline
Based on the case study of Jeanne, the objective of this article is to study patterns of specific subjectivity in anorexic subjects. We seek to identify, in a first-person perspective, the core vulnerability features of anorexic existence, beyond the dimension of food alone. The identification of a psychopathological structure results in a better understanding of Jeanne's clinical situation and helps formulate psychotherapeutic and prophylactic recommendations. We suggest that so-called "denial" is a psychological mechanism that should be reconsidered. Denial is not a mechanism pertaining to anorexic subjects alone, but is also a process encountered both in the patient's family and in the therapeutic environment. Anorexic denial is based on anosognosia and the refusal to see one's own thinness, while other people's denial consists in a widespread inability to perceive the altruism and intersubjective problematic on which the existence of an anorexic subject fundamentally depends. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
This article describes research on the narratives of social workers who help terror victims, focusing on the relationship between the helpers' families and their work. Qualitative analysis of three training groups of social workers who are responsible for helping in the event of terror attacks in different parts of Israel, and of three debriefing groups for social workers after terror attacks, reveals that the helpers' families play a role in the narratives constructed by the helpers. Two main themes were identified. The first centers on the interaction between work and the family, and shows that in the situation of a terror attack, the conflict between the two disappears and the family often serves as a support system for the helpers. The second theme refers to the family dimension alone, and focuses on the dichotomy between vitality and loss. The way that family life events affect helpers'professional intervention is described. The findings are discussed in light of Conservation of Resources Theory, the fight-flight response to threat, and the concept of the family as a source of safety and risk taking.
Duggleby, Wendy; Tycholiz, Jamie; Holtslander, Lorraine; Hudson, Peter; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Mirhosseini, Mehrnoush; Parmar, Jasneet; Chambers, Thane; Alook, Angele; Swindle, Jennifer
Family caregivers (broadly defined as family and friends) experience multiple concurrent transitions when caring for a person with advanced cancer. To (a) explore the transition experience of family caregivers caring for persons with advanced cancer living in the community, (b) describe potential triggers for transitions, (c) identify what influences this experience, and (d) develop a conceptual framework of their transition experience. Sandelowski and Barroso's methodology for synthesizing qualitative research included (a) a comprehensive search of empirical literature, (b) quality appraisal of qualitative studies, (c) classification of studies, and (d) synthesis of the findings. Literature was sourced from six electronic data bases. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (a) published qualitative studies (and mixed-method designs) of the caregiving experience of family caregivers of community-living persons with advanced cancer at the end of life, (b) participants (caregivers and care recipients) of 18 years of age and above, (c) studies published in English in any country, and (d) studies published between 2004 and 2014. A total of 72 studies were included in the metasynthesis. Family caregivers experience a "life transition" whereby their lives are permanently altered. The participants described the process of redefining normal which consisted of coming to terms with their situation and connecting with others. Outcomes of these processes were as follows: (a) maintaining a sense of personhood, (b) reframing hope, (c) maintaining self-efficacy, (d) finding meaning, and (e) preparing for the death of their care recipient. The findings provide a framework to guide the development of supportive programs and future research.
Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini; Cano, Karen Cristina Urtado; Baltieri, Lilian; Godoy, Daniele Cristina; Spiri, Wilza Carla; Juliani, Carmen Maria Casquel Monti
This study aimed at understanding the interactional experience between family caregivers and disabled elderly persons supported in a Day Care Center according to the caregiver's perspective. It also aimed at developing a representative theoretical model for the events experienced by such caregiver. The Grounded Theory was used as methodological framework whereas Interactional Symbolism served as the theoretical framework. Observation and interviews were used for data collection. The following phenomenon arose from the results: feeling of support by the Day Care Center, by the strength of the bond with the elderly and by spirituality in order to continue playing the challenging role of a family caregiver for a disabled elderly person. The study made possible to understand that, among these three supporting cornerstones for coping with the burden generated by the family caregiver role, the care model promoted by the Day Care Center was the intervenient variable in the process of improving the quality of life of the family caregiver-disabled elderly person binomial. This allowed the identification of the main category--moving from reclusion to partial freedom: the experience of family caregivers for disabled elderly persons assisted in a Day Care Center.
Wayne, Julie Holliday; Musisca, Nicholas; Fleeson, William
Using a national, random sample (N=2130), we investigated the relationship between each of the Big Five personality traits and conflict and facilitation between work and family roles. Extraversion was related to greater facilitation between roles but was not related to conflict, whereas neuroticism was related to greater conflict but only weakly…
Celenkosini T. Nxumalo
Purpose: To explore the stigma related experiences of family members of persons with mental illness in a selected community in the iLembe district of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, in order to develop recommendations to help families cope with such stigma. Methods: This was a descriptive qualitative study; data was collected from a purposive sample of six family members, which resulted in data saturation. Semi-structured interview questions were used during data collection and content analysis using Creswell's (2009 method was done to analyse the data; resulting in the formation of themes and sub-themes which were supported by the participants' responses and existing literature. Results: Participants reported experiencing stigma from the community in the form of isolation, blame and exploitation, community neglect, as well as labelling and stereotyping. The majority of the participants reported using emotion-focused coping mechanisms to deal with the stigma they faced. Participants suggested that education of communities regarding the myths and facts about mental illness may help to curb the stigma faced by the family members of persons with mental illness. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it was recommended that a combination of coping strategies, together with the integration of public and private sector support, be used to holistically deal with family related stigma. It was found that ground level education and support to families is the key to curbing family related stigma of mental illness, local NGO's and the clinics would be instrumental in this area.
Kramer, Betty J.; Kavanaugh, Melinda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Walsh, Matthew; Yonker, James A.
Purpose: Guided by an explanatory matrix of family conflict at the end of life, the purpose of this article was to examine the correlates and predictors of family conflict reported by 155 spouses and adult children of persons with lung cancer. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional statewide survey of family members of persons who died from lung…
Peacock, Shelley; Duggleby, Wendy; Koop, Priscilla
Dementia is a terminal illness, and family caregivers play a vital role in providing end-of-life care to their relative. The present study begins to address the paucity of research regarding end-of-life caregiving experience with dementia. This study utilized Munhall's methodology for interpretive phenomenology. Seven women and four men were interviewed two to three times within a year of their relative's death; interviews were transcribed verbatim and hermeneutically analyzed. Findings reveal two essential aspects of end-of-life dementia caregiving: being-with and being-there. Further findings are organized according to the existential life worlds. Examination of the life worlds demonstrates that 1) spatiality provided a sense or lack of feeling welcome to provide end-of-life care; 2) temporality was an eternity or time melting away quickly, or the right or wrong time to die; 3) corporeality revealed feelings of exhaustion; and 4) relationality was felt as a closeness to others or in tension-filled relationships. An understanding from bereaved caregivers' perspectives will help healthcare practitioners better support and empathize with family caregivers. Further research is warranted that focuses on other places of death and differences in experience based on gender or relationship to the care receiver.
Holthe, Torhild; Jentoft, Rita; Arntzen, Cathrine; Thorsen, Kirsten
People with dementia and their family caregivers may benefit from assistive technology (AT), but knowledge is scarce about family carers' (FC) experiences and involvement in the use of AT in everyday life. To examine the FC roles and experiences with AT as means of supporting people with young onset-dementia (YOD). Qualitative interview study with follow-up design. Repeated semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 FC of people with YOD, participating in an ongoing intervention study investigating the families' use and experiences of AT in everyday life. Six main themes emerged: (1) timely information about AT; (2) waiting times; (3) AT incorporated into everyday living; (4) AT experienced as a relief and burden; (5) appraisal of AT qualities and (6) the committed caregiver. The study found benefits for the FC, especially with simply designed AT, but also several barriers for successful use. A committed caregiver is vital throughout the process. Users will need professional advice and support, and occupational therapists may have a significant role in the process. Interventions implementing AT must be based on analysis of the needs of the person with YOD and the carers: their capabilities, preferences, embodied habits, and coping strategies. Implications for Rehabilitation Committed family carers (FC) play an important, often decisive, role in providing support for the person with young-onset dementia (YOD, onset <65 years) to use and benefit from the AT. The simpler the AT, the better. The AT should be introduced at "the right time", before the cognitive and adaptive reduction is too great. The "window" for implementation may be short. AT has potential to ease caregiving and give relief for FC. However, many barriers, difficulties and problems must be attended to. A system for individualized support over time is necessary for implementing AT for this group.
Priyadharshini, Rekha A.; Wesley, Reeves J.
Purpose: Extant literature reported that the perceptible experience of work-family conflict (WF conflict) is determined by any of work/family role-specific characteristics. This study is done under the premise that the perception on the occurrence of W-F conflict is influenced by person-specific personality characteristics. Authors have used big five personality dimensions as the independent variables and bi-directional nature of W-F conflict as dependent variable. It was hypothesized that ex...
Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B
Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of
Bruckert, Eric; Saheb, Samir; Bonté, Juliette Roth; Coudray-Omnès, Carole
Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare and severe hereditary lipid disorder that is typically associated with high serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Excessive exposure to high levels of LDL-C puts affected individuals at very high risk of premature onset coronary heart disease, and this considerably limits life expectancy. Although the clinical features and treatment of HoFH have been extensively researched, societal and socio-psychological impacts of the disease have not been reported to date. The current study was conducted to investigate the burden of disease and treatment from the patient's perspective by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 HoFH patients. The findings of the survey indicate that HoFH represents a considerable burden for patients, not only due to physical signs and limitations caused by the disease but also a number of psychosocial factors, treatment-related issues and impact on their education and employment situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elnasseh, Aaliah G.; Trujillo, Michael A.; Peralta, Silvina Victoria; Stolfi, Miriam E.; Morelli, Eliana; Perrin, Paul B.
This study examined whether healthier family dynamics were associated with higher personal strengths of resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism among dementia caregivers in Argentina. Caregivers are usually required to assist individuals with dementia, and family members have typically fulfilled that role. Personal strengths such as resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism have been shown to protect caregivers from some of the negative experiences of providing care, though the family-related variables associated with these personal strengths are largely unknown. Hierarchical multiple regressions investigated the extent to which family dynamics variables are associated with each of the caregiver personal strengths after controlling for demographic and caregiver characteristics. A sample of 105 caregivers from Argentina completed a set of questionnaires during a neurologist visit. Family dynamics explained 32% of the variance in resilience and 39% of the variance in sense of coherence. Greater family empathy and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher resilience. Greater communication and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher sense of coherence. Optimism was not found to be significantly associated with family dynamics. These results suggest that caregiver intervention research focused on the family may help improve caregiver personal strengths in Argentina and other Latin American countries. PMID:27413574
Aaliah G. Elnasseh
Full Text Available This study examined whether healthier family dynamics were associated with higher personal strengths of resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism among dementia caregivers in Argentina. Caregivers are usually required to assist individuals with dementia, and family members have typically fulfilled that role. Personal strengths such as resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism have been shown to protect caregivers from some of the negative experiences of providing care, though the family-related variables associated with these personal strengths are largely unknown. Hierarchical multiple regressions investigated the extent to which family dynamics variables are associated with each of the caregiver personal strengths after controlling for demographic and caregiver characteristics. A sample of 105 caregivers from Argentina completed a set of questionnaires during a neurologist visit. Family dynamics explained 32% of the variance in resilience and 39% of the variance in sense of coherence. Greater family empathy and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher resilience. Greater communication and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher sense of coherence. Optimism was not found to be significantly associated with family dynamics. These results suggest that caregiver intervention research focused on the family may help improve caregiver personal strengths in Argentina and other Latin American countries.
Horwitz, Briana N; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
This study investigated whether genetic and environmental influences on global family conflict are explained by parents' personality, marital quality, and negative parenting. The sample comprised 876 same-sex pairs of twins, their spouses, and one adolescent child per twin from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden. Genetic influences on aggressive personality were correlated with genetic influences on global family conflict. Nonshared environmental influences on marital quality and negative parenting were correlated with nonshared environmental influences on global family conflict. Results suggest that parents' personality and unique experiences within their family relationships are important for understanding genetic and environmental influences on global conflict in the home.
Trinder, L.; Hunter, R.; Hitchings, E.; Miles, J.; Smith, L.; Moorhead, R.; Sefton, M.; Hinchly, V.; Pearce, J.; Bader, K.
This study was designed to develop the evidence base on litigants in person in private family law cases, including their behavioural drivers, experiences and support needs, and impact on the court prior to the implementation of legal aid reforms in April 2013. Fieldwork was conducted between January and March 2013. The study delivered primarily qualitative evidence. The researchers sampled 151 private law family cases where a hearing was observed, the court file examined and parties and p...
Yáskara Arrial Palma
necesidad de actuación de la psicología a través de programas para las mujeres y sus familiares.The personal and familiar experiences of female homosexuals are provided. Six females (22 to 33 years old from Caxias do Sul RS Brazil, and neighboring region, whose family members were aware of their sexual orientation, were interviewed. Females were single, middle-class socio-economic level, with professional activity. A qualitative content analysis of the interviews produced several thematic categories and subcategories. Homosexuality, as a rule, considered normal and natural, brought happiness to participants in spite of the bias they had to face. From their point of view, their families' first reaction to their sexual orientation was negative, although, in some cases, it improved with the passing of time. Results revealed a social change, albeit slow and gradual, in the way of thinking and acting towards female homosexuality. The need for psychological intervention through programs for families and for homosexual subjects is required.
Shinjo, Takuya; Morita, Tatsuya; Hirai, Kei; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Shimizu, Megumi; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo
Many surveys have evaluated patient-related barriers to pain management. To explore associations between a preference for opioids and general attitudes toward drugs, the experience and information received as a bereaved family, and beliefs regarding a good death. A cross-sectional survey, performed in 2010, of bereaved families of patients with cancer in palliative care units across Japan. Questionnaires were sent to 997 families. A total of 66% of families responded. Of these, 224 responses were excluded because the family declined to participate in the study (n = 38), the patient was not receiving any opioid analgesics, and there were missing data (n = 164), or data were missing for the primary end points (n = 22). Thus, 432 responses were finally analyzed (43%). In total, 26%, 41%, and 31% of family members stated that they strongly want to receive, want to receive, or slightly want to receive opioids if needed in the future, respectively. Determinants associated with a preference for receiving opioid treatment were the following: a general appreciation of the drugs (P = 0.005), witnessing an improvement in the patient's quality of life as a result of pain relief (P = 0.003), information provided by medical professionals that the opioid could be discontinued if side effects developed (P = 0.042), and the belief that a good death was one that was free from pain and physical distress (P families whose relatives were treated with opioid analgesics reported a preference to receive opioid analgesics for the treatment of cancer pain, if necessary, in the future. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The stigma of families is seen in the form of assignment of blame, social isolation and rejection. This stigma subsequently perpetuates a cycle of disability on the part of the patient and family. Purpose: To explore the stigma related experiences of family members of persons with mental illness in a selected community in the ...
Axelsson, Anna Karin; Imms, Christine; Wilder, Jenny
Participation throughout one's life plays a significant role for development and emotional well-being. For this reason, there is a need to identify ways to facilitate participation in family activities for children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The study design was qualitative and explorative, based on semi structured interviews with 11 parents and 9 personal assistants of children with PIMD. The interviews revealed participation-facilitating strategies relating to the children's/adolescent's proximal environment, such as "Availability and acceptability of the activity", "Good knowledge about the child" and a "A positive attitude of people close to the child", as well as strategies related to the children/adolescents themselves: "Sense of belonging", "Possible for the child/adolescent to understand", "Opportunities to influence" and "Feeling of being needed". Children and adolescents with PIMD are dependent on support obtained through their environment. The identified strategies, individually adapted through awareness and knowledge by the parents and the personal assistants, provide important evidence to assist our understanding in gaining understanding about how to improve participation in family activities of children and adolescents with PIMD. Participation-facilitating strategies related to the child/adolescent and his or her proximal environments are identified to improve participation in children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Examples of strategies for the child's/adolescents' proximal environment include "good knowledge about the child/adolescent", and, for the child/adolescent, include creating "sense of belonging" and "opportunities to influence". Identifying and making these strategies explicit may assist in enhancing the participation of children and adolescents with PIMD in family activities. People in the child's/adolescent's proximal environment need to set
The fundamental nature of human time experience has concerned artists, poets, philosophers, and scientists throughout the ages. Any consideration of human action requires awareness of its temporal aspects. However, simply to view time in the same units and dimensions as the physicist employs in describing events robs personal time of its "lived" quality. The use of physical time concepts in the description of human events is often artificial and misleading. It fails to account for the facts that human time estimates rarely match clock and calendar time; that societies and individuals demonstrate vast differences in their constructions and uses of time; and that temporal perceptions and attitudes change within an individual both during a single day and throughout his life span. The present volume does not view time as something that is sensed in the same way that one would sense or perceive spatial or sensory stimuli. Rather, it views time as a complex set of personally experienced cognitive constructs used by...
Personality profile and coping resources of family medicine vocational trainees at ... (81.8%) indicated that they mainly experienced work-related stress. ... Keywords: personality; coping resources; family medicine; stress; vocational trainees ...
Kujundžić Slavica M.
Full Text Available Domestic violence is a social phenomenon which paid special attention nowadays, both in our country and in the world. It is a very sensitive topic that deeply interferes into the basic cell of society, such as a family, but also the wider community itself. The Republic of Serbia has made a major breakthrough in this area by passing the Family Law in 2005, which was the first law of this type that clearly defines the concept of domestic violence, as well as actions that is described as violence and the group of persons who consider themselves victims of violence. The adoption of the Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence, which enters into force at June the 1st 2017, represents an additional step forward when it comes to the regulation of domestic violence, particularly in the area of preventive action and coordination of all stakeholders involved in solving this problem. This study pays special attention to one category of victims of domestic violence, namely, the elderly (persons over 65 years of age. The elderly in our society are one of the most vulnerable groups, taking into account their physical health and also financial situation. All available data indicate that this group of victims are reluctant to speak, and that a large number of acts of domestic violence against the elderly go unreported within the same family, while the perpetrators remain unpunished.
Full Text Available the article reveals such actual components of modern society as family, personality formation in the family, formation of the self-concept, life-purpose orientations of modern youth. One of the key moments in personality formation is movement, action. Formation involves personality development, both physically and spiritually from the very beginning of a person's life.
Bell, Linda G.; Cornwell, Connie S.
This research supports the value of maintaining the family ties of persons in prison. Family healing work will likely affect multiple relationships within the family, especially for the children of prisoners, and increase the possibility of healthy and productive life choices for all family members. The Family Matters course is grounded in family…
Valdez, Carmen R; Chavez, Tom; Woulfe, Julie
In this article, we use a phenomenology framework to explore emerging adults' formative experiences of family stress. Fourteen college students participated in a qualitative interview about their experience of family stress. We analyzed the interviews using the empirical phenomenological psychology method. Participants described a variety of family stressors, including parental conflict and divorce, physical or mental illness, and emotional or sexual abuse by a family member. Two general types of parallel processes were essential to the experience of family stress for participants. First, the family stressor was experienced in shifts and progressions reflecting the young person's attempts to manage the stressor, and second, these shifts and progressions were interdependent with deeply personal psychological meanings of self, sociality, physical and emotional expression, agency, place, space, project, and discourse. We describe each of these parallel processes and their subprocesses, and conclude with implications for mental health practice and research.
Lucas Amaral Martins
Full Text Available The study aims to describe the experience of nursing care to person in mental suffering (PMS in the family context. Developed by nursing academic during home attendance, in the 2008.2 semester. The results showed that: is undeniable the family function of the PMS care, becoming the main partner of the heath teams, the care in the perspective of psychosocial rehabilitation influences the attitudes, patterns of response and participation in treatment, resulting in the empowerment of PMS and family. It’s concluded that home attendance contributes to the process of psychosocial rehabilitation of the PMS and assessment of mental health services, subsidizing the formulation of public policies for the sector, especially, in regard to care in perspective of the whole human life.
Argues that personal experience and social life are inherently meaningful and that qualitative research designs can contribute to theory-building in counseling and psychotherapy. To illustrate the use of qualitative research designs and methods of analysis, a study of family members' views of family therapy is described. (RJM)
Full Text Available An essay that aims to reflect on the family experience of care in chronic situation, increasing the understanding of the family as the primary caregiver. It is based on comprehensive approach in studies conducted in three matrix searches from family care experiences. We have taken three axes to organize our reflections: a conformation of family care in chronic situation, highlighting the multiple costs incurred to the family, which can exhaust the potential of care and establish or increase its vulnerability if it is not backed by networks support and sustenance; b family rearrangements for the care, giving visibility to care cores in which many loved family members share the care, dynamic, plural and changeable way; c self care modeling family care, pointing to the range of possibilities of the person taking care of diseased conditions supported by people close to them. We learn that the family takes care of itself in everyday life and in the illness experience, creating networks that can provide you support and sustenance. Thus, professionals in health practices should shape up in a longitudinal and very personal way, by reference to the family care, supporting him in what is his own.
Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri
This study examined the relationship between children's attachment security, as manifested in their family drawings, and their personality and adjustment. Family drawings were collected from 222 Israeli children, as well as data regarding their personality and adjustment. Each drawing was coded and classified into 1 of 4 attachment categories…
Full Text Available Migraine is a disorder that has debilitating pain, and affects all aspects of life, including the academic, social, and family life of patients. In addition, studies show the effects of migraine on patient's relationships with family members such as spouse, children, and other family members. In addition to physical pain, migraines are tied to significant psychological and economic costs. Migraineurs tend to have high levels of depression and anxiety, and migraine headaches have a profoundly negative impact on sufferers’ quality of life. In the present research, we investigated the correlations and regressions of cognitive, personality, and family factors with migraine headache, to find predictor factors of migraine. In this study, the following questionnaires were used: For migraine: six-item Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, and Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 2.1.; for cognitive factors: Irrational Beliefs Test and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; for personality factors: NEO Personality Inventory; and for family factors: Family Assessment Device. This project was on 58 women with migraine headaches, diagnosed by neurologist. The findings show that, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and HIT-6. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity and anxious overconcern, in personality factors, extraversion trait, and in family factors, affective involvement are significant. Moreover, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and MSQ. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity, anxious overconcern, and helplessness, in personality factors, agreeableness and consciousness, and in family factors, affective involvement and general functioning are significant. This project showed that cognitive, personality, and family factors have a correlation with migraine headache.
Hua, Zhu; Wei, Li
Transnational and multilingual families have become commonplace in the twenty-first century. Yet relatively few attempts have been made from applied and socio-linguistic perspectives to understand what is going on "within" such families; how their transnational and multilingual experiences impact on the family dynamics and their everyday…
208 females) from single parent, monogamous and polygamous families responded ... It was hypothesized that: there would be significant and positive correlations ... self esteem, need for achievement, locus of control, sense of competence and ... that young people from families where authoritative parenting was practiced ...
Frain, Julianne; Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Tina; Frain, Michael; Ehkle, Sarah
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to measure predictors of community reintegration and empirically test the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study also aimed to measure family needs by surveying caregiving family members through the use of the Family Needs…
M.Com. (Industrial Psychology) Orientation – Working men and women are finding it increasingly challenging to establish a balance between their family environments and working environment, especially with the increase in the number of roles they have adopted. Personality may impact the experience of work-family conflict. Research purpose – The main objective of this study was to determine whether gender moderates the relationship between personality variables- specifically extraversion, co...
Underhill, Meghan; Hong, Fangxin; Lawrence, Janette; Blonquist, Traci; Syngal, Sapna
Describe relationships between self-reported personal demographics or familial characteristics and psychosocial outcomes (Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Global Health, Impact of Event Scale-Revised [pancreatic cancer risk-related distress], cancer risk perception, and cancer worry) in participants with inherited or familial pancreatic cancer risk. A multisite cross sectional survey of adults with elevated pancreatic cancer risk based on family history. All variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. To assess univariate associations, t test and chi-square/Fisher's exact test were used, and backward model selection was used in multivariable analysis. Respondents (N = 132) reported moderate to high frequency of cancer worry and 59.3% perceived a 50% or more perceived lifetime risk for pancreatic cancer, which far exceeds objective risk estimates. Cancer worry was associated with female gender (P = .03) and pancreatic cancer risk specific distress (P = .05). Higher-risk perception was associated with having a high school education or less (P = .001), higher distress (P = .02), and cancer worry (P = .008) and family cancer death experience (P = .02). Higher distress was associated with experience as a caregiver to a seriously ill family member in the past 5 years (P = .006). Individuals with inherited or familial pancreatic cancer risk experience cancer worry, distress, and have increased risk perception, particularly in the period following caring for a loved one with cancer. Routine evaluation of distress in this setting, as well as the development of supportive care resources, will help support patients living with risk for pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Andreassi, Jeanine K.
Employees (N = 291) of various industries and companies were surveyed to study how individual factors (coping and personality) affect work-family conflict: strain-based work-to-family conflict (S-WFC), time-based work-to-family conflict (T-WFC), strain-based family-to-work conflict (S-FWC), and time-based family-to-work conflict (T-FWC). As…
India's family planning programs target rural women because they do not have political power. Interviews with those in Maharashtra show their lack of choice and low access to resources and their need for safe contraception. In 2 rural villages, for every dead child, a woman bears, on average, 2 more children. When a child dies, villagers first suspect the mother of having performed voodoo or witchcraft. Other suspected women are deserted women, widows, and menstruating women. Health and family planning services are not based on people's perceptions of body, anatomy, illness, and cure. People are not informed about interventions, particularly contraception. Women are not comfortable with contraceptives, and when physician ignore genuine symptoms and sequelae, it reinforces women's suspicions about contraceptives. Sterilizations performed in camps result in more side effects than individually performed sterilizations. During 1975-1977, women were kidnapped and sterilized under very unhygienic conditions. Common complaints after sterilization are menstrual disturbances and lower back pain. Many private physicians treat these complaints by performing hysterectomy. Women rarely are involved in the decision-making process determining whether or not they should undergo sterilization. They are often given false promises, if they accept sterilization. Indian women have little choice in contraceptives. The low biodegradability of condoms poses a disposal problem. Health workers often dispose of IUDs, pills, and condoms which they claim have been accepted. Auxiliary nurse midwives are pressured to meet family planning targets, so they harass women to accept contraception. Village women do not trust them. Health workers often steal cases from each other. Many complain that minorities are responsible for the population explosion, but the minority's family size is basically the same as that of the majority. Low access to general health services and harassment to fulfill family
Teh, Jane Kimm Lii; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho
This study investigates factors affecting older persons' state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791). Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were more likely than their Chinese and Indian counterparts to experience loneliness. Loneliness was found to be associated with age, marital status, education level, sources of income, health status, and physical limitations. Among older people, feelings of loneliness were inversely related with coresidence with adult children and participation in religious activities. Sociodemographic changes have eroded the traditional family support system for the elderly, while social security remains inadequate. This study shows the important role of family in alleviating loneliness among older people. Hence the need to promote and facilitate coresidence, as well as participation in religious activities, and a healthy lifestyle as a priority strategy is in line with the objectives of the National Policy for the Older People. PMID:25383374
Teh, Jane Kimm Lii; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho
This study investigates factors affecting older persons' state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791). Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were more likely than their Chinese and Indian counterparts to experience loneliness. Loneliness was found to be associated with age, marital status, education level, sources of income, health status, and physical limitations. Among older people, feelings of loneliness were inversely related with coresidence with adult children and participation in religious activities. Sociodemographic changes have eroded the traditional family support system for the elderly, while social security remains inadequate. This study shows the important role of family in alleviating loneliness among older people. Hence the need to promote and facilitate coresidence, as well as participation in religious activities, and a healthy lifestyle as a priority strategy is in line with the objectives of the National Policy for the Older People.
Moving from reclusion to partial freedom: the experience of family caregivers for disabled elderly persons assisted in a day care center Movendo-se da reclusão à liberdade parcial: a experiência do cuidador familiar de idoso dependente assistido num centro-dia
Silvia Cristina Mangini Bocchi
Full Text Available This study aimed at understanding the interactional experience between family caregivers and disabled elderly persons supported in a Day Care Center according to the caregiver's perspective. It also aimed at developing a representative theoretical model for the events experienced by such caregiver. The Grounded Theory was used as methodological framework whereas Interactional Symbolism served as the theoretical framework. Observation and interviews were used for data collection. The following phenomenon arose from the results: feeling of support by the Day Care Center, by the strength of the bond with the elderly and by spirituality in order to continue playing the challenging role of a family caregiver for a disabled elderly person. The study made possible to understand that, among these three supporting cornerstones for coping with the burden generated by the family caregiver role, the care model promoted by the Day Care Center was the intervenient variable in the process of improving the quality of life of the family caregiver-disabled elderly person binomial. This allowed the identification of the main category - moving from reclusion to partial freedom: the experience of family caregivers for disabled elderly persons assisted in a Day Care Center.O estudo teve como objetivos: compreender a experiência interacional cuidador familiar-idoso dependente apoiada por um Centro-Dia (CD, segundo a perspectiva do cuidador familiar, e desenvolver um modelo teórico representativo da experiência vivida por ele. Utilizou-se como referencial metodológico a Grounded Theory e como referencial teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico. As estratégias para a obtenção dos dados foram a observação e a entrevista. Dos resultados emergiu o fenômeno: sentindo-se apoiado pelo CD, pela força do vínculo com o idoso e pela espiritualidade para continuar desempenhando o papel desafiante de cuidador familiar de idoso dependente. O trabalho permitiu
Nunn, Gerald D.; And Others
Investigated children's (N=566) personal and familial adjustment as a function of familial configuration and gender. The results revealed less positive adjustment among children from divorced families. Males appeared to be favorably affected within the single-parent configuration, while females were more favorably adjusted within the reconstituted…
Neely-Barnes, Susan; Graff, J. Carolyn; Marcenko, Maureen; Weber, Lisa
Family involvement in planning and choosing services has become a key intervention concept in developmental disability services. This study (N = 547) modeled patterns of family decision making and assessed benefits to persons with developmental disabilities (DDs) and their family members. A latent profile analysis identified 4 classes that were…
Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina
The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…
Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L
This paper explores the intimate relationship experiences of the cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine-identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners' self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified.
A clean event with a large multiplicity was detected in the CH 19 film exposed at Chacaltaya. Two jets produced in the producer were seen in this event '19 - 191'. Thirteen hadron components were observed. The height at which the event was produced was estimated to be about 320 m. A similar event '17 - 112' with a large multiplicity has been reported as an event in the CH 17 film. An event '17 - I153' with a large multiplicity was also seen in a producer jet. These three events have the mutually similar properties. The half-angle of the angular distribution was as large as 50 to 100 GeV. The values of the transverse momentum were large. These properties show that at the time of interaction, a very heavy intermediate product called UH quantum is produced, and decays thermally. A new method of analysis of air family is proposed. (Kato, T.)
Seiger Cronfalk, Berit; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Norberg, Astrid
To illuminate how family members of persons with dementia describe their own experiences, before and after placing their relative in a nursing home. In the Western world and with a growing population of older people, the number of persons with dementia increases. Family members often become carers in their own homes creating stressful and exhausting situation that eventually leads to relocating the person to a nursing home. This may lead to troubled conscience among family members. This is a qualitative study with descriptive design based on interviews with ten family members to residents with dementia at one small nursing home ward. Data were analysed using content analysis. Five categories were derived from data: relocating a person with dementia - a responsibility; visiting the resident - a relief or a burden; the participants taking part in and monitoring the residents' care needs; participants meeting their own needs; and thoughts about the future and resident's death. The result shows both positive and negative aspects of being a family member to persons with dementia. Family members described feeling relief as well as having a troubled conscience when placing a relative in a nursing home. They held themselves responsible for monitoring and evaluating the quality of the care. Family members expressed fearing a slow death for the person with dementia as well as for their own sake. Most felt well treated by the staff. Family members were responsible for relocating the residents to the nursing home. This in itself was found to cause feelings of moral concerns and generating troubled conscience. Staff at nursing homes needs to exercise family-centred care to benefit the persons with dementia, their family members and the staff themselves. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lohne, Vibeke; Høy, Bente; Wilhelm Rehnsfeldt, Arne
This qualitative study is focusing on dignity in nursing homes from the perspective of family caregivers. Dignity is a complex concept and central to nursing. Dignity in nursing homes is a challenge, according to research. Family caregivers are frequently involved in their family members’ daily...... experiences at the nursing home. This Scandinavian application study has a descriptive and explorative design. Twenty-nine family caregivers were included. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. The interpretations revealed two main themes: “One should......, but still important in nursing homes. It seems therefore important to further investigate experiences of family caregivers in the context of nursing homes....
The findings of a 7-year field experiment conducted in the Indian Punjab show that integrating family planning with health services is more effective and efficient than providing family planning separately. The field experiment was conducted between 1968 and 1974 at Narangwal in the Indian State of Punjab. It involved 26 villages, with a total population of 35,000 in 1971-72. The demographic characteristics of the villages were found to be typical of the area. 5 groups of villages were provided with different combinations of services for health, nutrition and family planning. A control group received no project services. A population study was made of the effects of integrating family planning with maternal and child health services. A nutritional study looked at the results of integrating nutritional care and health services. The effectiveness of integration was evaluated by identifying it both with increased use of family planning and improved health. Efficiency was judged by relating effectiveness to input costs. Distribution of the benefits was also examined. The effectiveness of these different combinations of services on the use of family planning was measured: 1) by all changes in the use of modern methods of family planning, 2) by the number of new acceptors, 3) by the changes in the proportion of eligible women using contraceptives, and 4) by how many people started to use the more effective methods. Results showed the use of family planning increased substantially in the experimental groups, whereas the control group remained constant. It was also found that, though the services combining family planning with maternal health care stimulated more use of family planning, they were more costly than the more integrated srevices. The Narangwal experiment provides significant evidence in favor of combining the provision of family planning and health services, but its potential for replication on a large scale needs to be studied.
Afzelius, M; Plantin, L; Östman, M
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Coping with parental mental illness in families can be challenging for both children and parents. Providing evidence-based family interventions to families where a parent has a mental illness can enhance the relationships in the family. Although psychiatric research has shown that evidence-based family interventions may improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack in this area of research from an everyday clinical context. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study reinforces the fact that parents with mental illnesses are searching for support from psychiatric services in order to talk to their children about their illness. The finding that under-age children comply when they are told by their parents to join an intervention in psychiatric services supporting the family is something not observed earlier in research. This study once more illuminates the fact that partners of a person with parental mental illness are seldom, in an obvious way, included in family support interventions. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Psychiatric services, and especially mental health nurses, have an important task in providing families with parental mental illness with support concerning communication with their children and in including the "healthy" partner in family support interventions. Introduction Although research has shown that evidence-based family interventions in research settings improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack of knowledge about interventions in an everyday clinical context. Aim This study explores how families with parental mental illness experience family interventions in a natural clinical context in psychiatric services. Method Five families with children aged 10-12 were recruited from psychiatric services in southern Sweden and interviewed in a manner inspired by naturalistic inquiry and content analysis. Both
Full Text Available There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality disorder, the care of these women was of vital importance, as they were less understood by mental health care providers.The research aimed to explore and describe the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was used. Data was collected through in-depth phenomenological interviews that focused on the central question, “Tell me your life story”. Eight participants living with borderline personality disorder were interviewed. Tesch's method for data analysis was used (Creswell, 2009:186, along with an independent coder. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical principles were applied throughout the research. From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with theself. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early on set of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different triggerfactors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.
Andersen, Stacy L; Sun, Jenny X; Sebastiani, Paola
Objectives. To evaluate personality profiles of Long Life Family Study participants relative to population norms and offspring of centenarians from the New England Centenarian Study.Method. Personality domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness were...... assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 4,937 participants from the Long Life Family Study (mean age 70 years). A linear mixed model of age and gender was implemented adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: A significant age trend was found in all five personality domains. On average, the offspring...... generation of long-lived families scored low in neuroticism, high in extraversion, and within average values for the other three domains. Older participants tended to score higher in neuroticism and lower in the other domains compared with younger participants, but the estimated scores generally remained...
Horwitz, Briana N.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.
This study investigated whether genetic and environmental influences on global family conflict are explained by parents’ personality, marital quality, and negative parenting. The sample comprised 876 same-sex pairs of twins, their spouse, and one adolescent child per twin from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS). Genetic influences on aggressive personality were correlated with genetic influences on global family conflict. Nonshared environmental influences on marital quality and ne...
M.Com. (Industrial Psychology) Orientation: An increasing number of women entering the workplace are experiencing inter-role conflict in their home and work domains. As a result, work-family conflict may occur. This may impact level of work engagement women experience. Research purpose: The study aimed to determine the effect of work-family conflict on work engagement amidst working mothers. In addition, the study investigated the moderating effect of the personality traits extraversion an...
Wlodarczyk, Julian; Lawn, Sharon
Victimisation is a traumatic experience linked to development of Borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, there is limited research investigating the developmental journey prior to BPD diagnosis. School environments offer an opportunity for BPD prevention and early intervention. A survey with 19 Australian family carers of people with BPD…
Rooks, Ronica N.; Ford, Cassandra
This personal reflection describes our experiences with incorporating the scholarship of teaching and learning and problem-based techniques to facilitate undergraduate student learning and their professional development in the health sciences. We created a family health history assignment to discuss key concepts in our courses, such as health…
On taking up their appointment, Members of the Personnel (employed and associated) are required to provide official documents as evidence of their family situation. Any subsequent change in their personal situation, or that of their family members, must be declared in writing to the Organization within 30 calendar days. As part of their efforts to simplify procedures, the Administrative Processes Section (DG-RPC-PA) and the HR and GS Departments have produced a new EDH form entitled “Change of family and personal situation", which must be used to declare the following changes: birth or adoption of a child; marriage; divorce; entry into a civil partnership officially registered in a Member State; dissolution of such a partnership; change of name; change of nationality or new nationality. Members of the Personnel must create the form themselves and provide the information required for the type of declaration concerned, indicating, if applicable, any benefit...
Cabote, Christy Joy; Bramble, Marguerite; McCann, Damhnat
Family caregiving for people with younger onset dementia affects everyone in the family unit. This article presents findings of a qualitative systematic review exploring the experiences of family caregivers of persons with younger onset dementia. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of five relevant articles, and two groups within the family unit were identified-child caregivers and adult and spousal caregivers. Using the thematic synthesis approach, five themes emerged: dementia damage, grief for loss of relationship, changes in family roles, positive and negative impacts of family caregiving, and transition to formal care. The review findings support increasing evidence that despite the stress of caring for a person with dementia damage, family members have the capacity to cope, adapt, and grow through their experiences. Nurses can assist families to identify their unique strengths and enhance family resiliency so they can navigate the "lonely road" of younger onset dementia. © The Author(s) 2015.
Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Qian, Zhengmin
Multiple avenues of research (e.g., criminal careers, intergenerational family transmission, and epidemiological studies) have indicated a concentration of antisocial traits and behaviors that cluster among families and within individuals in a population. The current study draws on each of these perspectives in exploring the intergenerational contours of antisocial personality disorder across multiple generations of a large-scale epidemiological sample. The analytic sample of persons meeting criteria for antisocial personality disorder (N = 1,226) was derived from waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Path analytic, latent class, and multinomial models were executed to describe and elucidate family histories among persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Three classes of an antisocial family tree were found: minimal family history of problem behaviors (70.3 % of sample) who were characterized by higher socioeconomic functioning, parental and progeny behavior problems (9.4 % of sample) who were characterized by criminal behaviors, psychopathology, and substance use disorders, and multigenerational history of problem behaviors (20.3 % of sample) who were characterized by alcoholism, psychopathology, and versatile criminal offending. These findings add a typology to intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior that can assist in identifying etiological and treatment factors among those for whom crime runs in the family.
Family experiences, the motivation for science learning and science achievement of ... active learning and achievement goals); boys perceived family experiences ... Recommendations were made as to how schools can support families in ...
Williams, Janet K; Skirton, Heather; Paulsen, Jane S; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Jarmon, Lori; McGonigal Kenney, Meghan; Birrer, Emily; Hennig, Bonnie L; Honeyford, Joann
This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the emotional experience of caregiving by family carers of people with Huntington disease and to describe strategies they used to deal with that experience. Huntington disease, commonly diagnosed in young to middle adulthood, is an inherited single gene disorder involving loss of cognitive, motor and neuropsychiatric function. Many family members become caregivers as well as continuing as parents and wage earners. The emotional aspects of caregiving contribute to mental health risks for family members. Focus groups were conducted with 42 adult carers of people with Huntington disease in four United States and two Canadian Huntington disease centers between 2001 and 2005. Data were analyzed through descriptive coding and thematic analysis. All participants reported multiple aspects of emotional distress. Being a carer was described as experiencing disintegration of one's life. Carers attempted to cope by seeking comfort from selected family members, anticipating the time when the care recipient had died and/or using prescription medications. Spousal carers were distressed by the loss of their relationship with their spouse and dealt with this by no longer regarding the person as an intimate partner. Carers were concerned about the disease risk for children in their families and hoped for a cure. Emotional distress can compromise the well-being of family carers, who attempt to maintain multiple roles. Nurses should monitor carer mental health, identify sources of emotional distress and support effective strategies used by carers to mediate distress.
From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with the self. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early onset of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different trigger factors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.
Moniz, Richard; Matthews, Joseph R
The incredible shift in the provision of library services resulting from innovations such as online resources, mobile technologies, tablet computers, and MOOCs and hybrid courses makes it more challenging than ever for academic librarians to connect students with the information they need. Enter the Personal Librarian, a flexible concept that focuses on customizing information literacy by establishing a one-on-one relationship between librarian and student from enrollment through graduation. In this book the editors, with decades of library instruction and academic library experience between t
Full Text Available In this paper we present our experience designing and developing two different systems to enable personal pervasive computing environments, Plan B and the Octopus. These systems were fully implemented and have been used on a daily basis for years. Both are based on synthetic (virtual file system interfaces and provide mechanisms to adapt to changes in the context and reconfigure the system to support pervasive applications. We also present the main differences between them, focusing on architectural and reconfiguration aspects. Finally, we analyze the pitfalls and successes of both systems and review the lessons we learned while designing, developing, and using them.
From Luessenhop's early clinical experience until the present day, experimental methods have been introduced to make progress in endovascular neurosurgery. A personal historical narrative, spanning the 1980s to 2010s, with a review of past opportunities, current problems, and future perspectives. Although the technology has significantly improved, our clinical culture remains a barrier to methodologically sound and safe innovative care and progress. We must learn how to safely practice endovascular neurosurgery in the presence of uncertainty and verify patient outcomes in real time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nakao, K; Takaishi, J; Tatsuta, K; Katayama, H; Iwase, M; Yorifuji, K; Takeda, M
In order to clarify the influences of family environment on the development of personality traits, 150 children (104 males and 46 females, mean age 13.2 +/- 2.4 years) who had been interviewed at the Child Guidance Clinic in Osaka were investigated. From 13 behavioral characteristics (activity, talkativeness, sociability, social skills, rule-keeping, will, aggression, emotional control, imagination, anxiety, maturity, intelligence, and neuroticism), factor analysis identified three personality traits: extraversion, maturity, and intellect. The effects of family environment (maternal and paternal participation in child rearing before and after 4years of age, child-rearing style, parental relationship, sibling relationship, number of siblings, birth order, and socioeconomic status) on these personality traits were examined based on a structural equation model. The results found, first, that extraversion was negatively associated with overprotection/interference and with maternal participation in child rearing. Maturity correlated with high socioeconomic status, appropriate child-rearing style, and paternal participation in child rearing. Intellect was related to high socioeconomic status and maternal participation in child rearing. Second, path analysis with selected variables revealed that 8% of variance in extraversion, 14% in maturity, and 10% in intellect was due to family environment. Third, children with high introversion or high intellect had stronger influences from family environment than did those with high extraversion or low intellect.
Zeng, Wen; North, Nicola; Kent, Bridie
This study aims to explore the factors associated with depression among older persons in Macau, in relation to family and social aspects. Depression among community-dwelling older persons in Macau has been shown to be present at high rates. In Chinese culture, depression leads to social stigmatisation, suggesting a need to better understand depression as a sociocultural phenomenon. A mixed methods study was undertaken to identify the key influences on depression among Chinese older persons in Macau. Quantitative (standardised tests) and qualitative (collection of narratives) data were collected from 31 purposively selected participants, all community-dwelling older persons with depression. Depression was common among the participants. The paper reports on the family and social aspects, one of the findings of the study. Informants readily described their thoughts and judgements of themselves in graphic language. As they explored their life stories, family and social aspects emerged as significant influences that associated with depression. In a society and culture that relies on and values filial support, experiences of being widowed, having poor family support and weak social networks appeared to compound and exacerbate depression. These findings highlight that filial support, valued in Chinese culture, is seriously strained by the realities of contemporary society. Yet current government policies rely on and confirm the role of family support. Findings from this study suggest a need for such policies to be reviewed to address the realities of family and social support. The findings have several implications for clinical practice. Firstly, the cultural context of Chinese older persons should be considered and emphasised in nursing practice. Secondly, the root of depression among Chinese older persons is seen to lie in their social, family, cultural and day-to-day living issues. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Perlick, Deborah A; Nelson, Ann H; Mattias, Kate; Selzer, James; Kalvin, Carla; Wilber, Charles H; Huntington, Brittney; Holman, Caroline S; Corrigan, Patrick W
This article reports preliminary findings from a novel, family peer-based intervention designed to reduce self-stigma among family members of people with serious mental illness. A total of 158 primary caregivers of patients with schizophrenia were recruited from a large urban mental health facility (93 caregivers) or from a family and consumer advocacy organization (65 caregivers). Caregivers (N=122) who reported they perceived at least a moderate level of mental illness-related stigma were evaluated on measures of self-stigma, withdrawal, secrecy, anxiety, and social comparison and randomly assigned to receive one of two, one-session group interventions: a peer-led intervention (In Our Own Voice-Family Companion [IOOV-FC]) designed to stimulate group discussion or a clinician-led family education session, which delivered information about mental illness in a structured, didactic format. IOOV-FC consisted of playing a videotape of family members who describe their experiences coping with stigma, which was followed by a discussion led by two family peers who modeled sharing their own experiences and facilitated group sharing. Of 24 family members and ten consumers, 96% rated the videotape above a predetermined acceptability threshold on a 19-item scale assessing cultural sensitivity, respect for different stakeholders, relevance of content, and technical quality (α=.92). Caregivers receiving IOOV-FC with low to moderate pretreatment anxiety reported a substantial reduction in self-stigma (effect size=.50) relative to those receiving clinician-led family education (p=.017) as well as significant reductions in secrecy (p=.031). Peer-led group interventions may be more effective in reducing family self-stigma than clinician-led education, at least for persons reporting experiencing low to moderate anxiety levels on a standard questionnaire
Full Text Available In this paper I suggest the analytical framework for interpreting personal and family stories about the loss of possessions, riches, job, reputation and status. I find the theoretic foothold in the decades long folkloristic and anthropological studies of personal stories and life histories, then in the concept by Gary Alan Fine, a sociologist and folklorist, about the idioculture of small groups through the discussion of the family folklore, and last in the discussion of the historic, social-economic and ideological context where personal and family losses occur. The incentive for me to deal with this type of stories resides in the fact that they have not been the subject of scientific analysis, neither in the world, nor in our country, except one work by an American folklorist Stanley Brandes from 1975, which served as my inspiration and model. The material for the analysis was collected in the form of term papers written by four generations of ethnology and anthropology third year students, attending the course in Folklore anthropology at the Ethnology and Anthropology Department of the Faculty of Philosophy of Belgrade University. A typology of these stories has been done, and they are divided into two groups with subtypes: stories about personal causes to material ruin, and about faith (destiny causing the ruin. Further on in the analysis I focused only on the context of the stories with the so-called "pre-destined (faith" causes of ruin, i.e., on the historic, social-economic and ideological changes in Serbia, which happened during the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century. The context of the revolutionary takeover of power by the Communists after the World War Two is discussed, as well as the violent dispossession of what was until then private property of many families in Serbia, and transferring that property into state and social possession (the so-called stories about nationalization, and also the specific context of post
Teh, Jane Kimm Lii; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho
This study investigates factors affecting older persons' state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791). Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were ...
Full Text Available Stigma is a serious impediment to the well-being of those who experience it. Many family- caregivers are challenged by the stereotypes and prejudice that result from misconceptions about bipolar disorder.The purpose of this study was to explore the stigma experienced by family caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder.This was a qualitative and phenomenological study. In this study, we selected the family caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder in a psychiatric hospital (Iran using purposive sampling in 2011. By reaching data saturation, the number of participant was 12. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews and analyzed by the "Collaizi" method.Stigma was a pervasive concern to almost all participants. Family caregivers of patients with Bipolar disorders reported feelings and experiences of stigma and were most affected by them. Analysis of the interviews revealed 3 themes: Negative judgment, Shame, Stigmatization and Social Isolation.For a person with bipolar disorder, this illness is associated with the following problems: worse recovery, difficulty accessing health services, receiving poor treatment and support, and difficulty gaining community acceptance. Rejection of people with mental illness might also affect their family caregivers at various levels.
Golovey L.A.; Vasilenko V.E.; Savenysheva S.S.
This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling) and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction). The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from sing...
Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L
Family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) is a highly under-researched area. The primary objective of the present analysis was to identify perpetrator, victim, and interaction/relationship factors associated with this phenomenon. The secondary objective was to examine the extent to which the relationship between caregiving and family violence was mediated by limit-setting practices used towards relatives with PD. 573 adults across the U.S. with an adult relative with PD completed an online survey. Multivariate logistic regression was performed examining the association of factors with the occurrence of family violence. Mediation was assessed with Sobel testing. Family violence was significantly associated with the following factors: perpetrator-income, illegal drug use, psychiatric hospitalization, treatment attendance, and use of medications; victim-age, employment status, income, and mental health status; interaction/relationship-parental relationship, co-residence, use of limit-setting practices, representative payeeship, and unofficial money management. Mediation was statistically significant. Increasing access to mental health and/or substance abuse treatment may decrease the risk of family violence. Interventions may benefit from attempting to decrease/modify the use of limit-setting practices. Where family representative payeeship or unofficial money management exists, it is advisable for practitioners to assess and address financial coercion and promote greater collaboration in financial decision-making. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Full Text Available The relations between personality, role engagement, and a four-dimensional typology of work-family balance (WFB were examined within a community-based sample (n = 213 derived from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (JYLS. The typology was formed based on both work-family conflict (WFC and enrichment (WFE experiences. The profiles of personality and role engagement differentiated the four WFB types – Beneficial, Harmful, Active, and Passive types. The Beneficial type (low WFC, high WFE; 48.4% was characterized by low neuroticism, high agreeableness and high conscientiousness. The opposite was observed for the Harmful type (high WFC, low WFE; 8.9%, which was also characterized by low family investment. In turn, high extraversion and high work and family investment characterized the Active type (high WFC, high WFE; 16.4%, whereas low extraversion and openness to experience as well as low work investment characterized the Passive type (low WFC, low WFE; 26.3%. Thus, rather than just being a unidimensional construct ranging from balance to imbalance, it is confirmed that WFB can also be seen as manifesting itself in multiple types, which are linked to meaningful differences in personality traits and role engagement.
Sinožić, T; Katić, M; Kovačević, J
satisfaction with the results achieved. Family doctors are involved in the care of chronic wound patients as part of the multidisciplinary team of experts. Additional specific knowledge and skills are required for such care in order to ensure overall quality care as a supplement of the existing knowledge, skills and working experience in family medicine.
Sadak, Tatiana; Foster Zdon, Susan; Ishado, Emily; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Borson, Soo
Health crises in persons living with dementia challenge their caregivers to make pivotal decisions, often under pressure, and to act in new ways on behalf of their care recipient. Disruption of everyday routines and heightened stress are familiar consequences of these events. Hospitalization for acute illness or injury is a familiar health crisis in dementia. The focus of this study is to describe the lived experience of dementia family caregivers whose care recipients had a recent unplanned admission, and to identify potential opportunities for developing preventive interventions. Family caregivers (n = 20) of people with dementia who experienced a recent hospitalization due to an ambulatory care sensitive condition or fall-related injury completed phone interviews. Interviews used semi-structured protocols to elicit caregivers' reactions to the hospitalization and recollections of the events leading up to it. Analysis of interview data identified four major themes: (1) caregiver is uncertain how to interpret and act on the change; (2) caregiver is unable to provide necessary care; (3) caregiver experiences a personal crisis in response to the patient's health event; (4) mitigating factors may prevent caregiver crises. This study identifies a need for clinicians and family caregivers to work together to avoid health crises of both caregivers and people with dementia and to enable caregivers to manage the health of their care recipients without sacrificing their own health and wellness.
Foli, Karen J; Schweitzer, Roberta; Wells, Courtenay
Nurses provide healthcare services to members of the adoption triad (AT; birth parents, adoptive parents, and the child) in a number of settings. However, nurses' perceptions of and interactions with members of the AT have not been investigated. This study describes the lived experiences of nurses and the care rendered to the AT using a descriptive phenomenological approach. In response to an invitation published in a national electronic newsletter, nurses were asked to submit narratives about their experiences in caring for members of the AT. Researchers coded 17 narratives using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the texts: (1) Where the personal and professional selves meet ("I see so many issues from both sides"); (2) The paradox of adoption ("...an emotional rollercoaster"); (3) Unique contexts of adoptive families ("We all have a story"); and (4) Reframing nurses' perceptions surrounding adoption ("There are several areas we could improve"). Nurses often have a personal connection to adoption and this potentiates the care delivered to AT members. Serving as role models for their peers and advocates for a better understanding of the dynamics of relinquishment and placement, nurses can improve clinical practices for these patients. Themes reflected insights gained from both personal and professional roles and offer specific interventions that enhance care of the AT. Nursing education and practice guidelines should include care rendered to the AT.
Dallos, Tomáš; Gálová, Lucia Lukáčiková; Macejková, Eva; Sedlačko, Jozef; Toplak, Nataša; Debeljak, Maruša; Sargsyan, Hasmik; Ilenčíková, Denisa; Kovács, László
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most prevalent genetically determined autoinflammatory disease. FMF significantly decreases the quality of life and limits life expectancy due to the development of amyloidosis in affected individuals. Prevalence of FMF is highest in the south-eastern Mediterraneans. In other parts of the world, its occurance is often restricted to high-risk ethnic groups. In Central Europe, experience with FMF is scarse to none, as in the case of Slovakia, where no cases have been reported, so far. Herein we report the first five patients (3 adults and 2 children, 4 native Slovaks) in whom the diagnosis of FMF could be confirmed in Slovakia. Our experience demonstrates that FMF does occur in low-risk populations in Central Europe. Due to low prevalence and lack of experience, FMF diagnosis may be significantly delayed (4.5-30 years) and undiagnosed cases are to be expected in our population.
Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Pavalur, Rajitha; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Phillip, Mariamma
There is a dearth of instruments to assess schizophrenia persons' Family Emotional Climate (FEC). This study aims to explore the relation between family members' personality traits and FEC. We invited a convenience sample of 50 both gender family members who were accompanying the person with schizophrenia for out-patient department (OPD) consultation to provide data on a socio-demographic proforma and the researcher prepared 'Emotional climate assessment questionnaire - caregivers' version' (ECAQ-C) as well as the Eysenck personality questionnaire. Caregivers' extroversion traits (r = .427, p = .002) were positively correlated and neuroticism traits were negatively correlated (r = -.330, p = .019) with their positive perception of FEC. There was a higher perception of positive FEC (mean scores = 65.5 ± 10.5) while caregivers seemed to perceive less negative FEC (mean scores = 36.5 ± 10.2). Caregivers with education above 11th std perceived less (χ(2) = 8.6, p = .013) of negative FEC. The findings highlight that caregivers' personality traits seem to influence the FEC. While caregivers' perception of FEC is positive in this study, those in the higher education group seem to have a better perception of FEC indicating that education also may influence FEC. © The Author(s) 2016.
Eliason, B C; Schubot, D B
Personal social values have been identified as important determinants of generalists' specialty choice. However, the personal values or "guiding principles" of generalist physicians have not been identified scientifically. To establish a benchmark, we measured the personal values of exemplary family physicians because they serve as role models for current and future physicians. We also explored the relationship between personal values and practice satisfaction. We obtained a list of 330 family physicians nominated for the American Academy of Family Physicians' (AAFP) Family Doctor of the Year award for the years 1988 through 1993. We asked them to complete the Schwartz Values Questionnaire, a 56-item instrument for measuring personal values. They also answered three questions concerning practice satisfaction. The return rate was 83%. The physicians' mean age was 63 years. They had been in practice an average of 34 years, 93% were male, and 52% practiced in rural areas. Honesty was rated as the most important of the 56 values, and social power as the least important. Of the 10 value types (groups of common values), the responding physicians rated "Benevolence" as most important and "Power" as least important. Practice satisfaction correlated positively with the Benevolence value type (r = .21, P = .001) and negatively with the Power value type (r = -.15, P = .023). Of the 10 value types, Benevolence was rated the most important and Power the least important by exemplary family physicians, and both value types also correlated, positively and negatively, respectively, with their practice satisfaction. These results have implications for the selection, training, and career satisfaction of generalist physicians.
Bellato, Roseney; Araújo, Laura Filomena Santos de; Dolina, Janderléia Valéria; Musquim, Cleciene Dos Anjos; Corrêa, Geovana Hagata de Lima Souza Thaines
An essay that aims to reflect on the family experience of care in chronic situation, increasing the understanding of the family as the primary caregiver. It is based on comprehensive approach in studies conducted in three matrix searches from family care experiences. We have taken three axes to organize our reflections: a) conformation of family care in chronic situation, highlighting the multiple costs incurred to the family, which can exhaust the potential of care and establish or increase its vulnerability if it is not backed by networks support and sustenance; b) family rearrangements for the care, giving visibility to care cores in which many loved family members share the care, dynamic, plural and changeable way; c) self care modeling family care, pointing to the range of possibilities of the person taking care of diseased conditions supported by people close to them. We learn that the family takes care of itself in everyday life and in the illness experience, creating networks that can provide you support and sustenance. Thus, professionals in health practices should shape up in a longitudinal and very personal way, by reference to the family care, supporting him in what is his own. Ensaio que tem por objetivo refletir sobre a experiência familiar de cuidado na situação crônica, ampliando a compreensão da família como cuidadora primária. Embasa-se em estudos de abordagem compreensiva realizados em três pesquisas matriciais que abordaram experiências familiares de cuidado. Tomamos três eixos para organizar nossas reflexões: a) conformação do cuidado familiar na situação crônica, destacando os múltiplos custos gerados à família, que podem exaurir seus potenciais de cuidado, instaurando ou ampliando sua vulnerabilidade se não for amparada por redes de apoio e sustentação; b) rearranjos familiares para o cuidado, dando visibilidade aos núcleos de cuidado compartilhados pelos diversos entes familiares, de modo dinâmico, plural e mut
Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Salgado, Ana; González-Pienda, Julio A; Valle, Antonio; Joly, Cristina; Bernardo, Ana
Test anxiety is a common behavior among students facing social pressure centered on mastery. Only a few studies have analyzed the relations between test anxiety, academic procrastination, personal and family variables and math grades. This work focus on the analysis of the impact of students' social-personal variables such as parents' education level, number of siblings and under-achievement by performing ANOVAs in two samples of 533 and 796 students from junior high-school. Corroborating the findings in other studies, the data stress that test anxiety is higher in girls and decreases when students' parents have higher educational levels, with the number of courses flunked, and when students' math grades were lower. Test anxiety and procrastination correlate positive and significantly. Findings are discussed and compared with those of previous researches. The implications for teaching practice are also analyzed.
Rosário, Pedro; Costa, Marta; Núñez, José Carlos; González-Pienda, Julio; Solano, Paula; Valle, Antonio
Procrastination is a common behavior, mainly in school settings. Only a few studies have analyzed the associations of academic procrastination with students' personal and family variables. In the present work, we analyzed the impact of socio-personal variables (e.g., parents' education, number of siblings, school grade level, and underachievement) on students' academic procrastination profiles. Two independent samples of 580 and 809 seventh to ninth graders, students attending the last three years of Portuguese Compulsory Education, have been taken. The findings, similar in both studies, reveal that procrastination decreases when the parents' education is higher, but it increases along with the number of siblings, the grade level, and the underachievement. The results are discussed in view of the findings of previous research. The implications for educational practice are also analyzed.
Green-Bailey, Patricia; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen
This study examined the relationship of overall family conflict and stress to adult personality development in young adult college students from intact families, as compared to young adults who had experienced childhood parental divorce. Seventy-five students from divorced families and 78 students from intact families completed a screening…
Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction. The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from single parent families had higher indicators of anxiety, insecurity, depressiveness, self-distrust, hostility, feeling of inferiority, conflicts and difficulties in communication. In families with pronounced overprotection and characteristics of an authoritarian style children had lower self- esteem and higher indicators of anxiety and hostility. Children's aggressiveness was more pronounced in the case of permissive style and instability of parenting style. It was shown that emotional well-being in the parent-child relationships can be regarded as a resource for personal development of the child: understanding the causes of child s state, empathy. However we revealed that one third part of mothers had difficulties in emotional interaction with children. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-00480 «The family as a resource of child´s mental development in stable and critical ontogenetic periods».
Byrd, Marcia Marie; Garwick, Ann Williams
The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to describe how eight Black-White couples with school-aged children constructed their interracial family identity through developmental transitions and interpreted race to their children. Within and across-case data analytic strategies were used to identify commonalities and variations in how Black men and White women in couple relationships formed their family identities over time. Coming together was the core theme described by the Black-White couples as they negotiated the process of forming a family identity. Four major tasks in the construction of interracial family identity emerged: (a) understanding and resolving family of origin chaos and turmoil, (b) transcending Black-White racial history, (c) articulating the interracial family's racial standpoint, and (d) explaining race to biracial children across the developmental stages. The findings guide family nurses in promoting family identity formation as a component of family health within the nurse-family partnership with Black-White mixed-race families.
Boyer, Glenda J.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how family members experience the phenomenon of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in the family unit, over time, and to examine the meanings family members attach to the experience. The participants were six nuclear families (20 individuals) of six adolescent mothers who had previously…
Menardo, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Cubelli, Roberto
Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge, and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social, and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal, and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area. Results showed that Socioeconomic Status (i.e., parental education level and occupational prestige), which is the only dimension generally measured in investigations on Socio-Cultural Level, was not related with personality. In contrast, Cultural Capital and Social Capital were associated with different personality traits. Personal Cultural Capital was related to Openness to experience of boys and girls and to Extraversion of girls; personal Social Capital was related to Extraversion of girls, Emotional stability of boys, and Agreeableness of both boys and girls; maternal Cultural Capital was associated with Openness to experience of daughters. Overall, the personality of teenagers was more related to their own Cultural and Social Capital than to the Cultural and Social Capital of their parents. Moreover, the relationship between Cultural Capital and Social Capital of boys/girls and of fathers/mothers was moderate in strength. It seems that parents influence the development of personality of their teenagers indirectly, their Socio-Cultural Level shaping the Socio-Cultural Level of their sons and daughters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Family as the basic social unit is the primary environment of the development of an individual. In the family setting an individual satisfies (or should satisfy the basic human needs such as the need for safety and love. In the studies of patterns of unadapted behavior of children and adolescents, temperament is most often stated as the key human characteristic feature that is the most important predictor in the development of unadapted and antisocial forms of behavior. The survey of dispositional empirically identified and inheritance-determined characteristics has been described in detail by Eysenck’s dimensional model of personality through mutually orthogonal and bipolar characteristics: Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychoticism. The formation of these dispositional characteristics is closely related to parents’ sensitivity to child’s needs and the level of parents’ engagement in their parental role. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine to what extent the assessment of the quality of the relationship with parents is an important predictor for explaining the basic dimensions of adolescents’ personalities. The research was conducted on an appropriate sample of 135 adolescents, students of the Faculty of Philosophy in Tuzla. The results confirm that the aspects of negative relationships with mother and father are important predictors for explaining dimensions of Neuroticism and Psychoticism, which are very significant correlations of unadapted and antisocial behavior. Also, the results indicate less significant importance of positive relations with mother and father for explaining dependent research variables since it is presumed that positive relations act more as a protective factor whereas the assessment of negative relationships with parents is certainly more important, especially for the dimensions related to bad adaptation of adolescents. The results also indicate equal importance of mother and father in the
Full Text Available Family as the basic social unit is the primary environment of the development of an individual. In the family setting an individual satisfies (or should satisfy the basic human needs such as the need for safety and love. In the studies of patterns of unadapted behavior of children and adolescents, temperament is most often stated as the key human characteristic feature that is the most important predictor in the development of unadapted and antisocial forms of behavior. The survey of dispositional empirically identified and inheritance-determined characteristics has been described in detail by Eysenck’s dimensional model of personality through mutually orthogonal and bipolar characteristics: Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychoticism. The formation of these dispositional characteristics is closely related to parents’ sensitivity to child’s needs and the level of parents’ engagement in their parental role. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine to what extent the assessment of the quality of the relationship with parents is an important predictor for explaining the basic dimensions of adolescents’ personalities. The research was conducted on an appropriate sample of 135 adolescents, students of the Faculty of Philosophy in Tuzla. The results confirm that the aspects of negative relationships with mother and father are important predictors for explaining dimensions of Neuroticism and Psychoticism, which are very significant correlations of unadapted and antisocial behavior. Also, the results indicate less significant importance of positive relations with mother and father for explaining dependent research variables since it is presumed that positive relations act more as a protective factor whereas the assessment of negative relationships with parents is certainly more important, especially for the dimensions related to bad adaptation of adolescents. The results also indicate equal importance of mother and father in the
Güth, W.; Sutter, M.; Verbon, H.A.A.; Weck-Hannemann, H.
We present an overlapping generations model with two families who can guarantee old age support either by intra-family transfers from child to parent or via a tax-financed public pension system encompassing both families.We derive the individually and family-specific optimal decisions and present
Papathomas, Anthony; Smith, Brett; Lavallee, David
Families are considered important in the management and treatment of eating disorders. Yet, rarely has research focused on family experiences of living with an eating disorder. Addressing this gap, this study explores the experiences of an elite 21-year-old triathlete with an eating disorder in conjunction with the experiences of her parents. Family members attended interviews individually on three separate occasions over the course of a year. In line with the narrative approach adopted, whereby stories are considered the primary means to construct experience, interviews encouraged storytelling through an open-ended, participant-led structure. Narrative analysis involved repeated readings of the transcripts, sensitising towards issues of narrative content (key themes) and structure (overarching plot). Family difficulties arose when personal experiences strayed from culturally dominant narrative forms and when family members held contrasting narrative preferences. Suggestions are forwarded as to how an appreciation of eating disorder illness narratives might inform treatment and support. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sachs, Roberta G.; And Others
Explores marital and family therapy in treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), discussing role of family of origin in MPD development and role of nuclear family in its perpetuation. Suggests family and marital interventions, illustrating them with case examples. Proposes involving MPD client in marital or family therapy, in addition to…
Frick, T.W. (Thomas W.); T. Li (Ting)
textabstractThis study compares the effectiveness of product- and category-specific advertising personalization in Social Retargeting. Social Retargeting combines the features of social advertising, targeting consumers based on social connections, and retargeting, using consumers' browsing behavior
Rahim Rohani Abdul; Ahmad Tajuddin Muhammad Afiq bin; Abu Bakar Kamaruddin bin Hj.; Abdul Rahim Mohammad Nizamuddin Bin
Malaysia continues to face various challenges derived from the widespread of international migratory movement because of various economic reasons. Malaysia strategic geographical location, in the center of the South East Asian region made the country an attractive destination for human smuggling and trafficking in persons activities. Some of the smuggled persons may end up being trafficked victims base on the definition adopted by Malaysian laws on “trafficked victims”. Malaysia Anti-Traffick...
Kurtis J. Swope; John Cadigan; Pamela M. Schmitt; Robert S. Shupp
Student volunteers at the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA) participated in one of the following oneshot games: a dictator game, an ultimatum game, a trust game, or a prisoner’s dilemma game. We find limited support for the importance of personality type for explaining subjects’ decisions. With controls for personality preferences, we find little evidence of behavioral differences between males and females. Furthermore, we conclude that seniority breeds feelings of entitlement - seniors at USNA gener...
Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B
Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family.
Torrance, Tracy A.; Bugos, Jennifer A.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationship between personality type and ensemble choice and (2) to examine the differences in personality across age and music experience in young adults. Participants (N = 137; 68 instrumentalists, 69 vocalists) completed a demographic survey and the Big Five Personality Inventory.…
Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda
This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…
Lau, Bobo Hi-Po; Cheng, Cecilia
Gratitude is widely perceived as a key factor to psychological well-being by different cultures and religions. The relationship between gratitude and coping in the context of familial dementia caregiving has yet to be investigated. This study is the first to examine the associations among gratitude, coping strategies, psychological resources and psychological distress using a structural equation modelling approach. Findings with 101 Chinese familial caregivers of persons with dementia (mean age = 57.6, range = 40-76; 82% women) showed that gratitude was related to the greater use of emotion-focused coping (positive reframing, acceptance, humour, emotional social support seeking, religious coping) and psychological resources (caregiving competence and social support). Psychological resources and emotion-focused coping in turn explained the association between gratitude and lower levels of psychological distress (caregiving burden and depressive symptoms). The present results indicate the beneficial role of gratitude on coping with caregiving distress and provide empirical foundation for incorporating gratitude in future psychological interventions for caregivers.
Renaud, Michelle T
To describe lesbians' personal and health care experiences of becoming pregnant, giving birth, and being mothers and comothers within the context of potentially oppressive family, social, and political structures. Critical ethnography. Participants' homes, lesbian mother support group, and prenatal clinics and hospitals in the Pacific Northwest. English-speaking self-identified lesbian women, including 21 interview and six focus-group participants and approximately 43 observed in a support group. In-depth open-ended interviews, focus group, and participant observation. Content/categorical analysis followed by discussion of the mother's stories and a critical conversation about lesbian mothering. The seven organizing themes are as follows: preparing the way: becoming ready; conception: you can't just fall into it; you can hear a heartbeat: pregnancy; birthing our babies; the work of mothers and mothers who work; families who sustain and families who oppose; and sources of support in everyday life. The first four are described in this article. Health care providers, policy makers, and the public can be better informed about the specific needs of childbearing lesbians.
Full Text Available Aggression is part of South African society and has implications for the mental health of persons living in South Africa. If parents are aggressive adolescents are also likely to be aggressive and that will impact negatively on their mental health. In this article the nature and extent of adolescents' experiences of aggression and aggressive behaviour in the family are investigated. A deductive explorative quantitative approach was followed. Aggression is reasoned to be dependent on aspects such as self-concept, moral reasoning, communication, frustration tolerance and family relationships. To analyse the data from questionnaires of 101 families (95 adolescents, 95 mothers and 91 fathers Cronbach Alpha, various consecutive first and second order factor analyses, correlations, multiple regression, MANOVA, ANOVA and Scheffè/ Dunnett tests were used. It was found that aggression correlated negatively with the independent variables; and the correlations between adolescents and their parents were significant. Regression analyses indicated that different predictors predicted aggression. Furthermore, differences between adolescents and their parents indicated that the experienced levels of aggression between adolescents and their parents were small. Implications for education are given.
Smith, Sarah L; DeGrace, Beth; Ciro, Carrie; Bax, Ami; Hambrick, Andrea; James, Jennifer; Evans, Alexandra
Child health and developmental outcomes are influenced by the health of the family and the context created. Research suggests symptoms of poor family health (e.g. suboptimal family interactions, parenting stress) yet there is limited understanding of the factors which contribute to robust family health which may unveil opportunities for targeted intervention and family health promotion. The present study examined families' experiences of family health and factors contributing to family health. We performed a qualitative study using constructivist grounded theory methods to guide our understanding of family health for families with typically developing children aged 5-18. Interviews were conducted in family homes and all members were invited to participate. Data from interviews were transcribed, coded, thematically analyzed, and verified with select families. Ten families, including 10 mothers, 8 fathers, and 15 children participated in the study. Participants described family health as a process of balance, living purposefully, and sharing experiences together in alignment with family identity. Mediating family health were processes of awareness and reflection, and adapting, adjusting, and changing in response to family life including external stress factors. Results highlight the possibility for healthcare practitioners to facilitate families' self-reflection and awareness about their health in order to mediate family health development.
Duckworth, Kenneth; Halpern, Lisa
Peer support and peer-led family psychoeducation represent two distinct and complementary recovery-oriented models to support individuals who live with schizophrenia and their families, respectively. The goals of these models focus on improving knowledge, coping, self-care, social support, and self-management strategies. These models represent important capacity-building strategies for people who live with the illness and the people who love them. This brief article is intended to provide the practicing clinician, person living with schizophrenia, and policy maker with a working knowledge of the current state of the literature in these two related fields. Practitioners should consider these resources and integrate them into their care. A person living with schizophrenia could use this review to advocate for appropriate resources and to identify career opportunities. Policy makers could benefit from an understanding of the literature to mitigate financial and cultural barriers to adopting these practices. The last 5 years have seen a dramatic expansion of the application of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to give evidence to match the experience of people in these programs. The field has seen Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) named as evidence-based practice by the National Registry of Evidence-Based Practices. A RCT was also conducted for another peer-developed and led program called Building Recovery of Individual Dreams & Goals through Education & Support. Family to Family, the largest peer-led family psychoeducation course, was also found to have significant impact after the study and also 6 months later in RCT. Family to Family has also been named as an evidence-based practice. The field of people who are living well with schizophrenia working as resources and supports to others living with the illness is an idea that is growing momentum. This momentum has been matched by the RCT evidence. Peer support as a professional role has an emerging literature
Jane Kimm Lii Teh
Full Text Available This study investigates factors affecting older persons’ state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791. Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were more likely than their Chinese and Indian counterparts to experience loneliness. Loneliness was found to be associated with age, marital status, education level, sources of income, health status, and physical limitations. Among older people, feelings of loneliness were inversely related with coresidence with adult children and participation in religious activities. Sociodemographic changes have eroded the traditional family support system for the elderly, while social security remains inadequate. This study shows the important role of family in alleviating loneliness among older people. Hence the need to promote and facilitate coresidence, as well as participation in religious activities, and a healthy lifestyle as a priority strategy is in line with the objectives of the National Policy for the Older People.
Williams, Sloan R
In 1998, Foster and colleagues published the results of a genetic study intended to test whether Thomas Jefferson could have fathered any of Sally Hemings' children. They found that the Jefferson Y chromosome haplotype matched that of a descendant of Hemings' youngest child, but not that of the descendants of the eldest son, Thomas Woodson. The Woodson descendants were shocked by the study's finding, which disagreed with their family oral history. They were suspicious of the study conclusions because of the methods used in recruiting participants for the study and the manner in which they learned of the results. The Woodsons' experience as participants in one of the first examples of genetic genealogy illustrates several issues that both geneticists and amateur genetic genealogists will face in studies of this kind. Misperceptions about the relationship between biology and race, and group genetics in general, can make the interpretation of genetic data difficult. Continuing collaborations between the media and the scientific community will help the public to better understand the risks as well as the benefits of genetic genealogy. Researchers must decide prior to beginning their research what role the human subjects will play in the study and when they will be notified of the study's conclusions. Amateur genetic genealogists should anticipate unexpected outcomes, such as the identification of nonpaternity, to minimize any harmful effects to study participants. Although modern genetic methods provide a powerful new tool for genealogical study, they cannot resolve all genealogical issues, as this study shows, and can involve unanticipated risks to the participants.
Full Text Available Foster care is an almost absent component in the child care system and scientific research conducted in Portugal foster comprises 3.2%1 of out-of-home care in Portugal. This research aims to contribute to a deeper visibility of the care phenomena, giving specific attention to the foster families themselves. This research adopted a qualitative analytical approach, inspired by Grounded Theory. Foster families’ motivation is rooted in altruism, affection for children, and sensitivity to maltreatment. Personal and professional biography or past contact with out-of-home care can also induce predisposition to become a carer. The experience of being a carer2 is one of traversing through a life of many challenges and rewards. Considering the recognition from the stakeholders, it is a rewarding task. The quality of the service provided and the performance of the care professionals are both key elements to foster care.
Prevoo, Tyas; ter Weel, Bas
This research documents the effects of different forms of family disruptions - measured by separation, divorce and death - on personality development of British children included in the 1970 British Cohort Study. There are statistically significant correlations between family disruptions prior to the age of 16 and personality development in early childhood. Parental divorce has the largest negative effect on a child's personality development. Family disruptions have smaller effects on persona...
Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire combined with items investigating family experiences. ... science achievement: inadequate school resources and weak household ..... informal interviews with the science teachers of the.
Neiditch, Emily R.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) puts great stress on the family system as family members cope with difficult symptoms, accompanying stigma, and caregiver burden. However, development and research on family interventions for BPD lags behind that of other serious mental illnesses. The current study describes a sample of family members,…
Huang, I-Chen; Mu, Pei-Fan; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye
The purpose of this study was to explore the essence of family experiences in terms of family resources and how these assist a single-parent caring for a child with cancer. When families face stresses caused by cancer, they need to readjust their roles, interactive patterns and relationships, both inside and outside the family. During the adaptation process, family resources may assist recovery from stress and a return to equilibrium. Most research has emphasised the support resources available to two-parent families during the treatment process. There is a lack of information on the experiences of single-parent families and their available resources together with the functions and roles played by family resources during the adjustment process. Qualitative. Five major themes were identified: (i) facing the disease with courage; (ii) hope kindled by professionals; (iii) constructing parental role ability; (iv) assisting the children to live with the illness; and (v) family flexibility. The results of the current study demonstrate that single-parent families with a child suffering from cancer employ family resources to assist family adjustment and to maintain family function/equilibrium. These results explain the dynamic interactions between the multiple levels of resources available to the family. The study results provide evidence-based information that identifies the nature of family resources in single-parent families and describes how these resources can be applied to assist the families.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study’s empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Methods Seventeen family members with a relative who 8–14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. Results The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. Conclusions The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could
Sjolander, Catarina; Ahlstrom, Gerd
To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study's empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Seventeen family members with a relative who 8-14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could encourage nurses and other health-care professionals to focus on family members
Rözer, Jesper; Mollenhorst, Gerald; Poortman, Anne-Rigt
We examine the link between family and personal networks. Using arguments about meeting opportunities, competition and social influence, we hypothesise how the presence of specific types of family members (i.e., a partner, children, parents and siblings) and non-family members (i.e., friends, neighbours and colleagues) in the network mutually affect one another. In addition, we propose that-beyond their mere presence-the active role of family members in the network strongly affects the presence of non-family members in the network. Data from the third wave of the Survey on the Social Networks of the Dutch, collected in 2012 and 2013, show that active involvement is of key importance; more than merely having family members present in one's personal network, the active involvement of specific types of family members in the personal network is associated with having disproportionally more other family members and having somewhat fewer non-family members in the network.
Clark, Malissa A; O'Neal, Catherine W; Conley, Kate M; Mancini, Jay A
Deployment affects not just the service members, but also their family members back home. Accordingly, this study examined how resilient family processes during a deployment (i.e., frequency of communication and household management) were related to the personal reintegration of each family member (i.e., how well each family member begins to "feel like oneself again" after a deployment), as well as several indicators of subjective well-being. Drawing from the family attachment network model (Riggs & Riggs, 2011), the present study collected survey data from 273 service members, their partners, and their adolescent children. Resilient family processes during the deployment itself (i.e., frequency of communication, household management), postdeployment positive and negative personal reintegration, and several indicators of well-being were assessed. Frequency of communication was related to personal reintegration for service members, while household management was related to personal reintegration for nondeployed partners; both factors were related to personal reintegration for adolescents. Negative and positive personal reintegration related to a variety of subjective well-being outcomes for each individual family member. Interindividual (i.e., crossover) effects were also found, particularly between adolescents and nondeployed partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Mahmud, Al A.; Gross, T.; Gulliksen, J.; Kotzé, P.; Oestreicher, L.; Palanque, P; Oliveira Prates, R.; Winckler, M.
When a person, due to brain injury or another disease, suffers in his or her ability to speak, it becomes inherently cumbersome to share needs, emotions, and experiences through personal stories and social interaction. This paper describes the aim and progress of the author’s dissertation, which
There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality ...
I will present here a personal point of view on the commitment of mathematicians in medicine. Starting from my personal experience, I will suggest generalisations including favourable signs and caveats to show how mathematicians can be welcome and helpful in medicine, both in a theoretical and in a practical way.
Lazartigues, A; Planche, P; Saint-André, S; Morales, H
In Occidental countries the frame of modern families has been reshaped, and vast economical and social changes have taken place over the last thirty years. They have been marked by the disengagement of the State in the marriage, a giant evolution in conjugality which is becoming privatized and made insecure, changes in gender relations, new motives and conditions for the arrival of the child in the couple, i.e. planned birth, wished or desired infant, infant conceived for oneself, and parenthood has been turned upside down through the extensive evolution of its laws and symbolic-landmarks as well as in practical experience. As these new coordinates of the family are now centred on the consensus instead of authority for the organisation of relationships between its members and on hedonism instead of duty as main value, with a child issued from the desire and acknowledged, from the onset, as a full person "the baby is a person" a child made "for oneself and for him/herself" (and not for the society), brought up in an environment where the media can be considered as a "third parent" because of it's growing importance, the structure of the child's psyche no longer matches the neurotic model. Studies made by anthropologists have led us to hypothesise a new "basic personality" in order to reflect the consequences of the new landmarks in society and the new family, as well as the outcome of new educational practices; this new "basic personality" would replace the basic normal/neurotic one, which dominated over the first half of the twentieth century. This basic personality, which could be termed as "narcissistic-hedonistic", is characterized by few internalizations, a poorly efficient Superego, nearly no guilt feeling, a weakly socialized Ideal Self suggesting more the Ideal Self of the early childhood, and finally a difficulty in experiencing or testing oneself as a free subject. The resulting narcissistic fragility leads the subject to be more dependent on external
Keiski, Pia; Flinck, Aune; Kaunonen, Marja; Paavilainen, Eija
To explore the childhood experiences of women who have perpetrated family-violence and voluntarily sought help. The qualitative design includes in-depth, unstructured individual interviews with 19 women who have perpetrated family-violence. The categories of maltreatment exposure, parental capability, and a role of the sensitive, good girl are identified and described in this article. The findings provide guidance for nurses who encounter families at risk of female family-violence perpetration and for those developing preventive interventions for female family-violence perpetrators whose family-of-origin issues are essential in processing issues of self. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The history of nucleon scattering experiments is reviewed, starting with the observation of large proton polarizations in scattering from light elements such as carbon, and ending with the acceleration of polarized proton beams in high-energy synchrotrons. Special mention is made about significant contributions made by C.L. Oxley, L. Wolfenstein, R.D. Tripp, T. Ypsilantis, A. Abragam, M. Borghini, T. Niinikoski, Froissart, Stora, A.D. Krisch, and L.G. Ratner
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how workers in a crisis resolution home treatment (CRHT team experience the relationship between their personal history and professional role. This paper is based on 13 in-depth interviews with health professionals working in CRHT. The interviews were analysed using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. Participants expressed that there is a relationship between their personal history and professional role, and three themes are highlighted as particularly important in, namely experiences related to the participants as individuals, work-related experiences and family-related experiences. The participants write meaning into the relationship between their personal history and professional role. By relating and exploring their own life stories in the interviews, they work on forming meaning and identity.
Ana Carolina Gravena Vanalli
Full Text Available Adoption includes changes to both the child and the adoptive home. Seeking to know the experiences regarding adoption, the couple and the family's experiences, two adoptive mothers were interviewed. The results indicate that the integration of the adopted child was carried out in a positive way, filling an apparent empty spot, and the adopted child was considered responsible for family harmony.
Wheeler, Krista; Zhao, Weiyan; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun
Immigrants to the United States are disproportionately victims of homicide mortality in and outside the workplace. Examining their experiences with nonfatal victimization may be helpful in understanding immigrant vulnerability to violence. We compared the annual prevalence of nonfatal personal victimization experienced by immigrant and US-born adults by sociodemographics, employment, occupation, industry, smoking, alcohol and drug use using data from Wave 1 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults [3.84% (95% CI: 3.18-4.63) vs. 4.10% (95% CI: 3.77-4.44)]. Lower percentages of victimization experienced by immigrants were seen among the unmarried, those age 30-44 years, and among residents of central city areas as compared to those groups among the US-born. For immigrants entering the US as youth, the victimization prevalence declines with greater years of residency in US. Multivariate logistic regression models suggest that, the odds of victimization was significantly associated with age, family income, marital status, central city residency, smoking, and drug use while employment status was not a significant factor. Immigrant workers with farming/forestry occupations might face a higher risk of being victims of violence than their US-born counterparts. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults. Employment status and industry/occupation overall were not significant risk factors for becoming victims of violence. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Geraci, G; Sciumè, C; Pisello, F; Li Volsi, F; Facella, T; Tinaglia, D; Modica, G
To review the indications, complications, and outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), that are placed routinely in patients unable to obtain adequate nutrition from oral feeding for swallowing disorders (neurological diseases, head and neck cancer, oesophageal cancer, psychological disorders). Retrospective review of patients referred for PEG placement from 2003 to 2005. Endoscopic Surgery in Section of General and Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Palermo, Italy. A total of 50 patients, 11 women and 39 men, referred our Section for PEG placement. Indications for PEG placement included various neurologic impairment (82%), oesophageal non-operable cancer (6%), cardia non-operable cancer (4%), cerebrovascular accident (2%), anorexia (2%), pharyngeal esophageal obstruction (2%), head and neck cancer (2%). All patients received preoperative antibiotics as short-term profilaxis. 51 PEGs were positioned in 50 patients. No major complications were registered; 45 patients (90%) were alive at 1 year follow-up and no mortality procedure-related was registered. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy removal had been performed on 2 patients as end-point of treatment, and 43 patients continued to have PEGs in use at 2006. Outpatients PEG placement using conscious sedation is a safe and effective method for providing enteral nutrition. This technique constitutes the gold standard treatment for enteral nutrition in patients with neurologic impairment or as prophylactic in patients affected by head and neck cancer who needs demolitive surgery. Patients should be carefully assessed, and discussion with the patient and their families should be held to determine that the patient is an appropriate candidate. The Authors feel prophylactic antibiotics lessened the incidence of cutaneous perigastrostomy infection.
Fäldt Ciccolo, Erica B
Elements of family dynamics have been shown to be related to onset, course, as well as prognosis of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The goal was to explore the experience of family relations in a group of patients with eating disorders using a projective family test. The Patient group (anorexia=21, bulimia=16), as well as a healthy Control group, were given a projective family test, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, as well as Karolinska Scales of Personality. The Patient group expressed more discord within the family picture than the Control group, such as cold and loveless relationships and not feeling validated. The group of patients reporting the most family discord did not show more eating disorder pathology or general psychopathology. They did, however, have higher scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 subscale Maturity Fears, as well as higher values on the Karolinska Scales of Personality subscale Socialization. These results are interpreted within the background of methodological challenges in this area of research.
Farar, Johannes; Schüssler, Gerhard
Do some life story patterns exist, which are associated with depression? Can some life story factors be identified, which influence or determine a special kind of personality, predisposing to depression? Retrospective, cross sectional study with nonexperimental character, using a number of 60 nonmelancholic depressed patients. First, they were asked to give an interview on their life story. Then, they were asked to fill in questionnaires about personality, parental style of raising, clinical symptoms and personality disorders. Significant correlations could be found between parental style of raising, a family history affected by depression, a dysfunctional household, the family composition, negative school experience and all investigated styles of personality. Further, clusters of personality, clusters of parental style of raising and clusters of specific life story factors could be detected. Results show a strong relation between life story factors and personality styles, predisposing to depression and emphasize the importance of considering personality, when exploring special life story factors. Vice versa, actual personality styles can point to different patterns of life story and thus, show the relevance for the diagnostic and therapeutic process.
Roberto, Karen A; Blieszner, Rosemary
Demographic and social trends lead to a variety of micro-level and internal structural contexts that influence caregiving in families with older members. The results of macro-level changes have received little focused attention in the aging literature, where much of the caregiving research has addressed issues within the context of traditional family structure. Yet the conventional nuclear family model is increasingly uncommon as new, pluralistic models of family life are emerging in contemporary society. The majority of elder care is provided by relatives, albeit with varying patterns of involvement and responsibility across family structures. Both conventional and pluralistic families face challenges in meeting the care needs of their oldest members, leaving some older adults at risk of having unmet needs. Additional research on family risk and resilience related to the care of older relatives is warranted, particularly with respect to pluralistic models of family life.
Cho, Mi Sook; Kim, Miseon
BACKGROUND A higher frequency of family meals is associated with good dietary habits in young people. This study focused on the relationships of family meal frequency with food neophobia and personality traits in adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHOD For this purpose, we administered a survey to 495 middle school students in Seoul metropolitan city, after which the data were analyzed using the SPSS (18.0) program. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships among dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia according to frequency of family meals. RESULTS Dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia all showed significant differences according to the frequency of family meals. Further, eating regular family meals was associated with good dietary habits (P food neophobia (P habits and food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P habits and personality traits showed a positive correlation (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P habits, personality traits, and food neophobia in adolescents. PMID:25110570
Cho, Mi Sook; Kim, Miseon; Cho, Wookyoun
A higher frequency of family meals is associated with good dietary habits in young people. This study focused on the relationships of family meal frequency with food neophobia and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, we administered a survey to 495 middle school students in Seoul metropolitan city, after which the data were analyzed using the SPSS (18.0) program. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships among dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia according to frequency of family meals. Dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia all showed significant differences according to the frequency of family meals. Further, eating regular family meals was associated with good dietary habits (P food neophobia (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P frequency of family meals affects dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia in adolescents.
Ewertzon, M; Lützén, K; Svensson, E; Andershed, B
The involvement of family members in psychiatric care is important for the recovery of persons with psychotic disorders and subsequently reduces the burden on the family. Earlier qualitative studies suggest that the participation of family members can be limited by how they experience the professionals' approach, which suggests a connection to the concept of alienation. Thus, the aim of this study was in a national sample investigate family members' experiences of the psychiatric health care professionals' approach. Data were collected by the Family Involvement and Alienation Questionnaire. The median level and quartiles were used to describe the distributions and data were analysed with non-parametric statistical methods. Seventy family members of persons receiving psychiatric care participated in the study. The results indicate that a majority of the participants respond that they have experiencing a negative approach from the professionals, indicating lack of confirmation and cooperation. The results also indicate that a majority of the participants felt powerlessness and social isolation in the care being provided, indicating feelings of alienation. A significant but weak association was found between the family members' experiences of the professionals' approach and their feelings of alienation.
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterised by elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, tendon xanthomata and premature ischaemic heart disease, is amenable to treatment with modern medication. The clinical and biochemical details of 1 031 ...
This qualitative paper analyses the personal experiences of hearing-impaired people in accessing, participating and completing higher education in Zimbabwe, and the authors' experiences in the education of students with disabilities. A 6As' framework is informed by the 4As framework of Tomaševski (2001), namely ...
Kong, Melinda L. F.
With the globalization and internationalization of education, many teachers from Asian countries pursue their professional development in English-speaking settings. However, there seems to be scarce research on these teachers' expectations, lived experiences and identities in these contexts, and how their personal experiences influence their views…
personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an ... problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different trigger factors. Lastly ... to experience negative interactions with mental health care ..... parents divorced and so my brother wanted to stay with my dad.
Simon, Charlann S.
This participant observer report reviews research on how dyslexia complicates learning a second language, a description of how dyslexia has affected educational experiences, personal experiences learning a foreign language, and recommendations to individuals with dyslexia who are faced with fulfilling a foreign language requirement and their…
Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van
The authors investigated the longitudinal relations between family members' Big Five personality factors and perceived support. Members of 285 two-parent families with 2 adolescent children judged their own and other family members' Big Five factors and the support perceived from the other members
Heaven, Patrick; Searight, H. Russell; Chastain, Julie; Skitka, Linda J.
Focuses on the relationship between family climate and personality structure, as well as the relationship between family of origin and self-esteem. Results indicate that sociability was positively and moderately related to healthy family functioning. Life satisfaction and self-esteem were much more strongly associated with perceived family…
Lai Kwok, Sylvia Y. C.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Based on the family ecological model, personal (hopelessness, social problem solving, emotional competence) and family (parent-adolescent communication, family functioning) quality of life measures related to adolescent suicidal ideation were examined in 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students in Hong Kong. Results showed that suicidal ideation…
Reza Johari-Fard; Farzad Goli; Amirreza Boroumand
Migraine is a disorder that has debilitating pain, and affects all aspects of life, including the academic, social, and family life of patients. In addition, studies show the effects of migraine on patient's relationships with family members such as spouse, children, and other family members. In addition to physical pain, migraines are tied to significant psychological and economic costs. Migraineurs tend to have high levels of depression and anxiety, and migraine headaches have a profoundly ...
Holm, Anne Lise; Lyberg, Anne; Lassenius, Erna; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Berggren, Ingela
Mental ill-health, such as depression in the elderly, is a complex issue that is influenced by the life-world perspective of older persons. Their self-management ability should be strengthened based on an understanding of their situation, perspectives, and vulnerability. The aim of this study was to explore and increase understanding of old persons' lived experiences of depression and self-management using an interpretative explorative design. Understanding was developed by means of hermeneutic interpretation. One theme, Relationships and Togetherness, and four subthemes, A Sense of Carrying a Shoulder Bag, Walking on Eggshells, Holding the Reins, and Estrangement--a Loss of Togetherness, emerged. A collaborative approach can be important for empowering older persons through self-development and management. Although the findings of the present study cannot be considered conclusive or definitive, they nevertheless contribute new knowledge of older persons' lived experiences of depression in everyday life.
Orlnsky, David; Rønnestad, Michael Helge; Fraley, Meghan
Little is known about this aspect of psychotherapists’ lives, so the present study is clearly exploratory research. Our exploratory research questions are: (1) What socioeconomic levels do therapists tend to come from in different societies? (2) How do therapists assess their family’s psychological...... and emotional functioning, and the care and support they received while growing up? (3) How much, and in what ways, are the economic circumstances of their families associated with therapists’ views of their families’ functionality and care they received?...
Hare, Elizabeth; Contreras, Javier; Raventos, Henriette; Flores, Deborah; Jerez, Alvaro; Nicolini, Humberto; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Almasy, Laura; Escamilla, Michael
Bipolar disorder (BPD) has been associated with variations in personality dimensions, but the nature of this relationship has been unclear. In this study, the heritabilities of BPD and the Big Five personality factors and the genetic correlations between BPD and personality factors are reported. The participants in this study were 1073 individuals from 172 families of Mexican or Central American ancestry. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were calculated under a polygenic model using the maximum-likelihood method of obtaining variance components implemented in the SOLAR software package. Heritabilities of 0.49, 0.43, and 0.43 were found for the narrowest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar and bipolar I), the intermediate phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, and bipolar II), and the broadest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, bipolar II, and recurrent depression), respectively. For the Big Five personality factors, heritabilities were 0.25 for agreeableness, 0.24 for conscientiousness, 0.24 for extraversion, 0.23 for neuroticism, and 0.32 for openness to experience. For the narrowest phenotype, a significant negative correlation (-0.32) with extraversion was found. For the broadest phenotype, negative correlations were found for agreeableness (-0.35), conscientiousness (-0.39), and extraversion (-0.44). A positive correlation (0.37) was found with neuroticism. It is not possible to determine whether aspects of personality are factors in the development of bipolar disorder or vice versa. The short form of the NEO does not provide the ability to examine in detail which facets of extraversion are most closely related to bipolar disorder or to compare our results with studies that have used the long version of the scale. This study establishes a partial genetic basis for the Big Five personality factors in this set of families, while the environmental variances demonstrate that non-genetic factors are also important in their influence on
Katz, Andrea C; Hee, Danelle; Hooker, Christine I; Shankman, Stewart A
In Section III of the DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) proposes a pathological personality trait model of personality disorders. The recommended assessment instrument is the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5), an empirically derived scale that assesses personality pathology along five domains and 25 facets. Although the PID-5 demonstrates strong convergent validity with other personality measures, no study has examined whether it identifies traits that run in families, another important step toward validating the DSM-5's dimensional model. Using a family study method, we investigated familial associations of PID-5 domain and facet scores in 195 families, examining associations between parents and offspring and across siblings. The Psychoticism, Antagonism, and Detachment domains showed significant familial aggregation, as did facets of Negative Affect and Disinhibition. Results are discussed in the context of personality pathology and family study methodology. The results also help validate the PID-5, given the familial nature of personality traits.
Calvin, Amy O; Engebretson, Joan C; Sardual, S Alexander
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore hemodialysis patients' family members' understanding of end-of-life decision-making processes. The project aimed to address (a) family members' constructions of advance care planning (ACP), including their roles and responsibilities, and (b) family members' perceptions of health care providers' roles and responsibilities in ACP. Eighteen family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis were recruited primarily from outpatient dialysis facilities and interviewed individually. Confirmed transcript data were analyzed, coded, and compared, and categories were established. Interpretations were validated throughout the interviews and peer debriefing sessions were used at a later stage in the analysis. The overarching construct identified was one of Protection. Family members protect patients by (a) Sharing Burdens, (b) Normalizing Life, and (c) Personalizing Care. Recommendations for future research include the need to explore ACP of persons undergoing hemodialysis who do not have a family support system. © The Author(s) 2013.
Girardon-Perlini, Nara Marilene Oliveira; Ângelo, Margareth
To understand the meanings of cancer within the experience of rural families and how such meanings influence family dynamics. Qualitative study guided by Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical framework and Grounded Theory as a methodological framework. Six rural families (18 participants) undergoing the experience of having a relative with cancer participated in the interview. Constant comparative analysis of data allowed the elaboration of an explanatory substantive theory, defined by the main category Caregiving to support the family world, which represents the family's symbolic actions and strategies to reconcile care for the patient and care for family life. Throughout the experience, rural families seek to preserve the interconnected symbolic elements that provide support for the family world: family unit, land, work and care. Compreender os significados do câncer presentes na experiência de famílias rurais e como esses significados influenciam a dinâmica familiar. Estudo qualitativo orientado pelo Interacionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico e pela Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados como referencial metodológico. Participaram, por meio de entrevista, seis famílias rurais (18 participantes) que estavam vivendo a experiência de ter um familiar com câncer. A análise comparativa constante dos dados permitiu a elaboração de uma teoria substantiva explicativa da experiência, definida pela categoria central Cuidando para manter o mundo da família amparado, que representa as ações e estratégias simbólicas da família visando a conciliar o cuidado do familiar doente e o cuidado da vida familiar. Ao longo da experiência, a família rural procura preservar os elementos simbólicos que, conectados, constituem o amparo do mundo da família: a unidade familiar, a terra, o trabalho e o cuidado.
Sorocco, Kristen H; Carnes, Nathan C; Cohoon, Andrew J; Vincent, Andrea S; Lovallo, William R
This study examined the impact of early lifetime adversity (ELA) on affect regulation and personality in persons with family history (FH+) and without (FH-) a family history of alcoholism. We examined the impact of early life adversity in healthy young adults, 18-30 years of age enrolled in a long-term study on risk for alcohol and other substance abuse. ELA was assessed by a composite score of low socioeconomic status and personal experience of physical or sexual abuse and/or separation from parents before age 16, resulting in a score of 0, 1-2, or >3 adverse events. Unstable affect regulation and personality variables were obtained via self-report measures. Higher ELA scores were seen in FH+ (χ(2)=109.2, paffect regulation, negative moods, and have risky drinking and drug abuse tendencies independent of ELA level. ELA predicts reduced stress reactivity and poorer cognitive control over impulsive behaviors as shown elsewhere. The present work shows that FH+ have poor mood regulation and antisocial characteristics. The greater prevalence of ELA in FH+ persons indicates that life experience and FH+ work in tandem to result in risky patterns of alcohol and drug experimentation to elevate risk for alcoholism. Further studies of genetic and environmental contributions to alcoholism are called for. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Science and Children, 1996
Presents anecdotes from prominent citizens including Bill Clinton, Alan Alda, Carl Sagan, Gerald Wheeler, JoAnne Vasquez, and Lynn Margulis in which they reminisce about interesting science experiences with their families. (JRH)
Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire combined with items investigating family experiences. The findings .... decisions and formulate behavioural goals for their ..... science achievement, making interpretation diffi- cult and ...
Kostenius, Catrine; Öhrling, Kerstin
Purpose: The aim was to explore the lived experience of physical therapy of persons with migraine. Method: Data were collected by conducting narrative interviews with 11 persons with migraine. Inspired by van Manen, a hermeneutic phenomenological method was used to analyse the experiences of physical therapy which these persons had. Results: Physical therapy for persons with migraine meant making an effort in terms of time and energy to improve their health by meeting a person who was utilising his or her knowledge and skill to help. Being respected and treated as an individual and having confidence in the physical therapist were highlighted aspects. The analysis revealed a main theme, “meeting a physical therapist with professional tools and a personal touch”. The main theme included four sub-themes, “investing time and energy to feel better”, “relying on the competence of the physical therapist”, “wanting to be treated and to become involved as an individual” and “being respected in a trustful relationship”. Conclusions: The therapeutic relationship with the physical therapist is important and the findings of this study can increase awareness about relational aspects of physical therapy and encourage thoughtfulness among physical therapists and other healthcare professionals interacting with persons with migraine. PMID:23311671
Sep 14, 2009 ... A cross-sectional study of 44 out of 45 (98% response rate) family medicine vocational trainees at the Medical ... b Department of Psychology, University of Limpopo (Medunsa Campus), Pretoria ... The cultural diversity of the.
Gage, L. Ashley; Washington, Karla T.; Oliver, Debra Parker; Lewis, Alexandra; Kruse, Robin L.; Demiris, George
Research has documented numerous benefits and challenges associated with receipt of hospice care in nursing homes; however, study of this partnership from the perspective of residents’ family members has been limited. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore family members’ experience with hospice services received in the nursing home setting. Researchers conducted a secondary data analysis of 175 family member interviews using a thematic analytic approach. Findings highlighted the critical role of communication in supporting residents and their family members. Care coordination, support and oversight, and role confusion also impacted family members’ experience of hospice care in the nursing home. Efforts directed at enhancing communication and more clearly articulating the roles of members of the health care team are indicated. PMID:25422516
Gamondi, C; Pott, Murielle; Preston, Nancy; Payne, Sheila
Thousands of family members worldwide are annually involved in assisted dying. Family participation in assisted dying has rarely been investigated and families' needs typically are not considered in assisted dying legislation and clinical guidelines. To explore family caregivers' reflections on experiences of assisted suicide in Switzerland. A cross-sectional qualitative interview study conducted in the Italian- and French-speaking regions of Switzerland. Interpretation and analysis were performed using qualitative content analysis. Twenty-eight close relatives and family carers of 18 patients who died by assisted suicide in Switzerland were interviewed. Family members perceived their involvement in assisted suicide as characterized by five phases; 1) contemplation, 2) gaining acceptance, 3) gaining permission, 4) organization, and 5) aftermath. Families can participate in these phases at diverse levels and with varying degrees of involvement. Important triggers for families and patients for transition between phases include patients' experiences of their life-threatening illnesses and related treatments, their increasing awareness of approaching death, and family member recognition of their loved one's unbearable suffering. Participating in assisted suicide created further demanding tasks for families in addition to their role of caregivers. Families appeared to be involved in the preparation of assisted suicide along with patients, irrespective of their personal values regarding assisted dying. Support for family members is essential if they are involved in tasks preparatory to assisted suicide. Clinical guidelines and policies concerning assisted dying should acknowledge and address family needs. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fletcher, Jason M.; Schurer, Stefanie
We test whether adverse childhood experiences exposure to parental maltreatment and its indirect effect on health are associated with age 30 personality traits. We use rich longitudinal data from a large, representative cohort of young US Americans and exploit differences across siblings to control for the confounding influences of shared environmental and genetic factors. We find that maltreatment experiences are significantly and robustly associated with neuroticism, conscientiousness, and ...
Rutberg, Stina; Kostenius, Catrine; Öhrling, Kerstin
The aim was to explore the lived experience of physical therapy of persons with migraine. Data were collected by conducting narrative interviews with 11 persons with migraine. Inspired by van Manen, a hermeneutic phenomenological method was used to analyse the experiences of physical therapy which these persons had. Physical therapy for persons with migraine meant making an effort in terms of time and energy to improve their health by meeting a person who was utilising his or her knowledge and skill to help. Being respected and treated as an individual and having confidence in the physical therapist were highlighted aspects. The analysis revealed a main theme, "meeting a physical therapist with professional tools and a personal touch". The main theme included four sub-themes, "investing time and energy to feel better", "relying on the competence of the physical therapist", "wanting to be treated and to become involved as an individual" and "being respected in a trustful relationship". The therapeutic relationship with the physical therapist is important and the findings of this study can increase awareness about relational aspects of physical therapy and encourage thoughtfulness among physical therapists and other healthcare professionals interacting with persons with migraine. Physical therapists use both professional tools and a personal touch in their interaction with persons with migraine and this article can increase physical therapists' awareness and encourage thoughtfulness in their professional practice. Being respected and treated as an individual and having confidence in the physical therapist are important aspects of the therapeutic relationship and indicate a need for patient-centred care. By making the effort of spending the time and energy required, physical therapy could be a complement or an alternative to medication to ease the consequences of migraine.
Bélanger, Louise; Bourbonnais, Anne; Bernier, Roxanne; Benoit, Monique
To review the literature concerning the feelings, thoughts and behaviours of nurses and family caregivers of hospitalised older persons when they communicate with one another. Communication between nurses and family caregivers of hospitalised older persons is not always optimal. Improving the frequency and quality of this communication might be a way to make the most of available human capital in order to better care for hospitalised older people. A literature review was carried out of qualitative, quantitative and mixed-design studies relating to communication between nurses and family caregivers. Findings were analysed thematically. Family caregiver thoughts, feelings and behaviours relative to nurse control and authority, nurse recognition of their contribution, information received from and shared with nurses and care satisfaction could influence communication with nurses. Nurse thoughts regarding usefulness of family caregivers as care partners and their lack of availability to meet family caregiver demands could influence communication with family caregivers. The thoughts, feelings and behaviours of family caregivers and nurses that might create positive or negative circular patterns of communication are evidenced. Further research is required to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. Nurses must be trained in how to communicate with family caregivers in order to form a partnership geared to preventing complications in hospitalised older persons. Results could be used to inform policy regarding the care of hospitalised older persons. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ultimately, this can be a happy and rewarding experience. On the job market, despite all talk of equality, women are definitely at a disadvantage for various reasons. One is the atti- tude, in general, of doubt harboured by decision makers regarding women's efficacy of performance in view of their family responsi- bilities.
Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.
Extension educators have diligently educated the general public about water conservation. Incorporating audiences' personal experience into educational programming is recommended as an approach to effectively enhance audiences' adoption of water conservation practices. To ensure the impact on the audiences and environment, understanding the…
Background. The concurrent TB and HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa place all healthcare workers (HCWs) at increased risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aim. This study explores personal experiences, attitudes and perceptions of medical doctors following treatment for TB within the healthcare system.
Full Text Available Decision for divorce depends on various personal and interpersonal variables. Personality characteristics and early maladaptive schema as two individual, and family function, as an interpersonal variable would play crucial role in helping people to cope with problems in life. A sample of 285 couples (147 initiator, and 138 noninitiator were recruited in the family courts, and residential districts in Tehran. They completed a battery of questionnaire including NEO (five factor personality questionnaire, short form of early maladaptive schema questionnaire (YSR, and McMaster family assessment device (FAD. Groups were matched based on age, education level, social economic status, and years of marriage. Results indicated statistical significant differences between two groups in personality characteristics (neuroticism, openness to new experiences, agreeableness and consciousness early maladaptive schemas (emotional deprivation, rejection, distrust, pessimism and emotional inhibition, and family function (problem solving, roles, and behavioral control. The result of regression logistic analysis showed that 34 to 45 percent of dependent variable predicted by these 12 independent variable. As such, it seems that there is a need to attend the factors would play a role both at primary prevention level and secondary level that psychologists and counselors could consider when providing mental health services.
Cho, Myung Ok
The main purpose of this critical ethnography was to examines the process and discourses through which family caregivers experience while caring for their sick family member in a hospital. This was achieved by conducting in-depth interviews with 12 family caregivers, and by observing their caring activities and daily lives in natural settings. The study field was a unit for neurologic patients. Data was analyzed using taxonomy, discourse analysis, and proxemics. All research work was iteratively processed from March 2003 to December 2004. Constant comparative analysis of the data yielded the process of becoming a successful family caregiver: encountering the differences and chaos as novice; constructing their world of skilled caregivers; and becoming a hospital family as experienced caregivers. During the process of becoming an experienced hospital family, the discourse of family centered idea guided their caring behaviors and daily lives. The paternalistic family caregivers struggled, cooperated, and harmonized with the patriarchal world of professional health care system. During this process of becoming hospital family, professional nurses must act as cultural brokers between the lay family caring system and the professional caring system.
Full Text Available Genetic research has offered, and continues to offer, a medical explanation of chromosomal disorders such as Down Syndrome and Asberger Syndrome and more recently the rare chromosomal disorder Prader Willi Syndrome. This research gives a pathogenic explanation of disorders which includes historical background, genetic defects and clinical features. This study set out to offer an insight into the effects of PWS on the child and his/her family. It also aimed to highlight what support systems are in place in the Co. Louth area of Ireland for individuals with PWS. Unfortunately, PWS is not curable at this time. Between 1995-2003 there were 39 diagnosed cases of PWS in Ireland, an average of 4.3 per year. On average there are four infants or children diagnosed in Ireland with PWS per year (Turner, 2004, National Centre for Medical Genetics. This study is an exploratory and descriptive case study. This case study drew on multiple sources of evidence to construct a valid and unique illustration of PWS. The primary source of data was derived from in-depth interviews with the parents of a 3-year-old girl who has PWS. She was diagnosed during the third week of life. The evidence of this study suggests that non-specialist medical staff are not generally familiar with PWS. Training in relation to diagnostic criteria for chromosomal disorders would be extremely beneficial to them and to familes that are affected by the syndrome. This study highlights the need for parents to be their own child's advocate in obtaining desired support services for their area. Support services in the North East region have been greatly increased due to the setting up of the North Eastern Health Board (now known as Health Service Executive, North East Region Early Intervention Services (EIS in 2000.
Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen; Zou, Shaohong
Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the con...
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.; Scott, Michael R.
Recent research and public policy have indicated the need for increasing the physical science workforce through development of interest and engagement with informal and formal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics experiences. This study examines the association of family education and physical scientists' informal experiences in…
Pearce, Jessie; Jovev, Martina; Hulbert, Carol; McKechnie, Ben; McCutcheon, Louise; Betts, Jennifer; Chanen, Andrew M
Despite high levels of burden and distress among families with a member who has borderline personality disorder (BPD), only two BPD specific family psychoeducation groups have been empirically evaluated. Neither of these is designed specifically for the family and friends of young people who are presenting early in the course of BPD. This study aimed to evaluate Making Sense of Borderline Personality Disorder (MS-BPD), a three-session, developmentally tailored, manualised psychoeducational group for the family and friends of youth with BPD features. The study employed a pre- and post-intervention, repeated measures design. Twenty-three participants completed self-report measures assessing for family burden, psychological distress, and knowledge about personality disorder. Demographic data were collected for the group participants and for their associated young person with BPD. Paired-samples t -tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of the MS-BPD intervention on participants' burden, distress and personality disorder knowledge. At the completion of session three (day 15), group participants reported significantly decreased subjective burden and increased personality disorder knowledge. Objective burden and distress remained unchanged. Family and friends of young people with BPD features experienced subjective, but not objective, benefit from attending a brief group-based psychoeducation intervention. Longer follow-up is likely to be required to detect behavioural change. The current findings support proceeding to a randomised controlled trial of MS-BPD.
Persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) commonly have their money officially or unofficially managed by others, with money managers most commonly being family members. (i) Identify characteristics of persons with PD, adult family members, and interactions with each other significantly associated with family money management (FMM). (ii) Identify significant differences in aforementioned characteristics between official versus unofficial FMM. Five hundred and seventy-three adults residing in USA with an adult relative with PD completed a survey. Among persons with PD, FMM was positively associated with lower income, diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective or bipolar disorder, psychiatric hospitalization, and arrest history. FMM was negatively associated with family members having a mental health diagnosis. FMM was positively associated with interaction characteristics of co-residence, financial assistance, caregiving, and use of limit-setting practices. Compared to official FMM, when unofficial FMM was present, persons with PD were less likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized or to have regularly attended mental health treatment. When unofficial FMM was present, adult family members were less likely to be a parent of the person with PD. Practitioners should assess the level of burden experienced by family money managers and assess and address with family money managers the use of limit-setting practices.
Zanarini, Mary C.; Barison, Leah K.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Reich, D. Bradford; Hudson, James I.
The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revi...
Full Text Available Context-aware e-learning is an educational model that foresees the selection of learning resources to make the e-learning content more relevant and suitable for the learner in his/her situation. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an ontological approach can be used to define leaning contexts and to allow contextualizing learning experiences finding out relevant topics for each context. To do that, we defined a context model able to formally describe a learning context, an ontology-based model enabling the representation of a teaching domain (including context information and a methodology to generate personalized and context-aware learning experiences starting from them. Based on these theoretical components we improved an existing system for personalized e-learning with contextualisation features and experimented it with real users in two University courses. The results obtained from this experimentation have been compared with those achieved by similar systems.
Pihkala, Heljä; Dimova-Bränström, Neda; Sandlund, Mikael
Many children are affected by parental substance use disorder. Beardslee's family intervention (BFI) is a family-based psycho-educative method for children of mentally ill parents, used in psychiatric practise in several Nordic countries. The method has also been used to some extent when a parent suffers from substance use disorder. The aim of the study was to explore the family members' experiences of the BFI when a parent has a diagnosis of substance use disorder, to gain new knowledge about the process of the BFI in this area. Ten children and 14 parents were interviewed about their experiences 6 months after a BFI. The interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The children's psychological symptoms were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months. Increased openness about the substance use disorder in the families was a recurrent theme throughout the material and a central issue reported in the children's experiences. The children had a high level of psychological symptoms according to the SDQ at baseline, but the majority of them felt that the BFI made a positive difference in their families and for themselves. The parents reported improved wellbeing of their children. Positive experienced effects for children and parents are reported in families with parental substance use disorder, with possible connection to use of BFI. The present study suggests that Beardslee's family intervention is applicable as a preventive method for children in families with a parent suffering from substance use disorder.
Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.
This study adopted a person-environment fit approach to examine whether greater congruence between employees' preferences for segmenting their work domain from their family domain (i.e., keeping work matters at work) and what their employers' work environment allowed would be associated with lower work-to-family conflict and higher work-to-family…
McConkey, Roy; McConaghie, Jayne; Roberts, Paul; King, Diana
The success of family placement schemes depends largely on the recruitment of suitable people who are willing to offer placements in their own home yet little research has been undertaken of their characteristics and the reasons for their involvement. Thirty providers of family based placements to adult persons with intellectual disabilities were…
Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van Aken, Marcel A.G.
Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of
Kwan, Ho Kwong; Mao, Yina; Zhang, Haina
The present study investigates the impact of role modeling as perceived by proteges on their personal learning (i.e., relational job learning and personal skill development) and work-to-family enrichment (WFE). Results from a two-wave field survey of 173 proteges in the People's Republic of China indicate that role modeling positively affects…
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine for personal or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.75 Wine for personal or family use. (a) General. Any adult may, without payment of tax...
Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family.
Jang, K L; Vernon, P A; Livesley, W J
This study seeks to estimate the extent to which a common genetic and environmental basis is shared between (i) traits delineating specific aspects of antisocial personality and alcohol misuse, and (ii) childhood family environments, traits delineating broad domains of personality pathology and alcohol misuse. Postal survey data were collected from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Twin pairs were recruited from Vancouver, British Columbia and London, Ontario, Canada using newspaper advertisements, media stories and twin clubs. Data obtained from 324 monozygotic and 335 dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the extent to which traits delineating specific antisocial personality traits and alcohol misuse shared a common genetic and environmental aetiology. Data from 81 monozygotic and 74 dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the degree to which traits delineating personality pathology, childhood family environment and alcohol misuse shared a common aetiology. Current alcohol misuse and personality pathology were measured using scales contained in the self-report Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology. Perceptions of childhood family environment were measured using the self-report Family Environment Scale. Multivariate genetic analyses showed that a subset of traits delineating components of antisocial personality (i.e. grandiosity, attention-seeking, failure to adopt social norms, interpersonal violence and juvenile antisocial behaviours) are influenced by genetic factors in common to alcohol misuse. Genetically based perceptions of childhood family environment had little relationship with alcohol misuse. Heritable personality factors that influence the perception of childhood family environment play only a small role in the liability to alcohol misuse. Instead, liability to alcohol misuse is related to genetic factors common a specific subset of antisocial personality traits describing conduct problems, narcissistic and stimulus
Bagley, Sarah M; Forman, Leah S; Ruiz, Sarah; Cranston, Kevin; Walley, Alexander Y
The Massachusetts Department of Public Health Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution Program provides overdose education and naloxone rescue kits to people at risk for overdose and bystanders, including family members. Using Massachusetts Department of Public Health data, the aims are to: (i) describe characteristics of family members who receive naloxone; (ii) identify where family members obtain naloxone; and (iii) describe characteristics of rescues by family members. We conducted a retrospective review using program enrollee information collected on a standardised form between 2008 and 2015. We calculated descriptive statistics, including demographics, current substance use, enrolment location, history of witnessed overdoses and rescue attempt characteristics. We conducted a stratified analysis comparing family members who used drugs with those who did not. Family members were 27% of total program enrollees (n = 10 883/40 801). Family members who reported substance use (n = 4679) were 35.6 years (mean), 50.6% female, 76.3% non-Hispanic white, 75.6% had witnessed an overdose, and they obtained naloxone most frequently at HIV prevention programs. Family members who did not report substance use (n = 6148) were 49.2 years (mean), 73.8% female, 87.9% non-Hispanic white, 35.3% had witnessed an overdose, and they obtained naloxone most frequently at community meetings. Family members were responsible for 20% (n = 860/4373) of the total rescue attempts. The Massachusetts experience demonstrates that family members can be active participants in responding to the overdose epidemic by rescuing family members and others. Targeted intervention strategies for families should be included in efforts to expand overdose education and naloxone in Massachusetts. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Geigges, Julian; Voss, Andreas; Weinhold, Jan; Schweitzer, Jochen
This study presents the theoretical background, development, and psychometric properties of the German and English versions of the Experience in Personal Social Systems Questionnaire (EXIS.pers). It assesses how the members of a personal social system experience their situation within that system. It is designed as a research tool for interventions in which only one member of the system participates (e.g., Family Constellation Seminars). The EXIS.pers was created to measure change on the individual level relating to one's own important personal social system. In Study 1, we used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for latent variable identification of the original German EXIS.pers (n = 179). In Studies 2 and 3, we used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the dimensionality of the German (n = 634) and English (n = 310) EXIS.pers. Internal consistencies and cross-cultural structural equivalence were assessed. EFA indicated that a four-factor model provided best fit for the German EXIS.pers. For both the German and English EXIS.pers, CFA provided the best fit for a five-factor bi-level model that included a general factor (Experience In Personal Social Systems) and four dimensions (Belonging, Autonomy, Accord, Confidence). Good internal consistencies, external associations, and cross-cultural structural equivalence were demonstrated. This study provides first evidence for the German and English EXIS.pers as an economical and reliable measure of an individual's experience within his or her personal social systems. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
LI Rui; WANG Liqun; MA Chunxia; MA Lixian
Objective To explore the personality characteristics of children with tic disorders and their relationship with family factors.Methods Sixty cases of children with tic disorders diagnosed in our hospital were selected as the case group and 65 cases of normal children were selected as the control group.The children of two groups were assessed using Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ),Family Environment Scale (FES-CV) and general situation questionnaire of family (GSQ),respectively.The scores of EPQ personality characteristics,FES-CV and GSQ scores were compared for the children in the two groups.The Person correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between personality scores of children in case group and family environment factors.Results The general situation questionnaire results showed that there was significant statistically difference in parenting style,parental education level and family types of the children between case group and control group (P ＜ 0.05);EPQ results showed that the neuroticism and psychoticism scores of children in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P＜ 0.05) and the lying degree scores in the control group were significantly higher than those in the case group (P＜ 0.05);FES-CV results showed that the family cohesion scores of the case group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P＜0.05),and the family conflict scores in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P＜0.05).The Person correlation analysis results indicated that the psychoticism score was negatively correlated with the score of family cohesion (P＜0.05),and positively correlated with family conflict (P＜0.05),while the neuroticism score was positively correlated with family conflict score (P＜0.05).Conclusion The children with tic disorders have significant personality deviation compared to the normal children,and the personality deviation degree is
Full Text Available Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10 is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity.
Kirby, Emma; Kenny, Katherine; Broom, Alex; MacArtney, John; Good, Phillip
Experiences of bereavement can be stressful and are frequently complicated by emotional, familial, and financial issues. Some-though not all-caregivers may benefit from bereavement support. While considered standard within palliative care services in Australia, bereavement support is not widely utilized by family caregivers. There is little research focused on the forms of bereavement support desired or required by family caregivers, how such care is viewed, and/or how bereavement support is experienced. This study examined the experiences of bereaved family caregivers and their impressions of and interactions with bereavement support. This paper reports on one aspect of a broader study designed to explore a range of experiences of patients and caregivers to and through palliative care. Focusing on experiences of bereavement, it draws on qualitative semistructured interviews with 15 family caregivers of palliative care patients within a specialist palliative care unit of an Australian metropolitan hospital. The interviews for this stage of the study were initiated 3-9 months after an initial interview with a family caregiver, during which time the palliative patient had died, and they covered family caregivers' experiences of bereavement and bereavement support. Interviews were digitally audiotaped and transcribed in full. A thematic analysis was conducted utilizing the framework approach wherein interview transcripts were reviewed, key themes identified, and explanations developed. The research identified four prevalent themes: (1) sociocultural constructions of bereavement support as for the incapable or socially isolated; (2) perceptions of bereavement support services as narrow in scope; (3) the "personal" character of bereavement and subsequent incompatibility with formalized support, and (4) issues around the timing and style of approaches to being offered support. Systematic pre-bereavement planning and careful communication about the services offered by
Hadjikakou, Kika; Christodoulou, Despina; Hadjidemetri, Eleni; Konidari, Maria; Nicolaou, Nicoletta
This paper investigates the personal experiences of hearing adults with signing Deaf parents in their families, school, and society. In order to obtain relevant information, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Cypriot hearing adults with Deaf parents between the ages of 21 and 30 years with different occupation, sex, and educational background. It was found that most of the participants developed a bicultural identity, undertook the interpreter and protector role in their family, and interacted well with their parents, despite the lack of in-depth communication that they noted. The positive role of the extended family was acknowledged. The prejudices of Cypriot hearing people against the Deaf people were identified, as well as the lack of state support toward the Deaf community. This study has implications for Deaf parents, and professionals working, planning, and implementing social, psychological, and educational support services to Deaf-parented families.
Lewis, Chrystal L; Taylor, Jessica Z
To determine if current levels of anxiety, depression and acute stress disorder symptoms differ significantly among family members of intensive-care-unit patients depending upon previous intensive-care experience. This study used a prospective, descriptive study design. Family members (N=127) from patients admitted within a 72-hour timeframe to the medical, surgical, cardiac and neurological intensive care units were recruited from waiting rooms at a medium-sized community hospital in the Southeastern United States. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and a demographic questionnaire. A multivariate analysis revealed that family members of intensive-care-unit patients with a prior intensive-care experience within the past two years (n=56) were significantly more likely to report anxiety, depression and acute stress symptoms, Λ=0.92, F =2.70, p=0.034, partial η 2 =0.08, observed power=0.74. Results of this study show that family members' psychological distress is higher with previous familial or personal intensive-care experience. Nurses need to assess for psychological distress in ICU family members and identify those who could benefit from additional support services provided in collaboration with multidisciplinary support professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) plays an important role in the safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It can often be seen as the answer to all training needs but it can sometimes fall victim to its own rigidity and inertia. This paper outlines the personal experiences and conceptual models of a former Human Resources Manager with responsibility for both pre operational and operational training. (author)
Ladeira , Ilda; Marsden , Gary; Green , Lesley
Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; We describe an ongoing collaboration with the District Six Museum, in Cape Town, aimed at designing a storytelling prototype for preserving personal experience narratives. We detail the design of an interactive virtual environment (VE) which was inspired by a three month ethnography of real-life oral storytelling. The VE places the user as an audience member in a virtual group listening to two storytelling agents capable of two forms of i...
Hagen, Anja Nylund
Music streaming services encompass features that enable the organization of music into playlists. This article inquires how users describe and make sense of practices and experiences of creating, curating, maintaining, and using personal playlists. The analysis relies on a mixed-method study, including music-diary self-reports, online observations, and in-depth interviews with 12 heavy users of Spotify or/and WiMP Music. The findings suggest heterogeneous management of static and dynamic play...
Hogan, Nancy; Schmidt, Lee; Coolican, Maggie
Donated tissues can save lives of critically burned patients and those needing a heart valve replacement. Tissues enhance the lives of a million recipients annually through transplants of corneas, bones, tendons, and vein grafts. Unfortunately, the need for some tissues exceeds their availability. The goal of the quantitative component of this mixed methods study was to identify the grief, posttraumatic stress, personal growth, and ongoing attachment response of tissue donors' family members during a 2-year period. Simultaneous mixed methods design. The sample for this study consisted of 52 tissue donors' family members, mostly widows (83%). Data were collected for 2 years to test changes in grief, posttraumatic stress, panic behavior, personal growth, and ongoing attachment. The bereaved participants experienced significantly fewer grief reactions, less posttraumatic stress, and greater personal growth. There was no significant difference in the ongoing attachment to their deceased loved ones. The results of this study may reinforce the positive meaning that tissue donors' family members can find in tissue donation. Findings also demonstrate that the bereavement process corroborates contemporary bereavement and attachment theories. Health professionals are encouraged to seek donations with less worry that tissue donors' family members will experience adverse outcomes during bereavement.
Martino, Francesca; Lia, Loredana; Bortolotti, Biancamaria; Menchetti, Marco; Monari, Marco; Ridolfi, Maria Elena; Sanza, Michele; Sasdelli, Anna; Berardi, Domenico
The scientific literature focused on factors involved in the onset of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has given a central role to the families of these patients. The role of the family in understanding the disorder has gradually changed thanks to research that investigated the interaction of several factors in the development of this psychopathology. Recently, scientific literature on DBP has allowed to consider parents as no longer "responsible" for the development of the disorder, but as directly involved in interpersonal problems of patients and therefore a potential "ally" in the management of crisis. The aim of this study is to describe and quantify the family burden of BPD patients and browse specific interventions for the family of these patients. PubMed and PsycINFO have been used for review with the following keywords: "borderline personality disorder", "family", "psychopathology", "burden", "psychoeducation", "caregiver", "caretaker". Studies on family burden of BPD patients are still few. Research shows that the family burden of BPD patients is comparable with that of families of patients with schizophrenia. Clinical trials of interventions for caregivers of patients with BPD show that specific strategies can reduce the family burden and improve their self-efficacy. Scientific literature highlights the relevance of problems of families with a BPD member and the importance of involving them in the treatment of these patients.
In two experiments, the effect of category salience on retrieval experience was investigated. In Experiment 1, participants rated typicality or concreteness of personality traits that differed in stereotype reference (i.e., consistent, inconsistent, and neutral in relation to the age stereotype). More remember judgments were given for consistent and inconsistent traits in contrast to neutral traits, thereby indicating a figure/ground asymmetry. In Experiment 2, neutral traits were excluded and a classical figure/ground phenomenon was demonstrated for the retrieval experience of traits (i.e., reversibility of an ambiguous figure after typicality and untypicality ratings). Altogether, the results suggest that metacognitive trait representations depend on principles of figure/ground asymmetries rather than on functional principles of social information processing.
Full Text Available Background: Social damage is one of the problems which destroys the active manpower and young population in the country and also prevents social development. Family is the first environment in which social ground for the child is provided.Any dispute, controversy or inferiority complex in the family may lead to wrong doings The present study aims at the effective family and personality factors on felony in felon adolescents kept in Khorramabad bouse of correction. Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytic study was carried out on all of the adolescents in Khorramabad house of correction as case group selected using census random sampling and high school students as control group selected by cluster random sampling. Data gathering tool was a 2-part questionnaire including demographic information and standard SCL 90 questionnaire. Results: Results showed that there is a significant relationship between the place of residence, failure in school program, economic status of the family, parents presence, fathers job and education, mothers job and education, parents inter personal relationship and family conflicting. The results also showed that aggression, anxiety, depression, somatic complain, obsessive compulsive, inter personality sensitivity, Psychotic, paranoid and phobia had a significant difference in the case and control groups. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that family environment is considered as the most important educative factor and no social damage has not occurred out of family influence, so no society can claim to be healthy unless to have healthy families.
Wang, Jian Li
Occupational mental health research has been focusing on the relationship between work stress and depression. However, the impacts of work stress on anxiety disorders and of imbalance between work and family life on workers' mental health have not been well studied. This analysis investigated the association between levels of perceived work stress and of imbalance between work and family/personal lives and current mood/anxiety disorders. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS-1.2) (n=36,984). Mood and anxiety disorders were measured using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among those with a work stress score at the 75th percentile value and above was 3.6% and 4.0%. Among those who reported that their work and family/personal lives "never" balanced in the past month, the 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was 21.2% and 17.9%. In multivariate analyses, work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives were independently associated with mood and anxiety disorders. There was no evidence that perceived work stress interacted with imbalance between work and family/personal lives to increase the likelihood of having mental disorders. Gender was associated with anxiety disorders, but not with major depressive disorder and mood disorders. Work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives may be part of the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders in the working population. Community based longitudinal studies are needed to delineate the causal relationships among work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives and mental disorders.
Full Text Available Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the controls were investigated cross-sectionally with life orientation test-revised (LOT-R, type D personality Scale-14 (DS14, family environment scale (FES, and Zung self-depression scale (SDS; respectively, all scales were administered in Chinese. Results. Chinese-depressed adolescents showed more cognitive distortion, type D personality, and adverse family environment than control groups. Furthermore, lower level of Optimism, negative affectivity, and poor family cohesion may increase the risk of depression in Chinese adolescents. Conclusions. Our study indicates that lower level of Optimism, Negative Affectivity, and poor Family Cohesion factors were implicated to contribute to depression in Chinese adolescents. Lower level of optimism and negative affectivity may be crucial associated factors of depression among these samples. our findings pointed to the importance of broad screening and intervention of vulnerable population.
The thesis studies how female business travellers with children experience business travel. The objective is to find out new ways and tools to make business trips easier for these travel-lers, make them have a better work-life balance and have a less stressful experience not only during their trips, but also after. The method used was semi structured interviews. The interview consisted of questions relat-ed to combining business travelling and family. The interviews took place in Spring 2...
Ferro, T; Klein, D N
The present study examined the concordance of the Family History Interview for Personality Disorders (FHIPD) with diagnoses based on direct interviews and between pairs of informants. Subjects were 224 probands participating in a series of studies of the familial transmission of mood and personality disorders and their first-degree relatives. Proband informants and relatives provided information about themselves on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), Personality Disorder Examination (PDE), and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Information from informants about relatives was collected with the FHIPD. All assessments were made blindly and independently. Using Kappa, concordance between proband informants' family histories and relative direct reports on specific personality disorders was low, ranging from -.01 to .28, with a median of .10. Kappa for a diagnosis of any personality disorder was .16. When two independent informant reports were compared, Kappas for specific Axis II disorders ranged from .10 to .72, with a median of .28. Kappa for a diagnosis of any personality disorder was .36. These data suggest that subjects and informants provide different perspectives on Axis II psychopathology, and support the use of both sources of information whenever possible.
Wolff, Jennifer L; Boyd, Cynthia M
Person-centered and family-centered care represents the pinnacle of health care quality, but delivering it is challenging, as is assessing whether it has occurred. Prior studies portray older adults as passive in health decisions and burdened by care-but emphasize age-based differences or focus on vulnerable subgroups. We aimed to examine domains of person-centered and family-centered care among older adults and whether the social context in which older adults manage their health relates to preferences for participating in health decisions and experiences with care. This was an observational study of a nationally representative survey of adults aged 65+ years, conducted in concert with the 2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study (n = 2040). Approach to managing health (self-manage, co-manage, delegate); preferences for making health care decisions with: (1) doctors, (2) family/close friends; and experiences with care pertaining to treatment burden were measured. Approximately two-thirds of older adults self-manage (69.4 %) and one-third co-manage (19.6 %) or delegate (11.0 %) health care activities. The majority prefer an independent or shared role when making health decisions with doctors (84.7 %) and family/close friends (95.9 %). Nearly four in ten older adults (37.9 %) experience treatment burden-that managing health care activities are sometimes or often hard for either them or their family/close friends, that health care activities get delayed or don't get done, or that they are cumulatively too much to do. Relative to older adults who self-manage, those who delegate health care activities are more likely to prefer to share or leave health decisions to doctors (aOR = 1.79 (95 % CI, 1.37-2.33) and family/close friends (aOR = 3.12 (95 % CI, 2.23-4.36), and are more likely to experience treatment burden (aOR = 2.37 (95 % CI, 1.61-3.47). Attaining person-centered and family-centered care will require strategies that respect diverse decision
Bademli, Kerime; Duman, Zekiye Çetinkaya
"Family to Family Support Program" is a significant intervention program to assist families by informing them about treatment procedures and coping strategies, increasing their functionality, helping them to overcome the challenges of the disease. This study was particularly designed to investigate the emotions, thoughts, and experiences of caregivers of schizophrenia patients who participated in "Family to Family Support Program." The study was conducted with one of the qualitative research methods, phenomenological method. The study sample included caregivers who care for schizophrenia patients and participated in the "Family to Family Support Program". Twenty caregivers were included in the sample. The study was carried out in İzmir Schizophrenia Support Association. The study data were collected with four open ended questions. The average age of the participants was 56,77 ± 72,89, 10 male caregivers and 10 female caregivers, 9 caregivers were fathers, 6 caregivers were mothers, and 5 of them were siblings. The thematic analysis indicated that the emotions, thoughts and experiences of caregivers can be categorized in four groups: "I learned to deal with my problems", "I am conscious in my interaction with the patient and I know and I am not alone", "I feel much better", and "Schizophrenia is not the end of the road, knowledge sorts things out." Caregivers who participated in "Family to Family Support Program" expressed their satisfaction that they were benefited from the program, their coping skills were improved, they experienced less challenges when providing care, they understood the disease better, and it felt comfortable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Personality disorders (PDs are marked by significant disturbances in the way of experiencing oneself, others and the world around. Yet there is paucity of research on the nature of emotional experiences in these disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether and how emotional experience of individuals with ten distinct forms of PDs distinguished in DSM differs from those without PDs. The study was conducted via the Internet on a large nonclinical sample (N = 3509. Participants were administered a PDs measure and a performance task assessing three features of emotional experiences: emotional sensitivity, the valence of experienced emotions and the profile of five components constituting an emotion. As predicted, PDs sufferers experienced emotions differently from controls. Results demonstrated that individuals with all PDs were more receptive to emotional elicitation and displayed higher negative emotionality and a deficiency in the affective component of experienced emotions.
Perin, Suzanne Marie
By first recognizing the valuable social and scientific practices taking place within families as they learn science together across multiple, everyday settings, this dissertation addresses questions of how to design and scaffold activities that build and expand on those practices to foster a deep understanding of science, and how the aesthetic experience of learning science builds connections across educational settings. Families were invited to visit a natural history museum, an aquarium, and a place or activity of the family's choice that they associated with science learning. Some families were asked to use a set of activities during their study visits based on the practices of science (National Research Council, 2012), which were delivered via smartphone app or on paper cards. I use design-based research, video data analysis and interaction analysis to examine how families build connections between informal science learning settings. Chapter 2 outlines the research-based design process of creating activities for families that fostered connections across multiple learning settings, regardless of the topical content of those settings. Implications of this study point to means for linking everyday family social practices such as questioning, observing, and disagreeing to the practices of science through activities that are not site-specific. The next paper delves into aesthetic experience of science learning, and I use video interaction analysis and linguistic analysis to show how notions of beauty and pleasure (and their opposites) are perfused throughout learning activity. Designing for aesthetic experience overtly -- building on the sensations of enjoyment and pleasure in the learning experience -- can motivate those who might feel alienated by the common conception of science as merely a dispassionate assembly of facts, discrete procedures or inaccessible theory. The third paper, a case study of a family who learns about salmon in each of the sites they visit
Schneider, Hanna; Hill, Susan
Background Self-management technologies, such as patient-controlled electronic health records (PCEHRs), have the potential to help people manage and cope with disease. Objective This study set out to investigate patient families’ lived experiences of working with a PCEHR. Methods We conducted a semistructured qualitative field study with patient families and clinicians at a children’s hospital in the UK that uses a PCEHR (Patients Know Best). All families were managing the health of a child with a serious chronic condition, who was typically under the care of multiple clinicians. As data gathering and analysis progressed, it became clear that while much of the literature assumes that patients are willing and waiting to take more responsibility for and control over their health management (eg, with PCEHRs), only a minority of participants in our study responded in this way. Their experiences with the PCEHR were diverse and strongly shaped by their coping styles. Theory on coping identifies a continuum of coping styles, from approach to avoidance oriented, and proposes that patients’ information needs depend on their style. Results We identified 3 groups of patient families and an outlier, distinguished by their coping style and their PCEHR use. We refer to the outlier as controlling (approach oriented, highly motivated to use PCEHR), and the 3 groups as collaborating (approach oriented, motivated to use PCEHR), cooperating (avoidance oriented, less motivated to use PCEHR), and avoiding (very avoidance oriented, not motivated to use PCEHR). Conclusions The PCEHR met the needs of controller and collaborators better than the needs of cooperators and avoiders. We draw on the Self-Determination Theory to propose ways in which a PCEHR design might better meet the needs of avoidance-oriented users. Further, we highlight the need for families to also relinquish control at times, and propose ways in which PCEHR design might support a better distribution of control
Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L
Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21-2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01-2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94-1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28-7.20, P < .001) was substantially greater than for either exposure alone, highlighting a potential interaction between neighborhood conditions and crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = -0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially
Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L
Abstract Background: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Results: Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21–2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01–2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94–1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28–7.20, P crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = −0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Conclusions: Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially adverse neighborhoods. PMID:28535284
Matheson, Jennifer L.
This mixed-method study examines the work and personal life balance of Marriage & Family Therapy faculty members across the U.S., 16 of whom were interviewed to gain a deeper understanding of their work and personal life balance issues. Of those, six felt they had good balance, six felt they had poor balance, and four were â middle of the road.â More men than women felt they had good balance. Faculty members indicated external and internal indicators such as family and workplace message...
Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte
Aim: This study aimed to explore what was documented during structured Family Nursing (FN) conversations with patients diagnosed with Heart Failure and their families, and to gain knowledge about the nurses’ experiences conducting FN. Background: Patients with HF face many challenges, and so do...... throughout the FN intervention and a Focus group interview with 6 nurses who were conducting the conversations. Content analyses of all text material dealt with both manifest and latent content, and were analyzed through a deductive and inductive process. Results: Enabling bonding emerged as the overall...
Mann, K; Lemenager, T; Zois, E; Hoffmann, S; Nakovics, H; Beutel, M; Vogelgesang, M; Wölfling, K; Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M
While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls. We studied differences in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related variables, psychiatric comorbidity (lifetime), family history of psychiatric conditions, as well as personality traits such as impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), sensation seeking (Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale) and the NEO-FFI big five. Personality traits were validated in an age- and ethnicity-matched subsample of "pure" gamblers without any psychiatric comorbidity (including nicotine dependence). Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests, Chi 2 analyses, Fisher's exact test and Pearson correlation analysis, as appropriate. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple comparisons. Only 1% of the gamblers had been diagnosed with an impulse control disorder other than gambling (ICD-10). Notably, 88% of the gamblers in our sample had a comorbid diagnosis of substance dependence. The highest axis I comorbidity rate was for nicotine dependence (80%), followed by alcohol dependence (28%). Early age of first gambling experience was correlated with gambling severity. Compared to first-degree relatives of controls, first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer from alcohol dependence (27.0% vs. 7.4%), pathological gambling (8.3% vs. 0.7%) and suicide attempts (2.7% vs. 0.4%). Significant group differences were observed for the NEO-FFI factors neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Gamblers were also more impulsive than controls, but did not differ from controls in terms of
Altintas, Merih; Bilici, Mustafa
To evaluate childhood trauma in relation to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates. In total, 200 prison inmates were included in this questionnaire-based study. Data on demographic characteristics, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds were collected via face-to-face interviews, and a psychometric evaluation was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Several historical items were more common in females than in males including family history of psychiatric disease (23.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.048), a personal history of psychiatric disease (51.0% vs. 29.0%, p first crime (24.9 ± 8.9 years vs. 30.3 ± 9.2 years, p first offense (β = 0.772, p first offense. In conclusion, our findings revealed a high prevalence of and significant associations among childhood trauma, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences and psychiatric problems in a cohort of incarcerated females and males. A psychiatric background, childhood trauma characterized by sexual abuse and violent crimes were found to be predominant in female prison inmates, whereas a criminal background with a younger age at first offense and frequent previous convictions, substance use and sexual crimes were more prevalent among male prison inmates. Our findings indicate a potential link between childhood traumatization and criminal behavior in terms of subsequent offending but not in terms of severity of the subsequent offense. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to compare the environment of families with and without substance-dependent members to investigatethe functioning of families with substance-dependent members and also provide them with appropriate treatment strategies. Method: A causative-comparative method followed by an ex post facto design was used in this study. A sample of 50-person suffering from substance-dependent disorder referring to outpatient treatment centers, located in west and east of Tehran, constituted the participants of the study. As well, another 50-person group not suffering from the disorder participated in this study as the former group’s counterpart. The participants answered the questions of environment of family scale (EFS (Moos & Moos, 1986. Findings: The results showed that there was a significant difference between two groups in dimensions of cohesion, conflict, achievement orientation, intellectual-cultural orientation, religious orientation, organization, and control whereas therewas no significant difference between the two groups in dimension of expressiveness, independency, and recreational orientation. Conclusion: The study recommendsthe authorities the application of efficient interventionist treatment strategies appropriate to the characteristics of families having drug-dependent member.
Marijn A Distel
Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder is a severe personality disorder for which genetic research has been limited to family studies and classical twin studies. These studies indicate that genetic effects explain 35 to 45% of the variance in borderline personality disorder and borderline personality features. However, effects of non-additive (dominance genetic factors, non-random mating and cultural transmission have generally not been explored. In the present study an extended twin-family design was applied to self-report data of twins (N = 5,017 and their siblings (N = 1,266, parents (N = 3,064 and spouses (N = 939 from 4,015 families, to estimate the effects of additive and non-additive genetic and environmental factors, cultural transmission and non-random mating on individual differences in borderline personality features. Results showed that resemblance among biological relatives could completely be attributed to genetic effects. Variation in borderline personality features was explained by additive genetic (21%; 95% CI 17-26% and dominant genetic (24%; 95% CI 17-31% factors. Environmental influences (55%; 95% CI 51-60% explained the remaining variance. Significant resemblance between spouses was observed, which was best explained by phenotypic assortative mating, but it had only a small effect on the genetic variance (1% of the total variance. There was no effect of cultural transmission from parents to offspring.
Marchira, Carla Raymondalexas; Puspitasari, Warih Andan; Rochmawati, Ida; Mulyani, Siti
ABTRACT Many persons suffering psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are largely untreated in low income countries. In these settings, most persons with severe mental illness live with their families. Thus, families play a particular critical role in determining whether a person with a psychotic illness will receive treatment and what the quality of treatment. Psychoeducation has proven to be extremely effective in helping families develop the knowledge and skills which is necessar...
Davidson, Jacqueline; Baxter, Kate; Glendinning, Caroline; Irvine, Annie
Personal health budgets were piloted in the English National Health Service between 2009 and 2012. Semi-structured interviews with a sub-sample of early budget holders aimed to explore their experiences of receiving and using a budget. Over 2000 people from 20 pilot sites were recruited to a multi-method evaluation of the personal health budget pilots. A sub-sample of 58 people was selected for qualitative interviews three months after the offer of a budget; 52 were re-interviewed six months later. The purposively selected sample reflected a range of health conditions, locality, age and gender. Personal health budgets were reported to have positive impacts on health, health care and relatives/family. Benefits often extended beyond the condition for which the budget had been awarded. However, interviewees rarely knew the level of their budget; some reported difficulty in agreeing acceptable uses for their budget; and delays could occur in procuring chosen services or equipment. Patients' experiences offer valuable insights for the roll-out of personal health budgets beyond the pilot phase. Flexibility in how budgets are used may allow maximum benefits to be derived. Clear information about what budgets can and cannot be used for, with suggestions offered, will be useful. People with newly diagnosed or recent sudden onset conditions may need more help to plan their support, but all budget holders are likely to benefit from regular contact with staff for reassurance and continued motivation.
Videla, Santiago; Konokotina, Irina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Schaub, Torsten; Siegel, Anne; Guziolowski, Carito
Logic models of signaling pathways are a promising way of building effective in silico functional models of a cell, in particular of signaling pathways. The automated learning of Boolean logic models describing signaling pathways can be achieved by training to phosphoproteomics data, which is particularly useful if it is measured upon different combinations of perturbations in a high-throughput fashion. However, in practice, the number and type of allowed perturbations are not exhaustive. Moreover, experimental data are unavoidably subjected to noise. As a result, the learning process results in a family of feasible logical networks rather than in a single model. This family is composed of logic models implementing different internal wirings for the system and therefore the predictions of experiments from this family may present a significant level of variability, and hence uncertainty. In this paper, we introduce a method based on Answer Set Programming to propose an optimal experimental design that aims to narrow down the variability (in terms of input-output behaviors) within families of logical models learned from experimental data. We study how the fitness with respect to the data can be improved after an optimal selection of signaling perturbations and how we learn optimal logic models with minimal number of experiments. The methods are applied on signaling pathways in human liver cells and phosphoproteomics experimental data. Using 25% of the experiments, we obtained logical models with fitness scores (mean square error) 15% close to the ones obtained using all experiments, illustrating the impact that our approach can have on the design of experiments for efficient model calibration.
Dr.Sc. Jorida Xhafaj
Full Text Available identity is the way in which a person is self-identified with a gender category, as for example to be female or male, or in some cases intersex, which is none of the distinguishable biological sexes. In principal, intersex persons are part of the society with their rights and obligations, which are not the same with those of the other members of society, in special areas of life. This paper aims to treat the right of intersex persons to marriage and to establish a family. The paper begins with an overview of definition of intersex persons, their rights, and focuses primarily on the right to establish a family. The right for a family life has found protection in the Albanian national legislation. The Constitution of theRepublicofAlbaniaof 1998 in its Article 53 stipulates that "everyone has the right to marry and have a family" establishing the principle of equality before the law, closely linked to the principle of non-discrimination. The legal provisions set a controversial position on the right to get married and to establish family relationships of the intersex persons, which is based on different arguments. For the purposes of the research, we aim also to compare the national legislation with the European principles and practice of the European Court of Human Rights (hereinafter referred as ECHR. The paper also includes the opinions and recommendations of Albanian institutions, as well as those of foreign ones, mainly European, in the area of human rights protection, and especially regarding the rights of the intersex persons.
Strachan, Eric; Poeschla, Brian; Dansie, Elizabeth; Succop, Annemarie; Chopko, Laura; Afari, Niloofar
Pain is a complex phenomenon influenced by context and person-specific factors. Affective dimensions of pain involve both enduring personality traits and fleeting emotional states. We examined how personality traits and emotional states are linked with clinical and evoked pain in a twin sample. 99 female twin pairs were evaluated for clinical and evoked pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and dolorimetry, and completed the 120-item International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and ratings of stress and mood. Using a co-twin control design we examined a) the relationship of personality traits and emotional states with clinical and evoked pain and b) whether genetics and common environment (i.e. familial factors) may account for the associations. Neuroticism was associated with the sensory component of the MPQ; this relationship was not confounded by familial factors. None of the emotional state measures was associated with the MPQ. PANAS negative affect was associated with lower evoked pressure pain threshold and tolerance; these associations were confounded by familial factors. There were no associations between IPIP traits and evoked pain. A relationship exists between neuroticism and clinical pain that is not confounded by familial factors. There is no similar relationship between negative emotional states and clinical pain. In contrast, the relationship between negative emotional states and evoked pain is strong while the relationship with enduring personality traits is weak. The relationship between negative emotional states and evoked pain appears to be non-causal and due to familial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage.
Gunderson, John G.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Choi-Kain, Lois W.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Jang, Kerry L.; Hudson, James I.
Context The familiality of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and its sectors of psychopathology are incompletely understood. Objectives To assess the familial aggregation of BPD and its 4 major sectors (affective, interpersonal, behavioral, and cognitive) and test whether the relationship of the familial and nonfamilial associations among these sectors can be accounted for by a latent BPD construct. Design Family study, with direct interviews of probands and relatives. Setting A psychiatric hospital (McLean Hospital) and the Boston-area community. Participants A total of 368 probands (132 with BPD, 134 without BPD, and 102 with major depressive disorder) and 885 siblings and parents of probands. Main Assessments The Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB-R) were used to assess borderline psychopathology, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to assess major depressive disorder. Results Borderline personality disorder meeting both DSM-IV and DIB-R criteria showed substantial familial aggregation for BPD in individuals with a family member with BPD vs those without a family member with BPD, using proband-relative pairs (risk ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–5.5) as well as using all pairs of family members (3.9; 1.7–9.0). All 4 sectors of BPD psychopathology aggregated significantly in families, using both DSM-IV and DIB-R definitions (correlation of traits among all pairs of family members ranged from 0.07 to 0.27), with the affective and interpersonal sectors showing the highest levels; however, the level of familial aggregation of BPD was higher than that of the individual sectors. The relationship among the sectors was best explained by a common pathway model in which the sectors represent manifestations of a latent BPD construct. Conclusions Familial factors contribute to BPD and its sectors of psychopathology. Borderline personality disorder may arise
Du Toit, J; Nel, E M; Steel, H R
The impact of parental divorce and remarriage and young adults' gender on second-order personality traits, such as extraversion, anxiety, tough poise and independence, was examined. The responses of 227 young adults on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) were subjected to a parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed significant differences between the anxiety scores of the young men and women as well as between those of the three different family-structure groups, but divorce and remarriage was not associated with either positive or negative personality development in this sample.
What shapes the size of a personal network of family and friends? We concentrates here on the effect of retirement from the work force. Retirement provides time to develop personal relationships; but it deprives from a potential supply of colleague friends. We draw evidence from a new question on the number of confidants in the 4th wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The survey allows to take into account many potential determinants of personal relations. A first re...
Conner, Tamlin S.; Mirosa, Miranda; Bremer, Phil; Peniamina, Rana
Food allergies present numerous challenges to coping in everyday life. Even simple things like planning a lunch with a friend can be stressful for people with food allergies. But are some people more adversely impacted by having a food allergy than other people? This paper addressed this question by investigating whether individual differences in the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) are related to food allergy-related problems in everyday life among adults with food allergies. Participants were 108 adults (85% female; mean age = 40.2; age range 18–87) with a physician-diagnosed food allergy [most commonly to gluten (54.6%), peanuts (21.3%), cow's milk (16.7%), and shellfish/seafood (16.7%)]. Participants completed an initial online survey that measured demographics, food allergy information, and personality traits using the Big Five Inventory (John et al., 1991). For 2 weeks, participants completed a daily online survey that queried the occurrence of 25 food allergy issues that day and participants' overall stress and mood that day. Neuroticism did not predict more frequent allergy issues or greater stress/poorer mood on days with more allergy issues. Instead, higher openness to experience predicted a range of issues including going hungry because there is no safe food available, problems finding suitable foods when grocery shopping, feeling anxious at social occasions involving food, being excluded, and feeling embarrassed and poorly understood about their food allergy. Conscientious people were less embarrassed or self-conscious about their food allergy, but they had more problems eating out, and their positive mood was more impaired by allergy issues than their less conscientious peers. Extraversion and agreeableness played minor roles. Personality testing can identify people that may have difficulty living with food allergies–such as those higher in openness to experience. PMID:29467686
Conner, Tamlin S; Mirosa, Miranda; Bremer, Phil; Peniamina, Rana
Food allergies present numerous challenges to coping in everyday life. Even simple things like planning a lunch with a friend can be stressful for people with food allergies. But are some people more adversely impacted by having a food allergy than other people? This paper addressed this question by investigating whether individual differences in the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) are related to food allergy-related problems in everyday life among adults with food allergies. Participants were 108 adults (85% female; mean age = 40.2; age range 18-87) with a physician-diagnosed food allergy [most commonly to gluten (54.6%), peanuts (21.3%), cow's milk (16.7%), and shellfish/seafood (16.7%)]. Participants completed an initial online survey that measured demographics, food allergy information, and personality traits using the Big Five Inventory (John et al., 1991). For 2 weeks, participants completed a daily online survey that queried the occurrence of 25 food allergy issues that day and participants' overall stress and mood that day. Neuroticism did not predict more frequent allergy issues or greater stress/poorer mood on days with more allergy issues. Instead, higher openness to experience predicted a range of issues including going hungry because there is no safe food available, problems finding suitable foods when grocery shopping, feeling anxious at social occasions involving food, being excluded, and feeling embarrassed and poorly understood about their food allergy. Conscientious people were less embarrassed or self-conscious about their food allergy, but they had more problems eating out, and their positive mood was more impaired by allergy issues than their less conscientious peers. Extraversion and agreeableness played minor roles. Personality testing can identify people that may have difficulty living with food allergies-such as those higher in openness to experience.
Tamlin S. Conner
Full Text Available Food allergies present numerous challenges to coping in everyday life. Even simple things like planning a lunch with a friend can be stressful for people with food allergies. But are some people more adversely impacted by having a food allergy than other people? This paper addressed this question by investigating whether individual differences in the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are related to food allergy-related problems in everyday life among adults with food allergies. Participants were 108 adults (85% female; mean age = 40.2; age range 18–87 with a physician-diagnosed food allergy [most commonly to gluten (54.6%, peanuts (21.3%, cow's milk (16.7%, and shellfish/seafood (16.7%]. Participants completed an initial online survey that measured demographics, food allergy information, and personality traits using the Big Five Inventory (John et al., 1991. For 2 weeks, participants completed a daily online survey that queried the occurrence of 25 food allergy issues that day and participants' overall stress and mood that day. Neuroticism did not predict more frequent allergy issues or greater stress/poorer mood on days with more allergy issues. Instead, higher openness to experience predicted a range of issues including going hungry because there is no safe food available, problems finding suitable foods when grocery shopping, feeling anxious at social occasions involving food, being excluded, and feeling embarrassed and poorly understood about their food allergy. Conscientious people were less embarrassed or self-conscious about their food allergy, but they had more problems eating out, and their positive mood was more impaired by allergy issues than their less conscientious peers. Extraversion and agreeableness played minor roles. Personality testing can identify people that may have difficulty living with food allergies–such as those higher in openness to experience.
Tewksbury, Richard; Levenson, Jill
The collateral consequences of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) have been well established, although little evidence has supported the efficacy of SORN. Based on the belief that family members provide some of the most consistent, important, and intense forms of support for criminal offenders in general and registered sex offenders (RSOs) more specifically, the experiences of sanctions, losses, and stresses of these individuals is examined. Using survey responses from 584 individuals known to visit online support and advocacy groups for RSOs and their loved ones, this study identifies the stress levels and stressors experienced by this population. Findings show that family members of RSOs experience high levels of social isolation, fear, shame, property damage, and forced residential relocation. Perceived stress is significantly higher for those who are of lower economic means, feel isolated, have high levels of fear and shame/embarrassment, or were forced to move. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sumer, H C; Knight, P A
This study explored whether different models of work-family relationship were possible for individuals with different attachment styles. A mail survey was conducted using employees (N = 481) at a midwestern university in the United States. Results suggested that (a) individuals with a preoccupied attachment pattern were more likely to experience negative spillover from the family/home to the work domain than those with a secure or dismissing style, (b) securely attached individuals experienced positive spillover in both work and family domains more than those in the other groups, and (c) preoccupied individuals were much less likely to use a segmentation strategy than the other 3 attachment groups. However, when the conventional job satisfaction life satisfaction relationship was examined, the data provided unique support for the spillover model. Implications of the findings for both attachment and work family relationship literatures are discussed.
Angel, Sanne; Buus, Niels
tasks. Some sought to reestablish their usual functions outside the family, whereas others focused on establishing a new life together. The partners experienced much distress and appreciated the support they got, but felt that they were mainly left to manage the difficult process on their own.......This qualitative interview study focuses on the personal experiences of partners to a spinal cord injured person. Using a Ricoeurian phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, we analysed seven partners’ narratives 1 and 2 years after their partner’s injury. The study revealed how the injury...... supporting the injured partner and the demanding tasks of everyday life outside the institution. After discharge, partners struggled for the injured partner to regain a well-functioning everyday life and for reestablishing life as a couple. The partner struggled to manage the overwhelming amount of everyday...
Schutz, Rachael E C; Coats, Heather L; Engelberg, Ruth A; Curtis, J Randall; Creutzfeldt, Claire J
Patients with severe acute brain injury (SABI) raise important palliative care considerations associated with sudden devastating injury and uncertain prognosis. The goal of this study was to explore how family members, nurses, and physicians experience the palliative and supportive care needs of patients with SABI receiving care in the neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU). Semistructured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Thirty-bed neuro-ICU in a regional comprehensive stroke and level-one trauma center in the United States. We completed 47 interviews regarding 15 patients with family members (n = 16), nurses (n = 15), and physicians (n = 16). Two themes were identified: (1) hope and (2) personhood. (1) Families linked prognostic uncertainty to a need for hope and expressed a desire for physicians to acknowledge this relationship. The language of hope varied depending on the participant: clinicians used hope as an object that can be given or taken away, generally in the process of conveying prognosis, while families expressed hope as an action that supported coping with their loved one's acute illness and its prognostic uncertainty. (2) Participants described the loss of personhood through brain injury, the need to recognize and treat the brain-injured patient as a person, and the importance of relatedness and connection, including personal support of families by clinicians. Support for hope and preservation of personhood challenge care in the neuro-ICU as identified by families and clinicians of patients with SABI. Specific practical approaches can address these challenges and improve the palliative care provided to patients and families in the neuro-ICU.
Sergey A. Kapustin
Full Text Available The paper includes results of the research, where influence of main parenting styles on developing children’s personality and appearing child-parent problems were considered. It covers client families of psychological advice (with overprotection and over exactingness. It is indicated that the key factor emerging child-parent problems in this families is the abnormality of the parent personality identified through so-called existential criterion, which is displayed in their parenting styles. The parenting styles contribute to shaping child abnormal personality types, also identified through existential criteria are designated as “directed at external assistance”, “directed at complying with the requirements of other people” and “directed at protesting against compliance with the requirements of other people”. Children of such personality types have problems communicating with others as communication is addressed to children with normal personal development and is not relevant for abnormal personal abilities. As the problems mentioned above are connected with maladjustment to social environment requirements they can be classified as problems of social adaptation. There is a connection of a personality type “directed at complying with the requirements of other people” with abnormal personality predisposed to various life problems and mental disorders mentioned in the works of E. Fromm, S. Freud, A. Adler, С. Jung, C. Rogers, and V. Frankl. It suggests the understanding of the personality of this type to be regarded as a classical type of personality which the authors mentioned above were dealing with in their psychotherapeutic practice at different times.
Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia
Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study, a prospective longitudinal investigation, were used to examine the association between adolescent personality disorder (PD) traits and conflict with family members during the transition to adulthood. PD traits at mean age 16 years were associated with elevated contact and conflict with…
Jimenez, Teresa Isabel; Musitu, Gonzalo; Ramos, Manuel Jesus; Murgui, Sergio
The present study analyzes the impact of adolescents' community involvement on victimization by peers at school through various indicators of family, personal and social adjustment (openness of communication with mother and father, life satisfaction, social self-esteem, and loneliness). Participating in the project were 565 adolescents aged 11 to…
Wierda-Boer, H.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Vermulst, A.A.
Today many parents have multiple roles. This study examined how personality, domain-specific stress, and work-family interference are interrelated. Questionnaire data of 276 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings demonstrated that job
With this research it is aimed to determine the personal traits of Street Children depending on them and also the socio-economic variables of Street Children resulting from their families. For this main aim in the research process, it is provided to have communication directly with the parents of Street Children using one-to-one and face-to-face…
Ma, Hing Keung; Cheung, Ping Chung; Shek, Daniel T. L.
This study investigated the relation of peer interactions, family social environment and personality to prosocial orientation in Chinese adolescents. The results indicated no sex differences in general prosocial orientation and inclination to help others, but sex differences in inclination to maintain an affective relationship and inclination to…
Manczak, Erika M.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; McAdams, Dan P.; Wong, Maria S.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Brown, Geoffrey L.
Parent-child conversations about shared events may facilitate important aspects of psychosocial development through the family's references to emotions. Although past research has begun examining features of speakers and topics that predict emotion talk in these conversations, the potential contribution of personality traits has been overlooked.…
Ana Karina Monte Cunha Marques
Full Text Available Estudo qualitativo, do tipo descritivo, objetivando conhecer a experiência de cuidar de pessoas doentes no contexto dos lares, analisando as implicações do apoio social na saúde física e emocional do familiar cuidador. Os dados foram coletados por meio da entrevista semi-estruturada junto a dezoito familiares cuidadores de pessoas com doenças crônicas. A técnica do discurso do sujeito coletivo foi utilizada para a organização dos dados. Constatou-se que todos os informantes eram do sexo feminino, com idade média de cinquenta anos, possuiam até o nível médio de escolaridade, cuidavam ininterruptamente de pessoa doente, predominando as mães com sequela de acidente vascular cerebral. Relatavam comprometimento da sua saúde relacionado ao cuidado realizado: dor na coluna, hipertensão, enxaqueca e depressão. Os discursos coletivos são sugestivos da quebra das redes sociais e da escassez de apoio, levando a pessoa a rejeitar a condição de cuidador. A sobrecarga ficou caracterizada pelo familiar cuidador perceber-se diante de inúmeras situações de enfrentamento, muitas das quais não conseguia administrar.This is a qualitative and descriptive study aiming to know the experience of taking care of sick people in the context of homes, analyzing the implications of the social support in the physical and emotional health of the family caregiver. The data had been collected by means of the semi-structured interview with 18 family caregivers of people with chronic illnesses. The technique of the Collective subject discourse was used for the organization of the data. One evidenced that all the informers were of the feminine sex, with average age of 50 years and medium instructional level. They took care uninterruptedly of sick people predominating the mothers with sequel of stroke. They reported health complications related to the care carried through: back pain, hypertension, migraine and depression. The collective speeches are
Bekhet, Abir K; Johnson, Norah L; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A
Worldwide, caregivers find caring for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) challenging. Family members must manage many aspects of care giving, which is demanding, overwhelming, and can affect the family members' mental health. However learning how to be resilient may help family members overcome the stress and burden associated with caring for a person with ASD. A search was completed in Medline, PsycINFO, Proquest, Web of Science, and CINAHL using the key words "autism," "caregivers," "mothers," and "fathers," alone and in combination. Inclusion criteria were English language articles reporting studies with samples of children with ASD, as distinct from children with other intellectual or developmental disabilities. Fifty-eight articles that met these inclusion criteria were summarized and, from those, the authors selected 22 articles that included indicators of resilience. This integrative review highlights current research on resilience in adult family members of persons with ASD. Indicators of resilience, risk factors, protective factors, and outcomes of resilience were identified. The review indicates that parents of children with ASD who possess indicators of resilience are better able to manage the adversity associated with caring for children with ASD. Thus, enhancing resilience among family members of persons with autism may be beneficial to both the caregivers and care recipients.
Amianto, Federico; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Bertorello, Antonella; Fassino, Secondo
Eating disorders are some of the most difficult mental disorders to treat and manage. Family interacts with genetic dispositions and other pathogenic factors, and may influence the outburst, development and outcome of EDs. The present study explores with a cluster analysis the personality traits of parents of ED subjects. One-hundred-eight mothers and 104 fathers were tested with Temperament Character Inventory (TCI), Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAX), Family Assessment Device (FAD), Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Symptom Questionnaire (SQ), Psychological Well-Being scales (PWB). The cluster distribution of parents based on personality traits was explored. Parents' clusters TCI scores were compared as regards personality, psychopathology, attachment and family features. Cross distribution of temperament and character clusters in mothers and fathers, among couples and ED diagnoses of the daughters was explored. Two clusters of mothers and fathers were identified with temperament clustering. Character traits led to two mothers and three fathers clusters. Mothers temperament cluster 1 (MTC1) correspond to a explosive/adventurous profile, MTC2 to a cautious/passive-dependent profile. Fathers temperament cluster 1 (FTC1) was explosive/methodic, FTC2 was independent/methodic. Character clustering distinguished very immature mothers (MCC1) and majority (65%) of character mature mothers with low self-transcendence (MCC2). A third of fathers was severely immature (FCC1), a third impaired as regards relationships (poor cooperativeness and self-transcendence; FCC2), and one third character mature fathers with low self-transcendence (FCC3). Each cluster evidences specific psychopathology and attachment characteristics. FTC1 was more frequently associated with character immaturity. No significant clusters' cross correlation was found in parental couples. Parents' clusters analyze in depth the univocal picture of
David B. Nicholas
Full Text Available Individuals diagnosed with developmental disability and mental illness (a “dual diagnosis” contend with multiple challenges and system-related barriers. Using an interpretive description approach, separate qualitative interviews were conducted with adults with a dual diagnosis ( n = 7 and their caregiving parents ( n = 8 to examine care-related experiences. Results indicate that individuals with a dual diagnosis and their families experience misunderstanding and stigma. Families provide informal complex care amid insufficient and uncoordinated services but are often excluded from formal care planning. A lack of available funding and services further impedes care. While negative care experiences are reported as prevalent, participants also describe instances of beneficial care. Overall, findings indicate a lack of sufficiently targeted resources, leaving families to absorb system-related care gaps. Recommendations include person- and family-centered care, navigation support, and capacity building. Prevention and emergency and crisis care services, along with housing, vocation, and other supports, are needed. Practice and research development regarding life span needs are recommended.
Full Text Available The Helping Families Programme is a psychoeducational parenting intervention that aims to improve outcomes and engagement for parents affected by clinically significant personality difficulties. This is achieved by working collaboratively with parents to explore ways in which their emotional and relational difficulties impact on parenting and child functioning, and to identify meaningful and realistic goals for change. The intervention is delivered via one-to-one sessions at weekly intervals over a period of 16 weeks. This protocol describes a two-arm parallel RCT in which consenting parents are randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either the Helping Families Programme plus the usual services that the parent may be receiving from their mental health and/or social care providers, or to standard care (usual services plus a brief parenting advice session. The primary clinical outcome will be child behaviour. Secondary clinical outcomes will be child and parental mental health, parenting satisfaction, parenting behaviour and therapeutic alliance. Health economic measures will be collected on quality of life and service use. Outcome measures will be collected at the initial assessment stage, after the intervention is completed and at 6-month follow-up by research staff blind to group allocation. Trial feasibility will be assessed using rates of trial participation at the three time points and intervention uptake, attendance and retention. A parallel process evaluation will use qualitative interviews to ascertain key-workers’ and parent participants' experiences of intervention delivery and trial participation. The results of this feasibility study will determine the appropriateness of proceeding to a full-scale trial.
Herbert, Carol P.
The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987
Marshall, Elaine Sorensen; Olsen, Susanne Frost; Mandleco, Barbara L; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Allred, Keith W; Sansom, Nancy
The presence of a child with disabilities elicits a variety of stress demands on the family. Religion is recognized as a powerful personal, family, and cultural variable. However, little is known about the influence of religion in dealing with disability among families within particular religious groups. This descriptive study explored themes of spiritual belief and religious support among families of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS, or Mormon) with a child with developmental disabilities. Parents shared perspectives of meaning that emerged from experiences with religion and family beliefs perceived to be unique. The core theme, "This is a Spiritual Experience," provides the foundation for a descriptive model that depicts aspects of finding meaning and perceived transcendence.
Tursunov, Olga; Cherny, Nathan I; Ganz, Freda DeKeyser
To describe the experience of family members of patients receiving palliative sedation at the initiation of treatment and after the patient has died and to compare these experiences over time. . Descriptive comparative study. . Oncology ward at Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel. . A convenience sample of 34 family members of dying patients receiving palliative sedation. . A modified version of a questionnaire describing experiences of family members with palliative sedation was administered during palliative sedation and one to four months after the patient died. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the results of the questionnaire, and appropriate statistical analyses were conducted for comparisons over time. . Experiences of family members and time. . Most relatives were satisfied with the sedation and staff support. Palliative sedation was experienced as an ethical way to relieve suffering. However, one-third felt that it shortened the patient's life. An explanation of the treatment was given less than half of the time and was usually given on the same day treatment was started. This explanation was given by physicians and nurses. Many felt that they were not ready for changes in the patient's condition and wanted increased opportunities to discuss the treatment with oncology care providers. No statistically significant differences in experiences were found over time. . Relatives' experiences of palliative sedation were generally positive and stable over time. Important experiences included timing of the initiation of sedation, timing and quality of explanations, and communication. . Nurses should attempt to initiate discussions of the possible role of sedation in the event of refractory symptoms and follow through with continued discussions. The management of refractory symptoms at the end of life, the role of sedation, and communication skills associated with decision making related to palliative sedation should be a
Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena
The aim of this study was to describe the partners' perceptions, understanding, and personal experiences of early menopause and menopausal therapy in women with breast cancer. A questionnaire study was completed by 50 partners of women with diagnoses of breast cancer, recruited via outpatient clinics and the community. Descriptive statistics and χ tests were applied. Most (68%) of the partners perceived hot flushes as the meaning of menopause. Most (60%) partners perceived that loss of sexuality was the key problem/fears about being menopausal. Partners perceived that exercise (72%) and reducing stress (64%) were most effective in alleviating symptoms of menopause. Most partners reported that they did not understand the risks/benefits of hormone therapy (50%), bioidentical hormones (90%), and herbal therapies (84%). The general practitioner was considered the best source of information on menopause (68%). Partners expected menopause to affect a women's everyday life and relationships with family and partner and, particularly, to cause intermittent stress on the relationship (66%) and to decrease libido or sexual interest (64%). Forty-four percent of partners reported that there was some difficulty in communication/discussion about menopause with family and partners. This pilot study highlights (1) the lack of understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies that partners of women with breast cancer have, (2) the personal experience of having a female partner with breast cancer, and (3) the partners' attitudes and responses toward menopause in women with breast cancer.
Odin van der Stelt
Full Text Available Markedly raised incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been observed in several migrant and ethnic minority groups. To contribute to a better understanding of the elevated risk for psychotic disorders that is conferred by migration status, the present study examined effects associated with migration risk status on schizotypal personality traits, which are thought to reflect an underlying vulnerability to psychotic disorder. Effects of migration status were also compared to effects associated with a family history of psychopathology, which represents a robust nonspecific risk factor. We assessed schizotypal traits, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, in a community-based sample of 62 Moroccan migrants and 41 Dutch nonmigrants, who were classified by the presence or absence of a family history of psychopathology. Overall, Moroccan migrants obtained higher SPQ scores than Dutch nonmigrants. However, migrants who had been classified as having a familial load of psychopathology displayed higher SPQ scores than migrants without such a family history, who in turn did not differ from Dutch nonmigrants. Furthermore, migrants with a familial load, relative to migrants without such a family history, reported higher levels of substance use and feelings of anxiety or depression, and perceived more often ethnic discrimination, which closely paralleled their SPQ scores. These findings indicate that primarily those migrants who are both intrinsically vulnerable and chronically exposed to social adversity, particularly ethnic discrimination, are at elevated risk for psychotic and other disorders. The results add to the evidence that migration status and perceived discrimination are associated with mental health.
Full Text Available PurposeRespite care is generally thought to benefit family carers of persons with intellectual disabilities and is regarded as an important component of family-centred services. However, the complexities associated with the provision of such services, from the carer’s perspective, have been rarely investigated.MethodThis qualitative research study was carried out through a participatory action research process that involved collaboration among researchers and family members as co-researchers. Seven focus groups, involving seventy family carers (fifty mothers, fifteen fathers and five sisters, were held in seven locations across the Republic of Ireland. ResultsThree main themes dominated the discussions. The first theme related to the ambivalence of carers towards using respite services, as expressed in their reluctance to relinquish care-giving for even a short period; the feelings of guilt they experienced; and the greater needs of other carers. The second theme related to the benefits of respite breaks, but these were solely with respect to the carer and other family members, rather than to the person with an intellectual disability. The third theme regarding the quality of provision was dominated by concerns for the care the person received in using the services. ConclusionsRespite care has the potential to make a difference, and these findings call for building much- needed alliances between all members of the family and professionals. This is in order to support one another through the difficulties associated with the redesign of existing respite provision, and the extension of these services to the growing number of carers who require respite breaks.doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.22Key wordsIntellectual disability, respite, family members, Ireland
Ruzek, M.; Aron, J.; Maranto, G.; Reider, D.; Wake, C.
Colleges and universities across the country and around the world have embraced the Earth system approach to gain deeper understanding of the interrelationships of processes that define the home planet. The Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education, a product of the NASA/USRA Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century Program (ESSE 21), represents a synthesis of community understanding of the content and process of teaching and learning about Earth as a system. The web-based Design Guide serves faculty from multiple disciplines who wish to adopt an ESS approach in their own courses or programs. Illustrating the nine topical sections of the Design Guide are a series of short vignettes telling the story of how ESS is being used in the classroom, how ESS has contributed to institutional change and personal professional development, how ESS is being implemented at minority serving institutions, and the impact of ESS education on student research. Most vignettes are written from a personal perspective and reflect a direct experience with Earth System Science Education. Over forty vignettes have been assembled aiming to put a face on the results of the systemic reform efforts of the past fifteen years of the ESSE programs, documenting the sometimes intangible process of education reform to be shared with those seeking examples of ESS education. The vignettes are a vital complement to the Design Guide sections, and are also available as a separate collection on the Design Guide and ESSE 21 web sites.
Jungmin Kim, RN, MN
Full Text Available Purpose: The South Korean government introduced the universal long-term care insurance program in 2008 that created a new employment category of “paid family-care worker” to assist the elderly with chronic illnesses including dementia. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of paid family-care workers of people with dementia in South Korea. Methods: The study was a qualitative research design underpinned by interpretive description principles involving eight paid family-care workers. The participants were recruited by attaching the advertisement flyer in a notice board of an educational facility for paid family-care workers. Results: Paid family-care workers struggled to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of their care recipients. Their workloads created physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. However, the care-giving activities were encouraged through their sense of responsibility, filial piety, and personal religious beliefs. Financial subsidies from the government and help received from others were also identified as encouragements. The education course provided to them assisted them to improve their dementia-care capabilities. Conclusion: Understanding paid family-care workers' lived experience in dementia care in South Korea assists with the identification of their educational needs and level of support they require to improve dementia care in the home care environment. A number of suggestions are made to increase paid family-care workers' knowledge, clinical skills, and job satisfaction to reduce their burdens and work-related incidents, such as challenging behaviors from those being cared for. Keywords: dementia, health personnel, long-term care, Republic of Korea
Kim, Jungmin; De Bellis, Anita Marie; Xiao, Lily Dongxia
The South Korean government introduced the universal long-term care insurance program in 2008 that created a new employment category of "paid family-care worker" to assist the elderly with chronic illnesses including dementia. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of paid family-care workers of people with dementia in South Korea. The study was a qualitative research design underpinned by interpretive description principles involving eight paid family-care workers. The participants were recruited by attaching the advertisement flyer in a notice board of an educational facility for paid family-care workers. Paid family-care workers struggled to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of their care recipients. Their workloads created physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. However, the care-giving activities were encouraged through their sense of responsibility, filial piety, and personal religious beliefs. Financial subsidies from the government and help received from others were also identified as encouragements. The education course provided to them assisted them to improve their dementia-care capabilities. Understanding paid family-care workers' lived experience in dementia care in South Korea assists with the identification of their educational needs and level of support they require to improve dementia care in the home care environment. A number of suggestions are made to increase paid family-care workers' knowledge, clinical skills, and job satisfaction to reduce their burdens and work-related incidents, such as challenging behaviors from those being cared for. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available This paper is the result of a participatory action research project. It expresses my experiences with nine of the fourteen families of students attending the special education school where I work. Students are in Early Intervention (0-3 years old, Kinder Garden (3-6 and a half years old and the first cycle of elementary school (6 years and 6 months to 9 years old. Six of the participating families included a father and a mother, while the other three only included the mother. I met six times with the families for afternoon coffee over the course of a year. These gatherings evidenced the need for synchronizing the work done at home with the work offered in the occupational therapy service of which I am in charge, in order to support families in developing their children’s every day skills. This involves a process of analysis and reflection, which leads to the transformation of those of us who lived this experience. The paper also presents the families’ reality first from their individual standpoint and later in synchronization with the group, change that was exhibited after sharing with the other families. Important findings include the need for having a stronger relationship between the school and the families, creating a space for emotional growth for parents, finding similarities between families that would motivate them to be more involved, taking advantage of time, creating personal space for reflection and, last but not least, daring to change.
Govaerts, M J; Capouet, V
Modern anesthetic techniques have modified the aims of premedication in pediatric practice. Anxiolysis, amnesia and easiness of induction are now the the main targets. This paper reviews both the literature and the personal experience of the authors on the subject. Many authors now prefer a benzodiazepine. Rectal instillation of benzodiazepine in solution avoids the trauma of the intramuscular route and produces a faster and more predictable effect, than suppositories. Diazepam (.1 to .2 mg/kg) and flunitrazepam (40 to 80 micrograms/kg) have been extensively used in this indication. Diazepam's duration of elimination being much longer than that of flunitrazepam, this last drug is preferred by many pediatric anesthetists. Midazolam (.4 to .5 mg/kg) has a much faster onset and shorter duration of action. It should thus be preferred if the environment enables the administration of premedication within 10 to 15 minutes of induction.
Health care providers frequently struggle to develop wise applications of theoretical knowledge. As a nurse studying traditional approaches in ethics while simultaneously volunteering in Haiti, I wrestled with the notion of justice in the midst of radical material inequities. Paul Farmer, physician and anthropologist, provides an analytic perspective for health care providers who work in poor and underserved countries by expanding the liberation theology of the 1970s to include social applications. Analyzing my past experiences in Haiti using Farmer's methodology provided insight into my successes and failures and prompted me to search for personal and professional reasons to provide care for the poor in the future. This type of reflection is essential for health care providers who work with the underserved, regardless of their religion or the country in which they work.
This article is part of a working project which assesses Ontario's mental health legislation and practice vis-à-vis international human rights standards. The paper focuses on procedural safeguards provided by the major international human rights instruments in the field of mental health law such as the UN Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness (MI Principles) and the European Convention on Human Rights as interpreted by the European Human Rights Court. In analysing Ontario's compliance with international standards, the paper will explore some problems arising from the implementation of the legislation with which the author is familiar with from his experience as counsel for the Consent and Capacity Board. The paper aims to generate discussion for potential reforms in domestic legal systems and to provide a methodology to be used as a tool to assess similar mental health legislation in other local contexts.
Mo'tamedi, Hadi; Rezaiemaram, Peyman; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Tavallaie, Abaas; Azimian, Mojtaba; Shemshadi, Hashem
Although the family has an important role in the early detection and intervention of first-episode psychosis (FEP), there are few findings reporting associations between family strengths and early treatment-seeking experiences. This study aimed to investigate, within the framework of the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation, the association between family coping strategies, resource management factors and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in Iranian families with one adult child with FEP. Hundred and seven individuals referred to three medical centers in Tehran and diagnosed with FEP participated in this study. Caregiver-perceived DUP was measured via semi-structured interviews administered to primary caregivers. They also completed two questionnaires regarding family resources of stress management and family coping strategies. Data analysis indicated that the Family Inventory of Resources of Management (FIRM) total scale score did not significantly explain the variance of caregiver-perceived DUP, but one of the FIRM subscales, the Extended Family Social Support, and the Family Crisis-Oriented Personal Evaluation scale (F-COPES) total score and one its subscales, the Acquiring Social Support, explained a significant amount of the variance of caregiver-perceived DUP. The results suggest that higher family resiliency, especially social support, facilitates the family's appropriate adaptive reaction (i.e., treatment-seeking), with the consequent decrease of DUP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Ha-Hyun; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Shim, Hyun-Jeong; Hwang, Jun-Eul; Chung, Ik-Joo; Yoon, Jin-Sang
To determine the influence of caregiver personality and other factors on the burden of family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients. We investigated a wide range of factors related to the patient-family caregiver dyad in a palliative care setting using a cross-sectional design. Caregiver burden was assessed using the seven-item short version of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-7). Caregiver personality was assessed using the 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), which measures the following five personality dimensions: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Patient- and caregiver-related sociodemographic and psychological factors were included in the analysis because of their potential association with caregiver burden. Clinical patient data were obtained from medical charts or by using other measures. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify the independent factors associated with caregiver burden. We analyzed 227 patient-family caregiver dyads. The multivariate analysis revealed that caregiver extroversion was protective against caregiver burden, whereas depressive symptoms in caregivers were related to increased burden. Neuroticism was positively correlated with caregiver burden, but this relationship was nonsignificant following adjustment for depressive symptoms. Patient-related factors were not significantly associated with caregiver burden. Evaluating caregiver personality traits could facilitate identification of individuals at greater risk of high burden. Furthermore, depression screening and treatment programs for caregivers in palliative care settings are required to decrease caregiver burden.
Robinson, Sarah; Davey, Barbara; Murrells, Trevor
While European Union policy emphasises that one of the aims of family-friendly working arrangements is to increasing gender equality, in the UK the focus has been primarily on workforce retention. Drawing on a study of Registered General Nurses who returned to work after breaks for maternity leave, this paper considers their preferences and experiences in light of current UK family-friendly policies and the implications of the findings for increasing gender equality. Questionnaires were completed by respondents in three regional health authorities and focused on the four to eight year period after qualification. The following topics were investigated: views about length of maternity break and reasons for returning to work sooner than preferred; hours sought after a return and hours obtained; the availability of preferred patterns of work and of flexible hours; retention of grade on return; the availability and use of workplace crèches, and childcare arrangements when children were unwell.
Jensen, Hanne Irene; Gerritsen, Rik T; Koopmans, Matty
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to adapt and provide preliminary validation for questionnaires evaluating families' experiences of quality of care for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study took place in 2 European ICUs. Based on literature...... validity. RESULTS: A total of 110 family members participated. Response rate was 87%. For all questions, a median of 97% (94%-99%) was assessed as relevant, and a median of 98% (97%-100%), as understandable. Median ceiling effect was 41% (30%-47%). There was a median of 0% missing data (0%-1%). Test......-retest reliability showed a median weighted κ of 0.69 (0.53-0.83). Validation showed significant correlation between total scores and key questions. CONCLUSIONS: The questions were assessed as relevant and understandable, providing high face and content validity. Ceiling effects were comparable to similar...
Jensen, Lotte Groth; Lou, Stina; Aagaard, Jørgen
: Qualitative interviews with members of volunteer families. Discussion: The families were motivated by helping a vulnerable person and to engaging in a rewarding relationship. However, the families often doubted their personal judgment and relied on mental health workers to act as safety net. Conclusion......Background: Social interventions targeted at people with severe mental illness (SMI) often include volunteers. Volunteers' perspectives are important for these interventions to work. The present paper investigates the experiences of volunteer families who befriend a person with SMI. Material...
Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D M
Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). The sample comprised 229 police officers who attended a mandatory firearms training course in Melbourne, Australia, in 2010. Participants commonly reported utilizing independent support persons and displayed a fair understanding of their role. Overall, volunteers were engaged more frequently than family/friends; police considered the volunteers to be more impartial during interviews, whereas family/friends provided a greater level of emotional support to interviewees. Independent support persons need to demonstrate two quite different types of support to people with intellectual disability(ies) during police interviews; these require quite different skill sets and suggest the need for more tailored training and support for these volunteers. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nathan, Paul; Ahluwalia, Aneeta; Chorley, Wendy
Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, both in the UK and worldwide. A small proportion of women are at very high risk of breast cancer, having a particularly strong family history. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has advised that practitioners should not, in most instances, actively seek to identify women with a family history of breast cancer. An audit was undertaken at an urban primary care practice of 15,000 patients, using a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire sent to patients identified with a personal history of breast cancer. The aim of this audit was to determine whether using targeted screening of relatives of patients with breast cancer to identify familial cancer risk is worthwhile in primary care. Since these patients might already expected to have been risk assessed following their initial diagnosis, this audit acts as a quality improvement exercise. The audit used a validated family history questionnaire and risk assessment tool as a screening approach for identifying and grading familial risk in line with the NICE guidelines, to guide referral to the familial cancer screening service. The response rate to family history questionnaires was 54 % and the majority of patients responded positively to their practitioner seeking to identify familial cancer risks in their family. Of the 57 returned questionnaires, over a half (54 %) contained pedigrees with individuals eligible for referral. Patients and their relatives who are often registered with the practice welcome the discussion. An appropriate referral can therefore be made. The findings suggest a role for primary care practitioners in the identification of those at higher familial risk. However integrated systems and processes need designing to facilitate this work.
The role of family in the development of borderline personality disorder is examined with an emphasis on dimensions of family functioning. A synthesis of theoretical concepts implicating such factors, derived mostly from psychoanalysis, is proposed with an emphasis on separation-individuation, early frustrations, regression to recognition memory, oscillations in attachment and social influences. Empirical studies are reviewed. Affective neglect and parental overprotection are often cited, although dysfunctional behaviour control may have a regulatory effect on these factors and a crucial impact on psychic reality of the patient recalling his childhood.
Nilmanat, Kittikorn; Street, Annette
Facing an incurable prognosis Thai families search for a cure for AIDS using all possible means available to them. This paper reports a longitudinal narrative case study of eight family caregivers caring for a relative with AIDS in rural Southern Thailand. The paper demonstrates how the caregivers living with a person with AIDS made sense of illness episodes, and how they chose and evaluated particular treatments and care. Caregivers moved between modern medicine, traditional/folk medicine, supernatural healing rites, religious performances, and home remedies in their search for a cure. The findings indicate that a more holistic and palliative approach is needed toward AIDS care.
Shrier, Diane K; Shrier, Lydia A
Physician daughters of physician mothers may experience unique advantages in their career development and in combining career and family. The objective of this exploratory study, the first on mother-daughter physicians, was to compare the professional and personal characteristics of physician mothers and their physician daughters. Two hundred fourteen families with at least one mother-daughter physician pair were identified through a nationwide search; 84% of the mothers and 87% of the daughters contacted returned a 56-item questionnaire. Data were analyzed to compare professional and personal characteristics of the subset of mothers and daughters who had both responded (n = 136 pairs). Compared to their physician mothers, physician daughters were less satisfied with their career, less likely to feel in control of their work environment, more likely to report moderate or severe daily stress at work, and less likely to want their children to become physicians or to want to become physicians again if they were to relieve their lives. They were also less likely to want to change specialties. Physician daughters were more likely than their physician mothers to be 30 years or older when they had their first child, to have taken parental leave, and to have a spouse who took parental leave and less likely to experience their caregiving as a hindrance to their professional work and advancement. Despite the availability of a physician mother role model, physician daughters reported less career satisfaction and more work-related stress than their physician mothers. These findings warrant further exploration and support the need for new work-family paradigms in medicine.
Barca, Maria Lage; Thorsen, Kirsten; Engedal, Knut; Haugen, Per Kristian; Johannessen, Aud
There are few studies of young persons (old) with dementia, and the situation of their children has been a neglected research field. The aim is explore how adult children of a parent with young-onset dementia have experienced the development of their parents' dementia and what needs they have for assistance. Qualitative interviews with 14 informants (aged 20-37 years; 12 daughters, 2 sons) during 2011 were conducted and analyzed thematically. The informants experienced great burdens and felt neglected during the development of their parents' dementia, both by their family and by health and social services. They emphasized a need to be seen as individuals, with their experiences, feelings, and personal needs for assistance. The stresses experienced during the development of parental dementia seemed to increase conflicts in the family. There were variations in reactions between children, depending on age, gender, family structure and relationships, responsibilities, personal relations with both parents, and whether there was an adult primary caregiver. The length of time living together with the parent with dementia seemed to increase the stress and burden to the children. They expressed a great need for information and support. The findings strengthen the notion of the need for family-oriented support, combined with person-centered care for the children according to their needs. In addition, group meetings and contact with other young people in the same stage of life could be of interest for some.
This study assesses the interaction between personal education and family background during childhood on depressive symptoms in later life by applying Ross & Mirowsky's resource substitution and structural amplification theory of health and education. OLS regression models are estimated using data from the "Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe" (SHARE), which covers information on current social and health status as well as retrospective life histories from 20,716 respondents aged 50 or older from thirteen European countries. Higher education helps to overcome the negative consequences of a poor family background. Since people from poor families are less likely to attain higher educational levels, they lack exactly the resource they need in order to overcome the negative consequences their non-prosperous background has on depressive symptoms. Thus, low family background and low personal education amplify each other. Examining the processes described by theory of resource substitution and structural amplification over different age groups from midlife to old-age suggests that the moderating effect of education remains constant over age among people coming from a poor family background. However, there is some evidence for a decrease with age in the buffering effect of a well-off family background on depressive symptoms among the low educated group. Furthermore, the educational gap in depression diverges with age among individuals originating from a well-off family background. Taken together the results cautiously allude to the conclusion that three processes - cumulative (dis-)advantage, age-as-leveler, and persistent inequalities - might take place. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kinnunen, U.; Vermulst, A.A.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Mäkikangas, A.
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the Big Five personality dimensions as possible moderating factors between two types of work–family conflicts: work interference with family (WIF); and family interference with work (FIW); and their relationship to well-being in the domains of
Braunstein-Bercovitz, Hedva; Frish-Burstein, Smadar; Benjamin, Benny A.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the role that personal resources (person-environment [PE] congruence and personality types associated with resilience) and work-family conflict (WFC) play in the sense of well-being (as reflected by burnout and life-satisfaction) of mothers of young children. A sample of 146 mothers holding demanding…
Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M
A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.
Khalaf, N; Ramsey, D; Kramer, J R; El-Serag, H B
The association between Barrett's esophagus (BE) and a personal or family history of cancer other than gastroesophageal remains unknown. To evaluate the effect of personal and family history of certain cancers and cancer treatments on the risk of BE, we analyzed data from a Veterans Affairs case-control study that included 264 men with definitive BE (cases) and 1486 men without BE (controls). Patients with history of esophageal or gastric cancer were excluded. Patients underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy or a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy concurrently with screening colonoscopy to determine BE status. Personal and family history of several types of cancer was obtained from self-reported questionnaires, supplemented and verified by electronic medical-record reviews. We estimated the association between personal and family history of cancer or radiation/chemotherapy, and BE. Personal history of oropharyngeal cancer (1.5% vs. 0.4%) or prostate cancer (7.2% vs. 4.4%) was more frequently present in cases than controls. The association between BE and prostate cancer persisted in multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio 1.90; 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.38, P = 0.028) while that with oropharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio 3.63; 95% confidence interval 0.92-14.29, P = 0.066) was attenuated after adjusting for retained covariates of age, race, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, and proton pump inhibitor use. Within the subset of patients with cancer, prior treatment with radiation or chemotherapy was not associated with BE. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the proportions of subjects with several specific malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives. In conclusion, the risk of BE in men may be elevated with prior personal history of oropharyngeal or prostate cancer. However, prior cancer treatments and family history of cancer were not associated with increased risk of BE. Further studies are needed
Eliason, B C; Guse, C; Gottlieb, M S
Personal values are defined as "desirable goals varying in importance that serve as guiding principles in people's lives," and have been shown to influence specialty choice and relate to practice satisfaction. We wished to examine further the relationship of personal values to practice satisfaction and also to a physician's willingness to care for the underserved. We also wished to study associations that might exist among personal values, practice satisfaction, and a variety of practice characteristics. We randomly surveyed a stratified probability sample of 1224 practicing family physicians about their personal values (using the Schwartz values questionnaire), practice satisfaction, practice location, breadth of practice, demographics, board certification status, teaching involvement, and the payor mix of the practice. Family physicians rated the benevolence (motivation to help those close to you) value type highest, and the ratings of the benevolence value type were positively associated with practice satisfaction (correlation coefficient = 0.14, P = .002). Those involved in teaching medical trainees were more satisfied than those who were not involved (P = .009). Some value-type ratings were found to be positively associated with caring for the underserved. Those whose practices consisted of more than 40% underserved (underserved defined as Medicare, Medicaid, and indigent populations) rated the tradition (motivation to maintain customs of traditional culture and religion) value type significantly higher (P = .02). Those whose practices consisted of more than 30% indigent care rated the universalism (motivation to enhance and protect the well-being of all people) value type significantly higher (P = .03). Family physicians who viewed benevolence as a guiding principle in their lives reported a higher level of professional satisfaction. Likewise, physicians involved in the teaching of medical trainees were more satisfied with their profession. Family physicians
Woodside, Marianne; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Davison, John; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.
A dearth of research exists exploring the career and work development of adult men and the influence of family-of-origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the researchers used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of men whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family…
de Ceuninck van Capelle, Archie; Visser, Leo H; Vosman, Frans
In this study the authors explored how people with recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) experience their disease within their family lives. Ten people in various stages of the cycle of family life (leaving home, finding a partner, raising children, parenting adolescents, launching children) who had been diagnosed with MS were interviewed in half-structured conversational interviews. Transcriptions were analyzed following a phenomenological approach. Five themes were found: (a) dwindling capacity for housekeeping and childcare (b) struggling to ask for or to accept help, (c) countering awkward attitudes toward my illness, (d) suspecting family members of concealing their, and (e) watching family members wrestle with your illness. The participants described that their illness affected their ability to care for their family and home as they used to. Only a couple of studies have addressed the first person perspective of patients on family and MS. The study expands on these studies by exploring not previously examined perspectives on leaving home, finding a partner, parenting adolescents, and launching children. The findings on family and MS, approached as elements of the first person perspective of MS patients, may guide future research. Given the pivotal role of worries on family in patient experience of MS, we argue that acknowledgment of family as a constitutive element of the patient perspective should be integrated in regular MS care. The authors suggest that the clinical handling of MS as a family issue needs to be done thoughtfully and with attention to the specifics of each unique family situation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Wilhelmsson, Anna-Britta; Berge, Britt-Marie
Mental disability is one of the most serious health problems facing Europe today. The reform of psychiatric care inSweden has passed much of the rehabilitation and daily care of these people on to their families/relatives. The aim of this article is to analyze how the psychiatric reform in Sweden has affected everyday life experiences among close relatives of persons with mental disabilities. It is an explorative and descriptive study using inductive qualitative content analysis of 18 individ...
Full Text Available Background and Objective: University students are among vulnerable groups to tendency towards substance use. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the role of personal, familial, and social risk and protective factors in the prediction of tendency to this behavior among students.Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was carried out on 431 students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Data were collected by Risk and Protective Factors Inventory (RPFI and Youth Risk Taking Scale (YRTS and then, were analyzed by Pearson correlation method and stepwise multivariate regression.Results: Data analysis using Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed significant relationships between personal (e.g. attitude towards substance use and tendency to drug use; r=0.6, P<0.01, familial (e.g. parent attitude towards substance and tendency towards smoking cigarettes; r=0.2, P<0.05, and social (e.g. perceived accessibility and tendency towards alcohol; r=0.4, P<0.01 factors with tendency to substance use. Moreover, the results of stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that personal factors (i.e. attitude towards substance use, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, social factors (i.e. friends’ substance use and perceived accessibility, and familial factors (i.e. family monitoring and parents’ attitude towards substance use were the best predictors of tendency towards substance use in students, respectively.Conclusion: In conclusion, current results indicated that a series of individual, familial, and social factors affect tendency towards substance use among students. Accordingly, identifying vulnerable students using suitable screening tests and providing them with primary prevention programs is of the utmost importance.
Stein, Catherine H; Craft, Scott A
This study examines aspects of case managers' perceived personal growth in their work with consumers. Using a sample of 98 case managers, the psychometric properties of a brief self-report measure of personal growth of case managers were examined. The Case Manager Personal Growth Scale (CMPG) showed good reliability and construct validity as evidenced by negative correlations with scores on professional burnout and positive correlations with personal accomplishment and job satisfaction scores. CMPG scores were unrelated to social desirability scores or caseload size and positively related to age and tenure in the mental health system. Results suggest the strong relevance of the construct of personal growth for case managers.
Funk, Laura M; Peters, Sheryl; Roger, Kerstin Stieber
The importance of emotional support for dying persons and their families has been well established, yet we know less about how care workers understand emotional processes related to death and dying, or how these understandings are connected to care practices and emotional labour at the end of life. The aim of this study was to explore how healthcare workers interpret and respond to emotional needs of dying persons and their families. Qualitative data were collected between 2013 and 2014 through in-depth, in-person interviews with 14 nurses and 12 healthcare aides in one Western Canadian city. Transcripts were analysed using an inductive, interpretive thematic coding approach and the analytic lens of emotional labour. Dominant interpretive frames of a "good death" informed participants' emotionally supportive practice. This included guiding patients and families to "open up" about their emotions to activate the grief process. There was concern that incomplete grieving would result in anger being directed towards care staff. The goal of promoting emotional sharing informed the work of "caring about." Although palliative philosophies opened up moral and professional space for "caring about" in the context of organisational norms which often discouraged these practices, the tension between the two, and the lack of time for this work, may encourage surface expressions rather than authentic emotional care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Matheson, Jennifer L; Rosen, Karen H
A sense of imbalance is common among both professors and therapists, though few studies have been published examining the work and personal life balance of those who work in both professions simultaneously. Using in-depth telephone interviews, this study examined the work and personal life balance of 16 marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty members. Results showed that six were satisfied with their balance, six were dissatisfied, and four were "middle of the road." Men, older participants, and those who were in their career longer were more likely to report feeling satisfied with their balance. Internal indicators of their balance included family and workplace messages, health indicators, feelings of contentment, and congruence with personal values. Child and relationship status, tenure status, and gender issues also impacted their sense of balance. Specific balance enhancers and reducers were highlighted, and participants discussed coping strategies and recommendations for other MFT faculty members. Clinical, training, and career implications are discussed. © 2010 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
The desire to be treated with dignity, particularly at the end of one's life, is a fairly universal preference found in most cultures. Such treatment requires positive actions of respect in the behaviour of others toward the dying and the dead. It also involves negative actions, particularly refraining from doing "dignatory harms" to the dead and the dying. Yet it is not always easy for clinicians and researchers who deal with the dying and dead to decide on appropriate action or inaction. I suggest that such decision making can be helped by locating the dying person along three dimensions: the personal, the familial, and the cultural. These elements are interrelated in complex ways that need to be unpacked in context. Thus, one person may locate herself within a familial context while a sibling may locate himself against that context. While locating individuals along the three dimensions suggested does not "solve" ethical problems, it should help clinicians in understanding and dealing more compassionately with the dead, the dying, their families, and their communities.
Gjerdingen, D K; Chaloner, K M; Vanderscoff, J A
A growing number of residents are having babies during residency training. While many businesses are working to improve maternity conditions and benefits for their employees, residency programs are often not prepared to accommodate pregnant residents. This study was conducted to examine the maternity leave experiences of women who delivered infants during their family practice residency training. Program directors from each of the 394 family practice residency programs listed in the 1993 Directory of Family Practice Residency Programs were asked to distribute surveys to female residents who gave birth during their residency training and had returned to work by the time of the study. Of 199 known eligible residents, 171 (86%) completed surveys; these women represented 127 programs located in 36 states and Puerto Rico. Only 56.8% of women were aware of their program having a written maternity leave policy. The average length of maternity leave was 8 weeks; 76% had leaves of 10 weeks or less. For many, the maternity leave was derived from more than one source, including vacation, sick time, or a mother-child elective. Nearly all (88.3%) the women breast-fed, and the mean duration of breast-feeding was more than 19 weeks. In general, participants believed that having a baby during residency was somewhat difficult. Problems frequently encountered by women after their return to work included sleep deprivation and tiredness, difficulty arranging for child care, guilt about child care, and breast-feeding. Factors that detracted most from the childbirth experience were too little sleep, problems arranging for child care, and lack of support from the partner, residency faculty, and other residents. Having a baby during residency is somewhat difficult for the average female resident. Factors that may ease this difficulty include getting adequate sleep and receiving support from one's partner, faculty, and other residents.
Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh
Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system. PMID:24949074
Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh
In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system.
Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B
The current study examined whether a match or mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation and the cultural context of the family (i.e., familial ethnic socialization) predicted mother-daughter everyday and coparenting conflict, and in turn, teen mothers' adjustment. Participants were 204 Mexican-origin teen mothers (M age = 16.81 years; SD = 1.00). Consistent with a person-environment fit perspective, findings indicated that a mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation (i.e., high mainstream cultural involvement) and the cultural context of the family (i.e., higher levels of familial ethnic socialization) predicted greater mother-daughter everyday conflict and coparenting conflict 1 year later. However, when there was a match (i.e., high levels of familial ethnic socialization for teen mothers with high Mexican orientation), familial ethnic socialization was not associated with mother-daughter conflict. In addition, mother-daughter conflict was positively associated with depressive symptoms and engagement in risky behaviors 1 year later among all teen mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background Drug addiction is deemed one of the gravest threats to society. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine what factors (personal, familial, or social are correlated with addiction relapse. Patients and Methods In this descriptive study, 146 addicts referring to addiction treatment centers in the Iranian city of Ahvaz were selected via purposive and non-randomized sampling. The study tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and SPSS software were used for data analysis. Results The results showed that 46.1% of the participants aged between 20 and 30 years. All the subjects had at least one attempt at quitting drug abuse. Single individuals comprised 52.9% of the study population. The most significant physical factors were lack of appetite (23.9%, numbness and pins and needles (23.3%, and bone pain (22.4%, while the most significant mental factor was loneliness (44%. Concerning the social factors, association with addicted and misleading friends (35.2% had the utmost importance. Furthermore, lack of a permanent job (43% and absence of appropriate family relationships (32%, respectively, constituted the most important factors among the career and familial factors. Conclusions Our results showed that many personal, familial, and social factors play a role in addiction relapse. The high prevalence of return to addiction necessitates further strategies for the more optimal control of these factors.
Bower, Marlee; Conroy, Elizabeth; Perz, Janette
Both loneliness and a lack of social integration are associated with serious physical and psychological health issues. One population highly susceptible to social isolation and loneliness are individuals who are homeless, who also experience high rates of mental disorder and relationship breakdown. Despite this, little research has explored how social networks, isolation and loneliness are experienced for those with a history of homelessness. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to get a nuanced understanding of how social networks and isolation are experienced and understood by individuals experiencing homelessness. Sixteen participants who were either homeless (n = 11) or previously homeless (n = 5) in Sydney, Australia, completed one-off interviews that were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants constructed their social networks as being both constrained and enabled by marginalisation. They experienced rejection from the non-homeless: the loss of critical network members, including rejection from family and a lack of companionship, and low quality and precarious relationships within the homeless community. These accounts were best conceptualised through loneliness theory. Participant's accounts signal that the homeless will likely continue feeling isolated if mainstream attitudes towards homelessness remain stigmatising and discriminatory. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The philosophy of sport is traditionally concerned with three topics: the problem of finding appropriate definitions of the main concepts (e.g. sport, game, play and rules, ethical problems (e.g. values, fair-play and performance enhancement, and the aesthetic characteristics of sport. The author briefly presents the influential Suits’ analysis of the notion of game, but her main interest lies in connecting sport with cognitive science, particularly cognitive philosophy. She contrasts classical cognitivism with the so-called embodied and situated cognition approach. She argues that sport is a good laboratory for testing different approaches and ideas in cognitive science, and stresses two major points. First, sport is an activity where skills are of the utmost importance which helps to shed light on the weaknesses of classical cognitivism. Second, the personal experiences and feelings of athletes play an important role and cannot be dismissed. Both features emphasize the need to treat mental processes as embodied and situated in the environment. The author concludes that we have to broaden the philosophy of sport with topics borrowed from the philosophy of cognitive science and phenomenology of sport.
The aim of this article is to discuss some aspects of the relationship between feelings and primatological science, and how this relationship can influence this particular scientific practice. This point of view is based on the author's personal experience. A sentimental reason to study primatology in the first place will be discussed, and then the existence of a bond between the observer and the observed will be presented as a possible by-product of primatology. The following question is whether a sentimental attitude toward primates is detrimental for good science or is, alternatively, actually leading to better primatological science. As an example, the practice of naming individual monkeys is considered. It is argued that naming monkeys can help by characterizing individuality, and this is likely to improve planning of behavioural observations and welfare of captive individuals. The relationship between the researcher and study subject in biomedical studies is discussed in terms of hierarchy of moral status. Finally, primatology is not unique in the existence of bonds between the observer and the observed, at least from the point of view of the observer. However, primatology is unique because, more than in other cases, it gives greater opportunity for reasoning about different factors surrounding "doing science with animals." This is most probably owing to the phylogenetic closeness primatologists have with their study subjects. Among the different factors involved in making science using animals, the sentimental bond developing between the researcher and study animal can be very influential. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Jean Marc Guile
Full Text Available Introduction: Chart review is a low-cost, but highly informative, method to describe symptoms, treatment and risk factors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and to adapt screening and intervention to clinical reality. Previous chart review studies report more aggressiveness/anger and psychotic features in youths with BPD. They show that adverse family environment and parental psychopathology constitute important factors for BPD pathology. Objectives: To examine clinical characteristics of depressed BPD adolescents (12-17 years old outpatients according to gender and to explore variables which are associated with BPD traits. Methods: A retrospective chart review using the Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Instrument for Borderlines was conducted on 30 depressed BPD adolescents with BPD traits and 28 non-BPD depressed patients without BPD traits. Participants who reached the C-DIB threshold for BPD were included in the BPD traits group. The Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines was used to determine the presence of BPD. Comparisons analyses were performed using Pearson’s Chi-square test. Associated factors were determined using regression analyses. Results: BPD traits participants outpatients were characterised by higher family problems (parental psychopathology, parent disagreement/argument, parent-child relational problem, more aggressive symptoms, and higher rates of family intervention and hospitalisation. A number of familial factors (parental history of delinquency, substance use, or personality disorders, having siblings, parental disagreement/argument in boys were associated with BPD symptomatologytraits. Attention seeking and problematic functioning (does not adapt well to group activities were also associated with BPD traits. Discussion: Our study stresses the need to assess BPD traits in adolescent psychiatric evaluation, especially in
Full Text Available Based on Schwartzs (1992, 1994 Human Values Theory and the Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1988, 1998, 2001, the present research sought to advance the understanding of Work-Family Balance antecedents by examining personal values and work engagement as predictors of Work-Family Conflict via their associations with perceived organizational climate and work burnout. The results of two studies supported the hypotheses, and indicated that perceived organizational climate mediated the relations between values of hedonism, self-direction, power, and achievement and Work-Family Conflict, and that work burnout mediated the relations between work engagement and Work-Family Conflict. Theoretical and practical implications regarding individual differences and experiences of Work-Family Balance are discussed.
Zanarini, Mary C; Barison, Leah K; Frankenburg, Frances R; Reich, D Bradford; Hudson, James I
The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revised Family History Questionnaire-a semistructured interview of demonstrated reliability. Of these 445 subjects, 341 met both DIB-R and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD and 104 met DSM-III-R criteria for another type of personality disorder (and neither criteria set for BPD). The psychopathology of 1,580 first-degree relatives of borderline probands and 472 relatives of axis II comparison subjects was assessed. Using structural models for familial coaggregation, it was found that BPD coaggregates with major depression, dysthymic disorder, bipolar I disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, panic disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatoform pain disorder, and all four axis II disorders studied. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that common familial factors, particularly in the areas of affective disturbance and impulsivity, contribute to borderline personality disorder.
McCarty, Glenda M.
Despite the copious research available on science learning, little is known about ways in which the public engages in free-choice science learning and even fewer studies have focused on how families engage in science to learn about the world around them. The same was true about studies of literacy development in the home until the 1980s when researchers (e.g. Bissex, 1980; Heath, 1983; Taylor, 1983) began documenting the literacy happenings and practices of young children in natural settings. Findings from intensive emergent literacy research studies have challenged traditional approaches to the teaching and learning of literacy, especially drawing attention to the active role children take in their own learning. Drawing upon those early literacy studies, this research project uses ethnographic case study methods along with a naturalistic inquiry approach, to document the daily explorations of one science-oriented family. Over a three year span, I have followed my own family, in our natural setting, through our day-to-day experiences with science and literacy as we seek to mediate and understand the world around us. In doing so, I have explored the ways we have shared knowledge and constructed learning through science books and read alouds, self-initiated inquiry learning, and communication. Throughout the three year research period, I have collected data and documented my own young children's understanding of the nature of science by observing their engagement with world around them.
Lipsky, M S; Taylor, C A
The use of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) by pharmaceutical companies is increasing. Our study examines the opinions and experiences of family physicians concerning DTCA. A survey instrument designed to elicit the opinions, experiences, and perceptions of family physicians about DTCA was sent to a 2% (N = 880) systematic sampling of active physician members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses with t tests and chi 2 tests for independence used to examine subgroup response differences. Four hundred fifty-four (52%) physicians responded to the survey. Most physicians (95%) had encountered DTCA personally, and had been approached by an average of 7 patients over the previous 6 months with requests for specific prescription drugs. Prescription antihistamines and antihypertensive drugs were the most commonly requested. Overall, 80% of the physician respondents believed that print DTCA was not a good idea, while 84% expressed negative feelings about television and radio advertising. Both groups cited "misleading biased view" and "increased costs" as the most common disadvantages. Some reported benefits included "better informed patients" and "promoting physician-patient communication." Overall, the study group physicians had negative feelings about DTCA in both print and electronic media. Studies directly examining patient perspectives, as well as cost benefits, are necessary to test the validity of the physicians' perceptions about DTCA.
Payne, Jennifer L; Klein, Sarah R; Zamoiski, Rachel B; Zandi, Peter P; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Mackinnon, Dean F; Mondimore, Francis M; Schweizer, Barbara; Swartz, Karen L; Crowe, Raymond P; Scheftner, William A; Weissman, Myrna M; Levinson, Douglas F; DePaulo, J Raymond; Potash, James B
We sought to determine whether premenstrual mood symptoms exhibit familial aggregation in bipolar disorder or major depression pedigrees. Two thousand eight hundred seventy-six women were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies as part of either the NIMH Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder Collaborative study or the Genetics of Early Onset Major Depression (GenRED) study and asked whether they had experienced severe mood symptoms premenstrually. In families with two or more female siblings with bipolar disorder (BP) or major depressive disorder (MDD), we examined the odds of having premenstrual mood symptoms given one or more siblings with these symptoms. For the GenRED MDD sample we also assessed the impact of personality as measured by the NEO-FFI. Premenstrual mood symptoms did not exhibit familial aggregation in families with BP or MDD. We unexpectedly found an association between high NEO openness scores and premenstrual mood symptoms, but neither this factor, nor NEO neuroticism influenced evidence for familial aggregation of symptoms. Limitations include the retrospective interview, the lack of data on premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and the inability to control for factors such as medication use.
Avoidant personality disorder is a separable schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder even when controlling for the presence of paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders The UCLA family study.
Fogelson, D L; Nuechterlein, K H; Asarnow, R A; Payne, D L; Subotnik, K L; Jacobson, K C; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S
It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be separable dimensions of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs. Rates of APD among first-degree Rels of Sz probands, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) probands, and community control (CC) probands were examined. Further analyses examined rates when controlling for the presence of schizotypal (SPD) and paranoid (PPD) personality disorders, differences in APD Sxs between relative groups, and whether APD in Rels of Szs reflects a near miss for another Sz-spectrum PD. Three hundred sixty-two first-degree Rels of Sz probands, 201 relatives of ADHD probands, and 245 Rels of CC probands were interviewed for the presence of DSM-III-R Axis I and II disorders. Diagnoses, integrating family history, interview information, and medical records, were determined. APD occurred more frequently in Rels of Sz probands compared to CC probands (pavoids social or occupational activities..." and "exaggerates the potential difficulties..." 65% of the Rels of Sz probands who had diagnoses of APD were more than one criterion short of a DSM-III-R diagnosis of either SPD or PPD. This indicates that APD is a separate Sz-spectrum disorder, and not merely a sub-clinical form of SPD or PPD.
Leadbitter, Kathy; Aldred, Catherine; McConachie, Helen; Le Couteur, Ann; Kapadia, Dharmi; Charman, Tony; Macdonald, Wendy; Salomone, Erica; Emsley, Richard; Green, Jonathan; Barrett, Barbara; Barron, Sam; Beggs, Karen; Blazey, Laura; Bourne, Katy; Byford, Sarah; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Collino, Julia; Colmer, Ruth; Cutress, Anna; Gammer, Isobel; Harrop, Clare; Houghton, Tori; Howlin, Pat; Hudry, Kristelle; Leach, Sue; Maxwell, Jessica; Parr, Jeremy; Pickles, Andrew; Randles, Sarah; Slonims, Vicky; Taylor, Carol; Temple, Kathryn; Tobin, Hannah; Vamvakas, George; White, Lydia
There is a lack of measures that reflect the intervention priorities of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that assess the impact of interventions on family experience and quality of life. The Autism Family Experience Questionnaire (AFEQ) was developed through focus groups and online consultation with parents, and…
Muñoz-Cortés, Gerardo; García-Zavala, Guadalupe Ulises; Estrada-Andrade, María Elena
influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease. Surveillance in Mexico is based on the detection of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and antiviral treatment should begin within 48 hours to avoid the main complication, pneumonia. The aim was to describe the experience of treatment of ILI in a family medicine unit. a descriptive study included patients presented to the emergency room with ILI (38°C fever, headache and cough accompanied by other symptoms). We reviewed the reporting formats of Influenza. To follow up, we contacted them by telephone. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. there were 537 patients attended with diagnosis of upper airway infection, 1.3 % met criteria for ILI. 85.7 % were men. The mean age was 18 ± 24.21 years. The patients were seen in a mean time of 19.14 hours after the symptoms have started; 100 % of the patients received treatment with oseltamivir and zanamivir; 14.3 % developed pneumonia. All the patients recovered without concomitant disease or complications. The use of a protocol in patients with influenza in a family medicine unit led an early diagnosis and treatment that favored the patients' health restoration.
Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.
In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989…
Celenkosini Thembelenkosini Nxumalo
a cycle of disability on the part of the patient and family. Purpose: To explore the stigma .... prevention of stigmatisation of people with mental illness and their families in rural ... as a family member's accounts of stigma related feelings, situations or ..... ishment from the family as a reason for the bad behaviour. The participants ...
Valeeva, Roza A.; Kulesza, Ewa M.
The beginning of the 21st century is marked by systemic, economic and social transformations in Poland and Russia, that significantly affected the education system, including the education for persons with special needs. This paper is an attempt to present synthetically the changes relating to persons with disabilities. The current state of the…
Collins, Wanda Lott; Doolittle, Amy
This article introduces the authors' experiences and observations as grief/bereavement counselors participating in urban and rural funerals. A vignette illustrates the use of rituals and spirituality of one African American family, living in a rural area of Kentucky, and their efforts to cope with their own grief and loss of a loved one. The…
Harold T Bae
Full Text Available Personality traits have been shown to be associated with longevity and healthy aging. In order to discover novel genetic modifiers associated with personality traits as related with longevity, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS on personality factors assessed by NEO-FFI in individuals enrolled in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS, a study of 583 families (N up to 4595 with clustering for longevity in the United States and Denmark. Three SNPs, in almost perfect LD, associated with agreeableness reached genome-wide significance (p<10-8 and replicated in an additional sample of 1279 LLFS subjects, although one (rs9650241 failed to replicate and the other two were not available in two independent replication cohorts, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the New England Centenarian Study. Based on 10,000,000 permutations, the empirical p-value of 2X10-7 was observed for the genome-wide significant SNPs. Seventeen SNPs that reached marginal statistical significance in the two previous GWASs (p-value < 10-4 and 10-5, were also marginally significantly associated in this study (p-value < 0.05, although none of the associations passed the Bonferroni correction. In addition, we tested age-by-SNP interactions and found some significant associations. Since scores of personality traits in LLFS subjects change in the oldest ages, and genetic factors outweigh environmental factors to achieve extreme ages, these age-by-SNP interactions could be a proxy for complex gene-gene interactions affecting personality traits and longevity.
Butler, Ashleigh E; Hall, Helen; Willetts, Georgina; Copnell, Beverley
The PICU is the most common site for inpatient pediatric deaths worldwide. The impact of this clinical context on family experiences of their child's death is unclear. The objective of the study was to review and synthesize the best available evidence exploring the family experience of the death of their child in the PICU. Studies were retrieved from CINAHL Plus, OVID Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Embase. Gray literature was retrieved from greylit.com, opengrey.edu, Trove, Worldcat, and Google scholar. Study selection was undertaken by 4 reviewers by using a multistep screening process, based on a previously developed protocol (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews 2015:CRD42015017463). Data was extracted as first-order constructs (direct quotes) or second-order constructs (author interpretations) onto a predeveloped extraction tool. Data were analyzed by thematic synthesis. One main theme and 3 subthemes emerged. "Reclaiming parenthood" encompasses the ways in which the parental role is threatened when a child is dying in the PICU, with the subthemes "Being a parent in the PICU," "Being supported," and "Parenting after death" elucidating the ways parents work to reclaim this role. The review is limited by a language bias, and by the limitations of the primary studies. When a child dies in a PICU, many aspects of the technology, environment, and staff actions present a threat to the parental role both during and after the child's death. Reclaiming this role requires support from health care providers and the wider community. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Wenger, Matthew C.
This qualitative study is an exploratory look at family experiences at night time telescope observing events, often called star parties. Four families participated in this study which looked at their expectations, experiences and agendas as well as the roles that identity and family culture played in the negotiation of meaning. Two families who had prior experience with attending star parties were recruited ahead of time and two other families who were first time visitors were recruited on-site at the observing event. Data were collected at two star parties. At each event, one experienced family was paired with an on-site family for the purposes of facilitating conversations about expectations and prior experiences. The results of this study showed that learning is constantly occurring among families, and that star parties and family culture were mediational means for making meaning. Expectations and agendas were found to affect the families' star party experiences and differences were observed between the expectations and experiences of families based on their prior experiences with star parties. These data also showed that family members are actively negotiating their individual and family identities. These families use their cultural history together to make sense of their star party experiences; however, the meaning that families were negotiating was often focused more on developing family and individual identity rather than science content. The families in this study used the star party context as a way to connect with each other, to make sense of their prior experiences, and as raw material for making sense of future experiences.
Münch, Anna Lena; Hunger, Christina; Schweitzer, Jochen
This study examined relationships between attachment style, eating disorders (EDs), personality variables and family functioning. In our study, 253 women (M = 25.72 years, SD = 8.73) were grouped into one of four categories either according to self-reported ED diagnosis or by exceeding cut-offs for a clinical diagnosis on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) or Short Evaluation of Eating Disorders (SEED): anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), other eating disorder (O-ED), no eating disorder (Non-ED). The ED group (AN, BN, O-ED) included 106 women (M = 24.74 years, SD = 7.71), and the Non-ED group 147 women (M = 26.42 years, SD = 9.37). Approximately half of the ED group had a comorbid disorder (59.4 %), while the majority of the Non-ED group had no psychological disorder (89.1 %). Participants with an ED were significantly more often insecurely attached (Adult Attachment Scale; AAS), emotionally unstable, less extraverted (Big-Five-Test of Personality; B5T) and showed less positive family functioning (Experiences in Personal Social Systems Questionnaire; EXIS.pers). Results showed partial mediation for attachment and EDs through neuroticism, extraversion and family functioning. The study found further evidence for elevated problems with attachment, personality, and family experiences in individuals with EDs, while suggesting mechanisms that may link these constructs. Implications for research and practice were discussed. This study supports findings that acknowledge the mediating role played by personality factors and family functioning in the relationship between attachment and EDs.
Ammons, Samantha K.; Kelly, Erin L.
The challenges of juggling work and family responsibilities are well known, but there has been little attention to the distinctive work and family experiences of young adults. This chapter explores how class affects young adults' exposure to work-family conflicts and the strategies they use to manage their work and family responsibilities. Using…
Full Text Available Rita Sommerseth, Elin DysvikUniversity of Stavanger, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Health Studies, Stavanger, NorwayObjective: The basic aim in this paper is to discuss health care professionals’ experiences of person-centered collaboration and involvement in mental health rehabilitation and suggest ways of improving this perspective. Furthermore, the paper explains the supportive systems that are at work throughout the process of rehabilitation.Method: The study design is a qualitative approach using three focus group interviews with a total of 17 informants with different professional backgrounds such as nurses, social workers, and social pedagogies. In addition, one nurse and one social worker participated in a semistructured in-depth interview to judge validity.Results: Our results may demonstrate deficits concerning mental health care on several levels. This understanding suggests firstly, that a person-centered perspective and involvement still are uncommon. Secondly, multidisciplinary work seems uncommon and only sporadically follows recommendations. Thirdly, family support is seldom involved. Lastly, firm leadership and knowledge about laws and regulations seems not to be systematically integrated in daily care.Conclusion: Taking these matters together, the improvement of a person-centered perspective implies cooperation between different services and levels in mental health care. In order to bring about improvement the health care workers must critically consider their own culture, coordination of competence must be increased, and leadership at an institutional and organizational level must be improved so that scarce rehabilitation resources are used to the optimal benefit of people with a mental illness.Keywords: multidisciplinary teams, person-centered collaboration, supportive systems, rehabilitation
In this article, the author talks about the growing pattern of migration experiences for professional people and the impact these have on the well-being of the family as a whole and individual family members who reside outside their home countries for prescribed periods of time. It is easy to argue that the experiences of such families are far…
Hebblethwaite, Shannon; Norris, Joan
The purpose of this study was to understand the expression of generativity among grandparents and their adult grandchildren through their experiences of family leisure. Fourteen dyads of grandparents and adult grandchildren were interviewed about their experience of family leisure. The findings illustrate the important role that family leisure…
Breshears, Diana; Lubbe-De Beer, Carien
Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gay-parented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children's education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and…
Guarnaccia, P J; Parra, P; Deschamps, A; Milstein, G; Argiles, N
Among Hispanics, the family is viewed as the primary care giver for seriously mentally ill family members. This paper reports on a study of minority families' conceptions of serious mental illness, of their interaction with mental health resources, and on the burdens experienced by families in caring for a seriously mentally ill family member. The focus of this paper is on Hispanic families in New Jersey, with some comparative data from other ethnic group families. Families' conceptions of serious mental illness are explored and analyzed to demonstrate the importance of concepts of nervios and fallo mental in shaping families' responses to their ill family member. Social support systems for families are also explored with particular attention to the role of religious institutions and religious healing as a major source of solace.
Bagby, Molly Shields; Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.
We used a grounded theory approach to data analysis to discover what effect, if any, children's sensory experiences have on family occupations. We chose this approach because the existing literature does not provide a theory to account for the effect of children's sensory experiences on family occupations. Parents of six children who were typically developing and six children who had autism were interviewed. We analyzed the data using open, axial, and selective coding techniques. Children's sensory experiences affect family occupations in three ways: (1) what a family chooses to do or not do; (2) how the family prepares; and (3) the extent to which experiences, meaning, and feelings are shared. PMID:22389942
Holland, Jennifer E; DeMaso, David R; Rosoklija, Ilina; Johnson, Kathryn L; Manning, Diane; Bellows, Alexandra L; Bauer, Stuart B
This pilot study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and usefulness of the Self-Cathing Experience Journal (SC-EJ), an online resource for patients and families to address issues and stigma surrounding clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Modeled after previous assessments of the Cardiac and Depression Experience Journals (EJs), this project uniquely included patients and caregivers. We explored whether patients and caregivers would find the SC-EJ helpful in increasing their understanding of CIC, accepting the medical benefits of self-catheterization, improving hopefulness, and diminishing social isolation. Patients seen in a tertiary urology clinic were asked to view the SC-EJ for 30 min and rate its safety and efficacy. The cross-sectional sample included 25 families: 17 surveys were completed by the patient and their caregiver, five by the patient only, and three by the caregiver only. Mean patient age was 15.7 ± 5.8 years (range 7-29 years). The patients were 64% female, and 72% used CIC due to neurological diagnoses. Mean overall patient satisfaction with the SC-EJ was moderately high (mean = 5, out of a 7-point Likert scale from 1 = not at all to 7 = extremely). Mean overall caregiver satisfaction was high (mean = 5.55) and was similar to caregiver satisfaction scores recorded in caregivers with children with congenital heart disease and depression (mean = 5.7 and mean = 5.75, respectively). No significant differences were noted in satisfaction between CIC patients and CIC caregivers or among caregivers of the three populations surveyed (CIC, Cardiac, and Depression). CIC patients and caregivers reported that SC-EJ viewing gave them a strong sense that others are facing similar issues (patient mean = 6.15, caregiver mean = 6.21) and that it was helpful to read about other families' CIC experiences (patient mean = 6, caregiver mean = 5.89). The SC-EJ appears to be safe, feasible, and useful to patients and families using CIC. Ratings from caregivers of
Danila Secolim Coser
Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify potential relationships among personal well-being, parental practices, and interactions between parents and preschool children reported by working fathers and mothers ( n = 120, 60 couples from a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected using the Questionnaire on family and professional lives. Three scales were selected for data analysis: well-being; interaction between parents and children; and family life. Statistical tests (One-Way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed negative correlations between child-rearing practices and health problems reported by parents. Positive correlations were also found between reported parental interactions and child-rearing practices. Parental practices and interactions between parents and children varied according to the number of children (one or two.
Full Text Available A prisoner's life can often be a scary way of life for many people, which is why many individuals don’t want to be close to people who have been imprisoned, for obvious reasons. But the reality is that those who execute prison sentences, sooner or later, are liberated from prison and re-enter en society. Resocialization is a hard and difficult process to be fulfilled, but obviously not impossible. In trying to redress the behaviours of those who have chosen the wrong way of life, family involvement is essential, especially in terms of maintaining mental health, and in the hope that at the end of the punishment, at the exit of the penitentiary there will be someone waiting there for them. The present paper aims to analyze the rights of inmates to keep in touch with their families, stipulated in the legislation of 5 European countries, the similarities and possible differences of their approach in the desire to identify the best regulations in this field, with best results in re-socialization. However, it is known that permanent contact with the family increases the confidence in the person self-esteem so that he / she overcomes the bad moments of life, as well as in the case of the prisoners the existence of more rights to maintain contact with the family is a desire
Shek, Daniel T L; Lin, Li
On the basis of longitudinal data collected over 6 years, the changes in delinquent behavior and the related sociodemographic, personal, and family determinants were examined in this study. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A 6-year longitudinal research design was used. Students responded to a questionnaire containing sociodemographic questions and validated measures of positive youth development, family functioning, and delinquent behavior. There was an increasing trend of delinquent behavior with the growth rate slowing down over the high school years. Male adolescents reported higher levels of delinquent behavior and showed a greater increase of delinquent behavior relative to female adolescents. Although positive youth development and family functioning were negatively associated with the initial level of delinquent behavior, they were positively associated with the growth rate of delinquent behavior over time. Delinquent behavior could be described by a quadratic growth curve during high school years. Gender, positive youth development, and family functioning influence the level and developmental trajectory of delinquent behavior in adolescence. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Margine, Le.; Tintiuc, D.; Grejdeanu, T.; Margine, Lu.; Badan, V.
Medical and social protection and rehabilitation of patients with 'Chernobyl syndrome' is provided by legislation of the Republic of Moldova, which is reflected in a comprehensive action plan for rehabilitation and protection of this category of citizens. This plan includes such medical activities as detailed medical ambulatory and stationary examination, purchase prescription drugs, annual sanatorium treatment, annual compensation recovery in the value of 2 average monthly salaries for health improvement. The role of family doctors' medical assistance for persons suffered due to the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is very important in this plan implementation.
Wilder, JeffriAnne; Cain, Colleen
Family is regarded as a powerful force in the lives of Black Americans. Often-times, families function as an agent of socialization that counters racism. At the same time, however, Black families can perpetuate skin tone consciousness and bias, or "colorism." Although there is an extensive body of revisionist literature on Black families and a…
Robinson, Louise; Gemski, Alan; Abley, Clare; Bond, John; Keady, John; Campbell, Sarah; Samsi, Kritika; Manthorpe, Jill
Consensus recommends early recognition of memory problems through multi-disciplinary assessment in memory clinics; however, little is known about the experiences of people accessing such services. The aim of this review was to synthesis empirical evidence on patient and carer experiences in the transition to dementia. This review updates an earlier review (Bamford et al., 2004) on the topic of disclosure of the diagnosis of dementia. Key electronic databases were searched including OVID Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Sociological Abstracts; this was supplemented by hand searching of reference lists and contact with experts in the field. Only papers published after 2003 were included. Of the 35 papers included in the review, only one study observed the process of disclosure and only two papers explored the effects on the person with dementia's health. The vast majority of people with dementia wished to know their diagnosis. The key challenges for the person with dementia were coming to terms with losses on multiple levels. Although there may be short-term distress, the majority of people with dementia do not appear to experience long-term negative effects on their psychological health. For family carers, becoming the main decision-maker and adjusting to increased responsibility were common concerns. There is still little empirical research observing the process of diagnostic disclosure in dementia. Studies exploring the views of patients and their families suggest this should be an ongoing process with the provision of support and information tailored to individual needs. The term "Alzheimer's disease" appears to have more negative connotations than the word "dementia".
Kalpakci, Allison; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla
Central to most theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the notion that the family environment interacts with genetically-based vulnerabilities to influence the development of BPD, with particular attention given to risk conferred by conflictual familial relations. However, the extent to which family conflict may relate to the development of BPD via related interpersonal beliefs is currently unknown. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the concurrent relation between conflictual family relations and borderline features in female college students is explained by beliefs associated with real or perceived unmet interpersonal needs (captured by Joiner's  Interpersonal Psychological Theory, specifically thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness). The sample included 267 female undergraduates ages 18-25 years (M = 20.86; SD = 1.80). Level of borderline personality features, unmet interpersonal needs, and family conflict were assessed. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relations between both thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, conflictual family relations, and borderline features. Multivariate analyses revealed that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness both mediated the relation between family conflict and borderline personality features, thus supporting a multiple mediation model. This cross-sectional study is a preliminary step towards confirming the broad theoretical hypothesis that conflictual family relations relate to beliefs about thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, relate to borderline personality pathology. Limitations and areas of future research are discussed.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
Using a nationally representative sample of 3,058 junior high school students in Taiwan, this study examines a model of how personal traits, family factors, and school dynamics influence school violence committed by students against students and teachers. This model proposed that school violence is directly influenced by personal traits,…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the beliefs health care personnel have about patients who experience family violence. This was done by analyzing the positions constructed for such patients using content analysis. The data comprise six focus groups conducted with physicians, nurses, social workers, and psychologists working in a maternity unit, a psychiatric ward, and an emergency department. The research team collected the data in 2006 in Finland. Three main positions were constructed for these patients: as a “victim,” with the classic characteristics of such; as a person damaged or disturbed in such a way that his or her victimization has become hidden behind secondary symptoms; and, as responsible for ending the violence and thus as an active contributor to and supporter of the violence. The results support the notion that health care personnel often have stereotypical beliefs about people experiencing family violence. It would be important to educate personnel about the dynamics of family violence.
Green, Virginia P.; Schaefer, Lyn
Determined whether teachers with personal divorce experience differed from other teachers in their opinions on divorce, knowledge about divorce, and feelings about schools' role and responsibility to children of divorce. Those with personal divorce experience were more likely to encourage teacher and school involvement with children of divorce.…
Shepherd, Andrew; Sanders, Caroline; Shaw, Jenny
Understandings of personal recovery have emerged as an alternative framework to traditional ideas of clinical progression, or symptom remission, in clinical practice. Most research in this field has focussed on the experience of individuals suffering with psychotic disorders and little research has been conducted to explore the experience of individuals with a personality disorder diagnosis, despite the high prevalence of such difficulties. The nature of the personality disorder diagnosis, together with high prevalence rates in forensic settings, renders the understanding of recovery in these contexts particularly problematic. The current study seeks to map out pertinent themes relating to the recovery process in personality disorder as described by individuals accessing care in either community or forensic settings. Individual qualitative interviews were utilised to explore the lived experience of those receiving a personality disorder diagnosis and accessing mental health care in either community or forensic settings. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify shared concepts and understanding between participants. Fourty-one individual participant interviews were conducted across forensic and community settings. Recovery was presented by participants as a developing negotiated understanding of the self, together with looked for change and hope in the future. Four specific themes emerged in relation to this process: 1. Understanding early lived experience as informing sense of self 2. Developing emotional control 3. Diagnosis as linking understanding and hope for change 4. The role of mental health services. Through considering personal recovery in personality disorder as a negotiated understanding between the individual, their social networks and professionals this study illustrates the complexity of working through such a process. Clarity of understanding in this area is essential to avoid developing resistance in the recovery process. Understanding of
Geller, Alan C; Brooks, Daniel R; Colditz, Graham A; Koh, Howard K; Frazier, A Lindsay
Family history of skin cancer is an important determinant of skin cancer risk for offspring. No previous study of the effect of personal or family history of skin cancer on the sun protection behaviors of the offspring has been published. A retrospective study was conducted of the sun protection behaviors of the adolescent participants in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), who were offspring of mothers from the Nurses Health Study II. Adolescents' surveys were matched with their mothers' reports of a personal or family history of skin cancer and compared with adolescents whose mothers did not report a personal or family history of skin cancer. The outcome measures were (1) occurrence of frequent sunburns during the past summer, (2) use of a tanning bed during the past year, and (3) routine use of sunscreen. Frequent sunburns were defined as the report of > or = 3 sunburns during the past summer. We compared those who reported having used a tanning bed in the past year at least once with those who reported no tanning bed use in the past year. Routine use of sunscreen was defined as a respondent who replied that he or she "always" or "often" used sunscreen with sun protection factor of 15 or more when he or she was outside for > 15 minutes on a sunny day during the past summer. General estimating equations were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for gender, age, color of untanned skin, and number of friends who were tanned. We also conducted an additional analysis restricted to children whose mothers had received a diagnosis of skin cancer in which we assessed sun protection behaviors according to the child's age and mother's age at the time of the mother's diagnosis and the number of years that had passed since the diagnosis of the mother's skin cancer. In 1999, 9943 children reported their sun protection behaviors; 8697 of their mothers had not received a diagnosis of skin cancer or reported a family history of melanoma, 463
Full Text Available Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gayparented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children’s education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and administrators wishing better to support lesbian/ gay-parented families. The results of our study offer an understanding of the challenges and needs of this diverse family in the school system, as well as a starting point for administrators and teachers wanting to create inclusive environments for all family types.
Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M; van Aken, Marcel A G
Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of callous-unemotional (CU), grandiose manipulative (GM), and dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) traits and (b) whether these groups differ in their problem behaviors and parent-adolescent relationship quality. Latent class growth analyses on 4-wave data of 1,131 Dutch adolescents revealed 3 personality profiles: (1) a dark impulsive group (13.9%), with high scores on all 3 traits (CU, GM, and DI) that were stable over time; (2) an impulsive group (26.1%), with high and increasing levels of impulsivity and relatively low scores on CU and GM; and (3) and a low risk group (60.0%), with relatively low levels on all 3 personality characteristics, with impulsivity decreasing over time. Compared with adolescents in the low risk group, adolescents in the dark impulsive and impulsive groups reported higher initial levels of substance use, sexual risk behaviors, permissive sexual attitudes, parent-adolescent conflict, and lower parent-adolescent satisfaction, as well as greater increases in sexual risk behavior over time. Compared with adolescents in the impulsive group, those in the dark impulsive group showed the highest levels of risk behaviors. Hence, dark personality traits coupled with impulsivity may be indicative of an earlier and more severe trajectory of problem behaviors that may differ from the trajectory of youth who are only impulsive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Anderson, Emily E; Wasson, Katherine
The stories in this volume shed light on the potential of narrative inquiry to fill gaps in knowledge, particularly given the mixed results of quantitative research on patient views of and experiences with genetic and genomic testing. Published studies investigate predictors of testing (particularly risk perceptions and worry); psychological and behavioral responses to testing; and potential impact on the health care system (e.g., when patients bring DTC genetic test results to their primary care provider). Interestingly, these themes did not dominate the narratives published in this issue. Rather, these narratives included consistent themes of expectations and looking for answers; complex emotions; areas of contradiction and conflict; and family impact. More narrative research on patient experiences with genetic testing may fill gaps in knowledge regarding how patients define the benefits of testing, changes in psychological and emotional reactions to test results over time, and the impact of testing on families.
Heerman, William J; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Barkin, Shari L; McPheeters, Melissa
To evaluate the association between adverse family experiences (AFEs) during childhood and adolescent obesity and to determine populations at highest risk for AFEs. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, including children aged 10-17 years. Weighted estimates of 31,258,575 children were based on interviews with 42,239 caregivers. Caregiver reports of nine psychosocial risk factors measured AFEs during childhood. Adolescent overweight and obesity were derived by caregiver-reported child height and weight. Nearly one-third (30.5%) of children had experienced ≥2 AFEs, with geographic variation by state. The prevalence of obesity among children experiencing ≥2 AFEs was 20.4%, when compared with 12.5% among children with 0 AFEs. Adjusted survey regression models were controlled for child, parent, household, and neighborhood characteristics. Children with ≥2 AFEs in childhood were more likely to have obesity (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.47-2.17; P Adolescents in this national sample who were exposed to greater numbers of AFEs in childhood also had higher rates of overweight and obesity. Geographic variation and differential associations based on race/ethnicity identified children at greatest risk. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available Background: Rehabilitation is of fundamental importance for the persons with disability to achieve functional independence and have an improved quality of life. To enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation, it is important to seek clients’ perspectives of the rehabilitation services and to incorporate these perspectives into the planning and delivery of rehabilitation services. The aim of this study was to explore the persons with physical disabilities’ experiences of the rehabilitation services they received at Community Health Centres (CHCs. Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were used to collect data. Ten persons with physical disabilities, who had received rehabilitation services at CHCs participated in the in-depth interviews. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results: The clients experienced problems with accessing transport and obtaining information from the service providers. Experiences regarding clients’ involvement in the rehabilitation were varied. All the clients reported positive experiences regarding their interaction with service providers and family involvement. Conclusion: The experiences of the participants who accessed CHCs for rehabilitation were positive and negative. The service providers should therefore address the aspects of rehabilitation that were negatively experienced.
Beauchamp, Natasha; Irvine, A Blair; Seeley, John; Johnson, Brian
Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of a multimedia support program delivered over the Internet to employed family caregivers of persons with dementia. The evaluation of this program involved 299 employed family caregivers participating in a pretest-posttest randomized clinical trial with a 30-day follow-up and a waitlist control condition. Validated instruments include the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Caregiver Strain scale from Benjamin Rose, and Positive Aspects of Caregiving used in the nationwide REACH study. Those who viewed Caregiver's Friend: Dealing with Dementia 30 days postexposure demonstrated significant improvements in depression, anxiety, level and frequency of stress, caregiver strain, self-efficacy, and intention to seek help, as well as perceptions of positive aspects of caregiving. Interactive multimedia interventions delivered over the Internet appear to be uniquely suited to provide low-cost, effective, convenient, individually tailored programs that present educational information, cognitive and behavioral skills, and affective learning opportunities. This makes Web-based multimedia a promising avenue for work-life balance programs, employee-assistance providers, and organizations interested in improving family caregiver health and well-being.
Wei, Xin; Yu, Jennifer W
This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal effects of children's disability types and health on family experiences, namely, parent divorce, mother's unemployment, and receipt of social welfare. The parent and school staff survey data for 1999 and 2004 from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study were analyzed, when the ages of children with disabilities ranged from 6 to 17. Weighted logistic regressions using Taylor Series Linearization were used to model the concurrent associations and longitudinal association between children's disability types and health and family experiences. Models were adjusted to account for other children in the family with disabilities, sociodemographic characteristics, and other family experiences variables. Family experiences varied significantly by disability type in 1999. Compared with families of children with learning disabilities, parents of children with emotional disturbances were 81% more likely to get divorced, and 2.5 times more likely to receive welfare from 1999 to 2004. Mothers of children with a secondary disability were 81% more likely to be unemployed than those of children without a secondary disability. These findings indicate that specific disability types in children have an influence on family experience, and that some of those influences may persist over time. Families of children with emotional disturbances appear to be particularly at risk for negative family experiences. Clinicians, educators, and policymakers should be aware of the complex needs of families of children with disabilities when considering the types of services and supports provided to both children with disabilities and their families.
Akyil, Yudum; Prouty, Anne; Blanchard, Amy; Lyness, Kevin
Intergenerational value transmission affects parent-child relationships and necessitates constant negotiation in families. Families with adolescents from rapidly changing societies face unique challenges in balancing the traditional collectivistic family values that promote harmony with emerging values that promote autonomy. Using modern Turkey as an example of such a culture, the authors examine the transmission process in families that hold more traditional and collectivistic values than their adolescent children. Special consideration is given to generational and cultural differences in the autonomy and relatedness dimensions. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Boman, Ase; Povlsen, Lene; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Hanas, Ragnar; Borup, Ina
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore and discuss how fathers involved in caring for a child with type 1 diabetes experienced support from Swedish paediatric diabetes teams (PDTs) in everyday life with their child. Eleven fathers of children with type 1 diabetes, living in Sweden and scoring high on involvement on the Parental Responsibility Questionnaire, participated. Data were collected from January 2011 to August 2011, initially through online focus group discussions in which 6 of 19 invited fathers participated. Due to high attrition, the data collection continued in eight individual interviews. A semi-structured interview guide was used, and the fathers were asked to share experiences of their PDT's support in everyday life with their child. A simultaneous and constant comparison approach to data collection and analysis allowed the core category to emerge: the tension between general recommendations and personal experience. This core category illuminates how the fathers experienced tension between managing their unique everyday life with their child and balancing this to meet their PDT's expectations with regard to blood glucose levels. The core category was supported by two categories: the tension between the fathers'and their PDT's knowledge, whereby fathers reported discrepancies between their PDT's medical knowledge and their own unique knowledge of their child; and the tension between the fathers'and their PDT's goals, whereby the fathers identified differences between the family's and their PDT's goals. As a dimension of the core category, fathers felt trust or distrust in their PDT. We conclude that to achieve high-quality support for children with diabetes and to enhance their health and well-being, involved fathers' knowledge of their unique family situation needs to be integrated into the diabetes treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This study aimed to understand and describe the views of family members and direct support staff regarding the use of Facebook by persons with intellectual disability (ID) within the context of social capital. In-depth, semistructured interviews conducted with 16 family members and direct support staff of persons with ID who use Facebook revealed that most participants favored Facebook use by persons with ID for bonding and bridging social capital and for normalization. Most participants noted the empowering effect of online activity on persons with ID, yet some reported risks and usage difficulties. Although Facebook use enhances the well-being of persons with ID, findings highlighted the participants' need for formal guidelines regarding social media best-practices for people with ID.
Verey, Anna; Keeling, M; Thandi, G; Stevelink, S; Fear, N
When a service person has been wounded, injured or sick (WIS), family members may provide care during their recovery in an unpaid capacity. This may occur in diverse environments including hospitals, inpatient rehabilitation centres, in the community and at home. Thirty-seven family members of WIS personnel were interviewed regarding their support needs, family relationships and use of UK support services. Semistructured, in-depth telephone interviews were used, with data analysis undertaken using a thematic approach. 'Family member involvement' was the main theme under which four subthemes were situated: 'continuity of support', 'proactive signposting and initiating contact', 'psychoeducation and counselling' and 'higher risk groups'. Family members felt they might benefit from direct, consistent and continuous care regardless of the WIS person's injury or engagement type, and whether the WIS person was being treated in a hospital, rehabilitative centre or at home. The findings of this study suggest that family members of WIS personnel value proactive, direct and sustained communication from support service providers. We suggest that families of UK service personnel may benefit from family care coordinators, who could provide continuous and consistent care to family members of WIS personnel. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Horst, van der H.M.; Hoogsteyns, M.
Research regarding disabling situations generally focuses on disabling situations within a public society ‘out there’. In our research, however, the intimate family setting itself appears central to the emergence of dis/enabling experiences. Moreover, the relationships that shaped these experiences
Vega, Desireé; Lasser, Jon; Fernandez, Sarah E.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify the beliefs, perceptions, and actions of school psychologists toward family-school partnering (FSP) with Latino families in the public school system. Existing research in this area is extremely limited; therefore, the present study has significant implications for pre- and in-service…
KB Von Pressentin
impact of family physicians within the South African district health system? ... paper (2015) described six aspirational roles of family physicians (FPs) working within the district health system. ... composition and deployment of the primary care workforce.5 ... mental health.30,31 In addition, FPs appear to have some impact.
Dimitriou, Evangelos C.; Didangelos, Pavlos A.
Refers to the child-rearing practices and to the situation of family therapy in Greece. Maintains many children in Greece live in an overprotective, overcontrolling and overdemanding environment, which could promote emotional problems. Comparison of the efficacy of family therapy to that of individual therapy in a child guidance clinic suggests…
Sheehey, Patricia H.; Wells, Jenny C.; Ogata, Veronica F.
This investigation explored the interactions between paraeducators and the culturally and linguistically diverse families of their students with disabilities. Paraeducators (n = 117) attending a statewide professional development event responded to a questionnaire designed to explore their interactions with diverse parents and families. Results…
A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.
Elena Y Chebotareva
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the empirical study, which has been conducted with the aim to analyze the differences in life and family values and their interactions between the spouses from cross-cultural and monocultural couples. The sample of the study consists of 330 persons, including 85 cross-cultural Arab - Russian couples (170 persons, living in Russia, and 80 monocultural couples (160 persons.The main methods were S. Schwartz’ “Value Survey”, “Test of Attitudes to Family Life” by Yu. Alyoshina, L. Gozman, & E. Dubovskaya, «Marital Role Expectations and Aspirations” by A.N. Volkova, “Marital Satisfaction Test” by V. Stolin, T. Romanova, & G. Butenko.It was revealed that the persons from cross-cultural and monocultural marriages have different life and family values hierarchies, besides, they realize their life values in family life differently. In cross-cultural marriages the spouses see the opportunities for their normative life goals realizing in the family, especially in its psychotherapeutic and parental spheres, as well as in social activity outside the family. But in their real day-to-day activities, they do not always manage to realize their life goals in the family sphere, probably because of the difficulties in interacting with their social environment, which can come from the fact that their families are more enclosed, which in turn leads to a decrease of marital satisfaction. In the cross-cultural spouses’ representations, the collectivist values are more related to family functioning, but individualistic values such as hedonism and power are perceived as incompatible with the successful functioning of the family.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in Taiwan, this study examined a theoretical model proposing that negative personal traits, exposure to violence and parental monitoring knowledge have both direct influences as well as indirect influences mediated through school engagement, at-risk peers and poor student-teacher relationships on school violence committed by students against students and teachers. The results of a structural equation modeling analysis provided a good fit for the sample as a whole. The final model accounted for 32% of the variance for student violence against students and 21% for student violence against teachers. The overall findings support the theoretical model proposed in this study. Similar findings were obtained for both male and female students. The study indicated that to reduce school violence more effectively in the context of elementary schools, intervention may exclusively focus on improving students' within-school experiences and the quality of the students' relationships with teachers and school peers.
Landman, Annemarie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul R D
We explored the impact of professional experience and personality on police officers' shooting performance under pressure. We recruited: (1) regular officers, (2) officers wanting to join a specialised arrest unit (AU) (expected to possess more stress-resistant traits; pre-AU) and (3) officers from this unit (expected to also possess more professional experience; AU) (all male). In Phase 1, we determined personality traits and experience. In Phase 2, state anxiety, shot accuracy, decision-making (shoot/don't shoot), movement speed and gaze behaviour were measured while officers performed a shooting test under low and high pressure. Results indicate minimal differences in personality among groups and superior performance of AU officers. Regression analyses showed that state anxiety and shooting performance under high pressure were first predicted by AU experience and second by certain personality traits. Results suggest that although personality traits attenuate the impact of high pressure, it is relevant experience that secures effective performance under pressure. Practitioner Summary: To obtain information for police selection and training purposes, we let officers who differed in personality and experience execute a shooting test under low and high pressure. Outcomes indicate that experience affected anxiety and performance most strongly, while personality traits of thrill- and adventure-seeking and self-control also had an effect.
Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Chang, Megan Chia-Chen; Gallaher, Peggy; Pang, Zengchang; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer
Tobacco use among Chinese adolescents is increasing at approximately 80,000 new smokers per day. Assessing the causes for initiating tobacco use in China will be important in developing effective interventions and policies to stem rising prevalence rates. This study tested predictors of Resilience Theory in a sample of 602 Chinese adolescents. Results revealed that prior adversity, measured through school and family-related events, was significantly associated with increased smoking in females. Family factors (i.e., family cohesion, family adaptability, parental monitoring) and one personal factor (i.e., academic score) were associated with lower odds for smoking due to prior adversity and negative disposition.
The American disability service system is predicated on underlying assumptions and beliefs which are dominant in the majority culture. Consequently, minority families, such as families from India, living in America sometimes experience dissonance with respect to the services provided to their family due to their varying cultural values. As such,…
Stringfellow, Erin J; Kim, Theresa W; Gordon, Adam J; Pollio, David E; Grucza, Richard A; Austin, Erika L; Johnson, N Kay; Kertesz, Stefan G
Community survey data suggest high prevalence of substance use disorders among currently homeless individuals. There are less data regarding illicit drug and alcohol use problems of homeless-experienced persons engaged in primary care. They may have less severe use and require different care responses from primary care teams. The authors surveyed currently and formerly homeless, i.e., homeless-experienced, persons engaged in primary care at five federally funded programs in the United States, administering the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). The ASSIST definitions of lower, moderate, and high risk were used to assess a spectrum of lifetime and recent substance use, from any use to likely dependence, and to identify sociodemographic and health status characteristics associated with severity of use. Almost one half of the sample (N = 601) had recently (within the past three months) used alcohol, and one third had recently used an illicit drug. The most commonly used illicit drugs in the past three months were cannabis (19%), cocaine (16%), and opioids (7.5%). Over one half (59%) of respondents had ASSIST-defined moderate- or high-risk substance use. A significant proportion (31%) of those identified as at moderate risk had no recent substance use, but did report past problematic use. Ten percent of the lower-risk group had past problematic use of alcohol. Severity of use was associated with worse health status, but not with housing status or type of homelessness experienced. Less severe (moderate-risk) use and past problematic use, potentially indicative of remitted substance use disorders, were more common than high-risk use in this primary care, homeless-experienced sample. These findings highlight the urgency of identifying effective ways to reduce risky substance use and prevent relapse in homeless-experienced persons.
To capture the perspectives from lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals diagnosed treated for cancer. Four LGBT individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer. Care for the LGBT patient is based on sensitivity and awareness to LGBT issues and concerns. Nurses caring for the LGBT cancer patient provide that care in a context of awareness and sensitivity. The nurse's approach to LGBT patient and family care is based on open communication, establishing trusting relationships and honoring the patient's preferences. Excellent oncology nursing care for LGBT patients is excellent oncology nursing care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koura, U; Sekine, M; Yamada, M; Tatsuse, T
A high level of work-family conflict (WFC) is an important risk factor for physical and mental health problems. Although individual work-related factors for WFC have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about whether occupation and gender affect WFC and how such effects might be generated. Cross-sectional study. This study surveyed 3053 civil servants aged 20-65 years working in a local government in the west coast of Japan in 2003. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether there are occupational and gender differences in WFC and to clarify the factors underlying these differences. WFC was higher in professional and technical workers compared with other occupations for both men and women, with age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for these workers of 1.29 in men and 2.58 in women. In men, occupational differences in WFC disappeared after adjusting for work and family characteristics (OR = 1.15). In women, significant occupational differences remained in the final model, but after adjusting for work characteristics the adjusted OR for professional and technical workers was reduced to 1.69. Women were more likely than men to experience high WFC (OR = 2.52). After controlling for work characteristics, the gender difference was considerably reduced (OR = 1.68). Work characteristics play a fundamental role in the difference in WFC between not only occupational but also gender differences. Stressful work characteristics among professional and technical workers and among women in all work roles should be addressed to reduce occupational and gender differences in WFC in Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Franco, Joaquin; Durdella, Nathan
Familial and social experiences shape college transitions of first-year, first-generation college students who are foster youth. This chapter describes these experiences and offers recommendations to enhance support for foster youth in college.
Although government and non-government organisations have responded by ... most of Africa's orphans have been absorbed into extended family networks. ... social workers and home-based caregivers be trained on available social support.
AIDS) are ... lead to depression and burnout. According to Gale ... on-one interview technique in which family caregivers of HIV/AIDS orphans were ..... and the orphan's grandmother was that there was no formal agreement of who ...
Giuseppe Riva; Giuseppe Riva; ROSA M. BAÑOS; ROSA M. BAÑOS; ROSA M. BAÑOS; Cristina Botella; Cristina Botella; Cristina Botella; Fabrizia Mantovani; Andrea Gaggioli; Andrea Gaggioli
During our life we undergo many personal changes: we change our house, our school, our work and even our friends and partners. However, our daily experience shows clearly that in some situations subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); b) this re...
Jennifer S. Rabin
Full Text Available Difficulties remembering one’s own experiences via episodic memory may affect the ability to imagine other people’s experiences during theory of mind (ToM. Previous work shows that the same set of brain regions recruited during tests of episodic memory and future imagining are also engaged during standard laboratory tests of ToM. However, hippocampal amnesic patients who show deficits in past and future thinking, show intact performance on ToM tests, which involve unknown people or fictional characters. Here we present data from a developmental amnesic person (H.C. and a group of demographically matched controls, who were tested on a naturalistic test of ToM that involved imagining other people’s experiences in response to photos of personally familiar others (‘pToM’ condition and unfamiliar others (‘ToM’ condition. We also included a condition that involved recollecting past experiences in response to personal photos (‘EM’ condition. Narratives were scored using an adapted autobiographical interview scoring procedure. Due to the visually rich stimuli, internal details were further classified as either descriptive (i.e., details that describe the visual content depicted in the photo or elaborative (i.e., details that go beyond what is visually depicted in the photo. Relative to controls, H.C. generated significantly fewer elaborative details in response to the pToM and EM photos and an equivalent number of elaborative details in response to the ToM photos. These data converge with previous neuroimaging results showing that the brain regions underlying pToM and episodic memory overlap to a greater extent than those supporting ToM. Taken together, these results suggest that detailed episodic representations supported by the hippocampus may be pivotal for imagining the experiences of personally familiar, but not unfamiliar, others.
Markopoulos, P.; Batalas, N.; Timmermans, A.
This paper argues that allowing personalization can increase respondent adherence in experience sampling studies. We report a one week long field experiment (N=36), which compared response rates when respondents select the times at which they are prompted to report in an experience sampling protocol
Baillie, Lesley; Thomas, Nicola
Person-centred care is internationally recognised as best practice for the care of people with dementia. Personal information documents for people with dementia are proposed as a way to support person-centred care in healthcare settings. However, there is little research about how they are used in practice. The aim of this study was to analyse healthcare staff 's perceptions and experiences of using personal information documents, mainly Alzheimer's Society's 'This is me', for people with dementia in healthcare settings. The method comprised a secondary thematic analysis of data from a qualitative study, of how a dementia awareness initiative affected care for people with dementia in one healthcare organisation. The data were collected through 12 focus groups (n = 58 participants) and 1 individual interview, conducted with a range of healthcare staff, both clinical and non-clinical. There are four themes presented: understanding the rationale for personal information documents; completing personal information documents; location for personal information documents and transfer between settings; impact of personal information documents in practice. The findings illuminated how healthcare staff use personal information documents in practice in ways that support person-centred care. Practical issues about the use of personal information documents were revealed and these may affect the optimal use of the documents in practice. The study indicated the need to complete personal information documents at an early stage following diagnosis of dementia, and the importance of embedding their use across care settings, to support communication and integrated care.
Laude, G.; Bruening, L.
An outline is given of genetic counselling provided to 46 radiation-exposed persons during the period from 1978 to 1994. The radiation exposure had, in most cases, been due to radiation-therapeutic measures (n=22). To a low extent, counselling was carried out because of fear of genetic consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident (n=11), preceding radiation exposure from X-ray (n=9) and nuclear diagnosis (n=1) as well as occupation radiation exposure (n=3). During counselling, information was given on the genetic risk to be expected, taking into consideration the risk factor that is valid at present and the malformation doubling dose. After performance of radiation therapy, an avoidance of conception for 2 years has been recommended. After termination of this period, in the case of an urgent wish of having children, pregnancy was not discouraged if no further risk factors existed. (orig.) [de
Bangerter, Lauren R; Liu, Yin; Zarit, Steven H
Stressors are critical to the caregiver stress process, yet little work has examined resources that contribute to longitudinal changes in subjective stressors. The present study examines a variety of factors that contribute to changes in subjective stressors across time. Dementia caregivers (N = 153) completed an in-person interview and eight daily telephone interviews at baseline, and follow up interviews at 6 and 12 months. Growth curve analyses examine how care- and non-care stressors, respite, dyadic relationship quality, family support/conflict and care transitions (e.g. nursing home placement) are associated with changes in role overload and role captivity across 12 months. Caregivers who transitioned out of their role had higher overload and captivity at baseline. Among caregivers who transitioned out of caregiving, higher captivity at baseline was associated with declines in captivity and overload; more non-care stressors at baseline was linked to increased captivity and greater overload across time. Adult day service use and family support were associated with lesser captivity over time; taking more breaks from caregiving was linked to lower overload. Higher dyadic relationship quality was associated with lower captivity and overload. Findings contribute to caregiver intervention efforts by highlighting important resources associated with subjective stressors across time.
Golomb, A; Ludolph, P; Westen, D; Block, M J; Maurer, P; Wiss, F C
Psychoanalytic writers have traced the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) to be a preoedipal disturbance in the mother-child relationship. Despite the prevalence of theories focusing on the role of mothering in the development of BPD, few empirical studies have tested the hypothesis that borderlines were the recipients of unempathic mothering. The current preliminary study compared 13 mothers of borderline adolescents with 13 mothers of normal adolescents. This study found that mothers of borderlines tended to conceive of their children egocentrically, as need-gratifying objects, rather than as individuals with distinct and evolving personalities. This study also found that the mothers of borderlines reported raising their daughters in extremely chaotic families struggling to cope with multiple hardships, including divorce and financial worries. The stressful environmental circumstances reported by the mothers likely affected the borderline daughters directly as well as the mothers' ability to parent effectively and empathically. The results of this study suggest that, as predicted by psychoanalytic theory, a problematic mother-child relationship may play a significant role in the genesis of borderline pathology; however, the life circumstances that contextualize the mother-child relationship also need to be considered when accounting for the etiology of BPD.
There is a new orthodoxy in the field that was once understood as the sociology of the family, and is increasingly understood as the sociology of 'personal life', 'intimacy', 'relationships' and 'families'. The orthodoxy highlights the open-endedness of intimate relations at the expense of the family as an institution; that is, reflexivity over and above convention. This article argues that the new orthodoxy not only overstates reflexivity at the expense of convention, but abdicates understanding to frameworks grounded in biologistic and economistic understandings of human behaviour. The article makes its point through attention to three areas of research at odds with the new orthodoxy: paternity uncertainty, inheritance and family business. It then proposes that conceptualization of the family as an institutional regime gives due weight to the reflexive reconfiguration of family relationships and practices on the one hand, and their institutional embeddedness on the other.
Alsaif, Omar Abdulaziz
This paper ponders the lasting effects of corporal punishment on students. The paper first considers the benefits and faults of corporal punishment by comparing the experiences of two generations of students and teachers. Starting with the definition of corporal punishment as applied locally and globally, the paper analyzes the reasons for its…
Foster, Mindi D.; Jackson, Lydia C.; Hartmann, Ryan; Woulfe, Shannon
Given the Rejection-Identification Model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), which shows that perceiving discrimination to be pervasive is a negative experience, it was suggested that there would be conditions under which women would instead minimize the pervasiveness of discrimination. Study 1 (N= 91) showed that when women envisioned…
Skodol, Andrew E.; Bender, Donna S.; Pagano, Maria E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Daversa, Maria T.; Stout, Robert L.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Gunderson, John G.
Objective--Recent follow-along studies of personality disorders have shown significant improvement in psychopathology over time. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between positive childhood experiences related to resiliency and remission from personality disorder. Method--Five hundred twenty patients with…
Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A…
Dale, Craig M; King, Judy; Nonoyama, Mika; Carbone, Sarah; McKim, Douglas; Road, Jeremy; Rose, Louise
Several studies have explored the experience of ventilator-assisted individual (VAIs) living at home with family caregivers. However, few explore the experiences of these individuals as they transition from a hospital setting to living at home with a view to identifying modifiable processes that could optimize transition. This descriptive, qualitative study sought to elucidate barriers to, and facilitators of, transition to home mechanical ventilation (HMV) from the perspective of Canadian VAIs and their family caregivers. Participant recruitment occurred through hospital and community respiratory clinicians based in the four Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, and Saskatchewan. Semi-structured telephone or face-to-face interviews at home were undertaken with 33 individuals including 19 VAIs and 14 family caregivers between 3 to 24 months of transitioning to HMV. Interview data was analyzed using content analysis. Formal teaching of knowledge and skills relevant to HMV within the hospital setting prior to transition was perceived as having an immediate and enduring positive impact on transition. However, family-clinician conflict, information gaps, and persistent lack of trained personal support workers (PSWs) to provide care in the home contributed to maladjustment relating to transition. Participants strongly recommended improved transitional care in the form of respiratory health professional telephone support, home outreach, in addition to training of PSWs. Transition to HMV is a complex and demanding process. Extended HMV training and support may be helpful in mediating adjustment challenges thus reducing stress, caregiver burden and improving health related quality of life for VAIs and family caregivers.
Steve Fernando Pedraza-Vargas**
Full Text Available The narrative therapy establishes that people give sense and meaning to their life and relations relating their experiences, and interacting with others in a meaning full way, modeling like this their own life and relations. This investigation/intervention pretended to understand the organization of the experience and family confront surrounding the possible Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD of a child under age from the narratives built by the family system in a therapy context. The new methodological design included four moments and 12 sceneries of investigation/intervention the process was developed with 3 families participating with reflexive team, the complex comprehension of the neuropsychological diagnosis and the co-construction of the alternative narratives. The results showed how the families built dominant narratives about the manifest symptoms in the child from prejudices and beliefs, and tend to evidence a coalition between the child and the person in charge of the child and the guiltiness between parents. The therapeutic dialogue helps the co-construction of other suitable meanings for the integration and cooperation among the family system and the participation of the wide systems.
Background Dealing with dependency in the elderly and their families leads us to explore the life experience of those involved together with the processes of adaptation to this condition. A number of original studies have been published which, following a qualitative methodology, have dealt with both dimensions. Methods/Design Objectives: 1) To present a synthesis of the qualitative evidence available on the process of adaptation to dependency in elderly persons and their families; 2) to conduct an in-depth study into the experiences and strategies developed by both to optimise their living conditions; 3) to enable standards of action/intervention to be developed in the caregiving environment. A synthesis of qualitative studies is projected with an extensive and inclusive bibliography search strategy. The primary search will focus on the major databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, PSICODOC, Cochrane Library, JBI, EMBASE, LILACS, CUIDEN, CUIDEN qualitative, CUIDATGE, British Nursing Index, SSCI). The secondary search will be conducted in articles taken from the references to studies identified in the articles and reports and the manual search in congresses and foundation papers. Article quality will be assessed by the guide proposed by Sandelowski & Barroso and data extraction done using the QARI data extraction form proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute for Evidence-Based Practice. The synthesis of the findings will be based on the principles and procedures of grounded theory: coding, identification and relationship between categories, and synthesis using constant comparison as a strategy. Discussion This synthesis of qualitative evidence will enable us to detect health needs as perceived by the receivers in their own interaction contexts. PMID:20738846
Greening, L; Dollinger, S J; Pitz, G
Elevated risk judgments for negative life events have been linked to personal experience with events. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive heuristics are the underlying cognitive mechanism for this relation. The availability (i.e., memory for incidents) and simulation (i.e., imagery) heuristics were evaluated as possible mediators for the relation between personal experience and risk estimates for fatal weather events. Adolescents who had experienced weather disasters estimated their personal risk for weather events. Support was obtained for the simulation heuristic (imagery) as a mediator for the relation. Availability for lightning disaster experience was also found to be a mediator for the relation between personal lightning disaster experience and risk estimate for future events. The implications for risk perception research are discussed.
norms on behavior, and (ii) direct experience is a stronger moderator in this case than in the attitude-behavior case. The case in question is the purchase of organic red wine. It is found that the outcome of consumers' choice between organic and non-organic wine depends on their personal (moral) norms......This study investigates whether the behavioral influence of personal norms with regard to repeated pro-social behavior depends on direct experience of this behavior. Based on previous norm and attitude research, it is hypothesized that (i) direct experience strengthens the influence of personal......, after controlling for attitudes and subjective social norms. However, the influence of personal norms, though not of attitude, depends on whether the consumer has direct experience of buying organic red wine. Hence, both hypotheses are confirmed....
Acampora, G.; Gaeta, M.; Munoz, E.; Vitiello, A.
The rapid changes in modern knowledge, due to exponential growth of information sources, are complicating learners' activity. For this reason, novel approaches are necessary to obtain suitable learning solutions able to generate efficient, personalized and flexible learning experiences. From this
Slotema, C. W.; Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Blom, J. D.; van der Gaag, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Sommer, I. E. C.
Background: In patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), about 22-50% experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, the impact of these hallucinations on suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, crisis-service interventions, and hospital admissions is unknown. Methods: In a
Hartman, Laura R; Tibbles, Alana; Paniccia, Alicia; Lindsay, Sally
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is one of the greatest causes of death and disability among children in Canada. Following ABI, children are required to transition back to school and adapt to the physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional demands of the school environment. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of students' and parents' experiences of the transition back to school following ABI. We identified 20 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Six themes emerged: (a) lack of ABI-specific education for families and professionals, (b) communication-related factors as a facilitator and/or barrier to transition, (c) emotional focus, (d) peer relationships, (e) supports, and (f) ABI sequelae in the classroom. Students' and families' personal motivations and abilities and the support they receive in their environment affect their experiences of transitioning back to school and the disrupted occupations they face.
Carla Raymondalexas Marchira
Full Text Available ABTRACT Many persons suffering psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are largely untreated in low income countries. In these settings, most persons with severe mental illness live with their families. Thus, families play a particular critical role in determining whether a person with a psychotic illness will receive treatment and what the quality of treatment. Psychoeducation has proven to be extremely effective in helping families develop the knowledge and skills which is necessary to help their family members. Indonesia has a national policy to integrate the management of mental health problems into the primary health care system. However, in practice, such care does not implemented effectively. A preliminary study in primary health centers in two districts of Bantul and Gunung Kidul regency, Yogyakarta province, showed that there was very little or there is not any training for health care workers on diagnosis and treatment of psychotic disorder. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program for health workers in three primary health centers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, to provide psychoeducation to family caregivers for persons with psychotic disorder. A quasi-experimental study with the approach of one group pre and posttest design was performed in this study. Fortythree health workers in 3 primary health centers in Bantul and Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta were trained every week for a month to provide psychoeducation to family caregivers who live with psychotic disorder patient. Result showed that the baseline score of knowledge of schizophrenia among health workers in 3 primary health centers in Bantul and Gunung Kidul before training were not significantly different (p=0.162. After the psychoeducation training program there were significantly different (p=0.003 of the score of knowledge of schizophrenia among health workers in 3 primary health care centers compared with before training. For conclusion, the
Melunsky, Nina; Crellin, Nadia; Dudzinski, Emma; Orrell, Martin; Wenborn, Jennifer; Poland, Fiona; Woods, Bob; Charlesworth, Georgina
Reminiscence therapy has the potential to improve quality of life for people with dementia. In recent years reminiscence groups have extended to include family members, but carers' experience of attending joint sessions is undocumented. This qualitative study explored the experience of 18 family carers attending 'Remembering Yesterday Caring Today' groups. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: experiencing carer support; shared experience; expectations (met and unmet), carer perspectives of the person with dementia's experience; and learning and comparing. Family carers' experiences varied, with some experiencing the intervention as entirely positive whereas others had more mixed feelings. Negative aspects included the lack of respite from their relative, the lack of emphasis on their own needs, and experiencing additional stress and guilt through not being able to implement newly acquired skills. These findings may explain the failure of a recent trial of joint reminiscence groups to replicate previous findings of positive benefit. More targeted research within subgroups of carers is required to justify the continued use of joint reminiscence groups in dementia care. © The Author(s) 2013.
Fabrício Silva Assumpção
Full Text Available Considering the development of Resource Description and Access (RDA and the importance of authority control for catalogs, this paper aims to present the RDA and its origin and development, to contextualize the creation of authority records in descriptive cataloging and to present the use of RDA in recording of attributes and relationships of person, family and corporate body entities. It also presents the RDA and its relation with FRBR and FRAD conceptual models and the sections, chapters, attributes and relationships defined for persons, families and corporate bodies. Lastly, this paper highlights some differences between RDA and AACR2r and gives some considerations about the RDA implantation.
Roche, B G; Sommer, C
In may 1994 we were selected by the surgical Swiss association to make a study about quality in USA. During our travel we visited 3 types of institutions: Hospitals, National Institute of standard and Technology, Industry, Johnson & Johnson. We appreciate to compare 2 types of quality programs: Quality Assurance (QA) and Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). In traditional healthcare circles, QA is the process established to meet external regulatory requirements and to assure that patient care is consistent with established standards. In a modern quality terms, QA outside of healthcare means designing a product or service, as well as controlling its production, so well that quality is inevitable. The ideas of W. Edward Deming is that there is never improvement just by inspection. He developed a theory based on 14 principles. A productive work is accomplished through processes. Understanding the variability of processes is a key to improve quality. Quality management sees each person in an organisation as part of one or more processes. The job of every worker is to receive the work of others, add value to that work, and supply it to the next person in the process. This is called the triple role the workers as customer, processor, and supplier. The main source of quality defects is problems in the process. The old assumption is that quality fails when people do the right thing wrong; the new assumption is that, more often, quality failures arise when people do the wrong think right. Exhortation, incentives and discipline of workers are unlikely to improve quality. If quality is failing when people do their jobs as designed, then exhorting them to do better is managerial nonsense. Modern quality theory is customer focused. Customers are identified internally and externally. The modern approach to quality is thoroughly grounded in scientific and statistical thinking. Like in medicine, the symptom is a defect in quality. The therapist of process must perform diagnostic
For some time, disability researchers have shown a growing interest in personal experiences of disability. To some extent this interest can be understood as a response to the growing support for an emancipatory approach in disability research and the awareness that people with disabilities often have been deprived of their opportunities to speak for themselves. A striking characteristic of the studies of personal experiences is a lack of analysis and methodological discussions. It is argued t...
Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Satoh, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Chino, Naohito; Hadano, Kazuo
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationships among communication self-efficacy (SE), communication burden, and the mental health of the families of persons with aphasia using structural equation modeling (SEM). This study examined 110 pairs of persons with aphasia receiving home care and 1 family caregiver per person with aphasia. The survey items for this study consisted of the Communication Self-efficacy Scale, the Communication Burden Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form-Japanese, and the Health-Related Quality of Life: SF-8 Health Survey. The relationships between the constructive concept of "communication self-efficacy" and "communication burden," and "mental-health status" were analyzed using SEM. The results of the SEM analysis revealed that a high communication SE of the families was associated with low burden of communication and good mental-health status. Psychoeducational programs that address the communication SE of family caregivers may have the potential to reduce the burden of communication and to improve the mental health of caregivers. These programs could lead to an enhanced quality of life for both persons with aphasia and their families. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burton, K L O; Bau, K; Lewis, J; Aroyan, K R; Botha, B; Botman, A G M; Stewart, K; Waugh, M-C A; Paget, S P
The decision for families to proceed with botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) injections for managing childhood conditions involving hypertonia can be complex. Family-centred care is a service model that facilitates supporting families in this decision-making process. Understanding families' experiences of services is critical to developing family-centred care. The aim of this project was therefore to increase understanding of the experiences of families of children attending a BoNT-A service in order to improve the service and its family-centred approach to care. Sixteen staff of a BoNT-A service participated in a patient journey mapping exercise. Nine families of the service participated in in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data from the staff session and interviews were analysed independently using grounded, hermeneutic thematic analysis. Staff sessions revealed 5 core themes that related to impacting on the family experience. Family interviews revealed 4 core themes, with 7 subthemes and 1 latent theme. Areas of importance identified by families relating to BoNT-A treatment included acknowledgement of individual needs, care coordination, empowerment of families and patients, consistency in service delivery, and the distressing nature of appointment and decision-making. Comparison of the data from the staff patient journey mapping and family interviews suggested that staff have a good but incomplete understanding of the factors important to families, highlighting the need for consumer engagement in establishing family-centred care. The themes identified can guide the provision of family-centred BoNT-A injection clinics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shinn, Marybeth; Brown, Scott R; Gubits, Daniel
Family break-up is common in families experiencing homelessness. This paper examines the extent of separations of children from parents and of partners from each other and whether housing and service interventions reduced separations and their precursors among 1,857 families across 12 sites who participated in the Family Options Study. Families in shelters were randomized to offers of one of three interventions: permanent housing subsidies that reduce expenditures for rent to 30% of families' income, temporary rapid re-housing subsidies with some services directed at housing and employment, and transitional housing in supervised facilities with extensive psychosocial services. Each group was compared to usual care families who were eligible for that intervention but received no special offer. Twenty months later, permanent housing subsidies almost halved rates of child separation and more than halved rates of foster care placements; the other interventions did not affect separations significantly. Predictors of separation were primarily homelessness and drug abuse (all comparisons), and alcohol dependence (one comparison). Although housing subsidies reduced homelessness, alcohol dependence, intimate partner violence, and economic stressors, the last three variables had no association with child separations in the subsidy comparison; thus subsidies had indirect effects via reductions in homelessness. No intervention reduced partner separations. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Rainsford, Suzanne; MacLeod, Roderick D; Glasgow, Nicholas J; Phillips, Christine B; Wiles, Robert B; Wilson, Donna M
End-of-life care must be relevant to the dying person and their family caregiver regardless of where they live. Rural areas are distinct and need special consideration. Gaining end-of-life care experiences and perspectives of rural patients and their family caregivers is needed to ensure optimal rural care. To describe end-of-life care experiences and perspectives of rural patients and their family caregivers, to identify facilitators and barriers to receiving end-of-life care in rural/remote settings and to describe the influence of rural place and culture on end-of-life care experiences. A systematic literature review utilising the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched in January 2016, using a date filter of January 2006 through January 2016; handsearching of included article references and six relevant journals; one author contacted; pre-defined search terms and inclusion criteria; and quality assessment by at least two authors. A total of 27 articles (22 rural/remote studies) from developed and developing countries were included, reporting rural end-of-life care experiences and perspectives of patients and family caregivers. Greatest needs were informational (developed countries) and medications (developing countries). Influence of rural location included distances, inaccessibility to end-of-life care services, strong community support and importance of home and 'country'. Articulation of the rural voice is increasing; however, there still remain limited published rural studies reporting on patient and family caregivers' experiences and perspectives on rural end-of-life care. Further research is encouraged, especially through national and international collaborative work.
Miller, Debra A. F.; And Others
Examined relationship of early mealtime experiences to later bulimia in 128 female college students. Found significant group differences among bulimics, nonbulimics, and repeat dieters on early meal experience questionnaire, with bulimic group reporting most negative and unusual experiences. Found significant differences among groups on depression…
Rogers, Kirrily; Coleman, Honor; Brodtmann, Amy; Darby, David; Anderson, Vicki
Most research on family members' experience of dementia has focused on the time after diagnosis. Yet, once people reach clinical attention, families have already been living with the changes for some time. These pre-diagnosis experiences can influence later caregiving. We aimed to synthesize qualitative research exploring family members' experiences of the pre-diagnostic phase of dementia to inform clinical practice. We conducted a thematic synthesis of 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria following a comprehensive literature search. An overarching theme, sense-making, captured the primary process that family members engage in throughout the pre-diagnostic period. Within this, four major analytic themes were extracted as central concepts in understanding family members' experiences of the pre-diagnostic phase of dementia: the nature of change; appraisals of change; reactions to change; and the influence of others. Relevant features of the family experience of dementia onset can be characterized within several major themes. These findings highlight the complex process of recognizing early symptoms of dementia for people living with this condition and their families. Our findings also provide the foundation for developing theoretical frameworks that will ultimately assist with improving recognition of dementia onset, clinical communication with family members, and interventions to reduce family burden.
Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried
This study explores the contribution of social and family-related factors to women's experience of an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in household and family work. Using a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3,129), we performed stepwise logistic regression analysis in order to determine the relative impact of social and family-related factors on ERI. All factors investigated showed a significant association with at least one ERI component. Considering all predictors simultaneously in the multivariate analysis resulted in a decrease in significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the effort-reward ratio while the impact on low reward partly remained significant. In addition, age of youngest child, number of children, lower levels of perceived social support, domestic work inequity and negative work-to-family spillover, irrespective of being half- or full-time employed, revealed to be important in predicting ERI. The experience of ERI in domestic work is influenced by the social and family environment. Particularly among socially disadvantaged mothers, lack of social recognition for household and family work proved to be a relevant source of psychosocial stress.
Wyverkens, Elia; Van Parys, Hanna; Buysse, Ann
In this qualitative evidence synthesis, we explore how family relationships are experienced by parents who used gamete donation to conceive. We systematically searched four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ProQuest) for literature related to this topic and retrieved 25 studies. Through the analysis of the qualitative studies, a comprehensive synthesis and framework was constructed. Following the meta-ethnography approach of Noblit and Hare, four main themes were identified: (a) balancing the importance of genetic and social ties, (b) normalizing and legitimizing the family, (c) building strong family ties, and (d) minimizing the role of the donor. Underlying these four main themes, a sense of being "different" and "similar" at the same time was apparent. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for studying and counseling donor-conceived families. © The Author(s) 2014.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is challenging for family members who are often required to fulfil multiple roles such as those of advocate, caregiver, coach and guardian. To date, two uncontrolled studies by the treatment developers suggest that Family Connections (FC) is an effective programme to support, educate and teach skills to family members of individuals with BPD. However, such studies have been limited by lack of comparison to other treatment approaches. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of FC with an optimised treatment-as-usual (OTAU) programme for family members of individuals with BPD. A secondary aim was to introduce a long term follow-up to investigate if positive gains from the intervention would be maintained following programme completion.
M. F. Makhele & F. M. Mulaudzi * Fhumulani Mavis Mulaudzi is an associate professor and Head of Department at the University of Pretoria. She has published widely on Indigenous knowledge system. She received South African Women in Science award in 2011 for indigenous knowledge system. firstname.lastname@example.org
Jun 20, 2012 ... The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care .... Family-centred care is a core value of the Batswana. Although ... HIV/AIDS has adversely affected the socio-economic status of many countries ... The construction of these hospices evoked mixed feelings among.
Nadal, Kevin L.; Sriken, Julie; Davidoff, Kristin C.; Wong, Yinglee; McLean, Kathryn
This study illustrates the types of multiracial microaggressions, or subtle forms of discrimination toward multiracial people, that transpire in family settings. Utilizing a Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) Method and a Qualitative Secondary Analysis (QSA), multiracial participants ("N" = 9) were interviewed in three focus groups to describe…
Vears, Danya F; Dunn, Karen L; Wake, Samantha A; Scheffer, Ingrid E
Recognition of the role of genetics in the epilepsies has increased dramatically, impacting on clinical practice across many epilepsy syndromes. There is limited research investigating the impact of gene identification on individuals and families with epilepsy. While research has focused on the impact of delivering genetic information to families at the time of diagnosis in genetic diseases more broadly, little is known about how genetic results in epileptic diseases influences people's lives many years after it has been conveyed. This study used qualitative methods to explore the experience of receiving a genetic result in people with familial epilepsy. Interviews were conducted with individuals with familial epilepsies in whom the underlying genetic mutation had been identified. Recorded interviews underwent thematic analysis. 20 individuals from three families with different epilepsy syndromes and causative genes were interviewed. Multiple generations within families were studied. The mean time from receiving the genetic result prior to interview was 10.9 years (range 5-14 years). Three major themes were identified: 1) living with epilepsy: an individual's experience of the severity of epilepsy in their family influenced their view. 2) Clinical utility of the test: participants expressed varying reactions to receiving a genetic result. While for some it provided helpful information and relief, others were not surprised by the finding given the familial context. Some valued the use of genetic information for reproductive decision-making, particularly in the setting of severely affected family members. While altruistic reasons for participating in genetic research were discussed, participants emphasised the benefit of participation to them and their families. 3) 'Talking about the family genes': individuals reported poor communication between family members about their epilepsy and its genetic implications. The results provide important insights into the family
Supiano, Katherine P; Vaughn-Cole, Beth
This study explored the impact of prior personal experience with grief on self-reported personal and professional development of graduate students in nursing, social work, counseling, pastoral care, and genetic counseling involved as cofacilitators in bereavement support groups, and of medical students observing interdisciplinary inpatient palliative care. Personal experience with death of a family member or close friend was reported in 80% of the 35 participating students. Findings suggest that grief and the students' construction of the meaning of their loss can mediate the students' developing sense of self as a professional helper. Active engagement with suffering persons, the opportunity for self-disclosure and reflection, and teacher-facilitator provision of emotional guidance and modeling contributed positively to learning.
Peckett, Helen; MacCallum, Fiona; Knibbs, Jacky
This study aimed to explore mothers' experience of implementing Lego Therapy at home within the family. Following a Lego Therapy training session, mothers carried out hourly sessions with their child with an autism spectrum condition and the child's sibling, once a week, for 6 weeks. Mothers were interviewed following the intervention, and the…
Most of the individual difference variance in the population is found "within" families, yet studying the processes causing this variation is difficult due to confounds between genetic and nongenetic influences. Quasi-experiments can be used to test hypotheses regarding environment exposure (e.g., timing, duration) while controlling for…
Poulin, John; Deng, Rong; Ingersoll, Travis Sky; Witt, Heather; Swain, Melanie
This study examines two sources of informal support-perceived family and friend support-and the psychological well-being-self-esteem, depression and loneliness-of 150 Chinese and 145 American elders. There were no significant differences between the elderly American and Chinese persons' mean scores on family and friend support. The multiple linear regression analyses with interaction terms (country x family support and country x friend support), however, indicated that the relationship between family support and depression and family support and loneliness was stronger for the Chinese elderly than the US elderly. Conversely, the relationship between friend support and depression and friend support and loneliness is stronger for US elderly than Chinese elderly. The implications of these findings for social work practice in both countries is discussed.
Førsund, Linn Hege; Grov, Ellen Karine; Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Juvet, Lene Kristine; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Eriksen, Siren
Identifying how persons with dementia experience lived space is important for enabling supportive living environments and creating communities that compensate for the fading capabilities of these persons. Several single studies have explored this topic; however, few studies have attempted to explicitly review and synthesize this research literature. The aim of this systematic meta-synthesis was therefore to interpret and synthesize knowledge regarding persons with dementia's experience of space. A systematic, computerized search of AgeLine, CINAHL Complete, Embase, Medline and PsycINFO was conducted using a search strategy that combined MeSH terms and text words for different types of dementia with different descriptions of experience. Studies with 1) a sample of persons with dementia, 2) qualitative interviews as a research method and 3) a description of experiences of lived space were included. The search resulted in 1386 articles, of which 136 were identified as eligible and were read and assessed using the CASP criteria. The analysis was inspired by qualitative content analyses. This interpretative qualitative meta-synthesis included 45 articles encompassing interviews with 672 persons with dementia. The analysis showed that living in one's own home and living in long-term care established different settings and posed diverse challenges for the experience of lived space in persons with dementia. The material revealed four main categories that described the experience of lived space: (1) belonging; (2) meaningfulness; (3) safety and security; and (4) autonomy. It showed how persons with dementia experienced a reduction in their lived space due to the progression of dementia. A comprehensive understanding of the categories led to the latent theme: "Living with dementia is like living in a space where the walls keep closing in". This meta-synthesis reveals a process whereby lived space gradually becomes smaller for persons with dementia. This underscores the
Sinuff, Tasnim; Giacomini, Mita; Shaw, Rhona; Swinton, Marilyn; Cook, Deborah J
Communication with families about mechanical ventilation may be more effective once we gain a better understanding of what families experience and understand about this life support technology when their loved ones are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We conducted in-depth interviews with family members of 27 critically ill patients who required mechanical ventilation for > or = 7 days and had an estimated ICU mortality of > or = 50%. Team members reviewed transcripts independently and used grounded theory analysis. The central theme of family members' experience with mechanical ventilation was "living with dying." Initial reactions to the ventilator were of shock and surprise. Family members perceived no option except mechanical ventilation. Although the ventilator kept the patient alive, it also symbolized proximity to death. In time, families became accustomed to images of the ICU as ventilation became more familiar and routine. Their shock and horror were replaced by hope that the ventilator would allow the body to rest, heal, and recover. However, ongoing exposure to their loved one's critical illness and the new role as family spokesperson were traumatizing. Family members' experiences and their understanding of mechanical ventilation change over time, influenced by their habituation to the ICU environment and its routines. They face uncertainty about death, but maintain hope. Understanding these experiences may engender more respectful, meaningful communication about life support with families.
Full Text Available Aim: To report the author's experience in augmentation phalloplasty by studying a retrospective series of patients who underwent fat grafting for girth enhancement or a composite technique based on suspensory ligament release plus fat grafting performed simultaneously. Methods: The author analyzed retrospectively the outcomes of 275 augmentation phalloplasty procedures performed in 259 patients until November 2013. Of these, 127 correspond to girth augmentation with fat grafting and 148 to composite augmentation phalloplasty (girth augmentation with fat grafting and length improvement by suspensory ligament release. In 16 patients girth and length enhancement were performed in two separate procedures. Results: Of this 259 patients, 87 underwent postoperative follow-up for at least 12 months and 160 patients underwent follow-up for at least 6 months. The average increase in circumference at 6 months was 1.7 cm (1.57 cm at 12 months and the average increase in length of 3.2 cm (3.1 cm at 12 months. Twenty-two patients showed minor complications that were treated without sequelae and without influencing the final result. Conclusion: By judicious use of currently available techniques, it is possible to achieve stable increases in penis size. The use of composite techniques provides better final results than the use of individual techniques performed alone due to the increase of the actual volume of the penis. An adequate informed consent is essential in all patients due to the unrealistic expectations expressed by the majority of them.
Sylvest, Randi; Fürbringer, Jeanette Krogh; Pinborg, Anja
analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were identified: 'Threatened masculinity', 'Being the strong one: impact on the couple' and 'Consideration of family building options: a chapter not willing to start'. The men felt that they could not fulfill their role as a man. Some......INTRODUCTION: Infertility is a concern for men and women.There is limited knowledge on how male factor infertility affects the couple in fertility treatment. The aim of this study was to explore how severe male factor infertility affects men's sense of masculinity, the couple's relationship...... and intentions about family formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interview study at the Fertility Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark. Ten men with very poor semen quality initiating fertility treatment were interviewed between November 2014 and May 2015. Data were...
Ajay, Shweta; Kasthuri, Arvind; Kiran, Pretesh; Malhotra, Rahul
In India, owing to cultural norms and a lack of formal long-term care facilities, responsibility for care of the older person falls primarily on the family. Based on the stress process model, we assessed the association of type and number of impairments of older persons (∼primary stressors) with caregiver burden among their family caregivers in rural South India. All impaired older persons (aged ≥60, with impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) or cognition or vision or hearing) residing in 8 villages in Bangalore district, Karnataka, India, and their primary informal caregivers were interviewed. Caregiver burden was measured using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI; higher score indicating greater perceived burden). Linear regression models, adjusting for background characteristics of older persons and caregivers, assessed the association of type of impairment (physical [Yes/No], cognitive [Yes/No], vision [Yes/No] and hearing [Yes/No]) and number (1 or 2 or 3 or 4) of older person impairments with caregiver burden. A total of 140 caregivers, caring for 149 older persons, were interviewed. The mean (standard deviation) ZBI score was 21.2 (12.9). Of the various older person impairments, ZBI score was associated only with physical impairment (β=6.6; 95% CI: 2.1-11.1). Relative to caregivers of older person with one impairment, those caring for an older person with all 4 impairments had significantly higher ZBI score (β=13.9; CI: 2.5-25.4). Caregivers of older persons with multiple impairments, especially physical impairment, are vulnerable. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kofodimos, Joan R.
Work-Family Programs (WFPs) are among the most popular and publicized workplace innovations of the 1990s. These programs are intended to alleviate employees' work-personal conflicts by addressing issues such as child care assistance, parental leave, elder care, flexible working arrangements, wellness and fitness, and stress management. The problem…
Shobola, A. A.; Nwoha, P. C.
This piece of article is culled from a larger study. The study investigated the relationship between family-work conflict, Type-E personality and stress in married female Nigerian University Administrators. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The sample consisted of 800 female administrators in the senior cadre of executive/administrative…
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in…
Friedman, Carli; Rizzolo, Mary C.
The United States long-term services and supports system is built on largely unpaid (informal) labor. There are a number of benefits to allowing family caregivers to serve as paid personal care providers including better health and satisfaction outcomes, expanded workforces, and cost effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine how…
Gardner, Keeba G.
This study will examine the relationship between career success outcomes of African American women and early familial factors, as well as personality traits. Using a cross-sectional case-control design. the study will use participants who self-identified as African American with two African American parents. They will be randomly selected from a…
Mooij, T. (2012). Personal, family and school influences on secondary pupils’ feelings of safety at school, in the school surroundings, and at home. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 18(2), 129-157. doi:10.1080/13540602.2012.632270
Mooij, T. (2010, 26-28 August). Personal, family, and school influences on secondary pupils’ feelings of safety at school, the school surroundings, and at home. Presentation at the ‘European Conference on Educational Research’ of the 'European Educational Research Association' (EERA), Helsinki.
method. Lack of endorsement was due to its unreliability for women with irregular cycles, and during breastfeeding (Geerling, 1995). It was known as...spoke to that one individual who knew my case. I used to mail in all of my charts monthly. They kept a count because I was very irregular . It was...of natural family planning in lactating women after the return of menses . American Journal of Obstetrics and Gvnecology. 165, 2037-2039. Natural
AIM: To describe the lived experience of family members of patients in the intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: Admission of a critically ill relative to an intensive care unit causes anxiety and stress to family members. Nursing care is initially focused on maintaining the physiological stability of the patient and less on the needs and concerns of family members. Understanding how families make sense of this experience may help nurses focus on the delivery of family centred care. METHODOLOGY: A phenomenological method was used to describe the lived experiences of family members of patients in an intensive care unit. In-depth interviews were conducted with six family members and analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged from the data: the need to know, making sense of it all, being there with them and caring and support. Family members needed honest information about the patient\\'s progress and outcome to make the situation more bearable for them. Making sense of the situation was a continuous process which involved tracking and evaluating care given. Being with their relative sustained their family bond and was a way to demonstrate love and support. Caring reassurance provided by the nurses enabled a sense of security. Support was needed by family members to assist them in coping. CONCLUSION: The research provided an insight into how family members viewed the impact of the admission and how they subsequently found ways of dealing with the situation. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Using a holistic approach to nursing assessment and care delivery in intensive care necessitates that nurses interact with and care for family members of patients. Development of a philosophy of family centred care is necessary, with formal assessment of families to take place soon after admission and an appropriate plan of care drawn up at this time.
Wilson, Ruth; Weaver, Tim; Michelson, Daniel; Day, Crispin
Evidence-based parenting programmes are recommended for the treatment of child mental health difficulties. Families with complex psychosocial needs show poorer retention and outcomes when participating in standard parenting programmes. The Helping Families Programme (HFP) is a 16-week community-based parenting intervention designed to meet the needs of these families, including families with parental personality disorder. This study aimed to explore the help seeking and participatory experiences of parents with a diagnosis of personality disorder. It further aimed to examine the acceptability of referral and intervention processes for the HFP from the perspectives of (i) clinicians referring into the programme; and (ii) referred parents. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents recruited to receive HFP (n = 5) as part of a research case series and the referring NHS child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinicians (n = 5). Transcripts were analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Four themes were identified for parents: (i) the experience of parenthood, (ii) being a parent affected by personality disorder, (iii) experience of the intervention, and (iv) qualities of helping. Three themes emerged for clinicians: (i) challenges of addressing parental need, (ii) experience of engaging parents with personality disorders and (iii) limited involvement during HFP. Comparison of parent and clinician themes led to the identification of two key interlinked themes: (i) concerns prior to receiving the intervention, and (ii) the challenges of working together without a mutual understanding. This pilot study identifies potentially significant challenges of working with parents affected by personality disorder and engaging them in HFP and other similar interventions. Results have important wider clinical implications by highlighting potential barriers to engagement and participation and providing insights on how these barriers might be
Hirschman, Karen B; Kapo, Jennifer M; Karlawish, Jason H T
The objective of this study was to identify what standard of decision making a family member uses when making medical decisions for their relative with advanced dementia. Thirty family members of patients with advanced dementia from an Alzheimer disease center and a suburban long-term care facility were interviewed using a semistructured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative data analysis techniques. Family members were split almost evenly in the standard they used when making medical decisions for their relative: substituted judgment (43%) or best interests (57%). However, few who used the substituted judgment standard viewed it as distinct from best interests. Instead, both standards were taken into consideration when making medical decisions. In addition to not having discussions about healthcare preferences, the reasons for not using a substituted judgment included: the need for family consensus, unrealistic expectations of the patient, the need to incorporate their relative's quality of life into the decision, and the influence of healthcare professionals. Family members who did not have discussions about healthcare preferences identified various barriers to the discussion, including waiting too long, avoiding the topic, and the patient's denial of dementia. These data suggest several reasons why surrogate decision-makers for persons with advanced dementia do not use the substituted judgment standard and the potential value of interventions that would allow patients with early-stage dementia and their family members to discuss healthcare preferences.
Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Gaggioli, Andrea
During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper focuses on the two leading virtual technologies - augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) - exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience by focusing on the high level of personal efficacy and self-reflectiveness generated by their sense of presence and emotional engagement. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering, and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual's worldview.
Full Text Available During our life we undergo many personal changes: we change our house, our school, our work and even our friends and partners. However, our daily experience shows clearly that in some situations subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: a the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict; b this reduction is achieved through (1 an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2 an internal or external reorganization of this experience; c personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages; d clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper will focus on the two leading virtual technologies – Augmented Reality (AR and Virtual Reality (VR – exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience, by focusing on the high level of self-reflectiveness and personal efficacy induced by their emotional engagement and sense of presence. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual’s worldview.
Lusli, M.M.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Miranda Galarza, H.B.; Peters, R.M.H.; Cummings, S.J.R.; Seda, F.S.S.E.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.
Persons affected by leprosy or by disabilities face forms of stigma that have an impact on their lives. This study seeks to establish whether their experiences of stigma are similar, with a view to enabling the two groups of people to learn from each other. Accounts of experiences of the impact of
Council, James R.; Greyson, Bruce
Near-death experiences (NDEs) are subjective experiences at the threshold of death which can include strong positive affect, dissociation from the physical body, and paranormal/transcendental phenomena. Empirical investigation of NDEs has typically relied upon retrospective reports and personality studies of individuals who have come close to…
Dispenza, Franco; Watson, Laurel B.; Chung, Y. Barry; Brack, Greg
In this qualitative study, the authors examined the experience of discrimination and its relationship to the career development trajectory of 9 female-to-male transgender persons. Participants were between 21 and 48 years old and had a variety of vocational experiences. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted via telephone and analyzed…
Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta
Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.
Full Text Available Father Józef Benignus Wanat OCD was born in Frydrychowice, near Wadowice, into a large and impoverished farming family. He had seven brothers and one sister and was the third son of Franciszek and Maria Wanat. His hard working family was one of character displaying religious devotion, and demonstrating generosity to others in times of need. During the Nazi occupation, his parents took into their two-roomed house, a family of eight who were deprived of their own home in brutal circumstances. Out of necessity, and due to lack of space, the three oldest sons slept in the stable under the roof on a makeshift bed. After graduating from High School, and in answer to his calling, Benignus entered a novitiate in the Discalced Carmelites’ Monastery in Czerna. He completed his philosophy studies in Poznan and his theological studies at the Major Seminary of Discalced Carmelite Fathers in Kraków, where he was ordained a priest. In Krakow, at the Jagiellonian University’s Faculty of History and Philosophy, Fr. Benignus pursued extramural studies in the field of archives. He graduated from the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Kraków in the History of Art and having successfully defended his doctoral dissertation, he earned the the title of professor doctor. He was a member of the faculty of art in this university and he lectured on the History of Art of the Church with emphasis on European art. He was the founder of the Archives of the Discalced Carmelites in Czerna. He wrote prolifically on the History of Art of the Discalced Carmelite Order and the Discalced Carmelite Nuns researching and visiting many and various sites for his articles. This led to his magnumopus, a monograph on the Discalced Carmelite Order in Poland. He was elected several times as Provincial Superior of the Discalced Carmelites Province in Poland and he was appointed the first Provincial Superior of the Province of Kraków which included being the Prior of several monasteries
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to better understand the experiences of family members in the nursing home to hospital transfer decision making process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 family members who had recently been involved in a nursing home to hospital transfer decision. Results Family members perceived themselves to play an advocacy role in their resident’s care and interview themes clustered within three over-arching categories: Family perception of the nursing home’s capacity to provide medical care: Resident and family choices; and issues at ‘hand-off’ and the hospital. Multiple sub-themes were also identified. Conclusions Findings from this study contribute to knowledge surrounding the nursing home transfer decision by illuminating the experiences of family members in the transfer decision process.
Rozhnova, T M
The family of patient suffering from alcoholism was investigated form the standpoints of systemic analysis, that allowed revealing the leading personal characteristics of married couples. The men suffering from alcoholism are characterized by weak will, inclination to dependence, disregard of behavioral social norms, increased excitability and tendency to frustration in combination with high level of aggressiveness against the background of decreased masculine and prevailing feminine characteristics. Co-dependent wives of men suffering from alcoholism are characterized by predominance, observance of social norms, pronounced autoagression and orientation to masculine characteristics against the background of high indices of both femininity and masculinity. Such combination of married couples' personal characteristics forms the basis for development of dysfunctional relations in a family of man suffering from alcoholism. The families where husband and wife had no alcohol dependence, with harmonic functional relations served as the control group.
Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Outram, Sue; Harris, Gillian; Kelly, Brian; Bylund, Carma L; Cohen, Martin; Landa, Yulia; Levin, Tomer; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Vamos, Marina; Loughland, Carmel
Despite widespread acceptance of the principle that patients should be informed about their diagnosis, many clinicians are reluctant to provide a diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study examines family caregivers' experiences of the communication of a schizophrenia diagnosis and related information. A generic qualitative methodological approach was used. In all, 13 family caregivers were recruited in regional New South Wales, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore their experiences and perceptions of discussing the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of schizophrenia with mental health professionals. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, codes generated and thematic analysis undertaken. Family caregivers described long and difficult pathways to being given a diagnosis, haphazard means of finding out the diagnosis, high unmet needs for information, exclusion from the medical care process and problematic communication and general interactions with mental health clinicians. Caregivers were unanimous about the importance of receiving a timely diagnosis, for them and their relative with schizophrenia. Family caregivers are an integral part of the mental health-care system, and they should be included early in discussions of diagnosis and treatment of a person with schizophrenia. Their perspectives on communicating a diagnosis of schizophrenia provide important information for communication skills training of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. © The Author(s) 2014.
Long, A; Slevin, E
This article is designed to explore and examine the key components of communication that emerged during the interactional analysis of a role play that took place in the classroom. The 'actors' were nurses who perceived the interaction to reflect an everyday encounter in a hospital ward. Permission to tape the interaction was sought and given by all persons involved. The principal 'players' in the scenario were: the patient, a 70-year-old-woman who had been admitted with dementia, her son and daughter, and the nurse in charge of the ward. The fundamental dynamics of the use of power and restriction, truth telling, family stress, interpersonal conflict, ageism, sexism, empathy and humanism surfaced during the analysis. The findings show that therapeutic communication should be the foundation on which nursing should stand. The article continues with an exploration of the theoretical frameworks that guided the analysis of interaction and concludes by suggesting tentatively some meaningful implications for nursing practice. It plans to furnish provocative new insights into the sometimes covert communication dynamics occurring within the nurse-patient relationship. Finally, it aims to generate discussion on this little-charted realm of human social interaction.
Rachel M. Hershberg
Full Text Available This exploratory narrative inquiry examines the lives of four Central American females with one or more U.S.-based undocumented migrant parents. Each participant is between 10 and 16 years old and is part of a transnational family living between the U.S. and Central America. Their narratives provide a window into transnational girls' experiences at the intersections of gender, ethnicity, family role, and legal status. Specifically, through thematic narrative analysis we learn about each girl's position in her transnational family, her encounters with U.S. immigration and deportation systems, and her experiences with domestic abuse or male desertion. Based on findings, this study urges social scientists and educators to attend to girls' transnational family experiences, including how they contest and make meaning of their own or their relatives' migrations and returns and the gendering of familial and migration processes. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130157
Gutierrez, Karen M
This article reports the results of a study designed to explore the experiences and needs of family members for prognostic communication at end of life in an intensive care unit (ICU). Subjects in this qualitative study included 20 family members of patients at high risk for death in 1 adult medical/surgical ICU. All subjects were interviewed once utilizing a semistructured interview format, with approximately half interviewed multiple times during the ICU stay. Families described 5 themes of information-related "work": (1) hearing and recalling, (2) accessing, (3) interpreting, (4) retaining, and (5) utilizing information for decision making. Barriers, including accessing physicians and cognitive issues from high levels of stress, made this work difficult. Families described a need for prognostic information, especially if the prognosis was poor. Because hearing this news was difficult, they needed it communicated with respect, sensitivity, and compassion. Suggestions for clinical practice to support families in their information-related work are presented. Overall, the importance of providers approaching communication from a holistic perspective, extending beyond simply passing on information, is emphasized. Viewing communication as a therapeutic modality, and communicating with compassion, sensitivity, and a genuine sense of caring, can help provide both the information and the emotional support and comfort families desperately need.
Hughes, Karen; Packer, Jan; Ballantyne, Roy
Wildlife tourism experiences are often promoted for their ability to enhance visitors' conservation knowledge, attitudes and behaviour; yet, studies exploring the long-term influence of such experiences are rare. This research explores the impact of a wildlife tourism experience and post-visit support on families' adoption of conservation…
Lara, M E; Ferro, T; Klein, D N
To test the convergent validity of the Family History Interview for Personality Disorders (FHIPD), as well as the general utility of informants' reports of personality disorders, we explored the relationship between proband informant reports of Axis II diagnoses on the FHIPD and relative reports of various indices of psychosocial adjustment. Subjects were the first degree relatives (n = 454) of 224 probands participating in a family study of mood and personality disorders. Relatives provided information on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), the Personality Disorder Examination (PDE), and other variables reflecting aspects of psychosocial dysfunction that are common in personality disorders. Proband informants were interviewed about their relatives using the FHIPD Proband informant reports of personality disorders on the FHIPD were associated with a variety of forms of psychosocial dysfunction as determined in direct assessments with the relatives, even for those with no diagnosable Axis II psychopathology dysfunction as determined in direct assessments with the relatives, even for those with no diagnosable Axis II psychopathology on direct interview. These results support the convergent validity of the FHIPD, and suggest that informants may provide important information on Axis II psychopathology that is not obtained from direct interviews with the subjects themselves.
Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Morgan, Theresa A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy
Because of the potential treatment implications, it is clinically important to distinguish between bipolar II depression and major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder. The high frequency of diagnostic co-occurrence and resemblance of phenomenological features has led some authors to suggest that borderline personality disorder is part of the bipolar spectrum. Few studies have directly compared patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we compared these 2 groups of patients on demographic, clinical, and family history variables. From December 1995 to May 2012, 3,600 psychiatric patients presenting to the outpatient practice at Rhode Island Hospital (Providence, Rhode Island) were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders. The focus of the present study is the 206 patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder (MDD-BPD) and 62 patients with DSM-IV bipolar II depression without borderline personality disorder. The patients with MDD-BPD were significantly more often diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (P depression had a significantly higher morbid risk for bipolar disorder in their first-degree relatives than the MDD-BPD patients (P depression and major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder differed on a number of clinical and family history variables, thereby supporting the validity of this distinction. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reveal the features of family relationship, style of parental bonding and relationship with family members of convicts. The tasks of the research: 1 to analyse the relationships experienced in families of convicts and the subjectively perceived style of parental bonding in their childhood; 2 to assess the relationships of convicts (men and women with their families; 3 to compare the attachment styles of convicts analysing different close relationships (with parents, relatives, partner or a close friend. The research was carried out in Panevėžys Correctional Facility and Lukiškės Remand Prison – Closed Prison. In total, the research involved 63 subjects, out of whom 33 were men and 30 women. The female subjects were 18–64 years old, males – 18–45 years old. The following tools were used: Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker G. et al., 1997, Familial Relationship Quality Measure (Ryan & Willits, 2007, Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR – RS; Fraley, Waller, & Brennan, 2000 and demographic questionnaire. The findings have showed that were no statistically significant differences with regard to gender were established assessing the subjectively perceived style of parental bonding, satisfaction with familial relationships and the attachment style in different close relationships. Both male and female subjects attributed the subjectively perceived upbringing style of a father to “overprotection”, that of a mother – to “care”. The attachment style of males characterised as “avoidance” is insignificantly higher than females, whereas the “anxiety” style of attachment in samples of males and females showed almost no differences. A positive relationship was established between the satisfaction with experienced familial relationships and the “caring” style of upbringing of both parents. Satisfaction with familial relationships positively correlates with the importance of
Ivey, Susan L; Laditka, Sarah B; Price, Anna E; Tseng, Winston; Beard, Renée L; Liu, Rui; Fetterman, David; Wu, Bei; Logsdon, Rebecca G
We examined experiences and concerns among caregivers of community-dwelling people with dementia from two ethnic groups. We conducted a thematic analysis of responses to the question, 'What is your life like as a caregiver?' in nine focus groups (n = 75) with Filipino and non-Hispanic White caregivers. Constant comparison methods identified themes by ethnicity. Experiences and concerns expressed across groups were related to care recipient symptoms commonly associated with dementia, including severe memory loss and behavioral changes. Participants in both ethnic groups described strategies that help them cope, such as receiving help from family and friends, receiving respite support, and participating in support groups. Filipino caregivers more often emphasized positive aspects of caregiving, whereas Whites often expressed that others do not understand the daily experiences of caregiving. Filipinos more commonly described caregivers as a 'good person' or 'saint' and emphasized that caregiving made them stronger.
Manahan, Candice M; Hardy, Cindy L; MacLeod, Martha L P
education and interprofessional teamwork as key to their decision. Professional preferences for variety, challenges, and trying new aspects of the job such as teaching also impacted their decision. Also identified were individual factors and personal preferences such as the need for adventure, wilderness, and outdoor recreation, and community factors (eg people's friendliness and the slow pace). Such factors also influenced retention; however, retention was also affected by factors such as job satisfaction, and some community factors were only associated with retention. The analysis revealed a number of personal characteristics and experiences shared by long-term healthcare professionals, and that there is not one particular factor that determines duration of practice in rural and northern communities. The findings imply a combination of varying personal values impact the decision to come or stay in rural and northern communities. Personal characteristics and experiences help to shape these personal values. Over time and depending on stage of life, personal values change. Age and stage of life, rural background, and location of family members also have bearing on personal values, which in turn impact recruitment and retention. An explicit identification of values that have emerged out of personal characteristics and experiences may be useful in the selection of students for rural health education programs, as well as the recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals in rural and northern areas.
The family, not only the coach, plays a major role in the pursuit of children to reach the highest level in sport. Yet, it is mainly the high achiever, and sometimes the coach, who get recognition for success in this regard. This study explored the experiences of families with high-achieving adolescent athletes aspiring to compete ...
Sque, Magi; Walker, Wendy; Long-Sutehall, Tracy; Morgan, Myfanwy; Randhawa, Gurch; Rodney, Amanda
To elicit bereaved families' experiences of organ and tissue donation. A specific objective was to determine families' perceptions of how their experiences influenced donation decision-making. Retrospective, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 43 participants of 31 donor families to generate rich, informative data. Participant recruitment was via 10 National Health Service Trusts, representative of five regional organ donation services in the UK. Twelve families agreed to DBD, 18 agreed to DCD, 1 unknown. Participants' responses were contextualised using a temporal framework of 'The Past', which represented families' prior knowledge, experience, attitudes, beliefs, and intentions toward organ donation; 'The Present', which incorporated the moment in time when families experienced the potential for donation; and 'The Future', which corresponded to expectations and outcomes arising from the donation decision. Temporally interwoven experiences appeared to influence families' decisions to donate the organs of their deceased relative for transplantation. The influence of temporality on donation-decision making is worthy of consideration in the planning of future education, policy, practice, and research for improved rates of family consent to donation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.
Mothers and fathers in 156 African American families reported on racial discrimination experiences, gendered traits, and warmth and conflict in family relationships. Discrimination was linked with relationship quality, but links differed for mothers and fathers. More expressive parents and less instrumental fathers had more positive relationships…
Hutchinson, Amy L; Van Wissen, Kim A
Many people would choose to die at home, and this can be an option for intensive care patients. However, there is limited exploration of the impact on the family. To gain insight into family members' experiences when an adult intensive care unit patient is taken home to die. Methodology is qualitative description, utilising purposeful sampling, unstructured interviews and thematic analysis. Four participants, from two different families were interviewed. The setting was a tertiary level Intensive Care Unit in New Zealand. The experience was described as a kaleidoscope of events with two main themes: 'value' family member's found in the patient going home, and their experience of the 'process'. 'Value' subthemes: going home being the patient's own decision, home as an end-of-life environment, and the patient's positive response to being at home. 'Process' subthemes: care and support received, stress of a family member being in intensive care, feeling that everything happened quickly, and concerns and uncertainties. Going home to die from the intensive care unit can be a positive but challenging experience for the family. Full collaboration between the patient, family and staff is essential, to ensure the family are appropriately supported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaplan, Marvin L.; Kaplan, Netta R.
Outlines two formulations that generate conceptual perspectives of immediate phenomena: (1) the family system has a time-enduring stability; (2) the family system has an immediate and temporary organization. Integrates systems thinking and Gestalt Therapy while recognizing individual experience as embedded in a self-maintaining system of the…
Tarling, Cath; Jones, Paul; Murphy, Lyndon
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the influences of family business and exposure to family business ideas upon students and graduates during their transition from higher education (HE) towards career identification of entrepreneurship. It explores influences, values and experiences actively impacting on business start-up following…
Discusses a survey of family literacy in which 30 Asian families with preschool children, whose first language is Urdu, Punjabi, or Gujerati, shared their home literacy experiences. Reports that parents encourage extensive preschool activities in the home, have high aspirations for the their children's education, and show an interest in…
Arkkukangas, Marina; Sundler, Annelie J; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin
It is a challenge to promote exercise among older persons. Knowledge is needed regarding the maintenance of exercise aiming at preventing falls and promoting health and well-being in older persons. This descriptive study used a qualitative inductive approach to describe older persons' experiences of a fall-preventive, home-based exercise program with support for behavioral change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 elderly persons aged 75 years or older, and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Four categories emerged: facilitators of performing exercise in everyday life, the importance of support, perceived gains from exercise, and the existential aspects of exercise. With support from physiotherapists (PTs), home-based exercise can be adapted to individual circumstances in a meaningful way. Including exercises in everyday life and daily routines could support the experience of being stronger, result in better physical functioning, and give hope for an extended active life in old age.
Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A simulation was run that calculated respective 3D configurations of the city positions for a wide range of radii of the proposed sphere. People who had personally experienced the Earth as a sphere, at least once in their lifetime, showed a clear optimal solution of the multidimensional scaling (MDS) routine with a mean radius deviating only 8% from the actual radius of the Earth. In contrast, the calculated configurations for people without any personal experience with the Earth as a sphere were compatible with a cognitive concept of a flat Earth. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Divney, Anna A; Sipsma, Heather; Gordon, Derrick; Niccolai, Linda; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace
To assess the relationship between personal and romantic partner's experiences of stressful life events and depression during pregnancy, and the social moderators of this relationship, among 296 young couples with low incomes from urban areas. We recruited couples who were expecting a baby from four ob/gyn and ultrasound clinics in southern Connecticut; women were ages 14-21 and male partners were 14+. We analyzed self-reports of stressful events in the previous six months, depression in the past week and current interpersonal social supports. To determine the influence of personal and partner experiences of stressful events on depression, we used multilevel dyadic models and incorporated interaction terms. We also used this model to determine whether social support, family functioning and relationship satisfaction moderated the association between stressful events and depression. Experiences of stressful life events were common; 91.2% of couples had at least one member report an event. Money, employment problems, and moving were the most common events. Personal experiences of stressful life events had the strongest association with depression among men and women; although partner experiences of stressful life events were also significantly associated with depression among women. Social support, family functioning, and romantic relationship satisfaction significantly buffered the association between personal and partner stressful events and depression. Interventions that improve relationships, support systems, and family functioning may reduce the negative impact of stressors, experienced both personally and by a romantic partner, on the emotional well-being of young expectant parents. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Divney, Anna A.; Sipsma, Heather; Gordon, Derrick; Niccolai, Linda; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace
Study Objective To assess the relationship between personal and romantic partner’s experiences of stressful life events and depression during pregnancy, and the social moderators of this relationship among 296 young couples with low incomes from urban areas. Participants and Setting We recruited couples who were expecting a baby from four OB/GYN and ultrasound clinics in lower CT; women were ages 14-21 and male partners were 14+. Design and Outcome Measures We analyzed self-reports of stressful events in the previous six months, depression in the past week and current interpersonal social supports. To determine the influence of personal and partner experiences of stressful events on depression, we used multilevel dyadic models and incorporated interaction terms. We also used this model to determine whether social support, family functioning and relationship satisfaction moderated the association between stressful events and depression. Results Experiences of stressful life events were common; 91.2% of couples had at least one member report an event. Money, employment problems and moving were the most common events. Personal experiences of stressful life events had the strongest association with depression among men and women; although partner experiences of stressful life events were also significantly associated with depression among women. Social support, family functioning and romantic relationship satisfaction significantly buffered the association between personal and partner stressful events and depression. Conclusion Interventions that improve relationships, support systems, and family functioning may reduce the negative impact of stressors, experienced both personally and by a romantic partner, on the emotional well-being of young expectant parents. PMID:22578481
Schaffer, Michael J.
The Prince George's County schools' sex education program for grades K-12 was developed and implemented in the late 1960s and has three focus areas: family life and interpersonal relationships; the physiological and personality changes during puberty; and advanced physiology and psychology of human sexual behavior. The program augments what the…
McDermott, Garret L
This study aimed to highlight the experiences and perceptions of rehabilitation services among families of people with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) and among professionals working in ABI rehabilitation services in Ireland.
Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Pediatric Palliative Care: A Personal Story NINRnews Loading... Unsubscribe from NINRnews? ... and her family. The story demonstrates how palliative care can positively influence a patient's and family's experience ...
Gillard, Steve; Turner, Kati; Neffgen, Marion
Concepts of recovery increasingly inform the development and delivery of mental health services internationally. In the UK recent policy advocates the application of recovery concepts to the treatment of personality disorders. However diagnosis and understanding of personality disorders remains contested, challenging any assumption that mainstream recovery thinking can be directly translated into personality disorders services. In a qualitative interview-based study understandings of recovery were explored in extended, in-depth interviews with six people purposively sampled from a specialist personality disorders' service in the UK. An interpretive, collaborative approach to research was adopted in which university-, clinical- and service user (consumer) researchers were jointly involved in carrying out interviews and analysing interview data. Findings suggested that recovery cannot be conceptualised separately from an understanding of the lived experience of personality disorders. This experience was characterised by a complexity of ambiguous, interrelating and conflicting feelings, thoughts and actions as individuals tried to cope with tensions between internally and externally experienced worlds. Our analysis was suggestive of a process of recovering or, for some, discovering a sense of self that can safely coexist in both worlds. We conclude that key facilitators of recovery - positive personal relationships and wider social interaction - are also where the core vulnerabilities of individuals with lived experience of personaility disorders can lie. There is a role for personality disorders services in providing a safe space in which to develop positive relationships. Through discursive practice within the research team understandings of recovery were co-produced that responded to the lived experience of personality disorders and were of applied relevance to practitioners.
Potter, Daniel; Roksa, Josipa
Children from different family backgrounds enter schooling with different levels of academic skills, and those differences grow over time. What explains this growing inequality? While the social reproduction tradition has argued that family contexts are central to producing class gaps in academic achievement, recent quantitative studies have found that family experiences explain only a small portion of those inequalities. We propose that resolving this inconsistency requires developing a new measure of family experiences that captures the continuity of exposure over time and thus more closely reflects the logic of the social reproduction tradition. Results using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K) show that, consistent with previous quantitative research, time-specific measures of family experiences have little explanatory power. However, cumulative family experiences account for most of the growing inequality in academic achievement between children from different social class backgrounds over time. These findings support claims from the social reproduction tradition, and contribute more broadly to the understanding of how family experiences contribute to social inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MacLean, Katherine A; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R
A large body of evidence, including longitudinal analyses of personality change, suggests that core personality traits are predominantly stable after age 30. To our knowledge, no study has demonstrated changes in personality in healthy adults after an experimentally manipulated discrete event. Intriguingly, double-blind controlled studies have shown that the classic hallucinogen psilocybin occasions personally and spiritually significant mystical experiences that predict long-term changes in behaviors, attitudes and values. In the present report we assessed the effect of psilocybin on changes in the five broad domains of personality - Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Consistent with participant claims of hallucinogen-occasioned increases in aesthetic appreciation, imagination, and creativity, we found significant increases in Openness following a high-dose psilocybin session. In participants who had mystical experiences during their psilocybin session, Openness remained significantly higher than baseline more than 1 year after the session. The findings suggest a specific role for psilocybin and mystical-type experiences in adult personality change.
Nelson, Katherine E; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Cohen, Eyal; Nicholas, David B; Rosella, Laura C; Guttmann, Astrid; Mahant, Sanjay
Gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) are frequently used to provide enteral nutrition for children who have neurologic impairment. Understanding the impact of G-tubes from the family's perspective will inform decision-making and improve support from health care providers. This study explored the experiences of families after G-tube placement in children with neurologic impairment. We conducted a systematic review of English-language qualitative primary research studies describing family experiences after G-tube placement. Six electronic databases were searched from inception to June 2014. Two authors independently screened and identified relevant studies, evaluated quality of reporting by using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research tool, and extracted data. Overarching concepts were developed by using thematic analysis. From 2674 screened abstracts, 84 texts were reviewed, and 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. G-tubes affect the lives of children, parents, and the family unit in many ways, both positive and negative. Improvements and challenges were described for children's health and happiness, for parental caregiving and stress, and for logistics and bonding within the family. G-tube feeding also changed relationships within the family, between the family and the medical system, and between the family and the outside world. Furthermore, experiences varied, with different families framing similar concepts as positive and negative. G-tube placement has diverse effects on daily life for children with neurologic impairment and their families. Clinicians may use the themes identified in this study to guide conversations with families about their values, experiences, and expectations before and after G-tube placement. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Aga, Fekadu; Kylmä, Jari; Nikkonen, Merja
This focused ethnographic study explores and describes the conceptions of care among family caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality is the conceptual anchor of this ethnographic study. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, 6 key informants and 12 general informants were interviewed in their home in Amharic language. Data were analyzed in Amharic using Leininger's phases of ethnonursing analysis for qualitative data and then translated to English. Four major themes representing family caregivers' conceptions of care were identified: nourishing the PLWA while struggling with poverty, maintenance of cleanliness and hygiene of the person and surroundings, comforting the PLWA, and sacrificing self to sustain the PLWA. Valuable data were gathered about the family caregivers' conceptions of care. Nurses can use this knowledge to design and provide culturally congruent care to family caregivers and PLWAs in the community.
Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline
Objective: No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members...... neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories...... the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. Results: All mental HRQo...
Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Sergentanis, Ioannis N; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Papadodima, StavroulaA
This study attempts to assess childhood maltreatment in prison through a hierarchical approach. The hierarchical approach principally aims to disentangle the independent effects of childhood maltreatment upon psychiatric morbidity/personality traits, if any, from the burden that the adverse family conditions have already imposed to the mental health of the maltreated individual-prisoner. To this direction, a conceptual framework with five hierarchical levels was constructed, namely: immutable demographic factors; family conditions; childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse); personality traits, habits and psychiatric morbidity; prison-related variables. A self-administered, anonymous set (battery) of questionnaires was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece; 26% of prisoners disclosed childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric condition in the family, parental alcoholism and parental divorce correlated with childhood maltreatment. After adjustment for immutable demographic factors and family conditions, childhood maltreatment was associated with aggression (both in terms of Lifetime History of Aggression and Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire scores), illicit substance use, personal history of psychiatric condition, current smoking, impulsivity and alcohol abuse. In conclusion, childhood maltreatment represents a pivotal, determining factor in the life course of male prisoners. Delinquents seem to suffer from long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of numerous mental health aspects.
Sousa, Valmi D; Williams, Janet K; Barnette, Jack J; Reed, David A
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive genetic brain disease leading to disruptive cognitive, behavioural and physical impairments. Persons with the condition and their caregivers need appropriate and accessible health care services to help them manage the disease adequately. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new scale that measures family members' perception of community health care services (CHCS) for persons with HD. A methodological design was used to examine the initial reliability and dimensionality of the CHCS scale among 245 family members of persons with a diagnosis of HD. Data analysis consisted of computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients, calculating the 95% confidence interval for alpha and performing item-analysis and exploratory factor analysis. Reliability of the scale based on Cronbach's alpha was 0.83. Factor analysis using principal component analysis and varimax rotation suggested that three interpretable factors underlie the scale. Factor 1, HD knowledge, had alpha = 0.82, eigenvalue of 4.67 and explained 33.42% of the variance; factor 2, HD community resources, had alpha = 0.62, eigenvalue of 1.68 and explained 12.02% of the variance; factor 3, individualized HD management, had alpha = 0.77, eigenvalue of 1.45 and explained 10.39% of the variance. Findings from this study provide evidence of both construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the CHCS scale. Further psychometric testing of the scale in other samples of family caregivers of persons with HD is warranted.
European Federation of Associations of Families of People with Mental Illness is working towards the goal of shifting the emphasis of care for people with metal illness from the treatment of the symptoms to a more holistic approach of treating the whole person - in other words 'person-centred care'. It is also working with the Geneva conference on person-centred medicine and various interested groupings and organizations to ensure that the role of the family is fully recognized and supported. By engaging primarily with the medical community in bringing to fruition certain initiatives which European Federation of Associations of Families of People with Mental Illness considers as important to the success of person-centred care. To date, no formal reviews have taken place and feedback from the initiatives has been informal and anecdotal. Early reports from the various initiatives are positive. But they also indicate that there is still much work to be done in order for the concept to become a reality across the majority of European countries. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H
Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental incarceration on children. The present study examines an archival dataset, in which children aged 10-14 years and their parents/guardians reported children's risk experiences (e.g., exposure to poverty, parental substance use), family processes (e.g., level of family victimization, family conflict), and children's delinquent behaviors at two time points. Parents also reported their recent and past incarceration history. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that a history of parental incarceration predicted family victimization, delinquent behaviors of children's older siblings, and delinquent behaviors of the child participants, over and above children's demographic characteristics and other risk experiences. Recent parental incarceration predicted family conflict, family victimization, and parent-reports of children's delinquency after also controlling for previous parental incarceration. The role of family processes in research and intervention directions involving children of incarcerated parents is discussed.
Ringman, John M.; Schulman, Howard; Becker, Chris; Jones, Ted; Bai, Yuchen; Immermann, Fred; Cole, Gregory; Sokolow, Sophie; Gylys, Karen; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Wan, Hong I.
Objective To identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein changes in persons who will develop familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) due to PSEN1 and APP mutations, using unbiased proteomics. Design We compared proteomic profiles of CSF from individuals with FAD who were mutation carriers (MCs) and related noncarriers (NCs). Abundant proteins were depleted and samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography– electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry on a high-resolution time-of-flight instrument. Tryptic peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Proteins differing in concentration between the MCs and NCs were identified. Setting A tertiary dementia referral center and a proteomic biomarker discovery laboratory. Participants Fourteen FAD MCs (mean age, 34.2 years; 10 are asymptomatic, 12 have presenilin-1 [PSEN1] gene mutations, and 2 have amyloid precursor protein [APP] gene mutations) and 5 related NCs (mean age, 37.6 years). Results Fifty-six proteins were identified, represented by multiple tryptic peptides showing significant differences between MCs and NCs (46 upregulated and 10 downregulated); 40 of these proteins differed when the analysis was restricted to asymptomatic individuals. Fourteen proteins have been reported in prior proteomic studies in late-onset AD, including amyloid precursor protein, transferrin, α1β-glycoprotein, complement components, afamin precursor, spondin 1, plasminogen, hemopexin, and neuronal pentraxin receptor. Many other proteins were unique to our study, including calsyntenin 3, AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) 4 glutamate receptor, CD99 antigen, di-N-acetyl-chitobiase, and secreted phosphoprotein 1. Conclusions We found much overlap in CSF protein changes between individuals with presymptomatic and symptomatic FAD and those with late-onset AD. Our results are consistent with inflammation and synaptic loss early in FAD and suggest new presymptomatic biomarkers of potential usefulness in drug
Wong-Wylie, Gina; Doherty-Poirier, Maryanne; Kieren, Dianne
A study looked at the structural and functional aspects of family from the perspective of six people living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results showing how HIV/AIDS affects all members of the sufferer's family have implications for family practitioners. (Author/JOW)
Jarvis, Kimberly; Richter, Solina; Vallianatos, Helen; Thornton, Lois
In northern Ghana, families traditionally function as the main provider of care. The role of family, however, is becoming increasingly challenged with the social shifts in Ghanaian culture moving from extended kinship to nuclear households. This has implications for the care of women post obstetric fistula (OF) repair and their family members who assist them to integrate back into their lives prior to developing the condition. This research is part of a larger critical ethnographic study which explores a culture of reintegration. For this article, we draw attention to the findings related to the experience of family caregivers who care for women post OF repair in northern Ghana. It is suggested that although family caregivers are pleased to have their family member return home, there are many unanticipated physical, emotional, and economic challenges. Findings lead to recommendations for enhancing the reintegration process and the need for adequate caregiving support.
Full Text Available In northern Ghana, families traditionally function as the main provider of care. The role of family, however, is becoming increasingly challenged with the social shifts in Ghanaian culture moving from extended kinship to nuclear households. This has implications for the care of women post obstetric fistula (OF repair and their family members who assist them to integrate back into their lives prior to developing the condition. This research is part of a larger critical ethnographic study which explores a culture of reintegration. For this article, we draw attention to the findings related to the experience of family caregivers who care for women post OF repair in northern Ghana. It is suggested that although family caregivers are pleased to have their family member return home, there are many unanticipated physical, emotional, and economic challenges. Findings lead to recommendations for enhancing the reintegration process and the need for adequate caregiving support.
Shockley, Kristen M; Allen, Tammy D
Work-family conflict, a prevalent stressor in today's workforce, has been linked to several detrimental consequences for the individual, including physical health. The present study extends this area of research by examining episodic work-family conflict in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) using an experience sampling methodology. The results suggested that the occurrence of an episode of work interference with family conflict is linked to a subsequent increase in heart rate but not blood pressure; however, the relationship between episodes of family interference with work conflict and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure is moderated by perceptions of family-supportive supervision. No evidence was found for the moderating role of work-supportive family. Further theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Grafström, Anna; Petersson, Sofia
Abstract Introduction: Vietnam has one of the fastest growing HIV- epidemics in the world. In Vietnam the primary caregivers are the family. Aim: The aim was to examine caregiver burden and need of support among family members of persons living with HIV [PLHIV] in Ho Chi Minh City, and also to investigate the differences in these matters between genders. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study with quantitative method was used. The study was carried out at the Hospital of Tropical Disea...
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Keeping an ICU patient diary has been reported to benefit the patient's recovery. Here, we investigated the families' experience with reading and writing in patient ICU diaries kept by both the family and the staff. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study involving 32 semi-structured in-depth interviews of relatives of 26 patients (34% of all family members who visited patients who met our ICU-diary criterion, i.e., ventilation for longer than 48 hours. Grounded theory was used to conceptualise the interview data via a three-step coding process (open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. RESULTS: Communicative, emotional, and humanising experiences emerged from our data. First, family members used the diaries to access, understand, and assimilate the medical information written in the diaries by staff members, and then to share this information with other family members. Second, the diaries enabled family members to maintain a connection with the patient by documenting their presence and expressing their love and affection. Additionally, families confided in the diaries to maintain hope. Finally, family members felt the diaries humanized the medical staff and patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate positive effects of diaries on family members. The diaries served as a powerful tool to deliver holistic patient- and family-centered care despite the potentially dehumanising ICU environment. The diaries made the family members aware of their valuable role in caring for the patient and enhanced their access to and comprehension of medical information. Diaries may play a major role in improving the well-being of ICU-patient families.
Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.
A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132
Full Text Available The study presented in this paper deals with the effects of experiences with father in the family of origin on the fathering role in the family of procreation. The results of the studies so far point to great importance of such experiences in parental role modelling, while recent approaches have suggested the concept of introjected notion or an internal working model of the fathering role as the way to operationalise the transgenerational transfer. The study included 247 two-parent couple families whose oldest child attended preschool education. Fathers provided information on self-assessed involvement via the Inventory of father involvement, while both fathers and mothers gave information on introjected experiences from the family of origin via the inventory Presence of the father in the family of origin. It was shown that father’s experiences from the family of origin had significant direct effects on his involvement in child-care. Very important experiences were those of negative emotional exchange, physical closeness and availability of the father, as well as beliefs about the importance of the father as a parent. Although maternal experiences from the family of origin did not contribute significantly to father involvement, shared beliefs about father’s importance as a parent in the parenting alliance had an effect on greater involvement in child-care. The data provide confirmation of the hypotheses on modelling of the fathering role, but also open the issue of the factor of intergenerational maintenance of traditional forms of father involvement in families in Serbia.
Rowan, Kathleen; Shippee, Nathan D
This study used nationally representative household survey data to examine the association between mental illness and experiences with usual care providers and health plans among persons with public or private insurance (N=25,176). Data were from the 2004-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Mental illness was assessed with symptom scales of serious psychological distress and depression at two time points, and persons were categorized by whether mental illness was episodic or persistent over time. Questions about experiences with providers (four questions) and plans (five questions) were based on the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey. Rates of problems with plans and providers were reported for each category of mental illness, and multivariate regression was used to examine the association of problems with mental illness. Rates of problems with health plans were high, specifically for treatment approvals, finding information, and customer service, and were higher among persons with mental illness. Rates of problems with providers were lower than problems with plans, but persons with mental illness were more likely to report problems, specifically that doctors do not explain treatment options, respect treatment choices, or seek participation in decisions. Persons with mental illness reported experiencing more clinical and administrative problems at their usual source of care, although the reasons were not clear. Efforts by plans to improve health care before and after the clinical encounter and by providers to design treatments in line with patient preferences may improve experiences for all patients and particularly for those with mental illness.
Larsson, Ingalill; Sundén, Anne; Ekvall Hansson, Eva
Patient education (PE) is a core treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with the aim to increase persons' knowledge, self-efficacy, and empowerment. To describe person's various experiences of learning processes in PE for OA. Phenomenography. Semi-structured interviews were performed with the same persons, pre- (11) and post- (9) education. Various experiences on learning processes were found and were described in an outcome space. Achieving knowledge describes self-regulated learning and strongly relates to Control, which describes a high order cognitive learning skill, and minor to Confirm, which describes a cognitive learning skill based on recognition and application. Receiving knowledge describes the expectancy of learning regulated from the educator and strongly relates to Comply, which describes a low-order cognitive learning skill, and minor to Confirm. Different experiences of motivation and learning impact on persons' learning processes which, in turn, influence the persons' capability to accomplish self-efficacy and empowerment. The outcome space may serve as a basis for discussions between healthcare educators involved in PE to better understand what learning implies and to develop PE further.
Reti, I M; Samuels, J F; Eaton, W W; Bienvenu, O J; Costa, P T; Nestadt, G
To investigate the role of parenting in the development of adult antisocial personality traits. A total of 742 community-based subjects were assessed for adult DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder traits and for measures of parental behavior experienced as children, including by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Three fundamental dimensions of parental behavior - care, behavioral restrictiveness and denial of psychological autonomy - were derived by factor analysis from the PBI. These dimensions significantly correlated with measures of parental behavior considered influential in later antisocial behavior. Adult antisocial traits in males were associated with low maternal care and high maternal behavioral restrictiveness, and in females, antisocial traits were associated with low paternal care and high maternal denial of psychological autonomy. These dimensions did not, however, explain all variance parental behavior has on adult antisocial personality traits. Adult antisocial personality traits are associated with experiences of low parental care and maternal overprotection.
erfaringer ved hjælp af et kvalitativt eksplorativt design. Data fra 34 case-rapporter, bestående af sygeplejerskernes dokumentation fra FNTC blev kombineret med et fokusgruppeinterview med projekt sygeplejerskerne. Direktiv kvalitativ indholdsanalyse guidede analysen for case rapporterne, mens konventionel...... indholdsanalyse guidede analysen af fokusgruppeinterviewet. En sammenlagt analyse af begge datasæt udtrykte sygeplejerskernes erfaringer med at gennemføre FNTC, hvor kernekategorien ”enabling bonding” blev skabt på baggrund af underkategorierne ”strengthening family bonds” fra case-rapporterne og ”creating...... gennemførelse af joint interviews og etiske udfordringer forbundet med planlægning og rapportering fra joint interviews. Til sidst gennemførte vi et grounded theory studie om familiernes erfaringer med livet, i tilknytning til en hjertesvigtdiagnose, efter deltagelse i FNTC. Data bestod af semistrukturerede...
Grygas Coogle, Christan; Guerette, Amy R.; Hanline, Mary Frances
The purpose of this study was to obtain an understanding of the unique experiences of families who have a young child at risk for or identified with an autism spectrum disorder and their experiences with early intervention. Thirty-nine parents of children with or at risk for an autism spectrum disorder receiving Part C services in a state in the…
White, Stacy E.; McMorris, Carly; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona
It is well-established that parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience significant stress in their caregiving role, and research findings indicate that chronic stressors can act as a precipitant to crisis. In the present study, we examined the experience of crisis in families of individuals with ASD from early childhood…
Damman, M.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Kalmijn, M.
Objectives. In empirical studies on predictors of retirement, midlife experiences have often remained implicit or been neglected. This study aims to improve our understanding of retirement by examining the impact of midlife educational, work, health, and family experiences on early retirement
Elshof, Hans; Bailey, Ajay
Population decline in rural areas has an impact on rural villages. This research investigates to what extent families with children in rural villages experience consequences of population decline, in which ways they respond to these experiences, and how that plays a role in their individual social
Full Text Available A large literature studies the views and discourses of Western, and especially American, conservative Christians with respect to homosexuality; only a few examine the discourse of Christians in non-Western countries, and none focuses on non-Western Christians with advanced, overseas education and careers. This paper examines the discourse of South Korean Evangelical women with overseas, educational or career experiences. I draw on 15 in-depth interviews with current and former members of a Seoul-based, Evangelical mega-church. Transnational, evangelical women show comparatively mild-minded and tolerant views toward homosexuality and LGBT persons. The women illustrated two pathways to reconcile their conflicting beliefs in conservative religion and human rights: first, the values of equity and meritocracy; and second, personal contacts with LGBT persons. This study suggests that for transnational migrants, traditional religiosity is challenged and constrained by sustained experiences in liberal, pluralistic societies.
Big Five traits and self-esteem play a crucial role in explaining satisfaction in couples. Moreover, no clear answer exists whether similarity in Big Five traits and self-esteem predict couple satisfaction. Further, little evidence exists showing whether relationship satisfaction predicts Big Five traits and self-esteem. These personality constructs have rarely been studied conjointly and no research is available to give some indication of how family members impact each other in Big Five trai...
Tramm, Ralph; Ilic, Dragan; Murphy, Kerry; Sheldrake, Jayne; Pellegrino, Vincent; Hodgson, Carol
To explore the experiences of family members of patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Sudden onset of an unexpected and severe illness is associated with an increased stress experience of family members. Only one study to date has explored the experience of family members of patients who are at high risk of dying and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A qualitative descriptive research design was used. A total of 10 family members of patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were recruited through a convenient sampling approach. Data were collected using open-ended semi-structured interviews. A six-step process was applied to analyse the data thematically. Four criteria were employed to evaluate methodological rigour. Family members of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients experienced psychological distress and strain during and after admission. Five main themes (Going Downhill, Intensive Care Unit Stress and Stressors, Carousel of Roles, Today and Advice) were identified. These themes were explored from the four roles of the Carousel of Roles theme (decision-maker, carer, manager and recorder) that participants experienced. Nurses and other staff involved in the care of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients must pay attention to individual needs of the family and activate all available support systems to help them cope with stress and strain. An information and recommendation guide for families and staff caring for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients was developed and needs to be applied cautiously to the individual clinical setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marja Rany Rigotti Baltor
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe and to analyze the experience from families of children with cerebral paralysis living under circumstances of social vulnerability. METHOD: six resident families in area with this characteristic were interviewed. It was opted to use the Symbolic Interactionism as theoretic reference and the Thematic Content Analysis of Bardin as analysis method for the data. RESULT: the experience of such families is represented in the subjects: Reorganizing the Life, with the categories "Discovering the way" and "Accommodating the routine", and Stopping a Constant Fight with the categories: "Primary Carer being overcharged", "Coexisting with the preconception", "Having locomotion difficulty" and "Living with financial difficulties". CONCLUSION: the social vulnerability influences how the family bears the chronic condition. Professionals and strategies of public health are a power to minimize impacts including those related to the family budget, but they have not been effective. They need to be sensitized to become supporting resources, to offer and to guide the access to the support networks and to spur the social service in action when necessary. This study adds knowledge to the already existing by pointing out peculiarities of the family experience in situations regarding two variables of difficult handling: chronicity and social vulnerability, evidencing the role of the professional in search of the solution for the confrontation of demands and sufferings together with the family.
Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A
We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals.
Cerel, Julie; Currier, Glenn W; Conwell, Yeates
To understand the separate experiences of consumers (patients) and family members in the Emergency Department (ED) following a suicide attempt. Separate anonymous surveys were created for two groups: 1) consumers (n = 465) who had made a suicide attempt and been to the ED, and 2) others (referred to here as family members; n = 254) who had a close friend or relative treated in an ED due to suicidal behavior. Surveys were available on the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) website (www.nami.org) for 2 months. Almost half of consumers were accompanied by a family member to the ED following their suicide attempt. Over half of consumers and family members felt that staff treated them with respect and addressed ethnic and cultural issues appropriately. However, fewer than 40% of consumers felt that staff listened to them, described the nature of treatments to them, or took their injury seriously. Family members were more likely than consumers to feel heard or to receive information about treatment. More than half of consumers and almost a third of family members felt directly punished or stigmatized by staff. Consumers and family members also reported negative experiences involving a perception of unprofessional staff behavior, feeling the suicide attempt was not taken seriously, and long wait times. Individuals who visited the NAMI website reported a range of negative experiences in EDs following visits for suicide attempts. The effects of these experiences on retention in care and subsequent self-injurious behavior are largely unexplored. A greater understanding of these effects may inform development of interventions to increase the satisfaction of consumers and their families and friends and improve outcomes that result from emergency care of suicidal patients and their families.
Full Text Available Charles E Cunningham,1 Tracy Hutchings,2 Jennifer Henderson,2 Heather Rimas,1 Yvonne Chen1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Michael G DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 2Department of Quality and Performance, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Patients and their families play an important role in efforts to improve health service safety. Objective: The objective of this study is to understand the safety partnership preferences of patients and their families. Method: We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the safety partnership preferences of 1,084 patients or those such as parents acting on their behalf. Participants made choices between hypothetical safety partnerships composed by experimentally varying 15 four-level partnership design attributes. Results: Participants preferred an approach to safety based on partnerships between patients and staff rather than a model delegating responsibility for safety to hospital staff. They valued the opportunity to participate in point of service safety partnerships, such as identity and medication double checks, that might afford an immediate risk reduction. Latent class analysis yielded two segments. Actively engaged participants (73.3% comprised outpatients with higher education, who anticipated more benefits to safety partnerships, were more confident in their ability to contribute, and were more intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer a personal engagement strategy, valued scientific evidence, preferred a more active approach to safety education, and advocated disclosure of errors. The passively engaged segment (26.7% anticipated fewer benefits, were less confident in their ability to contribute, and were less intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer an engagement strategy based on signage. They preferred that staff explain why they thought patients should help
Warriner, Doris S.
This article investigates when and how narratives of personal experience and displacement reference and characterize dimensions of time and space, with a focus on how temporal elasticity might serve as an interactional resource. Examining the dynamic, situated, and intertwined nature of such narratives, the analysis looks at how…
Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…
Stewart, Abigail J.; Healy, Joseph J., Jr.
The life of British feminist and pacifist Vera Brittain demonstrates that an attempt to understand the relationship between personal experience and political activities should take account of the following: (1) the centrality of political values in an individual's identity; (2) the individual's life stage and life history; and (3) the individual's…
Tamborini, Ron; And Others
Investigates the relationship of personality and past film viewing experiences to preferences for different degrees of graphic horror in film, and for female versus male victimization. Finds that the Machiavellian trait of deceit, past exposure to horror films, and, for male subjects only, the enjoyment of pornography were good predictors. (SR)
Haaksma, Tim R.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Karreman, Joyce
Research problem: Despite the abundance of research into usability and user experience (UX), there is still debate about the relationship between both concepts. The user perspective is underrepresented in all discussions. This study examines the personal conceptions that users of electronic and
Driessen, Ricarda; Leyendecker, Birgit; Scholmerich, Axel; Harwood, Robin
We explored the everyday experiences of 18- to 36-month-old toddlers at two study sites and the influence of adaptation to the host culture on the everyday experiences of children from migrant families. First- and second-generation Puerto Rican families in Connecticut, USA, first- and second-generation Turkish families in Bochum, Germany, as well…
This article re-examines the link between role distress and quality of life of family caregivers of a loved one with schizophrenia by exploring the impact of role overload (defined as spending 7 or more hours daily looking after the care recipient). Role theory and symbolic interactionism provide the conceptual background to this study. The research question is: under what conditions does role distress reduce quality of life? The answer helps us identify circumstances under which caregivers may be able to carry out their stressful caregiving role while minimising a decline in their quality of life. The data are from a purposive sample of 47 family caregivers in Singapore who were interviewed in person using a semi-structured questionnaire. The data analysis includes non-parametric tests,exploratory factor analysis and relative risks estimates. The findings show that the inverse association between role distress and quality of life found in most studies of family caregivers changes when hours of care are taken into consideration.While role distress is found among all family caregivers it only reduces the family caregiver’s quality of life in situations of role overload. The implications for the situation of family caregivers are discussed.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at determing psychopathology and personal and relationship problems in violent husband. Materials & Methods: In this cross – sectional study 230 male were selected through a multi clustral sampling from four different regions of Tehran. Then they completed Conflict Tactics Scales-2, personal and relationship Profile and Symptoms Check list-90-Revised. Based on their response to Conflict Tactics Scales-2, they were devided in to two groups. Then the psychopathological profile and personal and Relationship problems were compaired. Results: Psychopathology, personal and relationshoip Profile were drawn. It showed that violence is associated with Psychopathology and excessive personal and relationship problems in violent husband (P&le0/05. Conclusion: Violent husband in compare with nonviolent husband have more severe psychological symptomathology and more personal and relationship problems.
Ranthe, Mattis F; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Øyen, Nina
at the population level is unclear. In a nationwide cohort, we examined the risk of cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death (... ascertained family history of premature (... incidence rate ratios for cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death. Premature cardiomyopathy deaths in first- and second-degree relatives were associated with 29- and 6-fold increases in the rate of cardiomyopathy, respectively. If the first-degree relative died aged
Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer a experiência do familiar que acompanha o adulto doente de câncer durante a internação hospitalar. Métodos: estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa, realizado em um hospital do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Participaram seis familiares, por meio de entrevista aberta. A análise ocorreu pela Análise de Conteúdo Temática. Resultados: da análise das informações emergiram categorias que abordam os arranjos para acompanhar o familiar doente, a estrutura hospitalar para a permanência do acompanhante, o relacionamento com os profissionais de saúde, os sentimentos em relação à doença e ao familiar doente e as fontes de apoio para o acompanhante e o familiar doente. Conclusão: a internação modifica a dinâmica familiar, sendo que para o acompanhante cuidar de seu familiar doente e enfrentar suas dificuldades surgidas necessita contar com o apoio e a ajuda da família, bem como dos profissionais de saúde.
Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Cable, Noriko; Chandola, Tarani; Marmot, Michael
This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20-65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40-2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76-1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14-1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79-1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed.
SEKINE, Michikazu; TATSUSE, Takashi; CABLE, Noriko; CHANDOLA, Tarani; MARMOT, Michael
Abstract: This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20–65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40–2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76–1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14–1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79–1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed. PMID:25055848
Klanšček, Helena Jeriček; Ziberna, Janina; Korošec, Aleš; Zurc, Joca; Albreht, Tit
Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on adolescents' mental health status in Slovenia in the future.
Franck, Linda S; Ferguson, Deron; Fryda, Sarah; Rubin, Nicole
The goals of our study were to describe the types of family accommodation for parents of hospitalized children and to examine their influence on the pediatric hospital experience. This multi-site cohort survey included 10 hospitals in Ontario Province, Canada. Participants were parents of inpatient children (n = 1240). Main outcome measures included ratings of three parent-reported measures of hospital experience: overall hospital experience; willingness to recommend the hospital to family or friends; and how much the accommodation type helped parent stay involved in their child's hospital care. Parents most often stayed in the child's room (74.7%), their own home (12.3%), hotel (4.0%) or a Ronald McDonald House (3.0%). Accommodation varied based on hospital, parent and child factors. Length of stay and the child's health status were significant predictors for overall hospital experience and recommending the hospital to family or friends, but accommodation type was not. Families who stayed at a Ronald McDonald House reported greater involvement in their child's care compared with other accommodation types (odds ratio: 1.54-20.73 for contrasted accommodation types). Use of different overnight accommodations for families of hospitalized pediatric patients in Canada is similar to a previous report of U.S. family hospital accommodations. In contrast to the previous U.S. findings, Canadian hospital experience scores were lower and accommodation type was not a significant predictor of overall hospital experience or willingness to recommend the hospital. In Canada, as in the U.S., families who stayed at a Ronald McDonald House reported that this accommodation type significantly improved their ability to be involved in their child's care.
Boumans, Nicolle P G; Dorant, Elisabeth
This study compared the work-related experiences and personal health status of double-duty caregivers with those of caregivers who do not provide informal care to a family member or close friend in need. The interest in providing informal care alongside employment is growing. However, little attention has been paid to the dual role of the healthcare professional who also has caregiving responsibilities for a needy person in his/her private situation. It is important to study the negative and positive consequences of this combination of professional and family care giving. A cross-sectional study. In 2011, we distributed a digital questionnaire to employees with a professional care function working at a healthcare organization in the Netherlands. Descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance and tests of linearity were performed. Analyses of variance demonstrated that as professional healthcare workers provide more hours of informal care in their private lives, their mental and physical health significantly worsens, while their need for recovery increases. Also, statistical significant increases were seen for emotional exhaustion, presenteeism and negative experiences with Work-Home and Home-Work Interferences. Remarkably, positive Home-Work Interference increased significantly with increasing hours of informal care. Double-duty caregivers appeared to be equally motivated and satisfied with their work as their co-workers. No differences were seen with respect to absenteeism. Double-duty caregivers prove to be employees who are at risk of developing symptoms of overload. This finding calls for special attention, with long-term solutions at both legislative and organizational level. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Paavilainen, Eija; Salminen-Tuomaala, Mari; Kurikka, Sirpa; Paussu, Paula
To describe patients' experiences of counselling, defined as information giving and advice by nursing staff, in the emergency department. A particular focus was on the waiting period and on the importance of family participation in counselling. Counselling is a widely studied topic in nursing. Too little is known about counselling in emergency departments and especially about participation of family members and suitability of counselling for the patient's life situation. Descriptive quantitative study. Data were collected by questionnaires from patients (n = 107) visiting a hospital emergency department. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Forty-two per cent of patients arrived at the emergency department with a family member: spouse or cohabiting partner, mother, father or daughter. Patients were fairly satisfied with the counselling. The presence of a family member was important to the majority of patients (75%). About half of the patients wanted information concerning their illness, condition and treatment to be given to their family members. Those visiting the department with a family member were more satisfied with counselling and felt that it promoted their participation in care. It is to encourage patients' family members to participate in counselling situations in emergency departments. However, the type of information passed on to family members should be carefully discussed and prepared. Patients' family members seem to be important partners in counselling situations. The presence of family members supports patients in the emergency department during the waiting period and helps them orientate in their situation. When family members are present, issues which patients wish to discuss should be carefully planned. Family presence should be encouraged in emergency departments.
Prato, Laura; Lindley, Lyndsay; Boyles, Miriam; Robinson, Louise; Abley, Clare
It is acknowledged that there are many challenges to ensuring a positive hospital experience for patients with cognitive impairment. The study ('Improving hospital care for adults with cognitive impairment') aimed to explore the positive and negative experiences of older adults with cognitive impairment (dementia and delirium) and their relatives and/or carers, during an acute hospital stay, from admission to discharge, using a qualitative, case study methodology. Six participants with cognitive impairment, eight relatives and 59 members of the health care team were recruited. Data was collected via ethnographic, observational periods at each stage of the hospital journey and through the use of semi-structured interviews with relatives, carers and health care staff including: medical staff; nursing staff; physiotherapists and ward managers. Interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to facilitate data analysis. 52 hours 55 minutes of ethnographic observations and 18 interviews with ward staff and relatives were undertaken. Three superordinate themes emerged from the data as crucial in determining the quality of the hospital experience: valuing the person; activities of empowerment and disempowerment and the interaction of environment with patient well-being. Whether the patient's hospital experience was positive or negative was powerfully influenced by family involvement and ward staff actions and communication. Participants identified a requirement for a ward based activity service for patients with cognitive impairment. Further research must be undertaken focusing on the development of ward based activities for patients with cognitive impairment, alongside a move towards care which explores measures to improve and expand relative involvement in hospital care.
Washington, Karla; Kruse, Robin L.; Albright, David L; Lewis, Alexandria; Demiris, George
Objective Despite the fact that more than 25% of Americans die in nursing homes, end-of-life care has consistently been found to be less than adequate in this setting. Even for those residents on hospice, end-of-life care has been found to be problematic. This study had two research questions; 1) How do family members of hospice nursing home residents differ in their anxiety, depression, quality of life, social networks, perceptions of pain medication, and health compared to family members of community dwelling hospice patients? 2) What are family members’ perceptions of and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home setting? Methods This study is a secondary mixed methods analysis of interviews with family members of hospice nursing home residents and a comparative statistical analysis of standard outcome measures between family members of hospice patients in the nursing home and family member of hospice patients residing in the community. Results Outcome measures for family members of nursing home residents were compared (n=176) with family members of community dwelling hospice patients (n=267). The family members of nursing home residents reported higher quality of life however, levels of anxiety, depression, perceptions of pain medicine, and health were similar for hospice family members in the nursing home and in the community. Lending an understanding to the stress for hospice family members of nursing home residents concerns were found with collaboration between the nursing home and the hospice, nursing home care that did not meet family expectations, communication problems, and resident care concerns including pain management. Some family members reported positive end-of-life care experiences in the nursing home setting. Conclusion These interviews identify a multitude of barriers to quality end-of-life care in the nursing home setting, and demonstrate that support for family members is an essential part of quality end-of-life care for