WorldWideScience

Sample records for personal background characteristics

  1. Personality and Background Characteristics of Adolescent Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Edward E., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined personality and background characteristics of adolescent sexual offenders (n=21) and oppositional defiant adolescents (n=17) who completed High School Personality Questionnaire. Findings revealed no significant difference between offenders and oppositional defiant adolescents using multiple analysis of variance. Sex offenders tended to be…

  2. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  3. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%).

  4. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  5. RE-SEARCHING SECONDARY TEACHER TRAINEES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND FACE-TO-FACE MODE: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta GARG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and socio-economic status. Distance trainees outperformed the on-campus trainees on their preference for left-hemispheric styles of learning and thinking, budgeting time, learning motivation, overall study habits, academic motivation, attitude towards education, work methods, interpersonal relations, and on their perception about relevance of course content of theory papers in B.Ed., but on-campus trainees outperformed distance trainees on preference for right-hemispheric learning styles, need for achievement, motivation for sports, attitude towards teaching profession, child-centered practices, teachers, overall attitude towards teaching along with their perception for development of teaching skills and attitude, personality development during B.Ed. course. In academic performance distance trainees lag behind the on-campus trainee in their marks in theory papers, skills in teaching and in aggregate.

  6. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality....

  7. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...

  8. Personality, social background, and occupational career success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelissen, John; Graaf, Paul M. de

    2006-01-01

    Pooled cross-sectional and life-history data from the Dutch Family Survey 1998 and 2000 (N = 4000) were used to investigate whether personality was directly related to income attainment and occupational career transitions after controlling for human capital indicators, working hours, and parental

  9. [Collage work characteristics and personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shizuka

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and characteristics in collage work. Seventy undergraduates filled the Yatabe-Guilford (YG) personality test and produced a piece of collage work. The YG personality types were not different in terms of collage work characteristics. However, emotional adaptation and introvert/extrovert scores were reflected in the number of cuttings used in the piece. General activity score was reflected in the number of vehicle pictures used. Those who used an eye picture had a tendency to be depressed and lacking in confidence. Those who used a "stone circle" picture tended to be more emotionally adapted and extroverted. The results suggested a possibility that personality traits were reflected in specific characteristics in collage work.

  10. Suicide risk among persons with foreign background in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, V; Qin, Ping; Zøllner, L.

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge about factors correlated with suicide risk among minority groups in Western societies. In the present study we compared suicide risk among persons with foreign background with that of the majority population to determine whether certain minority groups...... are at a particular risk for suicide, as well as to illuminate gender differences herein. Suicide risk was generally higher among persons with foreign background compared with the majority population and the risk was highest among Nordic-born persons. Overall, suicide risk was significantly lower among Asian......-born persons; however, there were gender differences in correlations between ethnicity and suicide risk...

  11. Prospective Teachers' Personal Characteristics to Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Menekse

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine prospective teachers' personal characteristics to multicultural education. It is also aimed to reveal whether there are meaningful differences in prospective teachers' personal characteristics to multicultural education according to their genders, age and number of siblings. The descriptive model was chosen to…

  12. Personal factors and personality characteristics as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study set to investigate personal factors and personality characteristics as Predictors of customers satisfaction with health care services. The study utilized Ex-Post Facto design. A total number of 100 participants took part in the study which were made up of 57 (57%) males and 48 (48%) females, with a mean age of ...

  13. Interaction of Working Memory, Compressor Speed and Background Noise Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; MacDonald, Ewen; Souza, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with poor working memory perform worse in speech recognition tests when fast compression release time is applied. However, it is not clear why this effect occurs only when modulations are present in the background noise. This study explored the relationship between working memory capacity, compression release time and characteristics of the background noise. This relationship is important to understand because the majority of everyday listening sit...

  14. Personal Background Interview of Jim McBarron

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBarron, Jim; Wright, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Jim McBarron exhibits a wealth of knowledge gathered from more than 40 years of experience with NASA, EVA, and spacesuits. His biography, progression of work at NASA, impact on EVA and the U.S. spacesuit, and career accomplishments are of interest to many. Wright, from the JSC History Office, conducted a personal background interview with McBarron. This interview highlighted the influences and decision-making methods that impacted McBarron's technical and management contributions to the space program. Attendees gained insight on the external and internal NASA influences on career progression within the EVA and spacesuit, and the type of accomplishments and technical advances that committed individuals can make. He concluded the presentation with a question and answer period that included a brief discussion about close calls and Russian spacesuits.

  15. Background Characteristics as Predictors of Greek Teachers' Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkolia, Aikaterini; Dimitrios, Belias A.; Koustelios, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between elementary and secondary teachers' background characteristics and constructs of self-efficacy, using the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale--TSES, during a difficult economic period for Greece and other European countries. Design/methodology/approach Equation modeling…

  16. Exploring the Innovative Personality Characteristics among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nooraini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of innovative personality among teachers in Malaysia. Samples of the research were randomly selected among secondary school teachers in three districts in Malaysia. Research instrument was self-developed by the researchers based on interviews carried out with some resource persons who are…

  17. Psychosocial characteristics of bullying personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Milo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence as a traditional appearance of a criminal nature in modern conditions is expressed in certain specific circumstances, especially the type and application of funds. However, behind the phenomena are violent - offender and victim. Criminology, even in its infancy of science, as well as in the classical theories have always dealt with the issues of violent offender, classifying it in the first criminals of passion. The question is whether modern conditions with changes in the type and nature of violence in recent times this type of crime and became a rational motive, and therefore habitually delinquent or professional criminal. The work in this regard primarily engaged in matters of general (psychological, pathological and social characteristics and dispositions of perpetrators of violence in the area.

  18. ERP differences between processing of physical characteristics and personality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data from behavioral and brain-imaging studies indicate that personality traits and physical characteristics are processed differently by the brain. Additionally, electrophysiological results of studies comparing the processing of positive and negative words have produced mixed results. It is therefore not clear how physical and personality attributes with emotional valence (i.e., positive and negative valence) are processed. Thus, this study aimed to examine the neural activity associated with words describing personality traits and physical characteristics with positive or negative emotional valence using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). Methods A sample of 15 healthy adults (7 men, 8 women) participated in a computerized word categorization task. Participants were asked to categorize visual word stimuli as physical characteristics or personality traits, while ERPs were recorded synchronously. Results Behavioral reaction times to negative physical stimuli were shorter compared to negative personality words, however reaction times did not significantly differ for positive stimuli. Electrophysiological results showed that personality stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC (Late Positive Component) amplitudes compared to physical stimuli, regardless of negative or positive valence. Moreover, negative as compared with positive stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC amplitudes. Conclusion Personality and physical stimuli were processed differently regardless of positive or negative valence. These findings suggest that personality traits and physical characteristics are differentially classified and are associated with different motivational significance. PMID:22967478

  19. Job risk and employee substance use: the influence of personal background and work environment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Wayne E K; Bennett, Joel B

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have noted that employees who work in jobs with physical risk report more substance use than employees working in nonrisky jobs. This study examined the extent to which this relationship could be explained by personal background, specifically general deviance or psychosocial functioning, or work characteristics, including job stressors, organizational bonding, or work group drinking climate. Results from two worksites (ns = 943, 923) indicated that the relationship of job risk and alcohol problems could be fully explained by personal characteristics, particularly deviant behavior styles. Interaction effects were also found. Employees with more deviance indicators were particularly susceptible to recent drug use and problem drinking when they worked in drinking climates or exposed to co-worker drinking. These results suggest the joint influence of personal and job factors and support prevention programs that target the workplace social environment.

  20. Discrimination Features of Chromatic Figures in Various Background Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y A Chudina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual recognition features of images with different figure-ground segregation have been considered in the article. The research was carried out within the framework of Sokolov and Izmaylov’s spherical model and was based on the construction of color objects discrimination models depending on the changes of background characteristics. The research has revealed the specific influence of the background on figure discrimination. The derived models reflect the mechanisms of the all-in-one perception of the visual space.

  1. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  2. Interaction of Working Memory, Compressor Speed and Background Noise Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; MacDonald, Ewen; Souza, Pamela

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with poor working memory perform worse in speech recognition tests when fast compression release time is applied. However, it is not clear why this effect occurs only when modulations are present in the background noise. This study explored...... was varied. Results suggest that the combined effect of short compression release times, a low working memory capacity and glimpsing due to presence of amplitude modulation results in poor speech recognition performance. There was no interaction between working memory and different noise backgrounds...... the relationship between working memory capacity, compression release time and characteristics of the background noise. This relationship is important to understand because the majority of everyday listening situations involve modulated noise. The investigation was carried out by testing two groups of older adults...

  3. Relational support and person characteristics in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, M.A.G. van; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, an heuristic model of the personality characteristics of adolescents and the supportive dimensions of interactions, relationships and groups is presented. The model takes the concept of developmental tasks as its starting point and it is assumed that developmental tasks can be

  4. Looking for students' personal characteristics predicting study outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. A. Bakx; Theo Bergen; Dr. Cyrille A.C. Van Bragt; Marcel Croon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The central goal of this study is to clarify to what degree former education and students' personal characteristics (the 'Big Five personality characteristics', personal orientations on learning and students' study approach) may predict study outcome (required credits and study

  5. Human Behavioral Representations with Realistic Personality and Cultural Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zachary, Wayne; Le Mentec, Jean-Christopher; Miller, Lynn; Read, Stephen; Thomas-Meyers, Gina

    2005-01-01

    ...) with pre-defined and specific personality traits and cultural characteristics. This capability meets a current and growing need for human models that exhibit personality and cultural variability...

  6. Teaching Evolution in New Jersey Public High Schools: Examining the Influence of Personal Belief and Religious Background on Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carlen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between New Jersey biology teachers' personal characteristics and religious backgrounds and the time spent and approach to teaching evolution. The research instrument chosen was a cross-sectional survey. Survey questions were presented in various forms: fill in, single response, Likert…

  7. Characteristics and performances of electronic personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    2002-01-01

    The regulations have made obligation for 2 years to measure and analyse the amounts of radiations actually received during an operation. The whole of these measurements taken uninterrupted for an immediate reading is indicated like the operational dosimetry, which is carried out with the means of personal electronic dosemeters. This study analyses the legislation relating to this type of dosimetry as well as the requirements in medical environment, and presents an assessment of the characteristics and performances of the devices available on the French market at the beginning of 2002 starting from the information provided by the various manufacturers. (author)

  8. An empirical study on entrepreneurs' personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The personality of an entrepreneur is one of the most important characteristics of reaching success by creating jobs and opportunities. In this paper, we demonstrate an empirical study on personal characteristics of students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in seven fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, metallurgy engineering, electrical engineering and drawing. There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We uniformly distribute 133 questionnaires among undergraduate students in all seven groups and analyze the results based on t-student test. Our investigation indicates that all students accept reasonable amount of risk, they preserve sufficient locus of control and they are eager for success. In addition, our tests indicate that students believe they maintain sufficient level of mental health care with strong sense of being pragmatic and they could handle ambiguity and challenges.

  9. Advancement of a Job- and Personal- Characteristics Placement Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frink, Dwight

    2001-01-01

    Research toward validation of a comprehensive model mapping personal characteristics onto differentiated job characteristics for effective placement, development, and retention of Navy personnel is described...

  10. The ethical reasoning variations of personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a comparison of the ethical reasoning components of business managers and executives based on personal characteristics of working experiences, gender and age group. Data were collected in Malaysia within the small and medium sized industry in the form of questionnaires which contain vignettes of questionable ethical reasoning issues. Factor analysis was used to identify the major ethical reasoning dimensions which were then used as the basic comparison. Our study reviews that SMEs managers’ and executives’ ethical reasoning influenced by their years of working experiences. The gap analysis between male and female managers and executives revealed that the significant difference only occurs for ethical awareness in business management and business practices but not for other dimensions. Besides, there are indications that generally, business people tend to have higher ethical reasoning evaluation when they reach thirty six years old. Based on our results, recommendations are made to improve the ethical reasoning evaluation of business managers and executives.

  11. Is Personalized Communication Superior? Personalization and Consumers’ Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslowska, E.; Smit, E.G.; van den Putte, B.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized communication has become a very popular marketing strategy, but the research on its effectiveness is still limited. This study examined the effectiveness of personalized digital newsletters in terms of increased attention, evaluation, attitude, and intention. Participants (N = 124) were

  12. Family Background, School Characteristics, and Children's Cognitive Achievement in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Randrianarisoa, Jean Claude; Sahn, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses linked household, school, and test score data from Madagascar to investigate the relation of household characteristics and school factors to the cognitive skills of children ages 8-10 and 14-16. In contrast to most achievement test studies in developing countries, the study uses representative rather than school-based samples of…

  13. Background Noise Acceptance and Personality Factors Involved in Library Environment Choices by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Lemley, Trey

    2012-01-01

    For decades, academic libraries made efforts to provide study environments differing in acoustic environment. The present study aimed to provide an evidence basis for this practice by comparing background noise acceptance and personality factors of two groups of college-aged students self identified as preferring quiet or background noise when…

  14. The Personal Characteristics Predictors of Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelkoska, Slagana; Stankovska, Gordana; Dimitrovski, Dimitar

    2016-01-01

    When we speak about the academic achievement of the students and their personality, the internal state of a student is in connection with his personal experience and individual differences and talents, dispositions, motives, his "I" and a whole range of cognitive processes. Modern psychological theories of personality believe that the…

  15. Complex relationships among personality traits, job characteristics, and work behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P.T.; Feij, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the additive, mediating, and moderating effects of personality traits and job characteristics on work behaviors. Job applicants (N = 161) completed personality questionnaires measuring extraversion, neuroticism, achievement motivation, and experience seeking.

  16. Geophysical background and as-built target characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.W.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) has provided a facility for DOE, other Government agencies, and the private sector to evaluate and document the utility of specific geophysical measurement techniques for detecting and defining cultural and environmental targets. This facility is the Rabbit Valley Geophysics Performance Evaluation Range (GPER). Geophysical surveys prior to the fiscal year (FY) 1994 construction of new test cells showed the primary test area to be relatively homogeneous and free from natural or man-made artifacts, which would generate spurious responses in performance evaluation data. Construction of nine new cell areas in Rabbit Valley was completed in June 1994 and resulted in the emplacement of approximately 150 discrete targets selected for their physical and electrical properties. These targets and their geophysical environment provide a broad range of performance evaluation parameters from ''very easy to detect'' to ''challenging to the most advanced systems.'' Use of nonintrusive investigative techniques represents a significant improvement over intrusive characterization methods, such as drilling or excavation, because there is no danger of exposing personnel to possible hazardous materials and no risk of releasing or spreading contamination through the characterization activity. Nonintrusive geophysical techniques provide the ability to infer near-surface structure and waste characteristics from measurements of physical properties associated with those targets

  17. Looking for students'personal characteristics predicting study outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, T.C.M.; Bragt, van C.A.C.; Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Croon, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The central goal of this study is to clarify to what degree former education and students’ personal characteristics (the ‘Big Five personality characteristics’, personal orientations on learning and students’ study approach) may predict study outcome (required credits and study

  18. Research about reactor operator's personality characteristics and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2003-01-01

    To predict and evaluate the reactor operator's performance by personality characteristics is an important part of reactor operator safety assessment. Using related psychological theory combined with the Chinese operator's fact and considering the effect of environmental factors to personality analysis, paper does the research about the about the relationships between reactor operator's performance and personality characteristics, and offers the reference for operator's selection, using and performance in the future. (author)

  19. Personality Characteristics of Women of Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtold, Louise M.

    1976-01-01

    Women psychologists, scientists, artists and writers, and politicians (N=863) were compared on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire through a multiple discriminant analysis. When contrasted with women in the general population, the four groups of career women were all found to be brighter, more assertive, more adventurous, and less…

  20. 17 CFR 229.1003 - (Item 1003) Identity and background of filing person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1003) Identity and background of filing person. 229.1003 Section 229.1003 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND...

  1. Background, Personal, and Environmental Influences on the Career Planning of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Alexandra; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of background variables (age, race/ethnicity, mother's work status outside of the home, and socioeconomic status), personal variables (anticipatory role conflict and academic self-efficacy), and environmental variables (parental attachment and parental support) on aspects of adolescent girls' career planning.…

  2. Maximizing and Personalizing E-Learning Support for Students with Different Backgrounds and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, Olga; Amitan, Irina; Vendelin, Jelena; Vilipõld, Jüri; Saar, Merike

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a teaching approach to achieve the most personal support for students with different backgrounds and preferences in studying an Informatics course. Design/Methodology/Approach: The presented methodology is based on the main principles of flexible and blended learning. The authors considered three main aspects:…

  3. Actual and preferred personality characteristics of physical educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Cecić Erpič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Five-Factor Model of personality, which includes dimensions energy, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness, gained a growing acceptance by personality researchers. In the present study the actual personality characteristics of physical educators and the personality profile of an ideal (according to subjective evaluations of experts physical educator were investigated. The aim of the study was to examine differences between profiles of actual and preferred personality characteristics and to present differences in personality characteristics between male and female physical educators of different ages. The study included 76 (40 male, 36 female 24 to 58 year-old physical educators (mean age 39.7 years. 34 experts from the field of sport, physical education, and kinesiology evaluated the preferred personality structure of an ideal physical educator. The Big Five Observer (BFO was used to assess actual and preferred personality structures. These results show that the actual personality profile of physical educators is described with all five moderately high dimensions, which is relatively congruent with the social type from Holland's typology, characteristic of educators. In comparison with participants, an ideal physical educator should have equally expressed agreeableness, while other four dimensions should be highly expressed. Gender differences in energy and agreeableness (women have higher results in both dimensions were found significant. No significant age differences in the personality structure were obtained by a cross-sectional comparison.

  4. Age-Relevance of Person Characteristics: Persons' Beliefs about Developmental Change across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Daniel; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Studer, Joseph; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated normative beliefs about personality development. Young, middle-aged, and older adults indicated the age-relevance of 835 French adjectives by specifying person characteristics as typical for any age decade from 0 to 99 years. With this paradigm, the authors determined age-relevance (How typical is a characteristic for a…

  5. Xenophobic attitudes and personal characteristics of adolescents with deviant behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurina O.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are often racial, ethnic intolerance among adolescents, which, in our opinion, caused by the presence of xenophobic attitudes, some combination of personality structures and situational factors. We hypothesized that there is a specificity of the relationship of xenophobic attitudes and personality characteristics in the structure of the person of adolescents with deviating (including illegal behavior and normative behavior. The study involved 254 female and a teenage male aged 14 - 18 years. The study used a questionnaire to identify the severity of xenophobic attitudes, as well as the methodology and questionnaires to identify the personality characteristics of adolescents and semantic constructs of personality. As a result, significant differences were found in the personal features (criterion U-Mann-Whitney test with p <0,01 and semantic structures in adolescents with regulations and illegal behavior of offenders with a nationalist orientation and without it. The results can be used in the framework of the prevention of hate crimes among adolescents.

  6. Socialization characteristics in persons with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lorna; Lancman, Marcelo; Laban-Grant, Olgica; Lancman, Martin; Jones, Jace

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe social behaviors and preferences in adults with epilepsy, including self-reported use of various socialization media (face-to-face and indirect communication) as well as perceived social barriers. 1320 consecutive persons with epilepsy (PWEs) confirmed through inpatient video-EEG monitoring were administered a questionnaire on the day of their first appointment. The questionnaire was designed to assess preferences in socialization practices, frequency of interpersonal contact, use of social media, and perceived barriers to socialization. The survey was developed to gain a better understanding of the socialization behaviors and preferences of our patients for the future development of customized activities in our wellness program. Our sample revealed higher rates of unemployment and single status as compared to the US Census of 2012. With regard socialization however, many were quite social (86% reported daily/weekly communication with friends and family via telephone, 71% saw relatives in person weekly, 68% saw friends weekly, and 65% reported using the computer daily/weekly to socialize). Facebook® was the preferred on-line social media. Indoor/solitary activities were most common with 63% stating they watch TV/read/use the computer followed by physical exercise and spending time outdoors (36%). The frequency of socialization with friends, relatives, and coworkers decreased with the respondents' age and the longer the respondent had carried the diagnosis of epilepsy. Respondents who were taking a greater number of AEDs or were considered refractory were less likely to consider participating in socialization-enhancing activities. The primary barriers to socialization that respondents endorsed were driving prohibition and medication side-effects. Respondents expressed the greatest interest in online support groups or educational programs (31%), office-based support groups (25%), and volunteering (19%). Although the

  7. Teaching skills and personal characteristics of sex education teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Greetje; Timmerman, M.C.

    This article examines relationships between various dimensions of teachers' professionalism, that is, pedagogical content knowledge and personal characteristics. Using Shulman's notion of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) we explored the practical knowledge of twenty sex education teachers using

  8. Facebook use, personality characteristics and academic performance: A correlational study

    OpenAIRE

    Sapsani, Georgia; Tselios, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between the students personality, use of social media and their academic performance and engagement. In specific, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship of students facebook (fb) use and personality characteristics using the Big Five Personality Test with (a) student engagement, (b) time spent preparing for class, (c) time spent in co-curricular activities and (d) academic performance. Results illustrate that fb time was significantly ...

  9. Color preferences for different topics in connection to personal characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; Vink, P.; de Boon, J; Bazley, C

    2015-01-01

    Studies on color preferences are dependent on the topic and the relationships with personal characteristics, particularly personality, but these are seldom studied in one population. Therefore a questionnaire was collected from 1095 Dutch people asking for color preferences about different topics

  10. Personality Characteristics and Level of Performance of Male County Extension Agents in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Dasharathrai Navnitrai

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected personality characteristics and attitudes of male extension agents in Wisconsin, and their level of job performance. The relationships between selected background factors and the level of agent's job performance were also studied. Subjects were 79 male county agents…

  11. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS : THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    BackgroundWe investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course.MethodsLongitudinal data in a large

  12. CAPs-IDD: Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, E. L.; Nader, I. W.; Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Koller, I.; Weber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation…

  13. The Study on the Preferences of Customer Personal Values with Chinese Culture Background in Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yue

    Customer personal values are the important factors which affect customer behaviors, and they guide and decide the customer's attitudes and behaviors on the products or the services. The paper thinks there are only several important customer personal values to guide customer's decisions, and these values will have -strong cultural differences. This study focuses on discussing the preferences of customer personal values with Chinese culture background when customers consume service and analyzes on the customer preferences of customer personal values with the deep interview method. After interviewing 16 responders with the semi-structured questionnaires, the study finds out some interesting results: (1) Some customers have recognized the existent of customer personal values, even though customer perceived values still have the strong influences on customer behaviors. (2) As they pursue to high quality lives, customers enjoy the lives in easy and pleasure way and care about the safe of the family. Quick response, simple and professional services contribute to enhance the experiences of easy and pleasure lives. (3) Non-rational consumers need the respect from the staff and the companies seriously. In comparison, the rational customers care less about the respect. (4) The sociable requirements have become a common consuming psychology of the customers. More and more customers try to gain the friends by consuming some services. (5) The preferences of customer personal values have a close relationship with the Chinese culture, such as collective values, family conception and "face" culture. The results benefit for service companies improving service brands and service quality.

  14. The interaction of family background and personal education on depressive symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the interaction between personal education and family background during childhood on depressive symptoms in later life by applying Ross & Mirowsky's resource substitution and structural amplification theory of health and education. OLS regression models are estimated using data from the "Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe" (SHARE), which covers information on current social and health status as well as retrospective life histories from 20,716 respondents aged 50 or older from thirteen European countries. Higher education helps to overcome the negative consequences of a poor family background. Since people from poor families are less likely to attain higher educational levels, they lack exactly the resource they need in order to overcome the negative consequences their non-prosperous background has on depressive symptoms. Thus, low family background and low personal education amplify each other. Examining the processes described by theory of resource substitution and structural amplification over different age groups from midlife to old-age suggests that the moderating effect of education remains constant over age among people coming from a poor family background. However, there is some evidence for a decrease with age in the buffering effect of a well-off family background on depressive symptoms among the low educated group. Furthermore, the educational gap in depression diverges with age among individuals originating from a well-off family background. Taken together the results cautiously allude to the conclusion that three processes - cumulative (dis-)advantage, age-as-leveler, and persistent inequalities - might take place. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biases in the effects of family background characteristics on voting preference: The Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Graaf, N.D. de; Eisinga, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether intergenerational transmission of party preference is biased by retrospective and other-report measurement of family background characteristics [In our model the dependent variable is voting preference, while one of our explanatory variables is father's party

  16. Psychological Characteristics of Personality in Students with Learning Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Shilova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of the psychological characteristics of the personality of a student with learning difficulties from the position of the mismatch of mental development in operational sphere. The article considers the system of methods of research with the personality-oriented approach. The influence of certain psychological characteristics of a personality on the outcome of the study is revealed. The ways of building correctional-developing programmes for psychological preparation of junior schoolchildren for successful learning are shown.

  17. Exploring universal personality characteristics: An objective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Butcher

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante mucho tiempo los profesionales de la salud mental se han preguntado acerca de algún núcleo común en la psicopatología o si la enfermedad mental se basa en gran parte en la cultura. Los problemas de salud mental podrían ser consecuencia principalmente de factores culturales. Muchos profesionales han observado las formas similares en que los trastornos psiquiátricos se manifiestan a pesar de los antecedentes únicos culturales y educativos de las personas. Varios trastornos mentales (e.g., esquizofrenia y el trastorno bipolar encontrados en el DSM-IV-TR o ICD-10 han demostrado tener muchas características en común a través de los límites culturales. La cuestión referida a la similitud del comportamiento anormal a través de las culturas sólo puede ser comprendida adecuadamente si se emplea una metodología común para investigar los problemas de salud mental a través de las culturas. El uso de estrategias de investigación objetivas, como el Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI- 2 puede proporcionar una forma valiosa para comparar objetivamente los problemas de salud mental a través de las culturas. Este estudio teórico estudia el valor de la investigación en la personalidad transcultural y examina la utilidad de comparar los problemas de salud mental con un instrumento, como el MMPI-2, que ha demostrado tener validez y utilidad a través de las culturas. Se consideran también los pasos más importantes para mejorar la investigación de la salud mental transcultural.

  18. Examination of personality characteristics in a Turkish sample: development of Basic Personality Traits Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençöz, Tülin; Öcül, Öznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor nature of personality. For this aim, an indigenous, psychometrically strong instrument measuring the basic personality dimensions within Turkish culture and language was developed through three consecutive studies. The first study aimed to reveal the adjectives that have been most frequently used to define people in the Turkish culture. In the second study, factor analysis of these personality characteristics revealed big five personality factors, along with the sixth factor, which had been called as the Negative Valence factor. The adjectives that most strongly represented and differentiated each factor constituted 45-item "Basic Personality Traits Inventory". Finally, in the third study, psychometric characteristics of the Basic Personality Traits Inventory were examined. Factor structure and psychometric properties of this instrument confirmed that five-factor nature of personality may not hold true in every culture.

  19. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Children's Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…

  20. Significance of personal characteristics for entrepreneurial youth activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Adamoniene

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic policy of the European Union is based on the encouragement of every resident’s economic activity. The greatest attention is paid to motivating the youth to work and encouraging their entrepreneurial activity. Scientists are actively discussing the impact of personal characteristics on entrepreneurial activity, and entrepreneurship is analyzed under two key aspects in terms of this research. Scientists describe entrepreneurship differently: some claim entrepreneurship is simply initiative, others that these are natural and acquired human characteristics, which enable his/her innovative behaviours and active performance and risk. The research aim is, after having identified personal youth characteristics, to define their significance for entrepreneurial activity. During the research the significance of personal entrepreneurial characteristics was indicated, and their links to value principles and specific influential factors on youth entrepreneurial activity.

  1. The effect of background music on the perception of personality and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastinger, Daniel L

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to discover stereotypes people may have about different music genres and if these stereotypes are projected onto an individual. Also, the study investigates if music therapy students are more or less biased than non-music majors in this regard. Subjects (N=388) were comprised of student members of the American Music Therapy Association (N=182) and students from a college in the southeastern United States who were not music majors (N=206). Subjects were asked to listen to a recording and complete a short survey. Subjects assigned to the control condition heard only a person reading a script. Subjects assigned to one of the four experimental conditions heard the same recording mixed with background music and ambient crowd noise, intended to simulate a live performance. Subjects were asked to rate the person in the recording on personality descriptors and predict demographic information in the survey. Many of the survey responses were significantly affected by the genre of music. For example, it was shown that when in the presence of rap or country music, all subjects rated the personality of the person in the recording significantly more negative than when in the presence of classical, jazz, or no music. There were no significant differences between the groups for any variable or condition when comparing survey responses between college students and AMTA student members.

  2. Personal characteristics and job satisfaction among nurses in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaktin, Umayma S; Azoury, Nuhad Bou-Raad; Doumit, Myrna A A

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the level of satisfaction of Lebanese nurses in their job and the influence of their personal characteristics. Given the current difficulties experienced by Lebanese hospitals in recruiting and retaining a sufficient number of nurses, the need to understand the reasons of nurses' dissatisfaction became urgent. Moreover, satisfaction at work is essentially a personal experience also affected by cultural factors. Therefore, it was necessary to study the links between personal characteristics and nurses' dissatisfaction. The study included 421 registered nurses. A modified version of Measure of Job Satisfaction, developed by Taynor and Wade, was used to assess the effect of the personal characteristics, namely educational level, age, years of work experience, position, and marital and parental status, on 5 dimensions of satisfaction: personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, pay and prospect, and training. The findings suggest that personal characteristics have important influences on nurses' job perceptions. University graduate nurses reported more dissatisfaction with the quality of supervision and with respect and treatment they receive from their superiors. Nurses younger than 30 years and the technically trained were more dissatisfied with the available opportunities to attend continuing education courses. Results of staff nurses and unmarried nurses showed trends of more dissatisfaction than the married and nurses of higher positions. Moreover, the whole sample perceived that nursing provided a high level of personal satisfaction, but nurses were most dissatisfied with salary and lack of prospects for promotion. The results indicate the importance of personal characteristics on nurses' retention. Furthermore, intrinsic factors related to the nature and experience of nursing are more job satisfying than extrinsic factors.

  3. Personality Matters: Relevance and Assessment of Personality Characteristics. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 157

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaraš, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Personality characteristics shape human behaviour and influence a wide range of life events and outcomes. They do so not only through their direct effects on life outcomes, but also through their indirect effects on other important personal factors and intermediate life events, such as the development of cognitive capacities, the attainment of…

  4. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12 year old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belsky, D.; Caspi, A.; Arseneault, L.; Bleidorn, W.; Fonagy, P.; Goodman, M.; Houts, R.; Moffitt, T.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in

  5. Personality characteristics and body image in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarısoy, Gökhan; Atmaca, Ayşegül; Ecemiş, Gülçin; Gümüş, Kübra; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the personality characteristics of obese and morbidly obese individuals with no psychiatric disorder and the correlation between these characteristics and body image and self-esteem. Sixty-nine obese individuals and 69 healthy controls, matched in age, sex and marital status, were included in the study. Psychiatric disorders were excluded for all participants using SCID-I and II. Obese and healthy volunteers were compared in terms of body image, self-esteem and personality characteristics. TCI harm avoidance scores were higher in obese individuals compared to healthy controls. Harm avoidance scores were also higher in individuals with morbid obesity compared to non-morbid individuals, while self-directedness and persistence scores were lower. Body image dissatisfaction was higher in obese individuals. There was a negative correlation in obese individuals between body image and self-esteem scale scores and harm avoidance scores, and a positive correlation with self-directedness scores. An elevated harm avoidance temperament characteristic may be correlated with obesity. Furthermore, high harm avoidance, low self-directedness and low persistence may be significant personality characteristics in a process leading to morbid obesity. In addition, harm avoidance temperament and self-directedness personality characteristics may be correlated with body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem in obese individuals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet. We used methods as follow: 16 factors Cattell personality questionnaire, subjective control level, life-style index, Buss-Perry questionnaire, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, a COPE inventory. 78 internet users were divided into two groups of 38 persons: the main group included people falling victim to illegal attacks on the Internet, the control group participants were not attacked on the internet. We identified specific aggregated symptoms of individual psychological characteristics of internet attack victims and show that victims of "non-forced" and "forced" offenses have different levels of situational and personal anxiety, aggression and locus of control.

  7. Can personality traits and intelligence compensate for background disadvantage? Predicting status attainment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large U.S. representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige 11 years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed 1 of 3 patterns in relation to parental socioeconomic status (SES) when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., "the rich get richer"; individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, the interaction models being more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a "full catch-up" effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Can Personality Traits and Intelligence Compensate for Background Disadvantage? Predicting Status Attainment in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large US representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige eleven years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed one of three patterns in relation to parental SES when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., “the rich get richer,” individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, where interaction models were more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a “full catch up” effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors. PMID:25402679

  9. The personality, motivational, and need-based background of problematic Tinder use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Benyó, Mária; Berkes, Bernadett; Nikoletti, Edina; Gál, Éva; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta

    2018-04-12

    Background and aims Tinder is a geo-located online dating application, which is present in almost 200 countries and has 10 million daily users. The aim of the present research was to investigate the motivational, personality, and basic psychological need-related background of problematic Tinder use. Methods After qualitative pretest and item construction, in Study 1 (N = 414), confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to corroborate the different motivational factors behind Tinder use. In Study 2 (N = 346), the associations between Big Five traits, Tinder motivations, and problematic Tinder use were examined with structural equation modeling (SEM). In Study 3 (N = 298), the potential role of general self-esteem, relatedness need satisfaction, and frustration in relation to Tinder-use motivations and problematic Tinder use was examined with SEM. Results In Study 1, a 16-item first-order factor structure was identified with four motivational factors, such as sex, love, self-esteem enhancement, and boredom. In Study 2, problematic Tinder use was mainly related to using Tinder for self-esteem enhancement. The Big Five personality factors were only weakly related to the four motivations and to problematic Tinder use. Counterintuitively, Study 3 showed that instead of global self-esteem, relatedness need frustration was the strongest predictor of self-esteem enhancement Tinder-use motivation which, in turn, was the strongest predictor of problematic Tinder use. Discussion Four motivational factors were identified as predictors of problematic use with need frustration being a relevant background variable instead of general personality traits.

  10. INTEGRAL/SPI γ-ray line spectroscopy. Response and background characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland; Siegert, Thomas; Greiner, Jochen; Krause, Martin; Kretschmer, Karsten; Lang, Michael; Pleintinger, Moritz; Strong, Andrew W.; Weinberger, Christoph; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2018-03-01

    Context. The space based γ-ray observatory INTEGRAL of the European Space Agency (ESA) includes the spectrometer instrument "SPI". This is a coded mask telescope featuring a 19-element Germanium detector array for high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy, encapsulated in a scintillation detector assembly that provides a veto for background from charged particles. In space, cosmic rays irradiate spacecraft and instruments, which, in spite of the vetoing detectors, results in a large instrumental background from activation of those materials, and leads to deterioration of the charge collection properties of the Ge detectors. Aim. We aim to determine the measurement characteristics of our detectors and their evolution with time, that is, their spectral response and instrumental background. These incur systematic variations in the SPI signal from celestial photons, hence their determination from a broad empirical database enables a reduction of underlying systematics in data analysis. For this, we explore compromises balancing temporal and spectral resolution within statistical limitations. Our goal is to enable modelling of background applicable to spectroscopic studies of the sky, accounting separately for changes of the spectral response and of instrumental background. Methods: We use 13.5 years of INTEGRAL/SPI data, which consist of spectra for each detector and for each pointing of the satellite. Spectral fits to each such spectrum, with independent but coherent treatment of continuum and line backgrounds, provides us with details about separated background components. From the strongest background lines, we first determine how the spectral response changes with time. Applying symmetry and long-term stability tests, we eliminate degeneracies and reduce statistical fluctuations of background parameters, with the aim of providing a self-consistent description of the spectral response for each individual detector. Accounting for this, we then determine how the

  11. Personality Characteristics of Counselors Rated as Effective or Ineffective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, J. D.; Weslander, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) was used to discriminate counselors rated as highly effective, as average, or as ineffective. Results indicated significant correlations between tested personality characteristics and rated job performances. Employment level, sex, age, certification, and degree status were of no significance in predicting…

  12. The influence of personality characteristics and gender on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). One hundred and fifty (150) respondents comprising eighty (80) males and seventy (70) females were randomly drawn from the Ministries of Finance, Health, Lands and Survey; State Government ...

  13. personal characteristics and compliance to health education among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    2016-10-08

    Oct 8, 2016 ... This study investigated personal characteristics (individual factors) ... Three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to ... Literature ... good nutrition, exercise, clothing and travel during ... health education, she must be aware of the benefits of ..... International Journal for Women's Health.

  14. Professional Group Development Trainers’ Personality Characteristics and Affective Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eRapp Ricciardi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Development of Groups and Leaders (UGL, provided by the Swedish National Defence College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1 to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2 to investigate differences in personal characteristics.Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153 and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA, high affective (high PA, high NA, low affective (high PA, low NA, and self-destructive (low PA, high NA,Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70% than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%. UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR=2.22, p < .05 and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR=1.43, p <.001. UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfilment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfilment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuos training in awareness after

  15. Personality and affect characteristics of outpatients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, J V; Glaser, B A; Calhoun, G B; Campbell, L F

    2001-08-01

    This investigation was designed to examine the relationship between depression severity and personality disorders measured by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (Millon, 1987) and affectivity measured by the Positive Affectivity/Negative Affectivity Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Discriminant analyses were employed to identify the personality and affective dimensions that maximally discriminate between 4 different levels of depressive severity. Differences between the 4 levels of depressive severity are suggestive of unique patterns of personality characteristics. Discriminant analysis showed that 74.8% of the cases were correctly classified by a single linear discriminant function, and that 61% of the variance in depression severity was accounted for by selected personality and affect variables. Results extend current conceptualizations of comorbidity and are discussed with respect to depression severity.

  16. Creativity-Relevant Personal Characteristics among Indonesia Creative Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho J. Setiadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify Creativity-relevant Personal Characteristics among creative workers in Indonesia’s creative industry. Identification of the constituent elements of the nature of the changes needs to be measured. Researchers have advocated replacing creativity-relevant personal characteristics based on the five-factor model to investigate how individual differences stimulate creativity. This study presents data supporting reliability (internal consistency and validity (criterion and construct of the instrument. Validity of the instrument is based on the content validity involving art and design experts. The 220 creative workers from several creative industry firms in Indonesia participated as samples in this research. Results of a factor analysis indicated a five factor solution of creative characteristics and behavior. Discussion of findings and the most important ways in which individuals differ in their enduring emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, and motivational styles for stimulating creativity are presented.

  17. Biases in the effects of family background characteristics on voting preference : The Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; de Graaf, Nan Dirk; Eisinga, R.

    This article examines whether intergenerational transmission of party preference is biased by retrospective and other-report measurement of family background characteristics [In our model the dependent variable is voting preference, while one of our explanatory variables is father’s party

  18. College Students' Goals, Plans, and Background Characteristics; A Synthesis of Three Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Scott, Craig S.

    This study was designed to provide longitudinal data bearing on the change and/or stability of college-bound students' educational and vocational goals, as well as their background characteristics. Data from three studies were contrasted and compared. Included in these studies were: (1) a 2-year followup of 4,009 junior college students; (2) a…

  19. A survey on relationship among consumer personal characteristics, brand personality and brand love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eilaghi Karvandi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer’s personality traits, as one of the most important aspects of human psychological tendency, may influence people towards different brands. Therefore, the owners of most well-known brands also try to learn more about people’s personal characteristics to gain more market shares. The purpose of this paper is to find out more about consumer personality, which creates motivation in consumer’s mind and to learn more about the effect of this image on consumer’s interest on purchasing products. The population of this survey includes all people in city of Tehran, Iran who own one of Apple’s products. The results of the survey have indicated that neuroticism, extroversion, openness, compatibility, loyalty and brand love, as the main characteristics of brand personality, maintained positive impacts on brand love.

  20. Background Predictors and Event-Specific Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Incidents: The Roles of Alcohol and Other Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2015-08-01

    Sexual assault in the United States is an important public health concern. Using prospective longitudinal methods and responses from 217 community men, we examined whether background characteristics predicted subsequent sexual aggression (SA) perpetration during a 3-month follow-up period. We also examined event-specific characteristics of reported SA occurrences. Consistent with predictions, SA perpetration history, aggressive and impulsive personality traits, rape myth attitudes, and alcohol expectancies predicted SA (both non- and alcohol-involved) at follow-up. In addition, alcohol-involved assaults occurred more often with casual (vs. steady) partners but were more likely to involve condom use with casual (vs. steady) partners. Results suggest important avenues for future research and SA prevention efforts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. [Characteristics of Hospitalizations of Homeless Persons in Seville, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero Patricio, Sebastián; Fernández Ajuria, Alberto; Charris Castro, Liliana

    2016-02-10

    The aim was to determine the characteristics of hospital admissions of homeless persons in Seville, Spain. Observational study of 103,802 hospital admissions of 71,756 patients admitted in the Hospitals "Virgen del Rocío" and "Virgen Macarena" (Seville), in 2013 and 2014. Bivariate analysis were performed using χ2 and t-Student tests and multivariate analysis using binomial logistic regression model. 0.16% (n=163) of admissions were homeless persons and 99.84% (n=103,639) were not. The mean age at admission in homeless patients was 48 years and 76.5% of them were men. Hospital deaths of homeless patients occurred being 23 years younger. 92% of hospital admissions came from emergency departments and 10.0% of their discharges were against medical advice. The average length of stay was 4.8 days longer in homeless persons and the most frequent diagnoses on admission were mental (27.0%), infectious (19.6%) and respiratory diseases (18.4%). Mental disorders were present on 83.7% of homeless patients as secondary diagnose and 77.6% referred drugs consumption. Hospital admissions characteristics of homeless persons were particularly different. Homeless patients were hospitalized and died at a younger age than non-homeless patients. The morbidity and mortality of homeless persons reflect their vulnerable health condition.

  2. A survey on relationship among consumer personal characteristics, brand personality and brand love

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eilaghi Karvandi

    2016-01-01

    Consumer’s personality traits, as one of the most important aspects of human psychological tendency, may influence people towards different brands. Therefore, the owners of most well-known brands also try to learn more about people’s personal characteristics to gain more market shares. The purpose of this paper is to find out more about consumer personality, which creates motivation in consumer’s mind and to learn more about the effect of this image on consumer’s interest on purchasing produc...

  3. [Relationship between exercise adherence and personality characteristics in persons experienced in the Medical Fitness program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yuko; Seki, Nao; Umeda, Kimie; Tanabe, Naohito; Shinoda, Kunihiko; Konishi, Isamu; Sekiya, Akiyoshi; Sekii, Akiko; Ohta, Tamaki

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined effective exercise adherence support methods for persons experienced in the Medical Fitness (MF) program to clarify the relation of personality traits with exercise adherence and the factors that improve exercise adherence.Methods Subjects were 283 adults who had registered as members in the MF program at an affiliate of Hospital A. We implemented an anonymous self-administered questionnaire by postal mail. Using the Japanese version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory (which contains 10 items that measure the Big Five personality traits), we evaluated the following characteristics: "Extraversion", "Agreeableness", "Conscientiousness", "Neuroticism", and "Openness". The subjects who reported exercising regularly at the time of survey were considered persons with subjective exercise adherence.Results In persons with subjective exercise adherence, "Conscientiousness" was significantly lower (P=0.003) among men and "Neuroticism" was significantly higher (P=0.018) among women when compared to persons with subjective exercise adherence. There was no correlation between the things that emphasize exercise adherence and "Conscientiousness" among men. There was a negative correlation between "can achieve goal" and "Neuroticism" among women.Conclusions It is essential to consider personality and gender differences when devising exercise adherence support measures for the MF program. Our results suggest that women with high neuroticism do not need "can achieve goal" to maintain their exercise habits; therefore, it is necessary to examine teaching methods that do not focus on only goal achievement as part of exercise adherence support for MF.

  4. Personal characteristics of a law enforcement unit of special purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko T.G.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of the personal characteristics of law enforcement officers due to a significant number of crimes of an aggressive nature, committed by employees of internal Affairs bodies, and the need to develop preventive measures. The purpose of this research is to study peculiarities of the manifestation of progressive and inhibiting aggression personality factors in the structure of law enforcement officers, whose activities directly associated with aggression in the performance of official duties. The study involved 149 employees of special forces of law enforcement are male aged 18 to 35 years. Used a wide battery of psychodiagnostic methods aimed at a comprehensive study of the individual respondents. the data Obtained were analyzed using the method of correlation pleiades. According to the results, was discovered a unique picture of the relationship among personality structures and interaction progressive and deterrent aggression factors with the prevalence of progressive on inhibitory factors in the studied structure.

  5. Clinical characteristics of older psychiatric inpatients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappler, B; Backfield, J

    2001-01-01

    This case study investigation considers typical and potentially unique characteristics of older (> 50 years) Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients and describes their impact on an inpatient psychiatric unit encompassing a therapeutic milieu setting and multidisciplinary treatment teams. The somatization of symptoms, in particular, and the associated therapeutic, medical, and psychopharmacological interventions, result in prolonged and elaborate treatments that undermine clinical and personal boundaries, clash with managed care directives, and engender frustrating and elusive transferential and countertransferential reactions. Moreover, the guilt-inducing nature of somatization and physical frailty in older individuals, combined with the well-documented ability of BPD patients, regardless of age, to incite stormy and 'split' relationships, are linked characteristics that may describe a diagnostic subtype of BPD. Rather than suggesting a diminution of psychopathology as BPD patients age, the results of this investigation indicate that their persistent difficulties may only be altering in content and in pathological adaptation to changing needs.

  6. The characteristics of medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera; Cho, A-Ra; Kim, Sun

    2013-12-01

    Medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs must be considered. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs. A total of 171 students in Konyang University College of Medicine were examined using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B). The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, t-test, and one-sample proportion test. The proportion of the 4 pairs of MBTI dimensions were Extroversion (E)-Introversion (I) (53.2% vs. 46.8%), Sensing (S)-Intuition (N) (63.2% vs. 36.8%), Thinking (T)-Feeling (F) (59.7% vs. 40.4%), and Judging (J)-Perceiving (P) (56.1% vs. 43.9%). The predominant personality types were ISTJ (16.4%), ESTJ (14.0%), and ESFJ (10.5%). The level of interpersonal needs were medium rage that was inclusion (mean=8.1), control (mean=8.8), affection (mean=8.1), expressed behavior (mean=12.1), wanted behavior (mean=12.9), and overall interpersonal needs (mean=25.0). Of the basic social needs, males and females differed significantly with regard to control needs (p=0.028). Educational programs that take into account personality types and characteristics of interpersonal needs are crucial in providing effective medical education. Our results suggest that the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs should be considered in developing an interpersonal relations improvement program for medical students.

  7. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

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    Richard B. Biritwum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods: The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18–49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results: The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2% and in the highest income quintile (30.6%. Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to

  8. Comparing Personality Characteristics of Addicts with Non Addicts in Hamadan

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    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Sizeable sector of the population in Iran continues to use substance abuse despite government efforts to prevent addiction. Present study was designed to compare personality characteristics of addicts with non addicts. One hundred and six addicts who sought treatment at addiction rehabilitation department of Hamadan , were recruited in this study. A selective control group matched for demographic variables with the first group were also requested to take part in the study. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV and MMPI were administered. The results showed that patients in studied group represented a significantly different personality characteristics in contrast to the control group. Overal 77.8% of addicts were diagnosed as mental disorder. This figure for control group was 26.2% . Also 41.3% of addicts were diagnosed as personality disorders, while the figure for non addicts was 5.8%. High rates of mental disorders and personality problems are reported for addicts. It Seems that psychiatric symptoms and psychological vulnerabilities have important role in addictive behavior.

  9. Assessing the Effects of Personal Characteristics and Context on U.S. House Speakers’ Leadership Styles, 1789-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Owens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on congressional leadership has been dominated in recent decades by contextual interpretations that see leaders’ behavior as best explained by the environment in which they seek to exercise leadership—particularly, the preference homogeneity and size of their party caucus. The role of agency is thus discounted, and leaders’ personal characteristics and leadership styles are underplayed. Focusing specifically on the speakers of the U.S. House of Representatives from the first to the 110th Congress, we construct measures of each speaker’s commitment to comity and leadership assertiveness. We find the scores reliable and then test the extent to which a speaker’s style is the product of both political context and personal characteristics. Regression estimates on speakers’ personal assertiveness scores provide robust support for a context-plus-personal characteristics explanation, whereas estimates of their comity scores show that speakers’ personal backgrounds trump context.

  10. Clinical Characteristics of Comorbid Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörz-Sagstetter, Susanne; Diamond, Diana; Clarkin, John F; Levy, Kenneth N; Rentrop, Michael; Fischer-Kern, Melitta; Cain, Nicole M; Doering, Stephan

    2017-07-31

    This study examines psychopathology and clinical characteristics of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and comorbid narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) from two international randomized controlled trials. From a combined sample of 188 patients with BPD, 25 also fulfilled criteria for a comorbid diagnosis of NPD according to DSM-IV. The BPD patients with comorbid NPD, compared to the BPD patients without comorbid NPD, showed significantly more BPD criteria (M = 7.44 vs. M = 6.55, p personality disorders, and were more likely to meet criteria for full histrionic PD diagnosis (44.0% vs. 14.2%, p disorders (M = 2.68 vs. M = 3.75, p = .033). No differences could be found in general functioning, self-harming behavior, and suicide attempts.

  11. Personal and Perceived Depression Stigma among Arab Adolescents: Associations with Depression Severity and Personal Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Silva, Susan G; Smoski, Moria J; Noonan, Devon; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2017-10-01

    In Arab communities, the selection, utilization, and attitudes towards mental health services are substantially affected by existing mental illness stigma. However, little is known about how the stigma of depression manifests among Arab adolescents, which makes it difficult to design, implement, and disseminate effective anti-stigma interventions for this vulnerable population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine levels of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. The specific aims were to (1) describe the severity of personal and perceived depression stigma among Arab adolescents and its relationship to severity of depression, and (2) determine characteristics associated with severity of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. This study was conducted in Jordan, a Middle Eastern Arab country. A nationally representative, school-based survey was utilized. A total of 2349 Jordanian adolescents aged 12-17 completed and returned the survey packets, which included measures on individual characteristics, depression severity, and depression stigma. The majority of the adolescents (88%) reported scores indicating moderate to high depression stigma. Adolescents reported higher rates of perceived stigma than personal stigma. Depression stigma was not significantly associated with severity of depression, but with adolescent's sex, age, region of residence, parents' education, and history of mental health problem. This is the first Arab study to isolate the influence of adolescent depression and personal characteristics on personal and perceived depression stigmas, and highlight the presence of these distinctions early in adolescence. Such distinction can inform the design and implementation of policies and interventions to reduce both personal and perceived stigma. The study provides important recommendations on when, how, and why to utilize school settings for anti-depression stigma interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic characteristics of background seismic noise according to records of nuclear monitoring seismic stations in Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashova, N.N.; Sinyova, Z.I.; Komarov, I.I.; Mikhailova, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    The seismic stations of Kazakstan, included into nuclear monitoring network (see fig.1) are equipped with broad hand seismometers; seismic data are recorded in digital format. All this allows to investigate spectral and time characteristics of seismic background noise in very large frequency diapason (more than 3-5 orders), for all three components of oscillation vector. The spectral density of background seismic noise for vertical and both horizontal components (fig.2) was calculated for all of the observation points. The regular features of structure of noise spectra, inherent for all of the studied observation points, as well as some features, specific for studied places were found. The curves of spectral noise density were compared with global noise model, determined by the data of Global Seismological Network (GSN)

  13. Red lesion detection using background estimation and lesions characteristics in diabetic retinal image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Peng, Yinghui; Yi, Yao; Shang, Xingyu

    2013-10-01

    Detection of red lesions [hemorrhages (HRs) and microaneurysms (MAs)] is crucial for the diagnosis of early diabetic retinopathy. A method based on background estimation and adapted to specific characteristics of HRs and MAs is proposed. Candidate red lesions are located by background estimation and Mahalanobis distance measure and then some adaptive postprocessing techniques, which include vessel detection, nonvessel exclusion based on shape analysis, and noise points exclusion by double-ring filter (only used for MAs detection), are conducted to remove nonlesion pixels. The method is evaluated on our collected image dataset, and experimental results show that it is better than or approximate to other previous approaches. It is effective to reduce the false-positive and false-negative results that arise from incomplete and inaccurate vessel structure.

  14. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Coping Strategies in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed to investigate personality traits and coping strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who were admitted to Sina hospital compared with healthy individuals. Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare personality characteristics and coping strategies between patients with MS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods The study sample included 55 patients with MS and 57 matched healthy control individuals. The data were gathered via a demographic form, the ways of coping questionnaire, and the NEO five-factor inventory. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. Results No significant differences in personality characteristics were observed between patients and healthy controls (all P > 0.05. Only the coping strategy subscale of Distancing was significant between patients and healthy controls (P 0.05. Only the Neuroticism personality trait and the Distancing coping strategy were predictive of group membership (i.e., healthy or patient. Conclusions Our study suggests that the personality traits of patients with MS and healthy individuals are not significantly different. Patients with MS are likely to use the same coping strategies as healthy individuals, except in the subscale of Distancing.

  15. A social work study for assessment of entrepreneurs' personal characteristics

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    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The personality of an entrepreneur plays an important role on the success of creating new ideas. There are different characteristics such as courage, hardness, braveness, which could help an entrepreneur reach his/her goals. In this paper, we present an empirical study to learn more about students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in different fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, etc. In this paper, There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We implement ANOVA test to measure different entrepreneurship characteristics of students who study in various educational fields. The case study is associated with Sama private university located in city of Zanjan/Iran. The results indicate that there are not meaningful differences among pairwise comparison of many engineering fields.

  16. Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues

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    Janssens A Cecile JW

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the

  17. Research on channel characteristics of differential multi pulse position modulation without background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhuo; Zhan, Weida; Sun, Quan; Hao, Ziqiang

    2018-04-01

    Differential multi-pulse position modulation (DMPPM) is a new type of modulation technology. There is a fast transmission rate, high bandwidth utilization, high modulation rate characteristics. The study of DMPPM modulation has important scientific value and practical significance. Channel capacity is one of the important indexes to measure the communication capability of communication system, and studying the channel capacity of DMPPM without background noise is the key to analyze the characteristics of DMPPM. The DMPPM theoretical model is established. The symbol structure of DMPPM with guard time slot is analyzed, and the channel capacity expression of DMPPM is deduced. Simulation analysis by MATLAB. The curves of unit channel capacity and capacity efficiency at different pulse and photon counting rates are analyzed. The results show that DMPPM is more advantageous than multi-pulse position modulation (MPPM), and is more suitable for future wireless optical communication system.

  18. Health and wellness characteristics of persons with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Cynthia A; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Brenner, Lisa; Hawley, Lenore; Morey, Clare; Newman, Jody; Staniszewski, Kristi; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    To describe health and wellness characteristics of persons with TBI living in the community, compare to other disability populations and evaluate the associations between health-related constructs. Observational. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital and a Veterans Affairs Medical Centre. Seventy-four community-dwelling adults with moderate-to-severe TBI. None. Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II), Self Rated Abilities Health Practices Scale (SRAHP), Barriers to Health Promoting Activities for Disabled Scale (BHPAD), Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Health Status Survey Short Form (SF-12), Personal Resource Questionnaire-adapted (PRQ-a), Perceived Wellness Survey (PWS), Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective (PART-O). Health-promoting behaviours, self-efficacy and barriers to health were comparable to other disability populations. Perceived health status, participation and life satisfaction were decreased. Measures of health promotion and self-efficacy were positively associated with perceived mental health status, life satisfaction and participation. Barriers to healthy activities were negatively associated with health promotion, self-efficacy and perceived mental health status. Health and wellness status was below desired levels for the study cohort, and comparable to other disability populations. Better understanding of associations among health-related constructs is needed. Continued research on conceptually-based health and wellness interventions for persons with TBI is recommended.

  19. The Importance of Considering Context in the Assessment of Personality Characteristics: Evidence from Ratings of Dolphin Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczaj II, Stan A.; Highfill, Lauren; Byerly, Holli

    2012-01-01

    One of the tenets of personality is that an individual’s distinguishing behavioral characteristics arerelatively stable over time and across contexts. Both humans and animals demonstrate suchconsistency, at least for certain personality traits. However, the relative extent to which personality isstable is rarely addressed in studies of animal personality, the focus typically being on stability ratherthan its absence. Here we present data on dolphin personality that suggest dolphin behavior (a...

  20. The Study of Main and Interactive Effects of Attachment Dimension and Basic Personality Characteristics in Borderline Traits

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    Ali Mohammadzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are models of the development of personality disorders which include individual differences in attachment relationships as causal factors contributed in explanation of these phenomena. The dimensional view of personality disorders represents these conditions as extreme variants of normal personality continua. This study investigated main and interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted in expo fact context. Randomly selected 603 participants (134 male  469 female from Tabriz Payam-e-Noor, Tarbait Moallem of Azarbaijan and Sarab Payam-e-Noor university students took part in this research. Participants answered to Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, Short form (EPQ-RS and Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance method.Results: Results indicate main effects of attachment styles and personality traits, so, individual with ambivalent insecure attachment experience more intensity of borderline traits than individual with avoidant insecure and secure attachments. Individual with high psychoticim and neuroticism traits experience more intensity of borderline characteristics than individual with extraversion personality traits. Also, there are no interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Conclusion: These findings reiterate contribution of childhood risk factors in developing borderline personality disorder, especially in children with emotionally vulnerability.

  1. [The types of matrimonial relations and personal characteristics of married couples in the families of men suffering from alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnova, T M

    2007-02-01

    The family of patient suffering from alcoholism was investigated form the standpoints of systemic analysis, that allowed revealing the leading personal characteristics of married couples. The men suffering from alcoholism are characterized by weak will, inclination to dependence, disregard of behavioral social norms, increased excitability and tendency to frustration in combination with high level of aggressiveness against the background of decreased masculine and prevailing feminine characteristics. Co-dependent wives of men suffering from alcoholism are characterized by predominance, observance of social norms, pronounced autoagression and orientation to masculine characteristics against the background of high indices of both femininity and masculinity. Such combination of married couples' personal characteristics forms the basis for development of dysfunctional relations in a family of man suffering from alcoholism. The families where husband and wife had no alcohol dependence, with harmonic functional relations served as the control group.

  2. The role of disease characteristics in the ethical debate on personal genome testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunnik Eline M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Companies are currently marketing personal genome tests directly-to-consumer that provide genetic susceptibility testing for a range of multifactorial diseases simultaneously. As these tests comprise multiple risk analyses for multiple diseases, they may be difficult to evaluate. Insight into morally relevant differences between diseases will assist researchers, healthcare professionals, policy-makers and other stakeholders in the ethical evaluation of personal genome tests. Discussion In this paper, we identify and discuss four disease characteristics - severity, actionability, age of onset, and the somatic/psychiatric nature of disease - and show how these lead to specific ethical issues. By way of illustration, we apply this framework to genetic susceptibility testing for three diseases: type 2 diabetes, age-related macular degeneration and clinical depression. For these three diseases, we point out the ethical issues that are relevant to the question whether it is morally justifiable to offer genetic susceptibility testing to adults or to children or minors, and on what conditions. Summary We conclude that the ethical evaluation of personal genome tests is challenging, for the ethical issues differ with the diseases tested for. An understanding of the ethical significance of disease characteristics will improve the ethical, legal and societal debate on personal genome testing.

  3. Ground Level Ozone Regional Background Characteristics In North-west Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C.; Fan, J.; Chang, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the ground level ozone regional background characteristics is essential in understanding the contribution of long-range transport of pollutants from Asia Mainland to air quality in downwind areas. In order to understand this characteristic in north-west Pacific Rim, we conducted a coupled study using ozone observation from regional background stations and 3-D regional-scale chemical transport model simulations. We used O3, CO, wind speed and wind direction data from two regional background stations and ¡§other stations¡¨ over a ten year period and organized several numerical experiments to simulate one spring month in 2003 to obtain a deeper understanding. The so called ¡§other stations¡¨ had actually been named as background stations under various governmental auspices. But we found them to be often under strong influence of local pollution sources with strong diurnal or slightly longer time variations. We found that the Yonagunijima station (24.74 N, 123.02 E) and Heng-Chuen station (21.96 N,120.78 E), about a distance of 400 km apart, have almost the same ozone time series pattern. For these two stations in 2003, correlation coefficients (R2) for annual observed ozone concentration is about 0.64, in the springtime it is about 0.7, and in a one-month period at simulation days it is about 0.76. These two stations have very little small scale variations in all the variables studied. All variations are associated with large scale circulation changes. This is especially so at Yonagunijima station. Using a 3-D regional-scale chemical transport model for East Asia region including contribution from Asia continental outflow and neighboring island pollution areas we found that the Yonagunijima and HengChuen station are indeed free of pollutants from all neighboring areas keeping in mind that pollutants from Taiwan area is never far away. Ozone concentrations in these two stations are dominated by synoptic scale weather patterns, with diffused

  4. Cursus Honorum: Personal Background, Careers and Experience of Political Leaders in Democracy and Dictatorship—New Data and Analyses

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    Alexander Baturo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Politics in democracy and dictatorship is markedly different; democracy and dictatorship are also associated with distinct policy outcomes. Do political regimes also select different leaders, i.e., do democratic leaders have distinct personal backgrounds to those of their peers in dictatorships, do they tend to hold different prior careers and posts while climbing the “greasy pole” of politics? The aim of this paper is to introduce the new data on leaders’ careers in democracy and dictatorship and compare their personal background, experience in politics, careers and significant posts prior to their tenure, and details about their time in office, inter alia. In general, democratic leaders differ from nondemocratic ones in terms of their educational, social and career background. The paper also finds significant differences among leaders in different nondemocratic regimes, and suggests possible venues for further research.

  5. Personal exposure to grass pollen: relating inhaled dose to background concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very few studies on human exposure to allergenic pollen have been conducted using direct methods, with background concentrations measured at city center monitoring stations typically taken as a proxy for exposure despite the inhomogeneous nature of atmospheric pollen concentrations. A...

  6. Investigating personal characteristics on e-banking adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arfaeian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been increasing interests on doing banking transactions using online services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the role of personal and social characteristics on acceptance of e-banking adoption. The proposed study designs two questionnaires and distributes them among 384 randomly selected people who use online banking in province of Alborz, Iran. The proposed study examines the effects of five factors including Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness on e-banking adoption. Using regression techniques, the study has confirmed that Neuroticism and Agreeableness have negative and meaningful impact on e-banking adoption while Conscientiousness has positive and meaningful relationship with e-banking adoption.

  7. H.S.W. Massey. Life, work personality and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Harrie Stewart Wilson Massey was born in Melbourne in 1908 and died at home in Surrey in 1983. This brief biography begins with his boyhood in Australia and his schooling both in Melbourne and at Cambridge and then discusses his achievements and positions in the academic and scientific communities before returning to his Cambridge period to discuss his accomplishments there in greater detail. Among them are his experiments on electron diffraction by atom; the first Born approximation; electron exchange; electron-molecule collisions; collisions between atomic systems and transport phenomena in gases; and nuclear collisions. The paper concludes by describing Massey's personality and characteristics and then lists an 11-page bibliography of his journal papers and books

  8. Is pregnancy planning associated with background characteristics and pregnancy-planning behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, Jenny; Salih Joelsson, Lana; Tydén, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    household income, to be currently working (≥50%) and to have longer relationships than women with unplanned pregnancies. The level of pregnancy planning was associated with planning behavior, such as information-seeking and intake of folic acid, but without a reduction in alcohol consumption. One......-third of all women took folic acid 1 month prior to conception, 17% used tobacco daily and 11% used alcohol weekly 3 months before conception. Conclusions A majority rated their pregnancy as very or fairly planned, with socio-economic factors as explanatory variables. The level of pregnancy planning should......Introduction Prevalence of planned pregnancies varies between countries but is often measured in a dichotomous manner. The aim of this study was to investigate to what level pregnant women had planned their pregnancies and whether pregnancy planning was associated with background characteristics...

  9. Aspects of science engagement, student background, and school characteristics: Impacts on science achievement of U.S. students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, Larry J.

    Science achievement of U.S. students has lagged significantly behind other nations; educational reformers have suggested science engagement may enhance this critical measure. The 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) was science-focused and measured science achievement along with nine aspects of science engagement: science self-efficacy, science self-concept, enjoyment of science, general interest in learning science, instrumental motivation for science, future-oriented science motivation, general value of science, personal value of science, and science-related activities. I used multilevel modeling techniques to address both aspects of science engagement and science achievement as outcome variables in the context of student background and school characteristics. Treating aspects of science engagement as outcome variables provided tests for approaches for their enhancement; meanwhile, treating science achievement as the outcome variable provided tests for the influence of the aspects of science engagement on science achievement under appropriate controls. When aspects of science engagement were treated as outcome variables, gender and father's SES had frequent (significant) influences, as did science teaching strategies which focused on applications or models and hands-on activities over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. When science achievement was treated as the outcome variable, each aspect of science engagement was significant, and eight had medium or large effect sizes (future-oriented science motivation was the exception). The science teaching strategy which involved hands-on activities frequently enhanced science achievement over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. Policy recommendations for U.S. science educators included enhancing eight aspects of science engagement and implementing two specific science teaching strategies (focus on applications or models

  10. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Personality Characteristics in Migrainous Patients

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    Abdol Reza Sabahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization reports described migraine as one of the 4 most disabling chronic medical disorders. A day with migraine is as disabling as a day with quadriplegia, schizophrenia, or dementia in who is view 87% of people with migraine has some degree of disability. Migraine headaches are associated with psychological factors and personality characteristics. This study compares the personality characteristics of migraine patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and without ADHD. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with migraine were evaluated in this cross sectional study with simple sampling method. All participants were assessed with semi structured clinical interview, adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS and Millone clinical multiaxial inventory questionnaire. The migraine patients were divided into two groups, with and without ADHD. The correlation of variables was tested by χ2 test and t-test with 0.05 significance with the use of software SPSS-20. Results: Our participants were 80% female, 56% married and 36.2% with at least graduation from high school. Patients with migraine and ADHD were younger and their first headache experience had occurred in lower age compared with non-ADHD patients (p<0.05. In current study, we showed that there is a significant correlation between ADHD and depressive and independent personality traits and dysthymic clinical syndrome in migraine patients (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that personality characteristics in migraine patients may be affected by some other mental disorders such as ADHD. These findings might be helpful in early treatment and prevention of dysfunctioning in patients with migraine.

  11. Internet Addiction Based on Personality Characteristics of High School Students in Kerman, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Bibi Eshrat; Abedini, Yasamin; Kheradmand, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background The new phenomenon of Internet addiction among teenagers and young adults is one of the modern addictions in industrial and post-industrial societies. The purpose of this research was to predict the Internet addiction based on the personality characteristics of high school students in Kerman. Methods This research was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population included 538 male and female students in the second grade of high school in Kerman during 2010. The subjects were randomly selected by multistage clustering. Data was collected by two questionnaires including the five-factor Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Internet dependency questionnaire. The data was analyzed using ANOVA test and multivariable regression analysis. Findings The findings showed a significant relationship between the personality trait of emotional stability and academic fields, i.e. students with higher emotional stability experience less negative emotions when confronting with problems. Therefore, it is less likely for them to alleviate the negative emotions by the extreme and obsessed usage of the Internet. In addition, it appears that the students with high extroversion scores prefer social, face to face interactions with other people to interaction with the virtual world. Conversely, more introvert students avoid interactions with other people due to their shyness. Thus, they communicate with the virtual world more. Conclusion Three personality traits of loyalty, emotional stability, and extroversion are the most significant predictors of Internet addiction in high school students. PMID:24494121

  12. Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI and mammographic breast density: correlation with tumour characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.Y.; Choi, N.; Yang, J.-H.; Yoo, Y.B.; Park, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MGD) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at breast MRI and histopathological features of invasive breast cancers. Materials and methods: A total of 178 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer who preoperatively underwent mammography and breast MRI were included in the study. Two radiologists rated MGD and BPE according to BI-RADS criteria in consensus. The relationship between MGD and BPE was investigated, and compared with histopathological features of invasive breast cancers according to the level of MGD and BPE. Results: At MRI, there is no significant difference in the distribution of MGD and BPE of the contralateral breast in women with invasive breast cancer according to menopausal status (p=0.226, 0.384). Women with high MGD (>50% glandular) were more likely to have oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (p=0.045) and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancer (p=0.020). With regard to BPE, PR positivity correlated with moderate or marked BPE with borderline significance (p=0.054). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that women with high MGD were less likely to have triple-negative (i.e., a cancer that is ER negative, PR negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 [HER2] negative) breast cancer compared with ER (+)/HER2 (−) cancer (OR=0.231, 95% CI: 0.070, 0.760; p=0.016). No association between the histological tumour characteristics and BPE was observed. Conclusion: In women with invasive breast cancer, high MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. However, at MRI, BPE of the contralateral breast seems to be independent of tumour characteristics. -- Highlights: •There is no difference in distribution of MGD and BPE of contralateral breast on MRI. •High MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. •BPE of the contralateral breast on MRI is independent of tumor

  13. Vegetative status characteristics in children with neurological pathology on the background of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyazka O.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system are the most common pathological conditions detected in 20% - 85% of children and adolescents according to different authors' data. Assessment of the vegetative status in the period of intensive growth and differentiation of organs and tissues that is characteristic of childhood is of great practical importance. Identification of vegetative dysregulation is an important diagnostic measure in children's health status evaluation especially in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (UNDCT taking into account its genetic determinism and debut in childhood. Genetically determined biochemical disorders in the connective tissue followed by formation of characteristic pathological substrates cause dysregulation of sympathoadrenal system and correlate with UNDCT severity degree. Material and methods. There were 100 children aged from 5 to 16 years engaged in the investigation. All of them were treated in the neurological department of the City clinical hospital №4. All patients were divided into two groups: basic group, which included 50 children with neurological disorders and UNDC, and control one, which consisted of 50 children with neurological disorders without UNDCT. The survey included obstetric history analysis, anthropometry to determine the ratio of longitudinal and transverse dimensions (the index of Vervica; clinical and neurological examination (study of reflex&motor areas, sensory function, coordination; laboratory methods (clinical blood count and biochemical blood tests to determine the level of potassium and calcium ions, instrumental methods (electroencephalography, rheoencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Osokina's table was used for baseline autonomic tone assessment. The evaluation was conducted by counting the number of signs. Subsequently was performed the summation of the scores with the determination of the percentage of predominant

  14. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  15. ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS AND PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    SÜLEYMAN DÜNDAR

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze problem solving skills of university students according to their personal characteristics. We try to find out if there is a difference in problem solving skills considering sex, class and personality harmony characteristics. Personal data form, Problem Solving Scale and Hacettepe Personality Scale are used as measurement tools. The results of the study indicate that there is no difference between male and female students in problem solving skills. Problem s...

  16. Personality traits correlate with characteristics of music-induced movement

    OpenAIRE

    Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2009-01-01

    Individual factors such as personality are essential for understanding musical experiences and engagement with music. Personality has been shown to be related to musical preferences and experiences, but little is known about how it affects music-related movement. The current study examined whether personality traits were related to the way in which people moved spontaneously to music. Twenty young adults (7 males, and 13 females, mean age 24.0 years) were asked to move spontaneously to a 12 b...

  17. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biritwum, Richard B; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-06-11

    Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18-49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2%) and in the highest income quintile (30.6%). Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to improved sources of drinking water, with the lowest at

  18. Characteristics of persons with repeat syphilis - Idaho, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ahmed M; Bartschi, Jared; Carter, Kris K

    2018-03-14

    During 2011-2015 in Idaho, 14 (7%) of 193 persons with early syphilis had repeat syphilis. Persons with repeat infections were more likely to have had secondary or early latent syphilis (P = 0.037) and be infected with HIV (P < 0.001) compared with those having one infection.

  19. A social work study to investigate the relationships between women’s personal characteristics and employment status

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Basity; Mohammad Reza Iravani; Zahra Ghassabi; Faezeh Taghipour; Hajar Jannesari

    2013-01-01

    Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measur...

  20. The relationship between personal characteristics, communication, and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Arabshahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, staff job satisfaction were evaluated according to their personality differences by assessing five personality factors, based on NEO-FFI scoring and those components, which are directly associated with job satisfaction. In this regard, three data collection tools including communication satisfaction questionnaires, job descriptions index and five personality trait questionnaire were used. Based on the findings there was a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and personality traits (r = 0.97, and job satisfaction was depended on communication satisfaction. This research showed that communication satisfaction and job satisfaction could be predicted based on the five personality traits, which are nervousness, extraversion, empiricism, responsibility, and compatibility with others.

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Butler

    Full Text Available Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243, the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits. Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57. Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  2. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  3. Comparative Survey of Mental Disorders and Personality Characteristics in Persons With Drug Dependent and Non Drug Dependent in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaleiha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The influence of genetic, biological, psychological, social and cultural factors on drug dependency and high rate comorbidity of this phenomenon with psychiatric disorders for example anxiety, depression and characteristics and personality disorders is emphasized. The aim of this study was the comparative investigation of mental disorders and personality traits in persons with drug dependent and non drug dependent in Hamadan city in 2001-2003 .Materials & Methods: Present research was a descriptive comparison and subjects were 100 drug dependent persons and 100 non drug dependent individuals .Case group was chosen through available sampling among persons who call on psychiatrist and control group was chosen through randomly simple sampling from general population. Measurement and diagnostic tools includes questionnaire for examining demographic characteristics, designed by researchers and MMPI, SCL90-R tests and DSM IV criteria diagnostic and also T test that was used for analyzing data.Results: Between two groups in clinical and validity scales of MMPI test expect for hypochondriasis and hysteria and scales of SCL 90-R test expect somatization and interpersonal sensitivity differences were statistically significant (P<0.05.Conclusion: We can conclude that persons with drug dependent display more signs of psychopathology and mental disorders in comparison with non drug dependent people and Major depressive disorder and personality disorder were frequent among drug dependent groups. Depression and personal disorders were frequent in non drug dependent persons too. Our results support the results of previous studies.

  4. Is knowing believing? The role of event plausibility and background knowledge in planting false beliefs about the personal past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, Kathy; Blandon-Gitlin, Iris; Lam, Shirley; Hart, Rhiannon Ellis; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2006-12-01

    False memories are more likely to be planted for plausible than for implausible events, but does just knowing about an implausible event make individuals more likely to think that the event happened to them? Two experiments assessed the independent contributions o f plausibility a nd background knowledge to planting false beliefs. In Experiment 1, subjects rated 20 childhood events as to the likelihood of each event having happened to them. The list included the implausible target event "received an enema," a critical target event of Pezdek, Finger, and Hodge (1997). Two weeks later, subjects were presented with (1) information regarding the high prevalence rate of enemas; (2) background information on how to administer an enema; (3) neither type of information; or (4) both. Immediately or 2 weeks later, they rated the 20 childhood events again. Only plausibility significantly increased occurrence ratings. In Experiment 2, the target event was changed from "barium enema administered in a hospital" to "home enema for constipation"; significant effects of both plausibility and background knowledge resulted. The results suggest that providing background knowledge can increase beliefs about personal events, but that its impact is limited by the extent of the individual's familiarity with the context of the suggested target event.

  5. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Emily E.; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behaviour...

  6. The Impact of Personal Characteristics and Intrinsic Motivation on Creative Behavior among Indonesian Radio Station Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho J. Setiadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to increase understanding in some personal characteristics affecting creative performance among Indonesian radio station managers’ leadership context. Using creativity-relevant personal characteristics and motivation as input model, the authors identified that both of these two variables are positively related to creative performance. The study hypothesized that Leader-member exchange (LMX moderate the relationship between personal characteristics and creative performance. Among a sample of 283 Indonesian radio station managers, results found that creativity-relevant personal characteristics and intrinsic motivation were positively related to creative performance when managers’ perception of followers’ work contribution toward them (as the second dimension of LMX was high.Keywords: Creativity; Personal characteristics; Motivation; Leader-member exchange.

  7. Predicting criminals' personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohebbi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding criminals' personality characteristics could engender appropriate solutions for preventing crimes and treating criminals and the aim of the current work is to predict criminals' (robbers, swindlers and smugglers personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime. The research falls under the applied category in terms of goal while in terms of nature it is among surveydescriptive researches. The sample under investigation includes 480 people who were selected by way of classified random sampling method in a systematic form from among the population of criminals in the Central Prison, province of Kermanshah. The tool used in this paper is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI (short form of 71 questions. The results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI indicated that prevalence of anti-social personalitycharacteristics and mental weakness among robbers; depression, anti-social personality and schizophrenia among swindlers as well as anti-social traits, mental weakness and schizophrenia among smugglers are seen significantly. Also, the results of the variance analysis demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the (MMPI clinical scales among three groups of criminals (robbers, swindlers and smugglers on D scales (depression, Pd (Psychopathy deviation, Pt (Anxiety and psychosis, Sc (Schizophrenia and Ma (Hypomania (p<%5. Research findings revealed that criminals enjoy lower level of normal and positive personality dimensions. To sum up, we can infer that all personality characteristics exist in the population of criminals and therapy experts need to pay attention to all sorts of personalities for treating criminals affected with personality disorder.

  8. Research about reactor operator's personability characteristics and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan [Tsinghua Univ., Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    To predict and evaluate the reactor operator's performance by personality characteristics is an important part of reactor operator safety assessment. Using related psychological theory combined with the Chinese operator's fact and considering the effect of environmental factors to personality analysis, paper does the research about the about the relationships between reactor operator's performance and personality characteristics, and offers the reference for operator's selection, using and performance in the future. (author)

  9. Operative neurosurgery. Personal view and historical backgrounds. (9) Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA). Past history and status presens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekawa, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The second international meeting on the Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) was held in mid. July 2011 at the children's hospital Zurich by Frau PD Dr.Khan and Prof.Meuli. On this occasion I was asked to give a survey of this disease, so the following points were presented and discussed: Who was the person who discovered this disease. How has the Research Committee of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan (RCMHWJ) contributed to clarify the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology and treatments. What is the current situation in foreign countries especially Euroamerican to date on these topics. How the treatment technique developed and who did the initial revascularization procedures for the first. Update of the disease. Established view; discovery of the disease by Tekeuchi and Shimizu in 1955 could have been called somewhat into question as they described neither abnormal vasculature nor transdural anastomosis. Kudo who described ''spontaneous occlusion of the circle of Willis'' more precisely, but seemed to have thought that the occlusion site of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is around the origin of the ophthalmic artery. Suzuki and Takaku who coined the name Moyamoya disease (MMD) in 1969 and described 6 stages of progression on the basis of observation on 20 cases. The RCMHWJ founded in 1977 has contributed to clarifying the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and etiology by interdisciplinary cooperative study having some epoch making events especially; by setting the guide lines -diagnostic criteria of the disease at the end of 1970, applying MRI and MR angiography (MRA) at the beginning of 1990 for the diagnosis instead of angiography used until then. By finding and focusing, therefore, on the cases of asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic presentation around the middle of 2000, which have almost doubled or tripled in incidence and/or prevalence and also changed the age distribution with the higher peak for adult cases. Achievements of research for the

  10. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. Methods In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Results Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8% were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p p 100 RMB (all p-values p Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated with AIA. Spending excessive time online is not in itself a defining symptom of AIA. More attention is needed on adolescent excessive weekend internet-use in prevention of potential internet addicts.

  11. Burnout in officers of the prison service units. The role of personality and selected professional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sygit-Kowalkowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The researchers involved in the studies of burnout indicate its 3 sources: the structure of the personality, the specificity of interpersonal relationships, and the organizational factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout and personality characteristics of prison officers, as well as to determine predictors of burnout in this occupational group. Material and Methods: The study was conducted among prison officers, who were divided into 2 groups, the officers working in direct contact with prisoners (group I and those employed in the prison administration (group II. The study used 2 tools: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI and Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ. Results: Analysis of personality traits in the study group showed high severity traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. However, the best results were obtained in terms of extraversion and the lowest in the range of conscientiousness. The level of burnout in both groups was found to be within the upper limit of the average results, without statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that people working in direct contact with prisoners experience greater disappointments and psychophysical exhaustion at work. The analyses showed that the level of exhaustion and disappointment of the employees surveyed increases with increasing seniority. It was also shown that the level of neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness is the predictor of effectiveness. Conclusions: The level of burnout in the study group falls within the upper limit of the average results. Personality traits are an important determinant for the development of symptoms of burnout in the penitentiary officers, and their role changes over the years of continuous prison service. The position at work diversifies the degree of experiencing symptoms of burnout. Med Pr 2017;68(1:85–94

  12. Personality characteristics of depressed and non-depressed patients with Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholdt, Malene Flensborg; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    traits as risk factors for depression. The personality profiles of 290 non-depressed and 119 depressed patients with PD were compared. The depressed patients were characterized by elevated neuroticism, reduced extroversion, and reduced conscientiousness and less convincing findings of reduced openness......Depression and a specific personality profile are often outlined as premorbid characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, few studies have explored possible relations between personality and depression in PD despite research in non-parkinsonian samples identifying specific personality...

  13. Effects of Demographic Characteristics, Educational Background, and Supporting Factors on ICT Readiness of Technical and Vocational Teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzam, Abu-Obaideh; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Hamzah, Ramlah; Asimiran, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ICT readiness and the effects of demographic characteristics, educational background, and support factors on the ICT readiness of technical and vocational teachers in Malaysia. The questionnaire was administered to 329 technical and vocational teachers who are teaching engineering subjects in Malaysian…

  14. Exploring the Relationship Between Working Memory, Compressor Speed, and Background Noise Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Souza, Pamela E; MacDonald, Ewen N

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that individuals with lower working memory demonstrate reduced intelligibility for speech processed with fast-acting compression amplification. This relationship has been noted in fluctuating noise, but the extent of noise modulation that must be present to elicit such an effect is unknown. This study expanded on previous study by exploring the effect of background noise modulations in relation to compression speed and working memory ability, using a range of signal to noise ratios. Twenty-six older participants between ages 61 and 90 years were grouped by high or low working memory according to their performance on a reading span test. Speech intelligibility was measured for low-context sentences presented in background noise, where the noise varied in the extent of amplitude modulation. Simulated fast- or slow-acting compression amplification combined with individual frequency-gain shaping was applied to compensate for the individual's hearing loss. Better speech intelligibility scores were observed for participants with high working memory when fast compression was applied than when slow compression was applied. The low working memory group behaved in the opposite way and performed better under slow compression compared with fast compression. There was also a significant effect of the extent of amplitude modulation in the background noise, such that the magnitude of the score difference (fast versus slow compression) depended on the number of talkers in the background noise. The presented signal to noise ratios were not a significant factor on the measured intelligibility performance. In agreement with earlier research, high working memory allowed better speech intelligibility when fast compression was applied in modulated background noise. In the present experiment, that effect was present regardless of the extent of background noise modulation.

  15. Age Differences in the Variance of Personality Characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mottus, R.; Allik, J.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kööts-Ausmees, L.; Realo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-11 ISSN 0890-2070 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : variance * individual differences * personality * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.707, year: 2016

  16. Distribution characteristics of natural gamma background levels around the capital city Shillong, Meghalaya (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreti, B.M.; Sharma, G.K.; Rao, M.S.; Ramabhadraih, T.; Bhaskar Rao, Arjun; Bhuphang, A.

    2012-01-01

    Onsite measurement of natural gamma radiation around the capital city Shillong in Meghalaya, has been carried out using GPS device and environmental survey meter. Each referenced insitu data point was validated at the site by means of simultaneous measurements of radiation levels (at 1.0 mts height) through handheld dosimeters. Collected data points on natural background levels, have been analysed and quantified in the context of preparing reference background levels in the city in order to deal with any radiological emergency that may arise in the public domain. Study reveals Gaussian distributed mean annual gamma dose of 0.77 mSv (n=53) in the range of 0.38 to 1.51 mSv. The study area, bound by the coordinates N (25.50°-25.66°, and E (91.82°-91.96°) indicates few pockets of higher average background levels, particularly towards the eastern side of study area, namely Nongmynsong, NEIGRIMS and Happy Valley. However, from the radiological safety aspects in public domain, all these reported levels are within the safety limits of prevailing environmental background. (author)

  17. Contrasts in oxidative potential and other particulate matter characteristics collected near major streets and background locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Janssen, N.A.H.; Fischer, P.H.; Kos, G.P.A.; Weijers, E.P.; Cassee, F.R.; van der Zee, S.C.; Hartog, J. de; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measuring the oxidative potential of airborne particulate matter (PM) may provide a more health-based exposure measure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of PM into a single predictor of biological activity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the contrast in oxidative

  18. Contrasts in oxidative potential and other particulate matter characteristics collected near major streets and background locations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Janssen, N.A.; Fischer, P.H.; Kos, G.P.; Weijers, E.P.; Cassee, F.R.; Zee, S.C. van der; Hartog, J.J. de; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measuring the oxidative potential of airborne particulate matter (PM) may provide a more health-based exposure measure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of PM into a single predictor of biological activity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the contrast in oxidative

  19. Self-Esteem and Institutionalized Delinquent Offenders: The Role of Background Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, B. Jerome; Bersani, Carl A.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis studied was derived from the work of control theorists: that self-esteem would be higher for offenders "removed" from conventional ties, lower for those maintaining conventional attachments. Family background and self-esteem scores of 75 male delinquents strongly supported this hypothesis. Implications for incarceration are drawn.…

  20. Effects of Stimulus Characteristics and Background Music on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Annette M. B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three stimulus variables and background music on paired-associate learning of foreign language (FL) vocabulary. The stimulus variables were the frequency and concreteness of the native language (L1) words and the (phonotactical) typicality of the FL words. Sixty-four L1-FL pairs were presented for learning six…

  1. Influence of Background Genome on Enzymatic Characteristics of Yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George L.; Pitot, Henry C.

    1973-01-01

    Identification of the fundamental polypeptide difference between yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow mice is important for biomedical research because of the influence of the yellow genotype on normal and neoplastic growth and obesity. The complexity of the "yellow mouse syndrome" makes attainment of this objective dependent on the separation of those pleiotropic enzyme differences which are secondary, and depend on the background genome, from those which are primary, and depend primarily on the agouti locus genotype.—Four of nine hepatic enzyme activities assayed simultaneously differed between eight-week-old yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow (A/-, a/a) male inbred and F1 hybrid mice. Among these four, only cytoplasmic malic enzyme activity was elevated in all yellow mice, as compared with the non-yellow sibs, regardless of background genome. Glucokinase, serine dehydratase, and tyrosine α-ketoglutarate transaminase activities were also changed in yellow mice, but these alterations depended on the background genome.—The ratio of malic enzyme activity to citrate-cleavage enzyme activity, possibly related to the altered fat metabolism of yellow mice, was influenced by background genome as well as by the yellow genotype.——Significant deviations of enzyme activities from mid-parent values among F1 hybrids were associated with particular background genomes; the number of such deviations was larger among yellow mice than among non-yellows and this difference was greater among C3H F1 hybrids than among C57BL/6 F1 hybrids. PMID:4405752

  2. Personal circumstances and social characteristics as determinants of landholder participation in biodiversity conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Marshall, Nadine; Cocklin, Chris

    2012-12-30

    Adequate conservation of biodiversity on private land remains elusive due, in part, to a failure to understand the personal circumstances and social characteristics of private landholders. Our aim was to identify those personal and social dimensions of landholders that might contribute to improved conservation policy and program design and, thereby, participation in private land conservation. We tested whether personal circumstances of landholders (e.g., lifestyle and wellbeing, information and knowledge, financial security) and social characteristics (e.g., attitudes, norms, and trust) would be important predictors of landholders' capacity and willingness to participate in biodiversity conservation programs. Forty-five participants and twenty-nine non-participants of biodiversity conservation programs in north Queensland, Australia, were surveyed to: 1) examine differences between their personal circumstances and social characteristics that may influence participation; and 2) explore whether personal circumstances and social characteristics were influenced by participation. The results revealed that, compared to participants, non-participants in conservation programs had significantly different personal circumstances and social characteristics for four of eight measured variables. Compared to participants, non-participants demonstrated a reduced capacity and willingness to participate in conservation programs. Participation did not appear to have a strong influence on participants' personal circumstances or social characteristics, and when social norms supported conservation, programs did not demonstrate additionality. Conservation policies that maintain or improve landholders' personal circumstances and that promote pro-environmental norms may result in increased participation and thereby conservation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics

  4. Effects of nurses' personality traits and their environmental characteristics on their workplace learning and nursing competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Masako; Sato, Yoko

    2018-04-01

    A good fit between an individual's personality traits and job characteristics motivates employees, and thus enhances their work behavior. However, how nurses' personality traits and their environmental characteristics relate to nurses' engagement in workplace learning, which improves their competence, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate how nurses' personality traits, environmental characteristics, and workplace learning were related to nursing competence. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Questionnaires were distributed to 1167 Japanese registered nurses. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between nurses' personality traits, the environmental characteristics, the nurses' engagement in workplace learning, and their competence. A total of 315 nurses returned questionnaires (i.e., a return rate of 27.0%). The results showed that both the personality traits (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience) and environmental characteristics (autonomy at work and feedback given) were related to workplace learning and self-rated nursing competence. The results also showed that the relationship between extraversion (active, adventurous and ambitious dispositions of an individual) and self-rated nursing competence was moderated by environmental characteristics, and partially mediated by workplace learning. Positive personality traits, such as extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience could enhance workplace learning and nursing competence. Moreover, environmental characteristics that allow nurses to express their personality traits have the potential to improve their learning and competence further. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  5. IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT AGE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS PROFESSIONAL PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdeyeva Irina Olegovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.

  6. Born entrepreneurs? : Adolescents’ personality characteristics and entrepreneurship in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Viinikainen, Jutta; Heineck, Guido; Böckerman, Petri; Hintsanen, Mirka; Raitakari, Olli; Pehkonen, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    Is there an entrepreneurial personality, and does it appear early in life? We provide a new answer to this important question by examining traits related to Type A behavior (Aggression, Leadership, Responsibility, and Eagerness-Energy) measured during adolescence and their relationship to entrepreneurship propensity in adulthood. The results indicate that the early-life Leadership dimension is significantly associated with a higher likelihood of 1) becoming an entrepreneur and 2) being more s...

  7. Death and Lulz: Understanding the personality characteristics of RIP trolls

    OpenAIRE

    Seigfried-Spellar, Kathryn C.; Chowdhury, Siddharth S.

    2017-01-01

    Trolling on the Internet is a form of deviant behavior that borderlines cyberharassment. A specific type of trolling behavior involving individuals posting rude/harassing comments on online memorial pages is known as RIP or memorial page trolling. This study compared the personality traits of self-reported RIP trolls to other trolls who did not engage in RIP trolling (non-RIP trolls); 30 respondents were classified as RIP trolls and 119 respondents as non-RIP trolls. Results indicated RIP tro...

  8. Exploring the Relationship Between Working Memory, Compressor Speed, and Background Noise Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Souza, Pamela E.; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    grouped by high or low working memory according to their performance on a reading span test. Speech intelligibility was measured for low-context sentences presented in background noise, where the noise varied in the extent of amplitude modulation. Simulated fast- or slowacting compression amplification...... on the number of talkers in the background noise. The presented signal to noise ratios were not a significant factor on the measured intelligibility performance. Conclusion: In agreement with earlier research, high working memory allowed better speech intelligibility when fast compression was applied......Objectives: Previous work has shown that individuals with lower working memory demonstrate reduced intelligibility for speech processed with fast-acting compression amplification. This relationship has been noted in fluctuating noise, but the extent of noise modulation that must be present...

  9. Personal characteristics of students entering higher medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimova O.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the structure of personal features of students decided to devote their life to medical profession, their personal readiness for a profession of a doctor. 241 students going to enter the Saratov Medical University in 2013 serve as an object of research. Methods of research included psychology tests on a self-assessment of a mental state, ability to empathy, a motivation orientation. Result. It was revealed that the majority of respondents low level of uneasiness, low level of frustration, the average level of aggression, the average level of a rigidity, and also high rates on an empathy scale. The types of the personality in relation to work are emotive and intuitive. Prevalence of motive of achievement of success or motive of avoiding of failures directly depends on specifics of a situation. Conclusion. Students possess qualities which are necessary in professional activity for doctors, namely high resistance to stress, absence of fear before difficulties, low level of rigidity, high level of empathy, the average level of aggression. Students are motivated on success, in situations when they are fully confident.

  10. Exploring the Relationship Between Working Memory, Compressor Speed, and Background Noise Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Souza, Pamela E.; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous work has shown that individuals with lower working memory demonstrate reduced intelligibility for speech processed with fast-acting compression amplification. This relationship has been noted in fluctuating noise, but the extent of noise modulation that must be present to elicit such an effect is unknown. This study expanded on previous study by exploring the effect of background noise modulations in relation to compression speed and working memory ability, using a range ...

  11. The nature of the relationships between personality and cognitive characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we investigated the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence assessed with Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. The sample included a total of 290 people: 59 monozygotic (MZ and 86 dizygotic (DZ, 58 same-sex and 28 opposite-sex twin pairs aged 14 to 20 years (mean age = 15.84, SD = 1.05. The phenotypic correlations between the traits and intelligence scores were non-significant, except for Openness. This relationship was largely explained by shared environmental influences (65%.

  12. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    A method for active control over the interaction between the free convection flow around occupant‘s body and locally applied airflow from front on the velocity field at the breathing zone of a seated person was studied. A workplace equipped with personalised ventilation (PV) generating flow from......) was installed below the table board, above the thighs of the manikin, and was used to exhaust the air of the free convection flow coming from the lower body parts of the manikin. The velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry consisting of a dual cavity laser and two CCD...

  13. Normal personality characteristics in schizophrenia: a review of the literature involving the FFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinzeo, Thomas J; Docherty, Nancy M

    2007-05-01

    Schizophrenia is generally viewed as a disruption of normal functioning because of an underlying core illness. A number of theorists have speculated that this core illness may unilaterally disrupt normal personality functioning. However, recent data suggests that the relationship may be more complex and reciprocal than previously conceptualized. Furthermore, basic personality characteristics appear to be associated with numerous clinical phenomena. This article reviews the empirical literature pertaining to normal personality characteristics [structured around the five-factor model (FFM) of personality] in individuals with schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that certain personality characteristics may be uniquely related to the etiology of psychosis, as well as symptom severity, occupational functioning, cigarette smoking, substance use and violent behavior, social isolation, and suicidality in patients with schizophrenia. The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  14. Explaining the relationship between insecure attachment and partner abuse: the role of personality characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, N.M.L.; Leenaars, E.P.E.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have found that male batterers are more often insecurely attached as compared with nonbatterers. However, it is still not clear how insecure attachment is related to domestic violence. Many studies compared batterers and nonbatterers regarding pathological personality characteristics that

  15. Cultural diversity and urban innovativeness: Personal and business characteristics of urban migrant entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, M.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietdijk, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article studies the driving forces for successful migrant entrepreneurship in Amsterdam. Three categories of migrants are investigated: Moroccans, Surinamese and Turks. Particular attention is paid to their personal and business characteristics. An extensive field survey was undertaken to

  16. The Role of Social Status of Parental Family in Forming the Background of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior of a Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Georgiy Vyacheslavovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the man complex research are presented in this article. Genetic, biophysical, biochemical, physiological, psychological and sociological methods of scientific information obtaining were used. This research reveals the ratio of genetic and psychosocial personality components. These components determine the forming of antisocial and prosocial human behavior. An individual set of phenotypic and genetic characteristics is defined in interrelation with sustainable symptoms of complex behaviors and predisposition to it. Methodic recommendations on revealing predisposition to deviant behavior, including aggressive one, written in the obtained results basis. It described the relationship of standard indicators of parental social status of the family in terms of students exhibiting signs of antisocial and prosocial behavior. To identify human predisposition to a certain type of social behavior, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents and family of origin as a whole was analyzed relations numerical values of a number of empirical indicators of social behavior and social status parameters parent families. Revealed that the level of education and activity of parents, as well as the birthplace of the person have a statistically significant effect on his social behavior.

  17. Are they all the same? : norwegian police officers' personality characteristics and tactics of conflict resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Solveig; Strype, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This is the final text version of the article, it may contain minor differences from the publisher's pdf version. The issue of whether police officers possess certain personality characteristics that make them unique has been the subject of an extensive line of research. Several researchers have found evidence of a 'police personality', while other researchers have failed to detect personality differences between the police and the public. Making the picture even more complex, some researc...

  18. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists: Research Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis of 120 cases from across Europe. The Research Note focuses on the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists.[1] First of all, it presents th...

  19. Personal Characteristics of Teachers, Situational Variables and Deliberations in Planning Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Lya

    This study reveals possible relationships among teachers' personality traits, situational variables, and deliberation characteristics in planning instruction. Dogmatism and locus of control perceptions were the personality traits studied, and the situations compared student teachers with elementary and secondary school teachers. Both groups were…

  20. Graduates' personality characteristics and labor market entry an empirical study among dutch economics graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semeijn, J; Boone, C; van der Velden, R; van Witteloostuijn, A; van Velden, R.K.W.

    In this study, we explore the value of personality characteristics in explaining success in labor market entry with a sample of graduates in economics from Maastricht University (the Netherlands). Specifically, the paper addresses the following twofold research question: does personality explain

  1. Effectiveness Related to Personality and Demographic Characteristics of Secondary School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.; Weslander, Darrell L.

    1986-01-01

    Studied 123 secondary school counselors and found significant correlations among tested personality characteristics and supervisor-rated job performance. Counselors rated as effective by supervisors expressed higher job satisfaction, tested higher in tolerance for ambiguity and in self-esteem, and had more congruent personality-environment Holland…

  2. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the

  3. Participation in sports, body composition, and fitness characteristics in children according to ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, S; Belcastro, M G

    2017-12-01

    Participation in sports has important implications, being associated with health and social features. The objectives of this study were to verify whether there were any differences in sport participation between immigrant and Italian children and whether there was any relation with their body composition and fitness characteristics. A survey was conducted on 1432 children attending primary school in the Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy). Anthropometric measurements, fitness characteristics, and data about participation in sports were considered. Italian children were more likely to participate in sports than immigrants and boys than girls. Among immigrants, the lowest values were observed in Asians. Eastern European males and Latin American females displayed the widest dimensions. Eastern Europeans generally showed the highest values of strength, while Latin Americans had the highest values of flexibility. Asian children showed the highest values of centripetal fat, and a high percentage of them exceeded the %F reference. These aspects, together with the low frequency of practicing sports, place Asians at greater risks for health. Sex and ethnic group are the most informative variables associated with participation in sports by children. Interventions including health education lessons and promoting the participation in sports for immigrant children attending schools need to be encouraged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadowska, B; Majerczak, J; Semik, D; Karasinski, J; Kolodziejski, L; Kilarski, W M; Duda, K; Zoladz, J A

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg) of different training background were investigated and classified into three groups according to their physical activity and sport discipline: untrained students (group A), national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B, 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training) and sprint-power athletes (group C, 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training). Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase and SDH activities, immunohistochemically for fast and slow myosin, and electrophoretically followed by Western immunoblotting for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. Significant differences (Pski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A). We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training.

  5. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  6. Measurement of nonclinical personality characteristics of women with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, T; Wiederman, M W

    1996-10-01

    Past research on personality and eating disorders has most often emphasized personality psychopathology and personality disorders. We further investigated nonclinical personality characteristics among women with anorexia nervosa (n = 35) or bulimia nervosa (n = 45) using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen, 1982, 1985). The MPQ measures several personality traits that have been shown to consist of a substantial genetic component (Tellegen et al., 1988). In logistic regression analyses, women with anorexia nervosa evidenced greater degrees of control (vs. impulsivity) and general constraint, and a lower degree of absorption in sensory experiences relative to those with bulimia nervosa. Relative to the normative population (Tellegen, 1982), our sample evidenced very low scores on Well-being, Social Closeness, and Positive Affectivity and high scores on Stress Reaction, Alienation, and Negative Affectivity. Our results emphasize the importance of considering nonclinical personality features and temperament, and varying methods of assessment, in the understanding of predisposing factors for eating disorders.

  7. Characteristics of multiprocessing MCNP5 on small personal computer clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S M; Mc Conn, R J Jr; Pagh, R T; Schweppe, J E; Siciliano, E R

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility and efficiency of performing MCNP5 calculations with a small, heterogeneous computing cluster built from Microsoft ( R) Windows TM personal computers (PC) are explored. The performance increases that may be expected with such clusters are estimated for cases that typify general radiation-shielding calculations. Our results show that the speed increase from additional slave PCs is nearly linear up to 10 processors. Guidance is given as to the specific advantages of changing various parameters present in the system. Implementing load balancing, and reducing the overhead from the MCNP rendezvous mechanism add to heterogeneous cluster efficiency. Hyper-threading technology and matching the total number of slave processes to the total number of logical processors also yield modest speed increases in the range below 7 processors. Because of the ease of acquisition of heterogeneous desktop computers, and the peak in efficiency at the level of a few physical processors, a strong case is made for the use of small clusters as a tool for producing MCNP5 calculations rapidly, and detailed instructions for constructing such clusters are provided

  8. Latent profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their association with behavioural addictions and substance use disorders in young Swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmet, Simon; Studer, Joseph; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Gmel, Gerhard

    2018-05-04

    Recent theories suggest that behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may be the result of the same underlying vulnerability. The present study investigates profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their associations with seven behavioural addictions (to the internet, gaming, smartphones, internet sex, gambling, exercise and work) and three substance use disorder scales (for alcohol, cannabis and tobacco). The sample consisted of 5287 young Swiss men (mean age = 25.42) from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). A latent profile analysis was performed on family background, personality and mental health factors. The derived profiles were compared with regards to means and prevalence rates of the behavioural addiction and substance use disorder scales. Seven latent profiles were identified, ranging from profiles with a positive family background, favourable personality patterns and low values on mental health scales to profiles with a negative family background, unfavourable personality pattern and high values on mental health scales. Addiction scale means, corresponding prevalence rates and the number of concurrent addictions were highest in profiles with high values on mental health scales and a personality pattern dominated by neuroticism. Overall, behavioural addictions and substance use disorders showed similar patterns across latent profiles. Patterns of family background, personality and mental health factors were associated with different levels of vulnerability to addictions. Behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may thus be the result of the same underlying vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A Study of the Relationship Between Personality Characteristics and Ethical Sensitivity in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Functional Preferences. and Descriptions of the Sixteen Personality Tvyes ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ...AD-A258 421lE li(( I U~~l E l iIi - -H AFIT/GCNMLSMI92S-9 A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND ETHICAL SENSITIVITY IN...Codes Avail and/or Dist Speot8.i AFIT/GCM/LSM/92S-9 A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND ETHICAL SENSITIVITY IN BUSINESS

  10. Asthma characteristics and biomarkers from the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) longitudinal profiling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silkoff, P E; Strambu, I; Laviolette, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease and development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. The purpose of the ADEPT study was to correlate clinical features and biomarkers with molecular characteristics, by profiling asthma (NCT01274507). This re...

  11. Operational Characteristics of Four Commercially Available Personal Cooling Vests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests, and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 11 male and 10 female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.21 C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a URI Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' rectal and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (Pcooling and recovery periods. These results show that all vest configurations elicit a similar thermal response in both male and female subject groups. However, subject population variance was rather large and may have masked differences between the vests. One vest may prove more effective than another for a given individual, and experience is the only means of determining this.

  12. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Zoladz

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg of different training background were investigated and classified into three groups according to their physical activity and sport discipline: untrained students (group A, national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B, 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training and sprint-power athletes (group C, 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training. Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase and SDH activities, immunohistochemically for fast and slow myosin, and electrophoretically followed by Western immunoblotting for myosin heavy chain (MyHC composition. Significant differences (P<0.05 regarding composition of muscle fibre types and myosin heavy chains were found only between groups A (41.7+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 40.8+/-4.0% of MyHCIIA and 17.5+/-4.0% of MyHCIIX and B (64.3+/-0.8% of MyHCI, 34.0+/-1.4% of MyHCIIA and 1.7+/-1.4% of MyHCIIX and groups A and C (59.6+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 37.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIA and 3.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIX. Unexpectedly, endurance athletes (group B such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A. We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training.

  13. Personal and Environmental Characteristics Predicting Burnout Among Certified Athletic Trainers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Michelle L; Meyer, Barbara B; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2009-01-01

    Context: Recent research in the health care professions has shown that specific personal and environmental characteristics can predict burnout, which is a negative coping strategy related to stressful situations. Burnout has been shown to result in physiologic (eg, headaches, difficulty sleeping, poor appetite), psychological (eg, increased negative self-talk, depression, difficulty in interpersonal relationships), and behavioral (eg, diminished care, increased absenteeism, attrition) symptoms. Objective: To examine the relationship between selected personal and environmental characteristics and burnout among certified athletic trainers (ATs). Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: A demographic survey that was designed for this study and the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 206 ATs employed at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions as clinical ATs volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed personal and environmental characteristics of ATs with the demographic survey and measured burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between specific personal and environmental characteristics and each of the 3 subscales of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment). Results: Most ATs we surveyed experienced low to average levels of burnout. Personal characteristics predicted 45.5% of the variance in emotional exhaustion (P teachers. The results also support the Cognitive-Affective Model of Athletic Burnout proposed by Smith. Finally, these results indicate new areas of concentration for burnout research and professional practice. PMID:19180220

  14. Personal networks in Saudi Arabia : The role of ascribed and achieved characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tubergen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271429534; Ali Al-Modaf, Obaid; Almosaed, Nora F.; Said Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Ben

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how ascribed characteristics (gender and nationality) and achieved characteristics (SES) are related to the extensity and occupational resources of personal networks in Saudi Arabia. Using large-scale survey data from Jeddah, results show that networks of women are smaller and

  15. Personal, place, and time characteristics of offshore accidents in five oil companies operating in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahardjo; Sudjoko; Sebayang

    1991-01-01

    This study is to determine personal, place and time characteristics of offshore accidents during the year of 1987, 1988 and 1989 of five oil companies operating in Indonesia. Age, length of service, employment status, job characteristics, work cycles, work schedules, marital status, citizenship, disability, anatomy and nature of accident

  16. Relationship between patient characteristics and treatment allocation for patients with personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Janine G; Andrea, Helene; van den Eijnden, Ellen; Meerman, Anke M M A; Thunnissen, Moniek M; Hamers, Elisabeth F M; Huson, Nelleke; Ziegler, Uli; Stijnen, Theo; Busschbach, Jan J V; Timman, Reinier; Verheul, Roel

    2011-10-01

    Within a large multi-center study in patients with personality disorders, we investigated the relationship between patient characteristics and treatment allocation. Personality pathology, symptom distress, treatment history, motivational factors, and sociodemographics were measured at intake in 923 patients, who subsequently enrolled in short-term or long-term outpatient, day hospital, or inpatient psychotherapy for personality pathology. Logistic regressions were used to examine the predictors of allocation decisions. We found a moderate relationship (R(2) = 0.36) between patient characteristics and treatment setting, and a weak relationship (R(2) = 0.18) between patient characteristics and treatment duration. The most prominent predictors for setting were: symptom distress, cluster C personality pathology, level of identity integration, treatment history, motivation, and parental responsibility. For duration the most prominent predictor was age. We conclude from this study that, in addition to pathology and motivation factors, sociodemographics and treatment history are related to treatment allocation in clinical practice.

  17. THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ATHLETES IN COACH-ATHLETE RELATIONSHIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülya Aşçı, F; Kelecek, Selen; AltintaŞ, Atahan

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between athletes' personality characteristics and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 84 female (M age = 20.6 yr., SD = 2.8) and 129 male (M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 3.3) elite youth athletes competing at least for 7 yr. participated in this study. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (short version) and the Quality of Relationships Inventory were administered to all participants. Stepwise multiple regression analysis assessed which of the five personality factors predicted scores for the different subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory (Depth, Support, and Conflict). Results indicated that depth of relationship was not predicted by personality factors. On the other hand, neuroticism and extraversion were significant predictors of support dimension of relationship. Analysis indicated that conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of conflict. In conclusion, athletes' personality characteristics may be important in determining the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

  18. Background characteristics, resources and volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe (in)formal volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community, and the longitudinal relationships between background characteristics, resources (social, cognitive and physical functioning, social capital) and volunteering. At baseline, a total of 945 (out of 1440) independently living Dutch older adults (aged ≥70 years) completed the questionnaire (66% response). Two years later, these respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire again, of which 588 (62%) responded. Of 945 respondents (43% male; mean age 77.5 ± 5.8 years, range 70-101 years), 34.7% were married and 83.3% were born in the Netherlands. Social capital, social functioning and physical functioning were significantly higher among volunteering older adults. Being born in the Netherlands, higher educational level, social capital and social functioning were related to formal volunteering activities at baseline, and also predicted these activities 2 years later. Regarding informal volunteering activities, we found a significant association with age, being born in the Netherlands, marital status, educational level, social capital and social functioning at baseline. Examining their predictive nature, we found that younger age, being born in the Netherlands, social capital and physical functioning were associated with engagement in informal volunteering activities 2 years later. The present study shows that older adults remain engaged in volunteering activities, and that background characteristics (e.g. ethnic background, education) and resources (social functioning, social capital) contribute to this engagement. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Personality characteristics and parent-child relationships juveniles who commit violent crimes of a sexual nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartanyan G.A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of aggressive behavior of teenagers and sexual aggression in particular in the last time are particularly relevant and valuable in modern society. This is confirmed by the data of criminological statistics, according to which the rate of minor crime in the Russian Federation in recent years has virtually the same range. A comprehensive study of the person of a minor convicted of violent crimes of a sexual nature (personal characteristics, characteristics of sexual identity and parent-child relationship on the basis of comparative analysis with a group of teenagers convicted of the crime of mercenary-violent type, and a group of students emerging in socially favourable environment, enabled them to identify some distinctive features. The obtained results allow to suggest a possible mutual influence of personal characteristics and characteristics of sexual identity with the peculiarities of child-parent relationships in a group of juveniles convicted for violent crimes of a sexual nature.

  20. Background aerosol over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau: observed characteristics of aerosol mass loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Xin, Jinyuan; Wan, Xin; Pan, Yuepeng; Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Guoshuai; Wang, Zhongyan; Wang, Yongjie; Kang, Shichang

    2017-01-01

    barren to forest, in inverse relation to the PM2.5 ratios. The seasonality of aerosol mass parameters was land-cover dependent. Over forest and grassland areas, TSP mass, PM2.5 mass, MISR-AOD and fine-mode AOD were higher in spring and summer, followed by relatively lower values in autumn and winter. At the barren site (the QOMS station), there were inconsistent seasonal patterns between surface TSP mass (PM2.5 mass) and atmospheric column AOD (fine-mode AOD). Our findings implicate that HTP aerosol masses (especially their regional characteristics and fine-particle emissions) need to be treated sensitively in relation to assessments of their climatic effect and potential role as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei.

  1. Comparison of Attachment Styles and Personality Characteristics in Mothers of Normal and ADHD Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Ghalamzan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study has done with the purpose of comparing secure attachment styles and personality characteristics in normal boy student mothers and ADHD students mothers in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: The present study has done with ex-Post facto method. Two groups of mothers (30 normal students mothers and 30 ADHD students mothers, were selected using cluster sampling method for normal group and simple sampling method for ADHD group. Participants completed the attachment styles of Hazan and Shaver, NEO five-factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, and conners questionnaire. Data was analyzed using multi variance analysis (MANOVA. Results: The results of this study showed that significant differences were evident between normal group and ADHD group in ambivalent insecure and secure (p<0.01; also the results showed that there was a meaningful difference among the neuroticism and conscientiousness in these 2 groups. Conclusion: The results were indicating that in comparison with normal group mothers the ADHD student mothers were more endangered with insecure attachment. It was also important to mention that the ambivalent insecure attachment style was more in the groups with ADHD. The results were also indicating that neuroticism was more in the group with ADHD, and conscientiousness was more the normal group.

  2. Characteristics of particulate matter collected at an urban background site and a roadside site in Birmingham, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo, Adewale M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the compositional characteristics of particulate matter (PM) collected both at an urban background site (Elms Road observational site, EROS) and a roadside site (Bristol Road observational site, BROS). PM samples were collected at the receptor sites between March 28 and April 11, 2012. Observed parameters included water-soluble ions (Cl-, NO- 3, SO4 2-, Na+, NH4 +, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and trace metals (V, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sb, Ba, Pb). Result...

  3. The perfectly motivated nurse and the others: workplace and personal characteristics impact preference of nursing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Proynova, Rumyana; Paech, Barbara; Wetter, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    To identify whether motivation of nurses coincides with personal values, workplace or personal characteristics. Shortage of nursing workforce compromises patient care. Motivation and job satisfaction are factors considered to make nurses quit. Little is known about measurement and variation of nurses' motivation. Funding for human resource programmes is limited - effective programmes could focus on nurses in need of motivational support. Exploratory study with nurses using questionnaires in an academic hospital in Germany. Work motivation was approximated through preference of nursing tasks. Questionnaires measured personal values, preference of generic nursing tasks, and workplace and personal characteristics. A total of 212 questionnaires were usable. Higher motivation was found in groups of nurses with the dominant personal value 'Benevolence', with high self-rated expertise, in the middle of their career or working in surgical or general wards. Motivation was low in nurses with the dominant value 'Hedonism', or nurses in internal medicine or with low to medium self-rated expertise or who used computers infrequently. Motivation coincided with dominant personal values, workplace and personal characteristics. The results should be validated in other settings. Human resource programmes could focus on nurses whose motivation is at risk. Prospectively highly motivated individuals should be hired with priority. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Pilot evaluation of the Computer-Based Assessment for Sampling Personal Characteristics test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipper, Edward S; Mazer, Laura M; Merrell, Sylvia Bereknyei; Lin, Dana T; Lau, James N; Melcher, Marc L

    2017-07-01

    High attrition rates hint at deficiencies in the resident selection process. The evaluation of personal characteristics representative of success is difficult. Here, we evaluate a novel tool for assessing personal characteristics. To evaluate feasibility, we used an anonymous voluntary survey questionnaire offered to study participants before and after contact with the CASPer test. To evaluate the CASPer test as a predictor of success, we compared CASPer test assessments of personal characteristics versus traditional faculty assessment of personal characteristics with applicant rank list position. All applicants (n = 77) attending an in-person interview for general surgery residency, and all faculty interviewers (n = 34) who reviewed these applications were invited to participate. Among applicants, 84.4% of respondents (65 of 77) reported that a requirement to complete the CASPer test would have no bearing or would make them more likely to apply to the program (mean = 3.30, standard deviation = 0.96). Among the faculty, 62.5% respondents (10 of 16) reported that the same condition would have no bearing or would make applicants more likely to apply to the program (mean = 3.19, standard deviation = 1.33). The Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients for the relationships between traditional faculty assessment of personal characteristics and applicant rank list position, and novel CASPer assessment of personal characteristics and applicant rank list position, were -0.45 (P = 0.033) and -0.41 (P = 0.055), respectively. The CASPer test may be feasibly implemented as component of the resident selection process, with the potential to predict applicant rank list position and improve the general surgery resident selection process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress / well-being: the mediating role of personal goal facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Violani, Cristiano; Lazzari, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of personal goal facilitation through work (PGFW), defined as perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals, in the association between psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress and job-related well-being. Questionnaire data from 217 nurses (84% female, with a mean age of 42.7 years, SD=7.2) were analyzed. Participants completed the following measures: the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Workplace Goal Facilitation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (short version). A cross-sectional study design was applied. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that unfavorable psychosocial job characteristics (high demands, low control, and low social support) were associated with lower PGFW. Furthermore, personal goal facilitation through work explained significant additional variance (from 2 to 11%) in psychological distress (somatic complaints and emotional exhaustion) and job-related well-being (personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and work engagement), controlling for demographic indicators and psychosocial job characteristics. Finally, the results provided support for the mediating effects of PGFW between all psychosocial job characteristics and all outcomes, except in the case of depersonalization. This study suggests that hindered personal goal facilitation may be a mechanism through which psychosocial job characteristics have a negative impact on employees' well-being.

  6. Personal characteristics and experiences of long-term allied health professionals in rural and northern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Candice M; Hardy, Cindy L; MacLeod, Martha L P

    2009-01-01

    Health sciences programs are being designed to attract students who are likely to stay and practice in rural and northern Canada. Consequently, student recruitment and screening are increasingly including assessment of suitability for rural practice. Although retention factors among rural physicians and nurses have been investigated, little is known about factors that contribute to the retention of other healthcare professionals who work in rural areas. The primary objective of this project was to identify the personal characteristics and experiences of allied health professionals who have worked long term in northern British Columbia (BC), Canada. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Six speech language pathologists, four psychologists, four occupational therapists, eight social workers, and four physiotherapists practicing long term in northern BC were recruited, using a convenience sample and the snowball technique, to participate in semi-structured telephone interviews. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis identified the motivations for their decision to begin or stay working in northern communities, the reasons for choosing rural or northern education and key themes concerning personal characteristics and experiences. A process of member checking and an external audit validated the analysis and findings. There were two major themes for choosing rural and northern education. For some, selection of rural or northern training was based on accessibility to health education programs; all participants who chose rural and northern education had already decided that they were going to practice rurally. Generally, participants identified past positive experiences and rural background as influencing their practice location decision. Participants named the community's need for healthcare professionals, career advancement opportunities, welcoming employers, peer support, as well as promises of continuing

  7. Molecular analysis of beta-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) deficiency among persons of French Canadian background living in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.; Richard, M.; Wasel, N. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnepeg (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) results from mutations in the HEXA gene that cause Hex A deficiency. Enzyme screening for disease prevention has been applied in the Ashkenazi Jewish and French Canadian populations which have an elevated disease incidence. However, benign mutations that cause Hex A deficiency, but not TSD, complicate enzyme screening programs. While benign mutations account for only about 2% of Jewish carriers, they account for about 36% of non-Jewish enzyme-defined carriers. We have found a carrier frequency of 1/72 (n=1300) among persons of French Canadian background living in New England using an enzyme-based assay. The HEXA gene of these carriers and others was analyzed to determine the molecular basis of Hex A deficiency in this group. DNA samples were tested for common previously identified mutations; samples in which no change was found were screened for uncommon or novel mutations using SSCP analysis. Exons showing mobility shifts were sequenced and most mutations were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion. Known disease-causing mutations were found in 8 samples (4 had a 7.6 kb deletion found in 80% of French Canadian TSD alleles) and known benign mutations were found in 4 samples. Seven novel mutations (G748A; +18 IVS-10 G-to-A; T1338C; +94 IVS-14 T-to-G; C1164G; +30 IVS-6 T-to-G) were identified; the G748A (Gly250Ser) change was found in 3 samples. The effects of the novel mutations on Hex A is unknown; some are likely polymorphisms. The molecular basis of this carrier population is clearly different from that of French Canadian TSD patients. Screening centers should be aware of the presence of benign mutations in the French Canadian population. Given the frequency of the Gly250Ser mutation, and the fact that it has been detected in a TSD patient, it too may be benign.

  8. The Study of Personality Traits and Demographic Characteristics of Prisoners with Psychopathic Personality Disorder in Comparison with Ordinary Prisoners in Sample of Tehran Prisoners, Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ghaderi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Most conducted research about psychopathy has been done among Western countries' prisoners and it has remained unclear whether these findings are applicable in other contexts. The aim of this is to survey personality traits and demographic characteristics of prisoners with psychopathic personality disorder in comparison with ordinary prisoners in sample of Tehran prisoners.

     

    Methods: This study was done based on descriptive method. 202 prisoners were selected among Ray City prisoners in Tehran and the applied method was sample available. All prisoners completed Hare (PCL-SV psychopathic personality disorder checklist and five personality traits Questionnaire, McCare and Costa (Neo-FFI. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, Regression, and T student for independent groups.

     

    Results: The prevalence of psychopathy disorder among prisoners of this group was reported 10.89. Statistical analysis by Pearson correlation test, regression analysis and T student independent groups, represent a significant positive relationship between Psychopaty and extraversion (p=1% and a significant negative relationship between openness and Psychopaty (p=5%, agreeableness and conscientiousness (p=1%, respectively. No relationship was found between psychopathy, and neurosis. Furthermore, results indicated that, in comparison with non-psychopathic prisoners, psychopathic prisoners were more neurosis and extraversion, however, they showed low level of openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

     

    Conclusion: According to the findings, psychopathic disorder and five personality traits are related. Therefore, futher studies in the field of examined variables can provide more information.

  9. The role of disease characteristics in the ethical debate on personal genome testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunnik (Eline); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Companies are currently marketing personal genome tests directly-to-consumer that provide genetic susceptibility testing for a range of multifactorial diseases simultaneously. As these tests comprise multiple risk analyses for multiple diseases, they may be difficult to

  10. How do intake clinicians use patient characteristics to select treatment for patients with personality disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Janine; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Visbach, Geny; Ziegler, Uli; Gerritsen, Ad; Van Rossum, Bert; Rijnierse, Piet; Timman, Reinier; Verheul, Roel

    2008-11-01

    Treatment selection in clinical practice is a poorly understood, often largely implicit decision process, perhaps especially for patients with personality disorders. This study, therefore, investigated how intake clinicians use information about patient characteristics to select psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with personality disorder. A structured interview with a forced-choice format was administered to 27 experienced intake clinicians working in five specialist mental health care institutes in the Netherlands. Substantial consensus was evident among intake clinicians. The results revealed that none of the presented patient characteristics were deemed relevant for the selection of the suitable treatment setting. The appropriate duration and intensity are selected using severity or personal strength variables. The theoretical orientation is selected using personal strength variables.

  11. Demographic, behavioral, and psychometric characteristics of persons denied unescorted access on the basis of psychological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the demographic, behavioral, and psychometric characteristics of persons who were denied unescorted access authorization for protected areas and vital islands of nuclear power plants, in accordance with the relevant proposed rule of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Demographic characteristics examined include age, sex, occupation, education, marital status, and number of children. Behavioral characteristics examined include substance use/abuse/treatment and instances of antisocial behavior. Psychometric characteristics examined include elevations on basic MMPI clinical scales, elevations on special indices of psychosis and substance abuse, and endorsement of so-called critical items

  12. Differential Responses to Food Price Changes by Personal Characteristic: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter; Waterlander, Wilma E; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Fiscal interventions to improve population diet have been recommended for consideration by many organisations including the World Health Organisation and the United Nations and policies such as sugar-sweetened beverage taxes have been implemented at national and sub-national levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differential impact of fiscal interventions on population sub-groups and this remains a barrier to implementation. To examine how personal characteristics (such as socioeconomic status, sex, impulsivity, and income) moderate changes in purchases of targeted foods in response to food and beverage price changes in experimental settings. Systematic review. Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit and PsycInfo), reference lists of previous reviews, and additional data from study authors. We included randomised controlled trials where food and beverage prices were manipulated and reported differential effects of the intervention on participant sub-groups defined according to personal characteristics. Where possible, we extracted data to enable the calculation of price elasticities for the target foods by personal characteristic. 8 studies were included in the review. Across studies, the difference in price elasticity varied from 0.02 to 2.43 between groups within the same study. 11 out of the total of 18 comparisons of own-price elasticity estimates by personal characteristic differed by more than 0.2 between groups. Income related factors were the most commonly considered and there was an indication that own-price elasticity estimates do vary by income but the direction of this effect was not clear. Experimental studies provide an opportunity to examine the differential effects of fiscal measures to improve population diets. Patterns in price sensitivity by personal characteristics are complex. General conclusions pertaining to the effects of personal characteristics on price sensitivity are not supported by the

  13. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    OpenAIRE

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. METHODS: In the general population, 23 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were shown to be associated with CAD through genome-wide association analysis. Using the ...

  14. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The Importance of Fitting Personality Dimensions and Job Characteristics in Employees in the Hotel Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jovičić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the importance of the connection between personality dimensions of employees with the characteristics of their job in order to achieve more productive work and accomplish maximum customer satisfaction, as well as to create competitive advantage. The survey was conducted on a sample of 50 employees in the hotel “Prezident” in Novi Sad. In the survey was used the questionnaire of personality dimensions of the big five, and traits that have been described in this questionnaire are extroversion, conscientiousness, pleasantness, openness to new experiences and negative affectivity. The results of the survey show that in the selected facility prevail positive personality dimensions, and the negative affectivity is at its lowest level. For that reason this hotel should serve as an example of how to coordinate work in hotel management with the personality dimensions of employees, all in the service of satisfaction of guests. In that sense a very important role has the sector of human resources whose task is identifying personality characteristics and fitting personality characteristics with business activities that an individual performs, and the development of emotional intelligence which is especially important in hotel management.

  16. Psychological adjustment and marital satisfaction following head injury. Which critical personal characteristics should both partners develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Marie Claude; Boisvert, Jean-Marie

    2007-04-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH DESIGN: Using a correlational design, this study verifies the relationships between personal characteristics of individuals with TBI and their spouses and their level of psychological and marital adjustment. Seventy individuals with TBI and their spouses in the post-acute rehabilitation phase completed self-report questionnaires assessing the predictive variables (coping and social problem-solving strategies; perceived communication skills) and the criteria variables of psychological and marital adjustment. In the target group, the characteristics most strongly related to adjustment variables were an effective attitude towards problems, infrequent use of avoidance coping strategies, and a positive perception of one's spouse's communication skills. Individuals with TBI and their spouses report significantly lower scores on some of these personal characteristics, compared to those of a matched control group of 70 couples from the general population. Specific personal characteristics are critical for psychological and marital adjustment following TBI. This knowledge may be of relevance for detecting couples at risk for developing difficulties in the post-acute rehabilitation phase. Rehabilitation interventions targeting the personal characteristics identified as critical for the adjustment process could help to prevent these difficulties.

  17. Personality characteristics and attributes of international medical graduates in general practice training: Implications for supporting this valued Australian workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Caroline O; Eley, Diann S; Walters, Lucie; Elliott, Taryn; Cloninger, Claude Robert

    2016-10-01

    To describe the personality profiles of International Medical Graduates (IMGs) undertaking General Practice (GP) training in Australia. A better understanding of the personal characteristics of IMGs may inform their training and enhance support for their vital contribution to the Australian rural workforce. Cross-sectional self-report questionnaires. Independent variables included socio-demographics, prior training, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Resilience Scale. GP registrars (IMGs = 102; AMGs = 350) training in the Australian General Practice Training rural and general pathway and the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine independent pathway. Univariate analysis explored the differences in levels of traits between IMG and AMG registrars. Compared to the general population both groups have moderately high resilience, and well-organised characters with high Self-directedness, high Cooperativeness and low Self-transcendence, supported by temperaments which were high in Persistence and Reward Dependence. IMGs were different than AMGs in two temperament traits, Novelty Seeking and Persistence and two character traits, Self-directedness and Cooperativeness. Factors such as cultural and training backgrounds, personal and professional expectations, and adjustments necessary to assimilate to a new lifestyle and health system are likely to be responsible for differences found between groups. Understanding the personality profiles of IMGs provides opportunities for targeted training and support which may in turn impact on their retention in rural areas. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  19. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R.; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.; Poloni, Estella S.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S.; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M.; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; de Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H.; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; de Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R.; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A.; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C.; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E.; Gras, A. Luuk; van Wout, Angelique B.; Arnedo-Valero, Mireia; Sierra, Mariana de Paz; Rodriguez, Ana Torrecilla; Garcia, Juan Gonzalez; Arribas, Jose R.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C. A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Prins, Yerly S. J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Boer, K.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Schreij, G.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Bravenboer, B.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van de Ven-de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Haag, Den; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; de Boer, M. J. G.; Jolink, H.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Bronsveld, W.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Polée, M. B.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smit, P. M.; Weijer, S.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Stek, C. J.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; van der Hilst, J. C. H.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Plankey, Michael; Crain, Barbara; Dobs, Adrian; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Gallant, Joel; Johnson-Hill, Lisette; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola; Shepard, James; Thio, Chloe; Phair, John P.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Badri, Sheila; Conover, Craig; O'Gorman, Maurice; Ostrow, David; Palella, Frank; Ragin, Ann; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Aronow, Aaron; Bolan, Robert; Breen, Elizabeth; Butch, Anthony; Fahey, John; Jamieson, Beth; Miller, Eric N.; Oishi, John; Vinters, Harry; Visscher, Barbara R.; Wiley, Dorothy; Witt, Mallory; Yang, Otto; Young, Stephen; Zhang, Zuo Feng; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Becker, James T.; Cranston, Ross D.; Martinson, Jeremy J.; Mellors, John W.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Stall, Ronald D.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Abraham, Alison; Althoff, Keri; Cox, Christopher; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Gange, Stephen J.; Golub, Elizabeth; Schollenberger, Janet; Seaberg, Eric C.; Su, Sol; Huebner, Robin E.; Dominguez, Geraldina; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Carosi, G.; Cauda, R.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Sagnelli, E.; Viale, P. L.; Von Schlosser, F.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; de Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, Laura; Lorenzini, Patrizia; Montroni, M.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Riva, A.; Tirelli, U.; Martellotta, F.; Ladisa, N.; Lazzari, G.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Scalzini, A.; Minardi, C.; Bertelli, D.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Carnevale, G.; Lorenzotti, S.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Leoncini, F.; Mazzotta, F.; Pozzi, M.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Viscoli, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Foschi, A.; Salpietro, S.; Galli, A.; Bigoloni, A.; Spagnuolo, V.; Merli, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Cicconi, P.; Bisio, L.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; de Marco, M.; Ferrari, C.; Borghi, R.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Narciso, P.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; d'Avino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Gallo, L.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Trotta, M. P.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A. M.; Mura, M. S.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Raise, N. N.; Ebo, F.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Law, M.; Petoumenos, K.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.

    2013-01-01

    Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV

  20. A robust estimate of the number and characteristics of persons released from prison in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Alex; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the number and characteristics of adults released from prison in Australia. We calculated ratios, stratified by age, sex and Indigenous status, by comparing the number of persons released from prison in New South Wales (NSW), with the number in NSW prisons on 30 June of the corresponding year. These stratified ratios were applied to Australia-wide prison data to estimate the number and characteristics of persons released annually. We estimated that in 2013, 38,576 persons were released from prison in Australia - 25.3% more than the daily prison population. Young people, Indigenous people and women were over-represented among those released. We estimated that 3.69 Indigenous women aged 18-24 were released annually for each equivalent person in prison; and 2.75 non-Indigenous women aged 18-24 were released annually for each equivalent person in prison. The annual 'flow' through Australia's prisons is well in excess of the daily number, but information on those moving through prison systems is not yet publicly available. The characteristics of those released from prison differ meaningfully from those of people in prison. Routine, national reporting of prison separations is critical to informing upscaling and targeting of Throughcare services for this profoundly vulnerable population. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Characteristics associated with family money management for persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis

    2018-05-11

    Persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) commonly have their money officially or unofficially managed by others, with money managers most commonly being family members. (i) Identify characteristics of persons with PD, adult family members, and interactions with each other significantly associated with family money management (FMM). (ii) Identify significant differences in aforementioned characteristics between official versus unofficial FMM. Five hundred and seventy-three adults residing in USA with an adult relative with PD completed a survey. Among persons with PD, FMM was positively associated with lower income, diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective or bipolar disorder, psychiatric hospitalization, and arrest history. FMM was negatively associated with family members having a mental health diagnosis. FMM was positively associated with interaction characteristics of co-residence, financial assistance, caregiving, and use of limit-setting practices. Compared to official FMM, when unofficial FMM was present, persons with PD were less likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized or to have regularly attended mental health treatment. When unofficial FMM was present, adult family members were less likely to be a parent of the person with PD. Practitioners should assess the level of burden experienced by family money managers and assess and address with family money managers the use of limit-setting practices.

  2. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  3. Bulimia and Binge Eating in College Women: A Comparison of Personality and Behavioral Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

    1984-01-01

    Assessed several behavioral and personality characteristics that have been implicated in studying the onset of bulimia in female college students (N=80) classified into bulimia, binge eating, and control groups. Results indicated that bulimics and binge eaters differed significantly on all but a few variables. (LLL)

  4. Causal attributions, real life-events and personality characteristics : a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANDERMAN, R

    1986-01-01

    The learned-helplessness model has been given much attention recently. In this article some issues are briefly reviewed, the main purpose of this study was, however, to determine the relationship between causal attributions and personality characteristics, symptoms and feelings of well-being.

  5. The Profiles of Creative Potential and Personality Characteristics of Adult Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Young; Min, Jiyeon

    2016-01-01

    Using 5 divergent thinking indices of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, this study examined the creative profiles of 236 adult professionals and relationships between their creative characteristics and personality types. All these adults were in their middle or late stage of professional development in…

  6. Job Satisfaction of People with Intellectual Disability: Associations with Job Characteristics and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment…

  7. Supervisors' Performance Ratings Correlated with Selected Personal Characteristics of Attendants in a Mental Retardation Developmental Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Joseph; And Others

    A research study investigated the relationship between personal characteristics and selected demographic data of 75 attendants in a mental retardation developmental center and the assessment by 24 administrators of the attendants' job performance. Instruments used included a 20-item Direct Care Performance Scale and the Demographic Data Scale,…

  8. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; de Boer, M.R.; Samoocha, D.; Kreuk, I.M.; Pouwer, F.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in body

  9. Personality Characteristics and Self-Concept of Preservice Teachers Related to Their Pupil Control Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Glennelle; And Others

    1982-01-01

    In a study of teacher trainees' personality characteristics related to pupil control, humanistically oriented educators tended to be emotionally stable, expedient, positive, imaginative, venturesome, relaxed and had high self-concepts. Authoritarian educators were more affected by feelings, conscientious, sober, practical, shy, reserved, tense and…

  10. Characteristics of People Providing Family Placements to Adult Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Roy; McConaghie, Jayne; Roberts, Paul; King, Diana

    2005-01-01

    The success of family placement schemes depends largely on the recruitment of suitable people who are willing to offer placements in their own home yet little research has been undertaken of their characteristics and the reasons for their involvement. Thirty providers of family based placements to adult persons with intellectual disabilities were…

  11. Bulimics with and without Prior Anorexia Nervosa: A Comparison of Personality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

    A controversial issue in the literature on eating disorders is whether or not bulimia is a disorder distinct from anorexia nervosa. To compare the personality and behavioral characteristics of bulimic women with and without prior anorexia nervosa, 14 female college students (mean age 19.6 years, 86 percent white) were divided into two groups…

  12. Parent and child personality characteristics as predictors of negative discipline and externalizing problem behaviour in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    Negative discipline has been linked to childhood externalizing behaviour However, relatively little attention has been given to the potential effect of individual personality characteristics of children and parents. Using the Five Factor Model, we examined the extent to which parents' and children's

  13. Benefits of personality characteristics and self-efficacy in the perceived academic achievement of medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guntern, Sabine; Korpershoek, Hanke; van der Werf, Greetje

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the joint impact of personality characteristics and self‐efficacy on the perceived academic achievement of medical students on top of their prior high school performance. The sample consisted of medical students in their pre‐clinical years. The students’ grade point average

  14. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists : Research Findings and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of

  15. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, Lando L J; de Boer, Michiel R; Samoocha, David

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in bod...

  16. Equity in interviews: do personal characteristics impact on admission interview scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Andrew B; Homer, Matthew; Miller, Amy

    2010-11-01

    Research indicates that some social groups are disadvantaged by medical school selection systems. The stage(s) of a selection process at which this occurs is unknown, but at interview, when applicant and interviewer are face-to-face, there is potential for social bias to occur. We performed a detailed audit of the interview process for a single-entry year to a large UK medical school. Our audit included investigating the personal characteristics of both interviewees and interviewers to find out whether any of these factors, including the degree of social matching between individual pairs of interviewees and interviewers, influenced the interview scores awarded. A total of 320 interviewers interviewed 734 applicants, providing complete data for 2007 interviewer-interviewee interactions. The reliability of the interview process was estimated using generalisability theory at 0.82-0.87. For both interviewers and interviewees, gender, ethnic background, socio-economic group and type of school attended had no influence on the interview scores awarded or achieved. Staff and student interviewer marks did not differ significantly. Although numbers in each group of staff interviewers were too small for formal statistical analysis, there were no obvious differences in marks awarded between different medical specialties or between interviewers with varying amounts of interviewing experience. Our data provide reassurance that the interview does not seem to be the stage of selection at which some social groups are disadvantaged. These results support the continued involvement of senior medical students in the interview process. Despite the lack of evidence that an interview is useful for predicting future academic or clinical success, most medical schools continue to use interviews as a fundamental component of their selection process. Our study has shown that at least this arguably misplaced reliance upon interviewing is not introducing further social bias into the selection

  17. The characteristics of peripheral blood leukocytes in persons working with ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zykova, I.A.; Sokolova, N.B.; Yas'kova, V.Z.

    1984-01-01

    Functional and qualitative changes of peripheral blood cellular composition were studied in persons working over a long period of time with ionizing radiation sources under the action of various factors of production upon an organism. Appression of a function and increase of T-lymphocyte chromosome damages were revealed against the background of a decrease both of enzymatic activity level and leukocyte number in persons operating for a long time (more than 10 years) with ionizing radiation sources. Discovered changes occurred under the action upon a human being not only of small doses of ionizing radiation but a whole complex of industrial factors which may initiate changes of adapted character

  18. Characteristics and Travel Patterns of New York Residents: Subpopulations of Persons with a Disability in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reuscher, Tim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the NYS Department of Transportation (DOT) to conduct a detailed examination of travel behaviors, and identify patterns and trends, on several NYS subpopulations, including disabled persons. Unlike other studies that concentrated on national level statistics, this research is focused on examining issues associated with travelers among NYS residents only. For each special subpopulation group, ORNL will identify differences, if any, in travel patterns that are attributable to demographic characteristics, household characteristics, modal characteristics, geographic location, and other concepts. Focus will be given to trip frequency, trip chaining, as well as travel by time of day, trip purpose, and mode choice.

  19. Relationship Between Changes in Workplace Bullying Status and the Reporting of Personality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Høgh, Annie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Willert, Morten Vejs; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Mors, Ole; Mikkelsen, Eva Gemzøe; Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether a shift in work-related bullying status, from being non-bullied to being bullied or vice versa, was associated with changes in reporting of personality characteristics. Data on bullying and personality (neuroticism, extraversion, and sense of coherence) were collected in three waves approximately 2 years apart (N = 4947). Using a within-subjects design, personality change scores that followed altered bullying status were evaluated with one-sample t tests. Sensitivity analyses targeted depressive symptoms. Shifts from non-bullied to frequently bullied were associated with increased neuroticism or decreased sense of coherence manageability scores. Shifts from bullied to non-bullied were associated with decreasing neuroticism and increasing extraversion scores, or increasing sense of coherence meaningfulness and comprehensibility scores. Excluding depressive cases had minor effects. Bullying seems to some extent to affect personality scale scores, which thus seem sensitive to environmental and social circumstances.

  20. Particle swarm optimization using multi-information characteristics of all personal-best information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Tian, Na; Wang, Yan; Ji, Zhicheng

    2016-01-01

    Convergence stagnation is the chief difficulty to solve hard optimization problems for most particle swarm optimization variants. To address this issue, a novel particle swarm optimization using multi-information characteristics of all personal-best information is developed in our research. In the modified algorithm, two positions are defined by personal-best positions and an improved cognition term with three positions of all personal-best information is used in velocity update equation to enhance the search capability. This strategy could make particles fly to a better direction by discovering useful information from all the personal-best positions. The validity of the proposed algorithm is assessed on twenty benchmark problems including unimodal, multimodal, rotated and shifted functions, and the results are compared with that obtained by some published variants of particle swarm optimization in the literature. Computational results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm finds several global optimum and high-quality solutions in most case with a fast convergence speed.

  1. Spatial frequency characteristics at image decision-point locations for observers with different radiological backgrounds in lung nodule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Manning, David J.; Dix, Alan; Donovan, Tim

    2009-02-01

    Aim: The goal of the study is to determine the spatial frequency characteristics at locations in the image of overt and covert observers' decisions and find out if there are any similarities in different observers' groups: the same radiological experience group or the same accuracy scored level. Background: The radiological task is described as a visual searching decision making procedure involving visual perception and cognitive processing. Humans perceive the world through a number of spatial frequency channels, each sensitive to visual information carried by different spatial frequency ranges and orientations. Recent studies have shown that particular physical properties of local and global image-based elements are correlated with the performance and the level of experience of human observers in breast cancer and lung nodule detections. Neurological findings in visual perception were an inspiration for wavelet applications in vision research because the methodology tries to mimic the brain processing algorithms. Methods: The wavelet approach to the set of postero-anterior chest radiographs analysis has been used to characterize perceptual preferences observers with different levels of experience in the radiological task. Psychophysical methodology has been applied to track eye movements over the image, where particular ROIs related to the observers' fixation clusters has been analysed in the spaces frame by Daubechies functions. Results: Significance differences have been found between the spatial frequency characteristics at the location of different decisions.

  2. Predicting performance using background characteristics of international medical graduates in an inner-city university-affiliated Internal Medicine residency training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhuetie Jane

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IMGs constitute about a third of the United States (US internal medicine graduates. US residency training programs face challenges in selection of IMGs with varied background features. However data on this topic is limited. We analyzed whether any pre-selection characteristics of IMG residents in our internal medicine program are associated with selected outcomes, namely competency based evaluation, examination performance and success in acquiring fellowship positions after graduation. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 51 IMGs at our ACGME accredited teaching institution between 2004 and 2007. Background resident features namely age, gender, self-reported ethnicity, time between medical school graduation to residency (pre-hire time, USMLE step I & II clinical skills scores, pre-GME clinical experience, US externship and interest in pursuing fellowship after graduation expressed in their personal statements were noted. Data on competency-based evaluations, in-service exam scores, research presentation and publications, fellowship pursuance were collected. There were no fellowships offered in our hospital in this study period. Background features were compared between resident groups according to following outcomes: (a annual aggregate graduate PGY-level specific competency-based evaluation (CBE score above versus below the median score within our program (scoring scale of 1 – 10, (b US graduate PGY-level specific resident in-training exam (ITE score higher versus lower than the median score, and (c those who succeeded to secure a fellowship within the study period. Using appropriate statistical tests & adjusted regression analysis, odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 94% of the study sample were IMGs; median age was 35 years (Inter-Quartile range 25th – 75th percentile (IQR: 33–37 years; 43% women and 59% were Asian physicians. The median pre-hire time was 5 years (IQR: 4–7

  3. The Impact of Personal Characteristics on Contraceptive Choices and Use Over 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Carlson PhD, APN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, there is an unintended pregnancy rate of 40%. That rate is higher in some areas, such as in the United States—where it is nearly 50%. These pregnancies have potentially negative outcomes for the mother and child that include health, economic, social, and psychological aspects. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs are highly reliable methods for family planning. Identifying personal characteristics associated with choosing LARCs will better address the unintended pregnancy rates. The purpose of this research project was to evaluate characteristics of adolescents and women at high risk for unintended pregnancies by (a describing the use of a LARC and selected personal characteristics for the years 2009 and 2014 and (b exploring relationships among LARC choice and selected personal characteristics of clients seeking family planning services. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 268 randomly selected records, half of which were each from the years 2009 and 2014. One Midwestern U.S. family planning clinic was the site of the research. The characteristics used in the chart reviews were derived from the literature and Healthy People 2020 goals. Key differences between the years 2009 and 2014 included a significant increase in the number of LARCs prescribed to high-risk women. There was a significant relationship between the choice of a LARC and having used one in the past. Personal characteristics influencing LARC birth control choice included White, Hispanic females, those with a history of a teen pregnancy, those who experienced any previous pregnancy or live birth, and those below the poverty level. The findings indicate the importance of educating clients on LARC options. To foster initial use of a LARC, an application, based on the findings of this study, has been developed that provides individualized choices and education on contraceptive methods including LARCs.

  4. Adoption of innovations by specialised nurses: personal, work and organisational characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, M.J.A. van der; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To gain insight in the factors that influence the adoption of professional information by specialised nurses, we studied the effects of individual, work and organisational characteristics on the extent to which continence nurses gained knowledge and made use of a book on nursing

  5. Adoption of innovation by specialized nursus: Personal, work and organisational characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, M.J.A. van der; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To gain insight in the factors that influence the adoption of professional information by specialised nurses, we studied the effects of individual, work and organisational characteristics on the extent to which continence nurses gained knowledge and made use of a book on nursing

  6. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, L.; Bulten, B.H.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses.

  7. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, Lotte; Bulten, Erik; Nijman, Henk

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…

  8. Work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders: The role of specific psychopathological characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, I.; Beekman, A.T.F.; De Graaf, R.; Smit, J.H.; van Dyck, R.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders affect work functioning and cause high labour costs. Aims: To examine and compare psychopathological characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in their effect on work functioning. Method: In 1876 working participants of the Netherlands Study of

  9. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G F M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course. Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants with baseline depressive and/or anxiety disorders (n = 1,474, 18-65 years) were collected in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. At baseline, childhood maltreatment was assessed with a semistructured interview. Personality trait questionnaires (Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Five Factor Inventory, Mastery scale, and Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity), recent stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire), and psychosocial variables were administered. The Life Chart Interview was used to determine the time to remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. At baseline, 846 participants (57.4%) reported any childhood maltreatment. Childhood maltreatment had a negative impact on psychosocial functioning and was predictive of more unfavorable personality characteristics and cognitive reactivity styles (P Childhood maltreatment was a significant predictor of lower likelihood of remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders (HR = 0.94, P childhood maltreatment and 4-year remission of depressive and anxiety disorders. Certain personality characteristics are key players in the mechanism linking childhood maltreatment to an adverse illness course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Early interventions--reducing neuroticism and hopelessness, and enhancing extraversion and locus of control--might contribute to a better prognosis in a "high-risk" group of depressive and anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptomatology: examination of several personality-related characteristics as potential confounders in a racial/ethnic heterogeneous adult sample

    OpenAIRE

    Hunte, Haslyn ER; King, Katherine; Hicken, Margaret; Lee, Hedwig; Lewis, Ten? T

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that reports of interpersonal discrimination result in poor mental health. Because personality characteristics may either confound or mediate the link between these reports and mental health, there is a need to disentangle its role in order to better understand the nature of discrimination-mental health association. We examined whether hostility, anger repression and expression, pessimism, optimism, and self-esteem served as confounders in the association between ...

  11. Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; León, Elsa; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; Dongo, Mario; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; Munayco, César V.; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program “Vida Digna” and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. Materials ande methods. We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time ...

  12. Personality Assessment Inventory scale characteristics and factor structure in the assessment of alcohol dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, J A

    1995-02-01

    Individual scale characteristics and the inventory structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) were examined by conducting internal consistency and factor analyses of item and scale score data from a large group (N = 301) of alcohol-dependent patients. Alpha coefficients, mean inter-item correlations, and corrected item-total scale correlations for the sample paralleled values reported by Morey for a large clinical sample. Minor differences in the scale factor structure of the inventory from Morey's clinical sample were found. Overall, the findings support the use of the PAI in the assessment of personality and psychopathology of alcohol-dependent patients.

  13. The Association between Personal Characteristics and Educational Experiences with Academic Achievement among the Students Zanjan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    befrin MohammdZade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Learning Strategies includes overt and covert behaviors, which are associated with success in learning. On the other hand, training students who are able to live in environments with diverse values, rapid technological changes, and developments in the socio-cultural complex is one of the unique challenges to a university administrator. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the association of personal characteristics and educational experiences of the students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences with their academic achievements. Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on the students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences during 2014-2015 academic year. Students were selected through random stratified sampling based on gender and discipline (N=352. The research tool was the college students’ experiences questionnaire (CSEQ. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Results: All three dimensions of college students’ experiences, including perceptions of quality of environment, quality of effort, and social integration are significant anticipators of their academic achievements respectively and predict 0.415 of achievements variances. Conclusion: Taking into account the personal characteristics and educational experiences of college students for their academic achievements in medical universities is essential. In spite of the impact of academic environments ranging from individuals and facilities for college students, improving these factors contribute to better communication between students and faculty members and.

  14. Variables Involved in Personal, Social and School Adjustment in a Sample of Preschool-Aged Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Parra, Antonio; Lopez-Rubio, Sonia; Carles, Rosario; Mata, Sara; Vives, Maria del Carmen; Navarro, Elena; Marquez, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The continuing incorporation of immigrant populations into the Spanish educational system poses an important challenge in that all participants must cooperate toward creating the best possible adaptation process at the academic level as well as on the personal and social levels. A number of different factors appear to influence children's…

  15. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  16. Relationship Between Changes in Workplace Bullying Status and the Reporting of Personality Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Høgh, Annie; Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a shift in work-related bullying status, from being non-bullied to being bullied or vice versa, was associated with changes in reporting of personality characteristics. Methods: Data on bullying and personality (neuroticism, extraversion, and sense of coherence) were...... collected in three waves approximately 2 years apart (N1/44947). Using a within-subjects design, personality change scores that followed altered bullying status were evaluated with one-sample t tests. Sensitivity analyses targeted depressive symptoms. Results: Shifts from non-bullied to frequently bullied...... were associated with increased neuroticism or decreased sense of coherence manageability scores. Shifts from bullied to non-bullied were associated with decreasing neuroticism and increasing extraversion scores, or increasing sense of coherence meaningfulness and comprehensibility scores. Excluding...

  17. Personality characteristics of patients with psychosis – perception of self and others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Perception of Self and Other People Questionnaire has been used for assessment of differences between psychotic and other psychiatric patients (including healthy persons according to the theory of disturbances of self and object representations. Results show that the questionnaire, which has been constructed on the basis of Kernberg's criteria for identity diffusion, has two dimensions: the first describes perception of self and primarily separates patients with (borderline personality disorders from the healthy controls. The second one describes quality of relationships and characterises patients with psychosis, mostly schizophrenics, which have more schizoid characteristics than other patients and healthy persons. The major weakness of the study lies in the fact that usage of self-assessment inventories in psychiatry is limited because of the very nature of psychiatric illnesses.

  18. Personality and language characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piven, J; Palmer, P; Landa, R; Santangelo, S; Jacobi, D; Childress, D

    1997-07-25

    Several studies have suggested that the genetic liability for autism may be expressed in non-autistic relatives of autistic probands, in behavioral characteristics that are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. We employ a variety of direct assessment approaches to examine both personality and language in parents ascertained through having two autistic children (multiple-incidence autism parents) and parents of Down syndrome probands. Multiple-incidence autism parents had higher rates of particular personality characteristics (rigidity, aloofness, hypersensitivity to criticism, and anxiousness), speech and pragmatic language deficits, and more limited friendships than parents in the comparison group. The implications of these findings for future genetic studies of autism are discussed.

  19. Personality characteristics of emigrants and re-emigrants with depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Петрівна Венгер

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Migration is considered as one of the factors that affect the mental health of the population. The accumulation of psychological and social problems provoke personal transformation reaction and exclusion personality, and considering emigration as a factor that provoke manifestation or exacerbation of endogenous mental diseases. Given the paucity and inconsistency of scientific data on the characteristics of psycho-emotional disorders, and personality characteristics of immigrants, and the almost complete lack of information about re-emigrants, the aim of our work was to study the mechanisms of psychosocial adaptation (de-adaptation re-emigrants and immigrants, as well as developing programs of social, psychological, psychotherapeutic and mental health support workers.Methods. We used a standardized method of investigating the person (SMIP for realization of tasks.Result. Results suggest the presence in examined patients of patocharacterological features of hypothymic (disthymic type. Significant differences were found in terms of fixed scales SMIP test most pronounced in the group of psychogenic depression, the least - organic. In general, immigrants are inherent traits of anxiety and emotional breadth, re-emigrants - schizoidness and apathy.Conclusions. Identified patterns should be considered when developing therapeutic, rehabilitative and preventive measures

  20. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č.

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism. PMID:28197113

  1. The role of disease characteristics in the ethical debate on personal genome testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnik, Eline M; Schermer, Maartje Hn; Janssens, A Cecile J W

    2012-01-19

    Companies are currently marketing personal genome tests directly-to-consumer that provide genetic susceptibility testing for a range of multifactorial diseases simultaneously. As these tests comprise multiple risk analyses for multiple diseases, they may be difficult to evaluate. Insight into morally relevant differences between diseases will assist researchers, healthcare professionals, policy-makers and other stakeholders in the ethical evaluation of personal genome tests. In this paper, we identify and discuss four disease characteristics--severity, actionability, age of onset, and the somatic/psychiatric nature of disease--and show how these lead to specific ethical issues. By way of illustration, we apply this framework to genetic susceptibility testing for three diseases: type 2 diabetes, age-related macular degeneration and clinical depression. For these three diseases, we point out the ethical issues that are relevant to the question whether it is morally justifiable to offer genetic susceptibility testing to adults or to children or minors, and on what conditions. We conclude that the ethical evaluation of personal genome tests is challenging, for the ethical issues differ with the diseases tested for. An understanding of the ethical significance of disease characteristics will improve the ethical, legal and societal debate on personal genome testing.

  2. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism.

  3. Background Checks for all Gun Buyers and Gun Violence Restraining Orders: State Efforts to Keep Guns from High-Risk Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Alcorn, Ted; Horwitz, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    There were more than 36,000 firearm-related deaths in the U.S. in 2015. Under federal law, a background check is required only for gun purchases from licensed dealers. Research suggests that some persons prohibited from owning a gun turn to private sellers, including those identified online, to attempt to obtain a firearm. State-level approaches to make it more difficult for high-risk persons to purchase or possess firearms include universal background check (UBC) and gun violence restraining order (GVRO) laws. UBC laws, on the books in 18 states as of the end of 2016, can reduce both homicide and suicide rates. After Colorado adopted a UBC law in 2013, the number of background checks conducted by private sellers for sales occurring at places other than gun shows steadily increased. GVRO laws give law enforcement and families the authority to petition a court to temporarily remove firearms from an individual who presents a danger to himself or others during times of crisis, regardless of whether that person has been diagnosed with a mental illness. California enacted a GVRO law in 2014. Data are emerging to suggest the effectiveness of GVRO-type laws at averting suicides and providing an entryway to services.

  4. Personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments....... Patient characteristics included measures of symptom severity, personality pathology, trauma and socio-demographic characteristics. Significance testing and binary regression analysis were applied to identify important predictors. RESULTS: Patient characteristics on fifteen variables differed...

  5. Personality characteristics of women before and after recovery from an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Strober, Michael; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura; Johnson, Craig; Devlin, Bernie; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Kaplan, Allan S; Woodside, D Blake; Crow, Scott; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Keel, Pamela K; Berrettini, Wade H; Plotnicov, Katherine; Pollice, Christine; Lilenfeld, Lisa R; Kaye, Walter H

    2004-11-01

    Previous studies of personality characteristics in women with eating disorders primarily have focused on women who are acutely ill. This study compares personality characteristics among women who are ill with eating disorders, recovered from eating disorders, and those without eating or other Axis I disorder pathology. Female participants were assessed for personality characteristics using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): 122 with anorexia nervosa (AN; 77 ill, 45 recovered), 279 with bulimia nervosa (BN; 194 ill, 85 recovered), 267 with lifetime histories of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa (AN + BN; 194 ill, 73 recovered), 63 with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; 31 ill, 32 recovered), and 507 without eating or Axis I disorder pathology. Women ill with all types of eating disorders exhibited several TCI score differences from control women, particularly in the areas of novelty-seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Interestingly, women recovered from eating disorders reported higher levels of harm avoidance and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness scores than did normal control women. Women with eating disorders in both the ill and recovered state show higher levels of harm avoidance and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness scores than normal control women. Although findings suggest that disturbances may be trait-related and contribute to the disorders' pathogenesis, additional research with more representative community controls, rather than our pre-screened, normal controls, is needed to confirm these impressions.

  6. Background Paper for the update of meningococcal vaccination recommendations in Germany: use of the serogroup B vaccine in persons at increased risk for meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Koch, Judith; Harder, Thomas; Bogdan, Christian; Heininger, Ulrich; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Terhardt, Martin; Vogel, Ulrich; Wichmann, Ole; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2015-11-01

    In December 2013 Bexsero® became available in Germany for vaccination against serogroup B meningococci (MenB). In August 2015 the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) endorsed a recommendation for use of this vaccine in persons at increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). This background paper summarizes the evidence underlying the recommendation. Bexsero® is based on surface protein antigens expressed by about 80% of circulating serogroup B meningococci in Germany. The paper reviews available data on immunogenicity and safety of Bexsero® in healthy children and adolescents; data in persons with underlying illness and on the effectiveness in preventing clinical outcomes are thus far unavailable.STIKO recommends MenB vaccination for the following persons based on an individual risk assessment: (1) Persons with congenital or acquired immune deficiency or suppression. Among these, persons with terminal complement defects and properdin deficiency, including those under eculizumab therapy, are at highest risk with reported invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) incidences up 10,000-fold higher than in the general population. Persons with asplenia were estimated to have a ~ 20-30-fold increased risk of IMD, while the risk in individuals with other immune defects such as HIV infection or hypogammaglobulinaemia was estimated at no more than 5-10-fold higher than the background risk. (2) Laboratory staff with a risk of exposure to N. meningitidis aerosols, for whom an up to 271-fold increased risk for IMD has been reported. (3) Unvaccinated household (-like) contacts of a MenB IMD index case, who have a roughly 100-200-fold increased IMD risk in the year after the contact despite chemoprophylaxis. Because the risk is highest in the first 3 months and full protective immunity requires more than one dose (particularly in infants and toddlers), MenB vaccine should be administered as soon as possible following identification of the serogroup of the

  7. The Sports Background, Personality, Att Itudes, and Social Competencies of Coaches and Assistant Coaches in the Just Soccer Program for Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliermann Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to empirically analyze the sports background, personality dimensions, attitudes, and social competencies of adult head coaches and young assistant coaches involved in the German Einfach Fußball (Just Soccer program, which promotes the participation of pupils with intellectual disabilities in soccer/sports and society. Methods. The study recruited 28 head coaches and 29 assistant coaches who completed a questionnaire battery of standardized instruments (NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Social Self-Efficacy as well as self-developed instruments. Analysis of the data involved descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. A descriptive comparison of the assistant coaches with a normative sample of males aged 16-20 years was performed. Results. The head coaches were found with little soccer/sports experience with persons with disabilities prior to participation in the Just Soccer program. However, the majority were familiar with these persons through personal/vocational contacts. Overall, the head coaches were differentiated by formal coaching levels and playing backgrounds, with very few holding any additional formal qualifications in special education. The assistant coaches presented below average scores in the analyzed five personality dimensions when compared with the normative sample. Their attitudes and social competencies did not change during their 8-month involvement in Just Soccer. Conclusions. The findings highlight the important role of the coaching staff in the success of the Just Soccer program. Coaches involved in such activities should be familiarized with needs of people with disabilities, be stress-resistant, and possess a balanced set of personality traits. In addition, the results suggest that such individuals should be coaches/players from conventional soccer clubs instead of special school physical education teachers.

  8. [Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; León, Elsa; Dongo, Mario; Munayco, César V

    2015-10-01

    Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program "Vida Digna" and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. MATERIALS ANDE METHODS: We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program. We did a descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic variables and we also determined the frequency of health conditions. Furthermore, we determined the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment through a logistic regression model. The older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program were mostly single men, with a primary education or no education. The study subjects had a high frequency of chronic and mental diseases. 50% of them had certain level of functional impairment and roughly 70% had a certain level of cognitive impairment. The probability of functional dependency increased by age, and it was higher in women than in men. This probability increased according to the level of cognitive impairment. This study shows that older homeless persons are a vulnerable population not only because they live outdoors but also because they a have also for the high prevalence of chronic and mental diseases. These diseases prevent the homeless persons from living by themselves special care to overcome their situations.

  9. Internet Addiction Disorder: Personality characteristics and risk of pathological overuse in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, Donato; Cappellin, Flora; Saroldi, Marta; Bechon, Elisa; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Passera, Roberto; Zullo, Giuseppina

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have investigated Internet Addiction (IA) in adolescents in relation to personality characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine whether personality differences exist between adolescents with problematic/pathological Internet use and those with normal Internet use. Our hypothesis was that certain psychopathological personality traits may predispose to the development of maladaptive Internet use. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) were administered to a sample of 224 high school students. Analysis of IAT scores showed that 24.6% of the students had problematic Internet use and 1.6% had IA. Comparison of the MMPI-A scores between subjects with normal Internet use and those with problematic or pathological use based on the IAT score showed that some subscales, including schizophrenia and bizarre mentation, were strongly associated with problematic/pathological Internet use. Also, male sex, attending a vocational school, and unhappy childhood were found to be risk factors for IA. Certain psychological dimensions regarding mood and the psychotic area, as well as low self-esteem, family, school and conduct problems could represent risk factors. Taken together, our data suggest a personality profile, with problems at various levels in subjects with problematic or pathological Internet use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. TO DETERMINE THE PERSONALITY TRAITS, CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN BIPOLAR DISORDER PATIENTS WITH COMORBID ALCOHOL USE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahalya Thinaharan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and substance use disorder is common. It is difficult to treat bipolar disorder patients with comorbid alcohol use disorder since the disease course is more severe and they have greater difficulties in cognitive functions than those without alcohol use. Whether alcohol negatively affects specific cognitive functions or the deficits are more diffuse in nature is unclear. Alcoholic bipolar patients present with high scores in openness to experience and neuroticism personality traits. Personality to an extent mediates the co-occurrence of substance use in bipolar disorder. Thus, identifying these personality traits in bipolar or substance use disorder patients, will help us to prevent the co-occurrence of the second disorder. The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics, personality traits and cognitive functions of patients with bipolar and comorbid alcohol use disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS A sample of 100 patients, 50 with bipolar and alcohol use disorder (cases and 50 with bipolar disorder (controls attending tertiary care hospital outpatient department at Chennai was selected. Alcohol status was assessed using AUDIT (alcohol use disorder identification test and SADQ (severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire. Personality was assessed using NEO-five factor inventory. Cognition was assessed using frontal lobe assessment battery, Stroop test, DSST (digit symbol substitution test and verbal N back test. RESULTS The cases group had more number of hospitalisations and mixed episodes than control group. They also performed poorer on frontal lobe assessment battery, Stroop test and digit symbol substitution test. Duration of alcohol use was associated positively with total number of hospitalisations and number of episodes. The cases group scored significantly higher on the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. CONCLUSION The study confirmed the higher

  11. Predicting performance using background characteristics of international medical graduates in an inner-city university-affiliated Internal Medicine residency training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Gu, Ying; Akhuetie, Jane; Dimitrov, Vihren

    2009-01-01

    Background IMGs constitute about a third of the United States (US) internal medicine graduates. US residency training programs face challenges in selection of IMGs with varied background features. However data on this topic is limited. We analyzed whether any pre-selection characteristics of IMG residents in our internal medicine program are associated with selected outcomes, namely competency based evaluation, examination performance and success in acquiring fellowship positions after graduation. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 51 IMGs at our ACGME accredited teaching institution between 2004 and 2007. Background resident features namely age, gender, self-reported ethnicity, time between medical school graduation to residency (pre-hire time), USMLE step I & II clinical skills scores, pre-GME clinical experience, US externship and interest in pursuing fellowship after graduation expressed in their personal statements were noted. Data on competency-based evaluations, in-service exam scores, research presentation and publications, fellowship pursuance were collected. There were no fellowships offered in our hospital in this study period. Background features were compared between resident groups according to following outcomes: (a) annual aggregate graduate PGY-level specific competency-based evaluation (CBE) score above versus below the median score within our program (scoring scale of 1 – 10), (b) US graduate PGY-level specific resident in-training exam (ITE) score higher versus lower than the median score, and (c) those who succeeded to secure a fellowship within the study period. Using appropriate statistical tests & adjusted regression analysis, odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 94% of the study sample were IMGs; median age was 35 years (Inter-Quartile range 25th – 75th percentile (IQR): 33–37 years); 43% women and 59% were Asian physicians. The median pre-hire time was 5 years (IQR: 4–7 years) and USMLE step

  12. [Characteristics and adaptation of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of climate change. V. Seasonal drought characteristics division and assessment in southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Hua; Sui, Yue; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Shu-Wei; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-10-01

    Zoning seasonal drought based on the study of drought characteristics can provide theoretical basis for formulating drought mitigation plans and improving disaster reduction technologies in different arid zones under global climate change. Based on the National standard of meteorological drought indices and agricultural drought indices and the 1959-2008 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, this paper analyzed the climatic background and distribution characteristics of seasonal drought in southern China, and made a three-level division of seasonal drought in this region by the methods of combining comprehensive factors and main factors, stepwise screening indices, comprehensive disaster analysis, and clustering analysis. The first-level division was with the annual aridity index and seasonal aridity index as the main indices and with the precipitation during entire year and main crop growing season as the auxiliary indices, dividing the southern China into four primary zones, including semi-arid zone, sub-humid zone, humid zone, and super-humid zone. On this basis, the four primary zones were subdivided into nine second-level zones, including one semi-arid area-temperate-cold semi-arid hilly area in Sichuan-Yunnan Plateau, three sub-humid areas of warm sub-humid area in the north of the Yangtze River, warm-tropical sub-humid area in South China, and temperate-cold sub-humid plateau area in Southwest China, three humid areas of temperate-tropical humid area in the Yangtze River Basin, warm-tropical humid area in South China, and warm humid hilly area in Southwest China, and two super-humid areas of warm-tropical super-humid area in South China and temperate-cold super-humid hilly area in the south of the Yangtze River and Southwest China. According to the frequency and intensity of multiple drought indices, the second-level zones were further divided into 29 third-level zones. The distribution of each seasonal drought zone was

  13. Evaluating the drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use cognitive enhancement drugs: the influence of drug characteristics, social environment, and personal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of cognitive enhancement (CE) by means of pharmaceutical agents has been the subject of intense debate both among scientists and in the media. This study investigates several drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use prescription drugs non-medically for augmenting brain capacity. Methods We conducted a web-based study among 2,877 students from randomly selected disciplines at German universities. Using a factorial survey, respondents expressed their willingness to take various hypothetical CE-drugs; the drugs were described by five experimentally varied characteristics and the social environment by three varied characteristics. Personal characteristics and demographic controls were also measured. Results We found that 65.3% of the respondents staunchly refused to use CE-drugs. The results of a multivariate negative binomial regression indicated that respondents’ willingness to use CE-drugs increased if the potential drugs promised a significant augmentation of mental capacity and a high probability of achieving this augmentation. Willingness decreased when there was a high probability of side effects and a high price. Prevalent CE-drug use among peers increased willingness, whereas a social environment that strongly disapproved of these drugs decreased it. Regarding the respondents’ characteristics, pronounced academic procrastination, high cognitive test anxiety, low intrinsic motivation, low internalization of social norms against CE-drug use, and past experiences with CE-drugs increased willingness. The potential severity of side effects, social recommendations about using CE-drugs, risk preferences, and competencies had no measured effects upon willingness. Conclusions These findings contribute to understanding factors that influence the willingness to use CE-drugs. They support the assumption of instrumental drug use and may contribute to the development of prevention, policy, and educational strategies. PMID:24484640

  14. Eysenck's Theory of Personality and the Role of Background Music in Cognitive Task Performance: A Mini-Review of Conflicting Findings and a New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küssner, Mats B

    2017-01-01

    The question of whether background music is able to enhance cognitive task performance is of interest to scholars, educators, and stakeholders in business alike. Studies have shown that background music can have beneficial, detrimental or no effects on cognitive task performance. Extraversion-and its postulated underlying cause, cortical arousal-is regarded as an important factor influencing the outcome of such studies. According to Eysenck's theory of personality, extraverts' cortical arousal at rest is lower compared to that of introverts. Scholars have thus hypothesized that extraverts should benefit from background music in cognitive tasks, whereas introverts' performance should decline with music in the background. Reviewing studies that have considered extraversion as a mediator of the effect of background music on cognitive task performance, it is demonstrated that there is as much evidence in favor as there is against Eysenck's theory of personality. Further, revisiting Eysenck's concept of cortical arousal-which has traditionally been assessed by activity in the EEG alpha band-and reviewing literature on the link between extraversion and cortical arousal, it is revealed that there is conflicting evidence. Due to Eysenck's focus on alpha power, scholars have largely neglected higher frequency bands in the EEG signal as indicators of cortical arousal. Based on recent findings, it is suggested that beta power might not only be an indicator of alertness and attention but also a predictor of cognitive task performance. In conclusion, it is proposed that focused music listening prior to cognitive tasks might be a more efficient way to boost performance than listening to background music during cognitive tasks.

  15. Eysenck's Theory of Personality and the Role of Background Music in Cognitive Task Performance: A Mini-Review of Conflicting Findings and a New Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats B. Küssner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether background music is able to enhance cognitive task performance is of interest to scholars, educators, and stakeholders in business alike. Studies have shown that background music can have beneficial, detrimental or no effects on cognitive task performance. Extraversion—and its postulated underlying cause, cortical arousal—is regarded as an important factor influencing the outcome of such studies. According to Eysenck's theory of personality, extraverts' cortical arousal at rest is lower compared to that of introverts. Scholars have thus hypothesized that extraverts should benefit from background music in cognitive tasks, whereas introverts' performance should decline with music in the background. Reviewing studies that have considered extraversion as a mediator of the effect of background music on cognitive task performance, it is demonstrated that there is as much evidence in favor as there is against Eysenck's theory of personality. Further, revisiting Eysenck's concept of cortical arousal—which has traditionally been assessed by activity in the EEG alpha band—and reviewing literature on the link between extraversion and cortical arousal, it is revealed that there is conflicting evidence. Due to Eysenck's focus on alpha power, scholars have largely neglected higher frequency bands in the EEG signal as indicators of cortical arousal. Based on recent findings, it is suggested that beta power might not only be an indicator of alertness and attention but also a predictor of cognitive task performance. In conclusion, it is proposed that focused music listening prior to cognitive tasks might be a more efficient way to boost performance than listening to background music during cognitive tasks.

  16. Personal and socio-demographic characteristics as correlates of value orientations and interests of students in Vojvodina

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    Gajić Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Social transition and changes in the cultural context inevitably impose the need of redefining the value systems which are particularly reflected through the differences of the multicultural framework such as, for example, Vojvodina. The paper presents the results of a theoretical and empirical study of students’ interests and value orientations. The results are viewed through the prism of influence of respondents’ individual and socio-demographic characteristics. Non-experimental causal method was used to study the correlation between variable groups. Interviewing was the research technique. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire constructed for the purposes of the research. The study was conducted during the school year 2007/08 in Novi Sad, on the sample of 480 respondents - students of the University of Novi Sad, aged 19 to 24. Gender was studied in the group of personal (individual, constitutional features and it proved out to be a significant correlate of certain interests: sport, cultural and creative, as well as relational values (nourishing harmonious family relations, marriage, parenthood, partnership, feeling of belonging et al.. In the group of socio-demographic characteristics (structural forms of the family, financial status, social background, socio-cultural space: rural-urban it was established that social background correlates with interest in sport activities, educational and artistic interests, while variables social background and place of residence correlate with social life and social relations as dominant value orientations. Research results provide pedagogical implications for educational work with youth aimed at developing the values connected with constructive activities and encouragement of proactive orientation with respect to one’s own surroundings and existence, as well as the guidelines for introducing new contents into the existing curricula, in accordance with the expressed values and

  17. Correlation Analysis of Personality Characteristics of Children with TIC Disorder with Family Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; WANG Liqun; MA Chunxia; MA Lixian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of children with tic disorders and their relationship with family factors.Methods Sixty cases of children with tic disorders diagnosed in our hospital were selected as the case group and 65 cases of normal children were selected as the control group.The children of two groups were assessed using Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ),Family Environment Scale (FES-CV) and general situation questionnaire of family (GSQ),respectively.The scores of EPQ personality characteristics,FES-CV and GSQ scores were compared for the children in the two groups.The Person correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between personality scores of children in case group and family environment factors.Results The general situation questionnaire results showed that there was significant statistically difference in parenting style,parental education level and family types of the children between case group and control group (P < 0.05);EPQ results showed that the neuroticism and psychoticism scores of children in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P< 0.05) and the lying degree scores in the control group were significantly higher than those in the case group (P< 0.05);FES-CV results showed that the family cohesion scores of the case group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05),and the family conflict scores in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05).The Person correlation analysis results indicated that the psychoticism score was negatively correlated with the score of family cohesion (P<0.05),and positively correlated with family conflict (P<0.05),while the neuroticism score was positively correlated with family conflict score (P<0.05).Conclusion The children with tic disorders have significant personality deviation compared to the normal children,and the personality deviation degree is

  18. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). Results From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p population in Troms County. Due to the high participation rate, generalization both nationally and to the circumpolar area ought to be possible. PMID:26900910

  19. Aesthetic activities and aesthetic attitudes: influences of education, background and personality on interest and involvement in the arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Furnham, A

    2006-11-01

    There have been few studies of why some people are frequently involved in aesthetic activities such as going to the theatre, reading or playing musical instruments, whereas others are less involved. This study assesses the broad roles of education, personality and demographic factors such as social class, age and sex. More aesthetic activity was associated with music and art education, whereas science education had a substantial negative relationship with aesthetic activity, both directly and also indirectly via reduced art education. More aesthetic activity was particularly related to higher scores on the personality factor of openness, and also to lower scores on agreeableness and conscientiousness. Higher parental social class was also associated with more aesthetic activity, as also was lower age. Sex had no relationship to aesthetic activity, as neither did masculinity-femininity. Positive aesthetic attitudes were also related moderately to aesthetic activity, but were particularly strongly related to openness to experience, and somewhat less to extraversion. Class, age and sex had no direct relationship to aesthetic attitudes.

  20. Personality, Executive Control, and Neurobiological Characteristics Associated with Different Forms of Risky Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Brown

    Full Text Available Road crashes represent a huge burden on global health. Some drivers are prone to repeated episodes of risky driving (RD and are over-represented in crashes and related morbidity. However, their characteristics are heterogeneous, hampering development of targeted intervention strategies. This study hypothesized that distinct personality, cognitive, and neurobiological processes are associated with the type of RD behaviours these drivers predominantly engage in.Four age-matched groups of adult (19-39 years males were recruited: 1 driving while impaired recidivists (DWI, n = 36; 2 non-alcohol reckless drivers (SPEED, n = 28; 3 drivers with a mixed RD profile (MIXED, n = 27; and 4 low-risk control drivers (CTL, n = 47. Their sociodemographic, criminal history, driving behaviour (by questionnaire and simulation performance, personality (Big Five traits, impulsivity, reward sensitivity, cognitive (disinhibition, decision making, behavioural risk taking, and neurobiological (cortisol stress response characteristics were gathered and contrasted.Compared to controls, group SPEED showed greater sensation seeking, disinhibition, disadvantageous decision making, and risk taking. Group MIXED exhibited more substance misuse, and antisocial, sensation seeking and reward sensitive personality features. Group DWI showed greater disinhibition and more severe alcohol misuse, and compared to the other RD groups, the lowest level of risk taking when sober. All RD groups exhibited less cortisol increase in response to stress compared to controls.Each RD group exhibited a distinct personality and cognitive profile, which was consistent with stimulation seeking in group SPEED, fearlessness in group MIXED, and poor behavioural regulation associated with alcohol in group DWI. As these group differences were uniformly accompanied by blunted cortisol stress responses, they may reflect the disparate behavioural consequences of dysregulation of the stress system. In sum, RD

  1. A Research on the Inclinations of Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurship Personality Characteristics of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YÜKSEL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship can be defined as a capability that realizes the opportunities created by environment paradigms and that transforms these opportunities into projects, and that live these projects and transfer all these as well as produce richness. In this process, there are a great many characteristics for successful entrepreneurs. In addition, the spirit of entrepreneurship can be available as a genetic code, families, jobs, environments as well as education which can be regarded as a significant component for the development of entrepreneurship spirit. In this study, the main objective is to analyze the relationship between entrepreneurship personality characteristics and entrepreneurship inclinations of the students in the department of Business Management. Therefore, a questionnaire was conducted on the students in the department of Business Management to test the hypothesis revealed. As a result of the study, it was determined that innovation, sensitivity, and opportunism are the pioneers of the entrepreneurship characteristics for the students while struggling against stress is the least level of characteristic for entrepreneurship. At the same time, in the study, the relationship was found out between entrepreneurship characteristics and gender, and also between participants’ family occupations and their entrepreneurship characteristics.

  2. What should we be selecting for? A systematic approach for determining which personal characteristics to assess for during admissions

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    Conlon Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admission committees are responsible for creating fair, defensible, reliable, and valid processes that assess those attributes considered important for professional success. There is evidence for the continuing use of academic ability as a selection criterion for health professional schools; however, there is little evidence for the reliability and validity of measures currently in place to assess personal characteristics. The Ontario Veterinary College (OVC initiated a review of its admissions criteria in order to implement an evidence-based method to determine which characteristics veterinary stakeholders consider important to assess for admission. Methods Eleven characteristics were identified by the OVC Admissions Committee and a survey was sent to all licensed veterinarians in Ontario (n=4,068, OVC students (n=450, and OVC faculty, interns and residents (n=192. A paired comparison method was used to identify the relative rank order of the characteristics, and multivariate analysis of variance with post hoc analyses was used to determine between group differences in the returned survey data. Results Surveys were returned from 1,312 participants (27.86% response rate; female 59.70%. The relative rank of the characteristics was reasonably consistent among participant groups, with ethical behaviour, sound judgment, communication, and critical and creative thinking being ranked as the top four. However, the importance of certain characteristics like communication and empathy were perceived differently by groups. For instance, females scored communication (F(1, 1289 = 20.24, p d = .26 and empathy (F(1, 1289 = 55.41, p d = 0.42 significantly higher than males, while males scored knowledge of profession (F(1, 1289 = 12.81, p d = 0.20, leadership (F(1, 1289 = 10.28, p = .001, d = 0.18, and sound judgment (F(1, 1289 = 13.56, p d = 0.21 significantly higher than females. Conclusions The data from the paired comparison method

  3. Bridging Social Circles: Need for Cognition, Prejudicial Judgments, and Personal Social Network Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru L. Curşeu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various factors pertaining to the social context (availability of plausible social contacts as well as personality traits influence the emergence of social ties that ultimately compose one’s personal social network. We build on a situational selection model to argue that personality traits influence the cognitive processing of social cues that in turn influences the preference for particular social ties. More specifically, we use a cross-lagged design to test a mediation model explaining the effects of need for cognition (NFC on egocentric network characteristics. We used the data available in the LISS panel, in which a probabilistic sample of Dutch participants were asked to fill in surveys annually. We tested our model on data collected in three successive years and our results show that people scoring high in NFC tend to revolve in information-rich egocentric networks, characterized by high demographic diversity, high interpersonal dissimilarity, and high average education. The results also show that the effect of NFC on social network characteristics is mediated by non-prejudicial judgments.

  4. Internet addiction based on personality characteristics of high school students in kerman, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Bibi Eshrat; Abedini, Yasamin; Kheradmand, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The new phenomenon of Internet addiction among teenagers and young adults is one of the modern addictions in industrial and post-industrial societies. The purpose of this research was to predict the Internet addiction based on the personality characteristics of high school students in Kerman. This research was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population included 538 male and female students in the second grade of high school in Kerman during 2010. The subjects were randomly selected by multistage clustering. Data was collected by two questionnaires including the five-factor Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Internet dependency questionnaire. The data was analyzed using ANOVA test and multivariable regression analysis. The findings showed a significant relationship between the personality trait of emotional stability and academic fields, i.e. students with higher emotional stability experience less negative emotions when confronting with problems. Therefore, it is less likely for them to alleviate the negative emotions by the extreme and obsessed usage of the Internet. In addition, it appears that the students with high extroversion scores prefer social, face to face interactions with other people to interaction with the virtual world. Conversely, more introvert students avoid interactions with other people due to their shyness. Thus, they communicate with the virtual world more. Three personality traits of loyalty, emotional stability, and extroversion are the most significant predictors of Internet addiction in high school students.

  5. The impact of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary school transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Falkmer, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.

  6. The impact of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary school transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC and mental health functioning (MHF of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.

  7. Personal and Professional Characteristics of Music Education Professors: Factors Associated with Expectations and Preferences of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Tiger

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine music education undergraduate students' expectations of and preferences for their music education faculty members' personal and professional backgrounds and compare them to the actual backgrounds of current music teacher educators. The research questions were: Do music education undergraduate students…

  8. Job Satisfaction of People With Intellectual Disability: Associations With Job Characteristics and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment support workers, using structured questionnaires adapted from well-established instruments. Job resources and age were positively associated with job satisfaction. Job demands and personality showed no significant direct associations with job satisfaction. Moderation analyses showed that for people with ID with high conscientiousness, enhanced job demands were associated with reduced job satisfaction, which was not the case for those with low conscientiousness. This study emphasizes the importance of job design.

  9. Investigation of the Effects of Facility Background Pressure on the Performance and Voltage-Current Characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thruster's anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization and acceleration zones upstream shifting as a function of increased background pressure.

  10. The personal and workplace characteristics of uninsured expatriate males in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamis, Abdulwahab; Cosgrove, Peter; Mohamed, Gamal; Hassan, Amir

    2017-01-19

    A major concern by the health decision makers in Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries is the burden of financing healthcare. While other GCC countries have been examining different options, Saudi Arabia has endeavoured to reform its private healthcare system and control expatriate access to government resources through the provision of Compulsory Employment-Based Health Insurance (CEBHI). The objective of this research was to investigate, in a natural setting, the characteristics of uninsured expatriates based on their personal and workplace characteristics. Using a cross-sectional survey, data were collected from a sample of 4,575 male expatriate employees using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize all variables, and the dependent variable was tabulated by access to health insurance and tested using Chi-square. Logistic analysis was performed, guided by the conceptual model. Of survey respondents, 30% were either uninsured or not yet enrolled in a health insurance scheme, 79.4% of these uninsured expatriates did not have valid reasons for being uninsured, with Iqama renewal accounting for 20.6% of the uninsured. The study found both personal and workplace characteristics were important factors influencing health insurance status. Compared with single expatriates, married expatriates (accompanied by their families) are 30% less likely to be uninsured. Moreover, workers occupying technical jobs requiring high school level of education or above were two-thirds more likely to be insured compared to unskilled workers. With regard to firm size, respondents employed in large companies (more than 50 employees) are more likely to be insured compared to those employed in small companies (less than ten employees). In relation to business type, the study found that compared to workers from the agricultural sector, industrial/manufacturing, construction and trading sectors, workers were, respectively, 76%, 85

  11. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2018-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure. Classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses investigated psychometric characteristics of the Reserve-Building Measure. This North American sample (n = 592) included both patients and caregivers [mean age = 44, SD 19)]. Psychometric analyses revealed distinct subscales measuring current reserve-building activities (Active in the World, Games, Outdoors, Creative, Religious/Spiritual, Exercise, Inner Life, Shopping/Cooking, Passive Media Consumption,), past reserve-building activities (Childhood Activities, Achievement), and reserve-related person-factors (Perseverance, Current and Past Social Support, and Work Value). Test-retest stability (n = 101) was moderately high for 11 of 15 subscales (ICC range 0.78-0.99); four were below 0.59 indicating a need for further refinement. IRT analyses supported the item functioning of all subscales. Correlational analyses suggest the measure's subscales tap distinct constructs (range r = 0.11-0.46) which are not redundant with QOL, well-being, or personality (range r = 0.11-0.48). The Reserve-Building Measure provides a measure of activities and person-factors related to reserve that may potentially be useful in prospective research.

  12. The subjective well-being of a person as a prism of personal and socio-psychological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perelygina E.B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuropsychology is a science with its own specific concepts, terms, and methods of analysis of disturbances in psychological development. One of the essential concepts of neuropsychological methodology, according to A.R. Luria, is that of a neuropsychological syndrome, which takes into account both the functional organization of the brain and the behavioral system. However, this concept isn’t mentioned in the majority of his publications, and thus is not well known by neuropsychologists. There is no clear understanding of this concept within the works of modern neuropsychologists. This omission has a strong influence on the way analysis and interpretation of developmental difficulties is carried out today. Objective. The objective of this study is to present an example of the successful application of qualitative syndromic analysis to the case of a Mexican preschool child with developmental problems and learning disabilities. Design. The clinical analysis was applied to the case of a 6 year old girl with learning disabilities, whose difficulties had been attributed primarily to a low level of general brain activation. Results. The authors assert that the advantages of A.R. Luria’s syndromic approach to clinical cases of difficulties in development and learning disabilities, are that it opens up the potential for finding the general causes on different levels: neuronal maturation, brain mechanisms, activity and personality. Conclusion. The authors conclude that the topic of syndromic analysis in child neuropsychology requires further scientific discussion. The necessity for revising levels of analysis of clinical cases should be taken in account.

  13. Rorschach Evaluation of Personality and Emotional Characteristics in Adolescents With Migraine Versus Epilepsy and Controls

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    Laura Balottin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature examining primary headache, including migraine, in adolescents, has pointed out the key role played by a wide range of psychiatric disorders in reducing the patients’ quality of life. Moreover, pioneering studies showed that preexisting personality characteristics, specific emotion regulation styles and psychological-psychiatric difficulties are likely to increase the risk of the onset, maintenance, and outcome of headache. Still personality issues in migraine have been poorly studied, in particular in children and adolescents. This study aims, therefore, to investigate the specific characteristics of personality, and in particular emotion regulation and coping strategies, in adolescent with migraine, comparing them with age-matched patients with idiopathic epilepsy and healthy adolescents. 52 adolescents (age: 11–17 were assessed using a multi-method test battery, which included a self-report questionnaire (the youth self-report, a proxy-report (child behavior checklist along with a projective personality test, the Rorschach Test, administered and scored according to the Exner comprehensive system. The results showed specific personality characteristics in adolescents with migraine, revealing a marked difficulty in modulating and regulating affections through thoughts and reflections, resorting instead to impulsive acts and maladaptive coping strategies, thus revealing a vague and immature perception of reality. Differently from adolescents belonging to the general population, but similarly to patients with epilepsy, adolescents with migraine perceive a high situational stress, probably related to the condition of suffering from chronic disease. They have, therefore, a lower self-consideration and self-esteem along with a poorer insight regarding themselves as well as the relations with others. In line with previous findings, these preliminary results suggest the need for further research on ample samples, using also

  14. Rorschach Evaluation of Personality and Emotional Characteristics in Adolescents With Migraine Versus Epilepsy and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balottin, Laura; Mannarini, Stefania; Candeloro, Daniela; Mita, Alda; Chiappedi, Matteo; Balottin, Umberto

    2018-01-01

    The literature examining primary headache, including migraine, in adolescents, has pointed out the key role played by a wide range of psychiatric disorders in reducing the patients' quality of life. Moreover, pioneering studies showed that preexisting personality characteristics, specific emotion regulation styles and psychological-psychiatric difficulties are likely to increase the risk of the onset, maintenance, and outcome of headache. Still personality issues in migraine have been poorly studied, in particular in children and adolescents. This study aims, therefore, to investigate the specific characteristics of personality, and in particular emotion regulation and coping strategies, in adolescent with migraine, comparing them with age-matched patients with idiopathic epilepsy and healthy adolescents. 52 adolescents (age: 11-17) were assessed using a multi-method test battery, which included a self-report questionnaire (the youth self-report), a proxy-report (child behavior checklist) along with a projective personality test, the Rorschach Test, administered and scored according to the Exner comprehensive system. The results showed specific personality characteristics in adolescents with migraine, revealing a marked difficulty in modulating and regulating affections through thoughts and reflections, resorting instead to impulsive acts and maladaptive coping strategies, thus revealing a vague and immature perception of reality. Differently from adolescents belonging to the general population, but similarly to patients with epilepsy, adolescents with migraine perceive a high situational stress, probably related to the condition of suffering from chronic disease. They have, therefore, a lower self-consideration and self-esteem along with a poorer insight regarding themselves as well as the relations with others. In line with previous findings, these preliminary results suggest the need for further research on ample samples, using also standardized projective test

  15. Companionship in labour: Do the personality characteristics of labour supporters influence their effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chalmers

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has revealed beneficial post-partum, psychosocial effects on the mother following labour which was accompanied by supportive companions. Whether these effects are obtained as a result of having companionship during labour or because of specific personality characteristics of the companions provided is important and is explored in this paper. Although findings revealed few differences in adjustment between women who were supported by different companions, some variability in the post-partum state anxiety and depression scores were noted which suggest that selection of an appropriate supporter is an important aspect of such programmes.

  16. SENSE-MAKING TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Abakumova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study looks into psychotechnics used in education and contributing to initiating logic among students, their personal growth and characterizes psychological features of “sense-deducting”. Here you will find a review of the sense-making techniques considering as one of the categories of psychotechnics. The described techniques are based on the human psychology, they improve the quality of instruction, create a favorable and unique system of values, take into account the individual characteristics of all types of education, and influence the sense-making process development among children. Sense-making techniques are stated in the author’s classification and extended by practical methods. The study of psychological features of influence of sense-making techniques on the personality of a student lets us see new patterns in personal, subjective and “meta-subjective” results of acquiring of the school program via transformation and development of value/logic consciousness of a child. The work emphasizes that the use of sense-making techniques is effective in the educational and after-school activities of the educational organization. The achieved results make it possible to understand, to substantiate the naturalness and relevance of the sense-technical approach according to personal and academic indicators of students. In the process of competent and correct use of the semantic techniques, we see the possibility of conveying the best, productive and quality pedagogical experience, as well as the perspective of innovative developments in the psychological and pedagogical sciences. For children and adolescents, information, thanks to sense-techniques, starts to be personal in nature, knowledge is objectified, learning activity becomes an individual need.

  17. Personal Network Characteristics as Predictors of Change in Obesity Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2018-05-17

    The potential for peers to influence obesity risk behavior increases in adolescence, yet there are knowledge gaps of how behaviors are modified in response to peers over time. This study examined how personal friendship network characteristics were associated with obesity-related behaviors from late childhood to early adolescence. Two waves of friendship, physical activity, screen time, and dietary recall data were collected from 11- to 13-year-old students (99% retention) in Australia (n = 308) over a five- to eight-month period. Regression models identified friendship network characteristics that predicted later health behaviors which varied by gender and behavior type, such as the number of friends positively associated with physical activity intensity (males) and screen time (females). The need for considering context to influence behavior change is discussed. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  18. Personality, work characteristics, and employee well-being: a longitudinal analysis of additive and moderating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houkes, Inge; Janssen, Peter P M; de Jonge, Jan; Bakker, Arnold B

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal influence of personality (measured by the characteristics growth need strength, negative affectivity [NA], and upward striving) on 3 psychological outcomes (intrinsic work motivation, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention), using a pattern of specific relationships between work characteristics and these outcomes as a framework. The study hypotheses were tested in a multioccupational sample consisting of bank employees and teachers, using a 2-wave panel design with a 1-year time interval and structural equation modeling. NA had a cross-lagged direct and additive relationship with emotional exhaustion and also moderated the relationship between Time 1 workload and Time 2 emotional exhaustion. The authors concluded that NA may have multiple effects on emotional exhaustion that persist over time.

  19. Personal contextual characteristics and cognitions: predicting child abuse potential and disciplinary style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-02-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.

  20. Association between compliance and personality characteristics in adolescent boys with primary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Khaitovych

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychological factors influence the morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases to the same extent as demographic and clinical factors, and the effectiveness of treatment is significantly associated with the patients' adherence. Male gender is associated with poor blood pressure control. Aim. To identify the personality characteristics that determine compliance in adolescent boys with primary arterial hypertension. Materials and methods. 30 boys between 13 and 17 years old (average age 14.6 ± 1.1 years with primary arterial hypertension were examined. The compliance was evaluated using Girerd Questionnaire, type D (distress type personality - using the DS-14 test, personality features - using the Cattell's 16 Personality Factors Test (16PF. Statistical processing of the study results was conducted using dispersion, correlation and factor analysis (main components method with the help of “Statistica” software for Windows 8.0. Results. In 3.7% of adolescents, high compliance was noted, in 37.0% - moderate level, and in 59.3% - low. The type D personality was found in 20.0% of the examined boys. Patients with type D personality had a significantly lower (p<0.05 compliance (4.67 ± 0.63 versus 2.55 ± 0.36 points. There was found a significant direct correlation between the degree of compliance reduction and the scores on “social oppression” according to the DS-14 test (r = 0.43; p<0.01 and inverse correlation - with the value of factor N (straightforwardness-diplomacy of the 16PF (r = -0.43; p<0.05. There were found 3 main factors that explain almost 50% of the relationships of personality characteristics of boys with primary arterial hypertension. Factor 1 (distressing ability was related to the degree of compliance reduction (0.60, scales “negative excitability” (0.52 and “social oppression” (0.66 of the DS-14 test. This factor was also correlated with such personality features as anxiety (0

  1. Correction to: CASPer, an online pre-interview screen for personal/professional characteristics: prediction of national licensure scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Kelly L; Reiter, Harold I; Kreuger, Sharyn; Norman, Geoffrey R

    2017-12-01

    In re-examining the paper "CASPer, an online pre-interview screen for personal/professional characteristics: prediction of national licensure scores" published in AHSE (22(2), 327-336), we recognized two errors of interpretation.

  2. Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching in student-centred medical curricula: the impact of context and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Johanna C G; van Luijk, Scheltus J; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Scheele, Fedde

    2016-09-21

    Gibbs and Coffey (2004) have reported that teaching practices are influenced by teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching. In our previous research we found significant differences between teachers' conceptions in two medical schools with student-centred education. Medical school was the most important predictor, next to discipline, gender and teaching experience. Our research questions for the current study are (1) which specific elements of medical school explain the effect of medical school on teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching? How? and (2) which contextual and personal characteristics are related to conceptions of learning and teaching? How? Individual interviews were conducted with 13 teachers of the undergraduate curricula in two medical schools. Previously their conceptions of learning and teaching were assessed with the COLT questionnaire. We investigated the meanings they attached to context and personal characteristics, in relation to their conceptions of learning and teaching. We used a template analysis. Large individual differences existed between teachers. Characteristics mentioned at the medical school and curriculum level were 'curriculum tradition', 'support by educational department' and 'management and finances'. Other contextual characteristics were 'leadership style' at all levels but especially of department chairs, 'affordances and support', 'support and relatedness', and 'students' characteristics'. Personal characteristics were 'agency', 'experience with PBL (as a student or a teacher)','personal development', 'motivation and work engagement'and 'high content expertise'. Several context and personal characteristics associated with teachers' conceptions were identified, enabling a broader view on faculty development with attention for these characteristics, next to teaching skills.

  3. Interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptomatology: examination of several personality-related characteristics as potential confounders in a racial/ethnic heterogeneous adult sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that reports of interpersonal discrimination result in poor mental health. Because personality characteristics may either confound or mediate the link between these reports and mental health, there is a need to disentangle its role in order to better understand the nature of discrimination-mental health association. We examined whether hostility, anger repression and expression, pessimism, optimism, and self-esteem served as confounders in the association between perceived interpersonal discrimination and CESD-based depressive symptoms in a race/ethnic heterogeneous probability-based sample of community-dwelling adults. Methods We employed a series of ordinary least squares regression analyses to examine the potential confounding effect of hostility, anger repression and expression, pessimism, optimism, and self-esteem between interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptoms. Results Hostility, anger repression, pessimism and self-esteem were significant as possible confounders of the relationship between interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptoms, together accounting for approximately 38% of the total association (beta: 0.1892, p interpersonal discrimination remained a positive predictor of depressive symptoms (beta: 0.1176, p personality characteristics in the association between reports of interpersonal discrimination and mental health, our results suggest that personality-related characteristics may serve as potential confounders. Nevertheless, our results also suggest that, net of these characteristics, reports of interpersonal discrimination are associated with poor mental health. PMID:24256578

  4. Pathological jealousy: romantic relationship characteristics, emotional and personality aspects, and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andrea Lorenada; Sophia, Eglacy C; Sanches, Cíntia; Tavares, Hermano; Zilberman, Monica L

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to identify romantic relationship characteristics, emotional and personality aspects and social adjustment in subjects with pathological jealousy (PJ) and to compare them to control group. The participants, 32 individuals with PJ and 31 healthy volunteers completed measures of jealousy intensity, attachment type, love and relationship styles, personality, impulsivity, aggressiveness and social adjustment. Socio-demographic profiles were also obtained. Participants with PJ were significantly older than the control group, but no other important socio-demographic differences were observed. Participants with PJ were significantly more jealous and were predominately categorized with anxious-ambivalent attachment type, and Mania love style. They presented with elevated novelty seeking and harm avoidance, low self-directedness and cooperativeness, high levels of impulsivity and trait anxiety, and poor social adjustment. Multivariate analysis showed that jealousy intensity and trait anxiety were the variables that best distinguished participants with PJ from the control group. This study was limited by the cross-sectional design and relatively small sample size. PJ presents a particular pattern of attachment, love style, and personality structure, and deserves further attention as a specific potential disorder of the romantic bonding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of carbonyl compounds in public vehicles of Beijing city: Concentrations, sources, and personal exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) including concentrations, major sources, and personal exposure were investigated for 29 vehicles including taxi, bus and subway in Beijing. It was found that the taxis (Xiali, TA) and buses (Huanghe, BA) fueled by gasoline with longer service years had the higher indoor carbonyl levels (178±42.7 and 188±31.6 μg m -3) while subways energized by electricity without exhaust and the jingwa buses (BB) driven in the suburb had the lower levels with total concentrations of 98.5±26.3 and 92.1±20.3 μg m -3, respectively. Outdoor carbonyls of taxi cars and buses were nearly at the same level with their total concentrations varying from 80 to 110 μg m -3. The level of outdoor subways carbonyls was equal with the ambient air levels. Exhaust leakage, indoor material emissions, photochemical formation, and infiltration of outdoor air were considered to be the major sources to in-vehicle carbonyls. Personal exposures and cancer risk to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were calculated for professional bus and taxi drivers, respectively. Taxi drivers had the highest cancer risk with personal exposure to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde of 212 and 243 μg day -1, respectively. The public concern should pay considerable attention to professional drivers' health.

  6. Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Saeid; Biemans, Harm J A; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, Thomas; Chizari, Mohammad; Mulder, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if the model of EI applies in a developing country, namely Iran. We also set out to identify the most relevant factors for EI within this developing country context. Do distal predictors of EI including personality factors (i.e. need for achievement, risk taking and locus of control) and contextual factors (i.e. perceived barriers and support) significantly relate to EI via proximal predictors including motivational factors (i.e. attitudes towards entrepreneurship and perceived behavioural control [PBC])? Data were collected on 331 students from 7 public universities. The findings support the TPB for EI in Iran. All three motivational factors related to EI, but PBC showed the strongest association, which is different than in developed country contexts. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. All three personality characteristics indirectly related to EI via the proximal attitudes towards entrepreneurship and PBC. Perceived contextual support and barriers indirectly related to EI via proximal PBC while perceived barriers also directly related to EI. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Consumption Values, Personal Characteristics and Behavioral Intentions in Mobile Shopping Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujipun Assarut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Past literature has indicated that consumption value is an important factor in consumer decision making on whether to adopt online shopping. However, most studies have focused only on a single product or service type and, therefore, generalization of the results has been limited. Moreover, previous studies of the indirect effects of personal characteristics on the adoption of online shopping have emphasized solely the importance of utilitarian values. None have investigated the indirect effects of consumption values that include both utilitarian and hedonic aspects. This study examines the relationships between consumption values, personal characteristics and behavioral intentions in the adoption of mobile shopping from the perspectives of different product and service types. The results reveal convenience, security and emotional values as the common values which consumers of fashion goods and accommodations consider when deciding whether to purchase via a mobile device. Apart from the most common values, travelers also consider conditional and epistemic values when assessing whether to reserve accommodation using a mobile device. Moreover, innovativeness and self-efficacy were both shown to exert significant indirect effects, via consumption values, on consumers’ intentions to adopt mobile shopping. Managerial implications and suggestions are further discussed.

  8. [Psychological distress and personality characteristics among individuals with primary exercise dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Jenni; Clementi, Cecilia; Grandi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both psychological distress and personality characteristics associat with primary exercise dependence. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), Muscle Dysmorphia Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found in the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as in the EDI-2 total score and 5 of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (n=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (n=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, as well as lower self-directness. Furthermore, primary exercise dependents scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the MDQ total score and the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to controls. These findings highlight the importance of performing a clinical assessment of psychological symptoms and personality characteristics that might be associated with primary exercise dependence.

  9. Personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Silvana; Clementi, Cecilia; Guidi, Jenny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Tossani, Eliana

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this study was to assess personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence (ExeDepI) in a mixed gender sample. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found on the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as on the EDI-2 total score and five of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (N=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (N=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, but lower self-directness and less mature character. Furthermore, ExeDepI group scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to the control group. These findings provide support to the idea that primary exercise dependence can be considered as a clinical syndrome associated with certain personality characteristics and psychological symptoms that might be accurately assessed in clinical settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of personal characteristics on the resilience of operating room nurses: a predictor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-07-01

    Resilience in the workplace has been described as a means of facilitating adaptation in stressful environments, and therefore has application in nursing contexts. However, little research has examined how personal characteristics such as age, nursing experience and education contribute to resilience in clinical environments such as the operating room (OR). First to identify the level of resilience, and second, investigate whether age, experience and education contribute to resilience in an Australian sample of OR nurses. A predictive survey design was used. A random sample of 1430 nurses who were members of the Australian College of Operating Room Nurses association were surveyed. The survey included the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and demographic questions. A standard regression model tested the hypothesis that age, years of OR experience and education contributed to resilience in OR nurses. A total of 735 (51.4%) completed, usable surveys were returned. Pearson's correlations demonstrated modest but statistically significant associations between age (presilience. In the multiple regression model, only years of OR experience predicted resilience (presilience. In OR nurses, resilience appears to be predicted by other attributes and is not necessarily dependent on an individual's personal characteristics. Thus, recruitment to the OR should not be based on the conventional notion that an older nursing workforce will have greater longevity and hence be more stable. If younger, less experienced nurses are adequately supported, they may thrive in the OR environment.

  11. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    OpenAIRE

    De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Lewi, Martine; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer scre...

  12. Personality characteristics and their connection with learning efficiency of deaf and partially deaf pupils in mainstream primary and secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with personality characteristics and their connection with learning efficiency of deaf and partially deaf pupils and students in mainstream primary and secondary school. The theoretical part defines learning efficiency and focuses on the most significant factors of learning efficiency, including also personality characteristics of an individual. This thesis represents the idea of inclusion and its advantages and disadvantages and suggests to what extent it is present in our ...

  13. Personality characteristics of children in an orphanage as criteria for the developing of proactive attitude and successful social integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin A.N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a personality characteristics study of orphans and children left without parental care growing up in an orphanage. It is assumed that examined personality characteristics have an effect on the socialization and integration processes after graduating from the orphanage. The paper gives a comparative analysis of personality characteristics in 18 boys and 14 girls aged from 12 to 17 years in orphanages, as well as finds out the personality characteristics undermining the developing of child’s proactive attitude. The study used a children's version of "Individual typological questionnaire" by L.N. Sobchik and Cattell 14 PF method of multivariate personality study. Statistical significance of the results is due to Mann–Whitney U test and Student t-test for nonrandom access. Cattell 14PF study shows that boys and girls in the test groups have personality differences (p≤0.05. A pattern of the results may indicate a general trend of personal characteristics negatively affecting the success of adaptation after graduating from the orphanage.

  14. Pupil Home Background Characteristics and Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Kitwe District, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumbi, Zonic; Samuel, Elizabeth B.; Mulendema, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate pupil background characteristics and academic performance in senior secondary schools in Kitwe district with a view of recommending on how to improve pupils' performance. The study was conducted in Kitwe district because in the past years pupils' performance in senior secondary schools has been…

  15. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Shen, Li-xiao; Yan, Chong-huai; Hu, Howard; Yang, Fang; Wang, Lu; Kotha, Sudha Rani; Zhang, Li-na; Liao, Xiang-peng; Zhang, Jun; Ouyang, Feng-xiu; Zhang, Jin-song; Shen, Xiao-ming

    2012-12-22

    Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young's Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p 100 RMB (all p-values internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated with AIA. Spending excessive time online is not in itself a defining symptom of AIA. More attention is needed on adolescent excessive weekend internet-use in prevention of potential internet addicts.

  16. Speeding by young novice drivers: What can personal characteristics and psychosocial theory add to our understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Hyde, Melissa K; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Young novice drivers continue to be overrepresented in fatalities and injuries arising from crashes even with the introduction of countermeasures such as graduated driver licensing (GDL). Enhancing countermeasures requires a better understanding of the variables influencing risky driving. One of the most common risky behaviours performed by drivers of all ages is speeding, which is particularly risky for young novice drivers who, due to their driving inexperience, have difficulty in identifying and responding appropriately to road hazards. Psychosocial theory can improve our understanding of contributors to speeding, thereby informing countermeasure development and evaluation. This paper reports an application of Akers' social learning theory (SLT), augmented by Gerrard and Gibbons' prototype/willingness model (PWM), in addition to personal characteristics of age, gender, car ownership, and psychological traits/states of anxiety, depression, sensation seeking propensity and reward sensitivity, to examine the influences on self-reported speeding of young novice drivers with a Provisional (intermediate) licence in Queensland, Australia. Young drivers (n=378) recruited in 2010 for longitudinal research completed two surveys containing the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale, and reported their attitudes and behaviours as pre-Licence/Learner (Survey 1) and Provisional (Survey 2) drivers and their sociodemographic characteristics. An Akers' measurement model was created. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that (1) personal characteristics (PC) explained 20.3%; (2) the combination of PC and SLT explained 41.1%; (3) the combination of PC, SLT and PWM explained 53.7% of variance in self-reported speeding. Whilst there appeared to be considerable shared variance, the significant predictors in the final model included gender, car ownership, reward sensitivity, depression, personal attitudes, and Learner speeding. These results highlight the capacity for

  17. Personality characteristics and sexual functioning of 188 cross-dressing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G R; Wise, T N; Costa, P T; Herbst, J H; Fagan, P J; Schmidt, C W

    1996-05-01

    The literature on cross-dressing men has been primarily limited to self-identified patients at psychiatric clinics who are in distress. To understand the personality trait characteristics and sexual functioning of nonpatient cross-dressers, 188 non-treatment-seeking male cross-dressers completed the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI). Respondents were classified as transvestites (TV; N = 83), transgenderists (TG; N = 61), or transsexuals (TS; N = 44) based on self-report and the nature of their cross-gender activities (e.g., use of female hormones, desire for sex reassignment, and amount of time spent in female role). These diagnostic groups did not differ on the five broad personality domains of the NEO-PI, but TS men scored higher than TV and TG men on the Aesthetics facet scale of Openness to Experience (O). In terms of the DSFI scales, TS men reported lower sexual drive than TV and TG men, and TS and TG men exhibited greater psychiatric symptoms and feminine gender role, and poorer body image than TV men. Upon exclusion of a group of 49 respondents who previously sought treatment for psychological problems, no significant differences emerged among the three diagnostic groups on the NEO-PI domain and facet scales. Consideration of the DSFI scales showed that TS men experienced less sexual drive, more psychiatric symptoms, and a greater feminine gender role than TV or TG men. This study suggests that cross-dressers not seen for clinical reasons are virtually indistinguishable from non-cross-dressing men using a measure of personality traits, a sexual functioning inventory, and measures of psychological distress. These results emphasize the importance of using clinical significance criteria as required by DSM-IV guidelines before diagnosing men who cross-dress with an axis I disorder.

  18. [Burnout in officers of the prison service units. The role of personality and selected professional characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Herkt, Martyna; Ossowski, Roman

    2017-02-28

    The researchers involved in the studies of burnout indicate its 3 sources: the structure of the personality, the specificity of interpersonal relationships, and the organizational factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout and personality characteristics of prison officers, as well as to determine predictors of burnout in this occupational group. The study was conducted among prison officers, who were divided into 2 groups, the officers working in direct contact with prisoners (group I) and those employed in the prison administration (group II). The study used 2 tools: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ). Analysis of personality traits in the study group showed high severity traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. However, the best results were obtained in terms of extraversion and the lowest in the range of conscientiousness. The level of burnout in both groups was found to be within the upper limit of the average results, without statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that people working in direct contact with prisoners experience greater disappointments and psychophysical exhaustion at work. The analyses showed that the level of exhaustion and disappointment of the employees surveyed increases with increasing seniority. It was also shown that the level of neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness is the predictor of effectiveness. The level of burnout in the study group falls within the upper limit of the average results. Personality traits are an important determinant for the development of symptoms of burnout in the penitentiary officers, and their role changes over the years of continuous prison service. The position at work diversifies the degree of experiencing symptoms of burnout. Med Pr 2017;68(1):85-94. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. The unique contributions of perceiver and target characteristics in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Eric; Sutherland, Clare A M; Flake, Jessica K; Slepian, Michael L

    2017-10-01

    Models of person perception have long asserted that our impressions of others are guided by characteristics of both the target and perceiver. However, research has not yet quantified to what extent perceivers and targets contribute to different impressions. This quantification is theoretically critical, as it addresses how much an impression arises from "our minds" versus "others' faces." Here, we apply cross-classified random effects models to address this fundamental question in social cognition, using approximately 700,000 ratings of faces. With this approach, we demonstrate that (a) different trait impressions have unique causal processes, meaning that some impressions are largely informed by perceiver-level characteristics whereas others are driven more by physical target-level characteristics; (b) modeling of perceiver- and target-variance in impressions informs fundamental models of social perception; (c) Perceiver × Target interactions explain a substantial portion of variance in impressions; (d) greater emotional intensity in stimuli decreases the influence of the perceiver; and (e) more variable, naturalistic stimuli increases variation across perceivers. Important overarching patterns emerged. Broadly, traits and dimensions representing inferences of character (e.g., dominance) are driven more by perceiver characteristics than those representing appearance-based appraisals (e.g., youthful-attractiveness). Moreover, inferences made of more ambiguous traits (e.g., creative) or displays (e.g., faces with less extreme emotions, less-controlled stimuli) are similarly driven more by perceiver than target characteristics. Together, results highlight the large role that perceiver and target variability play in trait impressions, and develop a new topography of trait impressions that considers the source of the impression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Personal characteristics of effective managers in organizational cultures of different types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova L.N.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s Russian enterprises have been experiencing difficulties in transitioning to the market-innovative model of development. In the context of the current variability of management paradigms, we had an opportunity to study the internal and external regulators of organizational changes that are typical for a transitioning economy. Organizational culture (ОС was studied as an external factor, while the personal traits of middle managers were viewed as internal factors because these managers are the agents for values and for behavior models, from corporate directives to “front-desk’ personnel. The goal of this theoretical and empirical study was to determine the personality traits of middle managers who were deemed effective by top management in companies transitioning to the market-innovative model of development in the context of different types of OCs. During the preliminary stage, we conducted a comparative analysis of the requirements for the personal traits of middle managers who are working in stable conditions as well as in conditions of transfer to the market-innovative model of development, and we selected the relevant methods of empirical research. During the first stage of the empirical part of our research we defined a group of four enterprises with OCs of different types, identified their effective mid-level managers based on expert evaluations by the top leadership, and formed test groups. During the second stage we studied the personal characteristics of these managers. We determined that the personality traits of managers deemed effective by their leaders form integral complexes, which in turn correlate in a certain way with the type of ОС of an enterprise. We identified four models of an effective manager: Mentor, Dictator, Innovator, and Businessman; these managers have varying degrees of work productivity, value priorities in the development of ОС, personal self-concepts, organizational leadership skills

  1. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder According to the Crime Types

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    Hasan KARADAG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the relation between the crimes committed, and the childhood behavioral problems, current clinical characteristics and anger levels of patients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD. One hundred and fifty-three patients with ASPD were enrolled. The diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV criteria. DSM-IV conduct disorder criteria and life history inventory was used to assess childhood characteristics. The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS was used to assess experience, expression, and control of anger. The main differences between crime groups were as follows: A head trauma history was more frequent in ASPD patients who had a crime history of physical assault. Loss of a parent in childhood was more frequent in individuals who committed burglary. Divorce or separation of the parents in childhood was more frequent in those who committed murder. The usage of weapons in fight during childhood was significantly higher in those who committed murder and aggravated assault. According to STAS scores, the anger control scores were significantly lower in those who committed murder. Childhood and behavioral characteristics of ASPD patients is not homogenous. There is a need for further studies to demonstrate these differences and make a new classification for ASPD. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 13-21

  2. Using Functional or Structural Magnetic Resonance Images and Personal Characteristic Data to Identify ADHD and Autism.

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    Sina Ghiassian

    Full Text Available A clinical tool that can diagnose psychiatric illness using functional or structural magnetic resonance (MR brain images has the potential to greatly assist physicians and improve treatment efficacy. Working toward the goal of automated diagnosis, we propose an approach for automated classification of ADHD and autism based on histogram of oriented gradients (HOG features extracted from MR brain images, as well as personal characteristic data features. We describe a learning algorithm that can produce effective classifiers for ADHD and autism when run on two large public datasets. The algorithm is able to distinguish ADHD from control with hold-out accuracy of 69.6% (over baseline 55.0% using personal characteristics and structural brain scan features when trained on the ADHD-200 dataset (769 participants in training set, 171 in test set. It is able to distinguish autism from control with hold-out accuracy of 65.0% (over baseline 51.6% using functional images with personal characteristic data when trained on the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE dataset (889 participants in training set, 222 in test set. These results outperform all previously presented methods on both datasets. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a single automated learning process that can produce classifiers for distinguishing patients vs. controls from brain imaging data with above-chance accuracy on large datasets for two different psychiatric illnesses (ADHD and autism. Working toward clinical applications requires robustness against real-world conditions, including the substantial variability that often exists among data collected at different institutions. It is therefore important that our algorithm was successful with the large ADHD-200 and ABIDE datasets, which include data from hundreds of participants collected at multiple institutions. While the resulting classifiers are not yet clinically relevant, this work shows that there is a signal in

  3. Personality characteristics and quality of life in patients treated for Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonino, Nicoletta; Bonnini, Stefano; Fallo, Francesco; Boscaro, Marco; Fava, Giovanni A

    2006-03-01

    Psychological distress does not always disappear upon proper endocrine treatment of Cushing's syndrome, and quality of life may still be compromised. Little is known on the personality correlates that may be involved. The aim of this study was to provide a controlled assessment of personality characteristics and quality of life in patients successfully treated for Cushing's syndrome. A single-centred, controlled, prospective study. Twenty-four consecutive outpatients who were in remission upon proper treatment of Cushing's syndrome for at least 1 year and no more than 3 years (20 with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease and four with a cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma; 5 M/19 F; mean age 34.5, SD = 10.6; range 18-57 years) were compared with 24 healthy control subjects matched for sociodemographic variables. Both patients and controls were administered two self-rating scales: (a) tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ), a 100-item inventory that yields three scales: novelty seeking, harm avoidance and reward dependence. (b) symptom rating test (SRT), a 46-item scale for assessing psychological distress and quality of life with six subscales (anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, anger-hostility, cognitive symptoms, psychotic symptoms). There were no significant differences in personality dimensions, as measured by the TPQ, between patients and controls. The results did not change when the four patients with an adrenal adenoma were excluded and only the 20 with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease were considered. As to the SRT scale, patients with Cushing's syndrome displayed significantly higher scores in anxiety (P= 0.046), depression (P= 0.013), and psychotic symptoms (P= 0.006), with a generalized compromised quality of life (P= 0.02). Again, no differences were found in evaluating the 20 patients with Cushing's disease separately. Even though personality traits other than those explored here may be involved, the results seem to exclude the

  4. Triggering Parental Involvement for Parents of Different Language Backgrounds: The Role of Types of Partnership Activities and Preschool Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachfeld, Axinja; Anders, Yvonne; Kuger, Susanne; Smidt, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Home and educational institutions are children's most important external influences and a positive partnership between the two can positively affect children's cognitive and non-cognitive development. Quality of family-preschool partnership (FPP) can depend on preschool and family characteristics. For Germany, studies show that immigrant parents…

  5. An investigation on the effects of personal characteristics on word of mouth advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinali Aziziha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to measure the effect of personal characteristics including neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness and agreeableness on word of mouth advertisement. The population of this survey includes all people who use mobile phone in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scape and distributes it among 400 randomly selected people who use mobile devices. Using Spearman correlation test, the study confirms the positive of effects of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience on word of mouth advertisement and the negative impact of agreeableness on word of mouth advertisement. However, the study does not find any meaningful relationship between conscientiousness and word of mouth advertisement.

  6. Conditioning factors of test-taking engagement in PIAAC: an exploratory IRT modelling approach considering person and item characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Goldhammer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A potential problem of low-stakes large-scale assessments such as the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC is low test-taking engagement. The present study pursued two goals in order to better understand conditioning factors of test-taking disengagement: First, a model-based approach was used to investigate whether item indicators of disengagement constitute a continuous latent person variable by domain. Second, the effects of person and item characteristics were jointly tested using explanatory item response models. Methods Analyses were based on the Canadian sample of Round 1 of the PIAAC, with N = 26,683 participants completing test items in the domains of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving. Binary item disengagement indicators were created by means of item response time thresholds. Results The results showed that disengagement indicators define a latent dimension by domain. Disengagement increased with lower educational attainment, lower cognitive skills, and when the test language was not the participant’s native language. Gender did not exert any effect on disengagement, while age had a positive effect for problem solving only. An item’s location in the second of two assessment modules was positively related to disengagement, as was item difficulty. The latter effect was negatively moderated by cognitive skill, suggesting that poor test-takers are especially likely to disengage with more difficult items. Conclusions The negative effect of cognitive skill, the positive effect of item difficulty, and their negative interaction effect support the assumption that disengagement is the outcome of individual expectations about success (informed disengagement.

  7. 罪犯人格特征研究%Characteristic of Criminal Personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳红; 李满林; 陈贵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the personality characteristics and the positive rate of personality disorders among criminals . Methods PDQ-4+( personality diagnostic questionnaire -4+) was administrated to 378 criminals for screening personality disorder . Results The mean of PDQ-4+total score and the subscales of different type of personality disorder were higher than those of universi -ty sample and normal sample in China (t=2.62~22.59,P<0.01).The results of percentile showed that the scores of all criminals were higher at the points of 90%and 95%than cut-off scores of PDQ-4+.There existed age differences in antisocial ,narcissistic,passive-attack,histrionic personality disorder (F=5.67,4.03,2.63,4.98,2.49;P<0.05),and there existed significant criminals profession differences in antisocial,borderline,histrionic,narcissistic,avoidant,dependent and passive-attack personality disorder(F=11.77,3.09, 2.87,3.33,3.49,3.86,3.87;P<0.05).The score of PDQ-4 +and some different types of personality disorder also existed signifi-cant difference in gender.(t=2.17~7.23,P<0.05).Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the personality of criminal cenld be di -vided into three different types .Conclusion The positive rate of personality disorders among criminals is higher and the criminal person -ality is influenced by many factors .And the three classification personality model is a effective classification model based on the personal -ity disorders data .%目的:用人格诊断问卷( PDQ-4+)调查罪犯群体人格障碍阳性率,探讨罪犯人群人格的特殊性。方法以PDQ-4+问卷为工具,按照整群随机抽样的原则调查罪犯群体378人。结果罪犯人群样本的PDQ-4+总分及各项分量表均分都显著高于大学生人群和普通人群,差异均有统计学意义(t=2.62~22.59,P<0.01或P<0.001);各分量表得分的百分位显示在P90、P95位的得分普遍高出原量表划界分;方差

  8. Anti-social personality characteristics and psychotic symptoms: Two pathways associated with offending in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; Barendregt, Marko; Van Beveren, Nico M; De Beurs, Edwin; Van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2015-07-01

    Several research groups have shown that people with schizophrenia who offend do not form a homogenous group. A three-group model claimed by Hodgins proposes distinguishing between people who start offending before the onset of psychosis (early starters), after psychosis onset but at age 34 years or under (late starters) and after psychosis onset but at age 35 years or older (late first offenders). This study aimed to test the hypotheses (1) that the personality of early starters and non-psychotic offenders would be similar, but different from either late-starter group; (2) that the late-starter groups would be more likely to have positive psychotic symptoms than non-criminal patients with schizophrenia; and (3) that symptom types would differentiate the psychotic groups. A retrospective file study was conducted on cases of 97 early starters, 100 late starters and 26 late first offenders all drawn from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology (NIFP) archives 1993-2008, 115 non-psychotic offenders from 2005-2008 NIFP archives and 129 patients with schizophrenia and no criminal history from one general service in Rotterdam. Early starters closely resembled the non-psychotic offenders in their premorbid anti-social personality characteristics. The two late-onset offending psychosis groups were more likely to have persecutory and/or grandiose delusions than non-offenders with psychosis, but so were the early starters. In a first study to compare subgroups of offenders with psychosis directly with non-psychotic offenders and non-offenders with psychosis, we found such additional support for a distinction between early and late starters with psychosis that different treatment strategies would seem indicated, focusing on personality and substance misuse for the former but psychotic symptoms for all. It remains to be seen whether the higher rate of alcohol misuse amongst late first offenders is a fundamental distinction or a function of age

  9. Influence of Emotional States on the Functioning of Perceptual Sphere and Characteristics of the Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakova Irina Vadimovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the psychological interplay between the formation of perceptual skills and personal qualities. The purpose of the study was to determine the characteristics of this relationship during playback of a given sample in different emotional states. It is hypothesized that there is a connection between such personal qualities as a spontaneous aggressiveness, depression, irritability, emotional lability and peculiarities of functioning of sensory-perceptual sphere during playback of a given sample. 55 students of the Smolensk State University took part in the study. The instrumentation consisted of FPI techniques, ITO, R. Plutchik and measurement precision motor skills in different emotional states of the subject. In the experimental part of the work the special research tool specifically created for the given aim was used; it measured errors when playing a sample of the right and left hand of the subject which then was correlated with the results of the survey recipients. Comparative mapping of indicators of pressure on the levers of the meter in different hands clarified their specific contribution to skill formation and its strong correlation with psychological features of a person. The authors made conclusion that the change of emotional state transforms the perception of the sample; in a state of emotional arousal the errors of the right hand when playing the sample increase more rapidly than the errors of the left hand compared with similar work in the state that recipients assessed as normal working conditions; changes in emotional state affect the fidelity of a given sample; examinees do not fully appreciated errors in reproducing the set of standards.

  10. Personal and Professional Characteristics of Music Educators: One Size Does Not Fit All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Mary Lynn; van Mersbergen, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of voice disorders among various educator groups is well known, and voice disorders among music educators are higher than the general classroom educators. Music educators vary with respect to behavioral and personality factors, personal characteristics, type of music taught, job-specific environment, and governmental professional expectations. This study aims to identify risk factors for voice disorders in a heterogeneous population of music educators. An online survey was conducted with 213 respondents. Survey questions addressed demographics, level of education, years of music teaching experience, specialty training, primary teaching assignments and instrument, vocal health behaviors, and diagnoses of voice disorders. Summary statistics and group comparisons are reported. Those whose primary instrument was voice reported a greater frequency of voice disorders. Female and older music educators also had a higher prevalence of voice disorders. Music educators are a heterogeneous group of individuals who require more careful consideration in the prevention and treatment of occupational voice problems. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A social work study to investigate the relationships between women’s personal characteristics and employment status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Basity

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measures the reflection of repliers to different social factors including social position, popularity, socialize, social manners, self-reliance, speech abilities, responsibility, etc. Data were gathered from a sample of 300 people using random sampling and analyzed using descriptive mono factor statistics, Spearman correlation, Kramer correlation coefficient, Chi-square, regression and path analysis. The validity of questionnaire is tested by using Cronbach alpha (%75. The results indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between woman’s educational level, age, residency status, socialization capability, urbanity, skill & ability and their employment. The study, however, does not find any relationship between marital status and number of children and outcome of woman’s employment.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF RECREATIVE SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING ON MUSIC AND INTELLECTUAL FACTORS AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS

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    Jadranka Kocić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized swimming is way of acivitie connected with music. Emotional character in it could be very efficiency mean of childs` and youth` sport-recreative activities. The research was lead on 60 girls 7-15 years old, elementary schools pupils in Niš, members „Sirene“ Niš synchronized swimming clyb. Music abilities research was obtained using Seashore test for basic music abilities. For testing input procesors, perceptive reason, it was used IT-1 test. For testing efficiency parallel prosecor it was used S-1 test. For testing serial procesors, symbolic reason, it was used AL-4 test sinonime-atimime. For testing personal characteristics it was used instruments for testing dimensions of functional konnative regulatione mechanisms model. It was used bases statistics for every researcg area (music abilities, intellectual abilities, konnative characteristics and criteria variable; to estimate influence each predictor variable on criteria variable, it was used regression analysis. Results showed statistic efficiency in music and konnative factors. Synchronized swimming activities influence on growing spontaneous, independence developing, tense releases, and it is exellent area for emotional health and society desirable behaveour norm. These activities are reached by music, which in melodie and rithm diversity, gives complete enjoyment, and psychosisical relax and refreshment.

  13. Determination of the Neutron Fluence, the Beam Characteristics and the Backgrounds at the CERN-PS TOF Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Leal, L C; Kitis, G; Guber, K H; Quaranta, A; Koehler, P E

    2002-01-01

    In the scope of our programme we propose to start in July 2000 with measurements on elements of well known cross sections, in order to check the reliability of the whole experimental installation at the CERN-TOF facility. These initial exploratory measurements will provide the key-parameters required for the further experimentation at the CERN-TOF neutron beam. The neutron fluence and energy resolution will be determined as a function of the neutron kinetic energy by reproducing standard capture and fission cross sections. The measurements of capture cross sections on elements with specific cross section features will allow to us to disentangle the different components of backgrounds and estimate their level in the experimental area. The time-energy calibration will be determined and monitored with a set of monoenergetic filters as well as by the measurements of elements with resonance-dominated cross sections. Finally, in this initial phase the behaviour of several detectors scheduled in successive measureme...

  14. Individualizing characteristics of footprints in Malaysian Malays for person identification from a forensic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nataraja Moorthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the valuable physical evidence that a suspect leaves unintentionally at a crime scene is likely to include footprints. Physical evidence needs to be utilized to express individual characteristics. Very keen analysis of footprints can provide useful information to establish personal identity and ease the crime investigation. The present study aims to analyze and describe the individual characteristics of footprints of Malaysian Malays from a forensic perspective in a sample of 400 adult Malay participants consisting of 200 males and 200 females. The footprints were collected using an inkless shoe print kit (Carolina, USA. Various features of the toes, humps in the toe line, phalange marks, flatfoot condition, pits, cracks, corns, etc., were investigated. The frequency of these characteristics was recorded. The frequency of the fibularis-type foot is the highest, followed by the tibialis-type, the intermediate-type and the midularis-type is found to have the least frequency in both the sexes. This sequence is found to be different from the sequence observed in the north Indian population. Two humps have been found most often in male footprints followed by three humps and zero hump is found to be the least frequent. While in female footprints, three humps have been found, most often followed by two humps and zero hump is found to be the least frequent. Other identifying features are also highlighted using illustrations. This trait shows bilateral variation. The morphological length of toes and some other features in this study are found to be different from footprints of Indian Tamils, North Indian Gujjars and the Thai population.

  15. Contribution of Genetic Background, Traditional Risk Factors, and HIV-Related Factors to Coronary Artery Disease Events in HIV-Positive Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R.; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.; Poloni, Estella S.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S.; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M.; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H.; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R.; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A.; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C.; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. Methods In the general population, 23 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were shown to be associated with CAD through genome-wide association analysis. Using the Metabochip, we genotyped 1875 HIV-positive, white individuals enrolled in 24 HIV observational studies, including 571 participants with a first CAD event during the 9-year study period and 1304 controls matched on sex and cohort. Results A genetic risk score built from 23 CAD-associated SNPs contributed significantly to CAD (P = 2.9×10−4). In the final multivariable model, participants with an unfavorable genetic background (top genetic score quartile) had a CAD odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–2.04). This effect was similar to hypertension (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06–1.73), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16–1.96), diabetes (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10–2.49), ≥1 year lopinavir exposure (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06–1.73), and current abacavir treatment (OR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.17–2.07). The effect of the genetic risk score was additive to the effect of nongenetic CAD risk factors, and did not change after adjustment for family history of CAD. Conclusions In the setting of HIV infection, the effect of an unfavorable genetic background was similar to traditional CAD risk factors and certain adverse antiretroviral exposures. Genetic testing may provide prognostic information complementary to family history of CAD. PMID:23532479

  16. Personal characteristics associated with resident physicians' self perceptions of preparedness to deliver cross-cultural care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lenny; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Cohen, Amy P; Betancourt, Joseph; Weissman, Joel S

    2008-12-01

    Recent reports from the Institute of Medicine emphasize patient-centered care and cross-cultural training as a means of improving the quality of medical care and eliminating racial and ethnic disparities. To determine whether, controlling for training received in medical school or during residency, resident physician socio-cultural characteristics influence self-perceived preparedness and skill in delivering cross-cultural care. National survey of resident physicians. A probability sample of residents in seven specialties in their final year of training at US academic health centers. Nine resident characteristics were analyzed. Differences in preparedness and skill were assessed using the chi(2) statistic and multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-eight percent (2047/3500) of residents responded. The most important factor associated with improved perceived skill level in performing selected tasks or services believed to be useful in treating culturally diverse patients was having received cross-cultural skills training during residency (OR range 1.71-4.22). Compared with white residents, African American physicians felt more prepared to deal with patients with distrust in the US healthcare system (OR 1.63) and with racial or ethnic minorities (OR 1.61), Latinos reported feeling more prepared to deal with new immigrants (OR 1.88) and Asians reported feeling more prepared to deal with patients with health beliefs at odds with Western medicine (1.43). Cross-cultural care skills training is associated with increased self-perceived preparedness to care for diverse patient populations providing support for the importance of such training in graduate medical education. In addition, selected resident characteristics are associated with being more or less prepared for different aspects of cross-cultural care. This underscores the need to both include medical residents from diverse backgrounds in all training programs and tailor such programs to individual resident needs in

  17. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation characteristic of the new high background radiation area of lambwe east southern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achola, S.O.; Patel, J.P.; Angeyo, H.K.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Rocks and soils from a number of areas underlined by carbonatite rocks in Kenya have been associated with high levels of natural background radioactivity. People in such high background radiation areas (HBRA), are exposed to abnormally high annual absorbed dose (that have health implications) than the global normal 1 mSvyr-1. In this paper, results of field background radiation measurements, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in (mainly carbonatite rock and soil) matrices, and estimated annual external effective dose rates are presented for South and North Ruri hills in Lambwe East location of Suba District, which lies roughly between latitudes 0°30'S and 1°00'S, bounded on the east by longitude 34°30'E and on the west by the shores of Lake Victoria 16 and Winnam Gulf. Altitudes in the region range from about 1000 m on the shores of Lake Victoria to above 1800 m on top of the Ruri hills. The main geological features are carbonatite formations. Twenty one samples were analyzed using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer. The activity concentrations ranged 14.18 - 6559.99 Bqkg-1 (average: 1396.85 Bqkg-1) for Th-232; 2.73 - 499.24 Bqkg-1 (average: 178.69 Bqkg-1) for U-238; and 56.67 - 1454.73 Bqkg-1 (average: 508.67 Bqkg-1) for K-40. The variability in Th distribution could be due to another contributing factor apart from carbonatite: Homa hills geothermal field fluids might be responsible for delivery of Th to surface rocks; some hot spots have travertine deposits. Measured absorbed dose rates in air outdoors range 700 - 6000.00 nGyh-1 (mean: 2325.84 nGy h-1); assuming 0.4 occupancy factor, these values correspond to individual annual effective dose rates of 1.717 - 14.717 mSvyr-1 (mean: 5.705 mSv yr-1). Measured absorbed dose rates are higher than calculated values since they include the contribution of cosmic rays. The natural radioactivity is fractionated with higher levels in the soils than carbonatite rocks

  18. Television images and probable posttraumatic stress disorder after September 11: the role of background characteristics, event exposures, and perievent panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Jennifer; Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Vlahov, David

    2004-03-01

    Television viewing has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after disasters and traumas; we examined characteristics that may explain this association among New Yorkers after September 11, 2001. Among 2001 respondents to a random-digit dial telephone survey conducted 4 months after September 11, people who viewed more television images in the 7 days after September 11 had more probable PTSD. People in the highest third of viewing had a 2.32 times greater odds of probable PTSD after September 11 compared with people in the lowest third of viewing; after adjustment for explanatory variables, the relative odds of probable PTSD were 1.66. Adjustment for perievent panic accounted for 44% of the reduction in association between television and probable PTSD, suggesting that perievent emotional reactions may play an important role in the television and psychopathology association. Television may merit consideration as a potential exposure to a traumatic event.

  19. Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 during summer at a background site of the Yangtze River Delta in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Linlin; Engling, Guenter; Zhang, Xiaoye; Sun, Junying; Zhang, Yangmei; Xu, Wanyun; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Gen; Liu, Xuyan; Ma, Qianli

    2017-12-01

    With rapid economic development and urbanization, particular attention has been paid to atmospheric chemical studies in the Yangtze River Delta in China. PM2.5 samples were collected by a MiniVol™ air sampler in summer time at a background site of the Yangtze River Delta in China. Carbonaceous components, i.e., OC and EC, levoglucosan and water-soluble inorganic ions, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, etc., were quantified. The average concentration of PM2.5 in summer at Lin'an was 30.19 ± 8.86 μg m-3, lower than previous studies reported, confirming that air pollution in China is improving, e.g., by emission control measures and subsequent reduction in PM emissions in China. Investigating the relationship among sulfate, nitrate and ammonium showed that SO42- existed as (NH4)2SO4, while NO3- may have been present as NaNO3 and KNO3. Based on molecular tracers, synoptic data as well as air mass back trajectory analysis, it was revealed that regional transport and stable synoptic conditions both play an important role in controlling the variations of aerosol chemical components. The comparison of chemical species between clean and hazy days showed that secondary organic and inorganic aerosols have different production processes. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) was much more important during clean days, while secondary inorganic aerosol species were readily produced and consequently became more important during polluted periods in Lin'an during summer time.

  20. Vocations as a source of identity: reciprocal relations between Big Five personality traits and RIASEC characteristics over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Bart; De Fruyt, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Although work is a core part of life, the direction of influence from personality to work has typically been conceived as only unidirectional. The present study aims to contribute to the literature by considering reciprocal relations between personality and occupational characteristics, drawing on current perspectives from personality psychology (i.e., the social investment principle) and using a well-established framework to conceptualize career development (i.e., Holland's RIASEC theory). For this purpose, a longitudinal cohort of college alumni (N = 266) was tracked across a substantial and significant period in their professional career. Big Five personality traits and RIASEC occupational characteristics were assessed at the career start and 15 years later when their careers had unfolded. A combination of observed and latent variable analyses were used to disentangle the longitudinal and reciprocal relations between traits and occupational characteristics. Our results indicate that personality shapes and is shaped by our vocational experiences, suggesting that work can be a source of identity. The implications for theory and research on personality in the industrial and organizational literature are discussed alongside a number of practical implications for organizational and counseling settings.

  1. [Influence of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Li-Jun; Qin, Hui-Qing; Shi, Wang-Hong; Guo, Wei; Zhen, Ying

    2012-03-01

    To explore the effects of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. From August 2009 to April 2010, 231 patients (obtained 217 effective responses) with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia were recruited. Among the patients, there were 123 males and 94 females, with an average age of (38.00 +/- 5.67) years (ranged from 15 to 66 years). Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used to test social support and psychological characteristic and compared the difference of psychological, personality traits and norm, then analyzed the effect of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic. Two hundred and seventeen (93.9%) patients completed the questionnaire. Compared with normal 16PF scores, there were significant differences in factor scores of intelligence, stability, excitability, perseverance,social boldness, vigilance, sophistication, experimental, independence and tonicity (P characteristic between patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and norms. Improving social support level and optimizing personality traits can improve psychological profile of these patients.

  2. [Analysis of acid rain characteristics of Lin'an Regional Background Station using long-term observation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Quan; Ma, Hao; Mao, Yu-Ding; Feng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    Using long-term observation data of acid rain at Lin'an Regional Background Station (Lin'an RBS), this paper studied the interannual and monthly variations of acid rain, the reasons for the variations, and the relationships between acid rain and meteorological factors. The results showed that interannual variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS had a general increasing trend in which there were two obvious intensifying processes and two distinct weakening processes, during the period ranging from 1985 to 2012. In last two decades, the monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS indicated that rain acidity and frequency of severe acid rain were increasing but the frequency of weak acid rain was decreasing when moving towards bilateral side months of July. Acid rain occurrence was affected by rainfall intensity, wind speed and wind direction. High frequency of severe acid rain and low frequency of weak acid rain were on days with drizzle, but high frequency of weak acid rain and low frequency of severe acid rain occurred on rainstorm days. With wind speed upgrading, the frequency of acid rain and the proportion of severe acid rain were declining, the pH value of precipitation was reducing too. Another character is that daily dominant wind direction of weak acid rain majorly converged in S-W section ,however that of severe acid rain was more likely distributed in N-E section. The monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS was mainly attributed to precipitation variation, the increasing and decreasing of monthly incoming wind from SSE-WSW and NWN-ENE sections of wind direction. The interannual variation of acid rain could be due to the effects of energy consumption raising and significant green policies conducted in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai.

  3. Deaf students and their classroom communication: an evaluation of higher order categorical interactions among school and background characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas E; Anderson, Melissa L

    2010-01-01

    This article investigated to what extent age, use of a cochlear implant, parental hearing status, and use of sign in the home determine language of instruction for profoundly deaf children. Categorical data from 8,325 profoundly deaf students from the 2008 Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children and Youth were analyzed using chi-square automated interaction detector, a stepwise analytic procedure that allows the assessment of higher order interactions among categorical variables. Results indicated that all characteristics were significantly related to classroom communication modality. Although younger and older students demonstrated a different distribution of communication modality, for both younger and older students, cochlear implantation had the greatest effect on differentiating students into communication modalities, yielding greater gains in the speech-only category for implanted students. For all subgroups defined by age and implantation status, the use of sign at home further segregated the sample into communication modality subgroups, reducing the likelihood of speech only and increasing the placement of students into signing classroom settings. Implications for future research in the field of deaf education are discussed.

  4. The Analysis of The Phenomenon of Silence in Organizational Investigated in the Context of Personal Characteristics: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Uçar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to reveal personal characteristics of employees (depending on psychological and demographic that affect their openly speech and these characteristics in what way effect the silence behavior of employees. In the study was designed as a qualitative research, data were obtained semi structured interviews and focus group techniques. The research sample is consists of fourtyone participants have assignmen at different levels in different organizational structure. The result of research show that in addition to personal characteristics reveal struggle for life style of individuals like “locus of control”, “self-esteem” some demographic characteristics of the individuals like gender, education effect their decisions they have given direction to remain silent.

  5. Mediating factors in martial arts and combat sports: an analysis of the type of martial art, characteristics, and social background of young participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertonghen, Jikkemien; Theeboom, Marc; Pieter, Willy

    2014-02-01

    To date, most studies regarding the social-psychological effects of martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) on young people focus on measuring effects without considering mediating factors. The aim of the present study was to analyze three mediating factors that might be influential when examining outcomes of MA&CS for youth (i.e., the type of MA&CS, participants' characteristics, and social background). Young MA&CS participants (N = 477, M age = 14.0 yr., SD = 2.13) practicing judo, aikido, kick-/Thai boxing or karate, as well as their parents (N = 307), were assessed in terms of their goal orientations, aggressiveness, psychosocial behavior, and social background. It was concluded that differences exist in the characteristics and social background of participants depending on the type of MA&CS being practiced. The fact that differences in these mediating factors can be identified indicates that in future research these and possible other mediating factors should be considered when trying to determine social-psychological outcomes of MA&CS.

  6. Characteristics of autobiographical memories and prospective imagery across a spectrum of hypomanic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Brittany; Moulds, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of a strong causal relationship between mental imagery and emotion has informed psychological conceptualisations of disordered positive mood states (i.e., mania). Holmes et al.'s cognitive model of bipolar disorder asserts a prominent role for intrusive and affect-laden positive imagery of the past and the future in the amplification and maintenance of positive mood and associated manic behaviours. The aims of the current study were two-fold: (1) to test aspects of this model in a non-clinical population sampled for hypomanic personality traits and (2) to examine the phenomenological characteristics of positive autobiographical memories and imagery of the future. Undergraduate students (N = 80) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires and rated their positive and negative memories and images of the future on a number of dimensions. We found significant positive correlations between hypomanic tendencies and the (1) everyday experience and use of mental imagery, (2) experience of intrusive mental imagery of future events, (3) emotional intensity and sensory detail of positive but not negative autobiographical memories. Results are discussed in the context of their theoretical and clinical implications, and directions for future research are considered.

  7. High schoolers masturbatory practices: their relationship to sexual intercourse and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Rosenthal, D A; Reichler, H

    1996-10-01

    This study examined the self-reported masturbatory experiences of high schooler and the relationships between masturbation and sexual intercourse and personal characteristics of these young people. A total of 436 suburban Australian adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age participated. Boys were more likely to report ever having masturbated (58.5%, versus 42.7%) and to have done so more frequently than girls (38.2% versus 8.7% reporting masturbating three or more times a week). While there was no significant sex difference in the age of initiation of masturbation there was some evidence that girls began masturbation earlier than boys. Whether sexual intercourse replaced or supplemented masturbation as a sexual practice could not be resolved, but there was evidence that masturbation was positively correlated with sexual self esteem. Young people whose parents provided a more open environment for the discussion of sexuality were more likely to report having masturbated, although the environment had a complex relationship with masturbatory practices as did young people's self rated physical maturity compared to their peers. A range of social and contextual factors must be explored to understand more fully this important component of young people's sexual experience.

  8. Personal and lifestyle characteristics predictive of the consumption of fast foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Philip; Wilson, Carlene; Dunn, Kirsten; Brindal, Emily; Wittert, Gary

    2007-12-01

    To identify key predictors of fast-food consumption from a range of demographic, attitudinal, personality and lifestyle variables. We analysed data from a nationwide survey (n = 20 527) conducted in Australia by Nielsen Media Research. Items assessing frequency of fast-food consumption at (1) eat in and (2) take away were regressed onto 12 demographic, seven media consumption, and 23 psychological and lifestyle variables, the latter derived from factor analysis of responses to 107 attitudinal and behavioural items. Stepwise multiple regression analyses explained 29.6% of the variance for frequency of take-away and 9.6% of the variance for frequency of eat-in consumption of fast foods. Predictors of more frequent consumption of fast food at take away (and, to a lesser extent, eat in) included lower age - especially under 45 years, relative indifference to health consequences of behaviour, greater household income, more exposure to advertising, greater receptiveness to advertising, lesser allocation of time for eating, and greater allocation of time to home entertainment. There were no effects for occupational status or education level. The effects for age suggest that fast-food take-away consumption is associated with a general cultural shift in eating practices; individual differences in attitudinal and lifestyle characteristics constitute additional, cumulative, predictive factors. The role of advertising and the reasons for the lesser explanatory value of the eat-in models are important targets for further research.

  9. The Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted And Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction: The goal of this study was to compare the personality characteristics and problem solving styles of addicted and non-addicted men. Method: This study is a causal comparative design survey. In this study 180 addicted men was selected through convenience sampling method from addicted men that refered to addiction treatment centers of Rasht city and matched in gender, age, education and job with 180 non addicted men and then two groups compared with each other. All participants completed the NEO-FFI-R and problem solving styles questionnaires. The gathered data were analyzed through SPSS software. Findings: The results showed that an addicted man in comparison with non-addicted men was upper in neuroticism and lower in agreeableness, extraversion and consciousness dimensions. Also there was no difference in openness dimension between two groups. Conclusion: The finding of present study suggests that educating efficient problem solving styles to people to cope with life stressful events could restrain and prevent addiction and other psychosocial disorders.

  10. Attitudinal Factors and Personal Characteristics Influence Support for Shellfish Aquaculture in Rhode Island (US) Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Tracey M; Jin, Di

    2018-05-01

    This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses. Findings highlight that support for (or opposition to) aquaculture in RI is driven more by attitudes associated with social impacts than by those associated with environmental impacts. The level of support is also affected by personal characteristics related to an individual's participation in recreational activities. For instance, bicycle riders tend to be supportive of shellfish aquaculture while respondents who participate in sailing and birding are less supportive. By identifying the broader public's interests in shellfish aquaculture, findings from this study and others like it can be used to address public concerns, incorporate public perceptions and attitudes into permitting decisions, and develop outreach targeted at specific stakeholder groups.

  11. Sorption and biodegradation characteristics of the selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products onto tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, Mahsa; Hu, Jiangyong; Tran, Ngoc Han; Ong, Say Leong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the sorption and biodegradation characteristics of five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), crotamiton (CTMT), diethyltoluamide (DEET) and salicylic acid (SA), were studied in laboratory-batch experiments. Sorption kinetics experimental data showed that sorption systems under this study were more appropriately described by the pseudo second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient (R2)>0.98. Sorption equilibrium data of almost all target compounds onto soil could be better described by the Freundlich sorption isotherm model. The adsorption results showed higher soil affinity for SA, following by ACT. Results also indicated a slight effect of pH on PPCP adsorption with lower pH causing lower adsorption of compounds onto the soil except for SA at pH 12. Moreover, adsorption of PPCPs onto the soil was influenced by natural organic matter (NOM) since the higher amount of NOM caused lower adsorption to the soil. Biodegradation studies of selected PPCPs by indigenous microbial community present in soil appeared that the removal rates of ACT, SA and DEET increased with time while no effect had been observed for the rest. This study suggests that the CBZ and CTMT can be considered as suitable chemical sewage indicators based on their low sorption affinity and high resistance to biodegradation.

  12. Background characteristics and treatment-related factors associated with treatment success or failure in a non-pharmacological intervention for dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Karen C; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-06-01

    Non-pharmacological interventions for persons with dementia often rely on family caregivers for implementation. However, caregivers differ in their readiness to use strategies. This study examines dyadic characteristics and treatment-related mechanisms associated with treatment success (high readiness to use strategies) and failure (low readiness to use strategies) at the conclusion of the Advancing Caregiver Training (ACT) intervention. Caregiver and person with dementia characteristics and treatment-related variables (treatment participation, number and type of strategies introduced and enacted) were examined in 110 caregivers in intervention. Interventionists rated readiness (1=precontemplation; 2=contemplation; 3=preparation; 4=action) of caregivers to use strategies at the final ACT session. Univariate analyses examined dyadic characteristics, and Multiple Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) and Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA) examined treatment-related factors associated with readiness to use strategies at treatment completion. At treatment completion, 28.2% (N=31) scored in pre-action and 71.8% (N=79) at action. Caregivers at pre-action readiness levels were more likely than those at action to be a spouse, report greater financial difficulties and be managing fewer problem behaviors. Although both groups were introduced an equivalent number of non-pharmacological strategies, caregivers at pre-action were less likely than those at action to report enacting strategies. Certain dyadic characteristics and treatment-related factors were associated with treatment failure including financial strain and lack of strategy integration. Findings suggest that developing intervention components to address financial concerns and increase opportunities for practicing strategies and then using them between treatment sessions may be important for caregivers at risk of treatment failure.

  13. Capacitance–voltage and current–voltage characteristics for the study of high background doping and conduction mechanisms in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzazi, Boussairi; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The cause of high background doping was confirmed and characterized. ► The current–voltage characteristics deviate from the thermionic emission. ► The recombination current is attributed to a hole trap (E V + 0.52 eV). ► The hole trap (E V + 0.52 eV) was confirmed by DLTS measurements. -- Abstract: The temperature dependence of capacitance–voltage (C–V) and current voltage (I–V) characteristics were used to study the cause of high background doping and the underlying current transport mechanisms in GaAsN Schottky diode grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). In one hand, a nitrogen-related sigmoid increase of junction capacitance and ionized acceptor concentration was observed in the temperature range 70–100 K and was attributed to the thermal ionization of a nitrogen–hydrogen-related deep acceptor-state, with thermal activation energy of approximately 0.11 eV above the valence band maximum (VBM) of GaAsN. This acceptor state is mainly responsible for the high background doping in unintentionally doped GaAsN grown by CBE. On the other hand, the I–V characteristics at different temperatures were found to deviate from the well known pure thermionic-emission mechanism. Based on their fitting at each temperature, the recombination current in the space charge region of GaAsN Schottky diode was mainly attributed to a hole trap, localized at 0.51 eV above the VBM. Given the accuracy of measurements, this result was confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy measurements. Nevertheless, considering the Shockley–Read–Hall model of generation-recombination, the recombination activity of this defect was quantified and qualified to be weak compared with the markedly degradation of minority carrier lifetime in GaAsN material

  14. Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Julie Brill

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred…

  15. Noise annoys: effects of noise on breeding great tits depend on personality but not on noise characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naguib, M.; Van Oers, K.; Braakhuis, A.; Griffioen, M.; De Goede, P.; Waas, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise can have serious implications for animals, especially when they communicate acoustically. Yet, the impacts of noise may depend not only on noise characteristics but also on an individual's coping style or personality. We tested whether noise is more disturbing if it masks

  16. Do Participants Differ in Their Cognitive Abilities, Task Motivation, or Personality Characteristics as a Function of Time of Participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Matthew K.; Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments tested the conventional wisdom in experimental psychology that participants who complete laboratory tasks systematically differ in their cognitive abilities, motivational levels, and personality characteristics as a function of the time at which they participate during an academic term. Across 4 experiments with over 2,900…

  17. ADHD-200 Global Competition: Diagnosing ADHD using personal characteristic data can outperform resting state fMRI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R G Brown

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging-based diagnostics could potentially assist clinicians to make more accurate diagnoses resulting in faster, more effective treatment. We participated in the 2011 ADHD-200 Global Competition which involved analyzing a large dataset of 973 participants including ADHD patients and healthy controls. Each participant's data included a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan as well as personal characteristic and diagnostic data. The goal was to learn a machine learning classifier that used a participant's resting state fMRI scan to diagnose (classify that individual into one of three categories: healthy control, ADHD combined type, or ADHD inattentive type. We used participants' personal characteristic data (site of data collection, age, gender, handedness, performance IQ, verbal IQ, and full scale IQ, without any fMRI data, as input to a logistic classifier to generate diagnostic predictions. Surprisingly, this approach achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy (62.52% as well as the highest score (124 of 195 of any of the 21 teams participating in the competition. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for differences in age, gender, and other personal characteristics in imaging diagnostics research. We discuss further implications of these results for fMRI-based diagnosis as well as fMRI-based clinical research. We also document our tests with a variety of imaging-based diagnostic methods, none of which performed as well as the logistic classifier using only personal characteristic data.

  18. The Relationship of Some Personality and Individual Characteristics with an Individual's Commitment to an Ideal Vision for Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Ryan

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among specified personality and individual characteristics of university students with their level of commitment to a measurable, results-focused statement of an ideal vision. Discusses locus of control, generativity, self-efficacy, values, and risk taking in the use of an ideal vision for strategic planning, needs…

  19. Learner Characteristic Based Learning Effort Curve Mode: The Core Mechanism on Developing Personalized Adaptive E-Learning Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop the core mechanism for realizing the development of personalized adaptive e-learning platform, which is based on the previous learning effort curve research and takes into account the learner characteristics of learning style and self-efficacy. 125 university students from Taiwan are classified into 16 groups according…

  20. Resident Advisor General Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, Personality Dimensions, and Internal Belief Characteristics as Predictors of Rated Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Max B.; Stemler, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Resident Advisors (RAs) have a significant hand in helping students adjust and thrive in college life. Given the importance of selecting high-performing RAs, this study sought to examine how well various measures of intelligence (e.g., general, emotional) in addition to personality and additional "internal belief" characteristics predict…

  1. The Impact of Personal and Program Characteristics on the Placement of School Leadership Preparation Program Graduates in School Leader Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Edward J.; Hollingworth, Liz; An, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of personal and program characteristics on the placement of graduates of principal preparation programs in assistant principal, principal, and school leadership positions. Research Design: This study relies on Texas principal production data from 1993 through 2007 matched to employment…

  2. The contribution of personality and workplace characteristics in predicting turnover intention among sexual assault nurse examiners: a path analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kathleen C; Strunk, Kamden K

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how personality characteristics, sense of organizational empowerment, and job satisfaction combine to predict turnover intention among a population of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs). Data were collected from 161 SANEs from 23 SANE organizations across the central and west United States through standardized tools and a demographic questionnaire. Both personality, namely agreeableness and workplace characteristics, particularly perceived empowerment and job satisfaction, combine to predict intention to leave the job of these sampled SANEs. One particularly curious finding was the positive prediction of agreeableness on turnover intention - that is, more agreeable people would be more likely to leave their jobs as SANEs. Professionals can gain insight from the path analysis results that show the need to address both personal and organizational factors in mitigating turnover intention among SANEs. This appears to be particularly true in providing a sense of empowerment and opportunity within the organization. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  3. Big Five personality characteristics are associated with depression subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, A M L; Hegeman, J M; Lamers, F; Dhondt, A D F; van der Mast, R C; Stek, M L; Comijs, H C

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the associations of personality characteristics with both subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression in older adults. Three hundred and seventy-eight depressed older adults participated in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons. Personality characteristics were assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression were determined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between personality and atypical, melancholic, and unspecified subtypes of major depression. Linear regression analyses examined the associations between personality and the IDS mood, somatic, and motivation symptom dimensions. The analyses were adjusted for confounders and additionally adjusted for depression severity. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness were associated with specified (atypical or melancholic) major depression compared with unspecified major depression in the bivariate analyses but lost their significance after adjustments for functional limitations and severity of depression. Neuroticism was positively associated with the IDS mood and motivation symptom dimensions, also in the adjusted models. Further, Extraversion and Agreeableness were negatively associated with the IDS mood symptom dimension, and Extraversion and Conscientiousness were negatively associated with the IDS motivation symptom dimension. None was associated with the IDS somatic symptom dimension. This study demonstrated the association of personality characteristics with mood and motivational symptoms of late-life depression. The lacking ability of personality to differentiate between melancholic and atypical depression seems to be largely explained by severity of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Organisational and environmental characteristics of residential aged care units providing highly person-centred care: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Sandman, Per-Olof; Zingmark, Karin; Edvardsson, David

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have empirically investigated factors that define residential aged care units that are perceived as being highly person-centred. The purpose of this study was to explore factors characterising residential aged care units perceived as being highly person-centred, with a focus on organisational and environmental variables, as well as residents' and staff' characteristics. A cross-sectional design was used. Residents ( n  = 1460) and staff ( n  = 1213) data from 151 residential care units were collected, as well as data relating to characteristics of the organisation and environment, and data measuring degree of person-centred care. Participating staff provided self-reported data and conducted proxy ratings on residents . Descriptive and comparative statistics, independent samples t-test, Chi 2 test, Eta Squared and Phi coefficient were used to analyse data. Highly person-centred residential aged care units were characterized by having a shared philosophy of care, a satisfactory leadership, interdisciplinary collaboration and social support from colleagues and leaders, a dementia-friendly physical environment, staff having time to spend with residents, and a smaller unit size. Residential aged care units with higher levels of person-centred care had a higher proportion of staff with continuing education in dementia care, and a higher proportion of staff receiving regular supervision, compared to units with lower levels of person-centred care. It is important to target organisational and environmental factors, such as a shared philosophy of care, staff use of time, the physical environment, interdisciplinary support, and support from leaders and colleagues, to improve person-centred care in residential care units. Managers and leaders seeking to facilitate person-centred care in daily practice need to consider their own role in supporting, encouraging, and supervising staff.

  5. Demographic and Personal Characteristics of Male and Female Chairs in Academic Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Marley; Pederson, Aderonke; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Despite the strong representation of female psychiatrists in residency and early-career positions, the number of female faculty sharply decreases in tenured or executive leadership positions. Why there exists a marked change in representation at the level of senior leadership within academic psychiatry is unclear. The authors investigated the causative factors contributing to this observation and gathered information about the personal characteristics of women in executive leadership roles. The authors surveyed psychiatry chairs at academic institutions. They identified all female chairs and randomly selected a group of male chairs to serve as a control group. The survey assessed perceived barriers, strengths, and weaknesses and differences in demographics and leadership styles between female and male chairs. Ten percent of psychiatry chairs were female. Male chairs were more likely than female chairs to head large departments (p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI) -17.1-69.1) and had a higher H-index (p = 0.001, CI 6.6-37.2). Female chairs were more likely than male chairs to perceive barriers in their career development (p = 0.01, CI 0.7-2.2), citing little or no mentorship (p = 0.04), gender discrimination (p = 0.0001), and family obligations (p = 0.001) more often. Academic institutions must incorporate programs to decrease barriers and work to achieve equitable representation of women in upper-level leadership positions. Moreover, academic medicine must evolve to cultivate a family-friendly environment that successfully supports both genders.

  6. Relationship between individual and family characteristics and psychosocial factors in persons with familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Meghan; Hong, Fangxin; Lawrence, Janette; Blonquist, Traci; Syngal, Sapna

    2018-03-23

    Describe relationships between self-reported personal demographics or familial characteristics and psychosocial outcomes (Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Global Health, Impact of Event Scale-Revised [pancreatic cancer risk-related distress], cancer risk perception, and cancer worry) in participants with inherited or familial pancreatic cancer risk. A multisite cross sectional survey of adults with elevated pancreatic cancer risk based on family history. All variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. To assess univariate associations, t test and chi-square/Fisher's exact test were used, and backward model selection was used in multivariable analysis. Respondents (N = 132) reported moderate to high frequency of cancer worry and 59.3% perceived a 50% or more perceived lifetime risk for pancreatic cancer, which far exceeds objective risk estimates. Cancer worry was associated with female gender (P = .03) and pancreatic cancer risk specific distress (P = .05). Higher-risk perception was associated with having a high school education or less (P = .001), higher distress (P = .02), and cancer worry (P = .008) and family cancer death experience (P = .02). Higher distress was associated with experience as a caregiver to a seriously ill family member in the past 5 years (P = .006). Individuals with inherited or familial pancreatic cancer risk experience cancer worry, distress, and have increased risk perception, particularly in the period following caring for a loved one with cancer. Routine evaluation of distress in this setting, as well as the development of supportive care resources, will help support patients living with risk for pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Personal characteristics relating to radium loss over a decade or more in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Jansen, A.; Kotek, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Personal habits and biological characteristics of 42 female Illinois radium workers first employed during the 1920s were analyzed in relationship to radium loss in late adult life. The 42 women met the criteria that they first were examined between 1957 and 1969 and are no longer employed, have had two or more radium body-burden measurements by gamma spectroscopy, 10-year minimum interval exists between initial and final measurements, and exhibit a RaC body burden in 1970 or later of ≥.137 kBQ. High radium body burdens are associated with decreased rates of radium elimination, as previously described. However, the most powerful predictor was coffee/tea consumption, increased consumption being associated with increased rates of radium elimination and explaining ∼35% of the variance. The effect persisted after deletion of smokers and subjects with x-ray evidence of bone damage. Weight/height ratios were positively associated with radium excretion. Individuals smoking cigarettes throughout the study period had significantly low rates of elimination of radium, similar to subjects with x-ray evidence of significant radiation-induced bone damage. Both smokers and subjects with x-ray evidence of radiation damage to bone had low weight/height ratios, suggesting that biological promoters of radiation damage to bone may exist. Rates of radium elimination were significantly associated with (linear) bone density, demonstrating that rates of loss of radium cannot be assumed to be independent of adult or postmenopausal bone density losses. Number of children and age of menopause did not have demonstrable effects on radium elimination. 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Personal characteristics relating to radium loss over a decade or more in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Kotek, T.J.; Jansen, A.

    1987-01-01

    Personal habits and biological characteristics of 42 female Illinois radium workers first employed during the 1920s were analyzed in relationship to radium loss in late adult life. The 42 women met the following criteria: (1) first examined between 1957 and 1969, and no longer employed; (2) two or more radium body-burden measurements by gamma spectroscopy; (3) 10-year minimum interval between initial and final measurements; and (4) a RaC body burden in 1970 or later of ≥0.137 kBq. High radium body burdens were significantly associated with decreased rates of radium elimination; however, the most powerful predictor was coffee/tea consumption (p<.005), increased consumption being associated with increased rates of radium elimination and explaining ∼35% of the variance. The effect persisted after deletion of smokers and subjects with X-ray evidence of bone damage. Weight/height ratios were positively associated with radium excretion (p<.025). Smokers throughout the study period had significantly low rates of elimination of radium, similar to subjects with X-ray evidence of significant radiation-induced bone damage. Both smokers and subjects with X-ray evidence of radiation damage to bone had low weight/height ratios, suggesting that biological promoters of radiation damage to bone may exist. Rates of radium elimination were significantly associated with bone density, demonstrating that rates of loss of radium cannot be assumed to be independent of adult or postmenopausal bone density losses. Parity and age of menopause did not demonstrably affect radium elimination. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  9. Airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around a thermal manikin - Impact of specific personal and indoor environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Tham, Kwok Wai; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    , and ventilation flow considerably affected airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around the thermal manikin. Under the specific set of conditions studied, the most favorable airflow patterns in preventing the feet pollution from reaching the breathing zone was transverse flow from the front......This study presents a summary of experimental measurements on the airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around a non-breathing thermal manikin. The two objectives are: (1) to examine the extent to which personal (body posture, clothing insulation, table positioning) and environmental...... factors (room air temperature and ventilation flow) affect the airflow characteristic (velocity and temperature) around the thermal manikin and (2) to examine the pollution distribution within the convective boundary layer (CBL) around a thermal manikin and personal exposure to two types of airborne...

  10. Analysis of General Personality Characteristics of High School Students Who Take and Do not Take Vocational Music Training according to Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Yağışan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authorities claim that music training helps children and young people gain insight and actualize themselves and it contributes to their self-expression, self-confidence and socialization process. As known, music education that children and adolescences get varies for several reasons, and particularly the aims, the ways, and the intensity of courses differ according to the school types. From this context, the students of the high schools of fine arts getting vocational musical training and the students of general high schools not getting the vocational training were investigated by means of a general personality inventory, and a research was conducted to examine whether or not music education supports the personality development of the high school students. In the study, 140 students attending the last grade of high schools of fine arts, 140 students attending last grade of general high schools with total amount of 280 were randomly selected. The students were administered a 168 item personality inventory to determine their characteristics of ‘social, personal and general adaptation’ levels. Following findings were obtained as a result of the survey: When the total scales “general adaptation”, “social adaptation” and “personal adaptation” levels, including the sub-scales of ‘family affairs, social affairs, social norms, anti-social tendencies’, ‘self-actualization, emotional decisiveness, neurotic tendencies and psychotic symptoms’, were examined, the scores of students who get vocational music training were found significantly higher than the students who do not get it. The results of the study show that music training supports the personality development of adolescences positively.

  11. Investigating the Relationship between Test-Taker Background Characteristics and Test Performance in a Heterogeneous English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) Test Population: A Factor Analytic Approach. Research Report. ETS RR-15-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Venessa F.; Yoo, Hanwook

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the heterogeneity in the English-as-a-second-language (ESL) test population by modeling the relationship between test-taker background characteristics and test performance as measured by the "TOEFL iBT"® using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with covariate approach. The background characteristics studied…

  12. Web-Based Language Learning Perception and Personality Characteristics of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Meisam; Gharibeh, Sajjad Gharibeh

    2016-01-01

    The significance of learners' personality in language learning/teaching contexts has often been cited in literature but few studies have scrutinized the role it can play in technology-oriented language classes. In modern language teaching/learning contexts, personality differences are important and should be taken into account. This study…

  13. Desired Characteristics for MSW Students and Social Work Employees: Cognitive versus Personal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, Michael M. O.; Johnson, Jennifer D.; Walton, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the best students and hiring the best social workers are important professional responsibilities. Findings from this exploratory study identify personal attributes that are significant in enabling MSW students and social work employees to succeed. Social work educators and agency administrators generally agree that personal attributes…

  14. Drug Abuse Patterns, Personality Characteristics, and Relationships with Sex, Race, and Sensation Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined interrelationships among sex, race, drug-use patterns, and personality variables in chronic users of illicit drugs. Blacks were characterized by lower levels of sensation seeking, less psychopathology, use of fewer drug categories, and later drug use than Whites. Use and personality patterns among women differed little from men.…

  15. Do Dispositional Characteristics Influence Reading? Examining the Impact of Personality on Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Loe, Scott A.; Jones, W. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates specific relationships between personality traits and general academic performance. In addition, research studies have demonstrated relationships among personality and variables related to reading fluency (i.e. speed, accuracy, automaticity, and prosody). However, little investigation has examined specific links…

  16. Offender Characteristics in Lethal Violence with Special Reference to Antisocial and Autistic Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the relationships between personality traits, lifetime psychosocial functioning, and crime scene behavior. Thirty-five male offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden (1996-2001) and assigned a main diagnosis of either antisocial personality disorder (APD) or autism spectrum disorder…

  17. Self-perceived personality characteristics in seasonal affective disorder and their implications for severity of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke H; Ozenne, Brice

    2018-01-01

    The personality traits Neuroticism and Extraversion may be involved in the development of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). However, the impact of personality traits on SAD severity and whether such self-reported traits fluctuate with season is unknown. We investigated the association between...... Neuroticism, as acquired in a symptom-free phase and depression severity in individuals with SAD and seasonal changes in personality traits in individuals with SAD compared to healthy controls. Twenty-nine individuals diagnosed with SAD and thirty demographically matched controls completed the NEO Personality...... Inventory-Revised and the Major Depression Inventory twice: in summer when individuals with SAD were symptom-free, and in winter when they experienced SAD symptoms. In summer, the groups scored similarly on their personality traits, and the controls did not score any different in winter compared to summer...

  18. Lifestyle, socioeconomic characteristics, and medical history of elderly persons who receive seasonal influenza vaccination in a tax-supported healthcare system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Baggesen, Lisbeth Munksgård

    2017-01-01

    inactivity (aPR: 1.08, 95% CI 1.03–1.13). Levels of education and income were similar in the two groups. Vaccinated persons had a higher prevalence of major physical limitations (aPR: 1.40, 95% CI 1.17–1.66) and need for assistance with activities of daily living (aPR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.13–1.47). Conclusion......Background Observational studies on effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly are thought to be biased by healthier lifestyles and higher socioeconomic status among vaccinated vs. unvaccinated persons. We examined this hypothesis in a uniform tax-supported health care system with free......-of-charge influenza vaccination to the elderly. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among Danes aged 65–79 years participating in a survey. We compared elderly persons with and without a recent (within six months) influenza vaccination in terms of (i) lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics obtained from...

  19. 在押男性罪犯人格障碍倾向调查%Investigation on personality characteristics of male offenders with personality disorder in one prison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晔; 张绮; 陆慧; 王建明

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the status and distribution of personality disorder among imprisoned male criminals,and to lay foundation in improving the quality of psychological correction.Method:In March 2016,2229 male prisoners in 12 different prisons were recruited and the personality diagnostic questionnaire (PDQ-4) was administered.Results:17.9% of the subjects showed personality disorder.Among them,paranoid,antisocial and obsessive personality disorder ranked the highest.Demographic characteristics,family situation,and the cause of crimes were associated with different subtypes.Conclusion:Male criminals have higher risks for personality disorder than ordinary people.It is necessary to strengthen screening procedure and set up appropriate interventions for focus groups.%目的:探讨监狱在押男性罪犯人格障碍倾向及分布特点. 方法:对某监狱12个监区的2 229名在押男性罪犯采用人格诊断问卷(PDQ-4)进行调查和分析. 结果:调查对象人格障碍倾向阳性检出率17.9%,人格障碍各亚型阳性率最高的是强迫型(36.0%)、反社会型(35.1%)和偏执型(26.7%);人口学特征、家庭情况、案由等与不同亚型阳性检出率有关. 结论:在押男性罪犯的人格障碍倾向较严重,强迫型、反社会型及偏执型多见;有必要加强早期筛查并对重点人群采取相应的干预措施.

  20. Eating disorders during the adolescence: personality characteristics associated with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas Iglesias, Belén; Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Laporta Herrero, Isabel; Santed Germán, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-24

    Previous studies provide relevant information about the relationship between personality and eating disorders (ED). The involvement of personality factors in the etiology and maintenance of ED indicates the need of emphasizing the study of the adolescent's personality when diagnosed of ED. The aims of this study were to analyze the adolescent's personality profiles that differ significantly in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), and to explore the most common profiles and their associations with those subtypes of eating disorders (ED). A total of 104 patients with AN and BN were studied by means of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). The personality profiles that differ significantly in both AN and BN were submissive, egotistic, unruly, forceful, conforming, oppositional, self-demeaning and borderline. The most frequent profiles in AN were conforming (33.33%), egotistic (22.72%) and dramatizing (18.18%) while in the case of BN those profiles were unruly (18.42%), submissive (18.42%) and borderline (15.78%). We did not find any associations between the diagnostic subgroup (AN, BN) and the fact of having personality profiles that could become dysfunctional. Bearing in mind these results, it may be concluded that there are relevant differences between personality profiles associated with AN and BN during adolescence, so tailoring therapeutic interventions for this specific population would be important.

  1. The survey of the psychological and personality characteristics of delinquent girls and women running away from home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mandana Saki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Saki M1, Safa M2, Jazayeri H3, Asti P4, Jariani M2, Saki M5 1. Instructor, Department of psychology, Faculty of nursing and midwifery, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. Assistant professor, Department of psychology, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 3. Master of science, psychology 4. Instructor, Department of midwifery, Faculty of nursing and midwifery, Lorestan University of medical sciences 5. Instructor, Department of pediatrics, Faculty of health, Lorestan University of medical sciences Abstract Background: Family environment is the first place in which child may recognize his potentialities and talents and tries to raise those potentialities. If family fails to provide the child with an appropriate situation to grow and evolve his character, he may develop the basis of social delinquencies.All kinds of crimes may form in the family. Studies show family as a social factor and character as an inner factor can create the grounds for the criminal behavior. The present study tries to investigate the psychological and personality factors learning people to run away from their homes. Materials and methods: The present survey is a descriptive- analytical study. The cases were selected by census method. All the women and girls who were kept in the intervening centers were studied during one year. A two-section questionnaire containing demographic, family characteristics as well as the standard questionnaire named SCL 90 were used for data collection. The questionnaire was completed using clinical interview. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Among 73 cases participated in the study, 37.5% was under 20 years, 91.7% was housewife and 58.3% had elementary education, 58 % was of those who migrated from villages to towns. Most of them were among the mid born of the families. 36% had imprisonment, 30.6% had substance abuse, and 63.9% was among those who had previous crime records. 46.3% of the married

  2. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.

  3. Self-reported adherence to oral cancer therapy: relationships with symptom distress, depression, and personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry DL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Donna L Berry,1–3 Traci M Blonquist,4 Fangxin Hong,4,5 Barbara Halpenny,1 Ann H Partridge2,3 1Phyllis F Cantor Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 3Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: Therapeutic cancer chemotherapy is most successful when complete dosing is achieved. Because many newer therapeutic agents are oral and self-administered by the patient, adherence is a concern. The purpose of our analysis was to explore relationships between adherence, patient characteristics, and barriers to adherence.Methods: This secondary analysis utilized self-reported data from a randomized trial of self-care management conducted at two cancer centers in the US. Symptom distress was measured using the 15-item Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15 and depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Adherence to oral medication was self-reported using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Measures were collected via Web-based, study-specific software ~8 weeks after treatment start date. Odds of low/medium adherence (score <8 were explored using univariate logistic regression. Given the number of factors and possible relationships among factors, a classification tree was built in lieu of a multivariable logistic regression model.Results: Of the eligible participants enrolled, 77 were on oral therapy and 70 had an MMAS score. Forty-nine (70% reported a high adherence score (=8. Higher odds of low/medium adherence were associated with greater symptom distress (P=0.09, more depression (P=0.05, chemotherapy vs hormonal oral medication (P=0.03, being female (P=0.02, and being randomized to the control group in the parent trial (P=0.09. Conversely, high adherence was associated with

  4. Personality characteristics in surgery seeking and non-surgery seeking obese individuals compared to non-obese controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Hjordt, Liv V; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown what makes some obese individuals opt for bariatric surgery whereas others choose not to. The aim of this study was to examine whether personality characteristics differed between obese individuals signed up for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (N=30) and obese individuals...... groups did not differ in terms of personality. The Neuroticism domain and possibly the Extraversion domain may therefore be worthwhile to consider in future studies investigating the outcome of bariatric surgery....... not seeking RYGB (N=30) compared to non-obese controls (N=30). All participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. The obese RYGB group displayed higher levels of Neuroticism and borderline lower levels of Extraversion compared to the obese non-RYGB and the non-obese group, while the two latter...

  5. Analysis of personality characteristics of intellectually gifted students, causing difficulties in their process of preschool and school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov S.S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Talented and intellectually gifted students often have difficulties in emotional and personal spheres in their learning process at school. Social maladjustment, emotional instability, increased anxiety and a number of other problems in the development of the personal sphere are common to students with a conventional development of intellectual abilities, but in the case of gifted students they are more frequent and intensive. If these problems are ignored by school teachers, psychologists and parents of gifted students, they can lead to a decrease in the ability of these children and even to a certain delay in the development of their academic abilities. The article provides an overview of contemporary foreign works aimed at identification and analysis of personal problems in gifted students. It describes different types of gifted students, their psychological characteristics that must be considered in the process of organizing their schooling with the aim of support to and development of their learning skills.

  6. Impact of Personal Characteristics and Technical Factors on Quantification of Sodium 18F-Fluoride Uptake in Human Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Thomassen, Anders; de Jong, Pim A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium (18)F-fluoride ((18)F-NaF) PET/CT imaging is a promising imaging technique for assessment of atherosclerosis, but is hampered by a lack of validated quantification protocols. Both personal characteristics and technical factors can affect quantification of arterial (18)F-NaF uptake....... This study investigated if blood activity, renal function, injected dose, circulating time, and PET/CT system affect quantification of arterial (18)F-NaF uptake. METHODS: Eighty-nine healthy subjects were prospectively examined by (18)F-NaF PET/CT imaging. Arterial (18)F-NaF uptake was quantified...... assessed the effect of personal characteristics and technical factors on quantification of arterial (18)F-NaF uptake. RESULTS: NaFmax and TBRmax/mean were dependent on blood activity (β = .34 to .44, P

  7. The Associations Between Personality Characteristics and Absenteeism : A Cross-Sectional Study in Workers With and Without Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasveld, Moniek C.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Anema, Johannes R.; van Mechelen, Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Purpose Although numerous studies have identified risk factors for sickness absence, few studies have addressed the role of personality characteristics in absenteeism. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of the Big 5 personality characteristics (neuroticism, extraversion, openness,

  8. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  9. The Characteristics of Personal Order Sets in a Computerized Physician Order Entry System at a Community Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sean M.; Davis, Daniel C.

    2003-01-01

    Personal order sets (POS) have been touted as important for the success of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system1. However, POS may systematize practice variability and are difficult to centrally administer. Few studies have looked at the characteristics and use of POS in a community hospital. We examined how POS are used at the Queen’s Medical Center (QMC). POS are an important part of the success of the QMC CPOE, but have definite disadvantages.

  10. Personality Characteristics, Early Maladaptive Schema and Family Function in Couples Initiating for Divorce Versus Non-Initiating Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محسن دهقانی

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision for divorce depends on various personal and interpersonal variables. Personality characteristics and early maladaptive schema as two individual, and family function, as an interpersonal variable would play crucial role in helping people to cope with problems in life. A sample of 285 couples (147 initiator, and 138 noninitiator were recruited in the family courts, and residential districts in Tehran. They completed a battery of questionnaire including NEO (five factor personality questionnaire, short form of early maladaptive schema questionnaire (YSR, and McMaster family assessment device (FAD. Groups were matched based on age, education level, social economic status, and years of marriage. Results indicated statistical significant differences between two groups in personality characteristics (neuroticism, openness to new experiences, agreeableness and consciousness early maladaptive schemas (emotional deprivation, rejection, distrust, pessimism and emotional inhibition, and family function (problem solving, roles, and behavioral control. The result of regression logistic analysis showed that 34 to 45 percent of dependent variable predicted by these 12 independent variable. As such, it seems that there is a need to attend the factors would play a role both at primary prevention level and secondary level that psychologists and counselors could consider when providing mental health services.

  11. Sensorimotor gating characteristics of violent men with comorbid psychosis and dissocial personality disorder: Relationship with antisocial traits and psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Ottilie; Young, Susan; Greer, Ben; Arnold, Jack; Parsons, Aisling; Puzzo, Ignazio; Terracciano, Mariafatima; Das, Mrigendra; Kumari, Veena

    2017-07-06

    Evidence suggests violence amongst those with psychosis is not aetiologically homogeneous, and that a large proportion of those who engage in violent behaviour have a comorbid antisocial personality disorder. Initial investigations indicate that this subgroup has distinct historical and neuropsychological characteristics, which may indicate diverse treatment needs. This study investigated sensorimotor gating characteristics of violent men with diagnoses of both psychosis and dissocial personality disorder (DPD) (n=21) relative to violent men with psychosis alone (n=12), DPD alone (n=14) and healthy, non-violent male controls (n=27), using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm. The results indicated that, relative to the psychosis alone and healthy control groups, the comorbid group had lower PPI, especially at 60-ms prepulse-to-pulse interval. The DPD group took an intermediary position and did not differ from any group. Antisocial personality traits (factor two scores of the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised), and greater severity of childhood psychosocial deprivation (including physical and sexual abuse), were significantly correlated with poor PPI across the clinical sample. The findings suggest diverse sensorimotor gating profiles amongst subgroups of violent offenders, with comorbid psychosis and DPD showing most impairment. This is consistent with a 'double dose' of deficit explanation amongst those with both diagnoses, explained at least in part by presence of antisocial personality traits and childhood psychosocial deprivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between kinematic risky driving among parents and their teenage children: moderation by shared personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Xie, Yunlong; Klauer, Sheila G; Albert, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the driving behavior of 42 parent-teenager dyads for 18 months, under naturalistic driving conditions. At baseline participants' personality characteristics were assessed. Objective risky driving measures (kinematic risky driving) were captured by accelerometers for the duration of the study. To estimate teenage and parent correlations in kinematic risky driving, separate Poisson regression models were fit for teenagers and parents. Standardized residuals were computed for each trip for each individual. Correlations were obtained by estimating the Spearman rank correlations of the individual average residuals across teenagers and parents. The bootstrap technique was used to estimate the standard errors associated with the parent-teenager correlations. The overall correlation between teenage and parent kinematic risky driving for the 18-month study period was positive, but weak (r=0.18). When the association between parent and teenagers' risky driving was adjusted for shared personality characteristics, the correlation reduced to 0.09. Although interesting, the 95% confidence intervals on the difference between these two estimates overlapped zero. We conclude that the weak similarity in parent-teen kinematic risky driving was partly explained by shared personality characteristics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Microenvironmental characteristics important for personal exposures to aldehydes in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, J. H.; Akland, G.; Johnson, T. R.; Long, T.; Michael, L.; Cauble, L.; McCombs, M.

    Oxygenated additives in gasoline are designed to decrease the ozone-forming hydrocarbons and total air toxics, yet they can increase the emissions of aldehydes and thus increase human exposure to these toxic compounds. This paper describes a study conducted to characterize targeted aldehydes in microenvironments in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI, and to improve our understanding of the impact of the urban environment on human exposure to air toxics. Data were obtained from microenvironmental concentration measurements, integrated, 24-h personal measurements, indoor and outdoor pollutant monitors at the participants' residences, from ambient pollutant monitors at fixed-site locations in each city, and from real-time diaries and questionnaires completed by the technicians and participants. As part of this study, a model to predict personal exposures based on individual time/activity data was developed for comparison to measured concentrations. Predicted concentrations were generally within 25% of the measured concentrations. The microenvironments that people encounter daily provide for widely varying exposures to aldehydes. The activities that occur in those microenvironments can modulate the aldehyde concentrations dramatically, especially for environments such as "indoor at home." By considering personal activity, location (microenvironment), duration in the microenvironment, and a knowledge of the general concentrations of aldehydes in the various microenvironments, a simple model can do a reasonably good job of predicting the time-averaged personal exposures to aldehydes, even in the absence of monitoring data. Although concentrations of aldehydes measured indoors at the participants' homes tracked well with personal exposure, there were instances where personal exposures and indoor concentrations differed significantly. Key to the ability to predict exposure based on time/activity data is the quality and completeness of the microenvironmental

  14. The relationship of individual psychological and individual-typological characteristics in individuals with personality disorders, committed socially dangerous acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinsky A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between individual psychological and individually-typological characteristics of patients with personality disorders who committed socially dangerous acts were studied, taking into account the severity of the organic factor and the degree of their social dangerousness. 121 males were surveyed, 70 of them were diagnosed with "organic personality disorder" and 33 - personality disorder. The types of personality disorders were diagnosed. The individual variables, the ratio of processes of system activation of behavior and its inhibition, protective styles, especially coping behaviours that constitute aggression, styles of self-regulation were analyzed. It was revealed that low settings of the system activation behavior found in the group of persons with a high degree of social dangerousness, determines the formation of individual psychological treats related to the rigidity behavior, the instability of the motives, impulsivity, negative emotionality, disinhibition. During comparison of samples of individuals with medium and high degree of social dangerousness it has been discovered that self-centeredness, as a component of self-control, high levels of affective components of aggression – anger and immature defense mechanisms significantly distinguish individuals with a high degree of public danger.

  15. Self-perceived personality characteristics in seasonal affective disorder and their implications for severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke H; Ozenne, Brice; Hageman, Ida; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Knudsen, Gitte M; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard

    2018-04-01

    The personality traits Neuroticism and Extraversion may be involved in the development of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). However, the impact of personality traits on SAD severity and whether such self-reported traits fluctuate with season is unknown. We investigated the association between Neuroticism, as acquired in a symptom-free phase and depression severity in individuals with SAD and seasonal changes in personality traits in individuals with SAD compared to healthy controls. Twenty-nine individuals diagnosed with SAD and thirty demographically matched controls completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Major Depression Inventory twice: in summer when individuals with SAD were symptom-free, and in winter when they experienced SAD symptoms. In summer, the groups scored similarly on their personality traits, and the controls did not score any different in winter compared to summer. High scores on Neuroticism in summer was associated with more severe depressive symptoms in winter in SAD individuals. In winter, individuals with SAD scored higher on Neuroticism and lower on Extraversion, both compared to controls and to their own summer scores. Our results support that Neuroticism may represent a vulnerability marker related to SAD, and during a depressive episode Neuroticism and Extraversion may be sensitive markers of SAD pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Mobbing: between personality traits and organizational-managerial characteristics of the occupational environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Platania, Chiara Anna; Di Rosa, Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; De Luca, Annamaria; Barresi, Gaetano; Di Nola, Carmelina; Cacciola, Anna

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The relationship between stressful events in the workplace and their effect on health is the subject of numerous studies where the phenomenon of"Mobbing" has become of increasing interest in Social Psychiatry and Occupational Medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between mobbing, occupational stress and personality structure in a group of persons who consulted the "Work Adaptation Disorders Centre" at the Institute of Occupational Medicine between December 2008 and June 2010 for mobbing-related issues. Referring to Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terrorization (LIPT), H. Ege, Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2), it has been possible to assess situations of harassment, the sources and the effects of work stress, as well as personality traits in the study group. The results showed that high levels of occupational stress and inadequate coping strategies can lead to depressive, hysterical and paranoid manifestations. Although the relationship between mobbing, occupational stress and personality traits still remains controversial, there is an association between perception of adverse behaviour and mental health, regardless of the subject's ability to cope with stressful life events. The data seem to confirm that the prevention of bullying must be implemented by the work organization and by handling interpersonal conflicts in the work context.

  17. PRIORITY VALUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GOVERNOR’S PERSONAL BRAND (on the example of the Smolensk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н Н Розанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary model of social development presupposes a high level of public confi-dence to state institutions, which determines the need to address categories of reputation and brand. Power as a value implies a high level of recognition, acceptance and identification (“my power”, “our power”. The article presents the results of the sociological study of the personal brand of the Smolensk Region governor (in December 2016; the author’s definition of the personal brand of the governor based on his image and representing a specific aspect of reputation, its most significant and stable features; the value characteristics of real and ideal (desired personal brand of the governor; key features that determine the strength of the brand - integrity, distinctiveness and significance. The author comes to the conclusion about the predominantly positive real personal brand of the governor of the Smolensk Region despite its low degree of uniqueness and mosaic nature, which indicates ineffective steps of the government to form a personal brand of the governor. The desired personal brand of the governor, though more pronounced than the real one, also does not possess integrity or uniqueness. The significance, or identity of the governor’s brand, in the perception of the population is high enough in terms of its content, but its ‘directions’ (positive/negative differ. The relatively high level of identity of the personal brand of the governor to some extent compensates the weakness of its distinctiveness and integrity for they are not important for the population.

  18. Within-person changes in salivary testosterone and physical characteristics of puberty predict boys' daily affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipker, Kathrin; Wrzus, Cornelia; Rauers, Antje; Boker, Steven M; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    Recent investigations highlighted the role of within-person pubertal changes for adolescents' behavior. Yet, little is known about effects on adolescents' daily affect, particularly regarding the hormonal changes underlying physical changes during puberty. In a study with 148 boys aged 10 to 20years, we tested whether within-person physical and hormonal changes over eight months predicted everyday affect fluctuations, measured with experience sampling. As expected, greater within-person changes in testosterone (but not in dehydroepiandrosterone) were associated with higher affect fluctuations in daily life. Additionally, greater physical changes predicted higher affect fluctuations for individuals in the beginning of puberty. The findings demonstrate the relevance of physical and hormonal changes in boys' affective (in)stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Premorbid Personality Characteristics in Alzheimer’s Disease: An Exploratory Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malinchoc

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Linking data from a case–control study of Alzheimer’s disease with data from a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI outpatient study, we identified 13 Alzheimer's disease cases and 16 controls for case–control comparison. The mean time between personality testing and onset of Alzheimer's disease (or corresponding age for controls was 13 years in cases and 14 years in controls. Alzheimer's disease cases, but not the controls, had scores significantly greater than the normative reference on MMPI scales measuring Social Introversion (p = 0.05, and Pessimism (p = 0.01. When compared to controls, Alzheimer's disease cases had significantly greater scores on the Social Introversion scale (p = 0.03. Despite the small sample size and some design limitations of this exploratory study, our findings may suggest that subjects who score higher on these personality scales have a greater risk of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Virtual street-crossing performance in persons with multiple sclerosis: Feasibility and task performance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, M E; Pilutti, L A; Crowell, J A; Kaczmarski, H; Motl, R W

    2017-01-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that commonly results in physical and cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, MS might impact the ability to safely cross the street. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a simulated street-crossing task in persons with MS and to determine differences in street-crossing performance between persons with MS and non-MS controls. 26 participants with MS (median Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score = 3.5) and 19 controls completed 40 trials of a virtual street-crossing task. There were 2 crossing conditions (i.e., no distraction and phone conversation), and participants performed 20 trials per condition. Participants were instructed that the goal of the task was to cross the street successfully (i.e., without being hit be a vehicle). The primary outcome was task feasibility, assessed as completion and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were measures of street-crossing performance. Overall, the simulated street-crossing task was feasible (i.e., 90% completion, no adverse events) in participants with MS. Participants with MS waited longer and were less attentive to traffic before entering the street compared with controls (all P .05). A virtual street-crossing task is feasible for studying street-crossing behavior in persons with mild MS and most individuals with moderate MS. Virtual street-crossing performance is impaired in persons with MS compared to controls; however, persons with MS do not appear to be more vulnerable to a distracting condition. The virtual reality environment presents a safe and useful setting for understanding pedestrian behavior in persons with MS.

  1. Dose estimate for personal music players including earphone sensitivity and characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    2016-01-01

    Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user. In the pres......Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user...... earphone measurements published in the past. The work is on-going....

  2. Personal and Professional Emotional Characteristics of Early Childhood Teachers and Their Proneness to Communicate with Parents and Colleagues about Children's Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea; Toselli, Monica; Denham, Susanne A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Early childhood teachers represent important socializers of children's emotions providing professional practices, such as communication about children's emotions, influencing children's development. According to an ecological framework, early childhood teachers' emotional practices are guided by both their personal and professional…

  3. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Psychological Characteristics of Chronic Depression : A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T. E.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is

  5. CASPer, an online pre-interview screen for personal/professional characteristics: prediction of national licensure scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Kelly L; Reiter, Harold I; Kreuger, Sharyn; Norman, Geoffrey R

    2017-05-01

    Typically, only a minority of applicants to health professional training are invited to interview. However, pre-interview measures of cognitive skills predict for national licensure scores (Gauer et al. in Med Educ Online 21 2016) and subsequently licensure scores predict for performance in practice (Tamblyn et al. in JAMA 288(23): 3019-3026, 2002; Tamblyn et al. in JAMA 298(9):993-1001, 2007). Assessment of personal and professional characteristics, with the same psychometric rigour of measures of cognitive abilities, are needed upstream in the selection to health profession training programs. To fill that need, Computer-based Assessment for Sampling Personal characteristics (CASPer)-an on-line, video-based screening test-was created. In this paper, we examine the correlation between CASPer and Canadian national licensure examination outcomes in 109 doctors who took CASPer at the time of selection to medical school. Specifically, CASPer scores were correlated against performance on cognitive and 'non-cognitive' subsections of both the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE) Parts I (end of medical school) and Part II (18 months into specialty training). Unlike most national licensure exams, MCCQE has specific subcomponents examining personal/professional qualities, providing a unique opportunity for comparison. The results demonstrated moderate predictive validity of CASPer to national licensure outcomes of personal/professional characteristics three to six years after admission to medical school. These types of disattenuated correlations (r = 0.3-0.5) are not otherwise predicted by traditional screening measures. These data support the ability of a computer-based strategy to screen applicants in a feasible, reliable test, which has now demonstrated predictive validity, lending evidence of its validation for medical school applicant selection.

  6. Personality Characteristics of the Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to biological mothers of children aged 6-13 (N=100). Found conduct disordered (CD) children (N=13) had mothers with higher MMPI antisocial, histrionic, and disturbed adjustment scores; attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H) children (N=22) had no significant association…

  7. The synergic role of sociotechnical and personal characteristics on work injuries in mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P S; Maiti, J

    2008-05-01

    Occupational injuries in mines are attributed to many factors. In this study, an attempt was made to identify the various factors related to work injuries in mines and to estimate their effects on work injuries to mine workers. An accident path model was developed to estimate the pattern and strength of relationships amongst the personal and sociotechnical variables in accident/injury occurrences. The input data for the model were the correlation matrix of 18 variables, which were collected from the case study mines. The case study results showed that there are sequential interactions amongst the sociotechnical and personal factors leading to accidents/injuries in mines. Amongst the latent endogenous constructs, job dissatisfaction and safe work behaviour show a significant positive and negative direct relationship with work injury, respectively. However, the construct safety environment has a significant negative indirect relationship with work injury. The safety environment is negatively affected by work hazards and positively affected by social support. The safety environment also shows a significant negative relationship with job stress and job dissatisfaction. However, negative personality has no significant direct or indirect effect on work injury, but it has a significant negative relationship with safe work behaviour. The endogenous construct negative personality is positively influenced by job stress and negatively influenced by social support.

  8. [The correlation between personality characteristics and burnout syndrome in emergency ambulance workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmueller, A; Zavgorodnii, I; Zavgorodnia, N; Kapustnik, W; Boeckelmann, I

    The work in Emergency Medical Ambulance Service is one of the professions, which is accompanied by high psychological and emotional stress. The aim was to determine the risk of professional burnout syndrome of Emergency Medical Ambulance Service staff and the relationship between burnout syndrome and personality. Ninety-seven doctors (57 women and 40 men, aged 37.0±12.21) of Emergency Medical Ambulance Service were interviewed using the MBI-GS questionnaire and the Freiburg personality questionnaire (FPI). Correlation and regression analysis were used. Nine (11.5%) of respondents had a risk of burnout syndrome and 28 (35.9%) had some symptoms. In the group, aged 45 years and older, the risk of burnout syndrome was not identified. The staff of Emergency Medical Ambulance Service is characterized by stable personality features. It is necessary to identify the prevalence of burnout syndrome and also to identity the causes for its prevention and development of measures on the increase of personal stress resilience.

  9. Relations Between Big Five Personality Characteristics and Perceived Support in Adolescents' Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the longitudinal relations between family members' Big Five personality factors and perceived support. Members of 285 two-parent families with 2 adolescent children judged their own and other family members' Big Five factors and the support perceived from the other members

  10. Which Behavioral and Personality Characteristics Are Associated with Difficulties in Selective Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avisar, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the behavioral and personality profile associated with difficulties in selective attention. Method: A group of participants with ADHD were assessed for ADHD behaviors. Adults with ADHD (n = 22) and without ADHD (n = 84) were tested on the conjunctive visual-search task for selective attention and…

  11. A Note on Some Problems in the Testing of Personality Characteristics in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Michael; Hill, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    An examination is made of the value of using published personality tests with young blind and partially sighted children. Based on data gathered during a longitudinal investigation into the educational and psychological development of a group of 120 visually impaired learners, the authors conclude that their own selection of a test instrument…

  12. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aymamí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2 to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3 to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4 to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  13. Greek Preschool Children's Playful Behaviour: Assessment and Correlation with Personal and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    All children and young people need to play. The impulse to play is innate. Yet, the pure essence of play is playfulness a notion not new, yet limitedly researched. Playfulness refers to the individual style each child has to play, which is linked to personality descriptors and attributes. The present study had a twofold aim. On the one hand, it…

  14. Perceived Personality Traits of Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jessica E.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research has found evidence of a general negative personality stereotype for individuals who have anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods: This study examined the expected personality characteristics of individuals with AN using the Five-Factor Model of personality to allow identification of specific personality traits that are part of…

  15. Staff's person-centredness in dementia care in relation to job characteristics and job-related well-being: a cross-sectional survey in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Bernadette M.; Jonge, de J.; Smit, D.; Visser, Q.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To explore the role of nursing staff's person-centredness caring for people with dementia in relation to their work environment and job-related well-being. Background: Given the development towards person-centred care and labour force issues, research has recently focused on the effect of

  16. Personality characteristics and affective status related to cognitive test performance and gender in patients with memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestberg, Susanna; Passant, Ulla; Risberg, Jarl; Elfgren, Christina

    2007-11-01

    The aims are to study personality characteristics of patients with memory complaints and to assess the presence of objective (OMI) versus subjective (SMI) memory impairment, the affective status, as well as potential gender differences. The patients were assessed by means of a neuropsychiatric examination and a neuropsychological test-battery. The Swedish version of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used. The 57 patients (38 women, 19 men, mean age 56.9) differed from the Swedish normative group in three of the five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. This was mainly because of the scores of the female patients. Approximately half of the patients had OMI. No differences regarding personality factors or affective status were found between OMI and SMI patients. The female patients scored significantly higher than the male patients on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Neuroticism and symptoms of depression interacted with memory performance and gender. Our findings demonstrate the importance of applying an objective assessment of memory functions and a gender perspective when studying patients with memory complaints.

  17. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  18. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: clinical characteristics, diagnostic difficulties, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Maria C; Eisen, Jane L; Grant, Jon E; Rasmussen, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    The overlap between obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing recognition and continues to be a source of much debate. With the advent of new research methodologies, researchers have attempted to distinguish whether OCPD and OCD are two distinct phenomena that can co-occur or whether they are similar, overlapping constructs. MEDLINE was used to systematically review the OCPD and OCD literature published between 1991 and 2004. Using the more stringent DSM-IV criteria, results from OCD clinical samples suggest that the majority of individuals with OCD (75%) do not have OCPD. Similarly, results from personality disorder samples suggest that the majority of individuals with OCPD (80%) do not have OCD. While there is evidence that OCD and OCPD are linked, the literature does not support either one as a necessary or sufficient component of the other.

  19. Interpersonal characteristics of male criminal offenders: personality, psychopathological, and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F

    2009-03-01

    Interest in conceptualizing the interpersonal style of individuals who engage in serious antisocial behavior has increased in recent years. This study examines the personality, psychopathological, and behavioral correlates of interpersonal dominance and warmth, as operationalized via scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (L. Morey, 2007), across several samples of male prison inmates (combined N = 1,062). Consistent with theory, multivariate analyses indicated that low warmth and, to a lesser extent, high dominance were associated with antisocial and paranoid traits, specifically, and externalizing-spectrum psychopathology more generally, whereas borderline traits and internalizing-spectrum psychopathology were uniquely associated with low interpersonal warmth. Among smaller subsamples of inmates followed prospectively, high dominance and, to a lesser extent, low warmth predicted general and aggressive institutional misconduct, whereas dominance uniquely predicted staff ratings of treatment noncompliance/failure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Born entrepreneur? Adolescents' personality characteristics and self-employment in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Viinikainen, Jutta; Heineck, Guido; Böckerman, Petri; Hintsanen, Mirka; Raitakari, Olli; Pehkonen, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Is there an entrepreneurial personality and does it appear early in life? We provide a new answer on this question by using the so-called Type A behavior traits (Aggression, Leadership, Responsibility, and Eagerness-Energy), measured in childhood and adolescence, and examining their relationship to self-employment propensity in adulthood. Using data from the Young Finns Study linked to the Finnish Longitudinal Employer-Employee Data and the Longitudinal Population Census of Statistics, our re...

  1. The Differences of Coping Mechanism in Extrovert and Introvert Personality Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMAWATI, RAHMAWATI; AGUS ARIE AFFANDIE, AGUS ARIE AFFANDIE; AULA ISNAINIME, AULA ISNAINIME

    2013-01-01

    Students have a lot of work in their daily life , the challenges and demands that must be executed . Lack of understanding of the above makes student anxiety , stress , and even withdraw dependent . This study aimed to differences in coping mechanisms with extrovert and introvert personality traits in the Academy of Health Rajekwesi Bojonegoro . This type of research using comparative designs , The Sample was student of health nursing Academy Rajekwesi Bojonegoro , its amount 79 respon...

  2. Gender differences in the clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Siever, Larry J; Goodman, Marianne; McNamara, Margaret; Hazlett, Erin A; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S

    2015-10-30

    Gender is an important variable in the study of mental health because of the actual and perceived differences between men and women. Relatively little is known how males and females differ in their manifestations of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Demographic and clinical features of 323 participants with ASPD were assessed and recorded. Women had fewer episodes of antisocial behavior involving or not involving police, higher scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and on Emotional Abuse and Sexual Abuse subscales of the CTQ compared to men. CTQ scores positively correlated with the number of episodes of antisocial behavior involving police in men but not in women. The percentage of patients with comorbid borderline and histrionic personality disorders was higher and the percentage of participants with cocaine use disorder was lower among women compared to men. Comorbid alcohol use disorder was frequent in both groups, while a higher percentage of women had comorbid mood disorders compared to men. Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that CTQ scores, histrionic personality disorder, and antisocial behavior involving the police drive the difference between the groups. Our findings indicate that treatment of individuals with ASPD should focus on the management of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Celiac Disease: Influence of Personality Characteristics and Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Zeiler, Michael; Berger, Gabriele; Huber, Wolf-Dietrich; Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Karwautz, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Patients suffering from celiac disease (CD) have a higher risk of developing disturbed eating behaviour. In a multi-centre study, 259 female adolescents with CD and without a chronic condition were analysed regarding their eating disorder (ED) status, depression, personality, coping strategies and quality of life. Patients with CD and comorbid EDs were older and more often non-compliant with their diet and had a higher body mass index (BMI) and higher levels of depression. Differences in personality features disappear when controlling for age and depression. Higher ill-being and lower joy in life were reported by patients with CD and ED compared with patients without EDs, even when controlling for age and depression levels. No differences between patients (with CD) with and without EDs in coping strategies were found. BMI and lower self-directedness predicted ED status. Early identification of EDs in patients with CD is suggested and should include BMI and personality factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. The Mediating Role of Conscientiousness Personality Characteristic in Relationship between Attitude toward Addiction and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rezaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed at examining the mediating role of personality trait of conscientiousness in the relationship between attitudes towards addiction (which is considered to be a barrier to educational achievement and students’ academic performance. Method: As a cross sectional study lying within the range of descriptive studies, 106 students of Guilan University of medical sciences in 2010-2011 were randomly selected as the study sample and responded to the items of subscale conscientiousnessof NEO Personality Inventory and attitude measurement questionnaire toward addiction. Recent acquired total averages of students were considered as academic performance. Findings: In the first step, the academic performance regression was significant aboard tendency towards addiction. In the second step, however, with entry of conscientiousness as a mediator variable , there was observed a significant decrease in the β coefficient of attitude toward addiction and lost its significance. In other words, the mediator variable, consciousness, plays a mediating part in the relationship between tendency to addiction and educational performance. In general, these two variables could moderately explain 12% of the variance in academic performance to make the adjustment. Conclusion: Conscientious people enjoy higher achievement and lower degree often tendency toward addiction due to such factors as self-regulation, perseverance, and resistance against harmful impulses. Therefore,the personality trait of conscientiousness can counteract the detrimental effect of attitude toward addiction on academic performance through performing a protective role.

  5. BeOSL system for personal dosimetry : dosimetric characteristics and practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, E.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: BeOSL system of Dosimetric s is very easy to use, assimilate and maintain. Our dosimeter defines a milestone in the supervision of personal equivalent dose of Hp (10) and Hp (0.07) it covers the range of total energy of 16 KeV to 10 MeV. For this energy range is exceptional in its energy dependence for official personal dosimetry. The BeOSL system consists of two modules, one of them is the BeOSL reader that measures the radiation exposure using the latest technology, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The reading is extremely fast; it does not require consumables such as nitrogen or other. The detector material is beryllium oxide (Be O); this is an OSL material tissue equivalent and therefore is ideal for personal dosimetry. The BeOSL technology allows multiple readings of the dosimeter (re-read) to verify the dose or archive the dosimeter. One of the biggest advantages of BeOSL system is its modular concept allows the system to run as a manual solution or as a complete automated robotic system, which can be filled with up to 5,000 dosimeters as bulk cargo. (Author)

  6. Socioeconomic and gender inequalities in job dissatisfaction among Japanese civil servants: the roles of work, family and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Cable, Noriko; Chandola, Tarani; Marmot, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20-65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40-2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76-1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14-1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79-1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed.

  7. Socioeconomic and Gender Inequalities in Job Dissatisfaction among Japanese Civil Servants: The Roles of Work, Family and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEKINE, Michikazu; TATSUSE, Takashi; CABLE, Noriko; CHANDOLA, Tarani; MARMOT, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20–65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40–2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76–1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14–1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79–1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed. PMID:25055848

  8. The personal and workplace characteristics of uninsured expatriate males in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhamis, Abdulwahab; Cosgrove, Peter; Mohamed, Gamal; Hassan, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud A major concern by the health decision makers in Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries is the burden of financing healthcare. While other GCC countries have been examining different options, Saudi Arabia has endeavoured to reform its private healthcare system and control expatriate access to government resources through the provision of Compulsory Employment-Based Health Insurance (CEBHI). The objective of this research was to investigate, in a natural setting, the charac...

  9. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  10. Psychosocial work characteristics of personal care and service occupations: a process for developing meaningful measures for a multiethnic workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Annekatrin; Heaney, Catherine A; Fujishiro, Kaori; Gong, Fang; Baron, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Despite their rapid increase in number, workers in personal care and service occupations are underrepresented in research on psychosocial work characteristics and occupational health. Some of the research challenges stem from the high proportion of immigrants in these occupations. Language barriers, low literacy, and cultural differences as well as their nontraditional work setting (i.e., providing service for one person in his/her home) make generic questionnaire measures inadequate for capturing salient aspects of personal care and service work. This study presents strategies for (1) identifying psychosocial work characteristics of home care workers that may affect their occupational safety and health and (2) creating survey measures that overcome barriers posed by language, low literacy, and cultural differences. We pursued these aims in four phases: (Phase 1) Six focus groups to identify the psychosocial work characteristics affecting the home care workers' occupational safety and health; (Phase 2) Selection of questionnaire items (i.e., questions or statements to assess the target construct) and first round of cognitive interviews (n = 30) to refine the items in an iterative process; (Phase 3) Item revision and second round of cognitive interviews (n = 11); (Phase 4) Quantitative pilot test to ensure the scales' reliability and validity across three language groups (English, Spanish, and Chinese; total n = 404). Analysis of the data from each phase informed the nature of subsequent phases. This iterative process ensured that survey measures not only met the reliability and validity criteria across groups, but were also meaningful to home care workers. This complex process is necessary when conducting research with nontraditional and multilingual worker populations.

  11. Relationship among science teacher personality characteristics and degree of teacher classroom implementation after in-service workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechler, Phares Lochiel Coleman

    State departments of public instruction require that teachers periodically update their licenses throughout their teaching careers. Various professional development events such as in-service workshops, university offerings, and special innovative programs provide opportunities for novice and experienced teachers to grow professionally. The "Team Science" workshop was designed from models supported by research that described guidelines for successful workshop strategies. In evaluating the workshop, the question was asked "Why did not all teachers implement the ideas from the workshop in their science classrooms?" This study investigates the possible relationship between teacher personality characteristics and implementation of technology innovations. Team Science was an extensive workshop program planned to develop science teachers' expertise in using computer and video technology to teach in physical science, chemistry, and physics classrooms in rural school in North Carolina. Upon evaluating the four-year effort, it was found that the 23 participants implemented the technological strategies at various levels. At the higher end of the range of technology use, some teachers exhibited complete integration of the computers and interfacing devices into both the laboratory work and the classroom inquiry. At the lower end of the range, some teachers used the technology very little. The resulting question emerged from the data collected: Do specific teacher personality characteristics (independent variables) correlate with the degree of implementation (dependent variable) of the innovative ideas and tools used in the teacher's science classroom after the in-service workshop? To determine if there were any significant personality traits, each teacher was given five personality tests. The tests were Hunt's Conceptual Development Test, the Paragraph Completion Test; James Rest's Defining Issues Test; Simmons Personal Survey, an emotional tendency test; the Myers-Briggs Type

  12. How identity crisis, relative deprivation, personal characteristics, and empathy contribute to the engagement of Western individuals in Islamist terrorist behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khouwaga Yusoufzai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing sense of insecurity in the Western world due to home-grown Islamist terrorism prompts further research on the topic. Based on previous literature, the current paper attempts to determine whether factors can be identified which contribute to Western individuals joining Islamic extremist organizations and engaging in terrorist behavior in the West. Four factors are discussed: While extensive scientific literature supports the view that identity crises and relative deprivation play a crucial role in turning Western individuals to terrorism, evidence on the role of personal characteristics and empathy, on the other hand, is still too scarce to allow any clear scientific judgment.

  13. 12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nurses-Contribution of personality, job characteristics, coping, and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan-Porter, Wei; Hatch, Daniel; Pendergast, Jane F; Freude, Gabriele; Rose, Uwe; Burr, Hermann; Müller, Grit; Martus, Peter; Pohrt, Anne; Potter, Guy

    2018-07-01

    Job related factors have been associated with higher risk for developing depression, but past studies lacked full consideration of individual factors such as personality and coping. We sought to evaluate associations of personality, coping, job characteristics, and burnout with 12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nursing workers. Cohort of nursing workers (N = 281) in a private hospital system, with baseline assessments of personality, job characteristics, and coping. Burnout and depression were measured at baseline and during monthly follow-ups. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine contributions to between- and within-individual variation in monthly depressive symptoms. Personality trait of negative affectivity accounted for 36% of between-individual variation in depressive symptoms over 12 months, while job characteristics and coping explained an additional 5% and 8% of this variation, respectively. Exhaustion dimension of burnout was associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms (fixed effect β coefficient 2.44, p < 0.001), but not with within-individual variation in symptoms. Disengagement dimension of burnout was not associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms, but contributed to within-individual variation in depressive symptoms over time (fixed effect β coefficient 0.52, p = 0.01). Participants were nursing workers within a single hospital system. Participants who were excluded due to missing baseline data were more likely of non-white race, which may also limit the generalizability of our results. We used latent variables to represent certain job and coping characteristics, which may make our results less comparable with other studies examining the role of these factors in work-associated depression. Future interventions to prevent depression in healthcare workers should consider multiple job and individual factors. Potential components include strategies to manage negative

  14. Characteristics of personal space during obstacle circumvention in physical and virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin-Lajoie, Martin; Richards, Carol L; Fung, Joyce; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2008-02-01

    It is not known how the flexible protective zone maintained around oneself during locomotion (personal space or PS; see [Gérin-Lajoie M, Richards CL, McFadyen BJ. The negotiation of stationary and moving obstructions during walking: anticipatory locomotor adaptations and preservation of personal space. Motor Control 2005;9:242-69]) is modulated with walking speed, whether both sides of the PS are symmetrical, and whether the circumvention of physical and virtual obstructions elicit the same use of such PS. Personal space was measured in ten adults as they circumvented a cylindrical obstacle that was stationary within their path. Both left and right passes were performed at natural self-selected, slow and fast walking speeds. The same circumvention task was also performed at natural speeds in an immersive virtual environment (VE) replicating the same obstruction scenario. The shape and size of PS were maintained across walking speeds, and a smaller PS was generally observed on the dominant side. The general shape and lateral bias of the PS were preserved in the VE while its size was slightly increased. The systematic behavior across walking speeds and types of environment and the lateral bias suggest that PS is used to control navigation. This study deepens our understanding of normal adaptive walking behavior and has implications for the development of better tools for the assessment and retraining of locomotor capacity in different populations, from people with walking deficits to elite athletes. Since the PS behavior was shown to be robust in the VE used for this study, the virtual reality technology is proposed as a promising platform for the development of such assessment and retraining applications.

  15. The influence of personal and trip characteristics on habitual parking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerden, van der P.J.H.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Da Silva, A.N.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some results of a study on the influence of car drivers' characteristics on habitual parking behavior. First, the level of habitual parking behavior is determined in two ways: car drivers' regularity in choosing a parking facility and car drivers' self-reporting scores for

  16. Informal Workplace Learning among Nurses: Organisational Learning Conditions and Personal Characteristics That Predict Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Vermeire, Eva; Cabus, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine which organisational learning conditions and individual characteristics predict the learning outcomes nurses achieve through informal learning activities. There is specific relevance for the nursing profession because of the rapidly changing healthcare systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 203 nurses…

  17. Predicting Secondary Agriculture Teachers' Job Stress from Selected Personal, Family, and Work-Related Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robert M.; Lambert, Misty D.; Lawver, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to describe the characteristics and explain the current level of job stress among secondary agriculture teachers. The sample consisted of 370 secondary agriculture teachers. Data were collected using the Job Stress Survey (Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). From the findings it was concluded that the average secondary agriculture teacher…

  18. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E.; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in

  19. Personality characteristics of hospice volunteers as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C W; Shuff, I M

    1995-12-01

    A sample of hospice volunteers (n = 99) was administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers & McCaulley, 1985). Frequencies of types observed were compared to population sample (n = 1,105) frequencies. Results indicated that, as a whole, hospice volunteers preferred extraversion over introversion, intuition over sensing, and feeling over thinking. Analysis of four-and two-letter preference combinations also yielded statistically significant differences. Most notably, the sensing-intuitive function appeared pivotal in determining of hospice volunteering. Suggestions are offered as to why the sensing-intuition function appeared central to hospice volunteering. Results appeared consistent with Jungian personality theory.

  20. [Suicidal and personality characteristics of women married to men with alcohol dependence and suicidal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinov, A V; Shustov, D I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the suicidal activity in men with alcohol dependence on suicidal indexes, personal-codependency and psychological specifics of their wives has been studied. It has been found that women married to suicidal men with alcohol dependence significantly more frequently demonstrate suicidal activity (a phenomenon of suicidal matrimonial comorbidity) compared to wives of "non-suicidal" men. They also reveal non-suicidal behavioral patterns more frequently and prosuicidal predictors are quite common in them. This contingent of women has high suicidal potential that needs special attention during the therapeutic work.

  1. Physician personal characteristics influencing long-term treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strokova E.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the peculiarities of a doctor personality, affecting long-term therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Materials and methods: To determine the type of temperament, the presence and intensity of the syndrome of emotional burnout and capacity for empathy therapists and cardiologists were asked to fill in a number of questionnaires. Each doctor had a group of patients contacting by telephone for a year after the discharge from the hospital. During the telephone contact, the patients were asked about the continuation of their therapy recommended in the hospital, the regularity of therapy, the frequency of absence, and the assessment of a physician by the patients. Results: 35 questionnaires were suitable for interpretation. Through one year after the discharge from the hospital it was able to contact with 147 patients, 18.4% (27 of patients completely stopped the treatment by recommended drugs. Positive assessment of physicians was associated with the continuation of the therapy by recommended drugs and regularity of drug taking (p=0,03. Patients assessed physicians positively more often in cases of low level of emotional state, high level of depersonalization (cynicism and the reduction of personal accomplishment (feeling of professional inefficiency in a doctor. Conclusion: Assessment of physicians by patients is reliably and significantly influenced by continuation of long-term therapy and regularity of drug taking.

  2. Criminological characteristics of a cattle-stealer’s personality: by the materials of Kazakhstan Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talgat A. Khanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the essential forensically significant features that characterize individuals who are engaged in cattlestealing to formulate recommendations for their detection. Methods dialectical approach to social phenomena cognition was used. The theoretical and methodological bases are general provisions of the epistemology of science general and legal psychology. Specific sociological research methods were used in the form of studying the criminal cases and surveying the respondents. Results the paper identifies and systematizes the essential features characterizing the persons involved in cattlestealing. Among them a relatively stable relapse committing group crimes antisocial lifestyle pronounced male type of crimes. This in turn allows to propose the general and specific versions to predict the location of the offender and the stolen cattle. Scientific novelty the article proposed the use of prognostic information to identify the likely cattlestealer. The importance of the complete information about the manner the place the subject and the object of the crime is highlighted in order to formulate the typical investigative situation. Practical significance the results obtained during research allow to increase the efficiency of planning and use of tactics when carrying out investigative actions directed on establishment of persons specializing in cattlestealing.

  3. Evaluating the drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use cognitive enhancement drugs: the influence of drug characteristics, social environment, and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Sebastian; Mehlkop, Guido; Graeff, Peter; Sauer, Carsten

    2014-02-01

    The use of cognitive enhancement (CE) by means of pharmaceutical agents has been the subject of intense debate both among scientists and in the media. This study investigates several drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use prescription drugs non-medically for augmenting brain capacity. We conducted a web-based study among 2,877 students from randomly selected disciplines at German universities. Using a factorial survey, respondents expressed their willingness to take various hypothetical CE-drugs; the drugs were described by five experimentally varied characteristics and the social environment by three varied characteristics. Personal characteristics and demographic controls were also measured. We found that 65.3% of the respondents staunchly refused to use CE-drugs. The results of a multivariate negative binomial regression indicated that respondents' willingness to use CE-drugs increased if the potential drugs promised a significant augmentation of mental capacity and a high probability of achieving this augmentation. Willingness decreased when there was a high probability of side effects and a high price. Prevalent CE-drug use among peers increased willingness, whereas a social environment that strongly disapproved of these drugs decreased it. Regarding the respondents' characteristics, pronounced academic procrastination, high cognitive test anxiety, low intrinsic motivation, low internalization of social norms against CE-drug use, and past experiences with CE-drugs increased willingness. The potential severity of side effects, social recommendations about using CE-drugs, risk preferences, and competencies had no measured effects upon willingness. These findings contribute to understanding factors that influence the willingness to use CE-drugs. They support the assumption of instrumental drug use and may contribute to the development of prevention, policy, and educational strategies.

  4. Skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and interests for veterinary practice management: fitting personal characteristics to situational demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, Daniel R

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies of veterinary practices and services have suggested that more attention must be focused on business practices and on the skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) of veterinarians related to veterinary practice management (VPM). Responses to these concerns have been directed at the selection and education of veterinarians in veterinary school. While this position is supported in the present article, it is argued that the values and interests of persons who are likely to enter the field, as well as the nature of the experiences encountered across the career of veterinarians, will moderate the potential effectiveness of veterinary school practices and experiences regarding SKAs in VPM. The paper explores some potential implications of these moderators on the effectiveness of selection and education for increasing SKAs in VPM.

  5. The relations between personality characteristics, work environment, and the professional well-being of music therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kelly L

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the relations between professional well-being (as characterized by positive attitudes toward work and longevity as a practicing music therapist) and the following factors: age, level of education, income, attitudes regarding the workplace (e.g., perceived control, feeling valued, as well as the amount of perceived comfort and input into administrative policies), attitudes toward work as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986a), and measures of stress and stress management as measured by the Stress Profile (Nowack, 1999a). Participants included 49 music therapists who had between one to 36 years of work experience. Correlations indicated that those respondents with greatest professional longevity tended to have higher ratings on items regarding cognitive coping strategies (e.g., positive appraisal and threat minimization) and greater perception of personal achievement. These correlational results are related to psychological theories regarding occupational burnout and cognitive hardiness.

  6. Personality Characteristics Of Teachers Involved In The Delivery Of Primary Healthy Care (Sevagram Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to study the personality traits influencing the performance of 17 primary school teachers selected under ICMR project in Wardha district, to investigate feasibility and effectiveness of their involvement as primary health care workers vis-Ã -vis the 19 community health volunteers introduced by the State Government in the non-teacher villages of the project at the same time. The results indicated that both the teachers and community health volunteers preferred preventive and promotive health tasks and they showed no significant difference on the motivation and leadership orientation scale. The teachers, because of their job security and promotional avenues were satisfied with their achievements and were full of hopes and aspirations but the same was not true with the community health volunteers. This was due to their comparatively poor economic conditions and unstable sources of livelihood.

  7. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of personality characteristics in Parkinson disease patients with and without impulse control disorders and in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnikova, Katerina; Obereigneru, Radko; Kanovsky, Petr; Prasko, Jan

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to assess personality characteristics in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). We tested patients and controls with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales that have expected high sensitivity to apparent addictive behavior. We recorded mean disease duration and mean levodopa dose in the PD groups. Of the 46 PD patients, 13 had ICD: hypersexuality, binge eating, or dopamine dysregulation. The PD patients with ICD had a longer duration of disease (11 vs. 5 y) and were taking higher doses of levodopa (900 vs. 500 mg/d). They scored above the pathologic threshold in 4 domains of the MMPI-2 Clinical Scales and in 8 Clinical Subscales and Content Scales. The most significant abnormality was Alienation-Self and Others. ICDs in the general population have similarities to disorders of substance addiction. In PD patients, some personality profiles could play a role in development of ICDs or dopamine dysregulation syndrome. The MMPI-2 may be a useful test for PD patients in general, and for detecting ICD in particular.

  9. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted. PMID:23633645

  10. The characteristics of decision making, potential to take risks, and personality of college students with Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsiao, Sigmund; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yang, Ming-Jen; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2010-01-30

    This study aimed to identify risk factors involved in Internet addiction. A total of 216 college students (132 males and 84 females) were given the following: (a) the diagnostic interview for Internet addiction, (b) the Iowa gambling test for decision-making deficits, (c) the Balloon Analog Risk Test (BART) to assess risk-taking tendencies, and (d) the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) for personality characteristics. The results revealed the following: (a) 49% of males and 17% of females were addicted, (b) the addicted students tended to select more advantageous cards in the last 40 cards of the Iowa test, indicating better decision making, (c) no difference was found for the BART, indicating that addicted subjects were not more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviors and (d) TPQ scores showed lower reward dependence (RD) and higher novelty seeking (NS) for the addicts. Their higher performance on the Iowa gambling test differentiates the Internet addiction group from the substance use and pathologic gambling groups that have been shown to be deficient in decision making on the Iowa test. Thus, students that fit these characteristics should be closely monitored to prevent Internet addiction.

  11. The relation characteristics of personality of managers working in Iran University of Medical Sciences with success and desirable job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Saleh Ardestani, Abbas; Kermani, Behnaz; Rezapoor, Aziz; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest the existence of an effective relationship between individuals'characteristics and important factors such as occupational and organizational performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and etc. This study was designed based on the dimensions of personality (introversion /extroversion) of managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences at three levels (executive, middle and senior) with their career success rate. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study, whose population was all managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences. To collect data, two valid and reliable questionnaires were used. The first questionnaire assessed personality characteristics of each director, and the second measured occupational success. Related tests such as Pearson correlation test and independent comparison (independent t-test) at a significance level of 0.05 were used for data analysis. Findings revealed no significant relationship between variables of introversion and extroversion and occupational success among the senior managers, (p> 0.05). However, there was a direct but incomplete relationship between introversion and extroversion, which correlated with job success among middle and executives managers. It seems that in all three levels of managers, if the managers communicated more with employees and if the subject of communication was more of executive nature, the correlation rate would increase between extroversion and introversion with job success variables. Therefore, it is suggested to give attention to organizational interaction and communication, and contingency variables such as organization condition, structure, formality and complexity.

  12. Depressive and anxiety disorders on-the-job: The importance of job characteristics for good work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, I.; de Graaf, R.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.; Smit, J.H.; van Dyck, R.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the importance of job characteristics on absence and on-the-job performance in a large group of employees with diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders. In a sample of 1522 employees (1129 persons with and 393 persons without psychopathology) participating in Netherlands Study

  13. Depressive and anxiety disorders on-the-job : The importance of job characteristics for good work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Inger; de Graaf, Ron; Smit, Johannes; van Dyck, Richard; Beekman, Aartjan; Penninx, Brenda; de Bruijn, Jeanne G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the importance of job characteristics on absence and on-the-job performance in a large group of employees with diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders. In a sample of 1522 employees (1129 persons with and 393 persons without psychopathology) participating in Netherlands Study

  14. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  15. A social study on effects of personal characteristics on suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt has been one of serious social problems in todays’ modern society and many studies have been focused to detect different factors influencing this unfortunate issue. In this paper, we perform an empirical study among 897 people who had some experiences associated with suicide attempt. We have designed and distributed a questionnaire among them investigating the impact of four major issues including marital status, educational background, age and living status. The results of our survey indicate that married people tend to commit suicide more than single people do. The other observation indicates that more educated people are more likely to commit suicide, older people are more interested in ending their lives and finally, people who live in cities are more likely to commit suicide than other people.

  16. The correlation of background parenchymal enhancement in the contralateral breast with patient and tumor characteristics of MRI-screen detected breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreemann, Suzan; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Borelli, Cristina; Bult, Peter; Karssemeijer, Nico; Mann, Ritse M

    2018-01-01

    Higher background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) could be used for stratification of MRI screening programs since it might be related to a higher breast cancer risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to correlate BPE to patient and tumor characteristics in women with unilateral MRI-screen detected breast cancer who participated in an intermediate and high risk screening program. As BPE in the affected breast may be difficult to discern from enhancing cancer, we assumed that BPE in the contralateral breast is a representative measure for BPE in women with unilateral breast cancer. This retrospective study was approved by our local institutional board and a waiver for consent was granted. MR-examinations of women with unilateral breast cancers screen-detected on breast MRI were evaluated by two readers. BPE in the contralateral breast was rated according to BI-RADS. Univariate analyses were performed to study associations. Observer variability was computed. Analysis included 77 breast cancers in 76 patients (age: 48±9.8 years), including 62 invasive and 15 pure ductal carcinoma in-situ cases. A negative association between BPE and tumor grade (p≤0.016) and a positive association with progesterone status (p≤0.021) was found. The correlation was stronger when only considering invasive disease. Inter-reader agreement was substantial. Lower BPE in the contralateral breast in women with unilateral breast cancer might be associated to higher tumor grade and progesterone receptor negativity. Great care should be taken using BPE for stratification of patients to tailored screening programs.

  17. Staff's person-centredness in dementia care in relation to job characteristics and job-related well-being: a cross-sectional survey in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Bernadette M; De Jonge, Jan; Smit, Dieneke; Visser, Quirijn; Depla, Marja F I A; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2015-02-01

    To explore the role of nursing staff's person-centredness caring for people with dementia in relation to their work environment and job-related well-being. Given the development towards person-centred care and labour force issues, research has recently focused on the effect of person-centredness on nursing staff's well-being. Findings from occupational stress research suggest that employees' personal characteristics, such as person-centredness, can moderate the impact particular job characteristics have on their job-related well-being. Cross-sectional survey. A national survey was conducted among healthcare staff (n = 1147) in 136 living arrangements for people with dementia in the Netherlands (2008-2009). Hierarchical regression analyses were used. Person-centredness moderates the relationship between coworker support and three outcomes of job-related well-being and between supervisor support and two of these outcomes. For highly person-centred nursing staff, coworker support was found to have a weaker impact and supervisor support to have a stronger impact on their job-related well-being. In addition, direct effects showed that person-centredness was weakly associated with more job satisfaction, more emotional exhaustion and more strongly with more personal accomplishment. Nursing staff's person-centredness does play a modest role in relation to job characteristics and job-related well-being. Findings indicate that person-centredness is not only beneficial to residents with dementia as found earlier, but also for nursing staff themselves; specifically, in case nursing staff members feel supported by their supervisor. Since a more person-centred workforce feels more competent, further implementation of person-centred care might have a positive impact on the attractiveness of the profession. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Power attenuation characteristics as switch-over criterion in personal satellite mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jonathan P.

    1993-01-01

    A third generation mobile system intends to support communications in all environments (i.e., outdoors, indoors at home or office and when moving). This system will integrate services that are now available in architectures such as cellular, cordless, mobile data networks, paging, including satellite services to rural areas. One way through which service integration will be made possible is by supporting a hierarchical cellular structure based on umbrella cells, macro cells, micro and pico cells. In this type of structure, satellites are part of the giant umbrella cells allowing continuous global coverage, the other cells belong to cities, neighborhoods, and buildings respectively. This does not necessarily imply that network operation of terrestrial and satellite segments interconnect to enable roaming and spectrum sharing. However, the cell concept does imply hand-off between different cell types, which may involve change of frequency. Within this propsective, the present work uses power attenuation characteristics to determine a dynamic criterion that allows smooth transition from space to terrestrial networks. The analysis includes a hybrid channel that combines Rician, Raleigh and Log Normal fading characteristics.

  19. Which Users Should Be the Focus of Mobile Personal Health Records? Analysis of User Characteristics Influencing Usage of a Tethered Mobile Personal Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guna; Park, Joong Yeol; Shin, Soo-Yong; Hwang, Jong Su; Ryu, Hyeon Jeong; Lee, Jae Ho; Bates, David W

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the usage pattern of a hospital-tethered mobile personal health records (m-PHRs) application named My Chart in My Hand (MCMH) and to identify user characteristics that influence m-PHR usage. Access logs to MCMH and its menus were collected for a total of 18 months, from August 2011 to January 2013. Usage patterns between users without a patient identification number (ID) and users with a patient ID were compared. Users with a patient ID were divided into light and heavy user groups by the median number of monthly access. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess MCMH usage pattern by characteristics of MCMH user with a patient ID. The total number of MCMH logins was 105,603, and the median number of accesses was 15 times. Users (n = 7,096) mostly accessed the "My Chart" menu, but "OPD [outpatient department] Service Support" and "Health Management" menus were also frequently used. Patients with chronic diseases, experience of hospital visits including emergency room and OPD, and age group of 0-19 years were more frequently found among users with a patient ID (n = 2,186) (p < 0.001). A similar trend was found in the heavy user group (n = 1,123). Submenus of laboratory result, online appointment, and medication lists that were accessed mostly by users with a patient ID were associated with OPD visit and chronic diseases. This study showed that focuses on patients with chronic disease and more hospital visits and empowerment functions in a tethered m-PHR would be helpful to pursue the extensive use.

  20. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Min Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a personal gamma (γ spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 Ce-doped Gd–Al–Ga–garnet (Ce:GAGG crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for 133Ba at 0.356 MeV, 22Na at 0.511 MeV, 137Cs at 0.662 MeV, and 60Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery, and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm2.

  1. Impact of childhood trauma on course of panic disorder: contribution of clinical and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Venter, M; Van Den Eede, F; Pattyn, T; Wouters, K; Veltman, D J; Penninx, B W J H; Sabbe, B G

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of panic disorder and possible contributing factors. Longitudinal data of 539 participants with a current panic disorder were collected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Childhood trauma was assessed with a structured interview and clinical course after 2 years with a DSM-IV-based diagnostic interview and the Life Chart Interview. At baseline, 54.5% reported childhood trauma, but this was not predictive of persistence of panic disorder. Emotional neglect and psychological abuse were associated with higher occurrence of anxiety disorders other than panic disorder (social phobia) and with higher chronicity of general anxiety symptoms (anxiety attacks or episodes and avoidance). Baseline clinical features (duration and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms) and personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) accounted for roughly 30-60% of the total effect of childhood trauma on chronicity of anxiety symptoms and on occurrence of other anxiety disorders. After two years, childhood trauma is associated with chronicity of anxiety symptoms and occurrence of social phobia, rather than persistence of panic disorder. These relationships are partially accounted for by duration and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and neuroticism and extraversion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Socio-cognitive and personal characteristics of young offenders: a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Borrás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is characterised by a higher prevalence of risk-taking and the challenging of social norms, which appears to bear a relationship to personal abilities and social-cognitive deficits. With the aim of understanding this relationship, a comparative study was undertaken with two groups of adolescents, one belonging to the standard population and one comprising young people who have been subject to correctional measures. In order to evaluate the variables involved, use was made of the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Psychopathology in Adolescence (Q-PAD. The results obtained show that both groups display significant differences in all the variables considered in the Questionnaire, with the exception of those relating to body dissatisfaction and family conflicts. Succinctly, it emerged that the juvenile offenders had emotional and interpersonal problems and were at risk of psychological disturbance. They demonstrated uncertainty about the future, liability to substance abuse, and issues of self-esteem. These results suggest the need for prevention and intervention programmes which specifically take into account these variables.

  3. Are the attitudes of exercise instructors who work with older adults influenced by training and personal characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Helen; Skelton, Dawn A; Campbell, Malcolm; Todd, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between attitudes and characteristics of instructors and uptake and adherence of older people to exercise classes. This article explores these issues. The authors surveyed 731 UK exercise instructors with specialist older adult exercise qualifications. A questionnaire investigated instructors' characteristics and attitudes toward older adults' participation in exercise. For mostly seated classes, EXTEND qualification (B = 0.36, p = .005) had a positive effect on instructors' attitudes. Later Life Training qualification (B = -2.80, p = .003), clinical background (B = -3.99, p = .005), and delivering classes in National Health Services (B = -3.12, p attitudes. For mostly standing classes, experience (B = 0.20, p = .003) and delivering in leisure centers (B = 0.46, p = .032) had a positive and clinical background (B = -1.78, p = .018) had a negative effect on instructors' attitudes. Most instructors have positive attitudes, but training and work context can influence attitudes toward older people's participation in exercise classes both positively and negatively.

  4. The personalized reminder information and social management system (PRISM) trial: rationale, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; A Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N

    2015-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65-98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of team members’ personal characteristics on the effectiveness of group management and social stability of organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Chernykh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider issues of organizational management in terms of improving its economic efficiency and interpret personnel risks as potential losses or threats to the economic activities of enterprise. The article focuses on a special group of risks associated with individual characteristics and interpersonal interaction, i. e. social activities of team members within the group. As a rule, organizations use methods of socio-psychological diagnostics at the first step of candidates’ selection to create such an organizational structure that takes into account professional and personal characteristics and competencies of candidates as well as their predisposition to a certain type of activities. The authors consider the problem of candidates’ acceptance or rejection of a certain type of corporate culture prevailing in the enterprise, and at the same time team’s acceptance or rejection of candidates with certain cultural preferences. The second application for social-psychological research techniques, important for management practices, is keeping up the team active state and increasing its effectiveness through its human potential realization. The article presents the results of the study of groups with low social status focusing on their members’ individual characteristics. The authors propose methods to work with team members and groups as a whole that can stabilize social systems and develop techniques for managing personnel risks.

  6. An in-depth analysis of personality and other participant characteristics in a Web-based course for science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyette, Todd Randall

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the role students' personality and other characteristics play in their experience and achievement in a web-based course for teachers. Participants in the study were 17 inservice teachers enrolled in Technology Tools for Science Teachers in the 2002 spring semester. "Tech Tools" is a web-based class designed to teach teachers how to use various technology such as digital cameras in the science classroom. As part of the class, students are required to attend four face-to-face sessions during the semester. Personality data was generated by the administering of three instruments: The Simmons Personal Survey, The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory. Students also completed an entrance survey at the beginning of the course. All e-mails and Instant Messages sent to the instructors and all posts to the class listserv were collected for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Additional data was collected through Instant Message interviews with ten of the students conducted at the end of the course. Results indicated that characteristics such as assertiveness, courage, sociability, self-esteem, rule consciousness, and teaching experience, were strongly correlated with students' final grades. Traits such as anxiety, tension, apprehension and Privateness strongly correlated with students' amount of communication. Qualitative results indicated that students who are open and receptive to new ideas were better able to handle the rigor of the course, while students that enjoy change appreciated the content and format of the course. Self-esteem seems to impact the opinions of students regarding their experience in Tech Tools and Social Boldness seems to impact their opinions about the value of the face-to-face sessions. Other findings included how the amount of teaching experience of the students affected their perceptions of the workload involved in Tech Tools, how the requirements of

  7. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in Older Persons from France and Quebec: Dietary and Lifestyle Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Allès

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary and nutrient patterns have been linked to health outcomes related to aging. Food intake is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient patterns across two elderly populations sharing a common ancestral cultural background, but living in different environments. Methods: The diet quality, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics of participants from the Three-City Study (3C, France, n = 1712 and the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada, n = 1596 were analyzed. Nutrient patterns and their food sources were identified in the two samples using principal component analysis. Diet quality was compared across sample-specific patterns by describing weekly food intake and associations with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI. Results: Three nutrient patterns were retained in each study: a healthy, a Western and a more traditional pattern. These patterns accounted for 50.1% and 53.5% of the total variance in 3C and NuAge, respectively. Higher education and non-physical occupations over lifetime were associated with healthy patterns in both studies. Other characteristics such as living alone, having a body mass index lower than 25 and being an ex-smoker were associated with the healthy pattern in NuAge. No association between these characteristics and the nutrient patterns was noted in 3C. The healthy and Western patterns from each sample also showed an inverse association with C-HEI. Conclusion: The two healthy patterns showed important similarities: adequate food variety, consumption of healthy foods and associations with common sociodemographic factors. This work highlights that nutrient patterns derived using a posteriori methods may be useful to compare the nutritional quality of the diet of distinct populations.

  8. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick De Pelsmacker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer screening activation: Health awareness, Need for Cognition, Affect Intensity, Breast cancer knowledge, Topic involvement, and the Perceived breast cancer risk. We test the effect of these factors on four activation variables: intention of future information seeking, forwarding the message to a friend, talking to a doctor, and actual breast cancer screening attendance. Additionally, we try to unravel the process by means of which the antecedents (the six personal characteristics lead to activation. To that end, we test the mediating role of perceived breast cancer threat, perceived efficacy of screening, and the evoked breast cancer anxiety as mediators in this process. The data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 700 Flemish (Belgium women who were invited to the free-of-charge breast cancer population screening. Screening attendance of this sample was provided by the government agency in charge of the organisation of the screening. Health awareness, affects intensity, topic involvement, and perceived risk have the strongest influence on activation. Breast cancer anxiety and perceived breast cancer threat have a substantial mediation effect on these effects. Efficacy perceptions are less important in the activation process. Increased health awareness and a higher level of perceived risk lead to less participation in the free of charge population based breast screening program. Implications for theory and practice are offered. The limitation

  9. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Lewi, Martine; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2017-01-01

    In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer screening activation: Health awareness, Need for Cognition, Affect Intensity, Breast cancer knowledge, Topic involvement, and the Perceived breast cancer risk. We test the effect of these factors on four activation variables: intention of future information seeking, forwarding the message to a friend, talking to a doctor, and actual breast cancer screening attendance. Additionally, we try to unravel the process by means of which the antecedents (the six personal characteristics) lead to activation. To that end, we test the mediating role of perceived breast cancer threat, perceived efficacy of screening, and the evoked breast cancer anxiety as mediators in this process. The data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 700 Flemish (Belgium) women who were invited to the free-of-charge breast cancer population screening. Screening attendance of this sample was provided by the government agency in charge of the organisation of the screening. Health awareness, affects intensity, topic involvement, and perceived risk have the strongest influence on activation. Breast cancer anxiety and perceived breast cancer threat have a substantial mediation effect on these effects. Efficacy perceptions are less important in the activation process. Increased health awareness and a higher level of perceived risk lead to less participation in the free of charge population based breast screening program. Implications for theory and practice are offered. The limitation of the study is

  10. The associations between personality characteristics and absenteeism: a cross-sectional study in workers with and without depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasveld, Moniek C; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Anema, Johannes R; van Mechelen, Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-09-01

    Although numerous studies have identified risk factors for sickness absence, few studies have addressed the role of personality characteristics in absenteeism. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of the Big 5 personality characteristics (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness) and locus of control with absenteeism, taking the presence of depressive and anxiety disorders into account. Cross-sectional data from the baseline measurement of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were examined. NESDA includes persons with current or remitted depressive and anxiety disorders and healthy controls, of which 1883 working participants were selected. Personality characteristics were included as predictor variables, short-term (0-2 weeks) and long-term (>2 weeks) absenteeism as outcome measure. The presence of depressive and anxiety disorders was considered as modifying covariate. In healthy workers, high neuroticism, external locus of control, low extraversion, low agreeableness and low conscientiousness were associated with short-term absenteeism. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low openness were related to long-term absenteeism in healthy workers. In workers with psychopathology, similar associations were found for persons with this profile (high neuroticism, external locus of control, low extraversion and low conscientiousness) with long-term absenteeism, but no associations of these characteristics were found with short-term absenteeism. Personality characteristics were significantly associated with work absenteeism in both workers with and without anxiety or depression. Interventions aimed at preventing sickness absence may focus on reducing neuroticism and strengthening extraversion, conscientiousness and locus of control.

  11. Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors' Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors' Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glance, Dorea E.

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…

  12. Personal characteristics associated with injecting drug use among Latinas in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines nonmedical injecting drug use (IDU among Latinas aged 12 years and older in a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Data from the 1990-1995 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse disclosed 154 Latinas with self-reported histories of IDU out of 18 335 Latinas who responded. Hypotheses about correlates of IDU were tested by using the conditional form of multiple logistic regression to compare the characteristics of these IDUs with those of 602 noninjecting Latinas matched on neighborhood of residence. In the USA, an estimated 1% of Latinas age 12 years and older have injected drugs for non-medical purposes on at least one occasion. IDU was 4.6 to 6.5 times greater for adult Latinas (18-44 years old when compared to Latinas aged either 12 through 17 years (P < 0.05 or older than 44 years. IDU was an estimated 7.1 times greater for Latinas who reported marijuana use and 5.4 times greater for Latinas who reported inhalant use when compared to Latinas not using these drugs (P < 0.01. In light of recent studies indicating that IDU is a serious public health problem for Latinas in the United States, the observed associations represent first steps in an effort to understand the Latina subgroups most affected by IDU and the underlying risk factors or causes of this behavior.

  13. Introducing a multivariate model for predicting driving performance: the role of driving anger and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roidl, Ernst; Siebert, Felix Wilhelm; Oehl, Michael; Höger, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    Maladaptive driving is an important source of self-inflicted accidents and this driving style could include high speeds, speeding violations, and poor lateral control of the vehicle. The literature suggests that certain groups of drivers, such as novice drivers, males, highly motivated drivers, and those who frequently experience anger in traffic, tend to exhibit more maladaptive driving patterns compared to other drivers. Remarkably, no coherent framework is currently available to describe the relationships and distinct influences of these factors. We conducted two studies with the aim of creating a multivariate model that combines the aforementioned factors, describes their relationships, and predicts driving performance more precisely. The studies employed different techniques to elicit emotion and different tracks designed to explore the driving behaviors of participants in potentially anger-provoking situations. Study 1 induced emotions with short film clips. Study 2 confronted the participants with potentially anger-inducing traffic situations during the simulated drive. In both studies, participants who experienced high levels of anger drove faster and exhibited greater longitudinal and lateral acceleration. Furthermore, multiple linear regressions and path-models revealed that highly motivated male drivers displayed the same behavior independent of their emotional state. The results indicate that anger and specific risk characteristics lead to maladaptive changes in important driving parameters and that drivers with these specific risk factors are prone to experience more anger while driving, which further worsens their driving performance. Driver trainings and anger management courses will profit from these findings because they help to improve the validity of assessments of anger related driving behavior. © 2013.

  14. Clinical characteristics of self-mutilating behavior in Turkish male subjects with antisocial personality disorder: relationship to psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay Ates, M; Algul, Ayhan; Semiz, Umit B; Gecici, Omer; Basoglu, Cengiz; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics of self-mutilation (SM) and examine the relationship between SM and psychopathy in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder (APD). APD diagnosis was established by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders. Subjects (N = 116) were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and a semi-structured self-mutilation questionnaire form. In males with APD, the percentages of psychopathy and SM were 48.3% (N =56) and 96.6% (N = 112), respectively. There were positive correlations between severity of psychopathy and severity, number, and frequency of SM. Considerably high rates of SM and psychopathy were found in Turkish males with APD. The features of SM were associated with comorbidity of psychopathy. These results showed the importance of exploring the self-injurious behavior and psychopathy when diagnosed with APD.

  15. Air pollution and mortality: Effect modification by personal characteristics and specific cause of death in a case-only study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Pun, Vivian C.; Wang, Xiaorong; Yu, Ignatius T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. Less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to air pollution. We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the potential effect modification by personal characteristics and specific causes of death. Individual information of 402,184 deaths of non-external causes and daily mean concentrations of air pollution were collected from 2001 to 2011. For a 10 μg/m 3 increase of pollution concentration, people aged ≥∇65 years (compared with younger ages) had a 0.9–1.8% additional increase in mortality related to PM, NO 2 , and SO 2 . People dying from cardiorespiratory diseases (compared with other non-external causes) had a 1.6–2.3% additional increase in PM and NO 2 related mortality. Other subgroups that were particularly susceptible were females and those economically inactive. Lower socioeconomic status and causes of cardiorespiratory diseases would increase the likelihood of death associated with air pollution. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the effect modification. • We identified the subpopulations particularly vulnerable to air pollution related death. • Elderly, female and those economically inactive would increase the risk of air pollution. • Specific causes of cardiorespiratory death showed vulnerability to air pollution. - We conducted a case-only study to identify several personal characteristics and specific cardiorespiratory causes that vulnerable to air pollution related mortality

  16. The relation of depression, anxiety and stress with personal characteristics of nurses in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Khodadadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current industrialized world and ever advancing technology has changed human life by a significant increase in the level of stress and anxiety. Nurses are among those professionals who experience an overwhelming level of stress, anxiety and depression due to work overload and subsequent burnout. The nature of nursing profession for a vulnerable human character increases the possibility of emotional setbacks. Hence, this study was designed to explore and identify the prevalence of anxiety, stress and depression among the Iranian nurses and investigate how these variables relate to personal characteristics and influence the quality of patient care. Using a correlational descriptive design and random cluster method, 242 nurses who worked at different hospital wards in Tabriz, Iran were assessed for anxiety, stress and depression, while their personal characteristics were identified. Data were collected by using a standard questionnaire for stress, anxiety and depression (DASS-21 and later analyzed by SPSS (ver.17.Results showed that Iranian nurses suffered from a moderate level of anxiety, stress and depression and gender influenced these variable rates (p<0.05. Hospital ward type had a relation with stress level (p<0.05, being interested in nursing had an inverse relation to anxiety, stress and depression (p<0.05, while the education level positively related to depression rate among nurses (p<0.05. Type of work at different shifts influenced stress (p<0.05 and marital status reduced depression among nurses (p<0.05. Prevalence of stress and anxiety among the Iranian nurses were at a significant level with susceptibility to experience psychological disorders and provide lower quality of patient care. Findings of this study can alarm the Iranian authorities in healthcare systems to adopt a new policy and improve the current state of health for nurses and patients.

  17. Awareness Levels of Students of the Faculty of Technical Education of Suleyman Demirel University about Personality Characteristics and Interpersonal Relationships

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    Şengül BÜYÜKBOYACI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of personality characteristics of the students at the Faculty of Technical Education, Süleyman Demirel University on their awareness levels of interpersonal relationships. This study was conducted with 63 females (%57,28, 47 males (42,72 and totally 110 students at the Faculty of Technical Education, Süleyman Demirel University. Data gathered in accordance with the aims of the study, statistical analysis techniques which are appropriate for data attributes and SPSS 15 program in computer environment were used. The research problem and data concerning sub problems, t test, one way analysis of variance were used; researchers’ gender, age and socio demographic attributes were determined as frequency and percentage value. As a result, the research findings revealed that there is no meaningful difference of female and male students between personality attributes and awareness levels of interpersonal relationships. This result indicates that females and males are not aware of what is happening in their interpersonal relationships and do not pay attention to the quality of their relationships.

  18. Perception of temperature and wind by users of public outdoor spaces: relationships with weather parameters and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria-João; Oliveira, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    We aim to understand the relationship between people's declared bioclimatic comfort, their personal characteristics (age, origin, clothing, activity and motivation, etc.) and the atmospheric conditions. To attain this goal, questionnaire surveys were made concurrently with weather measurements (air temperature, relative humidity, solar and long-wave radiation and wind speed) in two open leisure areas of Lisbon (Portugal), during the years 2006 and 2007. We analysed the desire expressed by the interviewees to decrease, maintain or increase the values of air temperature and wind speed, in order to improve their level of comfort. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the quantitative relation between preference votes and environmental and personal parameters. The preference for a different temperature depends on the season and is strongly associated with wind speed. Furthermore, a general decrease of discomfort with increasing age was also found. Most people declared a preference for lower wind speed in all seasons; the perception of wind shows significant differences depending on gender, with women declaring a lower level of comfort with higher wind speed. It was also found that the tolerance of warmer conditions is higher than of cooler conditions, and that adaptive strategies are undertaken by people to improve their level of comfort outdoors.

  19. The impact of social work environment, teamwork characteristics, burnout, and personal factors upon intent to leave among European nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Ogińska, Halszka; Camerino, Donatella; Le Nézet, Olivier; Conway, Paul Maurice; Fry, Clementine; Hasselhorn, Hans-Martin

    2007-10-01

    Europe's nursing shortage calls for more effective ways to recruit and retain nurses. This contribution aims to clarify whether and how social work environment, teamwork characteristics, burnout, and personal factors are associated with nurses' intent to leave (ITL). Our sample comprises 28,561 hospital-based nurses from 10 European countries. Different occupational levels have been taken into account: qualified registered nurses (n = 18,594), specialized nurses (n = 3957), head nurses (n = 3256), and nursing aides and ancillary staff (n = 2754). Our outcomes indicate that ITL is quite prevalent across Europe, although we have found some differences across the countries depending on working conditions and economic situation. Quality of teamwork, interpersonal relationships, career development possibilities, uncertainty regarding treatment, and influence at work are associated with nurses' decision to leave the profession across Europe, notwithstanding some country-specific outcomes. A serious lack of quality of teamwork seems to be associated with a 5-fold risk of ITL in 7 countries. As far as personal factors are concerned, our data support the hypothesized importance of work-family conflicts, satisfaction with pay, and burnout. A high burnout score seems to be associated with 3 times the risk of ITL in 5 countries. To prevent premature leaving, it is important to expand nurses' expertise, to improve working processes through collaboration and multidisciplinary teamwork, and to develop team training approaches and ward design facilitating teamwork.

  20. Personal characteristics associated with injecting drug use among Latinas in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines nonmedical injecting drug use (IDU among Latinas aged 12 years and older in a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Data from the 1990-1995 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse disclosed 154 Latinas with self-reported histories of IDU out of 18 335 Latinas who responded. Hypotheses about correlates of IDU were tested by using the conditional form of multiple logistic regression to compare the characteristics of these IDUs with those of 602 noninjecting Latinas matched on neighborhood of residence. In the USA, an estimated 1% of Latinas age 12 years and older have injected drugs for non-medical purposes on at least one occasion. IDU was 4.6 to 6.5 times greater for adult Latinas (18-44 years old when compared to Latinas aged either 12 through 17 years (P En el presente estudio se examina el uso de drogas inyectables (UDI entre latinas de 12 años de edad y mayores en una muestra nacional representativa de hogares estadounidenses. Datos obtenidos de las Encuestas Nacionales Domiciliarias realizadas de 1990 a 1995 revelaron que 154 de un total de 18 335 latinas encuestadas habían referido tener antecedentes de UDI. Se pusieron a prueba diversas hipótesis sobre las variables relacionadas con el UDI mediante una regresión logística múltiple de tipo condicionado destinada a comparar las características de estas usuarias con las de 602 latinas que no usaban drogas inyectables y que se parearon con las usuarias por lugar de residencia. Se estima que en los Estados Unidos de América 1% de las latinas de 12 años o más han usado drogas inyectables para fines no médicos por lo menos en una ocasión. El UDI fue de 4,6 a 6,5 veces más frecuente entre latinas adultas (de 18 a 44 años al comparar a este grupo con el de latinas de 12 a 17 años (P < 0,05 o de más de 44. El uso estimado de drogas inyectables fue 7,1 veces más frecuente entre las latinas que dijeron haber fumado marijuana y 5,4 más frecuente

  1. Veterans' voices: use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) Survey to identify My HealtheVet personal health record users' characteristics, needs, and preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumer research reveals considerable interest in the use of Personal Health Records (PHRs), yet adoption remains relatively low. Both adopters and nonadopters represent important perspectives from which to understand this paradox. Objective This study focuses on direct feedback from adopters obtained using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey on the My HealtheVet PHR portal (http://www.myhealth.va.gov) of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The results represent a source of direct feedback with which to better understand veterans' needs and preferences. Methods The ACSI Survey was implemented in October 2007 to measure satisfaction and elicit information about characteristics and preferences of My HealtheVet PHR adopters. The data represent a continuous random sample of site visitors who have navigated at least four pages on the site. A total of 100 617 surveys were completed (17.2%). Results Satisfaction with My HealtheVet is high (8.3/10.0), and users are highly likely to return to the site (8.6/10.0) and recommend the site to other veterans (9.1/10.0). The majority of system adopters are male (91%), between the ages of 51 and 70 (68%), and served in the Vietnam War (60%). Most veterans currently visit the site to utilize pharmacy-related features. Conclusion VHA has used the ACSI to monitor satisfaction, and to better understand the characteristics, needs, and preferences of early adopters. The data provide an important source of direct feedback to inform program development. Future research will include monitoring the impact of enhancements and new features on satisfaction, and conducting additional research with nonadopters to identify barriers to adoption and use. PMID:20190065

  2. Peculiarities of morphological and functional characteristics of residents of the North-East of Russia, depending on background meteorological and heliomagnetic indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inessa V. Averyanova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the functional interrelationships of the main physiological characteristics of the organism with the external environment exogenous abiotic factors, as well as the evaluation of the magnetic field factor effect on the morphofunctional status main characteristics, 18 healthy men aged 25–49 years old, residents of the North-East of Russia (Magadan were examined.

  3. Burnout Among Direct-Care Workers in Nursing Homes: Influences of Organizational, Work Place, Interpersonal, and Personal Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatts, Dale E; Seckin, Gul; Shen, Yuying; Thompson, Michael; Auden, Dana; Cready, Cynthia M

    2018-01-10

    The many negative effects of burnout have prompted researchers to better understand the factors contributing to it. The purpose of this paper is to add to this body of knowledge through the study of burnout among direct care workers (DCWs) in nursing homes (NH). Perhaps the factor most often associated with employee burnout is the level of staffing-insufficient staffing results in work overload and eventually employee burnout. A closer look at research findings suggest that there are many other factors also contributing to burnout. These range from those at the organizational level, such as availability of training and resources to individual characteristics such as self-esteem and length of employment. A self-administered survey instrument was completed by 410 DCWs working within 11 NHs in the north Texas region. Regression analyses were performed, adjusting for clustering by NH. Beta coefficients and structure coefficients are reported. Burnout was measured through three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Organizational, work design, interpersonal, and individual characteristics were found to be associated with one or more dimensions of burnout. The analyses largely support previous research. Organizational variables of significance included the availability of resources to do the work, available training, and fair pay. Work design variables of significance included adequate staffing. The individual characteristic, self-esteem, appeared to have the strongest impact on burnout. Commitment to the organization also had a large impact. While the data do not allow for the testing of causal relationships, the data do suggest that providing adequate staffing, perceived fair pay, sufficient work resources (e.g., towels, gowns), management support, and adequate training may result in less DCW burnout on the job. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  4. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in Older Persons from France and Quebec: Dietary and Lifestyle Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allès, Benjamin; Samieri, Cécilia; Lorrain, Simon; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène; Laurin, Danielle; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2016-04-19

    Dietary and nutrient patterns have been linked to health outcomes related to aging. Food intake is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient patterns across two elderly populations sharing a common ancestral cultural background, but living in different environments. The diet quality, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics of participants from the Three-City Study (3C, France, n = 1712) and the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada, n = 1596) were analyzed. Nutrient patterns and their food sources were identified in the two samples using principal component analysis. Diet quality was compared across sample-specific patterns by describing weekly food intake and associations with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI). Three nutrient patterns were retained in each study: a healthy, a Western and a more traditional pattern. These patterns accounted for 50.1% and 53.5% of the total variance in 3C and NuAge, respectively. Higher education and non-physical occupations over lifetime were associated with healthy patterns in both studies. Other characteristics such as living alone, having a body mass index lower than 25 and being an ex-smoker were associated with the healthy pattern in NuAge. No association between these characteristics and the nutrient patterns was noted in 3C. The healthy and Western patterns from each sample also showed an inverse association with C-HEI. The two healthy patterns showed important similarities: adequate food variety, consumption of healthy foods and associations with common sociodemographic factors. This work highlights that nutrient patterns derived using a posteriori methods may be useful to compare the nutritional quality of the diet of distinct populations.

  5. In search of patient characteristics that may guide empirically based treatment selection for personality disorder patients-a concept map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, J G; Kamphuis, J H; Goossensen, A; Timman, R; Busschbach, J J V; Verheul, R

    2012-08-01

    Using the concept map method, this study aimed to summarize and describe patient characteristics pertinent to treatment selection for patients with personality disorders (PDs). Initial patient characteristics were derived from the research literature and a survey among Dutch expert clinicians. Concept mapping is a formalized conceptualization procedure that describes the underlying cognitive structures people use in complex tasks, such as treatment allocation. Based on expert opinions of 29 Dutch clinicians, a concept map was generated that yielded eight domains of patient characteristics, i.e., Severity of symptoms, Severity of personality pathology, Ego-adaptive capacities, Motivation and working alliance, Social context, Social demographic characteristics, Trauma, and Treatment history and medical condition. These domains can be ordered along two bipolar axes, running from internal to external concepts and from vulnerability to strength concepts, respectively. Our findings may serve as input for the delineation of algorithms for patient-treatment matching research in PD.

  6. Military experience helps setting reasonable personality characteristics but does not alter the criminal behavior-related impression of negative parental experience and alcoholism in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyu; Ye, Yuqin; Zhang, Xuesi; Hao, Yelu; Shi, Fei; Yuan, Guohao; Wu, Yan; Fei, Zhou; He, Xiaosheng

    2016-10-30

    Personalities are determined by convergent factors, including physical environment, culture, special experience, and heredity. It has been shown that abuse of substance and alcohol among individuals with personality disorders predict criminality (Glenn and Raine, 2014; Hernandez-Avila et al., 2000). Thus, it is important to clarify the relationship between psychological characteristics and valence of criminal practice, even in the population without substance abuse. Here, we focused on a population with military experience in Shaanxi province of China to screen the psychological characteristics and correlate these characteristics to criminal behaviors. The study population included incarcerated veterans, incarcerated civilians, and three groups of military troops with different lengths of active duty history (criminal behavior of incarcerated veterans seem to be unrelated to their military service per se as evidenced by the control groups. Conversely, military service may benefit the personnel characteristics even in the incarcerated veteran population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of background radiation behind one-dimensional radiation shielding of high-energy particle beams; Kharakteristiki fonovogo izlucheniya za odnomernymi radiatsionnymi zashchitami puchkov vysokoehnergeticheskikh chastits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatkov, D V; Kryuchkov, V P

    1994-12-31

    The calculational investigations of component, spatial and energy distributions of background radiation behind radiation shielding of high-energy hadron beams were carried out. The relations between different ingredients of radiation have been obtained. The numerous data of spatial and energy distribution of protons, neutrons, pions and photons in homogeneous and heterogeneous shielding from concrete and iron, presented in the paper, can be used as a reference data. 23 refs., 50 figs.

  8. The axiological orientation of students’ personalities

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey I. Kudinov; Stanislav S. Kudinov; Irina B. Kudinova; Sofia S. Belousova

    2018-01-01

    Background. Our empirical research and analysis revealed characteristics of the axiological orientation of students’ personalities. Objective.We identified the principal types of orientation, dominant values, and attitudes of the personality in the motivational-needs sphere through a variety of validated and reliable techniques and methods. Design We understand the axiological orientation of the personality as a relatively stable set of values, motivations, needs, and moral structure...

  9. Stress among Student Affairs Administrators: The Relationship of Personal Characteristics and Organizational Variables to Work-Related Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Kathleen R.

    1992-01-01

    Examined possible relationships between reported work-related stress and organizational and personal variables, hardiness of personality, exercise activity, and organizational culture of 240 student affairs administrators within Minnesota. Results revealed that job satisfaction and hardiness of personality were greatest predictors of lowered…

  10. A social work study on parents’ income and personal characteristics and child abuse: A case study of city of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are randomly selected. A questionnaire is designed and distributed among the sample people, which is categorized in four groups of physical, sexual, emotional and neglect child abuse. The results are analyzed using different tests including Pearson correlation test, Chi-Square, etc. to test different hypotheses. The results of our survey indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between different family characteristics including age, occupation, family size, educational background, and drug-addiction and child abuse. However, our survey does not provide any evidence to believe there is any relationship between home status and child abuse risk.

  11. Characteristics of transonic spherical symmetric accretion flow in Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter backgrounds, in pseudo-general relativistic paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Banik, Prabir

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a complete work on steady state spherically symmetric Bondi type accretion flow in the presence of cosmological constant (Λ) in both Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SDS) and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter (SADS) backgrounds considering an isolated supermassive black hole (SMBH), with the inclusion of a simple radiative transfer scheme, in the pseudo-general relativistic paradigm. We do an extensive analysis on the transonic behavior of the Bondi type accretion flow onto the cosmological BHs including a complete analysis of the global parameter space and the stability of flow, and do a complete study of the global family of solutions for a generic polytropic flow. Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background renders multiplicity in its transonic behavior with inner "saddle" type and outer "center" type sonic points, with the transonic solutions forming closed loops or contours. There is always a limiting value for ∣Λ∣ up to which we obtain valid stationary transonic solutions, which correspond to both SDS and SADS geometries; this limiting value moderately increases with the increasing radiative efficiency of the flow, especially correspond to Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background. Repulsive Λ suppresses the Bondi accretion rate by an order of magnitude for relativistic Bondi type accretion flow for a certain range in temperature, and with a marginal increase in the Bondi accretion rate if the corresponding accretion flow occurs in SADS background. However, for a strongly radiative Bondi type accretion flow with high mass accretion rate, the presence of cosmological constant do not much influence the corresponding Bondi accretion rate of the flow. Our analysis show that the relic cosmological constant has a substantial effect on Bondi type accretion flow onto isolated SMBHs and their transonic solutions beyond length-scale of kiloparsecs, especially if the Bondi type accretion occurs onto the host supergiant ellipticals or central

  12. A comparison of personality disorder characteristics of patients with nonepileptic psychogenic pseudoseizures with those of patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Cynthia L; Jovine, Luydmilla; Burgut, Fadime T; Carey, Bridget T; Nikolov, Blagovest G; Ferrando, Stephen J

    2009-03-01

    We sought to determine the type of personality disorder cluster associated with patients with nonepileptic psychogenic seizures (NES) compared with that of patients with epileptic seizures (ES). Consecutive adult patients admitted for video/EEG monitoring found to have NES were compared with a simultaneously admitted patient with confirmed epilepsy. Personality was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis II Personality Disorders. Personality disorders were then divided into personality clusters described in the DSM-IV-TR: A = paranoid, schizotypal, schizoid; B = borderline, histrionic, antisocial, narcissistic; or C = avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive. Thirteen of 16 patients with NES and 12 of 16 patients with ES met criteria for personality disorders. Patients with NES were more likely to meet criteria for a personality disorder in Cluster A or B, compared with patients with ES, who were more likely to have Cluster C personality disorders (chi(2) test, P=0.007). We propose that the personality traits of patients with NES contribute to the development of nonepileptic psychogenic seizures. However, the large proportion of patients with ES with Cluster C personality disorders was unexpected, and further, for the patients with epilepsy, the direction of the association of their personality traits with the development of epilepsy is unknown.

  13. The Influence of Student Learning Characteristics on Purchase of Paper Book and eBook for University Study and Personal Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2016-01-01

    First-year university students (n = 199) completed an online questionnaire that queried their purchase of paper books and eBooks for university study and personal interest. The questionnaire also required students to rate their learning characteristics including reading strategies, study self-regulation, learning control beliefs and achievement…

  14. Academic, Socio-Emotional and Demographic Characteristics of Adolescents Involved in Traditional Bullying, Cyberbullying, or Both: Looking at Variables and Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The present paper (1) examined variables, which could predict traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization and cybervictimization and (2) looked at persons to examine whether academic, socio-emotional and demographic characteristics differed between traditional, cyber and mixed bullies, victims and bully-victims. A sample of…

  15. How do activating interventions fit the personal needs, characteristics and preferences of people with dementia living in the community and their informal caregivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. van 't Leven; Dr. J. de Lange; A.E. Prick; A.M. Pot

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions aim to mitigate the serious consequences of dementia for the daily life of people with dementia and their informal caregivers. To deliver a person-centred approach, it is crucial to take needs, characteristics and preferences of people with dementia and their informal

  16. A Monte Carlo Study of the Effect of Item Characteristic Curve Estimation on the Accuracy of Three Person-Fit Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Christina; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem; Germain, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    To date, there have been no studies comparing parametric and nonparametric Item Characteristic Curve (ICC) estimation methods on the effectiveness of Person-Fit Statistics (PFS). The primary aim of this study was to determine if the use of ICCs estimated by nonparametric methods would increase the accuracy of item response theory-based PFS for…

  17. Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Cohen, Harvey J; Kraus, William E; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-08-01

    Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members' Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members' adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members' retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants' early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 违法犯罪成年男性个性特征调查%A Survey of Personality Characteristics of Male Adult Prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳琳; 潘勇; 姚家斌

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study relationship between personality characteristics and criminal offences in male adult prisoners.Methods: Personality of 175 male adult in prisoners was assessed by Eysenk Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results:(1) P,N,E scores of prisoners were higher than those of the norms; (2) P score of the 18~29 age group was considerably higher than that of the 30~45 age group,whereas L score of the 18~29 age group was lower than that of the 30~45 age group;(3) scores on extroversion and emotional unstability were significantly higher , whereas scores on introversion and emotional stability were significantly lower when compared to the norms;(4) a percentage of 43.43% of male adult prisoners showed typical psychotic traits (T>61.5). Conclusion: There was significant relationship between personality and criminal offences.

  19. Excessive physical demands in modern worklife and characteristics of work and living conditions of persons at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlqvist, Lena K; Härenstam, Annika; Leijon, Ola; Schéele, Patrik

    2003-10-01

    This study attempted to identify work and leisure-time conditions and life-style factors associated with excess metabolic levels (metabolic demands exceeding one-third of a person's aerobic capacity) at work among men and women. The study focused upon psychological, ergonomic, and physically loading factors and chemical and physical environmental conditions. Data were obtained through self-reports, interviews, workplace analyses, technical measurements, and observations. Gender-specific calculations were used in univariate analyses and in stepwise logistic regression models for excess metabolic level. Twenty-seven percent of the men and twenty-two percent of the women worked at an excess metabolic level during their workday. Awkward work postures, heavy manual materials handling, high circulatory strain, chemical exposures, noise levels, much routine work, and many obstacles to job performance characterized their work conditions. The women had low skill discretion and more often atypical workhours, while the men showed high circulatory strain during leisure-time activities. Important negative life-style factors were a high consumption of alcohol for the men and a high body mass index and no or little regular physical exercise for the women. Metabolic demands in worklife today remain high. The women who exceeded the recommended metabolic level at work in this study were characterized by low pay, poor health, and children at home, in addition to high physical load and psychosocial strain at work. These characteristics indicate a group with few possibilities to leave a hazardous job for a less physically demanding one. The men who worked at an excess metabolic level seemed to be characterized more by a life-style common in some male-dominated work cultures with monotonous work.

  20. Translating tumor biology into personalized treatment planning: analytical performance characteristics of the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Jayadevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay is a new diagnostic test for determining the likelihood of recurrence in stage II colon cancer patients after surgical resection using fixed paraffin embedded (FPE primary colon tumor tissue. Like the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay, this is a high complexity, multi-analyte, reverse transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay that measures the expression levels of specific cancer-related genes. By capturing the biology underlying each patient's tumor, the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay provides a Recurrence Score (RS that reflects an individualized risk of disease recurrence. Here we describe its analytical performance using pre-determined performance criteria, which is a critical component of molecular diagnostic test validation. Results All analytical measurements met pre-specified performance criteria. PCR amplification efficiency for all 12 assays was high, ranging from 96% to 107%, while linearity was demonstrated over an 11 log2 concentration range for all assays. Based on estimated components of variance for FPE RNA pools, analytical reproducibility and precision demonstrated low SDs for individual genes (0.16 to 0.32 CTs, gene groups (≤0.05 normalized/aggregate CTs and RS (≤1.38 RS units. Conclusions Analytical performance characteristics shown here for both individual genes and gene groups in the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay demonstrate consistent translation of specific biology of individual tumors into clinically useful diagnostic information. The results of these studies illustrate how the analytical capability of the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay has enabled clinical validation of a test to determine individualized recurrence risk after colon cancer surgery.

  1. Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Influenza А(H1n1pdm during 2015–2016 Epidemic Period in Elderly Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Domashenko

    2016-09-01

    positive end-expiratory pressure support mask (PEEP, non-invasive ventilation. Pathogenetic therapy included a restrictive type of infusion therapy, focused on relief of pulmonary edema and respiratory distress syndrome, correction of anemia, blood pressure and glucose levels, and administration of bronchial mucolytics. Sixteen of 36 elderly patients with influenzal pneumonia died (case fatality rate was 44.4 %. Conclusion. Influenzal pneumonia mortality in elderly persons within the area of the local armed conflict was characterized by a high rate due to the lack of influenza vaccination and antiviral therapy, late presentation, as well as the presence of severe chronic background diseases.

  2. BeOSL system for personal dosimetry : dosimetric characteristics and practical application; Sistema BeOSL para dosimetria personal : caracteristicas dosimetricas y la aplicacion practica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mende, E. [Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Working Group Engineering, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: BeOSL system of Dosimetric s is very easy to use, assimilate and maintain. Our dosimeter defines a milestone in the supervision of personal equivalent dose of Hp (10) and Hp (0.07) it covers the range of total energy of 16 KeV to 10 MeV. For this energy range is exceptional in its energy dependence for official personal dosimetry. The BeOSL system consists of two modules, one of them is the BeOSL reader that measures the radiation exposure using the latest technology, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The reading is extremely fast; it does not require consumables such as nitrogen or other. The detector material is beryllium oxide (Be O); this is an OSL material tissue equivalent and therefore is ideal for personal dosimetry. The BeOSL technology allows multiple readings of the dosimeter (re-read) to verify the dose or archive the dosimeter. One of the biggest advantages of BeOSL system is its modular concept allows the system to run as a manual solution or as a complete automated robotic system, which can be filled with up to 5,000 dosimeters as bulk cargo. (Author)

  3. Depressive and anxiety disorders on-the-job: the importance of job characteristics for good work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, Inger; de Graaf, Ron; de Bruijn, Jeanne; Smit, Johannes; van Dyck, Richard; Beekman, Aartjan; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-12-30

    This study examines the importance of job characteristics on absence and on-the-job performance in a large group of employees with diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders. In a sample of 1522 employees (1129 persons with and 393 persons without psychopathology) participating in Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA, n=2981) we examined associations between job characteristics and work functioning (absenteeism and work performance) in multinominal logistic regression models. Job characteristics were working hours, psychosocial working conditions and occupational status. As expected, depressed and anxious patients were at significantly elevated risk for absenteeism and poor work performance. In analyses adjusted for psychopathology, absenteeism and poor performance were significantly lower among persons reporting high job support, high job control, less working hours, self-employed and high skilled jobs. Associations were comparable between persons with and without psychopathology. High job support, high job control and reduced working hours were partially related to work functioning in both workers with- and without-psychopathology. Since depressed and anxious employees are at a substantially increased risk for absenteeism and poor work performance, strategies that improve job support and feelings of control at work may be especially helpful to prevent poor work functioning in this at-risk group of employees. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Personal and socio-psychological characteristics of women of reproductive age, operated on for symptomatic endometriod desease, at the stage of pregnancy planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Chuieva-Pavlovska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometrioid disease occurs in every tenth woman of reproductive age and often leads not only to physical discomfort, but also frustrates them psychosocially, reduces professional, psychosocial and reproductive adaptation in general. The aim: to reveal the personal and psychosocial characteristics of women at the stage of pregnancy planning, operated on for symptomatic endometriosis, in connection with the task of optimizing the management and improvement of pregnancy outcomes. Material and methods. Under observation, there were 123 women operated on for symptomatic endometriosis, 125 somatically and gynecologically conditionally healthy fertile women. All the women were going to plan a pregnancy. The diagnosis of endometriosis in all cases was identified histologically. The psychosocial and personal characteristics of these women at the stage of pregnancy planning were studied. Conclusions.  The peculiarities of the personal and psychosocial characteristics of women at the stage of pregnancy planning, operated on for symptomatic endometriosis, are unfavorable child-parent relations, destructive relationships with their own mother, complicated course of pregnancy in the mother, high personal anxiety, impaired sex and age identification in women, inadequate (infantile, disadaptive forms of responding to stressful situations, emotional instability.

  5. Caregivers' experience of the decision-making process for placing a person with dementia into a nursing home: comparing caregivers from Chinese ethnic minority with those from English-speaking backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Lauren; Low, Lee-Fay; Brodaty, Henry

    2014-03-01

    The experience of care transitions for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups has been poorly researched. Few studies have examined the decision to put someone on a waiting list for a nursing home and then actually accept a place. Many nursing homes have long waiting lists, but sometimes offers of a place are declined. Our aims were to investigate the decision-making process for placing a person with dementia on a waiting list for a nursing home, why offers of a place are accepted or declined, and the influence of cultural factors, comparing caregivers from Chinese and English-speaking backgrounds. Semi-structured interviews with 27 caregivers of people with dementia on waiting lists or living in nursing homes (20 Chinese background and seven English-speaking background) were conducted, with thematic analysis of factors affecting caregivers' decision-making. Caregivers were at different stages of decision-making when they applied for a waiting list - some were ready for placement, others applied "just in case," and for some there was no waiting time because of an urgent need for placement. Caregivers' decisions were influenced by their emotions and expectations of nursing homes. The decision-making process was similar for both cultural groups, but Chinese caregivers spoke more about their sense of duty, the need for a Chinese specific facility, and declining a place because of family disagreement. Understanding cultural issues, including stereotypes and concerns about nursing homes, and providing better information about admission processes may help caregivers by allaying their anxiety about nursing home placement.

  6. Symptoms of fatigue and depression in ischemic heart disease are driven by personality characteristics rather than disease stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Otto R F; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Van Domburg, Ron T

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of fatigue and depression are prevalent across stages of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined (i) the effect of both the IHD stage and type-D personality on fatigue and depressive symptoms at 12-month follow-up, and (ii) whether the effect of type-D personality on these symptoms...

  7. Social network characteristics and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in San Salvador: identifying opportunities for HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents' social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population.

  8. Springtime carbon emission episodes at the Gosan background site revealed by total carbon, stable carbon isotopic composition, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the emission of carbonaceous aerosols at the Gosan background super-site (33.17° N, 126.10° E in East Asia, total suspended particles (TSP were collected during spring of 2007 and 2008 and analyzed for particulate organic carbon, elemental carbon, total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C of TC. The stable carbon isotopic composition of TC (δ13CTC was found to be lowest during pollen emission episodes (range: −26.2‰ to −23.5‰, avg. −25.2 ± 0.9‰, approaching those of the airborne pollen (−28.0‰ collected at the Gosan site. Based on a carbon isotope mass balance equation, we found that ~42% of TC in the TSP samples during the pollen episodes was attributed to airborne pollen from Japanese cedar trees planted around tangerine farms in Jeju Island. A negative correlation between the citric acid-carbon/TC ratios and δ13CTC was obtained during the pollen episodes. These results suggest that citric acid emitted from tangerine fruit may be adsorbed on the airborne pollen and then transported to the Gosan site. Thermal evolution patterns of organic carbon during the pollen episodes were characterized by high OC evolution in the OC2 temperature step (450 °C. Since thermal evolution patterns of organic aerosols are highly influenced by their molecular weight, they can be used as additional information on the formation of secondary organic aerosols and the effect of aging of organic aerosols during the long-range atmospheric transport and sources of organic aerosols.

  9. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoaki Sugiura

    Full Text Available People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  10. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  11. Effect of dexmedetomidine on the stress reaction caused by sevoflurance anesthesia in school-age children with different personality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of dexmedetomidine on the stress reaction caused by sevoflurance anesthesia during the perianesthesia period in school-age children with different personality characteristics. Methods: A total of 160 children who were admitted in our hospital for transumbilical single-port laparoscopic hernia inner ring ligation were included in the study and randomized into dexmedetomidine (D group and midazolam (M group. The children were performed with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire before operation (children edition. Children were divided into the emotion group (group I and stable group (group II. The operation was performed under sevoflurance inhalation anesthesia. Patients in DI and DII groups were given 1 毺g/kg DEX, MI and MII groups were given 0.05 mg/kg midazolam, for 15 min. MAP and HR one day before operation (T0, before anesthesia induction (T1, 1 min after pneumoperitoneum establishment (T2, the time after pulling out the laryngeal mask (T3, and the time after shifting from the recovery room (T4 were recorded. A volume of 6 mL venous blood 1 d before operation and 4 h after operation was collected. Blood sugar concentration, cortisol and IL-6 levels were detected. Results: MAP at T1, T2, T3, and T4 in DI and MI groups were significantly elevated when compared with at T0. MAP at T2 and T3 in DII group was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MII group was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. When compared with DI group, MAP at T1, T2, and T3 in DII group was significantly reduced; MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MI group was significantly elevated; MAP at T1 in MII group was significantly reduced. When compared with DII group, MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MI and MII groups was significantly elevated. HR at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. When compared with DI group, HR at T1, T2, and T3 in DII group was significantly reduced; HR at each

  12. Airflow characteristics in the breathing zone of a seated person using desk incorporated pair of confluent jets as personalized ventilation - effect of supply velocities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    A workplace with desk, desk incorporated personalized ventilation (PV) and a dressed thermal manikin with realistic body and surface temperature distribution were set in a test room (4.70 m x 1.62 m x 2.6 m). 15 L/s were supplied from a ceiling diffuser to ventilate the room at 26 oC air temperat......A workplace with desk, desk incorporated personalized ventilation (PV) and a dressed thermal manikin with realistic body and surface temperature distribution were set in a test room (4.70 m x 1.62 m x 2.6 m). 15 L/s were supplied from a ceiling diffuser to ventilate the room at 26 oC air...... and upwards from the inner jet (closest to manikin) was the same, twice bigger or twice lower compared to that of the outer jet. The mean velocity field at the breathing zone was measured by Particle Image Velocimetry: a dual cavity laser (λ = 532 nm) and a CCD camera - 35 mm lenses. Glycerol droplets...

  13. THE MEDIATING ROLE OF TRUST TOWARDS E-WOM ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIG FIVE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND INFLUENCE BY E-WOM

    OpenAIRE

    algur, mehmet selami; erden, nil selenay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Aim of this study is to investigate the mediating role of trust towards e-WOM on the relationship between big five personality characteristics (extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness, openness to experience) and influence by e-WOM in order to provide insight for the role of individual differences, one of which is a neglected domain in e-WOM studies. Results indicate that the relationships between agreeableness, conscientiousness and influence by e-WOM ar...

  14. [On the use of the spectral speech characteristics for the determination of biometric parameters of the vocal tract in forensic medical identification of the speaker's personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganov, A Sh

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between the spectral speech characteristics and the biometric parameters of the speaker's vocal tract. The secondary objective was to consider the theoretical basis behind the medico-criminalistic personality identification from the biometric parameters of the speaker's vocal tract. The article is based on the results of real forensic medical investigations and the literature data.

  15. Residential environmental evaluation of local cities considering regional characteristic and personal residential preference-a case study of Saga City,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; HOKAO Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    Questionnaire surveys and subjective evaluations on residential environment were performed in order to grasp the main factors of residential environment of small local cities. The suitable evaluation index system was established, and the regional residential environment characteristics and personal residential preference types were analyzed, so that their influence on residential environment evaluation could be grasped. The results can be applied to the residential environment planning, construction and monitoring of local cities.

  16. Comparing the cognitive, personality and moral characteristics of high school and graduate medical entrants to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjat, Saharnaz; Bore, Miles; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Munro, Don; Powis, David; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    Tehran University of Medical Sciences has two streams of medical student admission: an established high school entry (HSE) route and an experimental graduate entry (GE) route. To compare the cognitive skills, personality traits and moral characteristics of HSE and GE students admitted to this university. The personal qualities assessment tool (PQA; www.pqa.net.au ) was translated from English to Persian and then back-translated. Afterwards 35 individuals from the GE and 109 individuals from the 2007 to 2008 HSE completed the test. The results were compared by t-test and Chi-square. The HSE students showed significantly higher ability in the cognitive skills tests (p libertarian (p = 0.022), but had lower ability to confront stress and unpleasant events (p < 0.001), and had lower self-awareness and self-control (p < 0.001). On the basis of their personal qualities, the GE students had more self-control and strength when coping with stress than the HSE students, but the latter had superior cognitive abilities. Hence it may be useful to include cognitive tests in GE students' entry exam and include tests of personal qualities to exclude those with unsuitable characteristics.

  17. A Study of Small Business Owners’ Personal Characteristics and the Use of Marketing Information in the Food and Drink Industry: A Resource-Based Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cacciolatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Market orientation (MO – which is the propensity of a firm to collect and utilise information from the market – is an important leverage of competitive advantage. This paper helps to better understand why some owner-managers engage with market intelligence why others simply do not. The relationship among the owner-manager’s personal characteristics, entrepreneurial orientation (EO and MO are explored, despite existing literature neglected testing these simple but important relationships. We adopt a resource-based view (RBV of the firm perspective. This study aims to establish whether the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur impact the use of marketing information. More specifically, this study tests entrepreneurial attitude orientation, marketing expertise and demographic variables for an effect on the use of different types and sources of marketing information as well as the frequency of information usage. Data were collected through a regional survey of 296 small business owners and senior managers in SMEs in the Scottish food and drink industry. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA and regression analysis was used to test hypothesised relationships. Personal characteristics such as age (p<.05, gender (p<.002, previous experience (p<.05, and marketing expertise (p<.05 are critical factors affecting information use other than EO (p>.05. Implications for policy makers and practitioners involving small business subsidies and entrepreneurs’ marketing training are discussed.

  18. A Case-controlled Study on Personality Characteristics of Suicidal and Homicidal Schizophrenics%有自杀和凶杀行为的精神分裂症患者人格特征比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小平; 蔡伟雄; 刘铁桥

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To examine differences in personality characteristics between suicidal and homicidal schizophrenic patients.Methods:A case-control study was conducted with 27 suicidal schizophrenic patients and 22 homicidal schizophrenic patients. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was employed to assess these patients. Results: The results showed no reliable differences on all of the MMPI scale scores. Conclusion: It was concluded that schizophrenic patients with suicidal and homicidal tendencies have similar personality characteristics.

  19. The study of personal familial and psychological characteristics and drug abuse among in bed patients with suicide intention in Shohadaye Ashayer in 1383

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    mitra Safa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Safa M1, Mohmoudi GhA2, Soultani far M3, Saki M4, Farhadi A5 1. Assistant professor, Department of psychology, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. Assistant professor, Department of forensic medicine, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 3. General practitioner 4. Instructor, Department of nursing, Faculty of nursing and midwifery, LorestanUniversity of medical sciences 5. Instructor, Department of psychology and health, Faculty of medicine, LorestanUniversity of medical sciences Abstract Background: Suicide is one of the social problem which brings about death of active characters in the society and it is considered as a remarkable problem for health. Suicide is the number 9 factor of death in America. Nearly 85 cases of suicide happen per day within 20 minutes each. Drug abuse is of psychiatric urgency and it is regarded as an important variable related to suicide. Materials and methods: All clients who committed suicide and were hospitalized in Shohadaye Ashayer hospital were included in this study ( from July 83 to January 83 . Results: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between drug abuse and chronic organic disease among patients with suicide intention . Among 67 suicide cases, 55.2% were male and 44.8% were female. The highest frequency (55.2% covered the age group (19–26 .Most of the cases were unmarried. 47.8% were unemployed . 79.1 % were city residents and 21.9 % were living in the country. 53.7% of the participants had elementary school and junior high school education . Conclusion: The study was to determine the frequency of personal, familial psychological characteristics and drug abuse among clients with suicide. The results emphasize on the preventive effect of the level of education in this Province. The results also showed that the more the number of people in the family, the more suicide cases in the family. Further more among married ones, cases

  20. Understanding nurse anesthetists' intention to leave their job: how burnout and job satisfaction mediate the impact of personality and workplace characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Vera C H; Van Dam, Karen; Brown-Mahoney, Chris; Van Zundert, Andre A J; Knape, Hans T A

    2011-01-01

    The retention of nurse anesthetists is of paramount importance, particularly in view of the fact that the health care workforce is shrinking. Although many health care providers find their work satisfying, they often consider leaving their jobs because of the stress. Are there ways to improve this situation? This study investigated how work environment characteristics and personality dimensions relate to burnout and job satisfaction and ultimately to turnover intention among Dutch nurse anesthetists. An online self-reporting questionnaire survey was performed among Dutch nurse anesthetists. The questionnaire included scales to assess personality dimensions, work climate, work context factors, burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. The research model stated that personality dimensions, work climate, and work context factors, mediated by burnout and job satisfaction, predict turnover intention. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research model. Nine hundred twenty-three questionnaires were completed (46% response rate). Burnout mediated the relationship between personality dimensions and turnover intention; job satisfaction mediated the relationship of work climate and work context factors to turnover intention. To retain nursing staff and to maintain adequate staff strength, it is important to improve job satisfaction by creating a positive work climate and work context and to prevent burnout by selecting the most suitable employees through personality assessment.