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Sample records for personal abuse history

  1. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  2. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  3. Effect of criminal defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse and personality disorder diagnosis on juror decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ebony; Jacquin, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether a defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and/or personality disorder (PD) diagnosis affected juror decision making in a child sexual abuse trial. The PDs in the study were borderline PD and antisocial PD. Participants were 385 college students, 121 men and 264 women, who read a summary of a mock criminal trial and then made various juror decisions. Trial summaries were prepared by the principal investigator and were all uniform in content, length and detail. For the trial, both the defendant's gender and victim's gender were specified. The defendant was male, and the alleged victim was female. When the verdict was assessed, the results yielded that when the defendant's CSA history was presented, juror guilt ratings were higher than when there was no history of CSA. Similarly, when the defendant had a PD diagnosis, there were higher guilt ratings than when there was no PD diagnosis. CSA history and PD diagnosis were significant predictors of guilt ratings, suggesting that jurors perceive defendants more negatively if they have either been sexually abused as a child or have borderline or antisocial PD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. History of the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the abuse of their civil rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nikola M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of persons with psychological difficulties varied in different historical periods, but in its essence remained similar until today. It included an inhumane relationship towards these persons, involuntary treatment through torture, and isolation from society as a kind of punishment for their diversity. It was not until the late 19th century that the relationship of society towards these individuals started to improve gradually, but in the 21st century isolation of these individuals still remained the dominant form of acceptable social solution for the “problem”, with a somewhat more humane attitude towards them and less cruel treatment. Serbia has followed the trends of treatment of the persons with psychological difficulties from the rest of Europe for centuries, but is still lagging behind the world in the introduction of new methods of treatment. Indeed the first legal solution to regulate the human rights of these people is currently in the process of implementation. The subject of this paper is the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the violation of their civil rights. In a subject specific context the goal of the analysis was the historical review of the treatment towards persons with psychological difficulties by doctors, other practicioners and the community in general, with reference to the current situation regarding their treatment within the psychiatric institutions, as well as the legal regulations and the protection of their civil rights.

  5. Personality development after physical abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R K

    1984-01-01

    Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

  6. Personal history, beyond narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    on a distinction between history and narrative, I outline an account of historical becoming through a process of sedimentation and a rich notion of what I call historical selfhood on an embodied level. Five embodied existentials are suggested, sketching a preliminary understanding of how selves are concretely......Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...

  7. A History of Abuse and Operative Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult...... and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years) increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49), and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24). Women...... expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46-11.3). Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416...

  8. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Passarelli, Vincent; Siever, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on di...

  9. Hyperresponsiveness of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in female borderline personality disorder subjects with a history of sustained childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, Thomas; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Wouters, Luuk; Goekoop, Jaap G.; DeRijk, Roel H.; van den Brink, Wim

    2002-01-01

    Background: High coincidence of childhood abuse, major depressive disorder (MDD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Animals exposed to early trauma show increased stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  10. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine D. Flory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD on diagnoses of PTSD and MDD in a sample of 225 adults with DSM-IV Axis II disorders. Results. Results showed that the rate of PTSD in the presence of both childhood abuse and MDD family history was almost six-fold (OR=5.89,  P=.001 higher relative to the absence of both factors. In contrast, the rate of MDD in the presence of both factors was associated with a nearly three-fold risk relative to the reference group (OR=2.75,  P=.01. Conclusions. The results from this observational study contribute to a growing understanding of predisposing factors for the development of PTSD and suggest that joint effects of family history of MDD and childhood abuse on PTSD are greater than either factor alone.

  11. Psychopathological features in a sample of substance-abusing individuals with criminal history: Towards a definition of a personality prototype of an 'Addict with Criminal Conduct'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Alessio; Ponti, Lucia; Tani, Franca; Iraci Sareri, Giuseppe; Giannini, Marco; Meringolo, Patrizia; Craparo, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Angelo; Caretti, Vincenzo; Cacioppo, Marco; Paterniti, Rolando; Schuldberg, David

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between substance use disorders and criminal activity is strong, and one that is not easily resolved in the criminal justice system. A better understanding of personality traits among substance misusers who commit offences could support better treatment efforts. The aim of this study is to explore associations between the psychopathology of people addicted to substances who have also committed crimes. We recruited 263 substance-dependent individuals (80% male, 20% female) from a cohort of people attending regional community services in Italy. They all completed an extensive evaluation of their current mental health and personality traits. Their official criminal records were obtained, and the psychopathology of those who had a criminal record compared with those who did not. The criminal group was more likely to perceive the external world as hostile and to consider others as responsible for their own problems and difficulties; in addition, substance-dependent individuals with criminal records showed more personality traits within the psychopathy range and fewer in the dependent personality range than the substance abusers who had never committed crimes. These findings allow us to hypothesise that substance abusers who also have criminal convictions may have a specific personality profile. If further research were to confirm this, then it could have important implications for identifying people for particular treatment pathways and developing more effective treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Supervisor's HEXACO personality traits and subordinate perceptions of abusive supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; de Vries, Reinout Everhard

    2017-01-01

    Abusive supervision is detrimental to both subordinates and organizations. Knowledge about individual differences in personality related to abusive supervision may improve personnel selection and potentially reduce the harmful effects of this type of leadership. Using the HEXACO personality

  13. Childhood sexual abuse history and role reversal in parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P C; Teti, L; Anderson, C L

    2000-06-01

    This study explored the main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction on self-reported parenting, controlling for histories of physical abuse and parental alcoholism. The community sample consisted of 90 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children. The sample was limited to those mothers currently in an intimate relationship, 19 of whom reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Parenting Stress Inventory, the Family Cohesion Index, and questions assessing parent-child role reversal, history of abuse and parental alcoholism, and current relationship satisfaction. Results of analyses and multivariate analyses of covariance suggested that sexual abuse survivors with an unsatisfactory intimate relationship were more likely than either sexual abuse survivors with a satisfactory relationship or nonabused women to endorse items on a questionnaire of role reversal (defined as emotional overdependence upon one's child). Role reversal was not significantly predicted by histories of physical abuse or parental alcoholism or child's gender. While parenting stress was inversely predicted by the significant main effect of relationship satisfaction, neither parenting stress nor child behavior problems were predicted by the main effect of sexual abuse history or by the interaction between sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction. These results suggest the unique relevance of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction in the prediction of a specific type of parent-child role reversal--namely, a mother's emotional overdependence upon her child.

  14. Play therapy and art therapy for substance abuse clients who have a history of incest victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, N M

    1999-06-01

    This article discusses the use of play therapy and art therapy treatment techniques for persons in substance abuse treatment who have a history of incest victimization. While substance abuse treatment focuses on substance abuse, neglecting to address issues related to past incest contact may increase the potential for relapse. This population displays unique characteristics that may prevent them from participating in, or benefitting from, traditional treatment modalities (which are highly dependent upon the verbal interactions between clients and therapists). Play therapy and art therapy are discussed in terms of history, rationale, and benefits to clients.

  15. Childhood abuse in Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Yang, Yunping; Wu, Jiang; Napolitano, Lisa A; Xi, Yingjun; Cui, Yonghua

    2012-04-01

    This study examined (1) the relative prevalence of childhood abuse and other pathological childhood experiences in China reported by outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), with other personality disorders, and without personality disorders; and, (2) whether the primary predictors of BPD in North America are associated with the development of BPD in China. The childhood experiences of 203 outpatients with BPD, 109 outpatients with other personality disorders, and 70 outpatients without Axis II diagnoses were assessed with the Chinese version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). Patients with BPD reported significantly more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse than either comparison group. Four types of childhood experiences were significant predictors of BPD: maternal neglect, paternal antipathy, sexual abuse, and maternal physical abuse. The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America.

  16. The correlation of childhood physical abuse history and later abuse in a group of Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caykoylu, Ali; Ibiloglu, Aslihan O; Taner, Yasemen; Potas, Nihan; Taner, Ender

    2011-11-01

    Domestic violence is passed from one generation to the next, and it affects not only the victim but also the psychological states of the witnesses, and especially the psychosocial development of children. Studies have reported that those who have been the victim of or witnessing violence during their childhood will use violence to a greater extent as adults in their own families. This research examines the relationships between a history of childhood physical abuse, likelihood of psychiatric diagnoses, and potential for being a perpetrator of childhood physical abuse in adulthood among women who received psychiatric treatment and in the healthy population from Turkey. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood physical abuse vary depending on definition and setting. The frequency of witnessing and undergoing physical abuse within the family during childhood is much higher in the psychiatrically disordered group than the healthy controls. Childhood physical abuse history is one of the major risk factors for being an abuser in adulthood. The best indicator of physically abusing one's own children was found to be as physical abuse during the childhood period rather than psychiatric diagnosis. There is a large body of research indicating that adults who have been abused as children are more likely to abuse their own children than adults without this history. This is an important study from the point of view that consequences of violence can span generations. Further studies with different risk factor and populations will help to identify different dimensions of the problem.

  17. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse.

  18. A Study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Atul; Vaish, Supriya; Sharma, D K; Sushil, C S; Usman, Nashat; Sudarsanan, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN) inventory. A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.

  19. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  20. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira

    2017-03-01

    This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperament of juvenile delinquents with history of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Chen, Sue-Huei; Huang, Chien

    2007-01-01

    The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse have been continuously debated. Cloninger's Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported to predict patterns of substance abuse and comorbidity. In the current study, we aimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquency and substance abuse. Sixty consecutive and newly incarcerated male delinquents with history of substance abuse were recruited from a juvenile correctional facility in northwestern Taiwan from January 2002 through December 2003. All subjects were assessed of their temperament, behavioral problems, and psychiatric disorders on an individual base. The juvenile delinquent subjects with childhood history of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were significantly younger, consumed less betel nuts, and had more siblings with history of drug abuse. Consistent with the results of Cloninger's studies, novelty seeking positively correlated to the amount of substance abuse, while harm avoidance inversely correlated in juvenile delinquents. Endemic trend of choice of substance abuse needs to be taken into consideration in future research projects.

  3. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood sexual abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA in borderline personality disorder (BPD patients. They have also implicated the role of CSA later in BPD. However, there has been a scarcity of studies regarding this in Indian population. Objectives: To profile the occurrence of CSA and its parameters in BPD patients and to document symptomatology of BPD associated with CSA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six consecutive patients with BPD were administered with a two-staged semi-structured interview by different interviewers with the first stage for collecting sociodemographic details and confirming BPD diagnosis and the second stage for collecting information about CSA. Results: Of 36 BPD patients, 16 (44.44% reported a history of definite CSA. The majority of CSA associated with BPD were having characteristics of onset at 7–12 years, <10 occasions of abuse, perpetrator being a close relative or a close acquaintance and genital type of CSA. Identity disturbances (P = 0.0354, recurrent suicidal/self-harm behavior (P = 0.0177, and stress-related paranoid/dissociative symptoms (P = 0.0177 were significantly associated with the presence of CSA while unstable interpersonal relationships (P = 0.001 were significantly associated with the absence of CSA. Conclusion: Significant proportion of BPD patients reported CSA. The specific symptom profile of BPD patients can be used to predict the presence of CSA in these patients, which has a direct implication in the treatment of these patients.

  5. Young adults’ personal views on child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anne Jernbro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Vanlig tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This is a qualitative study based on reports from young adults, both exposed and not exposed to child abuse. The aim of the present study has been to analyse young adults' thoughts and feelings about child abuse. The data consisted of 358 responses to an open-ended question included in a national postal questionnaire study carried out by the Swedish Committee Against Child Abuse (Kommittén mot barnmisshandel. The analysis of data involved qualitative content analysis. Four main categories emerged: children's rights, consequences of child abuse, the role of the society, and causes of child abuse. The respondents who were abused as children wrote about the experience and the psychological long-term consequences of the abuse. The psychological abuse was particularly detrimental. The sexually abused expressed feelings of shame and guilt, in particular the young men. The non-abused respondents reported primarily on more general issues. They expressed children's right to a safe childhood and they strongly believed in stricter penalties for child abusers.

  6. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. PMID:26389621

  7. Assessing Sexual Abuse/Attack Histories with Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, David

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…

  8. A Study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.

  9. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p power (-0.48, p power (0.15, p power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.

  10. Traumatic brain injury and alcohol/substance abuse: A Bayesian meta-analysis comparing the outcomes of people with and without a history of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, David J; Mathias, Jane L

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol and substance (drugs and/or alcohol) abuse are major risk factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it remains unclear whether outcomes differ for those with and without a history of preinjury abuse. A meta-analysis was performed to examine this issue. The PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for research that compared the neuroradiological, cognitive, or psychological outcomes of adults with and without a documented history of alcohol and/or substance abuse who sustained nonpenetrating TBIs. Data from 22 studies were analyzed using a random-effects model: Hedges's g effect sizes measured the mean difference in outcomes of individuals with/without a history of preinjury abuse, and Bayes factors assessed the probability that the outcomes differed. Patients with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse had poorer neuroradiological outcomes, including reduced hippocampal (g = -0.82) and gray matter volumes (g = -0.46 to -0.82), and enlarged cerebral ventricles (g = -0.73 to -0.80). There were limited differences in cognitive outcomes: Executive functioning (g = -0.51) and memory (g = -0.39 to -0.43) were moderately affected, but attention and reasoning were not. The findings for fine motor ability, construction, perception, general cognition, and language were inconclusive. Postinjury substance and alcohol use (g = -0.97 to -1.07) and emotional functioning (g = -0.29 to -0.44) were worse in those with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse (psychological outcomes). This study highlighted the type and extent of post-TBI differences between persons with and without a history of alcohol or substance abuse, many of which may hamper recovery. However, variation in the criteria for premorbid abuse, limited information regarding the history of abuse, and an absence of preinjury baseline data prevented an assessment of whether the differences predated the TBI, occurred as a result of ongoing alcohol/substance abuse, or

  11. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  12. The Effect of Adolescent Sex Offender Abuse History on Counselor Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Stacia S.; LaFleur, N. Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines judgment of counseling students, with history of sexual or physical abuse, about their attitudes towards counseling adolescent sex offenders. Reports sexually abused counselors desired to see physically abused offenders as clients over sexually abused offenders. Presents implications for counseling, including ways in which nonabused…

  13. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis was used to assess the associations between personality disorders and emotional reations. Results Cluster B disorder features were associated with feeling distance to patients, and cluster C disorder features were associated with feeling helpful towards patients. Cluster A disorders had no significant impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substance abuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients with co-morbid personality disorders and substance abuse.

  14. Child abuse potential in mothers with early life maltreatment, borderline personality disorder and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Katja; Boedeker, Katja; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Jaite, Charlotte; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Fuehrer, Daniel; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Heinz, Andreas; Roepke, Stefan; Heim, Christine; Bermpohl, Felix

    2018-05-24

    Early life maltreatment (ELM), borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been shown to increase the potential of abuse. Emotion regulation is an identified mediator for the association of ELM and BPD with abuse potential. Until now, there has been no study to account for the co-occurrence of these risk factors in one analysis, although BPD and MDD are known as common sequelae of ELM. This is paired with a lack of studies investigating the effects of abuse potential on child well-being.AimsOur study aims at (a) disentangling the effects of maternal ELM, MDD and BPD on abuse potential; (b) exploring the role of emotion regulation as a mediator; and (c) testing for intergenerational effects of abuse potential on child psychopathology. The research design included 114 mothers with/without ELM, BPD and MDD in remission and their children, all of which were between 5 and 12 years of age. A path analysis was conducted to investigate the multiple associations between our variables. ELM, MDD and BPD were all associated with abuse potential, with emotion regulation acting as a mediator for BPD and MDD. Furthermore, an elevated abuse potential was related to higher psychopathology in the child. History of ELM as well as the common sequelae, BPD and MDD, pose risks for child abuse. Our findings suggest improvement of emotion regulation as a potential target for intervention programs. These programs should also aim at non-substantiated cases because even an elevated abuse potential affected child mental health.Declaration of interestNone.

  15. Aggression, impulsivity, personality traits, and childhood trauma of prisoners with substance abuse and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Chiara; Sarchiapone, Marco; Giannantonio, Massimo Di; Mancini, Michele; Roy, Alec

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study is then to analyze psychological and judicial features of a subgroup of inmates with substance abuse. Prisoners with substance abuse (n = 312) were compared to prisoners without substance abuse (n = 591). Recruited inmates completed a semistructured interview for collection of sociodemographic and judicial data and a battery of psychometric tests for assessement of aggression, impulsivity, depression, personality traits, hostility, resilience, and childhood trauma. Substance abusers had on average multiple incarcerations (78.8%), more juvenile convictions (60.2%), more violent behaviors during detention (29.8%), and a history of one or more suicide attempts (20.8%). They also had higher scores on subscales for childhood trauma, higher scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, higher impulsivity levels, worse resilience, increased hostility, and prevalent suicidal ideation. Prisoners with substance abuse constitute a subgroup with increased judiciary and psychiatric issues, possibly due to early life history and psychological characteristics, such as high impulsivity and aggressiveness, poor resilience, and higher suicidal risk.

  16. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior: examining lifetime sexual and physical abuse histories in relation to substance use and psychiatric problem severity among ex-offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.

  17. Association of abuse history with symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Juan; Vincent, Ann; Cha, Stephen S; Luedtke, Connie A; Oh, Terry H

    2015-03-01

    A high prevalence of abuse has been reported in patients with fibromyalgia. We aimed to examine the association between self-reported abuse history and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in 962 patients with fibromyalgia. All patients completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36). Multivariate regression analyses were performed. In total, 289 patients (30%) reported a history of abuse. Of those who specified abuse types, 161 patients (59%) reported more than 1 type of abuse (36% emotional, 32% physical, 25% sexual, and 7% verbal). Patients in the abuse group were younger and more likely to be female, unemployed, unmarried, and current smokers compared with patients who reported no abuse. After adjusting for these differences, abuse history was associated with worse symptoms, as indicated by a higher FIQ total score (P history was associated with worse QOL, with lower SF-36 scores in all domains except the physical component summary. In conclusion, abuse history in patients with fibromyalgia was associated with worse symptoms and QOL compared with those patients without abuse history. Future studies are needed to assess whether additional tailored interventions as part of fibromyalgia treatment are helpful for patients with a history of abuse.

  18. Hostility and childhood sexual abuse as predictors of suicidal behaviour in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Liliana; Portella, Maria J; Vállez, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Subirà, Susana

    2013-12-30

    Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and has been previously associated with suicidal behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined the associations between suicidal behaviour and impulsivity-related personality traits, as well as history of childhood sexual abuse, in 76 patients diagnosed with BPD using both the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) Axis-II diagnoses and the self-personality questionnaire. Impulsivity-related traits were measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). We found that hostility and childhood sexual abuse, but not impulsivity or other temperament traits, significantly predicted the presence, number and severity of previous suicide attempts. Hostility traits and childhood sexual abuse showed an impact on suicide attempts in BPD. Our results support previous findings indicating that high levels of hostility and having suffered sexual abuse during childhood lead to an increased risk for suicidal behaviour in BPD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contingency management is especially efficacious in engendering long durations of abstinence in patients with sexual abuse histories

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ford, Julian D.; Barry, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to sexual victimization is prevalent among persons with substance use disorders (SUDs). Contingency management (CM) treatments utilize concrete and relatively immediate positive reinforcers to retain patients in treatment and reduce substance use, and CM may have particular benefits for patients with histories of sexual victimization. Using data from three randomized trials of CM (N = 393), this study evaluated main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and treatment condit...

  20. The mediator effect of personality traits on the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Ryo; Inoue, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Naoki; Suzukawa, Akio; Tanabe, Hajime; Oka, Matsuhiko; Narita, Hisashi; Ito, Koki; Kako, Yuki; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies indicated that personality traits have a mediator effect on the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder and nonclinical general adult subjects. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that personality traits mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. We used the following questionnaires to evaluate 255 outpatients with schizophrenia: the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, temperament and character inventory, and Patients Health Questionnire-9. Univariate analysis, multiple regression analysis, and structured equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the data. The relationship between neglect and sexual abuse and the severity of depressive symptoms was mostly mediated by the personality traits of high harm avoidance, low self-directedness, and low cooperativeness. This finding was supported by the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis and the acceptable fit indices of SEM. Thus, our results suggest that personality traits mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. The present study and our previous studies also suggest that this mediator effect could occur independent of the presence or type of mental disorder. Clinicians should routinely assess childhood abuse history, personality traits, and their effects in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of......In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show...... that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older...

  2. Suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse: examining abuse severity, mental health, and masculine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D; Renner, Lynette M; O'Leary, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood are at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems, including suicidality. However, little is known about which factors are related to recent suicide attempts for this vulnerable, under-researched population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between abuse severity, mental health, masculine norms and recent suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). We analyzed survey data gathered from a purposive sample of 487 men who were sexually abused during childhood. The age of the sample ranged from 19 to 84 years (μ = 50.4 years). Recent suicide attempts served as the dependent variable in the study. Self-reported measures of sexual abuse severity, child physical abuse, mental health, masculine norms, and demographic information (age, race) represented the independent variables. The results from logistic regression modeling found that five variables - duration of the sexual abuse, use of force during the sexual abuse, high conformity to masculine norms, level of depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation - increased the odds of a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. To improve mental health services for men with histories of CSA, mental health practitioners should incorporate sexual abuse severity, current mental health, and adherence to masculine norms into assessment and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  4. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  5. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  6. Cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress and abuse history: the role of occurrence, frequency, and type of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginty, Annie T; Masters, Nicole A; Nelson, Eliza B; Kaye, Karen T; Conklin, Sarah M

    2017-03-01

    Extreme cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress have been associated with traumatic life experiences. Previous studies have focused on the occurrence or frequency of abuse rather than type of abuse. We examined how occurrence, frequency, and the type of abuse history are related to cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to acute psychological stress. The study consisted of between group and continuous analyses to examine the association between occurrence, type, and frequency of abuse with cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Data from 64 participants were collected. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline and during a standard mental arithmetic stress task. Individuals who experienced abuse showed diminished CVR to acute psychological stress; this was driven specifically by the history of sexual abuse. Frequency of abuse did not relate to stress reactions. These findings accord with previous work suggesting a relationship between traumatic life experience and hypoarousal in physiological reactivity and extend previous findings by suggesting the relationship may be driven by sexual abuse.

  7. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…

  8. Psychotraumatology in Europe: a personal history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Turner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a personal account of the growth of the field of traumatic stress in Europe, especially with the history of major disasters in the 1980s, the first European Conference in Lincoln in 1988, the formation of European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and its subsequent development, for example, with a federal structure and its own journal, and most important of all the way that the field as a whole has matured.

  9. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  10. Relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of Substance Abuse Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD), Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and Dependent personality disorder (DPD) and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00)...

  11. Unacknowledged Rape: The Influences of Child Sexual Abuse and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon.

  12. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  13. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...

  14. Change in neurocognition by housing type and substance abuse among formerly homeless seriously mentally ill persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Brina; Schutt, Russell K; Turner, Winston M; Goldfinger, Stephen M; Seidman, Larry J

    2006-03-01

    To test the effect of living in group housing rather than independent apartments on executive functioning, verbal memory and sustained attention among formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness and to determine whether substance abuse modifies this effect. In metropolitan Boston, 112 persons in Department of Mental Health shelters were randomly assigned to group homes ("Evolving Consumer Households", with project facilitator, group meetings, resident decision-making) or independent apartments. All were case managed. A neuropsychological test battery was administered at baseline, at 18 months (Time 2), with an 81% follow-up rate, and at 48 months (Time 3), with a 59% follow-up rate. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was applied to executive functioning--assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Perseverations)-Logical Memory story recall, and an auditory Continuous Performance Test (CPT) for sustained attention. Subject characteristics were controlled. When moved to group homes, subjects without a lifetime substance abuse history improved on Perseverations, while those who moved to independent apartments deteriorated on Perseverations. Across the two housing conditions, subjects showed no change in Perseverations, but improved on Logical Memory story recall and the CPT. Type of housing placement can influence cognitive functioning; notably, socially isolating housing is associated with weakened executive functioning. Substance abuse significantly diminishes environmental effects. These are important factors to consider in housing placement and subsequent treatment.

  15. The relationship between prenatal care, personal alcohol abuse and alcohol abuse in the home environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREKIN, EMILY R.; ONDERSMA, STEVEN J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women. Methods Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health. Findings Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman’s home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures. PMID:24391354

  16. 76 FR 24787 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Order 13572 of April 29, 2011 Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses..., finding that the Government of Syria's human rights abuses, including those related to the repression of... have engaged in human rights abuses, constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national...

  17. Antisocial personality disorder as a predictor of criminal behaviour in drug abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings have been made with regard to the long-term predictive validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on criminal behaviour in samples of substance abusers. A longitudinal record-linkage study of a cohort of 1052 drug abusers admitted 1977–1995 was undertaken. Subjects were...... seriously in drug abusers, and be targeted in treatment to prevent crime in society....

  18. Re-experiencing Violence across the Life Course: Histories of Childhood Maltreatment and Elder Abuse Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jooyoung; Easton, Scott D

    2018-03-26

    This study primarily examines the associations between histories of childhood maltreatment (i.e., neglect, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse) and elder abuse victimization and explores whether gender moderates the associations. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 5,968 older adults (mean age = 71 years) based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (2010-2011). Using retrospective self-reports of childhood and current (past 12 months) victimization experiences, logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of early-life adversities on the likelihood of elder abuse victimization. Results indicate that childhood emotional abuse and childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater risk of being abused as older adults, after controlling for childhood and adult background factors. We also found that the effect of childhood sexual abuse on elder abuse victimization was weaker for women than men. Findings suggest that the phenomenon of revictimization may occur not only in early and middle adulthood, but also in late life. To advance our understanding of victimization across the life course, future research on root causes of elder abuse should include histories of child abuse.

  19. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  20. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  1. Reliability and Validity of a Measure of Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories among Women with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ilan H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Structured clinical interviews concerning childhood histories of physical and sexual abuse with 70 mentally ill women at 2 times found test-retest reliability of .63 for physical abuse and .82 for sexual abuse. Validity, assessed as consistency with an independent clinical assessment, showed 75% agreement for physical abuse and 93% agreement for…

  2. Postoperative delirium in patients with history of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, G; Pinho, C; Santos, A; Abelha, F J

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) is an acute confusional state characterized by changes in consciousness and cognition, which may be fluctuating, developing in a small period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol abuse and the development of POD. We prospectively evaluated consecutively all postoperative patients admitted in the Post-anesthesia Care Unit over a 1-month period for delirium, using the Portuguese versions of the the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. Before surgery, alcohol consumption was inquired and alcohol abuse was assessed by the CAGE (Cutting Down, Annoyance, Guilt and Eye-opener) questionnaire; a score ≥2 defined alcohol abuse. Fischer exact test or chi-square was applied for comparisons. Risk factors were analyzed in a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Two hundred twenty-one patients were enrolled. Delirium was seen in 11% patients. The incidence of alcohol abuse was 10%. Patients with alcohol abuse were more frequently men (P<.001) and had a higher ASA physical status III/IV (P=.021). POD was more frequent in patients with alcohol abuse (30% vs. 9%; P=.002). Age (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.2-15.9; P<.001 for patients ≥65years), ASA physical statusIII/IV (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.7-10.7; P=.002) and alcohol abuse (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.9; P=.013) were found to be independent predictors for POD. Older patients, higher ASA physical status and alcohol abuse were more frequent in patients with POD. Alcohol abuse was considered an independent risk factor for POD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semistructured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of, and explanation for, elder abuse may influence their detection and reporting behavior, as they may tend to acknowledge only severe cases of intentional physical violence that leave clear and therefore physically detectable evidence.

  4. Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Long-term social and psychiatric aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1.......5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator...

  5. A personal history: Technology to energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1995-01-01

    This personal history spans a half century of participation in the frontiers of applies science and engineering ranging from the nuclear weapons project of World War II, through the development of nuclear power, engineering education, and risk analysis, to today's energy research and development. In each of these areas, this account describes some of the exciting opportunities for technology to contribute to society's welfare, as well as the difficulties and constraints imposed by society's institutional and political systems. The recounting of these experiences in energy research and development illustrates the importance of embracing social values, cultures, and environmental views into the technologic design of energy options. The global importance of energy in a rapidly changing and unpredictable world suggests a strategy for the future based on these experiences which emphasizes the value of applied research and development on a full spectrum of potential options

  6. Examining Physical and Sexual Abuse Histories as Correlates of Suicide Risk Among Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Melanie A; Matheny, Natalie L; Stanley, Ian H; Rogers, Megan L; Cougle, Jesse R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-12-01

    Research indicates that physical and sexual abuse are associated with increased suicide risk; however, these associations have not been investigated among firefighters-an occupational group that has been shown to be at elevated suicide risk. This study examined whether physical and sexual abuse histories are associated with (a) career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; and (b) current suicide risk (controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms) in this occupational group. A sample of 929 U.S. firefighters completed self-report surveys that assessed lifetime history of physical and sexual abuse; career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; current suicide risk; and theoretically relevant symptoms. Logistic regression analyses revealed that individuals who reported a history of physical abuse were significantly more likely to report career suicide ideation, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.12, plans, AOR = 13.05, and attempts, AOR = 23.81, than those who did not. A similar pattern of findings emerged for individuals who reported a sexual abuse history, AORs = 7.83, 18.35, and 29.58 respectively. Linear regression analyses revealed that physical and sexual abuse histories each significantly predicted current suicide risk, even after controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms and demographics, pr 2 = .07 and .06, respectively. Firefighters with a history of physical and/or sexual abuse may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A history of physical and sexual abuse were each significantly correlated with current suicide risk in this population, even after accounting for the effects of theoretically relevant symptoms. Thus, when conceptualizing suicide risk among firefighters, factors not necessarily related to one's firefighter career should be considered. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  7. The fifth force: A personal history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ephraim

    2015-12-01

    On January 6, 1986, a paper written by our group appeared in Physical Review Letters entitled "Reanalysis of the Eötvös Experiment". In that Letter we reanalyzed a well-known 1922 paper by Eötvös, Pekár, and Fekete (EPF) which compared the accelerations of samples of different composition to the Earth. Our surprising conclusion was that "Although the Eötvös experiment has been universally interpreted as having given null results, we find in fact that this is not the case". Two days later a front page story appeared in the New York Times under the headline "Hints of 5th Force in Universe Challenge Galileo's Findings", and so was born the concept of a "fifth force". In this personal history I review the pre-history which motivated our paper, and discuss details of our reanalysis of the EPF paper that have not been presented previously. Our work led to illuminating correspondence with Robert Dicke and Richard Feynman which are presented here for the first time. I also discuss an interesting meeting with T.D. Lee, one of whose papers with C.N. Yang provided part of the theoretical motivation for our work. Although there is almost no support from the many experiments motivated by the EPF data for a fifth force with properties similar to those that we hypothesized in our original paper, interest in the EPF experiment continues for reasons I outline in the Epilogue.

  8. Analysis of trauma severity and the impact of abuse and neglect on personality traits in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujičić Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abuse and neglect might cause multiple and long-term consequences on physical and mental health, development and future life of children. The consequences that abuse and neglect cause on a child’s personality and functioning in adult life have particular importance. The aim: Determining the level of trauma, as well as differences in personality traits of adolescents who are on psychiatric treatment and has been registered in Department for the protection of children against abuse and neglect, comparing with children who are on psychiatric treatment but not abused, and control group of adolescents. Materials and methods: The study analysed three groups: abused group on psychiatric treatment, group on psychiatric treatment and not abused, and control healthy population. All subjects filled out General questionnaire with basic socio-demographical data, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Temperament and Character Adolescent Inventory (ATCI – 46. Results: There is statistically significant difference between groups in all types of abuse: physical, emotional, sexual, as well as emotional and physical neglect (p<0.001. Psychiatric group has significantly lower scores on Persistence (P (p<0.01, while abused group has lower scores on Harm avoidance (HA (p<0.05. Negative correlation between abuse and Self-transcendence (ST, and negative correlation between physical abuse and Self-directedness (SD has been shown. Conclusion: Abuse and neglect in children and adolescents are a significant cause of trauma and can cause different psychopathology, as well as changes on character and temperament traits.

  9. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  10. Perceptions of Elder Abuse From Community-Dwelling Older Persons and Professionals Working in Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulet Schwab, Delphine; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2017-09-01

    Older persons' perspectives regarding elder abuse remain little studied. However, definitions of elder abuse and effective prevention strategies require adaptation to the needs and cultures of targeted populations. This study explored the views of older persons and professionals to evaluate their converging and diverging perspectives toward elder abuse and its prevention. The study employed a qualitative approach where six focus groups were held in Western Switzerland (the French-speaking part of the country). Four focus groups with 25 older persons from varying socioeconomic backgrounds, and the other two focus groups were carried out with 16 professionals working in the field of elder abuse prevention. For the focus groups, we used the technique of free associations to begin the discussions and vignette-like statements to explore participants' attitudes toward elder abuse. These were followed by open-ended questions. The transcripts from the focus groups were analyzed thematically and resulted in four main themes: (a) varied associations of the term "abuse," (b) judging elder abuse situations in terms of abuse and severity, (c) self-identification with elder abuse, and (d) prevention of elder abuse. Study findings demonstrated that older persons hold views that are partly different from the views of professionals. Furthermore, perceptions of older persons could be stratified based on the socioeconomic status of the participants. These diverging perspectives reflect the heterogeneity of the senior citizen population and highlight the need for research cognizant of these differences. The results of this study provide strategies for improved targeting of preventive measures, underline the importance of integrating the perspectives of older persons, and reveal the need to expand the commonly accepted definitions of elder abuse so that they better reflect the affected individuals.

  11. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  12. Emotional Awareness Moderates the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-07-01

    To examine pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD), focusing on childhood abuse and emotional attention and clarity. Among 293 community residents (mean age = 43.1; 53.9% female), measured associations between the BPD symptom factors of disturbed relatedness, affective dysregulation, and behavioral dysregulation and (a) childhood abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual); (b) emotional attention and clarity; and (c) negative affect, using structured interviews, the Schedule for Non-Adaptive and Adaptive Personality-2, the Trait Meta Mood Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, respectively. All forms of childhood abuse were associated with BPD symptom factors. Emotional attention and clarity moderated the effects of childhood physical and emotional abuse on behavioral dysregulation and disturbed relatedness. All results held when controlling for negative affect. The relations between childhood abuse and BPD are robust. Emotional attention and clarity may help elucidate the links between childhood abuse and BPD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A prospective investigation of borderline personality disorder in abused and neglected children followed up into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Paris, Joel

    2009-10-01

    Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.

  14. Satanism, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorder: a sociohistorical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, S

    1994-10-01

    During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local and federal police investigations have failed to corroborate patients' therapeutically constructed accounts, because the satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. Resolutely logical and thoroughly operational, ultrascientific psychodemonology remains paradoxically oblivious to its own irrational premises. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, however, the hypothetical perpetrators of satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of all those who have been caught up in the social delusion.

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  16. Alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression : The quest for a common underlying mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Wright, Aidan G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and personality disorders are often comorbid, and their co-occurrence is associated with worse rognostic expectations, poor therapeutic outcomes, as well as deleterious behavioral and interpersonal consequences. The current review aims at untangling the association among alcohol abuse,

  17. [WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENTS WITH A HISTORY OF SEXUAL ABUSE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Soto, Selene; Sámano, Reyna; Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bosch, Mario; García-Salazar, Danae; Hernández-Mohar, Gabriela; García-Espinosa, Verónica

    2015-09-01

    the purpose of the present study was to describe some perinatal outcomes in two groups of pregnant adolescents: one group with history of sexual abuse and one group without sexual abuse antecedent. we designed an observational, retrolective study. Participants were primigravid adolescents between 10 to 16 years, with a singleton pregnancy, and at least three prenatal medical evaluations. Participants were grouped according to sexual abuse antecedent: 55 adolescents had sexual abuse antecedent, and 110 participants had not sexual abuse antecedent. We obtained the clinical data from medical records: socio-demographic characteristics, sexually transmitted infections, illicit drugs use, pre-gestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, and newborn weight. The data were analyzed using association tests and mean comparisons. the adolescents with sexual abuse history had higher prevalence of human papilloma virus infection. The newborns weight of mothers without sexual abuse antecedent was about 200 grams higher than the newborns of mothers with sexual abuse antecedent (p = 0.002); while the length of the first group was 2 centimeters longer than the length of the newborns on the second group (p = 0.001). Gestational weight increase was 5 kilograms lower in adolescents with sexual abuse antecedent compared to adolescent without the antecedent (p = 0.005). Illicit drug use was similar in the two groups and it was associated to low newborn weight. the sexual abuse antecedent in pregnant adolescents was associated to higher frequency of human papilloma virus infections, lower newborn weight, and lower gestational weight increase on pregnant adolescents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Determining History of Victimization and Potential for Abusive Behavior in U.S. Navy Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-20

    References Aber, J. L., & Allen, J. P. (1987). Effects of maltreatment on young children’s socioemotional development: An attachment theory perspective...will provide a reasonable profile of recruits’ history of and potential for abusive behaviors. The compilation of models, theories , factors, and...factors associated with abusive behaviors. A necessary first step in the selection of instruments is the compilation of models, theories , factors

  19. Family history of alcohol and drug abuse, childhood trauma, and age of first drug injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R

    2014-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection.

  20. Roots run deep: Investigating psychological mechanisms between history of family aggression and abusive supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Kiewitz, Christian; Scott, Kristin L; Tang, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we examine the relationships between supervisor-level factors and abusive supervision. Drawing from social learning theory (Bandura, 1973), we argue that supervisors' history of family aggression indirectly impacts abusive supervision via both hostile cognitions and hostile affect, with angry rumination functioning as a first-stage moderator. Using multisource data, we tested the proposed relationships in a series of 4 studies, each providing evidence of constructive replication. In Study 1, we found positive relationships between supervisors' history of family aggression, hostile affect, explicit hostile cognitions, and abusive supervision. We obtained the same pattern of results in Studies 2, 3, and 4 using an implicit measure of hostile cognitions and controlling for previously established antecedents of abusive supervision. Angry rumination moderated the indirect relationship between supervisors' history of family aggression and abusive supervision via hostile affect only. Overall, the results highlight the important role of supervisor-level factors in the abusive supervision dynamics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Child Abuse and Multiple Personality Disorders: Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Multiple personality disorder is associated with a high incidence of physical and sexual abuse during childhood. While difficult to diagnose, multiple personality is easier to treat if diagnosed early in childhood or adolescence. Treatment for multiple personality focuses on establishing trust and communicating with and integrating the…

  2. A within-person approach to risk for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior : Examining the roles of depression, stress, and abuse exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, M.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    Objective: This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. Method: This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between

  3. Empowerment and Social Support: Implications for Practice and Programming among Minority Women with Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women’s empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women’s personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed. PMID:27084362

  4. How older persons explain why they became victims of abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. SUBJECTS: six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. RESULTS: the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social...... with the perpetrator. Coping strategies mentioned by victims were seeking informal or professional help and using self-help strategies. CONCLUSION: older victims perceive abuse differently depending on the expected acceptability of the type(s) of abuse experienced and the anticipated stigma associated...

  5. Truth, Memory, Selectivity: Understanding Historical Work by Writing Personal Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerber, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the use of a simple assignment, the personal narrative, in teaching students the discursive issues involved in doing academic history. Focusing on autobiography, I present the results of a survey of Canadian university students into their experiences with writing personal histories. Specifically, the survey asked students to…

  6. Sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life among women with a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Andrea V; Micelli, Ligia P; Sousa, Maria H; Bahamondes, Luis; Fernandes, Arlete

    2016-09-01

    To assess scores for sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life in a cohort of women in Brazil who had a history of sexual abuse. The present study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study conducted between February 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. Women aged 18-49years attending a family planning clinic at the University of Campinas, Brazil, who were in a heterosexual relationship and reported engaging in sexual intercourse in the 4weeks prior to the study were enrolled. Participants were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, Abbreviated Version, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Data were grouped based on a history of sexual abuse. An FSFI score of no higher than 26.55 was considered the cut off for sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of FSFI-defined sexual dysfunction was higher in participants with a history of sexual abuse (Phistory of sexual abuse had significantly lower scores across all quality of life domains. Increased risk of sexual dysfunction among women with a history of sexual abuse suggests potential problems in the sex lives of individuals in this population. Healthcare professionals should be alert to this diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relation Between Supervisors' Big Five Personality Traits and Employees' Experiences of Abusive Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between supervisors' personality traits and employees' experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that - to date - remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors' agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors' extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors' conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors' Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees' experiences of abusive supervision.

  8. The Relation Between Supervisors’ Big Five Personality Traits and Employees’ Experiences of Abusive Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between supervisors’ personality traits and employees’ experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that – to date – remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors’ agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors’ extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors’ conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors’ Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees’ experiences of abusive supervision. PMID:26903919

  9. Insecure Attachment, Maladaptive Personality Traits, and the Perpetration of In-Person and Cyber Psychological Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Nghi H; Pasalich, Dave S

    2018-02-01

    Although past findings show that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality traits confer risk for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about how these factors may underpin psychological abuse (PA) committed in-person and via technology. This study examined whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and psychopathic traits account for indirect effects of insecure attachment on the perpetration of face-to-face and cyber PA. Participants included a community-based sample ( N = 200; M age = 22.28 years) in Australia who completed a battery of online questionnaires. Results from bivariate correlations showed that elevated levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and higher scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits, were significantly associated with the perpetration of both face-to-face and cyber PA. Findings from mediation analysis indicated that attachment anxiety was indirectly linked with the perpetration of both forms of PA via elevated scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits. High levels of psychopathic traits accounted for the indirect effects of attachment avoidance on both forms of PA. Results support the theory that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality functioning might be involved in the development and/or maintenance of the perpetration of PA. These findings have implications for preventive and treatment programs for the perpetration of IPV in terms of shedding new light on potential risk factors for engagement in face-to-face and technology-based PA.

  10. Tuning and History: A Personal Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Ann Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The text places Tuning History in the context of the rapidly developing international collaboration among historians which began in Europe in 1989, with the ECTS Pilot project, and continued, from 2000 on, with the European History Networks (for research and for curriculum development) working in parallel and in collaboration with Tuning, in…

  11. Sexual Anxiety and Eroticism Predict the Development of Sexual Problems in Youth With a History of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Valerie A.; Feiring, Candice

    2008-01-01

    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, i...

  12. A within-person approach to risk for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior: Examining the roles of depression, stress, and abuse exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, Matteo; Hastings, Paul D; Rudolph, Karen D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-07-01

    This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 14.69 years, SD = 1.37; 61% White). At baseline, adolescents reported the presence or absence of prior abuse as part of a clinical interview. At baseline and every 3 months for 18 months, adolescents completed measures of suicidal ideation and behavior, depressive symptoms, and stress. Multilevel models examined within-person mean, deviations from within-person mean, depression, and stress and their interactions with abuse as predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. In addition to within-person mean depression, higher-than-usual depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99) and higher-than-usual stress (OR = 1.53) predicted greater risk of suicidal ideation at each follow-up assessment. Periods of higher-than-usual stress (1 SD increase) and periods of higher-than-usual depression (1 SD increase) were associated with an 82% and 57% increase in the odds of suicidal behavior, respectively, but only among those with abuse histories. Depression, stress, and abuse are well-known risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior; however, it has been unclear for whom, and when, these factors have their greatest impact. These results show that depression and stress are potent risk factors among those with a history of abuse and that within-person elevations in these risk factors signal increased short-term risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Comparative study of the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.

  14. The Wage Effects of Personal Smoking History

    OpenAIRE

    GRAFOVA, IRINA B.; STAFFORD, FRANK P.

    2009-01-01

    Why do we observe a wage differential between smokers and non-smokers? Pooling reports of current and prior smoking activity across 15 years from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) allows the reconstruction of individual smoking histories. Dividing the sample into smoking history groups, the four largest of which are: persistent smokers, never smokers, former smokers, and future quitters reveals that there is no observed wage gap between former smokers and those who have never smoked. ...

  15. Culturally competent substance abuse treatment with transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttbrock, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    Transgender individuals are misunderstood and inadequately treated in many conventional substance abuse treatment programs. This article reviews current concepts regarding the definition and diversity of transgenderism and summarizes the existing literature on the prevalence and correlates of substance use in transgendered populations. Examples of culturally competent and gender-sensitive treatment in specialized settings are cited, with a call to extend these initiatives throughout the gamut of service venues that engage transgender individuals. Cultural competence combined with gender sensitivity should improve the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment for transgender individuals and will contribute to the goal of providing effective services in an increasingly diverse society.

  16. Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2013-11-01

    Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study, we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30 min after wake-up, and bedtime for 3 days at three times over second and third trimesters of pregnancy. On each day of cortisol collection women reported their daily stress. Women reported child abuse experiences prior to age 18 years by completing 15 items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale. Twenty-one percent (N = 9) of women reported a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), 44% (N = 18) reported a history of non-sexual child abuse and 34% (N = 14) reported no history of child abuse. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that stress in the day prior was associated with increases in morning cortisol in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Increases in evening cortisol were associated with increases in daily stress in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Results reveal a dynamic association between daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy and suggest that patterns differ according to maternal child abuse history.

  17. Family narratives on fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, Susanna; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The impact of a history of sexual abuse on foster families has been studied, although never from a multilevel family perspective. Therefore, in Project Iris narratives are collected on the expertise, needs and experiences of family members in foster families concerning the care for a child with a

  18. Comparison of drug treatment histories of single and multiple drug abusers in detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greberman, S B; Jasinski, D

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine differences in previous treatment patterns in individuals currently using different numbers of substances. Medical records of 1198 inpatient detoxification (detox) admissions were analyzed. Numbers of past admissions to completed detox, methadone, or other types of drug abuse treatment were totaled and ranked to determine most frequent type. Within gender, treatment histories of single and multiple drug abusers usually do not differ. The one exception is male multiple drug abusers ages 26-30, who show increased admissions. Possible explanations are that men do not seek treatment before developing medical complications of addiction or until external factors influence admission. There were differences in treatment histories between genders in multiple drug abusers only. Before age 30, women reported increased treatment of certain types. Possible explanations are that treatment priority is given to women who are, or may be, pregnant. Also, younger men may not enter or complete treatment. Previous treatment history may influence many behaviors. The results of this study delineate several valuable indicators for assessing past history.

  19. Maternal Drug Abuse History, Maltreatment, and Functioning in a Clinical Sample of Urban Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigu-Otite, Edore C.; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between maternal drug abuse history, maltreatment exposure, and functioning, in a clinical sample of young children seeking therapy for maltreatment. Methods: Data were collected on 91 children, mean age 5.3 years (SD 1.0). The Preschool and Early Childhood Functional Assessment Scales (PECFAS) was…

  20. Bad experience, good birthing: Dutch low-risk pregnant women with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, Leonie A. M.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eskes, Martine; Birnie, Erwin; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Bleker, Otto P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The long-term effects on women in childbirth with a history of sexual abuse have only been studied to a limited degree. We estimated the prevalence of lifetime experience among low-risk pregnant women (non-clinical) in The Netherlands as well as the association with (1) psycho-social

  1. The History, Uses, and Abuses of Title IX. 2016 Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Professors, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report, an evaluation of the history and current uses of Title IX, is the result of a joint effort by a subcommittee that included members of the AAUP's Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure and the Committee on Women in the Academic Profession. The report identifies tensions between current interpretations of Title IX and the academic…

  2. Substance abuse in borderline personality disorder: clinical and etiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L. M.; Verheul, R.; van den Brink, W.

    2001-01-01

    This work examines differences between female borderline patients with and without substance abuse problems and between borderline patients from different treatment settings. A total of 64 female borderline patients were recruited from mental health services (n = 34) and addiction treatment services

  3. The Specific Role of Childhood Abuse, Parental Bonding, and Family Functioning in Female Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family.

  4. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  5. Depression, anxiety, and history of substance abuse among Norwegian inmates in preventive detention: Reasons to worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Værøy Henning

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway's Ila Prison. Substance abuse histories and information about the type of psychiatric treatment received were compiled. To assess anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS were used. Results Scores on the MADRS revealed that 46.1% of inmates had symptoms of mild depression. The HADS depression subscale showed that 19.2% scored above the cut-off for depression (κ = 0.57. The CAS anxiety score was above the cut-off for 30.7% of the subjects, while 34.6% also scored above the cut-off on the HADS anxiety subscale (κ = 0.61. Almost 70% of all these inmates, and more than 80% of those convicted of sex crimes, had a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Conclusions Mild anxiety and depression was found frequently among inmates on preventive detention. Likewise, the majority of the inmates had a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Mood disorders and substance abuse may enhance recidivism, so rehabilitation programs should be tailored to address these problems.

  6. Personal history of nucleon polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, O.

    1984-09-01

    The history of nucleon scattering experiments is reviewed, starting with the observation of large proton polarizations in scattering from light elements such as carbon, and ending with the acceleration of polarized proton beams in high-energy synchrotrons. Special mention is made about significant contributions made by C.L. Oxley, L. Wolfenstein, R.D. Tripp, T. Ypsilantis, A. Abragam, M. Borghini, T. Niinikoski, Froissart, Stora, A.D. Krisch, and L.G. Ratner

  7. Risky sexual behaviors, mental health, and history of childhood abuse among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2012-03-01

    Although it seems evident that attention should be paid to risky sexual behaviors and their association with mental health among young people, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aims to explore the relationship between sexual risk behaviors and mental health among adolescents. The participants were 251 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility (221 males and 31 females) as the "delinquent" group and 367 high school students (167 males and 200 females) as the "non-delinquent" group. A questionnaire including the Kessler 10, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale was employed to measure mental health status as well as sexual risk behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempts, and abuse history. Having a history of sexual abuse or of physical abuse was associated with age when one first had sex among males with delinquent behaviors, while same tendency was observed among males without delinquent behaviors. Among the female with delinquent behaviors group, past abuse history was significantly associated with higher number of sex partners. In the non-delinquent group, better mental health among males and, contrarily, worse mental health among females were associated with having more sex partners. The results highlight the importance of addressing abuse history among females and males. Given that poor mental health status in the adolescents was associated with risky sexual behaviors, adolescents are a vulnerable group that requires attention in terms of sexual and reproductive health that integrates mental health and psychosocial components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence-Based Approaches to Remedy and Also to Prevent Abuse of Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elder abuse is a global issue, with an estimated 4–10% of older persons in Canada abused each year. Although Canadian legislation has been created to prevent and punish the abuse of older persons living in nursing homes and other care facilities, community-dwelling older persons are at greater risk of abuse. This paper highlights the importance of evidence-based actions targeted at three determinants of health: (a personal health practices and coping skills, (b social support networks, and (c social environments. Two research studies are profiled as case studies that illustrate the ready possibility and value of two specific types of actions on community-based older-person abuse. This paper argues for the immediate and widespread adoption of these evidence-based measures and for additional empirical evidence to guide the correction of underreporting of abuse, raise awareness of its serious nature, and increase options to not only stop it but ultimately prevent it.

  9. Effectiveness of narcotics anonymous training programs in personality characters in substance abuse patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namat Sotodeh Asl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Substance abuse is one of the most common disorders that exert a high impact on the life of patients and their families. There are many treatment methods for Addiction. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of narcotics anonymous (NA program on personality characters in substance abuse patients.Materials and Methods: This quasi experimental design was performed on 100 patients with substance abuse disorders that they had been randomly selected from those patients who were referred to psychiatric clinics and counseling centers in Esfehan in 2008. Then, the subjects were equally divided into two groups; experimental and control. All the patients carried out Eysenk test prior to any intervention and also a demographic questionnaire were filled out by all the subjects. Then, Eysenk test was performed on all the patients following the intervention. Changing in personality character in the experimental group (before and after the intervention was compared with those of the control group. Results: The findings showed that narcotic program has significant effects on personality characters of experimental group to substance abuse in post test, but these effects are not significant in control group.Conclusion: According to the findings of this work, we suggest the effectiveness of NA program in changing personality characters of the patients with substance abuse

  10. Relationship of child abuse with personality features and high risk behaviors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghezelseflo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups of the society and are constantly threatened by different people in their family or society. The aim of this study was investigating the correlation of child abuse with personality features and high risk behavior in high school students of Islamshahr, Iran. Methods: This study cross-sectional analytical was conducted on the high school girls and boys of Islamshahr in spring 2014.528 students were selected by cluster random sampling among 4 high schools (two female and two male high schools. Childhood trauma questionnaire, NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Youth Risk-Taking Scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by independence t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression. Results: The results of independence t-test indicated significant differences between girls and boys in terms of child abuse and high risk experience (t=-2.16,p=0.03 and t=-5.03, P=0.001, respectively. Also, the results demonstrated a significant relationship between child abuse and personality characteristics, high risk behavior and all its subscales (P<0.05. The findings of multiple linear regressionindicated that child abuse could explain 14% total risk-taking, 25% neurotic personality feature , 14% extroversion, 10% agreeableness, 1% flexibility and 13% conscientiousness (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the research findings, appropriate behavior with children is of great importance. Therefore, child abuse would form inappropriate personality features and increase risk behaviors among children.

  11. Does a history of bullying and abuse predict lower urinary tract symptoms, chronic pain, and sexual dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Tori; Gupta, Priyanka; Ehlert, Michael; Dove-Medows, Emily; Seltzer, Marlene; Carrico, Donna J; Gilleran, Jason; Bartley, Jamie; Peters, Kenneth M; Sirls, Larry

    2016-11-01

    To investigate associations of bullying and abuse with pelvic floor symptoms, urogenital pain, and sexual health characteristics of women presenting to a multidisciplinary women's urology center. Retrospective review of a prospective database. Patients completed questions about bullying, abuse, sexual health and validated questionnaires including the Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Inventory (PFDI-20), Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), and visual analog scale (VAS 0-10) for genitourinary pain. Statistical analyses included Chi-squared and t tests, which compared victims of bullying and/or abuse to non-victims. Three hundred and eighty patients were reviewed. Three hundred and thirty-eight had data on bullying and abuse history. Out of 380, 94 (24.7 %) reported that they were victims of bullying. Out of 380, 104 (27.4 %) reported that they were victims of abuse. Women with a history of bullying and abuse had increased overall pain scores compared to those without a history of either. Women with a history of abuse and bullying had increased PFDI-20, POPDI, and UDI-6 scores compared to women who were not bullied or abused. There was no difference in being sexually active or in sexual satisfaction between the groups. Patients with a history of abuse and bullying had the greatest percentage of dyspareunia (p = 0.009). Women with a history of bullying, abuse, or both predict increased pelvic floor distress, urological symptoms, increased urogenital pain, and increased dyspareunia. Clinicians should screen for exposure to bullying or abuse in order to provide comprehensive resources to address these psychosocial issues.

  12. Longitudinal histories as predictors of future diagnoses of domestic abuse: modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohane, Isaac S; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether longitudinal data in patients’ historical records, commonly available in electronic health record systems, can be used to predict a patient’s future risk of receiving a diagnosis of domestic abuse. Design Bayesian models, known as intelligent histories, used to predict a patient’s risk of receiving a future diagnosis of abuse, based on the patient’s diagnostic history. Retrospective evaluation of the model’s predictions using an independent testing set. Setting A state-wide claims database covering six years of inpatient admissions to hospital, admissions for observation, and encounters in emergency departments. Population All patients aged over 18 who had at least four years between their earliest and latest visits recorded in the database (561 216 patients). Main outcome measures Timeliness of detection, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and area under the ROC curve. Results 1.04% (5829) of the patients met the narrow case definition for abuse, while 3.44% (19 303) met the broader case definition for abuse. The model achieved sensitive, specific (area under the ROC curve of 0.88), and early (10-30 months in advance, on average) prediction of patients’ future risk of receiving a diagnosis of abuse. Analysis of model parameters showed important differences between sexes in the risks associated with certain diagnoses. Conclusions Commonly available longitudinal diagnostic data can be useful for predicting a patient’s future risk of receiving a diagnosis of abuse. This modelling approach could serve as the basis for an early warning system to help doctors identify high risk patients for further screening. PMID:19789406

  13. Caregiver-youth communication about sex in South Africa: the role of maternal child sexual abuse history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices.

  14. Personal contextual characteristics and cognitions: predicting child abuse potential and disciplinary style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-02-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.

  15. The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2015-07-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization.

  16. Metacognitive interpersonal therapy for co-occurrent avoidant personality disorder and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Giancarlo; D'Urzo, Maddalena; Pasinetti, Manuela; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H; Catania, Dario; Popolo, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Many patients with substance abuse problems present with co-occurrent cluster C personality disorders. Focusing on both disorders disrupts the maintenance mechanisms and the vicious cycle between the 2 conditions; however, treatment teams often neglect this issue. In this work, we describe the features of metacognitive interpersonal therapy as applied to a man with avoidant and depressive personality disorders and heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abuse. Psychotherapy proceeded through the following steps: (a) conducting drug therapy to deal with symptoms of abstinence from heroin; (b) forming a therapeutic bond to overcome the patient's severe emotional withdrawal; (c) fostering basic metacognitive capacities such as awareness of emotions and their triggers; (d) sharing formulations of maladaptive interpersonal schemas and descriptions of the associated states of mind; (e) conveying an understanding of the link between interpersonal events (recent ones and traumatic memories) and substance abuse; (f) facilitating the acquisition of critical distance from maladaptive schemas; and (g) promoting the use of adaptive coping skills instead of resorting to substance abuse. Implications for generalizing these procedures to the treatment of other patients with co-occurrent personality disorders and substance abuse are described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Development of a Recommender System based on Personal History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsuaki; Hori, Koichi; Yamamoto, Masato

    The flood of information on the Internet makes a person who surf it without some strong intention strayed into it. One of the ways to control the balance between a person and the flood is a recommender system by computer, and many web sites use it. These systems work on a web site for the same kind of items. However the field of personal activity is not limited to handle the same kind of thing and a web site, but also offline area in the real world. To handle personal offline activities, LifeLog is proposed as method to record it, but the main purpose of LifeLog is recording a personal history. How to use a history has still been studied stage. The authors have developed a recommender system that captures personal context from history of personal online and offline activities, treats information on web sites as a large set of context, and finds out and extends overlap of them, then recommends information located there. The aim of the system is that a person can enjoy waves of information again. The system worked as a part of My-life Assist Service. It was a service for mobile phones provided by NTT DoCoMo, Inc. as a field experiment from Dec. 2007 to Feb. 2008.

  18. Clinical Phenomenology of Childhood Abuse-Related Complex PTSD in a Population of Female Patients: Patterns of Personality Disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrepaal, E.; Thomaes, K.; Smit, J.H.; Hoogendoorn, A.; Veltman, D.J.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Draijer, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves a variety of personality disturbances presumed to result from repeated interpersonal trauma such as child abuse. As Complex PTSD patients are a heterogeneous population, we searched for clinically relevant personality-based subtypes.

  19. Substance abuse as a cause of violence in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons diagnosed with schizophrenia can both inflict and suffer violence. For centuries there has been a firmly held belief that they are dangerous and, due to this belief, they are still frequently isolated from the community and exposed to involuntary treatment and restraint. Research data illustrates that persons with this diagnosis are at greater risk of performing violent acts more frequently than the general population. In recent years, the general framework has been set in a more complex manner due to the inclusion in analysis of several mediating variables such as gender, social status, childhood trauma, personality traits, stress and many others. Numerous studies have shown that violent tendencies are evident in persons with co-morbidity of schizophrenia and anti- social personality disorder and/or substance abuse disorders. This paper is focused on reviewing data scrutinizing the role of drug abuse and alcoholism in the violent behavior of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. Data obtained through meta- analyses of tens of thousands of cases demonstrates unequivocally that the percentage of persons with schizophrenia who commit violent acts without abusing drugs is relatively higher than in the general population (8.5% : 5.3%, while persons who abuse drugs and/or alcohol have been more frequently violent regardless of being psychotic or not (27.6%. Having taken these findings into account, the understanding that persons diagnosed with schizophrenia are prone to violence must be made more specific and their treatment, follow- up and public image changed accordingly. Some of these implications are discussed in this paper and changes suggested.

  20. A history of abuse and operative delivery--results from a European multi-country cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Schei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult. DESIGN: The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records. The main outcome measure was operative delivery as a dichotomous variable, and categorized as an elective caesarean section (CS, or an operative vaginal birth, or an emergency CS. Non-obstetrically indicated were CSs performed on request or for psychological reasons without another medical reason. Binary and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49, and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24. Women expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46-11.3. Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood <18 years, nor sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416 multiparous women, neither sexual, nor emotional abuse was significantly associated with any kind of operative delivery, while physical abuse had an increased AOR for emergency CS of 1.51 (1.05-2.19. CONCLUSION: Sexual abuse as an adult increases the risk of an elective CS among women with no prior birth experience, in particular for non-obstetrical reasons. Among multiparous women, a history of physical abuse increases the risk of an emergency CS.

  1. Personal Construction of Cough Medicine among Young Substance Abusers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cough medicine abuse is a growing problem in many places, there is no study examining the views of young substance abusers toward cough medicine. The objective of this study was to examine personal constructions of cough medicine abusers via the repertory grid tests (=11. Several observations are highlighted from the study. First, personal constructions of cough medicine were mixed, including the benefits and harmful effects of its abuse. Second, although the informants perceived cough medicine to be addictive and harmful, they perceived cough medicine to be less addictive and less harmful than did heroin. Third, while the informants construed cough medicine to be similar to ketamine and marijuana, they also perceived cough medicine to possess some characteristics of heroin. Fourth, relative to the construed similarity between heroin and the gateway drugs (cigarette, beer, and liquor, the informants construed cough medicine to be more similar to the gateway drugs. Finally, a higher level of perceived dissimilarity between cough medicine and gateway drugs was related to a higher level of perceived harm of cough medicine abuse.

  2. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  3. Life history strategy and the HEXACO personality dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Manson, JH

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have linked Life History Strategy (LHS) variation with variation in the Five Factor Model personality dimensions, no published research has explored the relationship of LHS to the HEXACO personality dimensions. The theoretically expected relationship of the HEXACO Emotionality factor to LHS is unclear. The results of two studies (N = 641) demonstrated that LHS indicators form part of a factor along with HEXACO Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and (margi...

  4. Self-control and child abuse potential in mothers with an abuse history and their preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henschel, S.; de Bruin, M.; Möhler, E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether physically and sexually abused mothers display lower levels of self-control, whether this explains their higher tendency to abuse their own children, and if this results in lower levels of self-control among their children. In a cross-sectional study, 40 abused and 47 matched,

  5. Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692

  6. Study of Personality Factors in Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    has ever been on an alcoholism treatment unit can attest to the high rate of nicotine and caffeine consumption in this population. More empirically...administrations of cannabis . Moreover, despite the crucial role of learning in substance use, people still choose and perceive their learning...Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45’, 609-611. Bachman, J., & Jones, R. Personality correlates of cannabis dependence. Addictive Behaviors

  7. Brain Science and Teaching: A Forty-Year Personal History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Linda Faye

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the sharing of a record, the personal history of an educator pursuing an interest in knowledge of the brain. Over the years, this fascination sparked the idea to create a course for teachers based on brain science, with a twist. Certain course assignments would require teachers to interpret knowledge of the brain in the context of…

  8. Contempt and defensiveness in couple relationships related to childhood sexual abuse histories for self and partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eric C; Sheffield, Rachel; Larson, Jeffry H; Holman, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) for one or both members of a romantic couple and perceptions of contempt and defensiveness for self and partner. Data from the Relationship Evaluation (RELATE) were analyzed for 10,061 couples. The findings suggest that when either or both partner(s) has a history of CSA, contempt and defensiveness in the couple relationship are greater than when neither reports a history of CSA. Furthermore, the males' experience of CSA had a greater impact on their perceptions of self and partner's contempt and defensiveness than females' experience of CSA. Explanations of gender differences are offered and implications for future research and practice are suggested. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  9. Attitudes to professional boundaries among therapists with and without substance abuse history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietkiewicz Igor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no empirical research exploring how substance abuse therapists perceive and manage their professional role or privacy boundaries. This study explores their attitudes associated with self-disclosure and dual relationships. Ten therapists, five who had recovered (neophytes and five who had never been substance dependent, shared their work experiences during semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which have been subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. While nonneophytes were generally reluctant to share personal information or establish alternative forms of relationship with current or former clients, neophytes were more open to using self-disclosure and admitted changing professional relationships into friendships. These findings are discussed in relation to ethical codes, training and supervision in substance abuse treatment.

  10. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  11. Condom use assessment of persons in drug abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dana; Schumacher, Joseph E

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively and quantitatively assess individual skill level of male condom use. This study developed a reliable and face valid assessment of correct male condom use based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Participants (N= 163) were recruited from persons in treatment for cocaine addiction. Condom use was assessed on the basis of correct completion of eight discrete steps. An overall score of 40% correct condom use indicated the need for training in this sample. Assessment showed training needs especially related to steps involving reduction of ejaculate leakage and steps related to potential hazards of nonoxynol-9 use. Frequency of condom use was also assessed; there was no correlation between frequency of condom use and condom use skill. Drug addiction treatment programs are encouraged to incorporate HIV risk reduction programs that teach condom use skills and use the CUDOS as an empirical measure of condom skill acquisition.

  12. Monoamine Oxidase-A Genetic Variants and Childhood Abuse Predict Impulsiveness in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Meyer, Jeffrey; Sanches, Marcos; Charbonneau, James

    2017-11-30

    Impulsivity is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) that likely arises from combined genetic and environmental influences. The interaction of the low activity variant of the monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA-L) gene and early childhood adversity has been shown to predict aggression in clinical and non-clinical populations. Although impulsivity is a risk factor for aggression in BPD and ASPD, little research has investigated potential gene-environment (G×E) influences impacting its expression in these conditions. Moreover, G×E interactions may differ by diagnosis. Full factorial analysis of variance was employed to investigate the influence of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) genotype, childhood abuse, and diagnosis on Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) scores in 61 individuals: 20 subjects with BPD, 18 subjects with ASPD, and 23 healthy controls. A group×genotype×abuse interaction was present (F(2,49)=4.4, p =0.018), such that the interaction of MAOA-L and childhood abuse predicted greater BIS-11 motor impulsiveness in BPD. Additionally, BPD subjects reported higher BIS-11 attentional impulsiveness versus ASPD participants (t(1,36)=2.3, p =0.025). These preliminary results suggest that MAOA-L may modulate the impact of childhood abuse on impulsivity in BPD. Results additionally indicate that impulsiveness may be expressed differently in BPD and ASPD.

  13. Emotional hyperreactivity in response to childhood abuse by primary caregivers in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2015-09-01

    One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being related to abuse, rejection and abandonment only. The current experiment examines the specificity of emotional hyperreactivity in BPD. The impact of four film clips (BPD-specific: childhood abuse by primary caregivers; BPD-nonspecific: peer bullying; positive; and neutral) on self-reported emotional affect was assessed in three female groups; BPD-patients (n = 24), cluster C personality disorder patients (n = 17) and non-patient controls (n = 23). Results showed that compared to the neutral film clip, BPD-patients reacted with more overall negative affect following the childhood abuse clip, and with more anger following the peer bullying clip than the two other groups. The current study was restricted to assessment of the impact of evocative stimuli on self-reported emotions, and the order in which the film clips were presented to the participants was fixed. Results suggest that BPD-patients only react generally excessively emotional to stimuli related to childhood abuse by primary caregivers, and with excessive anger to peer-bullying stimuli. These findings are thus not in line with the core idea of general emotional hyperreactvity in BPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does history of childhood maltreatment make a difference in prison? A hierarchical approach on early family events and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Sergentanis, Ioannis N; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Papadodima, StavroulaA

    2014-12-30

    This study attempts to assess childhood maltreatment in prison through a hierarchical approach. The hierarchical approach principally aims to disentangle the independent effects of childhood maltreatment upon psychiatric morbidity/personality traits, if any, from the burden that the adverse family conditions have already imposed to the mental health of the maltreated individual-prisoner. To this direction, a conceptual framework with five hierarchical levels was constructed, namely: immutable demographic factors; family conditions; childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse); personality traits, habits and psychiatric morbidity; prison-related variables. A self-administered, anonymous set (battery) of questionnaires was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece; 26% of prisoners disclosed childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric condition in the family, parental alcoholism and parental divorce correlated with childhood maltreatment. After adjustment for immutable demographic factors and family conditions, childhood maltreatment was associated with aggression (both in terms of Lifetime History of Aggression and Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire scores), illicit substance use, personal history of psychiatric condition, current smoking, impulsivity and alcohol abuse. In conclusion, childhood maltreatment represents a pivotal, determining factor in the life course of male prisoners. Delinquents seem to suffer from long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of numerous mental health aspects.

  15. Child protection workers dealing with child abuse: The contribution of personal, social and organizational resources to secondary traumatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Shlomit Weiss; Ben-Porat, Anat; Itzhaky, Haya

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared secondary traumatization among child protection social workers versus social workers employed at social service departments. In addition, based on Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, the study examined the contribution of working in the field of child protection as well as the contribution of background variables, personal resources (mastery), and resources in the workers' social and organizational environment (social support, effectiveness of supervision, and role stress) to secondary traumatization. The findings indicate that levels of mastery and years of work experience contributed negatively to secondary traumatization, whereas exposure to child maltreatment, trauma history, and role stress contributed positively to secondary traumatization. However, no significant contribution was found for social support and effectiveness of supervision. The study identifies factors that can prevent distress among professionals such as child protection workers, who are exposed to the trauma of child abuse victims. Recommendations are provided accordingly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A User Authentication Based on Personal History- A User Authentication System Using E-mail History -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakatsu Nishigaki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user authentication using personal history of each user. Here, authentication is done by giving answers to questions about the history of user's daily life. Users do not have to memorize any password, since the passwords are what users already know by experience. In addition, everyday-life experience increases day by day, and thus the question could change on every authentication trial. In this paper, a user authentication system using user's e-mail history is shown as a prototype of our proposal, and some basic experiments to evaluate the availability of the system are carried out.

  17. Who Benefits from Gender Responsive Treatment? Accounting for Abuse History on Longitudinal Outcomes for Women in Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Preeta; Messina, Nena; Grella, Christine E

    2014-04-01

    This study explores outcome variation among women offenders who participated in gender-responsive substance abuse treatment (GRT). In order to identify subgroups of participants that may differentially benefit from this treatment, secondary analyses examined the interaction between randomization into GRT and a history of abuse (physical/sexual) on depression and number of substances used post- treatment. The sample consisted of 115 incarcerated women assessed at baseline and 6- and 12-months post parole. Longitudinal regression showed that women reporting abuse randomized into GRT had significantly reduced odds of depression ( OR = .29, p < .05, 95% CI = .10 - .86) and lowered rates of number of substances used ( IRR = .52, p < .05, 95% CI = 0.28-0.98), in comparison to those who reported abuse and were randomized to the non-GRT group. GRT for women offenders who have experienced prior abuse would maximize the benefits of the trauma-informed, gender-sensitive intervention.

  18. Virtual Reality: A Definition History - A Personal Essay

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This essay, written in 1998 by an active participant in both virtual reality development and the virtual reality definition debate, discusses the definition of the phrase "Virtual Reality" (VR). I start with history from a personal perspective, concentrating on the debate between the "Virtual Reality" and "Virtual Environment" labels in the late 1980's and early 1990's. Definitions of VR based on specific technologies are shown to be unsatisfactory. I propose the following definition of VR, b...

  19. Juror Decision-making in Death Penalty Sentencing when Presented with Defendant's History of Child Abuse or Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell Holleran, Lisa L; Vaughan, Tyler J; Vandiver, Donna M

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design. Using vignettes and two large samples (students and jurors), defendant histories were found to mitigate the probability that the hypothetical defendant received the death penalty, with sexual abuse having the most salient effect. Further, the effects were conditioned by preference for the death penalty - larger mitigating effects were observed among individuals who favor the death penalty. These findings suggest that initial judgments of abuse and neglect are related to juror leniency, and further research on the interaction of jury instructions and defendant histories is needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.

  1. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810) in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%), more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education), and employed (>70%). The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69%) and crystalline heroin (24%). The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%), crystalline heroin (28%), cannabis (16%), amphetamines (15%), and other drugs (33%). Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men. PMID:22676557

  2. Life history strategy and the HEXACO personality dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joseph H

    2015-01-16

    Although several studies have linked Life History Strategy (LHS) variation with variation in the Five Factor Model personality dimensions, no published research has explored the relationship of LHS to the HEXACO personality dimensions. The theoretically expected relationship of the HEXACO Emotionality factor to LHS is unclear. The results of two studies (N = 641) demonstrated that LHS indicators form part of a factor along with HEXACO Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and (marginally) Honesty-Humility. People higher on these dimensions pursue a slower LHS. Neither Openness nor Emotionality was associated with this factor. Holding LHS constant, social involvement with kin was consistently predicted by higher Emotionality and was not consistently predicted by any other HEXACO factor. These results support a view of Emotionality as part of an LHS-independent personality dimension that influences the provision and receipt of kin altruism.

  3. Life History Strategy and the HEXACO Personality Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Manson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have linked Life History Strategy (LHS variation with variation in the Five Factor Model personality dimensions, no published research has explored the relationship of LHS to the HEXACO personality dimensions. The theoretically expected relationship of the HEXACO Emotionality factor to LHS is unclear. The results of two studies (N = 641 demonstrated that LHS indicators form part of a factor along with HEXACO Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and (marginally Honesty-Humility. People higher on these dimensions pursue a slower LHS. Neither Openness nor Emotionality was associated with this factor. Holding LHS constant, social involvement with kin was consistently predicted by higher Emotionality and was not consistently predicted by any other HEXACO factor. These results support a view of Emotionality as part of an LHS-independent personality dimension that influences the provision and receipt of kin altruism.

  4. The relationship between child protection contact and mental health outcomes among Canadian adults with a child abuse history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; McTavish, Jill; Turner, Sarah; MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine

    2018-05-01

    Despite being a primary response to child abuse, it is currently unknown whether contact with child protection services (CPS) does more good than harm. The aim of the current study was to examine whether contact with CPS is associated with improved mental health outcomes among adult respondents who reported experiencing child abuse, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and abuse severity. The data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-2012), which used a multistage stratified cluster design (household-level response rate = 79.8%). Included in this study were individuals aged 18 years and older living in the 10 Canadian provinces (N = 23,395). Child abuse included physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Mental health outcomes included lifetime mental disorders, lifetime and past year suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts, and current psychological well-being and functioning and distress. All models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors and severity of child abuse. For the majority of outcomes, there were no statistically significant differences between adults with a child abuse history who had CPS contact compared to those without CPS contact. However, those with CPS contact were more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts. These findings suggest that CPS contact is not associated with improved mental health outcomes. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiovascular reactivity and proactive and reactive relational aggression among women with and without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between cardiovascular reactivity and proactive and reactive functions of relational aggression among women with and without a history of sexual abuse. Heart rate reactivity, blood pressure reactivity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity while recounting a relational stressor (e.g., being left out) were assessed. Participants provided self-reports of relational aggression and a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16. Results indicated that cardiovascular reactivity was only associated with relational aggression among women with a history of sexual abuse. In addition, whereas blunted reactivity was associated with proactive relational aggression, exaggerated reactivity was associated with reactive relational aggression. These findings highlight the importance of considering contextual moderators of the association between cardiovascular reactivity and aggression; moreover, results highlight distinct cardiovascular correlates of different functions of aggression. Finally, the findings underscore the need for additional research examining the physiological correlates of aggressive behavior among women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Personality traits in alcohol-dependent individuals in the context of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-10-31

    The aim of this study was to identify groups of alcohol-dependent individuals differing in the severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse and to find the personality variables that discriminate between those groups. The study included 90 individuals dependent on alcohol. The following questionnaires were used: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Coping Inventory (COPE), the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), Cattell's IPAT Anxiety Scale, and the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). Two groups of subjects addicted to alcohol were identified: group 1 with high and group 2 with low childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse indices. The subjects in Group 1 had significantly higher scores than the subjects in Group 2 on the TCI Temperament scales of NS and HA and lower scores on the TCI character scales of SD, C2 and C4. Group 1 subjects were significantly more likely than those from Group 2 to use avoidant coping strategies; they were also less likely to use problem-focused strategies and had significantly higher scores on general anxiety, overt anxiety, latent anxiety, level of aggression, physical aggression, hostility and anger. The higher severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse in alcoholics is associated with those personality traits that seem to be crucial for maintaining abstinence and the quality of cooperation in therapy.

  7. Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through the development of personal and social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, G J

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide

  8. Reasons for dropout from drug abuse treatment: symptoms, personality, and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Samuel A; Carroll, Kathleen M; Canning-Ball, Monica; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2006-02-01

    Previous research has identified risk factors for early attrition from substance abuse treatment, but has not assessed reasons for dropout from the client's perspective. Interview and self-report assessment data were collected from 24 clients who prematurely terminated outpatient treatment to evaluate their subjective reasons for dropping out and the association of these reasons with demographic and clinical variables. Items from scales indicating problems with client motivation or conflicts with program staff were the most commonly endorsed. The severity of participant's symptoms and logistical problems interfering with appointments were less commonly reported as reasons for dropping out. Demographic, substance abuse, and motivational stage indicators were infrequently associated with subjective reasons for dropout. In contrast, indicators of maladaptive personality functioning were strongly associated with many reasons for dropping out, especially concerns about privacy and boundary issues within the program. Results from this preliminary evaluation will guide the development of an instrument and intervention focused on dropout risk factors and treatment reengagement.

  9. Assessment of family history of substance abuse for preventive interventions with patients experiencing chronic pain: A quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Nash, Virginia; Evans, Michele; Cronin, Joan; Bee, Susan; King, Susan; Osborn, Kristine; Gehin, Jessica; Weis, Karen; Loukianova, Larissa

    2016-04-01

    This quality improvement project demonstrates that RN Care Managers, in a chronic pain programme, can assess for a family history of substance abuse in 5-10 min. Information informs treatment based on specific high risk criteria. Benefits include heightened awareness of the genetic and environmental risks associated with a family history of substance abuse, an opportunity to participate in motivational interventions to prevent or minimize consequences of substance use disorders, and likely substantial overall health-care cost savings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chung, Young Ki; Shin, Yee Jin; Kim, Miran; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hanbyul; Chang, Hyoung Yoon

    2017-10-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = -2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = -2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  11. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = −2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = −2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. PMID:28875614

  12. Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahin soheili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results showed that rejecting/neglecting parenting style and emotional warmth were positively and negatively correlated with addiction potential, respectively. Conclusion: The child-parent relationship and also the relationship between stress and type D personality can be considered as predictive factors in addiction potential.

  13. Personal networks of women in residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth; Brown, Suzanne; Jun, MinKyoung; Park, Hyunyong; Min, Meeyoung; McCarty, Chris

    This study compared compositional, social support, and structural characteristics of personal networks among women in residential (RT) and intensive outpatient (IOP) substance abuse treatment. The study sample included 377 women from inner-city substance use disorder treatment facilities. Respondents were asked about 25 personal network members known within the past 6 months, characteristics of each (relationship, substance use, types of support), and relationships between each network member. Differences between RT women and IOP women in personal network characteristics were identified using Chi-square and t -tests. Compared to IOP women, RT women had more substance users in their networks, more network members with whom they had used substances and fewer network members who provided social support. These findings suggest that women in residential treatment have specific network characteristics, not experienced by women in IOP, which may make them more vulnerable to relapse; they may therefore require interventions that target these specific network characteristics in order to reduce their vulnerability to relapse.

  14. The relation of personality to alcohol abuse/dependence in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, A; Krull, J L; Chassin, L; Carle, A C

    2000-12-01

    The current study had two goals. The first goal was to test the mediational role of young adult personality in the relation between parental alcoholism and young adult alcoholism. The second was to examine the associations between personality and alcohol use motives and reasons to limit drinking in order to explore possible mechanisms by which personality may influence alcohol abuse/dependence. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to analyze data obtained from a community sample of young adult children of alcoholics and demographically matched controls. Results revealed that young adult neuroticism and agreeableness each, in part, mediated the effect of parental alcoholism on young adult alcoholism. Moreover, individuals high in neuloticism reported stronger coping motives to use alcohol, individuals low in agreeableness reported stronger coping motives and weaker upbringing reasons to limit drinking, and individuals low in conscientiousness reported stronger coping and enhancement motives to use alcohol, and weaker performance reasons to limit drinking.

  15. [Nurses are not into personal marketing: do history explain why?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Rosana Chami

    2009-01-01

    Reflection on the nurse's personal marketing based on beliefs and values explained by the history of the main characters that care for patients. It brings to the surface reflections on the ambiguity between the social image of nursing and scientific, technological and humanistic knowledge developed over the time. It recognizes that there is still a fixation on the attributes relating to attitude and moral of the professionals to the detriment of having high regard for the technical and scientific knowledge. It verifies that the History of Nursing allows understanding that the fight against prejudice in the collective imagination lends weight to the social acceptance and recognition of this profession through the promotion of Nursing Science and the demonstration of its application in the professional practice.

  16. Sexual Function in Women with a History of Intrafamilial Childhood Sexual Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    % dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support......This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...... subsequently began specialized group psychotherapy for CSA sequellae. Clinical interview and questionnaires (Present Sexual Function, Sexual and Body Satisfaction, Symptom Check List 90-R) were used for data collection in a cross sectional study design. Non-parametric analysis, linear and logistic regression...

  17. Changes in the sexual self-schema of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse following expressive writing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Boyd, Ryan L; Stanton, Amelia M; Meston, Cindy M

    2017-03-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about the sexual self that influence the processing of sexually pertinent information and guide sexual behavior. Until recently sexual self-schemas were exclusively assessed with self-report instruments. Recent research using the meaning extraction method, an inductive method of topic modeling, identified 7 unique themes of sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism from essays of 239 women (Stanton, Boyd, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). In the current study, these themes were used to examine changes in theme prominence after an expressive writing treatment. Women (n = 138) with a history of childhood sexual abuse completed a 5-session expressive writing treatment, and essays on sexual self-schemas written at pretreatment and posttreatment were examined for changes in themes. Women showed a reduction in the prominence of the abuse, family and development, virginity, and attraction themes, and an increase in the existentialism theme. This study supports the validity of the 7 themes identified by Stanton and colleagues (2015) and suggests that expressive writing may aid women with a history of sexual abuse to process their abuse history such that it becomes a less salient aspect of their sexual self-schemas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Social exclusion, personal control, self-regulation, and stress among substance abuse treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K; Walker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of social exclusion, personal control, and self-regulation to perceived stress among individuals who participated in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. Participants entered treatment between June 2006 and July 2007 and completed a 12-month follow-up survey by telephone (n=787). The results of the OLS regression analysis indicate that individuals with greater social exclusion factors (e.g. greater economic hardship, lower subjective social standing, greater perceived discrimination), lower perceived control of one's life, and lower self-regulation had higher perceived stress. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found suggesting a stress-buffering effect of personal control between subjective social standing and perceived stress. Interestingly, income status was not significantly related to perceived stress, while economic hardship, which assesses participants' inability to meet basic expenses, was significantly associated with perceived stress. Future research should examine how to integrate the AA/NA teaching about powerlessness and its role in recovery with the importance of increased personal control and self-control in decreasing perceived stress. Implications for future research and substance abuse treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical peer review in the United States: history, legal development and subsequent abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Dinesh; Hozain, Ahmed E

    2014-06-07

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation requires hospitals to conduct peer review to retain accreditation. Despite the intended purpose of improving quality medical care, the peer review process has suffered several setbacks throughout its tenure. In the 1980s, abuse of peer review for personal economic interest led to a highly publicized multimillion-dollar verdict by the United States Supreme Court against the perpetrating physicians and hospital. The verdict led to decreased physician participation for fear of possible litigation. Believing that peer review was critical to quality medical care, Congress subsequently enacted the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) granting comprehensive legal immunity for peer reviewers to increase participation. While serving its intended goal, HCQIA has also granted peer reviewers significant immunity likely emboldening abuses resulting in Sham Peer Reviews. While legal reform of HCQIA is necessary to reduce sham peer reviews, further measures including the need for standardization of the peer review process alongside external organizational monitoring are critical to improving peer review and reducing the prevalence of sham peer reviews.

  20. Delineating selection and mediation effects among childhood personality and environmental risk factors in the development of adolescent substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse.

  1. Delineating Selection and Mediation Effects among Childhood Personality and Environmental Risk Factors in the Development of Adolescent Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735

  2. Older persons' views and experience of elder abuse in South Western Nigeria: a community-based qualitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Eniola Olubukola; Owoaje, Eme Theodora; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo

    2015-06-01

    Conventionally, existing information on elder abuse has been institution based, professionally driven, and in high-income countries. This study addresses the prevailing gap in knowledge through direct consultation of older persons in the community about their perceptions of elder abuse. Eight focus group discussions were carried out among males and females aged 60 years and above in a rural and an urban community in south western Nigeria. Data were transcribed and analyzed based on emergent themes. Findings from the study show that the perception of abuse by the respondents included the standard typologies except sexual abuse as well as societal issues such as disrespect and lack of recognition. Our study revealed a high level of awareness and experience of elder abuse among the participants in both communities. Effective social welfare and health services aided by targeted government policies are needed to improve the quality of life of the elderly. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. The Impact of Childhood Abuse History and Domestic Violence on the Mental Health of Women in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV…

  4. Factors from Durkheim's Family Integration Related to Suicidal Ideation among Men with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…

  5. Examining the Relationship between a Childhood History of Sexual Abuse and Later Dissociation, Breast-Feeding Practices, and Parenting Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from…

  6. The feeling of discomfort during vaginal examination, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Gizem; Karaçam, Zekiye

    2017-08-01

    To examine the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women to determine the correlation between these variables. Women who have experienced abuse or sexual abuse may feel more discomfort during vaginal examinations and may perceive a sensation similar to what they experienced during sexual abuse. Cross-sectional. This study included 320 women receiving a vaginal examination. The data were collected using a questionnaire composed of items related to descriptive characteristics, vaginal examinations and violence, a visual analogue scale of discomfort, and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-civilian version. The mean score for the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations was 3·92 ± 3·34; 26·3% of the women described discomfort. Thirty-eight (12%) of the 320 women had experienced emotional violence, 25 (8%) had experienced physical violence, and 25 (8%) had been forced into sexual intercourse by their spouses. Of the women, 64·7% suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and physical, emotional and sexual violence were found to increase the possibility of this disorder. Exposure to emotional violence increased the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations by 4·5 (OR = 4·482; 95% CI = 1·421-14·134). Post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 1·038; 95% CI = 1·009-1·066) was found to increase the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations; however, as the number of live births increases, women reported a reduction in their discomfort with vaginal examinations. This study revealed a positive correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and emotional violence and post-traumatic stress disorder but a negative correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and the number of live births. In addition, having a history of abuse and sexual abuse was found to increase post-traumatic stress disorder. Considering

  7. [Menstruation disorders more frequent in women with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, C.W.; Labots-Vogelesang, S.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between menstruation disorders and prior sexual abuse. DESIGN: Questionnaire investigation. METHOD: A questionnaire was developed consisting of 50 questions about menstruation disorders, premenstrual syndrome and sexual abuse. The questionnaire was mailed to

  8. Efficacy of atomoxetine for symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children with a history of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Atsunori; Suzuki, Yutaro; Endo, Taro; Matsumoto, Keita; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the severity and drug response of depression and anxiety are correlated with childhood abuse. However, whether a history of child abuse can predict the severity and/or drug response of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to assess the efficacy of atomoxetine in children with a history of child abuse. We reviewed 41 cases of children treated with atomoxetine. Specifically, we compared dissociation associating symptoms (DAS) and other symptoms (OS) measured via the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) in abused and nonabused children at baseline and at 8 weeks after atomoxetine administration. At baseline, abused children had higher total scores (38.7±9.3 vs. 30.5±9.4, p=0.011), and greater levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity (17.3±5.8 vs. 11.3±6.0, p=0.004) on the ADHD-RS than did nonabused children, whereas the inattention scores were similar between the two groups (21.4±4.8 vs. 19.2±4.6). Additionally, the total score and the two subscores decreased at week 8 for both groups. In the nonabused group, DAS (5.5±2.3 vs. 3.9±1.7, patomoxetine treatment. However, DAS in the abused group did not change after atomoxetine treatment (5.9±2.3 vs. 5.1±1.8), whereas OS significantly decreased (32.8±7.6 vs. 25.7±7.2, p=0.002). If DAS were caused by traumatic experiences in abused children, trauma treatment tools other than pharmacotherapy might be useful to treat DAS. These tools may include eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy.

  9. The Impact of a History of Childhood Abuse on Life as a College Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, David; Stevenson, Stanley; Kray, Carrie; Henson, Timothy; Burrows, Chelsea; Rosenboom, Mary Nell

    2015-01-01

    Several studies demonstrate the impact that childhood abuse has on adult life (Felitti et al., 1998; Galea, 2008). This study sought to examine the impact of childhood abuse on college student life. Physical, sexual, emotional, and spiritual abuse were examined in a group of college students from Andrews University and Southern Adventist…

  10. Ability of Substance Abusers to Escape Detection on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) in a Juvenile Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L. A. R.; Graham, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of respondents to underreport successfully on substance abuse and validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) was evaluated. Incarcerated teens (67 substance abusing, 59 non-substance abusing) completed the MMPI-A twice: once under standard instructions (SI) and once…

  11. Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in long-standing eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabel, Karianne R; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Oyvind; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2010-08-01

    Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current 5-year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (a) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (b) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long-standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. A mixed model was used to examine the predictors. Avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse interacted in predicting high levels of eating disorder over a long-term course. These results suggest that eating disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and sequelae after child sexual abuse are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Personality disorders in substance abusers: Validation of the DIP-Q through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorders are common in substance abusers. Self-report questionnaires that can aid in the assessment of personality disorders are commonly used in assessment, but are rarely validated. Methods The Danish DIP-Q as a measure of co-morbid personality disorders in substance abusers was validated through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis. A 4 components structure was constructed based on 238 protocols, representing antagonism, neuroticism, introversion and conscientiousness. The structure was compared with (a a 4-factor solution from the DIP-Q in a sample of Swedish drug and alcohol abusers (N = 133, and (b a consensus 4-components solution based on a meta-analysis of published correlation matrices of dimensional personality disorder scales. Results It was found that the 4-factor model of personality was congruent across the Danish and Swedish samples, and showed good congruence with the consensus model. A canonical correlation analysis was conducted on a subset of the Danish sample with staff ratings of pathology. Three factors that correlated highly between the two variable sets were found. These variables were highly similar to the three first factors from the principal components analysis, antagonism, neuroticism and introversion. Conclusion The findings support the validity of the DIP-Q as a measure of DSM-IV personality disorders in substance abusers.

  13. Risk factors for alcoholism in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns project: impact of early life adversity and family history on affect regulation and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorocco, Kristen H; Carnes, Nathan C; Cohoon, Andrew J; Vincent, Andrea S; Lovallo, William R

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the impact of early lifetime adversity (ELA) on affect regulation and personality in persons with family history (FH+) and without (FH-) a family history of alcoholism. We examined the impact of early life adversity in healthy young adults, 18-30 years of age enrolled in a long-term study on risk for alcohol and other substance abuse. ELA was assessed by a composite score of low socioeconomic status and personal experience of physical or sexual abuse and/or separation from parents before age 16, resulting in a score of 0, 1-2, or >3 adverse events. Unstable affect regulation and personality variables were obtained via self-report measures. Higher ELA scores were seen in FH+ (χ(2)=109.2, paffect regulation, negative moods, and have risky drinking and drug abuse tendencies independent of ELA level. ELA predicts reduced stress reactivity and poorer cognitive control over impulsive behaviors as shown elsewhere. The present work shows that FH+ have poor mood regulation and antisocial characteristics. The greater prevalence of ELA in FH+ persons indicates that life experience and FH+ work in tandem to result in risky patterns of alcohol and drug experimentation to elevate risk for alcoholism. Further studies of genetic and environmental contributions to alcoholism are called for. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Antisocial personality disorder is associated with receipt of physical disability benefits in substance abuse treatment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Shannon A; Cherniack, Martin G; Petry, Nancy M

    2013-09-01

    Opioid dependence is growing at an alarming rate in the United States, and opioid dependent patients have substantial medical, as well as psychiatric, conditions that impact their ability to work. This study evaluated the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and receipt of physical disability payments in methadone maintenance patients. Using data from 115 drug and alcohol abusing methadone maintained patients participating in two clinical trials, baseline characteristics of individuals receiving (n=22) and those not receiving (n=93) physical disability benefits were compared, and a logistic regression evaluated unique predictors of disability status. Both an ASPD diagnosis and severity of medical problems were significant predictors of disability receipt, ps<.05. After controlling for other variables that differed between groups, patients with ASPD were more than five times likelier to receive physical disability benefits than patients without ASPD (odds ratio=5.66; 95% confidence interval=1.58-20.28). These results demonstrate a role of ASPD in the receipt of disability benefits in substance abusers and suggest the need for greater understanding of the reasons for high rates of physical disability benefits in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION: THE EFFECTS OF MATERNAL DEPRESSION IN REMISSION AND ADDITIONAL HISTORY OF CHILDHOOD ABUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczniok, Dorothea; Boedeker, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Fydrich, Thomas; Fuehrer, Daniel; Dittrich, Katja; Reck, Corinna; Winter, Sibylle; Heinz, Andreas; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bermpohl, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The association between maternal depression and adverse outcomes in children is well established. Similar links have been found for maternal childhood abuse. One proposed pathway of risk transmission is reduced maternal emotional availability. Our aim was to investigate whether sensitive parenting is impaired in mothers with depression in remission, and whether among these mothers childhood abuse has an additional impact. The mother-child interaction of 188 dyads was assessed during a play situation using the Emotional Availability Scales, which measure the overall affective quality of the interaction: maternal sensitivity, structuring, nonhostility, and nonintrusiveness. Mothers with depression in remission were compared to healthy mothers. Children were between 5 and 12 years old. Group differences and impact of additional childhood abuse were analyzed by one-factorial analyses of covariance and planned contrasts. Mothers with depression in remission showed less emotional availability during mother-child interaction compared to healthy control mothers. Specifically, they were less sensitive and, at trend-level, less structuring and more hostile. Among these mothers, we found an additional effect of severe maternal childhood abuse on maternal sensitivity: Mothers with depression in remission and a history of severe childhood abuse were less sensitive than remitted mothers without childhood abuse. Our data suggest that depression impacts on maternal emotional availability during remission, which might represent a trait characteristic of depression. Mothers with depression in remission and additional severe childhood abuse were particularly affected. These findings may contribute to the understanding of children's vulnerability to develop a depressive disorder themselves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The comparition of Personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in males with with drug abuse disorder under Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samere asadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the difference between personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in men with drug abuse disorder under Treatment. Method: in this casual- comparative research, 80 men ( 40 males with drug abuse under Treatment and 40 of normal males that were selected with available sampling .Groups were matched in terms of demoghraphy characteristics ( age, sexuality, education level and marital status and were valued with means of Eysenk Perceived Stress Inventory, Jonze Irrational Beliefs Scale and Baret Impulsivity Inventory. Results: The result of variance analysis showed that addicts compared to normal people, get more scores on extraversion, neuroticism and psychosis. Addicts group had Higher men scores in irrational beliefs compare of other group. There was significant difference between groups in impulsivity and impulsivity in addicts persons is the most. Conclussion: The traits of Personality, irrational beliefs and Unrealistic and high level impulsivity are factors that propel individuals toward more drug abuse and finally addict and aiming this factors in individuals with abuse disorder under Treatment can lead to prevent of Substance Abuse Relapse.

  17. Evaluation of forensic medical history taking from the child in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rachel; Gall, John A M

    2017-02-01

    Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation. This study examines the value derived by the medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history rather than relying on hearsay evidence when a child presents for an assessment. A retrospective review of paediatric cases seen by the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) between 2014 and 2015 was undertaken. 274 forensic case reports were reviewed and the data was entered into an Excel spread sheet and analysed using chi squared tests within STATA ® . With increasing age of the child, a forensic medical history is significantly more likely to be taken. Additional information is made available to the medical practitioner what would otherwise have been provided if the medical practitioner relied only on the interview conducted by the police. Discrepancies observed between the official third parties (police or child protection) report of what a child has said and what the child says to the medical practitioner decrease with age, as do discrepancies observed between the child's version of events and a third party's (eg. parents, caregivers, friends) version of events. The study showed that by taking a forensic medical history from the child additional information can be obtained. Further, that there is a value in the examining medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history from children in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterogeneity of interpersonal problems among depressed young adults: Associations with substance abuse and pathological personality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into five distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression may have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433

  19. Application of environmental sensitivity theories in personalized prevention for youth substance abuse: a transdisciplinary translational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L; August, Gerald J; Cicchetti, Dante; Symons, Frank J

    2016-03-01

    Preventive interventions that target high-risk youth, via one-size-fits-all approaches, have demonstrated modest effects in reducing rates of substance use. Recently, substance use researchers have recommended personalized intervention strategies. Central to these approaches is matching preventatives to characteristics of an individual that have been shown to predict outcomes. One compelling body of literature on person × environment interactions is that of environmental sensitivity theories, including differential susceptibility theory and vantage sensitivity. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that environmental sensitivity (ES) factors moderate substance abuse outcomes. We propose that ES factors may augment current personalization strategies such as matching based on risk factors/severity of problem behaviors (risk severity (RS)). Specifically, individuals most sensitive to environmental influence may be those most responsive to intervention in general and thus need only a brief-type or lower-intensity program to show gains, while those least sensitive may require more comprehensive or intensive programming for optimal responsiveness. We provide an example from ongoing research to illustrate how ES factors can be incorporated into prevention trials aimed at high-risk adolescents.

  20. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556

  1. Comparisons of substance abuse, high-risk sexual behavior and depressive symptoms among homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare prevalence of substance use, high-risk sexual behaviors, and depression symptoms between homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement. Approximately 26,000 young persons exit foster care annually in the United States. Once they 'age out' of foster care, however, many young persons do not have access to comprehensive health care. They also are at risk for substance abuse, homelessness, or mental illness. Because persons with a history of foster care are at risk for negative psycho-social outcomes, it is unclear if these young people might be different than homeless youth without this history. The design is descriptive and cross-sectional. A total of 156 homeless young persons, of whom 44 had a history of foster care placement, were recruited from a drop-in center that caters to homeless youth and young adults. The sample was majority male and white; ages were 16-25. Significantly higher proportion of homeless former foster youth used methamphetamine within the last six months compared to non-fostered homeless youth p = 0.03). Homeless former foster youth were significantly older (p = 0.02) and less educated (p = 0.02) than their homeless counterparts without a history of foster care placement. Prevalence of using tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, crack cocaine, and powder cocaine were similar for both groups. Although not significant, a higher proportion of homeless former foster youth reported trading sex for money or drugs compared to non-fostered, homeless youth (19% versus 12% [trading sex for money], and 26% versus 14% [trading sex for drugs], respectively. Findings from this study show that, in general, homelessness is a negative outcome, irrespective of having a foster care history. However, those with that history need continued support when transitioning to independent living, such as access to health care, and encouragement to further their education. It is important that nurses, who serve homeless

  2. An examination of the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and borderline personality disorder features: the role of difficulties with emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Janice R; Khoury, Jennifer E; Metcalfe, Rebecca; Fitzpatrick, Skye; Goodwill, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse has been consistently linked with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and recent studies suggest that some forms of childhood abuse might be uniquely related to both BPD and BPD features. In addition, difficulties with emotion regulation have been found to be associated with childhood abuse, BPD, as well as BPD features. The present study examined (1) whether frequency of childhood emotional abuse is uniquely associated with BPD feature severity when controlling for other forms of childhood abuse and (2) whether difficulties with emotion regulation accounts for the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD feature severity. A sample of undergraduates (n=243) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Borderline Symptom List-23. Multiple regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling were conducted. Results indicated that frequency of childhood emotional abuse (and not sexual or physical abuse) was uniquely associated with BPD feature severity. In addition, while there was no direct path between childhood emotional abuse, childhood physical abuse, or childhood sexual abuse and BPD features, there was an indirect relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD features through difficulties with emotion regulation. These findings suggest that, of the different forms of childhood abuse, emotional abuse specifically, may have a developmental role in BPD pathology. Prevention and treatment of BPD pathology might benefit from the provision of emotion regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impulsivity, Substance Abuse, and Family/Friends History of Suicide Attempts in University Students With and Without Suicidal Ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari, Majid; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Fatehizade, Maryam; Baghban, Iran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Impulsivity appears to play an important role in suicidal behavior. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the impulsivity, substance abuse, and family/friends history of suicide attempt between suicide-ideated and non suicide-ideated university students. Methods: The research population consisted of all the students of the University of Isfahan in the academic year of 2009-2010. Three hundred and forty students (136 boys and 204 girls) were selected randomly through ...

  4. 75 FR 60567 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Serious Human Rights Abuses by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Order 13553 of September 28, 2010 Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Serious Human Rights Abuses by the Government of Iran and Taking Certain Other Actions By the authority vested in me as..., or responsible for ordering, controlling, or otherwise directing, the commission of serious human...

  5. The Effects of Early Sexual Abuse on Adult Risky Sexual Behaviors among Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Mustillo, Sarah; Elbogen, Eric B.; Dorsey, Shannon; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: There were two aims: first, to examine the relationship between prior sexual abuse and three types of adult risky sexual behaviors [(1) ever traded sex for drugs or money, (2) had unprotected sex in the past 6 months, and (3) frequency of unprotected sex in the past 6 months] among persons with severe mental illness (SMI), and second,…

  6. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  7. Ability of Substance Abusers to Escape Detection on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–Adolescent (MMPI-A) in a Juvenile Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L. A. R.; Graham, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of respondents to underreport successfully on substance abuse and validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent was evaluated. Incarcerated teens (67 substance abusing, 59 non-substance abusing) completed the MMPI-A twice: once under standard instructions (SI) and once under instructions to fake good (FG). Under SI, substance scales correctly classified about 60% to 85% of adolescents. Under FG, substance- and non-substance-abusing juveniles produced lower scores on substance scales. However, the Lie Scale (L) was able to detect more than 75% of deceptive profiles and about 77% of honest profiles. When scale L and the best substance scale were used in combination, only about 18% of faking substance abusers were not identified as either substance abusers or as underreporting. For feigning substance abusers, only about 10% of substance abusers were detected, with about 72% being categorized as faking and needing further assessment. PMID:15695741

  8. Substance abuse In Middle Eastern adolescents living in two different countries: spiritual, cultural, family and personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Taha, Asma; Dee, Vivien

    2014-08-01

    It is estimated that the percentage of students using illicit substances by sixth grade has tripled over the last decade not only in developed countries but in developing countries as well probably due to the transition to a more Western society. Although much has been done to understand the mechanisms underlying substance abuse, few studies have been conducted with minority ethnic and religious groups such as Middle Eastern Youth. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether there are differences in factors contributing to substance abuse in adolescents from Lebanon versus the U.S.A. and to decipher the role of spirituality, religion, and culture among other factors that may influence substance abuse. A correlational cross-sectional design was used with adolescents living in two different countries: Los Angeles, California and Beirut, Lebanon. Muslim adolescents had significantly less rates of alcohol and substance use than Christians in both Lebanon and Los Angeles. More years lived in the U.S.A. increases the likelihood of abuse for both Muslims and Christians. Attachment to God and family was negatively associated with substance abuse. These results among others facilitate a better understanding of the influence of culture, religion, family and personal factors on substance abuse. Culturally sensitive interventions could benefit from the findings of this pilot study.

  9. Development and psychometric testing the Health of Body, Mind and Spirit Scale for assessing individuals who have drug abuse histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Chiang, Chun-Ying; Lu, Chu-Yun; Yu, Pei-Jane; Liao, Tzu-Chiao; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2018-03-01

    To develop the Health of Body, Mind and Spirit Scale (HBMSS), which was designed to assess drug abusers' health condition. Helping drug abusers to become healthy is important to healthcare professionals. However, no instrument exists to assess drug abusers' state of health. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was implemented to examine the validity of the HBMSS. Data were collected from 2015-2016 at one drug abuse prevention centre in Taiwan. Participants (N = 320) who had abused drugs were invited to complete a preliminary 64-item version of the HBMSS. An item analysis, criterion-related validity analysis (using the Relapse Prediction Scale [RPS] score), split-half reliability testing and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the HBMSS. The final version of the HBMSS contained 15 items that were divided into three subscales: the health of the body, mind and spirit. Cronbach's α and split-half reliability coefficients were all above .85. The factor loading of each item was between .74-.95. The HBMSS had satisfactory criterion-related validity with the RPS score (r = -.50, p < .001). A second-order CFA was conducted on the HBMSS. The fit indexes were good, χ 2  = 184.060, df = 94, χ 2 /df = 1.958 (p = .000). The entire HBMSS and the subscales had satisfactory reliability and validity. Healthcare professionals could use the HBMSS to evaluate the condition of the health of individuals with a drug abuse history. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Outrages Against Personal Dignity: Rationalizing Abuse and Torture in the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Hooks; Clayton Mosher

    2005-01-01

    The outrage over revelations of torture and abuse at Abu Ghraib prison has faded from public discourse, but a number of questions remain unanswered. This paper criticizes official rationalizations offered for the abuse. We make the case that these abuses are systemic, resulting from dehumanization of the enemy and the long reliance on and…

  11. Cinema and the Great War - Andrew Kelly, 1997. History by Hollywood. The use and abuse of the American past - Robert Brant Toplin, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Bernadette

    1998-01-01

    textabstractReview of: Cinema and the Great War. Andrew Kelly, Londen, New York (Routledge), 1997, 219 p.History by Hollywood. The use and abuse of the American past. Robert Brant Toplin, Chicago (Urbana), 1996, 267 p.

  12. Outcome of systemic and analytic group psychotherapy for adult women with history of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, M; Kristensen, Ellids

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA.......Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA....

  13. College students and use of K2: an emerging drug of abuse in young persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingdi; Primack, Brian A; Barnett, Tracey E; Cook, Robert L

    2011-07-11

    K2 or "spice" has emerged as a popular legal alternative to marijuana among adolescents and young adults. However, no data has been published assessing prevalence of and associations with ever K2 use in any population. This study's aims were to examine prevalence of ever K2 use among a sample of college students, to determine characteristics of persons who use K2, and to access the association between K2 and other drug use. Ever use of K2 was reported by 69 (8%) of the sample of 852 college students. Response rate was 36%. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed whether sociodemographic characteristics and other drug use were associated with ever use of K2. Ever use of K2 was reported by 69 (8%) of the sample. Among these 69 individuals, 61 (88%) had used a cigarette and 25 (36%) had used a hookah to smoke K2. In multivariate analyses, K2 use was more common in males (vs. females, adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)=2.0, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.2-3.5, p=0.01) and 1st or 2nd year college students (vs. 3rd year or above, aOR=2.4, 95% CI=1.2-5.0, p=0.02). Ever use of K2 in this sample was higher than ever use of many other drugs of abuse that are commonly monitored in adolescents and young adults. Although DEA had banned five synthetic cannabinoids recently, clinicians and public health officials concerned with substance abuse in youth should be aware of and monitor the use of this drug in college students over time. © 2011 Hu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. College students and use of K2: an emerging drug of abuse in young persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Tracey E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background K2 or "spice" has emerged as a popular legal alternative to marijuana among adolescents and young adults. However, no data has been published assessing prevalence of and associations with ever K2 use in any population. This study's aims were to examine prevalence of ever K2 use among a sample of college students, to determine characteristics of persons who use K2, and to access the association between K2 and other drug use. Findings Ever use of K2 was reported by 69 (8% of the sample of 852 college students. Response rate was 36%. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed whether sociodemographic characteristics and other drug use were associated with ever use of K2. Ever use of K2 was reported by 69 (8% of the sample. Among these 69 individuals, 61 (88% had used a cigarette and 25 (36% had used a hookah to smoke K2. In multivariate analyses, K2 use was more common in males (vs. females, adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 2.0, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.2-3.5, p = 0.01 and 1st or 2nd year college students (vs. 3rd year or above, aOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2-5.0, p = 0.02. Conclusions Ever use of K2 in this sample was higher than ever use of many other drugs of abuse that are commonly monitored in adolescents and young adults. Although DEA had banned five synthetic cannabinoids recently, clinicians and public health officials concerned with substance abuse in youth should be aware of and monitor the use of this drug in college students over time.

  15. Grassroots responsiveness to human rights abuse: history of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community education on immigration issues, and political action toward a more humane immigration reform. Detailed examples of human rights abuses and the WICIR activities described in response to the abuses serve as illustrations of social work advocacy, education, and policy formulation that affect the general public, policymakers, and law enforcement officials.

  16. Healing history? Aboriginal healing, historical trauma, and personal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, James B

    2014-06-01

    What can an exploration of contemporary Aboriginal healing programs such as those offered in Canadian prisons and urban clinics tell us about the importance of history in understanding social and psychological pathology, and more significantly the salience of the concept of "historical trauma"? The form of Aboriginal "healing" that has emerged in recent decades to become dominant in many parts of the country is itself a reflection of historical processes and efforts to ameliorate the consequences of what is today often termed "historical trauma." In other words, contemporary notions of "healing" and the social, cultural, medical, and psychological disruption and distress caused by colonialism and captured in the term "historical trauma" have coevolved in an interdependent manner. I also argue that there is a tension between the attribution of this distress to both specific (e.g., residential schools) and generalized (e.g., colonialism) historical factors, as evident in the "historical trauma" concept, and the prevailing emphasis in many healing programs to encourage the individual to take personal responsibility for their situation and avoid attributing blame to other factors. I conclude that "historical trauma" represents an idiom of distress that captures a variety of historical and contemporary phenomena and which provides a language for expressing distress that is gaining currency, at least among scholars, and that the contemporary Aboriginal healing movement represents an effort to deal with the absence or failure of both "traditional" Aboriginal healing and government-sponsored medical and psychological services to adequately deal with this distress of colonialism. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. The Investigation of Tramadol Dependence with No History of Substance Abuse: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Spontaneously Reported Cases in Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to survey and assess the drug dependence and abuse potential of tramadol with no history of substance abuse. Subjects of tramadol dependence with no prior history of substance abuse were surveyed by interview. Physical dependence of tramadol was assessed using 10 items opiate withdrawal scale (OWS, and psychological dependence was assessed by Addiction Research Center Inventory—Chinese Version (ARCI-CV. Twenty-three male subjects (the median age was 23.4±4.1 years referred to the addiction unit in Medical Hospital of Guangzhou with tramadol abuse problems were included in this cross-sectional study. The control group included 87 heroin addicts, 60 methamphetamine (MA abusers, and 50 healthy men. The scores of OWS of tramadol were 0.83–2.30; the mean scores of identifying euphoric effects–MBG, sedative effects–PCAG, and psychotomimetic effects–LSD of ARCI were 8.96±3.08, 6.52±3.25, and 6.65±2.50, respectively, F = 4.927, P0.05 but were higher than those in healthy men (P<0.05. Tramadol with no history of substance abuse has a clear risk of producing high abuse potential under the long-term infrequent abuse and the high doses.

  18. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  19. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  20. Investigating the Relationship between Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder and Experiences of Child Abuse among Students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Mohammadi Derakhshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between symptoms of histrionic personality disorder and experiences of child abuse among students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University in 2013-2014. The general aim of this study is to predict histrionic personality disorder in adulthood based on child abuse experiences during childhood. The population of this study include 19599 people among whom 377 were selected through simple random sampling. The instrument of this study includes Millon-3 CASRS questionnaire and child abuse questionnaire. The data was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression. The obtained results revealed that there is significant relationship between histrionic personality disorder (independent variable and dimensions of child abuse (dependent variable that includes emotional, neglect, physical, and sexual child abuse. Considering different dimensions of child abuse, neglect of child and sexual child abuse have the most and the least contribution in predicting symptoms of histrionic personality disorder in adulthood. In addition, the results showed that all four dimensions of child abuse can predict symptoms of histrionic personality disorder in adulthood, but ignorance or neglecting child has the most effect and sexual dimension has the least effect in the prediction.

  1. Bipolar affective disorder and borderline personality disorder: Differentiation based on the history of early life stress and psychoneuroendocrine measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Angela Kaline; Cleare, Anthony J; Young, Allan H; Juruena, Mario F

    2018-04-24

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Bipolar Affective Disorder (BD) have clinical characteristics in common which often make their differential diagnosis difficult. The history of early life stress (ELS) may be a differentiating factor between BPD and BD, as well as its association with clinical manifestations and specific neuroendocrine responses in each of these diagnoses. Assessing and comparing patients with BD and BPD for factors related to symptomatology, etiopathogenesis and neuroendocrine markers. The study sample consisted of 51 women, divided into 3 groups: patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD (n = 20) and BD (n = 16) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). Standardized instruments were used for the clinical evaluation, while the history of ELS was quantified with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and classified according to the subtypes: emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect. The functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by measuring a single plasma cortisol sample. Patients with BPD presented with more severe psychiatric symptoms of: anxiety, impulsivity, depression, hopelessness and suicidal ideation than those with BD. The history of ELS was identified as significantly more prevalent and more severe in patients (BPD and BP) than in HC. Emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect also showed differences and were higher in BPD than BD patients. BPD patients had greater severity of ELS overall and in the subtypes of emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect than BD patients. The presence of ELS in patients with BPD and BP showed significant difference with lower cortisol levels when compared to HC. The endocrine evaluation showed no significant differences between the diagnoses of BPD and BD. Cortisol measured in patients with BPD was significantly lower compared to HC in the presence of emotional neglect and physical

  2. History of the science of mutagenesis from a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, Heinrich V

    2004-01-01

    A career in the study of mutagenesis spanning 50 years is a gift few scientists have been bestowed. My tenure in the field started in 1953, the year the structure of DNA became known (Watson and Crick [1953]: Nature 171:737). Before that time, it was suspected that DNA was the genetic material based on the research of Oswald T. Avery (Avery et al. [1944]: J Exp Med 79:137), but many scientists still believed that proteins or polysaccharides could be the genetic material. The present article describes a lifetime of personal experience in the field of chemical mutagenesis. The methods used to treat viruses with chemical mutagens were well developed in the 1950s. Here I review the early use of nitrous acid and hydroxylamine as mutagens in eukaryotes, the development of methods for the metabolic activation of mutagens by microsomal preparations, and the selection of a mutant tester set for the qualitative characterization of the mutagenic activity of chemicals. These studies provided critical background information that was used by Bruce Ames in the development of his Salmonella/microsome assay, widely known as the Ames test (Ames et al. [1973]: Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 70:2281-2285). This article also describes how a set of diagnostic chemical mutagens was selected and used to identify the molecular nature of gene mutations. Today, DNA sequencing has replaced the use of diagnostic mutagens, but studies of this kind formed the foundation of modern mutation research. They also helped set the stage for the organization of the Environmental Mutagen Society and the Environmental Mutagen Information Center, which are described. The article ends with the development of mammalian single-cell mutation assays, the first system for studying in vivo mutagenesis using recoverable vectors in transgenic animals, other mutation assays in intact mammals, and my thoughts on the critically important area of germ cell mutagenesis. This narrative is not a complete autobiographical account

  3. Family history study of the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder with axis I and nonborderline dramatic cluster axis II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Barison, Leah K; Frankenburg, Frances R; Reich, D Bradford; Hudson, James I

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revised Family History Questionnaire-a semistructured interview of demonstrated reliability. Of these 445 subjects, 341 met both DIB-R and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD and 104 met DSM-III-R criteria for another type of personality disorder (and neither criteria set for BPD). The psychopathology of 1,580 first-degree relatives of borderline probands and 472 relatives of axis II comparison subjects was assessed. Using structural models for familial coaggregation, it was found that BPD coaggregates with major depression, dysthymic disorder, bipolar I disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, panic disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatoform pain disorder, and all four axis II disorders studied. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that common familial factors, particularly in the areas of affective disturbance and impulsivity, contribute to borderline personality disorder.

  4. Differences in the association between childhood trauma history and borderline personality disorder or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnoses in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Marc; Andión, Óscar; Calvo, Natalia; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Prat, Mònica; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    Common environmental etiological factors between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been fully studied. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between childhood trauma histories, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), with adult BPD, ADHD or BPD-ADHD diagnoses. Comorbid BPD-ADHD patients exhibited significantly higher clinical severity and higher scores in the Total Neglect Scale, compared to BPD and ADHD patients, and only a marginal difference was observed for Sexual Abuse when BPD and ADHD patients were compared. Physical Trauma Scales were associated with ADHD diagnosis, whereas Emotional Abuse and Sexual Abuse Scales were associated with BPD or BPD-ADHD diagnoses. The study findings support the association between experiencing traumatic events in childhood and a higher clinical severity of BPD in adulthood. Furthermore, physical trauma history in childhood could be associated with the persistence of ADHD in adulthood and emotional or sexual abuse with later development of BPD or comorbid BPD-ADHD. Whereas experiencing childhood traumas is associated with later development of more general psychopathology, our study supports that a specific type of traumatic event could increase the risk for the consolidation of a concrete psychiatric disorder in the trajectory from childhood to adulthood of vulnerable subjects.

  5. Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validating Female Psychopathy Subtypes: Differences in Personality, Antisocial and Violent Behavior, Substance Abuse, Trauma, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to non-violent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities. PMID:20582155

  7. Mood disorder history and personality assessment in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, D G; Bond, A J; Wingrove, J

    2001-09-01

    Menstrually related dysphoria is known to be associated with other affective disorders, notably major depressive disorder and puerperal depression. The relationship between premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and maladaptive personality disorders and traits, however, is less established, at least in part because of the methodological and nosologic difficulties in the diagnosis of both PMDD and personality disorders. This study seeks to address this problem to elucidate the relationship between PMDD, other affective disturbances commonly experienced by women, and maladaptive personality. Axis I and II disorders were examined using standardized instruments and stringent diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV and the International Personality Disorders Examination) in 34 women with DSM-IV PMDD and 22 healthy women without severe premenstrual mood changes. Seventy-seven percent of the PMDD group had suffered from a past Axis I disorder in comparison with 17% of the control group. Two thirds of the parous women with PMDD had suffered from major depressive disorder in the puerperium. Personality disorder diagnoses were not highly represented in either group of women. The women with PMDD had significantly more obsessional personality traits (p personality disorder diagnoses. Obsessional symptoms are known to cluster with the affective disorders and may reflect underlying temperamental and biological vulnerability. This study provides further evidence of the link between serotonergic dysregulation, personality vulnerability, and mood changes related to the female reproductive cycle.

  8. Maternal History of Child Abuse and Obesity Risk in Offspring: Mediation by Weight in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Petito, Lucia C; Rehkopf, David H; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Abrams, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    Women's experience of childhood adversity may contribute to their children's risk of obesity. Possible causal pathways include higher maternal weight and gestational weight gain, which have been associated with both maternal childhood adversity and obesity in offspring. This study included 6718 mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 in the United States (1979-2012). We applied multiple log-binomial regression models to estimate associations between three markers of childhood adversity (physical abuse, household alcoholism, and household mental illness) and offspring obesity in childhood. We estimated natural direct effects to evaluate mediation by prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain. Among every 100 mothers who reported physical abuse in childhood, there were 3.7 (95% confidence interval: -0.1 to 7.5) excess cases of obesity in 2- to 5-year olds compared with mothers who did not report physical abuse. Differences in prepregnancy BMI, but not gestational weight gain, accounted for 25.7% of these excess cases. There was no evidence of a similar relationship for household alcoholism or mental illness or for obesity in older children. In this national, prospective cohort study, prepregnancy BMI partially explained an association between maternal physical abuse in childhood and obesity in preschool-age children. These findings underscore the importance of life-course exposures in the etiology of child obesity and the potential multi-generational consequences of child abuse. Research is needed to determine whether screening for childhood abuse and treatment of its sequelae could strengthen efforts to prevent obesity in mothers and their children.

  9. Survey of Anthropometric Indices Addicts due to the History of Addiction and Substance Abuse in Qom Province, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hozoori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse has significant impact on nutritional status. Due to the increased malnutrition during drug use and withdrawal, this study aimed at assessing the anthropometric indices in individuals referring to drug treatment centers in Qom. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 329 addicted individuals referring to addiction centers in Qom were randomly selected. A questionnaire was used with three parts including demographic characteristics, drug abuse history, and anthropometric indices including measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, arm circumference, and skinfold thickness in triceps and calf muscles. Results: The participants consisted of 328 men and only one woman, 29% of whom were in detoxification. The participants' mean age was 39.0 ± 7.1 years. The first and most-frequently used drug was opium. All anthropometric indices were associated with the consumption of opium substances and drug use was associated significantly with some parameters. With the exception of skinfold thickness in the calf, all the indices were affected by the type of consumed substances. The opium addicts had a higher body mass index compared with other drug users. Conclusions: Due to the importance of nutrition status in drug abusers' health and their lack of self-care, careful monitoring and evaluation of dietary intake, as well as nutrition status can play important roles in the rehabilitation of these individuals and help to prevent from reappearance of these habits.

  10. Does Psychotherapy Recover or Invent Child Sexual Abuse Memories? A Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring

    2008-01-01

    This case describes bodily experiences that appeared to cue child sexual abuse memories during psychotherapy by a woman who was amnesic for her childhood and suffered from chronic dissociative states. Though corroboration was unavailable, she became increasingly confident about her returning memories. Special efforts were made to avoid making…

  11. Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

  12. Eysenck Psychobiological Personality Model: a projected into the future history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Schmidt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, particular circumstances, author and ideas that influenced on the elaboration of one of the most solid personality models that Psychology has till nowadays: Eysenck Personality Model, are revised. Its main characteristics are presented, which defined it as a dispositional, dimensional, hierarchic and psychobiological model. The intention of improving dimensions description, explanation, and measurement, took this author to propose changes to his original theory and instrument. Hence, different periods of this model are analyzed. In spite of proliferation of personality theories, Eysenck model has an empirical validity that only a few have. Thus, we argue that in Personality Psychology there is a background available which represents the Paradigm into which we will probably be moving in the next years

  13. Understanding factors associated with early therapeutic alliance in PTSD treatment: adherence, childhood sexual abuse history, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stephanie M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic alliance has been associated with better treatment engagement, better adherence, and less dropout across various treatments and disorders. In treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it may be particularly important to establish a strong early alliance to facilitate treatment adherence. However, factors such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history and poor social support may impede the development of early alliance in those receiving PTSD treatment. We sought to examine treatment adherence, CSA history, and social support as factors associated with early alliance in individuals with chronic PTSD who were receiving either prolonged exposure therapy (PE) or sertraline. At pretreatment, participants (76.6% female; 64.9% Caucasian; mean age = 37.1 years, SD = 11.3) completed measures of trauma history, general support (Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors), and trauma-related social support (Social Reactions Questionnaire). Over the course of 10 weeks of PE or sertraline, they completed early therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) and treatment adherence measures. Early alliance was associated with PE adherence (r = .32, p history was not predictive of a lower early alliance. Given the associations with adherence, clinicians may find it useful to routinely assess alliance early in treatment. Positive trauma support, not CSA history, may be particularly important in the development of a strong early therapeutic alliance. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Dialectic Behavior Therapy on the Reduction of Impulsiveness in Women with Comorbidity of Borderline Personality Disorder and Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Aghayousefi; Morteza Tarkhan; Tahereh Ghorbani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of dialectic behavior therapy on the reduction of impulsiveness in women with comorbidity of borderline personality disorders and substance abuse. Method: An experimental single system research design using multiple baselines was employed for this study. Based on the structured diagnostic interview and entry criteria, four participants among female patients with borderline personality disorders and substance abuse were selected via purposive s...

  15. Investigating the Relationship between Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder and Experiences of Child Abuse among Students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Mohammadi Derakhshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between symptoms of histrionic personality disorder and experiences of child abuse among students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University in 2013-2014. The general aim of this study is to predict histrionic personality disorder in adulthood based on child abuse experiences during childhood. The population of this study include 19599 people among whom 377 were selected through simple random sampling. The instrument of this study includes Mil...

  16. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensman, Ella; Bennardi, Marco; Larkin, Celine; Wall, Amanda; McAuliffe, Carmel; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Williamson, Eileen; Perry, Ivan J

    2016-01-01

    Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson's χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%), which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively). Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%). Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups. Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies.

  17. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Arensman

    Full Text Available Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide.The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012 occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county. Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson's χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed.Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%, which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively. Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%. Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups.Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies.

  18. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Celine; Wall, Amanda; McAuliffe, Carmel; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Williamson, Eileen; Perry, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. Methods The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007–2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson’s χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%), which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively). Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%). Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups. Conclusion Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies. PMID:27898722

  19. History of childhood sexual abuse and risk of prenatal and postpartum depression or depressive symptoms: an epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the literature (and to the extent possible, report the magnitude and direction of the association) concerning history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depression or depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women. Publications were identified through literature searches of seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Science Direct) using keywords including "child abuse," "depression," "pregnancy," "prenatal," "pregnancy," and "postpartum." The literature search yielded seven eligible studies on the prenatal period and another seven studies on the postpartum period. All but one prenatal study observed statistically significant positive associations of CSA with depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Findings on the association of CSA with postpartum depression or depressive symptoms were inconsistent; pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 1.82 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 3.60) and 1.20 (95 % CI 0.81, 1.76). In sum, findings suggest a positive association of history of CSA with depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal period. Findings on the postpartum period were inconsistent. Clinical and public health implications of evidence from the available literature are discussed, as are desirable study design characteristics of future research.

  20. Personality disorder in DSM-5: an oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachar, P; Krueger, R F; Kendler, K S

    2016-01-01

    As the revision process leading to DSM-5 began, the domain of personality disorder embodied the highest aspirations for major change. After an initial prototype-based proposal failed to gain acceptance, the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group (P&PDWG) developed a hybrid model containing categorical and dimensional components. A clash of perspectives both within the P&PDWG and between the P&PDWG and DSM-5 oversight committees led to the rejection of this proposal from the main body of DSM-5. Major issues included conflicting ways of conceptualizing validation, differences of opinion from personality disorder experts outside the P&PDWG, divergent concepts of the magnitude of evidence needed to support substantial changes, and the disagreements about clinical utility of the hybrid model. Despite these setbacks, the 'Alternative DSM-5 Model of Personality Disorder' is presented in Section III of the DSM-5. Further research should clarify its performance relative to the DSM-IV criteria reprinted in the main DSM-5 text.

  1. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

  2. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  3. Changes in emotion regulation in adults with and without a history of childhood abuse following posttraumatic stress disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerud, Alissa B; Zoellner, Lori A; Pruitt, Larry D; Feeny, Norah C

    2014-08-01

    This study compared changes in emotion regulation and trait affect over the course of PTSD treatment with either prolonged exposure (PE) therapy or sertraline in adults with and without a history of childhood abuse (CA). Two hundred adults with PTSD received 10 weeks of PE or sertraline. Emotion regulation and trait affect were assessed pre- and posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003), the Negative Mood Regulation Scale (Catanzaro & Mearns, 1990), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Individuals with and without a history of CA did not differ from one another at pretreatment on PTSD severity, emotion regulation, or positive/negative affect. In addition, treatment was effective at improving emotion regulation and trait affect in those with and without a history of CA, and no significant differences in emotion regulation or trait affect emerged posttreatment or at 6-month follow-up between adults with and without a history of CA. Furthermore, noninferiority analyses indicated that the emotion regulation and trait affect outcomes of individuals with a history of CA were no worse than those of individuals without a history of CA. These findings cast doubt on the assumption that CA is associated with worse emotion regulation following PTSD treatment, arguing against assertions that a history of CA itself is a contraindication for traditional PTSD treatment, and that there is a clear necessity for additional interventions designed to target assumed emotion regulation deficits. [Corrected] PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon

    2006-05-01

    This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.

  5. Clinical study of the relation of borderline personality disorder to Briquet's syndrome (hysteria), somatization disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and substance abuse disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudziak, J J; Boffeli, T J; Kreisman, J J; Battaglia, M M; Stanger, C; Guze, S B; Kriesman, J J

    1996-12-01

    The criteria for borderline personality disorder seem to select patients with very high rates of Briquet's syndrome (hysteria), somatization disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and substance abuse disorders. This study was undertaken to determine whether systematic assessment of patients with borderline personality disorder would reveal characteristic features of that condition which would distinguish it from these other disorders. Eighty-seven white female patients (75 in St. Louis and 12 in Milan, Italy) who had borderline personality disorder according to both the DSM-III-R criteria and the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines were further examined with the DSM-III-R Checklist and the Perley-Guze Hysteria Checklist to determine their patterns of psychiatric comorbidity. Every patient had at least one additional DSM diagnosis. Patients in St. Louis and Milan averaged five and four additional diagnoses, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the patients in St. Louis met criteria for either somatization disorder, Briquet's syndrome, antisocial personality disorder, or substance abuse disorders. Patterns of comorbidity for panic (51%), generalized anxiety disorder (55%), and major depression (87%) in St. Louis were consistent with those in other studies. The data indicate that the boundaries for the borderline condition are not specific and identify a high percentage of patients with these other disorders. Furthermore, the comorbidity profiles closely resemble the psychiatric profiles of patients with these disorders. If the borderline syndrome is meant to include all of these disorders, its usefulness as a diagnosis is limited. Until the fundamental features of borderline personality disorder that distinguish it from the others are identified, it is recommended that clinicians carefully assess patients for these other diagnoses. Efforts should be made to change the borderline personality disorder criteria by shifting away from overlap with the

  6. Inter-personal violence and abuse in adolescent intimate relationships: mental health impact and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Christine; Stanley, Nicky

    2016-10-01

    This paper provides a narrative review of the knowledge on inter-personal violence and abuse (IPVA) in adolescents' intimate relationships. It draws on the authors' own research, published reviews, and a rapid review on IPVA victimization and mental health outcomes for adolescents. The research reviewed identified associations between adolescent IPVA and substance misuse, depressive symptoms and PTSD, eating disorders and suicidal thinking, and behaviour in young people. Generally, girls appeared more likely to report severe mental health outcomes than boys. Adolescents rarely disclose IPVA to adults and delivering preventative programmes that promote knowledge and help seeking may offer a means of building on young people's tendency to seek help from friends. These preventative interventions, usually delivered in schools, need to be closely linked to support services for adolescents who disclose abuse. While there are some practice examples of emerging interventions for both victims and perpetrators of adolescent IPVA, there is as yet little robust evidence regarding their effectiveness.

  7. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-07-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

  8. Examining the Role of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Intimate Partner Violence Among Substance Use Disorder Treatment Seekers With Clinically Significant Trauma Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Rita E; Schumacher, Julie A; Mota, Natalie; Coffey, Scott F

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the associations among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosis, and intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of 145 substance abuse treatment-seeking men and women with positive trauma histories; sex was examined as a moderator. ASPD diagnosis significantly predicted both verbal and physical aggression; sex moderated the association between ASPD diagnosis and physical violence. PTSD symptom severity significantly predicted engaging in verbal, but not physical, aggression. Overall, these results suggest that an ASPD diagnosis may be an important risk factor for engaging in IPV among women seeking treatment for a substance use disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Who is my Jung? A personal and symbolic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jim

    2018-06-01

    Identifying the reality of Jung in my life requires first of all a historical examination. How Jung first came into my life through my reading a book by P.W.Martin, Experiment in Depth, stands as a metaphor for the conscious unravelling of psychological development. His further appearance in a sequence of dreams demonstrated the significance of both the instinctual and the numinous in Jung's life and in my personal individuation. Finally, through a consideration of light and shadow, particularly in two photographs of Jung, a conclusion is reached that individuation requires an integration of shadow in the personality, in order to achieve wholeness, not perfection. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  10. The Impact of Dialectic Behavior Therapy on the Reduction of Impulsiveness in Women with Comorbidity of Borderline Personality Disorder and Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aghayousefi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of dialectic behavior therapy on the reduction of impulsiveness in women with comorbidity of borderline personality disorders and substance abuse. Method: An experimental single system research design using multiple baselines was employed for this study. Based on the structured diagnostic interview and entry criteria, four participants among female patients with borderline personality disorders and substance abuse were selected via purposive sampling method. All four subjects received twelve dialectic behavior therapy sessions. Then, Impulsiveness Bart Scale (IBS was used to measure impulsiveness. Results: Dialectic behavior therapy led to the significant reduction of impulsiveness scores in women with borderline personality disorders and substance abuse. Graphs pertaining to the effectiveness and effect size indicate a significant decrease in participants’ impulsiveness. Conclusion: Dialectic behavior therapy interventions can contribute to the decrease of impulsiveness and bring about desired practical implications in the treatment and prevention of substance abuse.

  11. Personal comments on the history of nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, Fred.

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews his personal career in nuclear astrophysics from just before World War II to 1966. It concentrates on the work carried out in conjunction with colleagues, especially those in Cambridge and at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, on the development of various models to explain nucleosynthesis and the evaluation of stars. The paper also covers a wide variety of other topics, touching on isotope abundances, the helium abundance in particular, and the relict radiation. (UK)

  12. History of personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2001). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Dept. of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Dept. of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonisation to US personal dosemeter processing testing. Since there is no type testing program in the US for personal dosemeters, the testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing. This philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. (authors)

  13. The Influence of Personal History on Preservice Malay, Tamil and Chinese Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the influence of personal history on preservice teachers' construction of the ideal language teacher. Written biographies and metaphors and personal construct interviews with Chinese, Tamil, and Malay preservice language teachers indicated that they entered teacher education with unique, well-developed constructs of the ideal…

  14. Methylation of BDNF in women with bulimic eating syndromes: associations with childhood abuse and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Lea; Gauvin, Lise; Joober, Ridha; Groleau, Patricia; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Israel, Mimi; Wilson, Samantha; Steiger, Howard

    2014-10-03

    DNA methylation allows for the environmental regulation of gene expression and is believed to link environmental stressors to such mental-illness phenotypes as eating disorders. Numerous studies have shown an association between bulimia nervosa (BN) and variations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF has also been linked to borderline personality disorder (BPD) and to such traits as reward dependence. We examined the extent to which BDNF methylation corresponded to bulimic or normal-eater status, and also to the presence of comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and childhood abuse. Our sample consisted of 64 women with BN and 32 normal-eater (NE) control women. Participants were assessed for eating-disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, and childhood trauma, and then they were required to provide blood samples for methylation analyses. We observed a significant site×group (BN vs. NE) interaction indicating that women with BN showed increases in methylation at specific regions of the BDNF promoter. Furthermore, examining effects of childhood abuse and BPD, we observed significant site×group interactions such that groups composed of individuals with childhood abuse or BPD had particularly high levels of methylation at selected CpG sites. Our findings suggest that BN, especially when co-occurring with childhood abuse or BPD, is associated with a propensity towards elevated methylation at specific BDNF promoter region sites. These findings imply that hypermethylation of the BDNF gene may be related to eating disorder status, developmental stress exposure, and comorbid psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 6. Intellectual History and the History of Economic Thought: A Personal Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Winch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Donald Winch (1935-2017, a pioneer of intellectual history and one of the inceptors of the so-called “Sussex school”, gave this talk at the École Normale Supérieure de Cachan on 21 December 2006. It provides a history of his own engagement with the history of economic thought, and his gradual movement from tribe of historians of economics to that of intellectual historians. We present it here in the original form of the ms.; only some punctuation and quotation marks have been regularized, and an URL has been updated.

  16. Association of a History of Child Abuse With Impaired Myelination in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Convergent Epigenetic, Transcriptional, and Morphological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Tanti, Arnaud; Gasecka, Alicja; Barnett-Burns, Sarah; Kim, John J; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Gang G; Wakid, Marina; Shaw, Meghan; Almeida, Daniel; Chay, Marc-Aurele; Yang, Jennie; Larivière, Vanessa; M'Boutchou, Marie-Noël; van Kempen, Léon C; Yerko, Volodymyr; Prud'homme, Josée; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Vaillancourt, Kathryn; Théroux, Jean-François; Bramoullé, Alexandre; Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Meaney, Michael J; Ernst, Carl; Côté, Daniel; Mechawar, Naguib; Turecki, Gustavo

    2017-12-01

    Child abuse has devastating and long-lasting consequences, considerably increasing the lifetime risk of negative mental health outcomes such as depression and suicide. Yet the neurobiological processes underlying this heightened vulnerability remain poorly understood. The authors investigated the hypothesis that epigenetic, transcriptomic, and cellular adaptations may occur in the anterior cingulate cortex as a function of child abuse. Postmortem brain samples from human subjects (N=78) and from a rodent model of the impact of early-life environment (N=24) were analyzed. The human samples were from depressed individuals who died by suicide, with (N=27) or without (N=25) a history of severe child abuse, as well as from psychiatrically healthy control subjects (N=26). Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression were investigated using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and RNA sequencing, respectively. Cell type-specific validation of differentially methylated loci was performed after fluorescence-activated cell sorting of oligodendrocyte and neuronal nuclei. Differential gene expression was validated using NanoString technology. Finally, oligodendrocytes and myelinated axons were analyzed using stereology and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. A history of child abuse was associated with cell type-specific changes in DNA methylation of oligodendrocyte genes and a global impairment of the myelin-related transcriptional program. These effects were absent in the depressed suicide completers with no history of child abuse, and they were strongly correlated with myelin gene expression changes observed in the animal model. Furthermore, a selective and significant reduction in the thickness of myelin sheaths around small-diameter axons was observed in individuals with history of child abuse. The results suggest that child abuse, in part through epigenetic reprogramming of oligodendrocytes, may lastingly disrupt cortical myelination, a

  17. Making sense of traumatic memories: memory qualities and psychological symptoms in emerging adults with and without abuse histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer Greenhoot, Andrea; Sun, Shengkai; Bunnell, Sarah L; Lindboe, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the connections between multiple measures of meaning making and psychological adjustment in people with and without histories of abuse. Young adults (n =177), recollected their three most stressful memories and rated them on importance and emotional and sensory qualities. We analysed the narratives for lexical markers of meaning making and explicit references to meaning or meaning-making attempts. There was little overlap between self-reported qualities and narrative content, and they were differentially predictive of psychological symptoms and transient emotional reactions. Consistent with the PTSD literature, more salient self-report memory characteristics (e.g., visceral emotions), and negative emotion and sensation terms predicted more symptoms. The narrative indices provided the best prediction to psychological adjustment, with several meaning indices (e.g., references to positive impact) predicting reduced symptoms, particularly for the Abuse group. Contrary to meaning-making models, resolutions predicted more symptoms, suggesting that aversive feelings during memory telling may trigger on-the-spot sense making to cope with distress.

  18. The effect of a maternal history of childhood abuse on adrenocortical attunement in mothers and their toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Anna; Moehler, Eva; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2017-07-01

    We investigated circadian mother-child adrenocortical attunement in the context of a maternal history of childhood abuse (HoA). Mothers were screened after birth using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Women reporting moderate or severe abuse formed the HoA group (n = 37; HoAG) and were compared with a non-maltreated comparison group (n = 45; CG). Three years later, cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal slope (DSL) were assessed. Mother-child interaction was coded using the Emotional Availability Scales at 12 months of age. For the CAR, we found adrenocortical attunement only in the HoAG (2-way interaction: p = .004), particularly if mothers scored low on structuring (3-way interaction: p = .042) and children scored low on responsiveness (3-way interaction: p = .044). DSL-attunement was dependent on maternal sensitivity (3-way interaction: p = .012) and child involvement (3-way interaction: p = .012). In the context of a maternal HoA, it seems possible for mother-child-dyads to show less optimal interactional quality but be stronger attuned to each other biologically. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The mediating effect of daily stress on the sexual arousal function of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollman, Gena; Rellini, Alessandra; Desrocher, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder are often proposed as mediators of the sexual arousal dysfunction experienced by women with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are only part of the difficulties experienced by these women. Other factors to consider include negative affectivity and perceived daily stress. To assess the mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity, and perceived daily stress, we collected data from 62 women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical and emotional abuse). A comprehensive assessment of sexual arousal functioning and sexual responses was obtained using self-reported measures and psychophysiological measures of vaginal engorgement and subjective sexual arousal during exposure to sexual visual stimuli. The model assessed the simultaneous mediating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity and perceived daily stress on the relation between childhood maltreatment and sexual variables. Daily stress, showed a significant and stronger mediation effect on sexual arousal functioning as compared to posttraumatic stress disorder and negative affectivity. These findings suggest that daily stress may be an important mechanism to consider when treating sexual arousal functioning in women who have a history of childhood maltreatment.

  20. [On the use and abuse of the history of psychoanalysis for psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to stimulate reflection about the history and historiography of psychoanalysis. Starting from Nietzsche's distinction of "monumental", "antiquarian" and "critical" historiography, the author discusses typical approaches to the history of psychoanalysis and recommends taking the historian's subjective motivations into account. He discriminates between analysts engaging in historical research alongside their clinical work, and historians of psychoanalysis coming from other disciplines. None of the parties involved can do without self-reflection: Psychoanalysis and its institutions need their history as an agent of self-critical reference; analysts working historically need the disidentification from their clinical convictions; and "external" scholars need an enabling self-confidence that allows for a critical interpretation of the history of psychoanalysis.

  1. A history of accelerator radiation protection - personal and professional memoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, H.W.; Thomas, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This book is a result of many influences not the least of which was the realisation of their own mortality by the Editors. Over the eighty or so joint years of experiences in accelerator laboratories they found many fine colleagues and friends. Most of their older contemporaries of the World War II Manhattan Project era have retired or will soon do so. Knowing that, collectively, these people have a tale to tell that is well worth telling, full of both scientific and human interest, and believing that it is particularly important to capture the memories of the more senior of these before they become irretrievable, they persuaded 30 or so friends and colleagues from many countries of the world to record their personal and professional memoirs for the education and entertainment of both scientists and scientific historians. (author)

  2. Personality Disorders in Substance Abusers: A Comparison of Patients Treated in a Prison Unit and Patients Treated in Inpatient Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Stefánsson, Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    -III. Baserate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of personality disorders. A logistic regression analysis correctly identified 95% of the sample, and showed that antisocial personality disorder traits were characteristic of the prison sample, and masochistic personality disorder traits were characteristic......Abstract  A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory...... of the inpatient sample. The findings indicate that treatment models used in prison settings should be adjusted to meet the needs of antisocial patients....

  3. Safety and Security of Older Persons in Tehran, Iran: A Sociological Appraisal of Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi, Mohammad Taghi

    2010-01-01

    The article explores and evaluates the quality of life, safety, and security of elderly people in Tehran City in Iran. In that, different dimensions of material and social well-being, and abuse of people of the age 65 and above, are assessed. Besides the human rights, the dignity, and the gradual decline of the elderly's social security are…

  4. Past personal history of dysphoria, social support, and psychological distress following conjugal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J C; Kasl, S; Jacobs, S

    1994-07-01

    This study describe the course and risk factors of psychological distress following bereavement, controlling for factors often omitted from studies of grief: psychiatric history, social support, and coping choices of the bereaved. Spouses of patients hospitalized for serious illness or elective surgery were systematically screened and followed longitudinally through the recovery or death of the hospitalized patient. Of 440 respondents, 154 were bereaved within 2 months. Spouses were interviewed in their homes by trained interviewers at intake and 2, 6, 13, and 25 months postintake. Dependent variables were measured with the CES-D (depressive symptoms) and the PERI (general anxiety and hopelessness/helplessness) scales. Independent variables were measured with the SADS-L (past personal history of dysphoria) and the Lazarus' Ways of Coping scale as well as sociodemographic measures. Lifetime prevalence of a brief period of dysphoric mood among spouses before the patient's illness was 22%; past personal history of dysphoric mood was related to female sex, smaller networks, and more depression and anxiety during the hospitalization of their spouses. Newly widowed persons with a past history of dysphoria perceived their networks to be relatively nonsupportive, but devoted similar amounts of coping effort to seeking social support and reported similar amounts of social interaction compared with persons with no history of dysphoria. Persons with a past history of dysphoria reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, general anxiety, and hopelessness/helplessness through 25 months postbereavement, yet their recovery trajectory was similar to those without a past history of dysphoria. It was concluded that a past history of subsyndromal symptomatology in conjunction with a stressful life event such as bereavement increases one's vulnerability to excess psychological distress.

  5. Exploring the Association between Emotional Abuse and Childhood Borderline Personality Features: The Moderating Role of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L.; Latzman, Robert D.; Tull, Matthew T.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the extant literature on borderline personality disorder has focused on the course, consequences, and correlates of this disorder among adults. However, little is known about childhood borderline personality (BP) features, or the factors associated with the emergence of BP pathology in childhood. A greater understanding of childhood BP…

  6. Professionals’ Experiences of the Relations between Personal History and Professional Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Sjølie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how workers in a crisis resolution home treatment (CRHT team experience the relationship between their personal history and professional role. This paper is based on 13 in-depth interviews with health professionals working in CRHT. The interviews were analysed using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. Participants expressed that there is a relationship between their personal history and professional role, and three themes are highlighted as particularly important in, namely experiences related to the participants as individuals, work-related experiences and family-related experiences. The participants write meaning into the relationship between their personal history and professional role. By relating and exploring their own life stories in the interviews, they work on forming meaning and identity.

  7. Sociodemographic, Delinquency-Abuse History, and Psychosocial Functioning Differences among Juvenile Offenders of Various Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Nini-Gough, Banni; Manning, Darrell

    1998-01-01

    Sociodemographic characteristics, delinquency and dependency referral histories, and psychosocial functioning were compared for three groups of youth (N=9,583) at a juvenile assessment center. Findings indicate that eight- to twelve- year olds tend to be ethnic minorities, live in mother-headed households of low economic status, and have a…

  8. Trauma complexity and child abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...

  9. Cocaína: lendas, história e abuso Cocaine: myths, history and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Eugênio M Ferreira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A civilização ocidental tem estado envolvida com múltiplos problemas sociais, sendo o abuso de drogas um deles. A cocaína e os transtornos decorrentes de seu abuso tornaram-se um problema de saúde pública. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo colaborar pelo aprofundamento da investigação histórica desse tema. Há mais de 4500 anos, as folhas de coca são usadas por índios da América do Sul. Com a industrialização no século XIX, a cocaína chegou aos países desenvolvidos da época. Na medicina, essa substância também se mostrou presente, sendo usada, tanto por Freud quanto por outros médicos, na tentativa de curar inúmeras enfermidades. No entanto, a maior disponibilidade e a queda dos preços nos últimos 30 anos possibilitaram que essa droga fosse usada abusivamente por um número crescente de pessoas, trazendo conseqüências assustadoras para a saúde do indivíduo e para a sociedade como um todo.Western civilization is involved with multiple social problems and drug abuse is one of them. Cocaine and its abuse have become over the years a public health problem. This paper intends to provide a historical background to the subject. For more than 4,500 years, South America natives have been using coca leaves. After the industrial revolution in the 19th century, cocaine clorhydrate, an alkaloid present in the coca leaf, reached the developed countries. Many products, which main ingredient was cocaine, were consumed by famous people at that time, such as Vino Mariani, used by Pope Leo XVIII. In medicine, Freud and other doctors used cocaine with the purpose of healing various diseases. However, in the last 30 years, it became more available and its price dropped, making it accessible to an increasing number of people, resulting in alarming consequences to users' health as well as for the whole society.

  10. Do Personality Traits Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Migraine? An Exploration of the Relationships in Young Adults Using the Add Health Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Monita; Elhai, Jon D; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr A; Tietjen, Gretchen E

    2018-02-01

    Personality traits (especially neuroticism) and childhood maltreatment have been independently related to many negative health outcomes later in life, including migraine. Studies have also shown the association between childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality traits. The mediating role of personality traits on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression, psychological distress, and alcohol dependence has been extensively studied. However, this type of mediation has not been studied in the case of the development of migraine. This study investigated (1) the main effects of childhood abuse on personality traits, and of personality traits on migraine, and (2) the mediating role of neuroticism, on the relationship between childhood abuse and migraine in young adults. We analyzed retrospective, cross-sectional data from 13,493 adults aged 24-32 years in Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health ("Add Health") data set. Participants were queried regarding maltreatment (emotional, physical, and sexual) during childhood, current Big Five personality traits (using mini International Personality Item Pool), current depression (using Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale), perceived stress (Using Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale), and diagnosis of migraine by a health care provider. Linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the main effects of childhood maltreatment on the five personality traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) and the main effect of the personality traits on self-reported provider diagnosis of migraine. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to examine the mediating role of neuroticism on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and migraine. Linear regression models showed that childhood abuse independently predicted increased neuroticism (β = 0.338, SE=±0.05, P personality traits on migraine revealed that only

  11. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  12. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A history of the early days of personality testing in American industry: an obsession with adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibby, Robert E; Zickar, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    Objective personality testing began with Woodworth's Personal Data Sheet in 1917. That test was developed to identify soldiers prone to nervous breakdowns during enemy bombardment in World War I (WWI). Soon after, many competing personality tests were developed for use in industry. Many of these tests, like Woodworth's, focused on the construct of employee maladjustment and were deemed important in screening out applicants who would create workplace disturbances. In this article, the authors review the history of these early personality tests, especially the Bernreuter Personality Inventory and the Humm-Wadsworth Temperament Scale, and discuss the implications of personality testers' obsession with the construct of employee maladjustment. In addition, the authors discuss the industry's obsession with emotional maladjustment and how this obsession coincided with a cultural shift in norms relating to cultural expression.

  14. Personal history of rosacea and risk of incident cancer among women in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W-Q; Zhang, M; Danby, F W; Han, J; Qureshi, A A

    2015-07-28

    Rosacea is an inflammatory skin disease. We examined the association between personal history of rosacea and risk of incident cancers. A total of 75 088 whites were included from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011). Information on clinician-diagnosed rosacea and diagnosis year was collected in 2005. All cancers other than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were confirmed. During 1 447 205 person-years, we identified 5194 cases with internal malignancies and 5788 with skin cancers. We did not observe significant associations between personal history of rosacea and internal malignancies, except for thyroid cancer (hazard ratio (HR)=1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07-2.36). Among skin cancers, personal history of rosacea was associated with an elevated risk of BCC (HR=1.50, 95% CI=1.35-1.67). We suggest possible associations between personal history of rosacea and an increased risk of thyroid cancer and BCC. Further studies are warranted to replicate our findings and to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  15. Group psychotherapy for persons with traumatic brain injury: management of frustration and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonico, R L; Hanley-Peterson, P; Englander, J

    1998-12-01

    Residual emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been well documented in the literature. The issues are complex, interdependent, and often include substance abuse, depression, anxiety, chronic suicidal or homicidal ideation, poor impulse control, and significant degrees of frustration and anger. Often, preexisting psychological conditions and poor coping strategies are exacerbated by the trauma. Emotional and behavioral difficulties can interfere with the neurorehabilitation process at all levels. In acute rehabilitation, these issues have traditionally been addressed on an individual basis. However, in postacute settings, an interpersonal group format can be effectively implemented. The majority of individuals with TBI have minimal funding for long-term cognitive and behavioral remediation; often the only avenue available is support groups. This article will describe group psychotherapy models used with individuals with acute or postacute TBI within a comprehensive rehabilitation center. Interdisciplinary treatment of frustration and substance abuse and a continuum of care will be emphasized. Education, social support, skills development, interpersonal process, and cognitive-behavioral approaches will also be discussed. The psychotherapy groups focus on treatment of substance abuse and frustration management through education, social support, and development of interpersonal skills. Practical considerations of running such groups are presented.

  16. Feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for childcare professionals: comparison of a web-based and in-person training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two different formats: in person and Web based. The sample consisted of 188 child care professionals from a large-scale, multisite, randomized controlled trial. Findings indicate that both in-person and online training formats are feasible to implement and acceptable to professionals. When comparing formats, the in-person format was favored in terms of comfort level and likelihood of sharing information with others. These findings have significant implications for dissemination of child sexual abuse prevention programs for child care professionals.

  17. History of abuse and organic difficulties in a convenience sample of 46 ultra-orthodox males with pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witztum, Eliezer; Daie, Netzer; Daie-Gabai, Ayala; Rosler, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Evidence has started to accumulate that relates pedophilia to a history of being a victim of sexual abuse as well as to comorbidity with organic vulnerabilities. During a naturalistic study regarding treatment of pedophilia, the authors had access to clinical and psychodiagnostic evaluations of Israeli Jewish ultraorthodox male pedophiles outside the forensic system. Using psychiatric examination as well as a battery of psychological tests, presence of history of trauma as well as comorbidity with organic vulnerabilities among this unique sub-group was examined. This survey was part of a larger scale research on the effectiveness of Decapeptyl injections as treatment for pedophilia. All participants in the original research underwent comprehensive psychological assessment including an extensive clinical interview as well as psychological tests (Bender, Rorschach and TAT). Of the patients participating in the research, this survey focused on the group of 46 ultra-orthodox male pedophiles. Cross-tabs analyses were conducted in order to examine prevalence of history of trauma and organic vulnerabilities in this specific group. Based on self reports combined with corroborating reports (obtained from parents, educators and medical staff), together with indications in psychological tests, we found that 82.6% of participants were victims of sexual trauma as children and 87% suffer from some kind of organic vulnerability (learning disabilities, disinhibitions, etc.). LIMITATIONS of this small convenience sample that influence ability to generalize are discussed. The current survey indicates that in this sample, the ultra-orthodox male pedophile was frequently a victim of childhood sexual trauma, and exhibited indications of organic vulnerabilities. This is more pronounced than findings in previous studies, and calls for further research in order to understand the underlying causes.

  18. Family history assessment of personality disorders: I. Concordance with direct interview and between pairs of informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, T; Klein, D N

    1997-01-01

    The present study examined the concordance of the Family History Interview for Personality Disorders (FHIPD) with diagnoses based on direct interviews and between pairs of informants. Subjects were 224 probands participating in a series of studies of the familial transmission of mood and personality disorders and their first-degree relatives. Proband informants and relatives provided information about themselves on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), Personality Disorder Examination (PDE), and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Information from informants about relatives was collected with the FHIPD. All assessments were made blindly and independently. Using Kappa, concordance between proband informants' family histories and relative direct reports on specific personality disorders was low, ranging from -.01 to .28, with a median of .10. Kappa for a diagnosis of any personality disorder was .16. When two independent informant reports were compared, Kappas for specific Axis II disorders ranged from .10 to .72, with a median of .28. Kappa for a diagnosis of any personality disorder was .36. These data suggest that subjects and informants provide different perspectives on Axis II psychopathology, and support the use of both sources of information whenever possible.

  19. Personal reflections about the work of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrikin-Gold, Byron D

    2015-03-01

    Created by amendments in 1988 to the Child Abuse Treatment and Prevention Act of 1974 and first convened in 1989, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect issued a series of passion- and research-laden reports that articulated a new neighborhood-based strategy for child protection in the United States. In so doing, the Board went far beyond the vision of its congressional creators, the most relevant federal agencies, and the field itself. The dedication, daring, collegiality, and public spirit of the drafters and ultimately the moral and intellectual power of the reports themselves were awe-inspiring, as was the level of public attention given to the Board's initial declaration of a national emergency. However, the specific effects on policy were quite limited. Possible reasons for the enormous gap between the strength of the Board's vision and the weakness of its implementation are reviewed. In the end, the history of the Board may be a case study of a single but notable step in a long process toward redemptive cultural change in the status and safety of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the Role of Music in Secondary English and History Classrooms through Personal Practical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, Christian Z.; Burenheide, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the development of utilizing music as a Personal Practical Theory (PPT) in the teaching of English and history. Specifically, the authors explore the nature of PPT's, the benefits of utilizing music, and the process through which teachers begin using a new approach in their pedagogy. Unique contributions are the application…

  1. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodloo, Safa; Ghodousi, Arash; Karimzadeh, Taghi

    2012-06-01

    Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient's condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R) score. Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%), history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%), and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility) in patients (40%) were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25) in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  2. 78 FR 53478 - Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement AGENCY: National Park... about this IC, contact Major Scott Fear, United States Park Police, 1100 Ohio Drive SW., Washington, DC... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The United States Park Police (USPP) is a unit of the National Park Service...

  3. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Maghsoodloo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient′s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%, history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%, and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility in patients (40% were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25 in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  4. Personal Reflection: Reflections on a Family Health History Assignment for Undergraduate Public Health and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Ronica N.; Ford, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    This personal reflection describes our experiences with incorporating the scholarship of teaching and learning and problem-based techniques to facilitate undergraduate student learning and their professional development in the health sciences. We created a family health history assignment to discuss key concepts in our courses, such as health…

  5. Addressing the service linkage problem. Increasing substance abuse treatment engagement using personalized feedback interventions in heavy-using female domestic violence shelter residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Richard L; Baer, John S

    2003-11-01

    Two personalized substance abuse assessment and feedback interventions were tested for effectiveness in engaging female domestic violence shelter residents in substance abuse treatment. One hundred forty-seven residents were assessed for quantity andfrequency of substance use, negative consequences due to use, motivation to change substance use behavior, and psychopathological symptoms related to substance abuse. Assessment identified (33) 22% of participants as heavy substance users. Twenty of the 33 heavy-using residents received one of two personalized substance use feedback interventions:face-to-face feedback or writtenfeedbackplaced in shelter mailboxes. Treatment engagement was defined as attending at least one substance abuse treatment session within 30 days after the intervention. Results showed a significant difference in treatment engagement rates in favor of the face-to-face feedback group (60% vs. 0%). The results provide preliminary data suggesting that substance abuse assessment can be effectively accomplished in the shelter environment and that the face-to-face feedback procedure may be an effective intervention to bridge the service linkage problem between domestic violence services and substance abuse treatment.

  6. Personal and family history of cancer and the risk of Barrett's esophagus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, N; Ramsey, D; Kramer, J R; El-Serag, H B

    2015-04-01

    The association between Barrett's esophagus (BE) and a personal or family history of cancer other than gastroesophageal remains unknown. To evaluate the effect of personal and family history of certain cancers and cancer treatments on the risk of BE, we analyzed data from a Veterans Affairs case-control study that included 264 men with definitive BE (cases) and 1486 men without BE (controls). Patients with history of esophageal or gastric cancer were excluded. Patients underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy or a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy concurrently with screening colonoscopy to determine BE status. Personal and family history of several types of cancer was obtained from self-reported questionnaires, supplemented and verified by electronic medical-record reviews. We estimated the association between personal and family history of cancer or radiation/chemotherapy, and BE. Personal history of oropharyngeal cancer (1.5% vs. 0.4%) or prostate cancer (7.2% vs. 4.4%) was more frequently present in cases than controls. The association between BE and prostate cancer persisted in multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio 1.90; 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.38, P = 0.028) while that with oropharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio 3.63; 95% confidence interval 0.92-14.29, P = 0.066) was attenuated after adjusting for retained covariates of age, race, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, and proton pump inhibitor use. Within the subset of patients with cancer, prior treatment with radiation or chemotherapy was not associated with BE. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the proportions of subjects with several specific malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives. In conclusion, the risk of BE in men may be elevated with prior personal history of oropharyngeal or prostate cancer. However, prior cancer treatments and family history of cancer were not associated with increased risk of BE. Further studies are needed

  7. The antisocial family tree: family histories of behavior problems in antisocial personality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Qian, Zhengmin

    2015-05-01

    Multiple avenues of research (e.g., criminal careers, intergenerational family transmission, and epidemiological studies) have indicated a concentration of antisocial traits and behaviors that cluster among families and within individuals in a population. The current study draws on each of these perspectives in exploring the intergenerational contours of antisocial personality disorder across multiple generations of a large-scale epidemiological sample. The analytic sample of persons meeting criteria for antisocial personality disorder (N = 1,226) was derived from waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Path analytic, latent class, and multinomial models were executed to describe and elucidate family histories among persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Three classes of an antisocial family tree were found: minimal family history of problem behaviors (70.3 % of sample) who were characterized by higher socioeconomic functioning, parental and progeny behavior problems (9.4 % of sample) who were characterized by criminal behaviors, psychopathology, and substance use disorders, and multigenerational history of problem behaviors (20.3 % of sample) who were characterized by alcoholism, psychopathology, and versatile criminal offending. These findings add a typology to intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior that can assist in identifying etiological and treatment factors among those for whom crime runs in the family.

  8. Drug Abuse Patterns, Personality Characteristics, and Relationships with Sex, Race, and Sensation Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined interrelationships among sex, race, drug-use patterns, and personality variables in chronic users of illicit drugs. Blacks were characterized by lower levels of sensation seeking, less psychopathology, use of fewer drug categories, and later drug use than Whites. Use and personality patterns among women differed little from men.…

  9. Emotional Abuse History and Migraine Among Young Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Add Health Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gretchen E; Karmakar, Monita; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr A

    2017-01-01

    To define and examine the relationship between self-reported childhood abuse and migraine among young adults. Headache and migraine have been linked to childhood abuse in numerous studies, but there is incomplete characterization of headache types, and limited assessment of abuse types and frequency. Only one population-based study has examined the relationship between emotional abuse and migraine. None have investigated the temporal relationship between onset of abuse and of migraine. We analyzed data from 14,356 adults aged 24-32 years in Wave 4, which is a cross-sectional subset of the longitudinal Add Health study. Participants were queried regarding abuse (emotional, physical and sexual) during childhood, diagnosis of migraine, depression and anxiety by healthcare providers, and symptoms of current depression. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between childhood abuse and migraine, controlling for socio-demographic factors, current depression, and lifetime diagnosis of anxiety and depression. About 14% (n = 2040) of respondents reported migraine. Participants with migraine (vs no migraine) reported significantly higher rates of childhood abuse overall (60.6% vs 48.9%), including emotional (57.8% vs 45.4%), sexual (8.4% vs 4.6%) and physical (22.4% vs 17.9%) abuse. Emotional abuse had a stronger association with migraine (odds ratio [OR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-1.85) when compared with physical (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.89-1.68) and sexual abuse (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.93-1.68), adjusting for socio-demographic factors. The emotional abuse-migraine association remained even when controlling for lifetime diagnosis of depression and anxiety (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.19-1.57) and for current depression (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.30-1.67). The odds of migraine increased with increasing number of abuse types reported. There was a U-shaped distribution of odds of migraine associated with frequency of occurrences of emotional abuse, peaking at one time

  10. Inter-rater agreement of comorbid DSM-IV personality disorders in substance abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thylstrup Birgitte

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the inter-rater agreement of personality disorders in clinical settings. Methods Clinicians rated 75 patients with substance use disorders on the DSM-IV criteria of personality disorders in random order, and on rating scales representing the severity of each. Results Convergent validity agreement was moderate (range for r = 0.55, 0.67 for cluster B disorders rated with DSM-IV criteria, and discriminant validity was moderate for eight of the ten personality disorders. Convergent validity of the rating scales was only moderate for antisocial and narcissistic personality disorder. Discussion Dimensional ratings may be used in research studies and clinical practice with some caution, and may be collected as one of several sources of information to describe the personality of a patient.

  11. Altered Functional Connectivity of Fronto-Cingulo-Striatal Circuits during Error Monitoring in Adolescents with a History of Childhood Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd Hart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is associated with error hypersensitivity. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene (5-HTTLPR, MAOA interaction on functional brain connectivity during error processing in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data, between 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve and substance abuse-free adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop-signal task, designed to elicit 50% inhibition failures. During inhibition failures, abused participants relative to healthy controls exhibited reduced connectivity between right and left putamen, bilateral caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and between right supplementary motor area (SMA and right inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Abuse-related connectivity abnormalities were associated with longer abuse duration. No group differences in connectivity were observed for successful inhibition. The findings suggest that childhood abuse is associated with decreased functional connectivity in fronto-cingulo-striatal networks during error processing. Furthermore that the severity of connectivity abnormalities increases with abuse duration. Reduced connectivity of error detection networks in maltreated individuals may be linked to constant monitoring of errors in order to avoid mistakes which, in abusive contexts, are often associated with harsh punishment.

  12. Issues in the assessment of personality disorder and substance abuse using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, P M; McCann, J T; Fairbank, J A

    1995-05-01

    Substance abuse treatment clients often present other severe mental health problems that affect treatment outcomes. Hence, screening and assessment for psychological distress and personality disorder are an important part of effective treatment, discharge, and aftercare planning. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) frequently is used for this purpose. In this paper, several issues of concern to MCMI-II users are addressed. These include the extent to which MCMI-II scales correspond to DSM-III-R disorders; overdiagnosis of disorders using the MCMI-II; accuracy of MCMI-II diagnostic cut-off scores; and the clinical utility of MCMI-II diagnostic algorithms. Approaches to addressing these issues are offered.

  13. False Memory for Trauma-Related DRM Lists in Adolescents and Adults with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gail S.; Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Larson, Rakel P.; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive DRM lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the most false memory. In sharp contrast, for recognition, CSA lists enjoyed the highest d’ scores. CSA-group adolescents who evinced greater PTSD symptoms had higher rates of false memory compared to: 1) nonCSA-group adolescents with higher PTSD symptom scores (free recall), and 2) CSA-group adolescents with lower PTSD symptom scores (recognition). Regression analyses revealed that individuals with higher PTSD scores and greater fearful-avoidant attachment tendencies showed less proficient memory monitoring for CSA lists. Implications for trauma and memory development and for translational research are discussed. PMID:23786687

  14. Risky behaviors and depression in conjunction with--or in the absence of--lifetime history of PTSD among sexually abused adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Macdonald, Alexandra; Amstadter, Ananda B; Hanson, Rochelle; de Arellano, Michael A; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2010-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often considered the primary problematic outcome of child sexual abuse (CSA). However, a number of other, relatively understudied negative sequelae appear to be prevalent as well. Data from 269 adolescents with a CSA history from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication Study were therefore used to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors (i.e., problematic alcohol and drug use, delinquent behavior) and depression in this sample. The frequencies of these problems in youth with and without a history of PTSD also were examined. Results indicated that risky behaviors and depression were reported as or more frequently than PTSD. Among youth with a history of PTSD, depression and delinquent behavior were more common than among those without a history of PTSD. However, there were no differences between adolescents with and without a history of PTSD in reported problematic substance use. Findings highlight the need for comprehensive trauma-informed interventions for CSA-exposed adolescents.

  15. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  16. Explaining the relationship between insecure attachment and partner abuse: the role of personality characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, N.M.L.; Leenaars, E.P.E.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have found that male batterers are more often insecurely attached as compared with nonbatterers. However, it is still not clear how insecure attachment is related to domestic violence. Many studies compared batterers and nonbatterers regarding pathological personality characteristics that

  17. [Pathology of the nervous system in conscripts with drug abuse in past medical history: symptomatology, diagnostics methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvintsev, B S; Odinak, M M; Kovalenko, A P; Efimtsev, A Iu; Tarumov, D A; Petrov, A D; Lisianskiĭ, D A

    2014-08-01

    Authors examined 60 female and male patients (average age 25.8±2.7 years) with confirmed diagnosis - drug abuse. Average duration of drug abuse was approximately 9±3.3 years. At the moment of examination patients had been fully in remission for 3 weeks. The following non-invasive procedures were undertaken: stimulation electroneuromyogrphy and brain MRI. Received results showed that drug abuse leads to diffuse lesion of the nervous system, which manifests itself as vegetative disorders, scattered neurological symptoms, polyneuropathy. Authors gave recommendations in the field of military examination with the aim of detection of nervous disorders caused by drug abuse.

  18. The Complexities of Intimate Partner Violence: Mental Health, Disabilities, and Child Abuse History for White, Indigenous, and Other Visible Minority Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutty, Leslie M; Radtke, H L; Ateah, Christine A; Ursel, E Jane; Thurston, Wilfreda E Billie; Hampton, Mary; Nixon, Kendra

    2017-11-01

    This research examines how mental health issues associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) relate to women's intersecting identities of race/ethnicity, disability status, and child abuse history. Data ( N = 595) from a Canadian triprovincial study included women who were White ( n = 263, 44.8%), Indigenous ( n = 292, 49.7%), or visible minority ( n = 32, 5.5%). Few demographic differences were found. None of the mental health measures (Symptom Checklist-Short Form [SCL-10], Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression [CES-D-10], Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD] Checklist) were in the clinical ranges. In a MANCOVA on the mental health scales, with IPV severity, racial group, disability status, and child abuse history as variables, only disability was significantly associated with more mental health symptoms.

  19. The performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in a population of depressed or anxious persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it

  20. Association of psychiatric history and type D personality with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and health status prior to ICD implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).......Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)....

  1. Gene-environment correlation in the development of adolescent substance abuse: selection effects of child personality and mediation via contextual risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-02-01

    We used a longitudinal twin design to examine selection effects of personality traits at age 11 on high-risk environmental contexts at age 14 and the extent to which these contexts mediated risk for substance abuse at age 17. Socialization at age 11 (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) predicted exposure to contextual risk at age 14. Contextual risk partially mediated the effect of socialization on substance abuse, though socialization also had a direct effect. In contrast, boldness at age 11 (social engagement and assurance, thrill seeking, and stress resilience) also predicted substance abuse directly but was unrelated to contextual risk. There was substantial overlap in the genetic and shared environmental influences on socialization and contextual risk, and genetic risk in socialization contributed to substance abuse indirectly via increased exposure to contextual risk. This suggests that active gene-environment correlations related to individual differences in socialization contributed to an early, high-risk developmental trajectory for adolescent substance abuse. In contrast, boldness appeared to index an independent and direct genetic risk factor for adolescent substance abuse.

  2. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV.

  3. [Information production by scientists and the history of science: typological study of personal archives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Celina Soares de Mello E; Trancoso, Márcia Cristina Duarte

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the study of document typology in the personal archives of scientists and its importance in the history of science studies and for the archivist's work. A brief history is presented of diplomatic to typological information, emphasizing that identifying document production activity as essential for its classification. The article illustrates personal archive characteristics as regards the diversity of documental types and, in particular, those belonging to physicists. Furthermore, it presents five examples of documental types found in the archives of physicists as examples of research in progress. It also highlights the elaboration of a glossary of different documental kinds and types found in the private archives of Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences in Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Development of a Personalized Bidirectional Text Messaging Tool for HIV Adherence Assessment and Intervention among Substance Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Karen; Dillingham, Rebecca; Reynolds, George; Hettema, Jennifer; Freeman, Jason; Hosseinbor, Sharzad; Winstead-Derlega, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We describe the development of a two-way text messaging intervention tool for substance users who are non-adherent with HIV medications, and examine message flow data for feasibility and acceptability. The assessment and intervention tool, TxText, is fully automated, sending participants mood, substance use, and medication adherence queries by text message. Participants respond, the tool recognizes the category of response, and sends the personalized intervention message that participants designed in return. In 10 months, the tool sent 16,547 messages (half initial, half follow-up) to 31 participants assigned to the TxText condition, who sent 6711 messages in response to the initial messages. Response rates to substance use (n=2370), medication (n=2918) and mood (n=4639) queries were 67%, 69%, and 64%, respectively. Responses indicating medication adherence, abstinence from substances, and good moods were more common than negative responses. The TxText tool can send messages daily over a 3 month period, receive responses, and decode them to deliver personalized affirming or intervention messages. While we await the outcomes of a pilot randomized trial, the process analysis shows that TxText is acceptable and feasible for substance abusers with HIV, and may serve as a complement to HIV medical care. PMID:24029625

  5. Emotional hyperreactivity in response to childhood abuse by primary caregivers in patients with borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being

  6. Elder Abuse: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Nan Hervig; Giordano, Jeffrey A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature on elder abuse and examines categories of abuse, the incidence of abuse, and characteristics of the typical abused person. Concluded that the abused person is characteristically a severely impaired woman, aged 75 and over, White, widowed, and living with relatives. (LLL)

  7. Effects of expressive writing on sexual dysfunction, depression, and PTSD in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: Results from a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.; Stephenson, Kyle R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have high rates of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems in adulthood. Aim We tested an expressive writing based intervention for its effects on psychopathology, sexual function, satisfaction and distress in women who have a history of CSA. Main Outcome measures Validated self-report measures of psychopathology and sexual function were conducted at post-treatment, 2 weeks, one month, and six months. Methods Seventy women with CSA histories completed five 30-minute sessions of expressive writing, either with a trauma focus or a sexual schema focus. Results Women in both writing interventions exhibited improved symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women who were instructed to write about the impact of the abuse on their sexual schema were significantly more likely to recover from sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Expressive writing may improve depressive and PTSD symptoms in women with CSA histories. Sexual schema-focused expressive writing in particular appears to improve sexual problems, especially for depressed women with CSA histories. Both treatments are accessible, cost-effective, and acceptable to patients. PMID:23875721

  8. Association between childhood abuse and psychiatric morbidities among hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood abuse has been linked with increased risk of adult psychiatric disorders including major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. However, only a few from India attempted to study long-term consequences of childhood abuse. Our study aimed to understand the role of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse along with psychiatric co-morbidities in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to psychiatric inpatient services in the age group of 14-45 years for the 1 st time were evaluated for a history of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse on the basis of retrospective chart review. Semi-structured Performa was used to evaluate the patient with a history of child abuse, and they were diagnosed according to International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic criteria. Result: The prevalence of child abuse in our inpatient services was 43.29%; emotional abuse (61.9% was most commonly reported among patient followed by physical (21.43% and sexual abuse (16.67%. We observed a significant difference in terms of length of hospital stay between abuse (10.29 ± 6.01 days and nonabuse group (5.90 ± 2.43 days (t = 4.902, df = 95, P < 0.0001. The boys experienced physical abuse at a younger age (7.43 ± 2.50 years than girls (13.50 ± 0.70 years. The sexual abuse and emotional abuse were reported at a younger age in girls than boys. We found high prevalence of substance use disorders (40.47%, psychosis (19.04%, and mood disorder (28.57% among abuse group. Conclusions: The study findings highlight the developing importance of the different forms of abuse on adult psychiatric diagnosis in India. The abused patients are at high risk of the development of psychiatric disorder than the nonabuse group. The increased length of hospitalization among abused group reflects severity and complexity of child abuse. The early detection of social factors

  9. Increased frequency of micronuclei in adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse: a discordant monozygotic twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P York

    Full Text Available Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a traumatic life event associated with an increased lifetime risk for psychopathology/morbidity. The long-term biological consequences of CSA-elicited stress on chromosomal stability in adults are unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine if the rate of acquired chromosomal changes, measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, differs in adult female monozygotic twins discordant for CSA.Monozygotic twin pairs discordant for CSA were identified from a larger population-based sample of female adult twins for whom the experience of CSA was assessed by self-report (51 individuals including a reference sample. Micronuclei (MN contain chromatin from structurally normal or abnormal chromosomes that are excluded from the daughter nuclei during cell division and serve as a biomarker to assess acquired chromosomal instability.Female twins exposed to CSA exhibited a 1.63-fold average increase in their frequency of MN compared to their nonexposed genetically identical cotwins (Paired t-test, t₁₆ = 2.65, P = 0.017. No additional effects of familial factors were detected after controlling for the effect of CSA exposure. A significant interaction between CSA history and age was observed, suggesting that the biological effects of CSA on MN formation may be cumulative.These data support a direct link between CSA exposure and MN formation measured in adults that is not attributable to genetic or environmental factors shared by siblings. Further research is warranted to understand the biological basis for the observed increase in acquired chromosomal findings in people exposed to CSA and to determine if acquired somatic chromosomal abnormalities/somatic clonal mosaicism might mediate the adult pathology associated with CSA.

  10. History and conceptual developments in vascular biology and angiogenesis research: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Vascular biology is an important scientific domain that has gradually penetrated many medical and scientific fields. Scientists are most often focused on present problems in their daily scientific work and lack awareness regarding the evolution of their domain throughout history and of how philosophical issues are related to their research field. In this article, I provide a personal view with an attempt to conceptualize vascular development research that articulates lessons taken from history, philosophy, biology and medicine. I discuss selected aspects related to the history and the philosophy of sciences that can be extracted from the study of vascular development and how conceptual progress in this research field has been made. I will analyze paradigm shifts, cross-fertilization of different fields, technological advances and its impact on angiogenesis and discuss issues related to evolutionary biology, proximity of different molecular systems and scientific methodologies. Finally, I discuss briefly my views where the field is heading in the future.

  11. Dynamic Parameters of Balance Which Correlate to Elderly Persons with a History of Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Jesse W.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian; Magaziner, Jay; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Poor balance in older persons contributes to a rise in fall risk and serious injury, yet no consensus has developed on which measures of postural sway can identify those at greatest risk of falling. Postural sway was measured in 161 elderly individuals (81.8y±7.4), 24 of which had at least one self-reported fall in the prior six months, and compared to sway measured in 37 young adults (34.9y±7.1). Center of pressure (COP) was measured during 4 minutes of quiet stance with eyes opened. In the elderly with fall history, all measures but one were worse than those taken from young adults (e.g., maximal COP velocity was 2.7× greater in fallers than young adults; polder persons with no recent fall history (COP Displacement, Short Term Diffusion Coefficient, and Critical Displacement). Variance of elderly subjects' COP measures from the young adult cohort were weighted to establish a balance score (“B-score”) algorithm designed to distinguish subjects with a fall history from those more sure on their feet. Relative to a young adult B-score of zero, elderly “non-fallers” had a B-score of 0.334, compared to 0.645 for those with a fall history (ppostural sway elements may identify individuals at greatest risk of falling, allowing interventions to target those with greatest need of attention. PMID:23940592

  12. A history of changes to the criminal personality in the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Jessica R

    2009-11-01

    There is much confusion now surrounding the diagnoses of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy. Some individuals still refer to the two as the same diagnosis with different names, even though there is a consensus in the psychology field that the two are distinct disorders. Part of this confusion is likely to be the result of the overlap in the diagnostic criteria: both diagnoses are associated with a history of antisocial behavior. However, it is also very possible that this confusion in the literature is a result of consistent name and criteria changes for the "criminal personality" in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. To make sense of the confusion surrounding the two different diagnoses, the evolution of Antisocial Personality Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is examined in this paper.

  13. Personality Disorders Detected by PDQ+4 in Substance Abusers%被强制戒毒人员人格诊断问卷调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 邱国松; 司亚东; 贺宁

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the personality characteristics and the personality disorders of substance abusers at compulsory rehabilitation center. Method: For screening personality disorder, personality diagnostic questionnaire+4 ( PDQ+4 ) was administrated to a sample of 262 substance abusers at compulsory rehabilitation center. Result: The mean of total PDQ+4 scores was ( 46. 52±12. 79 ); the subscales for different type personality disorders of PDQ+4 were higher than normal sample in China( P<0100 ); The preva- lence of personality disorder in axis II was 94. 0% . Borderline personality disorder ( 61. 4% ), Antisocial personality disorder ( 73. 5% ) were the most common. 84. 2% of substance abusers' positive subscales were more then one, the average score of positive subscales was ( 4. 80±2. 84 ). Conclusion:There were different types of personality disorder in substance abusers, and antisocial personality disorder, Borderline personality disorder are especially common.%目的:了解被强制戒毒人员的人格障碍状况.方法:用人格诊断问卷(PDQ+4)按照整群抽样的原则调查被强制戒毒人员262人.结果:被强制戒毒人员PDQ+4总分为(46.52±12.79);十二项人格障碍分量表分都高于国内普通人群,样本比较差异有显著性(P<0.01);被强制戒毒人员人格障碍的阳性率高达94.0%.十二项分量表中阳性率最高的是反社会型(73.5%),其次是边缘型(61.4%).84.2%被强制戒毒者有2项以上人格障碍量表得分为阳性,每人平均阳性项目为(4.80±2.84).结论:被强制戒毒人员存在各种类型的人格障碍,尤以反社会型和边缘型人格障碍多见.

  14. Effects of sustained abstinence among treated substance-abusing homeless persons on housing and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby, Jesse B; Schumacher, Joseph E; Wallace, Dennis; Vuchinich, Rudy; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2010-05-01

    We examined whether cocaine-dependent homeless persons had stable housing and were employed 6, 12, and 18 months after they entered a randomized controlled trial comparing 2 treatments. One group (n = 103) received abstinence-contingent housing, vocational training, and work; another group (n = 103) received the same intervention plus cognitive behavioral day treatment. We examined baseline and early treatment variables for association with long-term housing and employment. Although the enhanced-treatment group achieved better abstinence rates, the groups did not differ in long-term housing and employment stability. However, consecutive weeks of abstinence during treatment (and to a lesser extent, older age and male gender) predicted long-term housing and employment stability after adjustment for baseline differences in employment, housing, and treatment. Our data showed a relationship of abstinence with housing stability. Contrasting these results with the increasingly popular Housing First interventions reveals important gaps in our knowledge to be addressed in future research.

  15. Co-Occurring Risk Factors for Arrest among Persons with Opioid Abuse and Dependence: Implications for Developing Interventions to Limit Criminal Justice Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William H.; Clark, Robin; Baxter, Jeffrey; Barton, Bruce; O’Connell, Elizabeth; Aweh, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Persons who abuse opioids or are dependent on opioids are at elevated risk for arrest. Co-occurring behavioral health problems may exacerbate that risk, although the extent of any such increase has not been described. This study examines such risk factors among 40,238 individuals with a diagnosis of opioid abuse or dependence who were enrolled in the Massachusetts Medicaid program in 2010. Medicaid data were merged with statewide arrest data to assess the effects of co-existing mental illness, substance abuse, and previous arrests on arrest during 2010. Persons with serious mental illnesses (psychotic and bipolar disorders) and those with two or more pre-2010 arrests had significantly increased greater odds of arrest. We believe this to be the first study examining effects of co-occurring risk factors on arrest in a large population with opioid dependency/abuse. These findings identify predictors of arrest that could be used to design interventions targeting specific co-occurring risk factors. PMID:25012550

  16. The Interactive Effects of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Court-Mandated Status on Substance Abuse Treatment Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Stacey B.; Stipelman, Brooke A.; Sargeant, Marsha N.; Schuster, Randi; Bornovalova, Marina A.; Lejuez, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of court-mandated (CM) treatment and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on treatment dropout among 236 inner-city male substance users receiving residential substance abuse treatment through a pretrial release to treatment program. Of the 236 participants, 39.4% (n = 93) met criteria for ASPD and 72.5 % (n = 171) were mandated to treatment by the court system. Results indicated a significant interaction between ASPD and CM status, such that ASPD patients voluntarily receiving treatment were significantly more likely to drop out of treatment than each of the other groups. Subsequent discrete-time survival analyses to predict days until dropout using Cox proportional hazards regression indicated similar findings, with ASPD patients voluntarily receiving treatment completing fewer days of treatment than each of the other groups. These findings suggest the effectiveness of the court system in retaining ASPD patients, as well as the role of ASPD in predicting treatment dropout for individuals who are voluntarily in treatment. Implications are discussed including the potential value of early implementation of specialized interventions aimed at improving adherence for ASPD patients who are receiving treatment voluntarily. PMID:17869050

  17. Dynamic parameters of balance which correlate to elderly persons with a history of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Jesse W; Kiel, Douglas P; Hannan, Marian; Magaziner, Jay; Rubin, Clinton T

    2013-01-01

    Poor balance in older persons contributes to a rise in fall risk and serious injury, yet no consensus has developed on which measures of postural sway can identify those at greatest risk of falling. Postural sway was measured in 161 elderly individuals (81.8y±7.4), 24 of which had at least one self-reported fall in the prior six months, and compared to sway measured in 37 young adults (34.9y±7.1). Center of pressure (COP) was measured during 4 minutes of quiet stance with eyes opened. In the elderly with fall history, all measures but one were worse than those taken from young adults (e.g., maximal COP velocity was 2.7× greater in fallers than young adults; pfall history (COP Displacement, Short Term Diffusion Coefficient, and Critical Displacement). Variance of elderly subjects' COP measures from the young adult cohort were weighted to establish a balance score ("B-score") algorithm designed to distinguish subjects with a fall history from those more sure on their feet. Relative to a young adult B-score of zero, elderly "non-fallers" had a B-score of 0.334, compared to 0.645 for those with a fall history (pfalling, allowing interventions to target those with greatest need of attention.

  18. Policy on reintegration of women with histories of substance abuse: A mixed methods study of predictors of relapse and facilitators of recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanDeMark Nancy R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predominant U.S. policy approach toward individuals with substance abuse problems has relied on stigma and punishment by withholding access to education, cash assistance, housing, social support, and normal social roles. In contrast to this approach, the theory of reintegrative shaming asserts that providing individuals with the opportunity to reconnect with society is more effective in reducing potential to relapse to crime and drug abuse. Strategies that promote such reconnection include expanding access to basic needs and supportive relationships along with increasing opportunities to fully participate in mainstream social roles. Methods The present cross-sectional study examined the predictors of relapse and the facilitators of recovery in a sample of 325 women with histories of substance abuse. Analysis of secondary data, collected as part of a national cross-site study, employed a mixed methods approach conducting (1 logistic regression to examine the predictors of relapse and (2 an inductive qualitative analysis of responses from open-ended items to explore the women's perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of recovery. Results Results suggest that lower levels of instrumental support, affective support, and participation in normal roles (such as parent, employee, student, and citizen are significant predictors of relapse to drug use and criminal behaviors. Qualitative findings support the quantitative results, revealing that participating women perceived the variables of support and role participation as critical in facilitating their recovery. They also noted the importance of individual characteristics such as optimism and strength and emphasized the significance of their relationship with their children in motivating them to avoid relapse. Findings suggest that punitive policies toward women with substance abuse histories may be ineffective. Conclusion The author concludes that current policies designed to

  19. Spouse Abuse, Child Abuse, and Substance Abuse Among Army Facilities: Co-Occurrence, Correlations and Service Delivery Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, Deborah A

    2006-01-01

    ...: spouse abuse child abuse and substance abuse. By supporting the development of improved responses to troubled families findings from this study can potentially reduce mortality and morbidity among military personal and their family members...

  20. Dynamic parameters of balance which correlate to elderly persons with a history of falls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse W Muir

    Full Text Available Poor balance in older persons contributes to a rise in fall risk and serious injury, yet no consensus has developed on which measures of postural sway can identify those at greatest risk of falling. Postural sway was measured in 161 elderly individuals (81.8y±7.4, 24 of which had at least one self-reported fall in the prior six months, and compared to sway measured in 37 young adults (34.9y±7.1. Center of pressure (COP was measured during 4 minutes of quiet stance with eyes opened. In the elderly with fall history, all measures but one were worse than those taken from young adults (e.g., maximal COP velocity was 2.7× greater in fallers than young adults; p<0.05, while three measures of balance were significantly worse in fallers as compared to older persons with no recent fall history (COP Displacement, Short Term Diffusion Coefficient, and Critical Displacement. Variance of elderly subjects' COP measures from the young adult cohort were weighted to establish a balance score ("B-score" algorithm designed to distinguish subjects with a fall history from those more sure on their feet. Relative to a young adult B-score of zero, elderly "non-fallers" had a B-score of 0.334, compared to 0.645 for those with a fall history (p<0.001. A weighted amalgam of postural sway elements may identify individuals at greatest risk of falling, allowing interventions to target those with greatest need of attention.

  1. The influence of personal networks on the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Amador; Cajal, Berta; Juan, Montse; Mendes, Fernando; Kokkevi, Anna; Blay, Nicole; Palmer, Alfonso; Duch, Maria Angels

    2010-01-01

    Party networks of young people are very important for socialization, but can also influence their involvement in risk behaviours or they can be protective. The influence of nightlife network of friends in using alcohol/ drugs is investigated through a survey. We explore the individual-centred networks (7.360 friends) of 1.363 recreational nightlife users in 9 European cities in 2006, through 22 friend characteristics. Statistical analysis utilised factorial analysis with varimax rotation and analysis of variance. The 69% of the sample had been drunk during the last month and more than half of them had used illicit drugs. Most of the respondents use to have a stable group of friends with whom to go out. Networks main characteristics were being more or less deviant and/or prosocial. Having not network or a less prosocial network is related to be low consumers. Having a non deviant, but prosocial network is related to being a person who gets drunk without using illegal drugs. Users of illegal drugs have a deviant and prosocial network. Finally ex users have less deviant networks, but at the same time a helper and prosocial network. Males drug use patterns appear to be less affected by the characteristics of their networks. Some preventive consequences coming from these results are already known as the importance of having less deviant friends. But some other issues are less known: to enhance certain prosocial skills may have counter preventive effects among recreational users and to influence the network for preventative purposes may be more effective among females.

  2. Relationship of trauma exposure and substance abuse to self-reported violence among men and women in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Brendan; Reiland, Sarah; Thorne, Chris; Cropsey, Karen L

    2014-05-01

    Past research showed a relationship between substance abuse and aggression and past trauma and aggression. The nature of the relationships between substance use, trauma, and aggression is inconclusive. The current research hypothesized greater aggression among those with a history of substance abuse and trauma compared with those without such a history and an additive relationship between substance abuse and trauma on aggression. Participants were 615 individuals in a substance abuse treatment program for individuals under criminal justice supervision. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews and self-report measures. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the relationships among substance use, trauma, and aggression. Participants with a history of trauma and regular substance use reported the highest rates of homicidal ideation, problem behaviors, and person offenses. Participants in this group also reported greater desire for help managing their stress and tension, dealing with problems in their intimate relationships, developing healthier relationships in general, and learning prosocial approaches to express their feelings. Substance abusing participants who experienced trauma reported more externalizing behaviors and a greater desire for coping- and social-skills training than participants who abused substances but did not report a history of trauma. This suggests that participants in substance abuse treatment programs may have improved outcomes with the addition of components to address these issues.

  3. Substance Use by Persons with Recent Spinal Cord Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    Substance use histories were obtained from 103 persons (16 to 63 years of age) with recent spinal cord injuries (SCI). Lifetime exposure to and current use of substances with abuse potential were substantially greater in this sample compared to a like-age national sample. Exposure to and recent use of substances with abuse potential was…

  4. A personal history of the human exploration initiative with commentary on the pivotal role for life support research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell

    1990-01-01

    The author relates the history of the human exploration initiative from a personal perspective from the 1961 J. F. Kennedy initiative to land a man on the moon up to 1986 when a memo was circulated from NASA Headquarters to its employees which stated as a major goal the expansion of the human presence beyond Earth into the solar system. The pivotal role of life support research is woven into this personalized history.

  5. Two-Person Control: A Brief History and Modern Industry Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Robert Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Physical asset protection is the principal objective of many security and safeguard measures. One well-known means of asset protection is two-person control. This paper reviews literature regarding two-person control to gain insight into its origin, first demonstrated uses, and its presence in several modern industries. This literature review of two-person control is intended to benefit people and organizations with a desire to understand its origins and how the practice has evolved over time, as well as give some insight into the flexibility of this safeguarding technique. The literature review is focused in four main sections: (1) defining two-person control, (2) early history, (3) two-person control in modern industry, and (4) a theory on how two- person control entered modern industry. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank Jarret Lafleur and Scott Paap of Sandia National Laboratories, California's Systems Analysis & Engineering organization for the opportunity to work on this project. Jarret Lafleur provided very constructive and helpful feedback through all stages of the work. Amanda Thompson of the Sandia California Technical Library maintained a great spirit and always had a quick document turnaround that very much helped out this project's completion. Additionally, yet perhaps most importantly, the author would like to thank his wife and daughter, along with the rest of his family, for continued support over the years. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  6. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors.

  7. Generational Reproduction of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    García Ampudia, Lupe; Orellana M., Oswaldo; Pomalaya V., Ricardo; Yanac Reynoso, Elisa; Malaver S., Carmela; Herrera F., Edgar; Sotelo L., Noemi; Campos C., Lilia; Sotelo L., Lidia; Orellana García, Daphne; Velasquez M., Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is the study of the abuse rising in two generations, of parents and children and establishing the relationship between background child’s abuse with the potential abuse. The sample is comprised of 441 students and 303 parents who agreed to answer the Memories of Abuse Questionnaire. The used instruments were the Child History Questionnaire adapted for the purpose of this research, the Inventory of Potential Child Abuse (Milner, J. 1977), adapted by De Paul, Arru...

  8. Physical Child-Abuse in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Sayyari

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Child-abuse (physical, mental and sexual is considered as one of the important problems faced by persons specialized in behavioral Sciences and Forensic Medicine, physicians and pediatricians. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the status of physical child-abuse in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Forty-five pediatric residents, trained for this purpose, conducted this ten-day study in three teaching hospitals (Children's Medical Center, Bahrami Hospital, Hazrat Ali-Asghar Hospital. A questionnaire on physical child-abuse, designed and proposed by the WHO, was completed for 3019 children (male=1578, 52.3% female=1441, 47.7% less than 18 years of age, who attended the emergency department of the above hospitals. The children and their parents were interviewed and physical examination was performed for the children. Results: A total of 347 children (male=14.5%, female =9.6%, which is 12.2% of the total number of children studied, were physically abused. Injuries were mostly present on the face, upper extremities, back and lower extremities, among which 12.8% of the cases were severe and 87.2% were moderate in intensity. Fathers and mothers were responsible for 51.2% and 34.1% of the cases of child-abuse respectively. Among the persons responsible for causing child-abuse, 34.1% had themselves been physically abused during their childhood period and 26.4% had physically abused children before. Hyperactivity, bed-wetting and an unwanted child were among the most common causes of child-abuse. Conclusion: Factors precipitating child-abuse included: large numbers of children in the family drug addiction of one of the family members, and acute or severe psychological stress during the past 6 months. Using the Chi-square test, a significant relationship (P value=0.00l was found to exist between physical child-abuse and demographic factors such as age, sex, site of residence, history of divorce or separation of the parents and

  9. Obesity and Weight Loss Attempts among Subjects with a Personal History of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moten, Ambria; Jeffers, Kayin; Larbi, Daniel; Smith-White, Roxanne; Taylor, Teletia; Wilson, Lori; Adenuga, Babafemi; Frederick, Wayne; Laiyemo, Adeyinka

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for many cancers and obese cancer patients have a poorer prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and attempts to lose weight among cancer survivors. The effects of cancer treatment and time since cancer treatment were also evaluated. The 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data were analysed between 2011 and 2013; respondents with (n = 966) and without (n = 6,093) a personal history of cancer were identified. Each respondent's body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported height and weight measurements and categorised as normal (<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese (≥30 kg/m(2)). Cancer survivors were older (mean age = 63.4 versus 44.7 years for those with no history of cancer). Overall, there were similar percentages of overweight (37.6% versus 34.1%; relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-1.31) and obese (31.4% versus 27.5%; RRR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.79 1.39) respondents among both cancer survivors and those without a history of cancer. Among overweight and obese participants, cancer survivors did not demonstrate increased weight loss attempts compared to those without a history of cancer (61.6% versus 66.3%; odds ratio = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.73 1.20). A high prevalence of overweight and obese cancer survivors were identified without any association with cancer treatment. However, cancer survivors did not demonstrate increased attempts to lose weight in comparison to those without a history of cancer despite awareness of their degree of body fatness. Increased efforts to promote the maintenance of a healthy weight among cancer survivors are needed.

  10. A primary care audit of familial risk in patients with a personal history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Paul; Ahluwalia, Aneeta; Chorley, Wendy

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, both in the UK and worldwide. A small proportion of women are at very high risk of breast cancer, having a particularly strong family history. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has advised that practitioners should not, in most instances, actively seek to identify women with a family history of breast cancer. An audit was undertaken at an urban primary care practice of 15,000 patients, using a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire sent to patients identified with a personal history of breast cancer. The aim of this audit was to determine whether using targeted screening of relatives of patients with breast cancer to identify familial cancer risk is worthwhile in primary care. Since these patients might already expected to have been risk assessed following their initial diagnosis, this audit acts as a quality improvement exercise. The audit used a validated family history questionnaire and risk assessment tool as a screening approach for identifying and grading familial risk in line with the NICE guidelines, to guide referral to the familial cancer screening service. The response rate to family history questionnaires was 54 % and the majority of patients responded positively to their practitioner seeking to identify familial cancer risks in their family. Of the 57 returned questionnaires, over a half (54 %) contained pedigrees with individuals eligible for referral. Patients and their relatives who are often registered with the practice welcome the discussion. An appropriate referral can therefore be made. The findings suggest a role for primary care practitioners in the identification of those at higher familial risk. However integrated systems and processes need designing to facilitate this work.

  11. Obesity and Weight Loss Attempts among Subjects with a Personal History of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambria Moten

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obesity is a risk factor for many cancers and obese cancer patients have a poorer prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and attempts to lose weight among cancer survivors. The effects of cancer treatment and time since cancer treatment were also evaluated. Methods: The 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data were analysed between 2011 and 2013; respondents with (n = 966 and without (n = 6,093 a personal history of cancer were identified. Each respondent’s body mass index (BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight measurements and categorised as normal (<25 kg/m2, overweight (25‒29.9 kg/m2 or obese (≥30 kg/m2. Results: Cancer survivors were older (mean age = 63.4 versus 44.7 years for those with no history of cancer. Overall, there were similar percentages of overweight (37.6% versus 34.1%; relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75‒1.31 and obese (31.4% versus 27.5%; RRR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.79‒1.39 respondents among both cancer survivors and those without a history of cancer. Among overweight and obese participants, cancer survivors did not demonstrate increased weight loss attempts compared to those without a history of cancer (61.6% versus 66.3%; odds ratio = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.73‒1.20. Conclusion: A high prevalence of overweight and obese cancer survivors were identified without any association with cancer treatment. However, cancer survivors did not demonstrate increased attempts to lose weight in comparison to those without a history of cancer despite awareness of their degree of body fatness. Increased efforts to promote the maintenance of a healthy weight among cancer survivors are needed.

  12. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  13. Using Google Location History to track personal exposure to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, E. A.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2017-12-01

    Big data is increasingly used in air pollution research to monitor air quality and develop mitigation strategies. Google Location History provides an archive of geolocation and time information from mobile devices that can be used to track personal exposure to air pollution. Here we demonstrate the utility of Google Location History for assessing true exposure of individuals to air pollution hazardous to human health in an increasingly mobile world. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at coarse resolution (2° × 2.5°; latitude × longitude) to calculate and sample surface concentrations of fine particle mass (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations at the same time and location of each of six volunteers for 2 years (June 2015 to May 2017) and compare this to annual mean PM2.5 and ozone estimated at their postal addresses. The latter is synonymous with Global Burden of Disease studies that use a static population distribution map. We find that mobile PM2.5 is higher than static PM2.5 for most (five out of six) volunteers and can lead to a 10% increase in the risk for ischemic heart disease and stroke mortality. The difference may be more if instead a high resolution CTM or an abundant air quality monitoring network is used. There is tremendous potential to exploit geolocation and time data from mobile devices for cohort health studies and to determine best practices for limiting personal exposure to air pollution.

  14. Sun protection practices among offspring of women with personal or family history of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Alan C; Brooks, Daniel R; Colditz, Graham A; Koh, Howard K; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2006-04-01

    Family history of skin cancer is an important determinant of skin cancer risk for offspring. No previous study of the effect of personal or family history of skin cancer on the sun protection behaviors of the offspring has been published. A retrospective study was conducted of the sun protection behaviors of the adolescent participants in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), who were offspring of mothers from the Nurses Health Study II. Adolescents' surveys were matched with their mothers' reports of a personal or family history of skin cancer and compared with adolescents whose mothers did not report a personal or family history of skin cancer. The outcome measures were (1) occurrence of frequent sunburns during the past summer, (2) use of a tanning bed during the past year, and (3) routine use of sunscreen. Frequent sunburns were defined as the report of > or = 3 sunburns during the past summer. We compared those who reported having used a tanning bed in the past year at least once with those who reported no tanning bed use in the past year. Routine use of sunscreen was defined as a respondent who replied that he or she "always" or "often" used sunscreen with sun protection factor of 15 or more when he or she was outside for > 15 minutes on a sunny day during the past summer. General estimating equations were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for gender, age, color of untanned skin, and number of friends who were tanned. We also conducted an additional analysis restricted to children whose mothers had received a diagnosis of skin cancer in which we assessed sun protection behaviors according to the child's age and mother's age at the time of the mother's diagnosis and the number of years that had passed since the diagnosis of the mother's skin cancer. In 1999, 9943 children reported their sun protection behaviors; 8697 of their mothers had not received a diagnosis of skin cancer or reported a family history of melanoma, 463

  15. The psychosocial needs of children in foster care with a history of sexual abuse: Are they recognized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; Ellingsen, Ingunn; van der Steen, Stephanie; Grietens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Youth in family foster care who have experienced sexual abuse have specific psychosocial needs. However, youth themselves are rarely asked about their needs, and it is unknown if caretakers recognize these needs as such. Using Q-methodology, this study aimed to describe what youth consider their

  16. Incarceration and exposure to internally displaced persons camps associated with reproductive rights abuses among sex workers in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Akello, Monica; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Nguyen, Paul; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2017-07-01

    While female sex workers (FSWs) face a high burden of violence and criminalisation, coupled with low access to safe, non-coercive care, little is known about such experiences among FSWs in conflict-affected settings, particularly as they relate to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights. We explored factors associated with lifetime abortions among FSWs in northern Uganda; and separately modelled the independent effect of lifetime exposures to incarceration and living in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps on coerced and unsafe abortions. Analyses are based on a community-based cross-sectional research project in Gulu District, northern Uganda (2011-2012) with The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) Gulu, FSWs, and other community organisations. We conducted questionnaires, sex worker/community-led outreach to sex work venues, and voluntary HIV testing by TASO. Of 400 FSWs, 62 had ever accessed an abortion. In a multivariable model, gendered violence, both childhood mistreatment/or abuse at home [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.96; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.99-3.90] and workplace violence by clients (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.31-9.72) were linked to increased experiences of abortion. Lifetime exposure to incarceration retained an independent effect on increased odds of coerced abortion (AOR 5.16; 95% CI 1.39-19.11), and living in IDP camps was positively associated with unsafe abortion (AOR 4.71; 95% CI 1.42-15.61). These results suggest a critical need for removal of legal and social barriers to realising the SRH rights of all women, and ensuring safe, voluntary access to reproductive choice for marginalised and criminalised populations of FSWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Alteration of T cell function in healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, C.H.L.; Kraft, S.C.; Rothberg, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    The possible late effects of x irradiation to the infantile thymus were investigated by studying immune functions in 12 healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation and healthy control subjects. No differences were found in serum immunoglobulin values, humoral antibody levels, lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutinin, vaccinia virus, purified protein derivative (PPD), and allogeneic cells. The irradiation group exhibited cellular hyperresponsiveness to streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD). In contrast, mean skin and in vitro lymphocyte responses to Candida albicans were depressed in the patients with thymic irradiation. A dissociation of these two Candida responses was found in only 1 of 14 healthy control subjects but in 7 of 12 irradiated individuals. While thymic irradiation did not result in impaired immunologic defenses leading to clinical disease, it caused alterations in T cell responses similar to those reported in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

  18. Alteration of T cell function in healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, C.H.L.; Kraft, S.C.; Rothberg, R.M.

    1975-10-01

    The possible late effects of x irradiation to the infantile thymus were investigated by studying immune functions in 12 healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation and healthy control subjects. No differences were found in serum immunoglobulin values, humoral antibody levels, lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutinin, vaccinia virus, purified protein derivative (PPD), and allogeneic cells. The irradiation group exhibited cellular hyperresponsiveness to streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD). In contrast, mean skin and in vitro lymphocyte responses to Candida albicans were depressed in the patients with thymic irradiation. A dissociation of these two Candida responses was found in only 1 of 14 healthy control subjects but in 7 of 12 irradiated individuals. While thymic irradiation did not result in impaired immunologic defenses leading to clinical disease, it caused alterations in T cell responses similar to those reported in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  19. Health, employment and relationships: Correlates of personal wellbeing in young adults with and without a history of childhood language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We examine the potential associations between self-rated health, employment situation, relationship status and personal wellbeing in young adults with and without a history of language impairment (LI). In total, 172 24-year-olds from the UK participated, with approximately half (N = 84) having a history of LI. Personal wellbeing was measured using ratings from three questions from the Office for National Statistics regarding life satisfaction, happiness and life being worthwhile. There were similarities between individuals with a history of LI and their age-matched peers in self-rated personal wellbeing. However, regression analyses revealed self-rated health was the most consistent predictor of personal wellbeing for individuals with a history of LI in relation to life satisfaction (21% of variance), happiness (11%) and perceptions that things one does in life are worthwhile (32%). None of the regression analyses were significant for their peers. Similarities on ratings of wellbeing by young adults with and without a history of LI can mask heterogeneity and important differences. Young adults with a history of LI are more vulnerable to the effects of health, employment and relationship status on their wellbeing than their peers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations Between Family History of Substance Use, Childhood Trauma, and Age of First Drug Use in Persons With Methamphetamine Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, Leah; Dykstra, Rita E; Simpson, Jamie L; Jaffe, Anna E; Bevins, Rick A; Carlo, Gustavo; DiLillo, David; Grant, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association among family history of substance use problems, childhood maltreatment, and age of first drug use in a sample of men and women seeking treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Various forms of childhood maltreatment were considered as mediators of the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. Participants (N = 99, 40% women, mean age 33) who were under treatment for methamphetamine dependence completed a baseline interview that obtained demographic information, past substance use by participants, history of drug/alcohol problems in their family of origin, and age at first use of any drug (excluding alcohol and tobacco). The Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form was used to assess child maltreatment experiences before the age of 18. Family history of substance use problems and childhood physical (but not emotional or sexual) trauma significantly predicted age of first drug use. Further, childhood physical trauma mediated the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. These findings suggest that the experience of childhood physical abuse may be an important mechanism through which family history of substance use is associated with an earlier age of first drug use.

  1. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Alissa

    2017-03-01

    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  2. Surveillance of women with a personal history of breast cancer by tumour subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, A P; Dryden, M J; Bedrosian, I; Morrow, P K; Bassett, R L; Yang, W

    2017-03-01

    To determine if the rate and timing of a second breast cancer event (SBCE) in women with a personal history of breast cancer varies by disease subtype or breast imaging method. A retrospective review was performed of women with a SBCE from January 2006 to December 2010 at a single institution. Data analysed included oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of the primary and second breast cancers; mammographic and ultrasound (US) features from SBCE; and the time interval between both events. Of 207 patients diagnosed with a SBCE, the median age at first diagnosis was 50.6 years, range 24.8 to 80.2; at second diagnosis was 56.2 years, range 25.8 to 87.9. Eleven percent of SBCE were diagnosed >10 years after the primary cancer diagnosis. The median time between the first and second diagnosis for ER-positive patients was 2.7 years (range 0.7-17.4 years); and 1.9 years for ER-negative patients, (range 0.4-23.4 years; pbreast cancer (TNBC) had a shorter time between diagnoses than others (p=0.0003). At 3, 5, and 10 years, 85%, 92%, and 97% of ER-negative and 54%, 81%, and 95% of ER-positive tumours, respectively, had recurred. ER-negative tumours and TNBC were more likely to be visible at US. There may be a role for customised imaging surveillance of women with a personal history of breast cancer (PHBC) after 10 years. Further studies are necessary to determine if US may be valuable in the surveillance of patients with ER-negative and TNBC tumours. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Making former placed persons visible. Teaching the history of placed persons in Denmark in the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard

    2017-01-01

    are presented and discussed. The main lesson of the dissemination project is that giving a voice to former placed persons is challenging but important. It is important to the former placed persons, to students of social work and social education who are the future caretakers of placed persons and democratic...

  4. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  5. A social work study on parents’ income and personal characteristics and child abuse: A case study of city of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are randomly selected. A questionnaire is designed and distributed among the sample people, which is categorized in four groups of physical, sexual, emotional and neglect child abuse. The results are analyzed using different tests including Pearson correlation test, Chi-Square, etc. to test different hypotheses. The results of our survey indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between different family characteristics including age, occupation, family size, educational background, and drug-addiction and child abuse. However, our survey does not provide any evidence to believe there is any relationship between home status and child abuse risk.

  6. Puzzling History--The Personal File in Residential Care: A Source for Life History and Historical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Lieselot; Vanobbergen, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Since the turn of the century large groups of former institutionalised children have exercised their right to see their "personal files", and this has drawn widespread attention to these documents and their potential in scholarly research. This article explores the meanings of personal files from the period 1945-1984 as sources for both…

  7. Comorbidity, family history and personality traits in pathological gamblers compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Lemenager, T; Zois, E; Hoffmann, S; Nakovics, H; Beutel, M; Vogelgesang, M; Wölfling, K; Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M

    2017-05-01

    While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls. We studied differences in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related variables, psychiatric comorbidity (lifetime), family history of psychiatric conditions, as well as personality traits such as impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), sensation seeking (Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale) and the NEO-FFI big five. Personality traits were validated in an age- and ethnicity-matched subsample of "pure" gamblers without any psychiatric comorbidity (including nicotine dependence). Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests, Chi 2 analyses, Fisher's exact test and Pearson correlation analysis, as appropriate. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple comparisons. Only 1% of the gamblers had been diagnosed with an impulse control disorder other than gambling (ICD-10). Notably, 88% of the gamblers in our sample had a comorbid diagnosis of substance dependence. The highest axis I comorbidity rate was for nicotine dependence (80%), followed by alcohol dependence (28%). Early age of first gambling experience was correlated with gambling severity. Compared to first-degree relatives of controls, first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer from alcohol dependence (27.0% vs. 7.4%), pathological gambling (8.3% vs. 0.7%) and suicide attempts (2.7% vs. 0.4%). Significant group differences were observed for the NEO-FFI factors neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Gamblers were also more impulsive than controls, but did not differ from controls in terms of

  8. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...

  9. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  10. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  11. Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations of beta-endorphin with HVA and MHPG in the plasma of prepubertal boys: effects of familial drug abuse and antisocial personality disorder liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, H B; Yao, J K

    1996-06-01

    It is well-established that the secretion of the opioid neuropeptide beta-endorphin is perturbed by the administration of various drugs of abuse. Several investigators have speculated that variations in beta-endorphin secretory regulation may precede the development of a substance use disorder, and thus be a component of the liability for substance abuse. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined fasting, morning plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin and two catecholamine metabolites in prepubertal boys naive to drugs of abuse and at elevated familial risk for a substance use disorder (SA+), and in controls (SA-). Specifically, the dopaminergic metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA), and the noradrenergic metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (pMHPG) were measured. Between-group differences were not found for beta-endorphin, pHVA, or pMHPG. Similarly, such differences did not differentiate sons of fathers with Antisocial Personality Disorder and controls. However, regression analysis revealed that although both pHVA and pMHPG predicted beta-endorphin concentrations to similar degrees, the directions of influence were the opposite. pHVA was found to be positively associated with beta-endorphin while pMHPG was found to be negatively associated with beta-endorphin. No between-group differences in these relationships were found. The results suggest an opponent process in catecholaminergic regulation of beta-endorphin in humans, and are consistent with observations in the central nervous system of animal models.

  13. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M

    2017-01-01

    To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can

  14. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farideh faraji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II, Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress, and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was found in young male drug abusers with these characteristics: single, junior school graduate, unemployed, suicide history, sex and physical abuse history during childhood, legal problems, suicide and self-injury witness, and violence and suicide in family members. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters obtained higher scores in depressive, obsessive, masochistic, and borderline personality disorders clinical somatoform symptoms, alcohol abuse in addition to drug use, major depressive disorder, and stress. Suicide attempters also used lower levels of task-focused and avoidance-focused strategies and higher levels of emotion-focused strategies to cope with stressors. Conclusion: The findings of this study can contribute to suicide identification and prevention among drug abusers.

  15. Comparison of childhood sexual histories in subjects with pedophilia or opiate addiction and healthy controls: is childhood sexual abuse a risk factor for addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Forman, Howard; Steinfeld, Matthew; Fradkin, Yuli; Frenda, Steven; Galynker, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Given the recent interest in the concept of sexual addictions, it is instructive to study subjects with pedophilia alongside chemically addicted individuals and non-addicted controls in order to help identify which factors may determine the objects of people's respective addictions, as well as any factors that may predispose people to developing an addictive disorder. In this study, we considered whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a specific risk factor for pedophilia as opposed to other types of addictive disorders by comparing the childhood sexual histories of 48 pedophilic sex offenders, 25 subjects with opiate addiction in remission, and 61 healthy controls. CSA was assessed with The Sexual History Questionnaire and the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Compared with both opiate addicted subjects and healthy controls, subjects with pedophilia were more likely to report experiencing adult sexual advances when they were children and a first sexual contact by age 13 with a partner at least 5 years older. Although both subjects with pedophilia and those with opiate addiction first had sex at a younger age than healthy controls, opiate addicted subjects, compared with healthy controls, reported neither increased reception of sexual advances as children nor increased rates of first sexual contact before age 13 with a partner at least 5 years older. Further, subjects with pedophilia but not those with opiate addiction scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the CTQ. Sexual abuse in childhood may be a specific risk factor for sexual addictions such as pedophilia but may not be a specific risk factor for chemical addictions.

  16. Clinical features and psychiatric comorbidities of borderline personality disorder patients with versus without a history of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Fisher, Amanda M; Kelliher, Caitlin H; Penner, Justin D; Goodman, Marianne; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S; Siever, Larry J; Hazlett, Erin A

    2016-12-30

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are at high risk for suicidal behavior. However, many BPD patients do not engage in suicidal behavior. In this study, we compared clinical features of BPD patients with or without a history of suicide attempts and healthy volunteers. Compared with healthy volunteers, both BPD groups had higher Affective Lability Scale (ALS), ALS - Depression-Anxiety Subscale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS), and Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA) scores and were more likely to have a history of temper tantrums. BPD suicide attempters had higher ALS, ALS - Depression-Anxiety Subscale and LHA scores and were more likely to have a history of non-suicidal self-injury or temper tantrums compared to BPD non-attempters. Also, BPD suicide attempters were more likely to have a history of comorbid major depressive disorder and less likely to have comorbid narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in comparison to BPD non-attempters. About 50% of study participants in each BPD group had a history of comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Our study indicates that BPD patients with a history of suicide attempt are more aggressive, affectively dysregulated and less narcissistic than BPD suicide non-attempters. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of childhood trauma in personality disordered and healthy control adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F

    2010-11-01

    Studies of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), suggest a relationship between CSF HVA concentration and history of childhood trauma. In this study, the authors test the hypothesis that this relationship is also present using peripheral levels of HVA in healthy volunteers and in personality disordered subjects. 68 personality disordered (PD) and healthy control (HC) subjects were chosen, in whom morning basal plasma HVA (pHVA) concentrations and an assessment of childhood trauma were obtained. History of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). A significant inverse correlation was found between CTQ Total scores and pHVA concentration across all subjects. In addition, pHVA was lower, and CTQ scores were higher, in PD as compared with HC subjects. Correlations with other personality and behavioral measures were not statistically significant. The data suggest that pHVA concentrations are inversely correlated with history of childhood trauma and that variability in this index of dopamine function may be affected by the history of childhood trauma in healthy and personality disordered subjects.

  18. Screening for intellectual disability in persons with a substance abuse problem: Exploring the validity of the Hayes Ability Screening Index in a Dutch-speaking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Wing Ting; Vanheule, Stijn; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Audenaert, Kurt; Vandevelde, Stijn

    2014-11-12

    There is an increasing interest in screening instruments to detect intellectual disability (ID) in a quick and accurate way in mental health services as well as in the criminal justice system in order to provide appropriate support for people with undetected needs caused by ID. An instrument that has been proven to be useful in both settings is the Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI). This study assessed the validity of the Dutch version of the HASI in persons with a substance abuse problem residing in mental health services, whether or not mandated to treatment by court order. The HASI was conducted along with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III as the criterion for validity to 90 participants. Additionally, the influence of psychiatric disorder and medication use on the HASI result was examined. A significant positive relationship was found between the two instruments, demonstrating convergent validity. Using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the discriminative ability of the HASI with a cut-off score of 85 was found to be adequate, yielding in a good balance between sensitivity and specificity. The HASI was not distorted by the presence of the substance abuse problem or other psychiatric illnesses and medication did not influence the HASI scores in this study. These findings indicate that the HASI provides a time-efficient and resource-conscious way to detect ID in persons with a substance problem, thus addressing a critical need in mental health settings. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Brief history for the search and discovery of the Higgs particle - A personal perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Sau Lan

    2014-01-01

    In 1964, a new particle was proposed by several groups to answer the question of where the masses of elementary particles come from; this particle is usually referred to as the Higgs particle or the Higgs boson. In July 2012, this Higgs particle was finally found experimentally, a feat accomplished by the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration using the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is the purpose of this review to give my personal perspective on a brief history of the experimental search for this particle since the '80s and finally its discovery in 2012. Besides the early searches, those at the LEP collider at CERN, the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab, and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are described in some detail. This experimental discovery of the Higgs boson is often considered to be the most important advance in particle physics in the last half a century, and some of the possible implications are briefly discussed. This review is partially based on a talk presented by the author at the ...

  20. A general factor of personality in a sample of inmates: Associations with indicators of life-history strategy and covitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study looked for a General Factor of Personality (GFP in a sample of male convicts (N=226; mean age 32 years. The GFP was extracted from seven broad personality traits: FFM factors, Amoralism (the negative pole of the lexical Honesty-Humility factor and Disintegration (operationalization of Schizotypy. Three first-order factors were extracted, labeled Dysfunctionality, Antisociality and Openness, and GFP was found through the hierarchical factor analysis. The nature of the GFP was explored through analysis of its relations with markers of fast Life-History strategy and covitality. The results demonstrated that the GFP is associated with unrestricted sexual behavior, medical problems, mental problems, early involvement in criminal activity and stability of criminal behavior. The evidence shows that the GFP is a meaningful construct on the highest level of personality structure. It may represent a personality indicator of fitness-related characteristics and could be useful in research of personality in an evolutionary context.

  1. History of early abuse as a predictor of treatment response in patients with fibromyalgia : A post-hoc analysis of a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pae, Chi-Un; Masand, Prakash S.; Marks, David M.; Krulewicz, Stan; Han, Changsu; Peindl, Kathleen; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to determine whether a history of physical or sexual abuse was associated with response to treatment in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled release (CR) in fibromyalgia. Methods. A randomized, double-blind,

  2. Inaccuracy of transthoracic echocardiography for the identification of right-sided vegetation in patients with no history of intravenous drug abuse or cardiac device insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiang; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Jinghua; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Guangfa

    2014-06-01

    The use of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to identify right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) vegetation is controversial. Data are scarce for patients with no history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) or cardiac device insertion. This study analysed the consistency of presurgical echocardiographic results with surgical findings for vegetation identification, and the factors that influence accuracy of echocardiography. This retrospective trial divided infective endocarditis (IE) patients into three subgroups according to the results of their presurgical TTE: left-sided native IE (LSNIE), left-sided prosthetic valve IE (LSPIE) and RSIE. The accuracy of TTE was tested by comparing vegetation (number and location), detected presurgery by TTE, with actual findings during surgery. In total, 416 patients were analysed, 322 with LSNIE, 31 with LSPIE and 63 with RSIE. Consistency between TTE findings and surgical results was lower in the RSIE group compared with the LSPIE and LSNIE groups. Consistency was lowered by the presence of vegetation in multiple locations and atypical distribution--both of which were increased in the RSIE group. The chance of vegetation in both sides of the heart rose with increased numbers of vegetation locations in RSIE patients. A high proportion of RSIE patients had congenital heart defects, mostly ventricular septal defects. TTE may be unsuitable for RSIE patients with no history of IVDA or cardiac device insertion, because multifocal and atypically distributed vegetation may influence detection accuracy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Distinguishing bipolar II depression from major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder: demographic, clinical, and family history differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Morgan, Theresa A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the potential treatment implications, it is clinically important to distinguish between bipolar II depression and major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder. The high frequency of diagnostic co-occurrence and resemblance of phenomenological features has led some authors to suggest that borderline personality disorder is part of the bipolar spectrum. Few studies have directly compared patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we compared these 2 groups of patients on demographic, clinical, and family history variables. From December 1995 to May 2012, 3,600 psychiatric patients presenting to the outpatient practice at Rhode Island Hospital (Providence, Rhode Island) were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders. The focus of the present study is the 206 patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder (MDD-BPD) and 62 patients with DSM-IV bipolar II depression without borderline personality disorder. The patients with MDD-BPD were significantly more often diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (P depression had a significantly higher morbid risk for bipolar disorder in their first-degree relatives than the MDD-BPD patients (P depression and major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder differed on a number of clinical and family history variables, thereby supporting the validity of this distinction. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  5. Social disorganization and history of child sexual abuse against girls in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Ismail; Uthman, Olalekan A; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria

    2013-08-07

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a considerable public health problem. Less focus has been paid to the role of community level factors associated with CSA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighbourhood-level measures of social disorganization and CSA. We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 adolescents from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2006 and 2008. The percentage of adolescents that had experienced CSA ranged from 1.04% to 5.84%. There was a significant variation in the odds of reporting CSA across the communities, suggesting 18% of the variation in CSA could be attributed to community level factors. Respondents currently employed were more likely to have reported CSA than those who were unemployed (odds ratio [OR]=2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48 to 2.83). Respondents from communities with a high family disruption rate were 57% more likely to have reported CSA (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.16). We found that exposure to CSA was associated with high community level of family disruption, thus suggesting that neighbourhoods may indeed have significant important effects on exposure to CSA. Further studies are needed to explore pathways that connect the individual and neighbourhood levels, that is, means through which deleterious neighbourhood effects are transmitted to individuals.

  6. Substance abuse treatment and psychiatric comorbidity: do benefits spill over? analysis of data from a prospective trial among cocaine-dependent homeless persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kertesz Stefan G

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbid psychiatric illness can undermine outcomes among homeless persons undergoing addiction treatment, and psychiatric specialty care is not always readily available. The prognosis for nonsubstance abuse psychiatric diagnoses among homeless persons receiving behaviorally-based addiction treatment, however, is little studied. Results Data from an addiction treatment trial for 95 cocaine-dependent homeless persons (1996–1998 were used to profile psychiatric diagnoses at baseline and 6 months, including mood-related disorders (e.g. depression and anxiety-related disorders (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder. Treatment interventions, including systematic reinforcement for goal attainment, were behavioral in orientation. There was a 32% reduction in the prevalence of comorbid non-addiction psychiatric disorder from baseline to 6 months, with similar reductions in the prevalence of mood (-32% and anxiety-related disorders (-20% (p = 0.12. Conclusion Among cocaine-dependent homeless persons with psychiatric comorbidity undergoing behavioral addiction treatment, a reduction in comorbid psychiatric disorder prevalence was observed over 6 months. Not all participants improved, suggesting that even evidence-based addiction treatment will prove insufficient for a meaningful proportion of the dually diagnosed homeless population.

  7. Psicopatía, otros trastornos de personalidad, abuso de sustancias y violencia/Psychopathy, personality disorders, substance abuse and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Garrido Genovés (España

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad está bien establecido que ciertos trastornos mentales incrementan el riesgo de realizar comportamientos violentos. En particular esto es cierto para el abuso de sustancias y el grupo B de los trastornos de personalidad del DSM-IV (Garrido, 2003. También tendríamos que incluir en esta relación —aunque en menor medida— los trastornos incluidos en el espectro de la esquizofrenia, en particular los síntomas paranoides de amenaza y de control, y en general el estilo cognitivo de personalidad paranoide (Nestor, 2002. No obstante, yo me referiré tan sólo a la relación existente entre el mencionado grupo B y el abuso de sustancias y su vinculación con el delito y la violencia. Más en concreto, atenderé especialmente, dentro de ese grupo B, al trastorno antisocial de la personalidad y a la psicopatía (aunque no son términos todo intercambiables, como luego veremos y su capacidad para predecir tales comportamientos desviados de violencia y conducta antisocial. Currently it is well established that certain mental disorders increase the risk for violent behaviour. This is in particular true for the Group B of the DSM-IV (2003 Garrido personality disorders and substance abuse. Would also have to include disorders included in the spectrum of schizophrenia, paranoid and control symptoms in particular, and in general the cognitive style of personality in this relationship -although in smaller measure- paranoid (Nestor, 2002. I refer only to the relationship between the Group (b and substance abuse and its link with crime and violence. More specifically, within that group B, the antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy (although they are not all interchangeable terms, as we shall see and its ability to predict such behavior diverted from violence and antisocial behaviour.

  8. Mediators of sexual functioning and marital quality in chronically depressed adults with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Boadie W; Hill, Eric; Johnson, Benjamin N; Klein, Daniel N; Gelenberg, Alan J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Thase, Michael E; Kocsis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common among depressed adults. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depressive symptomology are among the risk factors for sexual dysfunction, and these factors may interact to predict adult relationship functioning. Several models have been developed postulating interactions between these variables. We tested models of the effects of CSA and elucidate the associations between CSA, sexual dysfunction, depression severity, anxiety, and relationship quality in chronically depressed adults. Baseline data from 808 chronically depressed outpatients enrolled in the Research Evaluating the Value of Augmenting Medication with Psychotherapy study were evaluated using structural equation modeling. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomology, self-report version (IDS-SR) assessed depression severity, and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire Anxious Arousal subscale assessed anxiety. Sexual function was assessed with the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), and the Quality of Marriage Index (QMI) assessed relationship quality for patients in stable relationships. CSA scores predicted depression severity on the IDS-SR, as well as lower relationship quality and sexual satisfaction. ASEX scores were significantly associated with depression severity but were not correlated with the QMI. Two models were evaluated to elucidate these associations, revealing that (i) depression severity and anxious arousal mediated the relationship between CSA and adult sexual function, (ii) anxious arousal and sexual functioning mediated the association between CSA and depression symptoms, and (iii) when these models were combined, anxious arousal emerged as the most important mediator of CSA on depression which, in turn, mediated associations with adult sexual satisfaction and relationship quality. Although CSA predicts lower relationship and sexual satisfaction among depressed adults, the long-term effects of CSA appear to be mediated by depressive and anxious symptoms. It

  9. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  10. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Substance Abusers Adapted for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS with Substance Use Diagnoses and Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elizabeth E.; Miller, Alec L.; Greene, Lori I.; Winiarski, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to describe modifications made to Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for a predominantly ethnic minority population of persons living with HIV/AIDS with substance-use diagnoses and borderline personality disorder (BPD) or three features of BPD plus suicidality (i.e., the triply diagnosed). Despite the myriad…

  11. Overview: Clinical Identification of Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna

    1993-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)

  12. Risk of Cardiomyopathy in Younger Persons With a Family History of Death from Cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis F; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Øyen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    at the population level is unclear. In a nationwide cohort, we examined the risk of cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death (... ascertained family history of premature (... incidence rate ratios for cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death. Premature cardiomyopathy deaths in first- and second-degree relatives were associated with 29- and 6-fold increases in the rate of cardiomyopathy, respectively. If the first-degree relative died aged

  13. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  14. Infantile abuse: Radiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.

  15. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  16. A Survey of Headache Medicine Physicians on the Likeability of Headaches and Their Personal Headache History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randolph W; Ghosh, Kamalika

    2016-03-01

    Two prior studies have shown an increased prevalence of migraine among physicians who are headache medicine specialists (HMS). There have been no studies of the prevalence of other headache disorders among HMS. A prior survey showed that neurologists like to treat some headaches more than others but there has not been a similar survey of HMS. The aim of the survey was to learn more about the prevalence of headaches among HMS and which headache disorders they like to treat. An email survey was sent to 749 physician members of the American Headache Society who were asked to respond to the following statement using a 5-point Likert scale (from 1, strongly disagree to 5, strongly agree): "I like to treat patients with the following types of headaches or syndromes." They were asked, "Have you personally suffered from any of the following at any time during your life: episodic migraine (EM), chronic migraine (CM), refractory migraine (RM), episodic cluster (EC), chronic cluster (CC), new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and postconcussion syndrome (PCS)." The response rate was 15.8% (n = 118) with a mean age of 51.4 years, 64.4% males, and 85.6% neurologists. HMS reported likeability for treating disorders in rank order as follows: EM (mean = 4.69, SD = 0.61); CM (mean = 4.20, SD = 0.94); RM (mean = 3.62, SD = 1.17); EC (mean = 4.37, SD = 0.80); CC (mean = 3.68, SD = 1.10); NDPH (mean = 3.52, SD = 1.21); and PCS (mean = 3.66, SD = 1.18). The lifetime prevalence of disorders was as follows: EM, 69.5% (85.7% in females and 60.5% in males); CM, 13.6% (19% in females and 10.5% in males); RM, .9% (2.4% females and 0% males); EC, 1.7% (0% females and 2.6% males); CC, 0%; NDPH, 0%, and PCS, 4.2% (7.1% females and 2.6% males). HMS with a personal history of EM (mean = 4.73, SD = 0.51) showed a significant preference (t130  = 7.30, P headaches (mean = 3.90, SD = 0.77). HMS preferred to treat some

  17. A whiff of death: fatal volatile solvent inhalation abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffee, C H; Davis, G J; Nicol, K K

    1996-09-01

    Inhalation abuse of volatile solvents, previously known generically as "glue sniffing," is typically pursued by adolescents. A wide range of legal, easily obtained products containing volatile substances are available for abuse. We report two illustrative cases of fatal volatile substance abuse: gasoline sniffing in a 20-year-old man and aerosol propellant gas inhalation (aerosol air freshener) in a 16-year-old girl with underlying reactive airway disease. Although the ratio of deaths to nonfatal inhalation escapades is extremely low, volatile solvent abuse carries the risk of sudden death due to cardiac arrest after a dysrhythmia or vasovagal event, central nervous system respiratory depression, hypoxia and hypercapnia due to the techniques of inhalation, and other mechanisms. Investigation of the patient's substance abuse history, examination of the scene of death, and special toxicologic analyses are critical to identifying volatile substance inhalation abuse as the cause of death because anatomic autopsy findings will typically be nonspecific. Above all, physicians must suspect the diagnosis of volatile substance inhalation abuse, especially in any case of sudden death involving an otherwise healthy young person.

  18. Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dastjerdi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%, mostly because of bad training (26%. Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%, mostly because of bad training (33.3% Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.

  19. Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

  20. Remnants from the Past: Using Scrapbooks to Make U.S. History Personal and Meaningful

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Whitefish Bay High School recently celebrated its 75th anniversary, and the author wanted his students to remember this event for many years. As a U.S. history teacher, he also wanted to find a way for them to understand that their high school's history has coincided with national events and trends over the past seven decades. He decided to use a…

  1. Orlonia's "Literacy-in-Persons": Expanding Notions of Literacy through Biography and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy Suzanne; Cowles, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Life history methods were used to explore the literate identity of one African American woman, Orlonia, who lives and works in a small rural community in the southeastern United States. Specifically, the authors explore how Orlonia's literate identity is constantly developing throughout her life, taking place in frames of biography and history.…

  2. Substance abuse associated with elder abuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogerst, Gerald J; Daly, Jeanette M; Galloway, Lara J; Zheng, Shimin; Xu, Yinghui

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse by either victim or perpetrator has long been associated with violence and abuse. Sparse research is available regarding elder abuse and its association with substance abuse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of state-reported domestic elder abuse with regional levels of substance abuse. Census demographic and elder abuse data were sorted into substate regions to align with the substance use treatment-planning regions for 2269 US counties. From the 2269 US counties there were 229 substate regions in which there were 213,444 investigations of abuse. For the other Ns (reports and substantiations) there were fewer counties and regions. See first sentence of data analyses and first sentence of results. Elder abuse report rates ranged from .03 to .41% (80 regions), investigation rates .001 to .34% (229 regions), and substantiation rates 0 to .22% (184 regions). Elder abuse investigations and substantiations were associated with various forms of substance abuse. Higher investigation rates were significantly associated with a higher rate of any illicit drug use in the past month, a lower median household income, lower proportion of the population graduated high school, and higher population of Hispanics. Higher substantiation rates were significantly associated with higher rate of illicit drug use in the past month and higher population of Hispanics. It may be worthwhile for administrators of violence programs to pay particular attention to substance abuse among their clients and in their community's environment, especially if older persons are involved. Measures of documented elder abuse at the county level are minimal. To be able to associate substance abuse with elder abuse is a significant finding, realizing that the substance abuse can be by the victim or the perpetrator of elder abuse.

  3. Perceived stress, external locus of control, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment among female inmates with or without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  4. Family history assessment of personality disorders: II. Association with measures of psychosocial functioning in direct evaluations with relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M E; Ferro, T; Klein, D N

    1997-01-01

    To test the convergent validity of the Family History Interview for Personality Disorders (FHIPD), as well as the general utility of informants' reports of personality disorders, we explored the relationship between proband informant reports of Axis II diagnoses on the FHIPD and relative reports of various indices of psychosocial adjustment. Subjects were the first degree relatives (n = 454) of 224 probands participating in a family study of mood and personality disorders. Relatives provided information on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), the Personality Disorder Examination (PDE), and other variables reflecting aspects of psychosocial dysfunction that are common in personality disorders. Proband informants were interviewed about their relatives using the FHIPD Proband informant reports of personality disorders on the FHIPD were associated with a variety of forms of psychosocial dysfunction as determined in direct assessments with the relatives, even for those with no diagnosable Axis II psychopathology dysfunction as determined in direct assessments with the relatives, even for those with no diagnosable Axis II psychopathology on direct interview. These results support the convergent validity of the FHIPD, and suggest that informants may provide important information on Axis II psychopathology that is not obtained from direct interviews with the subjects themselves.

  5. A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Bonnie

    Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…

  6. A Survey of Abuse of the Elderly in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeff; And Others

    Many elderly persons suffer abuse and neglect from which they cannot escape. Questions concerning the extent of elder abuse, the kinds of abuse, and underlying factors associated with elder abuse in Texas were explored in a survey of professionals most likely to encounter elder abuse in their work. Questionnaires (1,508) were mailed to agencies…

  7. Chronic tiagabine administration and aggressive responding in individuals with a history of substance abuse and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Alcorn, Joseph L; Swann, Alan C; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D

    2012-07-01

    Anticonvulsants, notably those which modulate GABA activity, have shown efficacy in reducing aggressive behavior. Previously, we found dose-related decreases in human aggressive responding following acute tiagabine administration. Here, we examined the effects of chronic tiagabine over a 5-week period. Twelve individuals at increased risk for aggressive and violent behavior (currently on parole/probation with personality and/or substance use disorders) were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 6) or an escalating dose sequence of placebo, 4 mg, 8 mg, 12 mg, placebo (n = 6). Data were analyzed using both frequentist and Bayesian mixed models, evaluating aggressive behavior as a function of time, dose condition, and their interaction. For aggressive responding, there was a significant interaction of drug condition and time. Aggression in the tiagabine condition decreased for each additional week in the study, while participants in the placebo condition failed to demonstrate similar change over time. For monetary-reinforced responding, no drug or drug by time interactions were observed, suggesting specificity of drug effects on aggression. The small number of subjects limits the generality of the findings, and previous studies with tiagabine are limited to acute dosing and case report investigations. However, the present data provide an indication that tiagabine merits further examination as an agent for management of impulsive aggression.

  8. The association between harm avoidance personality traits and self-reported concussion history in South African rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Abrahams, Shameemah; Patricios, Jon; Suter, Jason; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V

    2018-01-01

    Personality traits have been proposed to affect the risk of sports concussion, but evidence is limited. Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) measures novelty seeking, harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TPQ scores and concussion history in rugby union players. Cross-sectional study. Rugby players from high schools, senior amateur clubs, and professional teams provided a self-reported concussion history and completed the TPQ. Participants reporting no previous concussions formed the control group, while participants reporting concussion formed the case group. A one-way analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, was used to examine the differences in TPQ scores between groups. Of the 309 participants, 54% reported a minimum of one concussion (junior: 47%; amateur: 52%; professional: 72%). HA scores were significantly higher in junior players without a history of concussion compared to cases (p=0.006). Specifically, the junior control group had higher "anticipatory worry" (p=0.009) and "fear of uncertainty" (p=0.008). In contrast, the professional control group had lower HA scores than cases (p=0.009), while the amateur cohort displayed no differences between control and case groups. This study identified a novel association between HA and concussion in rugby players, adding evidence to the role of personality in a multifactorial risk-model of concussion. The findings suggest that lower HA may lead to increased dangerous play in youth rugby, influencing concussion susceptibility. Contrasting associations in the professional cohort suggest further research is required to understand the role of personality in concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GH response to intravenous clonidine challenge correlates with history of childhood trauma in personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Royce J; Fanning, Jennifer R; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-05-01

    Childhood trauma is a risk factor for personality disorder. We have previously shown that childhood trauma is associated with increased central corticotrophin-releasing hormone concentration in adults with personality disorder. In the brain, the release of corticotrophin-releasing hormone can be stimulated by noradrenergic neuronal activity, raising the possibility that childhood trauma may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis by altering brain noradrenergic function. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that childhood trauma is associated with blunted growth hormone response to the α-2 adrenergic autoreceptor agonist clonidine. All subjects provided written informed consent. Twenty personality disordered and twenty healthy controls (without personality disorder or Axis I psychopathology) underwent challenge with clonidine, while plasma Growth Hormone (GH) concentration was monitored by intravenous catheter. On a different study session, subjects completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and underwent diagnostic interviews. Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, childhood trauma was associated with enhanced GH response to clonidine. This positive relationship was present in the group of 40 subjects and in the subgroup 20 personality disordered subjects, but was not detected in the healthy control subjects when analyzed separately. The presence of personality disorder was unrelated to the magnitude of GH response. Childhood trauma is positively correlated with GH response to clonidine challenge in adults with personality disorder. Enhanced rather that blunted GH response differentiates childhood trauma from previously identified negative predictors of GH response, such as anxiety or mood disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heritability and social brood effects on personality in juvenile and adult life-history stages in a wild passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winney, I S; Schroeder, J; Nakagawa, S; Hsu, Y-H; Simons, M J P; Sánchez-Tójar, A; Mannarelli, M-E; Burke, T

    2018-01-01

    How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness. We did not detect maternal effects on any traits, but we did detect a social brood effect on nestling activity. Boldness, exploration and nestling activity in this population did not form a behavioural syndrome, suggesting that selection could act independently on these behavioural traits in this species, although we found no consistent support for phenotypic selection on these traits. Our work shows that repeatable behaviours can vary in their heritability and that social context influences personality traits. Future efforts could separate whether personality traits differ in heritability because they have served specific functional roles in the evolution of the phenotype or because our concept of personality and the stability of behaviour needs to be revised. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. [From "psychopathy" to "personality disorder"--conceptual history of a problematic field within psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Paul; Camenisch, Paul

    2015-11-11

    The issue of personality disorders addresses fundamental questions of psychiatry: Is there a clear boundary between normal behaviour and the state of mental illness? Which criteria are defining this boundary? Is a personality disorder really a mental illness or «just» a special variation of an individual lifestyle? This paper reviews the development of the terms psychopathy/personality disorder from the early 19th century to the present-day diagnostic manuals ICD-10 and DSM-5. This debate spreads out–as it does with regard to any other mental disorder–between psychopathological, neurobiological and social sciences approaches. It is of high practical relevance to realize that nowadays effective therapeutic options for patients with personality disorders are available. Therefore, the therapeutic nihilism of earlier times is no longer justified.

  12. The study of personal familial and psychological characteristics and drug abuse among in bed patients with suicide intention in Shohadaye Ashayer in 1383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra Safa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Safa M1, Mohmoudi GhA2, Soultani far M3, Saki M4, Farhadi A5 1. Assistant professor, Department of psychology, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. Assistant professor, Department of forensic medicine, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 3. General practitioner 4. Instructor, Department of nursing, Faculty of nursing and midwifery, LorestanUniversity of medical sciences 5. Instructor, Department of psychology and health, Faculty of medicine, LorestanUniversity of medical sciences Abstract Background: Suicide is one of the social problem which brings about death of active characters in the society and it is considered as a remarkable problem for health. Suicide is the number 9 factor of death in America. Nearly 85 cases of suicide happen per day within 20 minutes each. Drug abuse is of psychiatric urgency and it is regarded as an important variable related to suicide. Materials and methods: All clients who committed suicide and were hospitalized in Shohadaye Ashayer hospital were included in this study ( from July 83 to January 83 . Results: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between drug abuse and chronic organic disease among patients with suicide intention . Among 67 suicide cases, 55.2% were male and 44.8% were female. The highest frequency (55.2% covered the age group (19–26 .Most of the cases were unmarried. 47.8% were unemployed . 79.1 % were city residents and 21.9 % were living in the country. 53.7% of the participants had elementary school and junior high school education . Conclusion: The study was to determine the frequency of personal, familial psychological characteristics and drug abuse among clients with suicide. The results emphasize on the preventive effect of the level of education in this Province. The results also showed that the more the number of people in the family, the more suicide cases in the family. Further more among married ones, cases

  13. Factors Affecting Sexual History Taking in a Health Center Serving Homeless Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowicz, Timothy Joseph; Bradway, Christine K

    2018-03-01

    Low rates of documentation of sexual histories have been reported and research on sexual history taking (SHT) has focused on the content of, barriers to collecting, and interventions to improve documentation of sexual histories. Absent from this literature is an understanding of the contextual factors affecting SHT. To address this gap, a focused ethnography of one health center was conducted. Data were collected through observations of health care encounters and interviews with health care providers (HCPs). No SHT was observed and this was likely influenced by patients' characteristics, communication between patients and HCPs, the prioritization of patients' basic needs, and time constraints imposed upon encounters. Given that the health center studied serves patients experiencing homelessness, behavioral health concerns, and opioid use disorder, findings illuminate areas for future inquiry into a patient population affected by social as well as physiologic determinants of health and potentially at high risk for adverse sexual health outcomes.

  14. Sexual risk behaviours and sexual abuse in persons with severe mental illness in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Lundberg

    Full Text Available Persons with severe mental illness (SMI engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1 casual sex during illness episodes, (2 rape by non-partners, (3 exploitation by partners, (4 non-monogamous partners, and (5 sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.

  15. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is when you pour the product into a bag, hold it over your mouth and nose, and inhale. How is inhalant abuse diagnosed? If you think your child is abusing inhalants, talk to them. Be honest and open. Tell them ...

  16. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  17. Role of the family in drug abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartikeyan S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple random survey of 9863 population out of the total 70,000 population is one slum pocket of Bombay revealed drug dependence in 104 persons. Out of 104, 83.65% smoked ′brown sugar′ 10.68% used cannabis and 5.77% opium. Most of the addicts (95.2% belonged to large families. Family history of alcoholism and drug abuse was present in 41.35%. Parental deprivation was additional contributing factor in 30.7%.

  18. On Teaching History in the Prisons of Georgia: A Person View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Teaches a history course in a correctional facility in Georgia. Discusses class problems, testing, grading procedures, and the environment. Finds establishing routine is effective in bringing order and purpose to the class. Describes student characteristics and response to the class. (NL)

  19. Can persons with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes benefit from technology delivered behavior therapy? A moderating role of treatment history at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C; Guarino, Honoria; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia

    2016-03-01

    A growing line of research has shown positive treatment outcomes from technology-based therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, little is known about the effectiveness of technology-based SUD interventions for persons who already had numerous prior SUD treatments. We conducted a secondary analysis on a 12-month trial with patients (N=160) entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Patients were randomly assigned to either standard MMT treatment or a model in which half of standard counseling sessions were replaced with a computer-based intervention, called Therapeutic Education System (standard+TES). Four treatment history factors at baseline, the number of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, detoxification episodes, and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes were categorized into three levels based on their tertile points, and analyzed as moderators. Dependent variables were urine toxicology results for opioid and cocaine abstinence for 52-weeks. The standard+TES condition produced significantly better opioid abstinence than standard treatment for participants with 1) a moderate or high frequency of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, and 2) those with all three levels (low, moderate and high) of detoxification and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes, pshistory, pstechnology-based behavioral therapy as part of treatment can be more effective than MMT alone, even among patients with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adolescent Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  1. Elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  2. Violence and abuse against people with disabilities: A comparison of the approaches of the European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Oliver; Campbell, Ann

    This paper explores how, and how effectively, two systems of international law have addressed exploitation, violence and abuse of people with mental disabilities. The two international systems reviewed were the Council of Europe's European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The two issues dealt with are (a) forced institutionalisation and denial of community-based services and (b) medically-sanctioned treatment as abuse or violence. The paper offers a comparative analysis of the way in which the two bodies have dealt with exploitation, violence and abuse of people with disabilities, and offers recommendations as to how the two bodies could adjust their approaches to come into closer alignment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Parkinson's, a Selfobject Loss: Theoretical Discussion and Personal Experience and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichler, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a conceptualization of physical impairment as an object loss comparable to the loss of a loved one. It exists when, for example, a person has only one limb, or an illness in an organ of the body. Parkinson's disease is just such an impairment that denies the author the ability to utilize his body's previous capacity of…

  4. The New Technologies in Mathematics: A Personal History of 30 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Villa, Agustín; García, Alfonsa; García, Francisco; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    A personal overview about the use of new technologies for teaching and learning mathematics is given in this paper. We analyse the introduction of Computer Algebra Systems with learning purposes, reviewing different frameworks and didactical resources, some of them generated according the philosophy of the European Area of Higher Education.…

  5. The Impact of Personality on History: An Interview with William L. Shirer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    William L. Shirer, author of Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, discusses a wide variety of subjects, including the personalities of Roosevelt and Hitler, why the Germans succumbed to Nazism, McCarthyism in the United States, and the heroic resistance of the Russians to German invasion. (CS)

  6. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by

  7. PIXE analysis of hilar gland for the evaluation of personal history of exposure to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Shuichi; Takemoto, Kazuo; Sasa, Yoshihiko; Maeda, Kunihiko.

    1992-01-01

    Seven autopsied cases were studied for the evaluation of individual history of exposure to environmental contaminants based on the elemental profile of hilar gland by PIXE and lung tissue by AAS. The results well characterized their occupational history, especially from Cr, Al, Si and As detection. Moreover, it might be possible that these analyses would provide data to suspect the chemical form of each element in deposited particles of lung parenchyma, since the solubility could reflect the different profile of element between hilar gland and lung parenchyma. In addition to these retrospective analyses using the materials obtained from autopsies, it is possible to assess the individual risk using small quantity of hilar gland or lung tissue obtained by biopsy or surgical resection. (author)

  8. Synopsis of key persons, events, and associations in the history of Latino psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M; Olmedo, Esteban

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we present a brief synopsis of six early Latino psychologists, several key conferences, the establishment of research centers, and early efforts to create an association for Latino psychologists. Our chronology runs from approximately 1930 to 2000. This history is a firsthand account of how these early leaders, conferences, and efforts to bring Latinos and Latinas together served as a backdrop to current research and practice in Latino psychology. This history of individuals and events is also intertwined with the American Psychological Association and the National Institute of Mental Health and efforts by Latino psychologists to obtain the professional support necessary to lay down the roots of a Latino presence in psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Do care homes deliver person-centred care? A cross-sectional survey of staff-reported abusive and positive behaviours towards residents from the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising Quality of Life) English national care home survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Claudia; Marston, Louise; Barber, Julie; Livingston, Deborah; Rapaport, Penny; Higgs, Paul; Livingston, Gill

    2018-01-01

    There are widespread concerns about abuse of care home residents. We report, in the largest care home survey, prevalence of staff anonymously-reported, perpetrated/witnessed abusive behaviours towards care home residents over 3 months. We also report positive care behaviours. 1544 staff in 92 English care home units completed the revised Modified Conflict Tactics Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Most staff reported positive care behaviours, but specific person-centred activities were sometimes infrequent. Many care home staff were never or almost never aware of a resident being taken out of the home for their enjoyment (34%, n = 520); or an activity planned around a resident's interests (15%, n = 234). 763 (51%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 47% to 54%) of care home staff reported carrying out or observing potentially abusive or neglectful behaviours at least sometimes in the preceding 3 months; some abuse was reported as happening "at least sometimes" in 91/92 care homes. Neglect was most frequently reported: making a resident wait for care (n = 399, 26%), avoiding a resident with challenging behaviour (n = 391, 25%), giving residents insufficient time for food (n = 297, 19%), and taking insufficient care when moving residents (n = 169, 11%). 1.1% of staff reported physical and 5% verbal abuse. More staff reported abusive/neglectful behaviour in homes with higher staff burnout-depersonalisation scores (adjusted odds ratio 1.191, CI 1.052-1.349). Staff anonymous reports of abusive behaviour and neglect could be used to monitor care quality, as cases currently reported are probably tip of the iceberg, and be an outcome in intervention studies.

  10. Accuracy of self-reported family history is strongly influenced by the accuracy of self-reported personal health status of relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and

  11. Development of a Lifespan-Based Novel Composite Person-Reported Outcome Measure Using Data from the CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Duchenne natural history study PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: McDonald, Craig M. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California, Davis Davis, CA 95618...composite person- reported outcome measure using data from the CINRG Duchenne natural history study 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Craig...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Development of novel technologies and therapeutic agents to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have increased

  12. Neural Correlates of Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Narayan, Meena; Staib, Lawrence H.; Southwick, Steven M.; McGlashan, Thomas; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse is very common in our society, but little is known about the long-term effects of abuse on brain function. The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of memories of childhood abuse in sexually abused women with and without the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method Twenty-two women with a history of childhood sexual abuse underwent injection of [15O]H2O, followed by positron emission tomography imaging of the brain while they listened to neutral and traumatic (personalized childhood sexual abuse events) scripts. Brain blood flow during exposure to traumatic and neutral scripts was compared for sexually abused women with and without PTSD. Results Memories of childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater increases in blood flow in portions of anterior prefrontal cortex (superior and middle frontal gyri—areas 6 and 9), posterior cingulate (area 31), and motor cortex in sexually abused women with PTSD than in sexually abused women without PTSD. Abuse memories were associated with alterations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulate (area 32). There was also decreased blood flow in right hippocampus, fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and visual association cortex in women with PTSD relative to women without PTSD. Conclusions These findings implicate dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (subcallosal gyrus and anterior cingulate), hippocampus, and visual association cortex in pathological memories of childhood abuse in women with PTSD. Increased activation in posterior cingulate and motor cortex was seen in women with PTSD. Dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie PTSD symptoms provoked by traumatic reminders in subjects with PTSD. PMID:10553744

  13. “IF A PERSON USES ALCOHOL THE REAL YOU COMES OUT”: EXPLORING THE SELF, SEXUAL EXPERIENCES AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botes, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the role substances play in relation to the experiences of the self and sexual behaviour of the substance users, which may be of significance for the rehabilitation process. Based on Carl Rogers’s person-centred approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a voluntary sample of seven participants in a treatment centre in Pretoria, South Africa. The findings suggest that the use of substances assists the individual in relieving psychological tensions and to experience euphoric sexual encounters in the process in a way that is congruent with the self-perception. These aspects needs to be taken into consideration in the treatment regimen

  14. A Personal Reflection on the History of Radiation Oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Florence C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a historical and personal narrative of the development of radiation oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), from its founding more than 100 years ago to the present day. Methods and Materials: Historical sources include the Archives of MSKCC, publications by members of MSKCC, the author's personal records and recollections, and her communications with former colleagues, particularly Dr. Basil Hilaris, Dr. Zvi Fuks, and Dr. Beryl McCormick. Conclusions: The author, who spent 38 years at MSKCC, presents the challenges and triumphs of MSKCC's Radiation Oncology Department and details MSKCC's breakthroughs in radiation oncology. She also describes MSKCC's involvement in the founding of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology.

  15. The History Of Muhammadiyahs Thought And Movement Study On Personality And Idea Of The Founding Figure KH. Ahmad Dahlan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauji Koda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Muhammadiyah is one of the pioneers of religious renewal in Indonesia. As a religious reformist Muhammadiyah has contributed greatly in the development of the majority of Indonesias people are Muslims. This research is a study of the thought and movement of Muhammadiyah in Indonesia aims to conduct a study in order to understand the history and ideas of the Muhammadiyah movement focused on the personality of the founder KH. Ahmad Dahlan and the idea of social renewal Muhammadiyah movement. Study of this scientific work using qualitative paradigm with historical-phenomenological approach which examines the history and phenomenon of Muhammadiyah from aspects of personality and thoughts and ideas of KH. Ahmad Dahlan revealed in external actions words and deeds in developing Muhammadiyah in Indonesia. The results of this study indicate that the birth of Muhammadiyah in Indonesia is strongly influenced by the Islamic reform movement in the world the basic idea of thinking founder of Muhammadiyah is the unity of humanity which has implications for the doctrine to achieve welfare and peace of all mankind the idea of social reform Muahmmadiyah refers to movement Tajdid which includes purification and renewal modernization.

  16. Efficacy of a short multidisciplinary falls prevention program for elderly persons with osteoporosis and a fall history: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Groen, B.E.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Eijsbouts, A.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the Nijmegen Falls Prevention Program (NFPP) for persons with osteoporosis and a fall history in a randomized controlled trial. Persons with osteoporosis are at risk for fall-related fractures because of decreased bone strength. A decrease in the number of

  17. The Truth about Abuse? A Comparative Approach to Inquiry Narratives on Historical Institutional Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the history of childhood and history of education have gained status as political concerns through the establishment of numerous truth commissions and inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. This article discusses the methodological and ethical dilemmas that arise when writing the history of abused children with the…

  18. A prospective examination of service use by abused and neglected children followed up into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Czaja, Sally J; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2010-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether abused and neglected children are more likely than those without childhood maltreatment to use health and social services as adults and whether psychiatric status mediates or moderates the relationship. A prospective cohort design was used. Individuals with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-10) and nonvictimized children matched on age, sex, and race-ethnicity were interviewed in adulthood (mean age 41 years). Past-year service use (general medical, mental health, substance abuse, and social) was assessed during 2003-2004 interviews (maltreated group, N=458; control group, N=349). Psychiatric status (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], drug abuse, and major depressive disorder) was assessed during 1989-1995 (mean age 29) by structured interview. Individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were significantly more likely than their control group counterparts to use mental health services (odds ratio [OR]=1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.04-2.45) and social services (OR=2.95, CI=2.19-3.97) in adulthood. Psychiatric status in young adulthood (PTSD and major depressive disorder) partially mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and use of mental health services, whereas major depression and drug abuse moderated the relationship between maltreatment and use of any services and general medical services. In adulthood, individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect are more likely than persons without such histories to use some types of services, and psychiatric status mediates and moderates these relationships. Findings have implications for the provision of services to persons with childhood abuse and neglect.

  19. Associations of personal and family preeclampsia history with the risk of early-, intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Heather A; Tahir, Hassaan; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2013-12-01

    Preeclampsia encompasses multiple conditions of varying severity. We examined the recurrence and familial aggregation of preeclampsia by timing of onset, which is a marker for severity. We ascertained personal and family histories of preeclampsia for women who delivered live singletons in Denmark in 1978-2008 (almost 1.4 million pregnancies). Using log-linear binomial regression, we estimated risk ratios for the associations between personal and family histories of preeclampsia and the risk of early-onset (before 34 weeks of gestation, which is typically the most severe), intermediate-onset (at 34-36 weeks of gestation), and late-onset (after 36 weeks of gestation) preeclampsia. Previous early-, intermediate-, or late-onset preeclampsia increased the risk of recurrent preeclampsia with the same timing of onset 25.2 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.8, 29.1), 19.7 times (95% CI: 17.0, 22.8), and 10.3 times (95% CI: 9.85, 10.9), respectively, compared with having no such history. Preeclampsia in a woman's family was associated with a 24%-163% increase in preeclampsia risk, with the strongest associations for early- and intermediate-onset preeclampsia in female relatives. Preeclampsia in the man's family did not affect a woman's risk of early-onset preeclampsia and was only weakly associated with her risks of intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to have the largest genetic component, whereas environmental factors likely contribute most to late-onset preeclampsia. The role of paternal genes in the etiology of preeclampsia appears to be limited.

  20. Anonymous Search Histories Featuring Personalized Advertisement - Balancing Privacy with Economic Interests

    OpenAIRE

    Thorben Burghardt; Klemens Bohm; Achim Guttmann; Chris Clifton

    2011-01-01

    Search engines are key to finding information on the web. Search presently is free for users financed by targeted advertisement. Today, the current search terms determine the ad placement. In the near future, search-engine providers will make use of detailed user profiles for better ad placement. This puts user privacy at risk. Anonymizing search histories, which is a solution in principle, gives way to a trade-off between privacy and the usability of the data for ad placement. This paper stu...

  1. Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of learning problems in healthy volunteer and personality disordered subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccaro, Emil F; Hirsch, Sharon L; Stein, Mark A

    2007-01-15

    Central dopaminergic activity is critical to the functioning of both motor and cognitive systems. Based on the therapeutic action of dopaminergic agents in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD symptoms may be related to a reduction in central dopaminergic activity. We tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic activity, as reflected by plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), may be related to dimensional aspects of ADHD in adults. Subjects were 30 healthy volunteer and 39 personality disordered subjects, in whom morning basal pHVA concentration and a dimensional measure of childhood ADHD symptoms (Wender Utah Rating Scale: WURS) were obtained. A significant inverse correlation was found between WURS Total score and pHVA concentration in the total sample. Among WURS factor scores, a significant inverse relationship was noted between pHVA and history of "childhood learning problems". Consistent with the dopaminergic dysfunction hypothesis of ADHD and of cognitive function, pHVA concentrations were correlated with childhood history of ADHD symptoms in general and with history of "learning problems" in non-ADHD psychiatric patients and controls. Replication is needed in treated and untreated ADHD samples to confirm these initial results.

  2. Conscious knowledge influences decision-making differently in substance abusers with and without co-morbid antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellentin, Angelina I; Skøt, Lotte; Teasdale, Thomas W; Habekost, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Decision-making impairment, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), is a consistent finding among individuals with substance use disorder (SUD). We studied how this impairment is influenced by co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and conscious knowledge of the task. Three groups were investigated: SUD individuals without co-morbid ASPD (n = 30), SUD individuals with co-morbid ASPD (n = 16), and healthy controls (n = 17). Both SUD and SUD+ASPD participants had poor overall IGT performance. A block-by-block analysis revealed that SUD participants exhibited slow but steady improvement across the IGT, whereas SUD+ASPD participants exhibited initial normal improvement, but dropped off during the last 40 trials. Conscious knowledge of the task was significantly correlated to performance for controls and SUD participants, but not for SUD+ASPD participants. Our findings suggest that decision-making proceeds differently in SUD and SUD+ASPD individuals due to differences in acquisition and application of conscious knowledge. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  3. Dynamic Parameters of Balance Which Correlate to Elderly Persons with a History of Falls

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, Jesse W.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian; Magaziner, Jay; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Poor balance in older persons contributes to a rise in fall risk and serious injury, yet no consensus has developed on which measures of postural sway can identify those at greatest risk of falling. Postural sway was measured in 161 elderly individuals (81.8y±7.4), 24 of which had at least one self-reported fall in the prior six months, and compared to sway measured in 37 young adults (34.9y±7.1). Center of pressure (COP) was measured during 4 minutes of quiet stance with eyes opened. In the ...

  4. Co-occurring substance abuse and mental health problems among homeless persons: Suggestions for research and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Communities throughout the U.S. are struggling to find solutions for serious and persistent homelessness. Alcohol and drug problems can be causes and consequences of homelessness, as well as co-occurring problems that complicate efforts to succeed in finding stable housing. Two prominent service models exist, one known as “Housing First” takes a harm reduction approach and the other known as the “linear” model typically supports a goal of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. Despite their popularity, the research supporting these models suffers from methodological problems and inconsistent findings. One purpose of this paper is to describe systematic reviews of the homelessness services literature, which illustrate weaknesses in research designs and inconsistent conclusions about the effectiveness of current models. Problems among some of the seminal studies on homelessness include poorly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, inadequate measures of alcohol and drug use, unspecified or poorly implemented comparison conditions, and lack of procedures documenting adherence to service models. Several recent papers have suggested broader based approaches for homeless services that integrate alternatives and respond better to consumer needs. Practical considerations for implementing a broader system of services are described and peer-managed recovery homes are presented as examples of services that address some of the gaps in current approaches. Three issues are identified that need more attention from researchers: (1) improving upon the methodological limitations in current studies, (2) assessing the impact of broader based, integrated services on outcome, and (3) assessing approaches to the service needs of homeless persons involved in the criminal justice system. PMID:27092027

  5. Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Cohen, Harvey J; Kraus, William E; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-08-01

    Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members' Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members' adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members' retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants' early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  7. Abusive families and character formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J B

    1990-06-01

    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  8. Association of childhood abuse with homeless women's social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ryan, Gery W; Zhou, Annie J

    2012-01-01

    Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on their social networks. We conducted a study to: (a) develop a typology of sheltered homeless women's social networks; (b) determine whether childhood abuse was associated with the social networks of sheltered homeless women; and (c) determine whether those associations remained after accounting for past-year substance abuse and recent intimate partner abuse. A probability sample of 428 homeless women from temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County completed a personal network survey that provided respondent information as well as information about their network members' demographics and level of interaction with each other. Cluster analyses identified groups of women who shared specific social network characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed variables associated with group membership. We identified three groups of women with differing social network characteristics: low-risk networks, densely connected risky networks (dense, risky), and sparsely connected risky networks (sparse, risky). Multinomial logistic regressions indicated that membership in the sparse, risky network group, when compared to the low-risk group, was associated with history of childhood physical abuse (but not sexual or emotional abuse). Recent drug abuse was associated with membership in both risky network groups; however, the association of childhood physical abuse with sparse, risky network group membership remained. Although these findings support theories proposing that the experience of childhood abuse can shape women's social networks, they suggest that it may be childhood physical abuse that has the most impact among homeless women

  9. Did you get any help? A post-hoc secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of psychoeducation for patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Schrøder, Sidsel; Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten

    2017-01-09

    People in treatment for substance use disorder commonly have comorbid personality disorders, including antisocial personality disorder. Little is known about treatments that specifically address comorbid antisocial personality disorder. Self-rated help received for antisocial personality disorder was assessed during follow-ups at 3, 9 and 15 months post-randomization of a randomized trial of psychoeducation for people with comorbid substance use and antisocial personality disorder (n = 175). Randomization to psychoeducation was associated with increased perceived help for antisocial personality disorder. Perceived help for antisocial personality disorder was in turn associated with more days abstinent and higher treatment satisfaction at the 3-month follow-up, and reduced risk of dropping out of treatment after the 3-month follow-up, and perceived help mediated the effects of random assignment on days abstinent at 3-month. Brief psychoeducation for antisocial personality disorder increased patients' self-rated help for antisocial personality disorder in substance abuse treatment, and reporting having received help for antisocial personality disorder was in turn associated with better short-term outcomes, e.g., days abstinent, dropout from treatment and treatment satisfaction. ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN67266318 , retrospectively registered 17/7/2012.

  10. United States Biological Survey: A compendium of its history, personalities, impacts, and conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidly, David J.; Tydeman, W. E.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2016-01-01

    In 1885, a small three-person unit was created in the U.S. Department of Agriculture to gather and analyze information on bird migrations. Originally called the Section of Economic Ornithology, over the next 55 years this unit underwent three name changes and accumulated ever-increasing responsibilities for the nation’s faunal resources. Transferred to the Department of the Interior in 1939, this agency was merged with the Bureau of Fisheries in 1940 to create the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The following account details the chronology, directorship, and growth of the U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey up to its renovation as the FWS. This account also profiles some employees of the Biological Survey.

  11. Omalizumab for severe asthma: toward personalized treatment based on biomarker profile and clinical history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaian F

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Farnaz Tabatabaian, Dennis K Ledford Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome with numerous underlining molecular and inflammatory mechanisms contributing to the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Multiple therapies targeting severe asthma with type 2 (T2 high inflammation are or soon will be available. T2 high inflammation is defined as inflammation associated with atopy or eosinophilia or an increase in cytokines associated with T-helper 2 lymphocytes. Omalizumab is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody and the first biologic therapy approved for moderate–severe allergic asthma. Despite the specificity of biologic therapies like omalizumab, clinical response is variable, with approximately 50% of treated patients achieving the primary outcome. A prior identification of the ideal candidate for therapy would improve patient outcomes and optimize the use of health care resources. As the number of biologic therapies for asthma increases, the goal is identification of biomarkers or clinical phenotypes likely to respond to a specific therapy. This review focuses on potential biomarkers and clinical history that may identify responders to omalizumab therapy for asthma. Keywords: severe persistent asthma, asthma phenotype and endotype, T2 high inflammation, omalizumab, asthma biomarkers, eosinophils, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, IgE

  12. Personal equations: reflections on the history of fieldwork, with special reference to sociocultural anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklick, Henrika

    2011-03-01

    In the latter part of the nineteenth century, diverse sciences grounded in natural history made a virtue of field research that somehow tested scientists' endurance; disciplinary change derived from the premise that witnesses were made reliable by character-molding trials. The turn to the field was a function of structural transformations in various quarters, including (but hardly limited to) global politics, communications systems, and scientific institutions, and it conduced to biogeographical explanations, taxonomic schemes that admitted of heterogeneity, and affective research styles. Sociocultural anthropology, which took specialized shape at the beginning of the twentieth century, shared many properties with other field sciences, but its method--participant observation-was distinctive. Critical to the method's definition were the efforts of the British experimental psychologist-anthropologist W. H. R. Rivers, who relied on notions then widespread in Europe and the United States. The discipline's future mythic hero, Bronislaw Malinowski, embraced Rivers's model. For both men, proper fieldwork meant using the researcher's body as an instrument and entailed understanding both the anthropologist's body and the research subject's body as energy systems; this symmetry facilitated a relativist perspective. Participant observation remains central to sociocultural anthropology, but the discipline's pedagogic habits contributed to loss of memory of its energetic conceptualization.

  13. A longitudinal study of personality disorders in individuals with and without a history of developmental language disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend-Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally developmental language disorders (DLDs) have been studied with focus on psycholinguistic and cognitive implications, and little is known of the long-term psychosocial outcomes of individuals diagnosed with a DLD as children. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence...... rates and types of personality disorders (PDs) in a clinical sample of 469 individuals diagnosed as children with DLD, with PDs in 2,345 matched controls from the general population without a known history of DLD, using data from the nation-wide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The average...... disorder, and degree of receptive and expressive language disorder) were not associated with a PD diagnosis in the DPCR at follow-up. Our results provide additional support to the notion that DLD is a marker of increased vulnerability to the development of a PD in adulthood and emphasizes that more...

  14. A personal memory of the history of the group of energy and mass transference; Una memoria personal de la historia del grupo de transferencia de energia y masa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Eduardo [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    An object that is exposed to sunlight heats up. Based on the everyday experiences, this is a claim that the majority of us would agree. In a more technical note, this object increases its temperature and internal energy. Reflection for a moment, perhaps we would come to the conclusion that the energy captured by the object exposed to solar radiation could be used in a useful fashion. It would require a much longer time of reflection and analysis to imagine the method to convert the heat into useful energy. It is precisely this analysis that has been the objective of the group of energy and mass transference of the Center for Energy Research since its foundation, and probably will remain so while it can be identified as a group of scientific research. In the following pages we will feature briefly, from a personal stand point of view the history of the work, successes and failures of the group since its inception till the present. [Spanish] Un objeto que se expone a la luz solar se calienta. Basados en la experiencia cotidiana, esta es una aseveracion con la que la mayoria de nosotros estaria de acuerdo. Dicho de manera mas tecnica, este objeto aumenta su temperatura y su energia interna. Reflexionando un instante, quiza llegariamos a la conclusion que la energia capturada por el objeto expuesto a la radiacion solar podria ser usada de manera util. Se requeriria un tiempo mucho mas largo de reflexion y analisis para imaginar el metodo para convertir el calor en energia util. Precisamente este analisis ha sido el objetivo del grupo de Transferencia de Energia y Masa del Centro de Investigacion en Energia desde su fundacion, y probablemente lo seguira siendo mientras se le pueda identificar como un grupo de investigacion cientifica. En las paginas siguientes resenaremos brevemente desde un punto de vista personal la historia del trabajo, exitos y fracasos del grupo desde su inicio hasta el presente.

  15. Life History of Aggression scores are predicted by childhood hyperactivity, conduct disorder, adult substance abuse, and low cooperativeness in adult psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvander, Björn; Ståhlberg, Ola; Nydén, Agneta; Wentz, Elisabet; degl'Innocenti, Alessio; Billstedt, Eva; Forsman, Anders; Gillberg, Christopher; Nilsson, Thomas; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2011-01-30

    The prevention of aggressive behaviours is a core priority for psychiatric clinical work, but the association between the diagnostic concepts used in psychiatry and aggression remains largely unknown. Outpatients referred for psychiatric evaluations of childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders (n=178) and perpetrators of violent crimes referred to pre-trial forensic psychiatric investigations (n=92) had comprehensive, instrument-based, psychiatric assessments, including the Life History of Aggression (LHA) scales. Total and subscale LHA scores were compared to the categorical and dimensional diagnoses of childhood and adult DSM-IV axis I and II mental disorders, general intelligence (IQ), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), and personality traits according to the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Overall, the two groups had similar LHA scores, but the offender group scored higher on the Antisocial subscale. Higher total LHA scores were independently associated with the hyperactivity facet of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), childhood conduct disorder, substance-related disorders, and low scores on the Cooperativeness character dimension according to the TCI. IQ and GAF-scores were negatively correlated with the LHA subscale Self-directed aggression. Autistic traits were inversely correlated with aggression among outpatients, while the opposite pattern was noted in the forensic group. The findings call for assessments of aggression-related behaviours in all psychiatric settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations of Housing First Configuration and Crime and Social Connectedness Among Persons With Chronic Homelessness Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Elizabeth; Flatau, Paul Robert; Swift, Wendy; Dobbins, Timothy A; Burns, Lucinda

    2016-10-01

    This study compared changes in criminal justice contact, quality of life, and social connectedness over a 12-month follow-up period between participants in two Housing First configurations (scattered site [SS] and congregate site [CS]). A longitudinal, quantitative design was utilized for this ecological study. Changes in individual outcomes over time were compared for SS and CS participants who completed both baseline and 12-month follow-up surveys (N=63). The number of contacts with various types of criminal justice system channels differed significantly between SS and CS participants, decreasing significantly among SS participants and increasing significantly among CS participants. The two groups did not differ on quality-of-life outcomes or social-connectedness measures, with the exception of case management engagement, whereby a greater proportion of SS participants disengaged from this service over time compared with CS participants. At follow-up, significant within-group changes over time emerged, with increased boredom reported among SS participants, whereas CS participants reported improvements in social relationships, with fewer reporting losing their temper. The findings supported the notion that the Housing First approach has the potential to significantly improve the lives of persons who have experienced chronic homelessness, a traditionally marginalized and vulnerable group. Over time, this may result in a reduction in the use of acute services, thereby reducing societal costs. The challenge remains to identify the suitability of particular configurations of housing and support and how service delivery can optimize individual outcomes so positive outcomes are maintained in the longer term.

  17. Body-related attentional biases in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from childhood sexual abuse with and without co-occurring borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthöft, M; Borgmann, E; White, A; Dyer, A

    2015-03-01

    Disturbed body perception is a common characteristic of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood sexual abuse (CSA). We examined the extent to which biased information processing of body related stimuli was related to CSA. Patients with PTSD after CSA (PTSD group; n = 61) were compared to healthy controls (HC group; n = 30). The PTSD group was subdivided into patients with comorbid Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD; PTSD+ group) and patients without BPD (PTSD-group). We used an emotional Stroop task (EST) with body-related words to assess biased information processing. Only patients in the PTSD+ group but not in the PTSD-group showed a significantly stronger attentional bias to body related words compared to the HC group (p = .009). Recruitment in in-patient setting might have led to a non-representative sample of PTSD patients. The PTSD patients were not characterized regarding anything other than the mentioned mental disorders. Potentially, the body related words may have been associated with offenders' body areas, but not with the patients. We found that patients with PTSD and comorbid BPD had a stronger attentional bias towards body related stimuli in comparison to other groups. This suggests that the observed attentional bias is a product of CSA combined with the emotion regulation difficulties characteristic of BPD. Future studies should test whether directly targeting body-related abnormalities in information processing can improve existing treatments for patients with CSA and BPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ilya Neustadt, Norbert Elias, and the Leicester Department: personal correspondence and the history of sociology in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John; Hughes, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The central aims of this paper are: (1) to explore the utility of using personal correspondence as a source of data for sociological investigations into the history of sociology in the UK; (2) in relation to this undertaking, to advance the beginnings of a figurational analysis of epistolary forms; and (3), to provide an empirically-grounded discussion of the historical significance of the Department of Sociology at the University of Leicester (a University largely ignored in 'standard histories' of the subject) at a formative phase in the development of the discipline within the UK. The correspondence drawn upon in the paper is between Norbert Elias and Ilya Neustadt between 1962 and 1964 when Elias was Professor of Sociology at the University of Ghana and Ilya Neustadt was Professor of Sociology and Head of the Sociology Department at the University of Leicester. From an analysis of this correspondence, we elucidate an emergent dynamic to the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, one which, we argue, undergirds the development of sociology at Leicester and the distinctive character of the intellectual climate that prevailed there during the 1960s. The paper concludes with a consideration of whether it was a collapse of this dynamic that led to a total breakdown in the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, and by extension, an important phase in the expansion of sociology at Leicester. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  19. Prospectively longitudinal study of the relationship between infancy abuse and antisocial personality disorder%婴儿期虐待与反社会人格障碍关系的美国长程纵向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石振宇; 李志英; 赵旭东; LYONS-RUTH Karlen; BUREAU Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨婴儿期虐待与反社会人格障碍的关系.方法 采用长程纵向研究方法,从婴儿期入组76例样本,到成年早期有效样本56例.婴儿期虐待信息通过官方儿童保护机构的客观记录获得,家访1h再确认.成年早期用DSM-Ⅳ半定式临床诊断访谈工具评估反社会人格障碍、物质滥用、和抑郁障碍.多重填补和分层回归分析纵向数据.结果 33.9%的样本有1条以上反社会人格障碍症状,38.0%符合物质滥用诊断,32.4%有抑郁障碍.分析显示,男性反社会人格障碍发生率高于女性(F相似值=1.40,P=0.001).婴儿期虐待对反社会人格障碍的预测有统计学意义(β=0.28,P=0.03).剔除物质滥用和抑郁障碍的作用后,婴儿期虐待与反社会人格障碍的关联仍有统计学意义(β=0.19,P=0.04).结论 婴儿期虐待对人格产生长期影响,增加日后反社会人格障碍的发生,值得探索其中的生物学机制;对我国建立从婴儿期开始的虐待监控干预体系也有借鉴意义.%Objective To investigate the relationship of antisocial personality disorder(ASPD) and infancy abuse.Methods With prospectively longitudinal research design,76 samples at infancy were initially recruited.Infancy abuse was measured by Child Protective Service records and reconfirmed by one hour family interview.56 remained samples at young adulthood were measured for antisocial personality disorder,depression,and substance abuse by utilizing Structured Clinical Interview-Ⅰ/Ⅱ (SCID-Ⅰ/Ⅱ) of DSM-Ⅳ.Longitudinal data was analyzed by multiple imputation and hierarchal regression.Results 33.9% samples met at least one item of ASPD,38.0% were diagnosed with substance abuse and 32.4% with depression.Gender was correlated with ASPD symptoms (F=1.40,P =0.001 ).Infancy abuse significantly predicted ASPD (β =0.28,P=0.03 ).Further analysis demonstrated that infancy abuse was associated with ASPD with controlling substance abuse and

  20. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  1. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  2. Response to Individualized Homeopathic Treatment for Depression in Climacteric Women with History of Domestic Violence, Marital Dissatisfaction or Sexual Abuse: Results from the HOMDEP-MENOP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Cortés, Emma Del Carmen; Llanes-González, Lidia; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan

    2018-06-05

     Although individualized homeopathic treatment is effective for depression in climacteric women, there is a lack of well-designed studies of its efficacy for depression in battered women or in post-traumatic stress disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the association between individualized homeopathic treatment or fluoxetine and response to depression treatment in climacteric women with high levels of domestic violence, sexual abuse or marital dissatisfaction.  One hundred and thirty-three Mexican climacteric women with moderate-to-severe depression enrolled in the HOMDEP-MENOP Study (a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial, with a 6-week follow-up study) were evaluated. Domestic violence, marital dissatisfaction and sexual abuse were assessed at baseline. Response to depression treatment was defined by a decrease of 50% or more from baseline score of Hamilton scale. Association between domestic violence, sexual abuse, and marital dissatisfaction and response to depression treatment was analyzed with bivariate analysis in the three groups. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.  Homeopathy versus placebo had a statistically significant association with response to depression treatment after adjusting for sexual abuse (OR [95% CI]: 11.07 [3.22 to 37.96]), domestic violence (OR [95% CI]: 10.30 [3.24 to 32.76]) and marital dissatisfaction (OR [95% CI]: 8.61 [2.85 to 25.99]).  Individualized homeopathic treatment is associated with response to depression treatment in climacteric women with high levels of domestic violence, sexual abuse or marital dissatisfaction. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate its efficacy specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder in battered women. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01635218,:  URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01635218?term=depression+homeopathy&rank=1. The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  3. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3) and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5). Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Adolescents with no sexual debut at 18 years of age seemed to live a more stable and cautious life than more sexual experienced peers, exemplified by fewer antisocial acts, less smoking and alcohol/drug consumption, less sexual desire, and less experience of sexual abuse.

  4. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  5. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Operative neurosurgery. Personal view and historical backgrounds. (9) Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA). Past history and status presens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekawa, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The second international meeting on the Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) was held in mid. July 2011 at the children's hospital Zurich by Frau PD Dr.Khan and Prof.Meuli. On this occasion I was asked to give a survey of this disease, so the following points were presented and discussed: Who was the person who discovered this disease. How has the Research Committee of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan (RCMHWJ) contributed to clarify the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology and treatments. What is the current situation in foreign countries especially Euroamerican to date on these topics. How the treatment technique developed and who did the initial revascularization procedures for the first. Update of the disease. Established view; discovery of the disease by Tekeuchi and Shimizu in 1955 could have been called somewhat into question as they described neither abnormal vasculature nor transdural anastomosis. Kudo who described ''spontaneous occlusion of the circle of Willis'' more precisely, but seemed to have thought that the occlusion site of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is around the origin of the ophthalmic artery. Suzuki and Takaku who coined the name Moyamoya disease (MMD) in 1969 and described 6 stages of progression on the basis of observation on 20 cases. The RCMHWJ founded in 1977 has contributed to clarifying the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and etiology by interdisciplinary cooperative study having some epoch making events especially; by setting the guide lines -diagnostic criteria of the disease at the end of 1970, applying MRI and MR angiography (MRA) at the beginning of 1990 for the diagnosis instead of angiography used until then. By finding and focusing, therefore, on the cases of asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic presentation around the middle of 2000, which have almost doubled or tripled in incidence and/or prevalence and also changed the age distribution with the higher peak for adult cases. Achievements of research for the

  7. 76 FR 23828 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD....279, Drug Abuse and [[Page 23829

  8. Exploring Personality Features in Patients with Affective Disorders and History of Suicide Attempts: A Comparative Study with Their Parents and Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Camarena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits are important candidate predictors of suicidal behavior. Several studies have reported an association between personality/temperament traits and suicidal behavior, suggesting personality traits as intermediary phenotypes related to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is possible that suicide attempts can be accounted for by increased familial rates of risk personality traits. The aim of this work was to evaluate personality traits in affective disorder patients with attempted suicide and to compare them with the personality trait scores of their parents. In addition, ITC scores in the two groups were compared with a healthy control sample. The patients evaluated met the DSM-IV criteria for major depression disorder or dysthymia and had a documented history of suicide attempts. Psychiatric diagnoses of patients and parents were done according to the SCID-I and the personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. We analyzed 49 suicide attempt subjects and their parents (n=95 and 89 control subjects. We observed that temperament and character dimensions were similar between patients and their parents (P>0.05. In particular, we observed that high HA and low P, SD, and CO were shared among families. Our study is the first to report that the personality traits of affective disorder patients with a history of attempted suicide are shared between patients and their parents.

  9. Social problem solving, autobiographical memory, trauma, and depression in women with borderline personality disorder and a history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurex, Liselotte; Lekander, Mats; Nilsonne, Asa; Andersson, Eva E; Asberg, Marie; Ohman, Arne

    2010-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare the retrieval of autobiographical memory and the social problem-solving performance of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of suicide attempts, with and without concurrent diagnoses of depression and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to that of controls. Additionally, the relationships between autobiographical memory, social problem-solving skills, and various clinical characteristics were examined in the BPD group. Individuals with BPD who had made at least two suicide attempts were compared to controls with regard to specificity of autobiographical memory and social problem-solving skills. Autobiographical memory specificity and social problem-solving skills were further studied in the BPD group by comparing depressed participants to non-depressed participants; and autobiographical memory specificity was also studied by comparing participants with and without PTSD. A total of 47 women with a diagnosis of BPD and 30 controls completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, assessing memory specificity, and the means-end problem solving-procedure, measuring social problem-solving skills. The prevalence of suicidal/self-injurious behaviour, and the exposure to violence, was also assessed in the BPD group. Compared to controls, participants with BPD showed reduced specificity of autobiographical memory, irrespective of either concurrent depression, previous depression, or concurrent PTSD. The depressed BPD group displayed poor problem-solving skills. Further, an association between unspecific memory and poor problem-solving was displayed in the BPD group. Our results confirmed that reduced specificity of autobiographical memory is an important characteristic of BPD individuals with a history of suicide attempt, independent of depression, or PTSD. Reduced specificity of autobiographical memory was further related to poor social problem-solving capacity in the BPD group.

  10. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  11. Childhood abuse and fear of childbirth--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Vangen, Siri; Øian, Pål

    2010-01-01

    Childhood abuse affects adult health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between a self-reported history of childhood abuse and fear of childbirth.......Childhood abuse affects adult health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between a self-reported history of childhood abuse and fear of childbirth....

  12. Incorporating a Healthy Living Curriculum within Family Behavior Therapy: A Clinical Case Example in a Woman with a History of Domestic Violence, Child Neglect, Drug Abuse, and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly B. LaPota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women reported to child protective service agencies frequently report problems that significantly interfere with the health and well-being of their children and themselves. Behavioral treatment programs appear to be effective in managing these co-existing problems, such as domestic violence and substance abuse. However, evidence-supported interventions are rarely exemplified in complicated clinical cases, especially within child welfare settings. Therefore, in this case example, we describe the process of adapting an evidence-supported treatment to assist in managing significant co-existing health-related problems in a mother who was referred due to child neglect and drug abuse. At the conclusion of therapy, the participant reported improvements in perceived family relationships, illicit drug use, child maltreatment potential, whereas other health-related outcomes were mixed. Most improvements were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Issues relevant to implementing evidence-based treatments within community contexts are discussed, including methods of increasing the likelihood of valid outcome assessment, managing treatment integrity, and adjusting standardized treatments to accommodate co-occurring problems. This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA020548-01A1 awarded to Brad Donohue. The authors wish to thank Sally K. Miller, PhD, APN, FAANP and Associate Professor, UNLV School of Nursing for her work in completing the initial in-home health evaluation/physical for the current project.

  13. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastbom ÅA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Åsa A Kastbom,1,2 Gunilla Sydsjö,3 Marie Bladh,3 Gisela Priebe,4,5 Carl Göran Svedin2 1Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Linköping University Hospital, 2Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 4Department of Psychology, Linnæus University, Växjö, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. Objective: To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Results: Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3 and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5. Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Conclusion: Adolescents

  14. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  15. Relationship between Child Abuse and the Trait of Introversion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extroversion characteristics among senior secondary school students in the study area. Students who were abused were more likely to become introverts than those not abused. Key words: introversion, extroversion, personality traits, non ...

  16. Spouse Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational backgrounds. Preventative methods at societal and community levels are required in addition to more traditional intervention approaches in order to adequately address this problem. This entry will prov...

  17. Predicting a dissociative disorder from type of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christa; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the types of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational ties that best predict a dissociative disorder (DD). Psychiatric inpatients (n = 116; mean age = 35; F:M = 1.28:1) completed measures of dissociation and trauma. Abuse type and abuser-abused relational ties were recorded in the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team clinical diagnosis or administration of the SCID-D-R to high dissociators confirmed DD diagnoses. Logit models described the relationships between abuser-abused relational tie and the diagnostic grouping of patients, DD present (n = 16) or DD absent (n = 100). Fisher's exact tests measured the relative contribution of specific abuse types. There was a positive relationship between abuse frequency and the presence of DD. DD patients experienced more abuse than patients without DDs. Two combinations of abuse type and relational tie predicted a DD: childhood emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings and later emotional abuse by intimate partners. These findings support the early childhood etiology of DDs and subsequent maladaptive cycles of adult abuse. Enquiries about childhood maltreatment should include a history of emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings. Adult emotional abuse by intimate partners should assist in screening for DDs.

  18. Explaining mental health disparities for non-monosexual women: abuse history and risky sex, or the burdens of non-disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tonje J; Pfaus, James G; Ryder, Andrew G

    2015-03-01

    Research has found that non-monosexual women report worse mental health than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. The reasons for these mental health discrepancies are unclear. This study investigated whether higher levels of child abuse and risky sexual behavior, and lower levels of sexual orientation disclosure, may help explain elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety among non-monosexual women. Participants included 388 women living in Canada (Mean age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories as part of an online study running from April 2011 to February 2014. Participants were collapsed into non-monosexual versus monosexual categories. Non-monosexual women reported more child abuse, risky sexual behavior, less sexual orientation disclosure, and more symptoms of depression and anxiety than monosexual women. Statistical mediation analyses, using conditional process modeling, revealed that sexual orientation disclosure and risky sexual behavior uniquely, but not sequentially, mediated the relation between sexual orientation, depression and anxiety. Sexual orientation disclosure and risky sexual behavior were both associated with depression and anxiety. Childhood abuse did not moderate depression, anxiety, or risky sexual behavior. Findings indicate that elevated levels of risky sexual behavior and deflated levels of sexual orientation disclosure may in part explain mental health disparities among non-monosexual women. Results highlight potential targets for preventive interventions aimed at decreasing negative mental health outcomes for non-monosexual women, such as public health campaigns targeting bisexual stigma and the development of sex education programs for vulnerable sexual minority women, such as those defining themselves as bisexual, mostly heterosexual, or mostly lesbian. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  20. Association between alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substance abuse and risk of developing schizophrenia: a nationwide population based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M; Hjorthøj, C

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have examined whether use of substances can cause schizophrenia. However, due to methodological limitations in the existing literature (e.g. selection bias and lack of adjustment of co-abuse) uncertainties still remain. We aimed to investigate whether substance abuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305 diagnosed with schizophrenia. Information regarding substance abuse was extracted from several registers and did not include psychotic symptoms caused by substance abuse in the definition. This resulted in a large, generalizable sample of exposed individuals. The data was analysed using Cox regression analyses, and adjusted for calendar year, gender, urbanicity, co-abuse, other psychiatric diagnosis, parental substance abuse, psychiatric history, immigration and socioeconomic status. A diagnosis of substance abuse increased the overall risk of developing schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR) 6.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.84-6.26]. Cannabis (HR 5.20, 95% CI 4.86-5.57) and alcohol (HR 3.38, 95% CI 3.24-3.53) presented the strongest associations. Abuse of hallucinogens (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.41), sedatives (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.49-1.90), and other substances (HR 2.85, 95% CI 2.58-3.15) also increased the risk significantly. The risk was found to be significant even 10-15 years subsequent to a diagnosis of substance abuse. Our results illustrate robust associations between almost any type of substance abuse and an increased risk of developing schizophrenia later in life.

  1. The Relationship among Childhood Abuse, Parenting Styles, and Antisocial Personality Disorder Tendency%父母教养方式、儿童期虐待、依恋与反社会人格障碍倾向的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈哲; 付丽; 彭咏梅; 蔡蓉; 周世杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨青少年反社会人格倾向与父母教养方式、儿童期虐待、依恋之间的关系.方法:使用人格诊断问卷(PDQ+4)、父母教养方式问卷(PBI)、童年期创伤经历问卷(CTQ)、成人依恋问卷(AAQ)对350名青少年学生施测.结果:①与阴性组相比,反社会人格障碍阳性组在母亲关爱、父亲鼓励自主因子上得分较低,在父亲控制、母亲控制因子上得分较高;阳性组在CTQ和AAQ各因子上(除外母亲拒绝)得分均显著高于阴性组.②儿童期虐待各因子分与反社会人格症状呈显著正相关;依恋各因子与反社会人格症状显著正相关(0.108-0.373).③躯体虐待、对父亲愤怒、母亲角色倒置、情感虐待、母亲拒绝、母爱缺失、母亲控制对反社会人格障碍倾向有预测作用.结论:童年期不良的父母教养方式、儿童期虐待以及不安全依恋与青少年期的反社会人格障碍的形成有密切关联.%Objective: To explore the relationship among childhood abuse, parenting styles, and antisocial personality disorder. Methods: Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ+4) was administered to a sample of 350 adolescents to screen personality disorder subjects. Parental Bonding Instrument(PBI), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire(CTQ) and Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ) were also administered to the same sample. Results: ①Compared with normal adolescents, those with ASPD had experienced less care form their parents, and did not encourage their behavioral freedom, most time controlled during their childhood. ②Childhood abuse and neglect showed a positive correlation with adolescent' ASPD scores. The AAQ factor scores were correlated with antisocial personality disorder symptoms significantly. ③Physical abuse, angry to father, motherhood inverse, emotion abuse, mother refuse, lack of mother's love, and mother's control were predictors of antisocial personality disorder. Conclusion: Childhood abuse, parenting

  2. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elder abuse Emotional and verbal abuse Financial abuse Harassment Human trafficking Physical abuse Sexual coercion Stalking Violence ... A teacher, counselor, or principal at your child’s school. An adult at your child’s school can help ...

  3. Bruising and Hemophilia: Accident or Child Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles F.; Coury, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Two case histories illustrate the difficulty in evaluating abuse/neglect in children with bleeding problems such as hemophilia. Discussed are guidelines for diagnosis and prevention of abuse, including: screening techniques, the need for protection from environmental trauma, parental stress, evaluation of parents' disciplinary methods, and the…

  4. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  5. Efficacy of a short multidisciplinary falls prevention program for elderly persons with osteoporosis and a fall history: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Ellen; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Groen, Brenda E; Duysens, Jacques; Eijsbouts, Agnes; Laan, Roland; van Lankveld, Wim

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the Nijmegen Falls Prevention Program (NFPP) for persons with osteoporosis and a fall history in a randomized controlled trial. Persons with osteoporosis are at risk for fall-related fractures because of decreased bone strength. A decrease in the number of falls therefore is expected to be particularly beneficial for these persons. Randomized controlled trial. Hospital. Persons with osteoporosis and a fall history (N=96; mean ± SD age, 71.0±4.7y; 90 women). After baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to the exercise (n=50; participated in the NFPP for persons with osteoporosis [5.5wk]) or control group (n=46; usual care). Primary outcome measure was fall rate, measured by using monthly fall calendars for 1 year. Secondary outcomes were balance confidence (Activity-specific Balance Confidence Scale), quality of life (QOL; Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis), and activity level (LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire, pedometer), assessed posttreatment subsequent to the program and after 1 year of follow-up. The fall rate in the exercise group was 39% lower than for the control group (.72 vs 1.18 falls/person-year; risk ratio, .61; 95% confidence interval, .40-.94). Balance confidence in the exercise group increased by 13.9% (P=.001). No group differences were observed in QOL and activity levels. The NFPP for persons with osteoporosis was effective in decreasing the number of falls and improving balance confidence. Therefore, it is a valuable new tool to improve mobility and independence of persons with osteoporosis. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Prayer as an Intervention with Clients Who Are Substance Abusing and Addicted and Who Self-Identify Personal Faith in God and Prayer as Recovery Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Watts, Richard E.; Guerra, Norma S.; Hsieh, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how the authors use prayer with clients who self-identify their personal faith in God and who have used prayer as a helpful recovery agent or who believe prayer would be helpful to their personal recovery.

  7. Alcohol and substance use history among ADHD adults: the relationship with persistent and remitting symptoms, personality, employment, and history of service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Zoe; Young, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To profile substance use, personality, service use, and employment in adults with ADHD. The sample consisted of 216 consecutive referrals to an adult ADHD service and classified with ADHD, partially or fully remitted ADHD, or no ADHD. Normal controls (n = 33) were recruited from a general practitioner's center. Participants completed measures of alcohol and illicit substance use, employment, service use, ADHD symptoms, and personality. High rates of substance use were found in participants with current ADHD diagnoses. ADHD participants showed increased rates of personality trait or disorder scores and unemployment. There was some indication that those with ADHD and substance-related impairment place higher demand on services. Individuals with partially remitted ADHD showed similar substance use to those with current ADHD, whereas those in full remission were comparable with normal controls. Although ADHD symptoms may remit with time, individuals retaining persisting or partial symptoms have substantial needs in adulthood.

  8. Personal and psychosocial predictors of psychological abuse by partners during and after pregnancy: a longitudinal cohort study in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, V; Royo-Marqués, M; Artazcoz, L; Romito, P; Ruiz-Pérez, I; Martín-Baena, D

    2013-04-01

    To describe the incidence and risk factors of psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and the first year after childbirth. Longitudinal cohort study. Nine primary care centers in the Valencia Region (Spain). A consecutive sample of 1400 women in the first trimester of pregnancy, attending the prenatal programme in the Valencia Region of Spain in 2008, with follow-up in the third trimester of pregnancy, and at 5 and 12 months postpartum. A total of 888 women (66.5%) participated in all four phases. A logistic regression model was fitted using generalised estimating equations to assess the effects of previous partner violence, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs and social support on subsequent psychological partner violence. Psychological IPV during follow-up. We observed an increase in the incidence of psychological IPV after birth, particularly at 5 months postpartum. The strongest predictor of psychological IPV was having experienced abuse 12 months before pregnancy (OR 10.46, 95%CI 2.40-45.61). Other predictors were consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs by the partner or a family member (OR3.50, 95%CI 1.38-8.85) and lack of affective social support (OR2.83, 95%CI 1.31-6.11). Previous abuse and psychosocial risk factors predict partner psychological abuse after birth. Monitoring psychological IPV and effective interventions are needed not only during pregnancy but also during the postpartum period. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  9. Personal Control Over Decisions to Participate in Research by Persons With Histories of Both Substance Use Disorders and Criminal Justice Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Donna T; Ko, Tomohiro M; Allen, Ashleigh A; Bonnie, Richard J; Suratt, Colleen E; Appelbaum, Paul S; Nunes, Edward V; Friedmann, Peter D; Lee, Joshua D; Gordon, Michael S; McDonald, Ryan; Wilson, Donna; Boney, Tamara Y; Murphy, Sean M; O'Brien, Charles P

    2018-04-01

    Individuals must feel free to exert personal control over decisions regarding research participation. We present an examination of participants' perceived personal control over, as well as reported pressures and threats from others, influencing their decision to join a study assessing the effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone in preventing opioid dependence relapse. Most participants endorsed a strong sense of control over the decision; few reported pressures or threats. Although few in number, participants' brief narrative descriptions of the pressures and threats are illuminating and provide context for their perceptions of personal control. Based on this work, we propose a useful set of tools to help ascertain participants' sense of personal control in joining research.

  10. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  11. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  12. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  13. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD in adolescent victims of sexual abuse: resilience and social support as protection factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hébert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This analysis examined the contribution of personal, family (maternal and paternal support; sibling support and extra-familiar (peer support; other adults resilience to the prediction of clinical levels of PTSD symptoms in adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Controls were established for abuse-related variables (type of abuse, severity and multiple abuse in a representative sample of high schools students in the province of Quebec. A total of 15.2% of adolescent females and 4.4% adolescent males in high school reported a history of sexual abuse in childhood. Sexually abused adolescent females (27.8% were more likely than adolescent males (14.9% to achieve scores with high clinical levels of PTSD. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that over and above the characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced, resilience factors (maternal and peer support contributed to the prediction of symptoms of PTSD attaining the clinical threshold. Alternative intervention and prevention practices geared to adolescent victims of sexual assault are discussed.

  14. Dissociative experiences during sexual behavior among a sample of adults living with HIV infection and a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nathan B; Brown, Lauren J; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of dissociative experiences during sexual behavior. Predictor variables included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, number of perpetrators of CSA, and current sexual satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, and number of perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA.

  15. Elder abuse within the family environment in the Azores Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal-Silva, Rosa María; Viera-Mendes, Maria Helena; Recio-Andrade, Beatriz; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to dimension abuse against vulnerable adults within the family and community environment in the Azores Islands, identify risk factors for abuse and describe the profile of an abused elder. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. Random sampling. The instruments used were: clinical histories of the users, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living, Family APGAR Scale, Elder Abuse Suspicion Index and Social Work Assessment ...

  16. Comparing serial and nonserial sexual offenders: alcohol and street drug consumption, impulsiveness and history of sexual abuse Comparando agressores sexuais seriais e não seriais: consumo de álcool e outras drogas, impulsividade e história de abuso sexual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Antonio Baltieri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences between serial and nonserial sexual offenders in terms of alcohol and drug consumption, impulsivity, and personal history of being sexually abused. METHOD: A sectional and retrospective study carried out by the team of the outpatient clinic for the treatment of sexual disorders at Faculdade de Medicina do ABC - Santo André, Brazil. Three groups of subjects (n = 198 consisting of sexual offenders against one victim, two victims and three or more victims were examined. Convicts sentenced only for sexual crimes were evaluated with the Drug Addiction Screening Test, the CAGE, the Short Alcohol Dependence Data, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Sexual Addiction Screening Test, and the Static-99. RESULTS: Sexual offenders against three or more victims showed more frequent history of being sexually abused than the sexual offenders against one victim. A one-way analysis of variance indicated that sexual offenders against three or more victims evidenced significantly higher scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and on the Sexual Addiction Screening Test than did the sexual aggressors against one victim. After a multinomial logistic regression analysis, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the history of being sexually abused were predicting factors for the group of aggressors against three or more victims in relation to the aggressors against one victim. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual offenders against three or more victims present different characteristics from other groups of sexual offenders and these findings can help to create proposals for the management of this type of inmates.OBJETIVO: Avaliar diferenças entre agressores sexuais seriais e não seriais em termos de consumo de álcool e de outras drogas, impulsividade e história pessoal de abuso sexual. MÉTODO: Trata-se de estudo transversal e retrospectivo realizado pelo Ambulatório de Transtornos da Sexualidade da Disciplina de Psiquiatria da Faculdade de

  17. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  18. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is

  19. Childhood physical abuse in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubo Chiharu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%, anxiety disorders(16.7%, eating disorders (16.3%, pain disorders (10.8%, irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%, and functional dyspepsia(7.5%. In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety and STAI-II (trait anxiety were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.

  20. Sexual abuse experienced by married Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, A M; El-Dien Ibrahim, M; Eldesoky, M M; Aly, O M; El-Sayd Mohamed Hassan, M

    2007-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sexual abuse (SA) and associated factors among married women in Lower Egypt. A cross-sectional clinic- and hospital-based survey was designed for married women aged between 16 and 49 years. The study was conducted with 936 women from the Dakahlia Governorate, which is considered representative of Lower Egypt. Data were collected by personal interview using a questionnaire. The response rate was 93.6%. The most commonly reported frequency of sexual intercourse was 2 to 4 times per week. More than one-third of the women (36.2%) thought this was too frequent, and 11.5% reported being sexually abused in addition to other sexual problems. The educational level of the women; the presence of genital mutilation; parity, especially for those who had more than 5 deliveries; number of gynecologic visits; and history of gynecologic interventions were significantly or highly significantly associated with SA. The husbands' educational level and age were highly significantly correlated with their wives reporting SA, particularly when the men were illiterate or were smokers or drug users. The study's findings demonstrate an immediate need for the prevention of SA in Lower Egypt.

  1. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  3. Research on drug abuse and addiction treatment in prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Kljajević Srđan

    2017-01-01

    The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by i...

  4. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  5. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  6. Dynamic balance in persons with multiple sclerosis who have a falls history is altered compared to non-fallers and to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Alexander T; Bruetsch, Adam P; Lynch, Sharon G; Huisinga, Jessie M

    2017-10-03

    Around 60% of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience falls, however the dynamic balance differences between those who fall and those who don't are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to identify distinct biomechanical features of dynamic balance during gait that are different between fallers with MS, non-fallers with MS, and healthy controls. 27 recurrent fallers with MS, 28 persons with MS with no falls history, and 27 healthy controls walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed for 3min. The variability of trunk accelerations and the average and variability of minimum toe clearance, spatiotemporal parameters, and margin of stability were compared between groups. Fallers with MS exhibited a slower cautious gait compared to non-fallers and healthy controls, but had decreased anterior-posterior margin of stability and minimum toe clearance. Fallers walked with less locally stable and predictable trunk accelerations, and increased variability of step length, stride time, and both anterior-posterior and mediolateral margin of stability compared to non-fallers and healthy controls. The present work provides evidence that within a group of persons with MS, there are gait differences that are influenced by falls history. These differences indicate that in persons with MS who fall, the center of mass is poorly controlled through base of support placement and the foot is closer to the ground during swing phase relative to the non-fallers. These identified biomechanical differences could be used to evaluate dynamic balance in persons with MS and to help improve fall prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Too much or too little step width variability is associated with a fall history in older persons who walk at or near normal gait speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Anne B

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased gait speed and increased stride time, stride length, double support time, and stance time variability have consistently been associated with falling whereas step width variability has not been strongly related to falls. The purpose was to examine the linear and nonlinear associations between gait variability and fall history in older persons and to examine the influence of gait speed. Methods Gait characteristics and fall history were obtained in 503 older adults (mean age = 79; 61% female participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study who could ambulate independently. Gait characteristics were recorded from two trials on a 4 meter computerized walkway at the subject's self-selected walking speed. Gait variability was calculated as the coefficient of variation. The presence of a fall in the past 12 months was determined by interview. The nonlinear association between gait variability and fall history was examined using a simple three level classification derived from the distribution of the data and from literature based cut-points. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between step width variability (extreme or moderate and fall history stratifying by gait speed (1.0 m/s and controlling for age and gender. Results Step length, stance time, and step time variability did not differ with respect to fall history (p > .33. Individuals with extreme step width variability (either low or high step width variability were more likely to report a fall in the past year than individuals with moderate step width variability. In individuals who walked ≥ 1.0 m/s (n = 281, after controlling for age, gender, and gait speed, compared to individuals with moderate step width variability individuals with either low or high step width variability were more likely to have fallen in the past year (OR and 95% CI 4.38 [1.79–10.72]. The association between step width variability and fall history was not

  8. Trauma history is associated with prior suicide attempt history in hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A; Armey, Michael A; Sejourne, Corinne; Miller, Ivan W; Weinstock, Lauren M

    2016-09-30

    Although the relationships between PTSD, abuse history, and suicidal behaviors are well-established in military and outpatient samples, little data is available on this relationship in inpatient samples. This study examines the relationships between these variables and related demographic and clinical correlates in a sample of psychiatric inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder using electronic medical record (EMR) data. Controlling for relevant demographic and clinical variables, PTSD diagnosis and history of abuse were both significantly associated with history of suicide attempt, but in a combined model, only history of abuse remained as a significant predictor. Whereas history of abuse was associated with a history multiple suicide attempts, PTSD diagnosis was not. Both insurance status and gender acted as significant moderators of the relationship between history of abuse and history of suicide attempt, with males and those with public/no insurance having greater associations with history of suicide attempts when an abuse history was present. These data indicate the importance of documentation of PTSD, abuse history, and history of suicide attempts. The results also suggest that in the presence of an abuse history or PTSD diagnosis, additional time spent on safety and aftercare planning following hospital discharge may be indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  10. Sexual abuse and the problem of embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, trauma, sexual abuse, and some of the potential resulting long-term effects, are explored in terms of the problem of embodiment and the formation of personal identity and psychological integrity. That is, what effect does severe sexual abuse have on an individual's, particularly a child's, sense of living in his or her body and, by extension, living in the world? First, trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to the development and maintenance of a "posttraumatic" sense of personal identity. Then, several disorders associated with sexual abuse--dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, suicide, and suicide attempts--are examined in terms of their phenomenological coherence and relation to the problem of embodiment. This conceptual framework may be of use to clinicians and researchers assessing and treating the survivors of sexual abuse.

  11. Evidence for an agitated-aggressive syndrome in early-onset psychosis correlated with antisocial personality disorder, forensic history, and substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian G; Hochstrasser, Lisa; Meister, Klara; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Lambert, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Agitation, aggression, and violence are increased in psychotic disorders. Additionally, an earlier age at onset may be associated with aggressive behavior. However, the relationship of age at onset, an agitated-aggressive syndrome as measured with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia - Excited Component (PANSS-EC), and its potential correlates in first-episode psychosis (FEP) has not been studied. This study assessed the association between age at onset, an agitated-aggressive syndrome, and its potential correlates in a prospective sample of 52 FEP patients with early-onset and adult-onset followed up for 12months. Twenty-six patients conformed to the criteria of early-onset psychosis. Early age at onset was associated with antisocial personality disorder (p=0.004; φc=0.39), a history of legal involvement (p=0.005; φc=0.39), and higher rates of lifetime substance use disorder (SUD; p=0.002; φc=0.42). Early-onset patients had significantly higher PANSS-EC scores over the course of observation (F(1,44.4)=5.39; p=0.025; d=0.656), but no significant group differences emerged for the remaining PANSS subscores. PANSS-EC scores were correlated positively with antisocial personality disorder and forensic history at 6weeks, 3months, 6months, and 12months, and with lifetime substance use disorder at 3months and 6months. Patients with early onset psychosis may have increased levels of agitation/aggressiveness, and, more likely, antisocial personality disorder, forensic history, and lifetime substance use disorder. These variables were linked to suicidality, aggressiveness, and involuntary treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of prior testing lasting a full year in NCANDA adolescents: Contributions from age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, site, family history of alcohol or drug abuse, and baseline performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith V. Sullivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1 year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice with little contribution from predicted developmental effects. Group mean practice slopes for 13 composites indicated that 60% to ∼100% variance was attributable to test experience; General Ability accuracy showed the least practice effect (29%. Lower baseline performance, especially in younger participants, was a strong predictor of greater gain. Contributions from age, sex, ethnicity, examination site, socioeconomic status, or family history of alcohol/substance abuse were nil to small, even where statistically significant. Recognizing that a substantial proportion of change in longitudinal testing, even over 1-year, is attributable to testing experience indicates caution against assuming that performance gain observed during periods of maturation necessarily reflects development. Estimates of testing experience, a form of learning, may be a relevant metric for detecting interim influences, such as alcohol use or traumatic episodes, on behavior.

  13. Childhood abuse and current interpersonal conflict: the role of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-06-01

    To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research examining the relationship of shame to interpersonal conflict is lacking. Participants were 129 mothers of children enrolled in a summer camp program for at-risk children from financially disadvantaged families. Data were collected on women's childhood abuse histories, shame in daily life, and current interpersonal conflict involving family conflict, intimate partner conflict (verbal and physical aggression), and child maltreatment. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of hierarchical regressions and logistic regression indicated that shame significantly mediated the association between childhood sexual abuse and interpersonal conflict. Women with sexual abuse histories reported more shame in their daily lives, which in turn was associated with higher levels of conflicts with intimate partners (self-verbal aggression and partner-physical aggression) and in the family. Shame did not mediate the relationship between mothers' histories of sexual abuse and child maltreatment. The role of shame in the intimate partner and family conflicts of women with sexual abuse histories has not been examined. The current findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse was related to interpersonal conflicts indirectly through the emotion of shame. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of shame in the interpersonal conflicts of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Healthcare professionals in medical and mental health settings frequently treat women with abuse histories who are involved in family and partner conflicts. Assessing and addressing the links of abused women's shame to interpersonal conflicts could be

  14. Childhood Abuse and Current Family Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research examining the relationship of shame to interpersonal conflict is lacking. Method Participants were 129 mothers of children enrolled in a summer camp program for at-risk children from financially disadvantaged families. Data were collected on women's childhood abuse histories, shame in daily life, and current interpersonal conflict involving family conflict, intimate partner conflict (verbal and physical aggression), and child maltreatment. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of hierarchical regressions and logistic regression indicated that shame significantly mediated the association between childhood sexual abuse and interpersonal conflict. Women with sexual abuse histories reported more shame in their daily lives, which in turn was associated with higher levels of conflicts with intimate partners (self-verbal aggression and partner-physical aggression) and in the family. Shame did not mediate the relationship between mothers' histories of sexual abuse and child maltreatment. Conclusion The role of shame in the intimate partner and family conflicts of women with sexual abuse histories has not been examined. The current findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse was related to interpersonal conflicts indirectly through the emotion of shame. Practical Implications These findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of shame in the interpersonal conflicts of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Healthcare professionals in medical and mental health settings frequently treat women with abuse histories who are involved in family and partner conflicts. Assessing and addressing the links of

  15. The History of Neurosurgery at the National Hospital, Queen Square, London, with Some Personal Recollections from 1948 Onwards: The Early Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    The National Hospital, Queen Square, London was founded as a charitable institution in 1860, becoming the first dedicated neuroscience hospital in the world. Sir Victor Horsley, the first neurosurgeon was appointed in 1886, and since that time, Queen Square neurosurgeons have been prominent on the World neurosurgical stage, including Sir Wylie McKissock and Prof Lindsay Symon, inter alia. This article gives the history taken from both published records and personal stories, recorded by a neurosurgeon who has worked at the hospital for thirty five years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Nationwide Study on the Risk of Autoimmune Diseases in Individuals With a Personal or a Family History of Schizophrenia and Related Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael E; Pedersen, Marianne G; Rasmussen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    persons without hospital contacts for infections, the effect of having schizophrenia was smaller, with an increased incidence rate ratio of 1.32 (95% CI=1.22-1.43) for autoimmune diseases. For individuals with schizophrenia as well as hospital contacts for infections, the combined risk of autoimmune...... diseases was 2.70 (95% CI=2.51-2.89). A family history of schizophrenia slightly increased the overall risk of developing autoimmune diseases (incidence rate ratio=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.09). Autoimmune diseases developed subsequently in 3.6% of people with schizophrenia, and 3.1% of people with autoimmune...

  17. History and person in short stories of Alexis Remizov The cycle «Poor fortune» Rational-irrational aspect of the writer’s fictional world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev O.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article devoted to short stories, written by A.M. Remizov. Selected stories are united thematically. All of them depicted terror of history. Victim of that terror is an ordinary men. Famous historic persons represented as symptoms of tragic fate of Russia. This issue contains comparison of two different editions of his book of dreams «Bedovaja dolja» («Bad fate» and «Martyn Zadeka» on the background of different art’ periods, Silver age of Russian literature and émigré literature. As Russian artist Remizov used to feel his personal fate as a part of common fate of his main land, Rus-Russia. Because of it paradoxical forms of perceptions represented as different types of understanding complicated moments of individual life and existentional moments of human beings.

  18. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozkan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one

  19. Childhood abuse and neglect among women outpatients with chronic mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzenmaier, K; Meyer, I; Struening, E; Ferber, J

    1993-07-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women outpatients with severe and persistent mental illness; to examine patterns of co-occurrence of the various types of abuse; and to explore the relationships between childhood abuse and adult psychiatric symptomatology. Childhood histories of abuse and data on clinical characteristics of 78 women enrolled in a New York State outpatient clinic were elicited in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Sixty-five percent of the women reported histories of some type of abuse or neglect during childhood. Forty-five percent of the sample had been sexually abused, 51 percent had been physically abused, and 22 percent had experienced neglect. Seventy-four percent of the sexually abused women, 70 percent of the physically abused women, and 94 percent of the women who experienced neglect reported at least one additional form of abuse or neglect. Respondents who had been abused in childhood had higher levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms and higher rates of sexual victimization in adulthood than those who had not been abused. Women who experienced neglect as children had higher rates of homelessness in adulthood. Chronic mentally ill women seem to experience higher rates of abuse and more types of abuse than the general population. Clinicians should try to determine whether chronic mentally ill women have histories of abuse and to develop interventions to meet their special needs.

  20. Autonomous Histories of Muslim Women Cultural Poetics; A Critical Reading of the Personal/Academic Narratives of Leila Ahmed and Amina Wadud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeer Abo El Nagah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Louis Montrose's "Professing the Renaissance: the Poetics and Politics of Culture" renewed concern with the historical, social and political conditions of literary productions (1989. He suggested a platform through which autonomous aesthetics and academic issues to be understood as inextricably linked to other discourses. While autobiography is considered as a "writing back," I argue here that it is rather a strategic transitional act that connects the past with the present and remaps the future. Though a very personal opening, autobiography is seen as a documentation of public events from a personal perspective. Academic autobiographies like Arab American history professor Leila Ahmad's A Border Passage from Cairo to America; A Woman’s Journey (2012 and African American theology professor Amina Wadud’s Inside the Gender Jihad (2008 are two examples of the production of interwoven private and public histories. The personal opening in such narratives is an autonomous act that initiates cross-disciplinary dialogues that trigger empowerment and proposes future changes. In that sense, these autobiographies are far from being mere stories of the past. Conversely, they are tools of rereading one's contributions and thus repositioning the poetics and politics of culture as testimonial narratives. Employing post-colonial, Islamic feminism and new historicism, the aim of this study is to critically read the above academic/personal two autobiographies as examples of the private/ public negotiations of culture. It also aims to explore the dialogue between the literary, historical and social elements as they remap the future of women in Muslim societies and the diaspora.

  1. Brief report: How adolescent personality moderates the effect of love history on the young adulthood romantic relationship quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.; Branje, S.T.J.; Keijsers, L.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of previous romantic relationship involvement on later romantic relationship quality and tested whether adolescents' personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) moderated this link. We answered our research questions in a sample of 320 Dutch

  2. Brief report : How adolescent personality moderates the effect of love history on the young adulthood romantic relationship quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim

    This study examined the effect of previous romantic relationship involvement on later romantic relationship quality and tested whether adolescents' personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) moderated this link. We answered our research questions in a sample of 320 Dutch

  3. Acute topiramate differentially affects human aggressive responding at low vs. moderate doses in subjects with histories of substance abuse and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard; Cherek, Don R

    2009-04-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs have demonstrated efficacy in the management of irritability and aggression in a variety of psychiatric populations. We examined the acute effects of topiramate on aggression using a laboratory model of human aggression (PSAP) in individuals at high risk for aggressive and violent behavior.Twelve subjects, on parole/probation and with an Axis-II personality disorder and/or a substance use disorder, received 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg in an ascending sequence, with intervening placebo doses.Subjects participated 2-3 days per week over 4-6 weeks. Due to cognitive side effects at 300 mg, two subjects only completed through the 200 mg dose. Topiramate produced an inverted U-shaped dose response curve, with increases in aggression peaking at 200 mg and a modest decrease at 400 mg. Statistical analysis revealed a polynomial trend for dose (p=0.001). The observed inverted U-shaped function in aggressive responding is consistent with non-human aggression studies of GABA-A modulators. Acute topiramate doses >400 mg may have anti-aggressive effects, but dose levels in the 200-300 mg range may produce increases in aggression and side effects.

  4. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  5. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  6. Traumatic experiences and re-victimization of female inmates undergoing treatment for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Bertha; Zea, Paloma; Romero, Martha; Saldívar, Gabriela

    2015-02-09

    In the past decade, several studies have focused on the treatment needs of female inmates with substance abuse problems. An important finding has been that these women are more likely to report histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse-at rates varying from 77% to 90%. The trauma resulting from this kind of abuse is a key contributing factor in behavioral problems in adolescence and subsequent delinquency, substance abuse, and criminality in adulthood. This was a retrospective clinical study. A convenience sample of 112 women who entered the program's treatment groups consecutively for one year form part of the study. Information on traumatic events was obtained using some questions from the Initial Trauma Review. It explores whether the participant experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, disasters, automobile accidents, or witnessed violence under the age of 18. It also examines experiences as an adult, including sexual and physical abuse, attacks by others who are not intimate partners, and abuse by authorities. Revictimization in sexual abuse was found in 78.1% of participants. Significant differences were identified between women who had experienced a traumatic sexual event from a person five years their senior before the age of 18 and then suffered from sexual violence as an adult, and women who had never undergone either of these events (x(2) = 11.3, df 112/1, p = abuse, the figure was 82.17%. Differences were observed between women who were revictimized through physical abuse before and after the age of 18 (x(2) = 5.91, df 112/1, p = child and subsequently physical violence from their parents, and women who had not undergone either of these events (x(2) = 3.48, df 112/1, p = <.05). Investment in treatment in these areas during the prison sentence and after release may contribute to preventing these women from become repeat offenders. Creating sources of work and halfway houses that continue the program to prevent relapses

  7. Initial Reports on Spouse Abuse from the U.S. Army Central Registry (1975-1995)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarrol, James

    1997-01-01

    ..., the offender's history of violence and abuse, substance abuse involvement of the victim and offender, and the military and civil actions that had occurred at the time that the case was reported...

  8. Child Abuse and Neglect United States Army U.S. Army Central Registry (1989-1996)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarroll, James

    1998-01-01

    ..., the offender's history of violence and abuse, substance abuse involvement of the victim and the offender, and the military and civil actions that had occurred at the time the case was reported...

  9. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  10. Forensic and family psychiatry in abuse dwarfism: Munchausen's syndrome by proxy, atonement, and addiction to abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J; Annecillo, C; Hutchison, J W

    1985-01-01

    The syndrome of abuse dwarfism is characterized by gross impairment of statural and intellectual growth and social maturation while the abused child remains in the domicile of abuse. The parents collude as child abusers, and are medical impostors regarding the symptoms of abuse. The syndrome as a whole is appropriately named Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. Though the mother typically initiates abuse, she cannot give a rational explanation for doing so. In her own history there is a sin that is expiated or atoned for symbolically by the sacrifice of the child--explainable in terms of the theory of opponent-process learning. In the two cases presented, the sin was the mother's own birth out of wedlock, in one case as a sequel to incest. The child's addiction to abuse is a challenge to the program of rehabilitation. With respect to parents at risk, the data of this paper are relevant to the prevention of a predisposition toward, or the actual implementation of child abuse, though a program of prevention needs still to be formulated. The sexological relevance of this paper is that the data demonstrate that the effects of sexual abuse may be transmitted to the next generation and manifested as child abuse which is not necessarily sexual in content.

  11. Initial clinical validation of Health Heritage, a patient-facing tool for personal and family history collection and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Leigh A; Postula, Kristen J Vogel; Knaus, William A

    2016-04-01

    Personal and family health histories remain important independent risk factors for cancer; however they are currently not being well collected or used effectively. Health Heritage was designed to address this need. The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of Health Heritage to identify patients appropriate for further genetic evaluation and to accurately stratify cancer risk. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 100 random patients seen at an adult genetics clinic presenting with concern for an inherited predisposition to cancer. Relevant personal and family history obtained from the patients' medical records was entered into Health Heritage. Recommendations by Health Heritage were compared to national guidelines of eligibility for genetic evaluation. Agreement between Health Heritage referral for genetic evaluation and guideline eligibility for genetic evaluation was 97% (sensitivity 98% and specificity 88%). Risk stratification for cancer was also compared between Health Heritage and those documented by a geneticist. For patients at increased risk for breast, ovarian, or colorectal cancer as determined by the geneticist, risk stratification by Health Heritage agreed 90, 93, and 75%, respectively. Discordances in risk stratification were attributed to both complex situations better handled by the geneticist and Health Heritage's adherence to incorporating all information into its algorithms. Health Heritage is a clinically valid tool to identify patients appropriate for further genetic evaluation and to encourage them to confirm the assessment and management recommendations with cancer genetic experts. Health Heritage also provides an estimate of cancer risk that is complementary to a genetics team.

  12. A life-course perspective on stigma-handling: resilience in persons of restricted growth narrated in life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how personal and contextual experiences throughout the life course are recollected as having influenced the development of stigma-handling strategies among people associated with disability and stigma. The article describes the development of stigma handling among ageing persons of restricted growth in order to avert negative effects, develop resilience, strengthen the self and support a positive identity. Qualitative retrospective interviews were conducted with ten persons - seven women and three men aged between 45 and 65 years - of short stature. Their narratives are analysed from a life-course perspective and the results presented under two main themes: the development of strategies during different stages of life, and the use of general non-stage-bound strategies. The study shows how stigma-handling has evolved from childhood to become, by adult years, refined, contextualised strategies demonstrating human resilience. The analysis documents the impact of human agency on personal lives and the subjects' efforts and strengths in handling adversity. The results demonstrate how the "insider perspective" reveals the individual's resources, resilience and strategies and provides an important perspective for the rehabilitation setting. Implications for Rehabilitation The study document human agency, resilience and strength in a life course perspective among people of restricted growth faced with stigmatization. The efforts and stigma handling strategies developed during the life course, such as withdrawal, humour, ignoring and positive thinking, are important tools to be recognized with relevance for other patient groups. The "insider perspective" revealing the potentialities and strength of human agency and resilience, should be further explored within the field of rehabilitation.

  13. Brief report: how adolescent personality moderates the effect of love history on the young adulthood romantic relationship quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the effect of previous romantic relationship involvement on later romantic relationship quality and tested whether adolescents' personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) moderated this link. We answered our research questions in a sample of 320 Dutch participants (213 girls) who had a romantic relationship when they were 21 years old. At 12 years of age, their personality types were identified. At 21 years of age, participants reported their current romantic relationship quality (i.e., commitment, exploration, and reconsideration) and indicated the number of romantic relationships they had before. No main effects of the number of romantic relationships on current romantic relationship quality were found. There were significant interaction effects between personality types and the number of romantic relationships on romantic relationship quality. With more romantic relationship experiences, undercontrollers committed less to and explored less in their current romantic relationship. No such link was found for resilients and overcontrollers. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Induced abortion and anxiety, mood, and substance abuse disorders: isolating the effects of abortion in the national comorbidity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Priscilla K; Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha; Rue, Vincent M

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between abortion history and a wide range of anxiety (panic disorder, panic attacks, PTSD, Agoraphobia), mood (bipolar disorder, mania, major depression), and substance abuse disorders (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence) using a nationally representative US sample, the national comorbidity survey. Abortion was found to be related to an increased risk for a variety of mental health problems (panic attacks, panic disorder, agoraphobia, PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression with and without hierarchy), and substance abuse disorders after statistical controls were instituted for a wide range of personal, situational, and demographic variables. Calculation of population attributable risks indicated that abortion was implicated in between 4.3% and 16.6% of the incidence of these disorders. Future research is needed to identify mediating mechanisms linking abortion to various disorders and to understand individual difference factors associated with vulnerability to developing a particular mental health problem after abortion.

  15. The preventive approach: OPCAT and the prevention of violence and abuse of persons with mental disabilities by monitoring places of detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveaass, Nora; Madrigal-Borloz, Victor

    Adopted in December 2002, the United Nations Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment establishes a system of regular visits undertaken by independent international and national bodies to places where people are deprived of their liberty, in order to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The article explores how this collaboration between national and international bodies, with independent mandates to carry out such unannounced visits, represents an important effort in the process of protecting persons with mental disabilities who are detained and who are particularly exposed to exploitation and other forms of serious human rights violations, contrary to Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handle Abuse KidsHealth / For Kids / How to Handle Abuse What's in this article? Tell Right Away How Do You Know Something Is Abuse? ... babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at ... building. Tell Right Away A kid who is being seriously hurt ...

  17. Elder Abuse: Some Questions for Policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, James J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Claims elder abuse is not clearly defined, affects relatively small numbers of older persons, is an under-funded area of social service and has weak political support. Recommends a broad-based service strategy for older persons. (Author/ABL)

  18. Sexual Abuse and the Problem of Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…

  19. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  20. Plasma melatonin circadian rhythm disturbances during pregnancy and postpartum in depressed women and women with personal or family histories of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Barbara L; Meliska, Charles J; Sorenson, Diane L; Lopez, Ana M; Martinez, Luis F; Nowakowski, Sara; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Hauger, Richard L; Kripke, Daniel F

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that disturbances in levels of plasma melatonin differentiate pregnant and postpartum women with major depression from matched pregnant and postpartum healthy comparison women. Participants were 25 pregnant women (10 with major depression, 15 healthy) and 24 postpartum women (13 with major depression, 11 healthy). Healthy comparison women were matched on the number of weeks pregnant or postpartum. Plasma melatonin levels for each subject were measured every 30 minutes, in dim light (melatonin levels were log-transformed, and calculations were determined for the following measures: baseline and synthesis onset and offset times, duration, peak concentration, and area under the curve. Groups were compared by analyses of covariance, with age, number of weeks pregnant or postpartum, breast-feeding status, and body mass index as covariates. Morning melatonin levels from 2:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. were significantly lower in pregnant women with major depression relative to healthy pregnant women. However, these levels were significantly higher in postpartum women with major depression across time intervals relative to postpartum healthy women. Pregnant but not postpartum women with a personal or family history of depression, regardless of their current diagnosis, had significantly earlier melatonin synthesis and baseline offset times relative to women without a family history of depression. In pregnant healthy women but not pregnant women with major depression, melatonin levels increased during the course of pregnancy. This association was not found among postpartum women with major depression or postpartum healthy women. Plasma nocturnal melatonin concentrations, particularly during morning hours, were lower in depressed pregnant women but elevated in depressed postpartum women relative to matched healthy comparison women. In addition, melatonin timing measures were advanced in pregnant women with a personal or family