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Sample records for persistently neutropenic rabbits

  1. Intermittent Dosing of Micafungin Is Effective for Treatment of Experimental Disseminated Candidiasis in Persistently Neutropenic Rabbits.

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    Petraitiene, Ruta; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Hope, William W; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    The current standard of treatment of invasive candidiasis with echinocandins requires once-daily therapy. To improve quality of life, reduce costs, and improve outcome, we studied the pharmacokinetics (PK), efficacy, and safety of alternate dosing regimens of micafungin (MFG) for the treatment of experimental subacute disseminated candidiasis. MFG was administered for 12 days starting 24 hours after intravenous inoculation of 1 × 10(3) Candida albicans blastoconidia. Study groups consisted of MFG at 1 mg/kg every 24 hours (MFG1), 2 mg/kg every 48 hours (MFG2), and 3 mg/kg every 72 hours (MFG3), and untreated controls. PK of MFG were determined on day 7 by high-performance liquid chromatography and modeled using nonparametric adaptive grid program. A 2-compartment PK model with volume of the central compartment (Vc), clearance (SCL), and the intercompartmental rate constants Kcp and Kpc was used. The fungal burden in 7 tissues was determined 312 hours after the initiation of therapy. PK of MFG were linear and the parameter means ± SD were Vc = 0.41 ± 0.18 L, Kcp = 2.80 ± 1.55/hour, Kpc = 1.71 ± 0.93/hour, and SCL = 0.16 ± 0.003 L/hour (r(2) = 0.99). The area under the plasma drug concentration - time curve for MFG1, MFG2, and MFG3 was 198.7 ± 19.8, 166.3 ± 36.7, and 192.8 ± 46.2 mg × hour/L, respectively (P = .24). All treatment groups showed significant and comparable resolution of (1→3)-β-D-glucan levels and clearance of C. albicans from liver, spleen, kidney, brain, lung, vitreous humor, and vena cava in comparison to untreated controls (P ≤ .05). There were no differences in hepatic or renal function among study groups. Less fractionated MFG regimens of every 48 and 72 hours are safe and as effective in experimental disseminated candidiasis as once-daily therapy in neutropenic hosts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  2. Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation

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    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F.; Humphrey, David M. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Powell, Karen S. [Research Resource Facilities, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Roberts, Andrew M. [Department of Physiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Hoyle, Gary W., E-mail: Gary.Hoyle@louisville.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbits were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24 h after exposure to 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min to study acute effects or up to 7 days after exposure to 400 ppm for 8 min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24 h after inhalation of 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400 ppm chlorine for 8 min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure–volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7 days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. - Highlights: • A novel rabbit model of chlorine-induced lung disease was developed.

  3. Low-dose multislice CT in febrile neutropenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendel, F.; Jenett, M.; Hahn, D.; Sandstede, J.; Geib, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to define the value of low-dose multislice CT in a clinical setting for early detection of pneumonia in neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin. Materials and methods: thirty-five neutropenic patients suffering from fever of unknown origin with normal chest X-ray underwent unenhanced low-dose CT of the chest (120 kV, 10 eff. mAs, collimation 4 x 1 mm) using a multislice CT scanner. Axial und frontal slices with a thickness of 5 mm were calculated. If no pneumonia was found, standard antibiotics were given and a repeated examination was performed if fever continued. In case of pneumonia, antimycotic therapy was added and a follow-up CT was performed within one week. Regression or progression of pneumonia at follow-up served as evidence of pneumonia; lowering of fever within 48 h or inconspicuous follow-up CT was regarded as absence of pneumonia. Results: ten of 35 patients had pneumonic infiltration, which decreased or increased on follow-up CT in 3 and 6 patients, respectively. One patient revealed leucemic infiltration by bronchoalveolar lavage. Twenty-five of 35 patients had no evidence of pneumonia. Twenty of these patients were free of fever within 48 h under antibiotics; one patient died due to his basic illness. Out of 4 patients with persisting fever, 3 patients had no pneumonia on repeated examination; one patient showed disseminated micronodular infiltration. Frontal reconstructions helped to differentiate infiltration from atelectasis in 4 patients. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of pneumonia at the first examination were 90% and 96%, negative predictive value was 96%. Conclusion: low-dose multislice CT should be performed in neutropenic patients having a fever of unknown origin and normal chest X-ray. (orig.)

  4. Outcome of severe infections in afebrile neutropenic cancer patients

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    Mahkovic-Hergouth, Ksenija; Novakovic, Barbara Jezersek; Seruga, Bostjan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In some neutropenic cancer patients fever may be absent despite microbiologically and/or clinically confirmed infection. We hypothesized that afebrile neutropenic cancer patients with severe infections have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed all adult cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and severe infection, who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at our cancer center between 2000 and 2011. The outcome of interest was 30-day in-hospital mortality rate. Association between the febrile status and in-hospital mortality rate was evaluated by the Fisher’s exact test. Results We identified 69 episodes of severe neutropenic infections in 65 cancer patients. Among these, 9 (13%) episodes were afebrile. Patients with afebrile neutropenic infection presented with hypotension, severe fatigue with inappetence, shaking chills, altered mental state or cough and all of them eventually deteriorated to severe sepsis or septic shock. Overall 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 55.1%. Patients with afebrile neutropenic infection had a trend for a higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rate as compared to patients with febrile neutropenic infection (78% vs. 52%, p = 0.17). Conclusions Afebrile cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and severe infections might have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Patients should be informed that severe neutropenic infection without fever can occasionally occur during cancer treatment with chemotherapy. PMID:27904453

  5. Outcome of severe infections in afebrile neutropenic cancer patients

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    Strojnik Ksenija

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In some neutropenic cancer patients fever may be absent despite microbiologically and/or clinically confirmed infection. We hypothesized that afebrile neutropenic cancer patients with severe infections have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.

  6. Broad-Range PCR Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Detection of Bacteremia and Fungemia in Patients with Neutropenic Fever

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    Maertens, J.; Bueselinck, K.; Lagrou, K.

    2016-01-01

    Infection is an important complication in patients with hematologic malignancies or solid tumors undergoing intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy. In only 20 to 30% of the febrile neutropenic episodes, an infectious agent is detected by conventional cultures. In this prospective study, the performance of broad-range PCR coupled with electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) technology was compared to conventional blood cultures (BC) in a consecutive series of samples from high-risk hematology patients. In 74 patients, BC and a whole-blood sample for PCR/ESI-MS (Iridica BAC BSI; Abbott, Carlsbad, CA, USA) were collected at the start of each febrile neutropenic episode and, in case of persistent fever, also at day 5. During 100 different febrile episodes, 105 blood samples were collected and analyzed by PCR/ESI-MS. There was evidence of a bloodstream infection (BSI) in 36/105 cases (34%), based on 14 cases with both PCR/ESI-MS and BC positivity, 17 cases with BC positivity only, and 5 cases with PCR/ESI-MS positivity only. The sensitivity of PCR/ESI-MS was 45%, specificity was 93%, and the negative predictive value was 80% compared to blood culture. PCR/ESI-MS detected definite pathogens (Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus pneumoniae) missed by BC, whereas it missed both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms detected by BC. PCR/ESI-MS testing detected additional microorganisms but showed a low sensitivity (45%) compared to BC in neutropenic patients. Our results indicate a lower concordance between BC and PCR/ESI-MS in the neutropenic population than what has been previously reported in other patient groups with normal white blood cell distribution, and a lower sensitivity than other PCR-based methods. PMID:27440820

  7. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigirci, Ahmet; Akinci, Aysehan; Oezgen, Uensal; Oezen, Metehan

    2006-01-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  8. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

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    Sigirci, Ahmet [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey); Akinci, Aysehan; Oezgen, Uensal; Oezen, Metehan [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey)

    2006-02-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  9. Prophylactic co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli preparation in neutropenic patients.

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    Ekert, H; Jurk, I H; Waters, K D; Tiedemann, K

    1980-01-01

    A randomized study of intestinal decontamination was undertaken in 68 children with leukemia and solid tumours. Framycetin, colymycin, nystatin, and metronidazole were given in 35 neutropenic episodes in 33 children, while co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli preparation were administered in 35 episodes in 35 children. The diseases, severity of neutropenia, and incidence of infection at entry into study were comparable in the two groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of infections developing during the phase of neutropenia. The median and range of time required to recover from neutropenia were also not different. Co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli were significantly better tolerated, there being no nausea and vomiting, no refusal to take medication, no dose reduction or change to an alternative regimen. We conclude that co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli preparation improve quality of life during a neutropenic episode and have the additional advantage of being relatively inexpensive.

  10. Impact of myxomatosis in relation to local persistence in wild rabbit populations: the role of waning immunity and the reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchet, David; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Pontier, Dominique

    2008-02-21

    Many diseases are less severe when they are contracted in early life. For highly lethal diseases, such as myxomatosis in rabbits, getting infected early in life can represent the best chance for an individual to survive the disease. For myxomatosis, early infections are attenuated by maternal antibodies. This may lead to the immunisation of the host, preventing the subsequent development of the lethal form of the disease. But early infection of young individuals requires specific demographic and epidemiological contexts, such as a high transmission rate of the pathogen agent. To investigate other factors involved in the impact of such diseases, we have built a stochastic model of a rabbit metapopulation infected by myxomatosis. We show that the impact of the pathogen agent can be reduced by early infections only when the agent has a long local persistence time and/or when the host subpopulations are highly connected. The length of the reproductive period and the duration of acquired immunity are also important factors influencing the persistence of the pathogen and thus, the impact of the disease. Besides confirming the role of classical factors in the persistence of a pathogen agent, such as the size of the subpopulation or the degree of connectivity, our results highlight novel factors that can modulate the impact of diseases whose severity increase with age.

  11. Mucosal injury and γ-irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and γ-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. γ-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment

  12. Granulocyte-associated IgG in neutropenic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cines, D.B.; Passero, F.; Guerry, D.; Bina, M.; Dusak, B.; Schreiber, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    We applied a radiolabeled antiglobulin test to a study of patients with a variety of neutropenic disorders. After defining the nature of the interaction of radiolabeled anti-IgG with the neutrophil, we studied 16 patients with neutropenia of uncertain etiology and adequate bone marrow granulocyte precursors. Twelve of these 16 patients had increased neutrophil-associated IgG (PMN-IgG). Patients with the highest levels of PMN-IgG had the lowest neutrophil counts. The majority of patients with neutropenia and increased PMN-IgG had an underlying immunologic disorder that included immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 patients and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 1 patient. In some patients, elevated PMN-IgG preceded other evidence for immunologic disease. The direct antiglobulin test helped to distinguish neutropenic patients with increased PMN-IgG both from patients with neutropenia due to a known nonimmune disorder and from nonneutropenic patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosis. Each of four patients with increased neutrophil-associated IgG treated with systemic corticosteroids responded clinically with an associated fall in neutrophil IgG and a rise in the circulating neutrophil count. The radiolabeled antiglobulin test appears useful in defining a subpopulation of patients with neutropenia due to an underlying immunologic disorder

  13. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.

    2003-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  14. Quantitative Simulations Predict Treatment Strategies Against Fungal Infections in Virtual Neutropenic Patients.

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    Timme, Sandra; Lehnert, Teresa; Prauße, Maria T E; Hünniger, Kerstin; Leonhardt, Ines; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-01-01

    The condition of neutropenia, i.e., a reduced absolute neutrophil count in blood, constitutes a major risk factor for severe infections in the affected patients. Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are opportunistic pathogens and the most prevalent fungal species in the human microbiota. In immunocompromised patients, they can become pathogenic and cause infections with high mortality rates. In this study, we use a previously established approach that combines experiments and computational models to investigate the innate immune response during blood stream infections with the two fungal pathogens C. albicans and C. glabrata . First, we determine immune-reaction rates and migration parameters under healthy conditions. Based on these findings, we simulate virtual patients and investigate the impact of neutropenic conditions on the infection outcome with the respective pathogen. Furthermore, we perform in silico treatments of these virtual patients by simulating a medical treatment that enhances neutrophil activity in terms of phagocytosis and migration. We quantify the infection outcome by comparing the response to the two fungal pathogens relative to non-neutropenic individuals. The analysis reveals that these fungal infections in neutropenic patients can be successfully cleared by cytokine treatment of the remaining neutrophils; and that this treatment is more effective for C. glabrata than for C. albicans .

  15. Fatal neutropen enterokolitis hos en patient i kemoterapi med kastrationsresistent prostatacancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Per; Sheikh, Kiran; Mouritsen, Lene Sonne

    2015-01-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) is a possible life-threatening complication to chemotherapy. The pathogenesis is multi-factorial with mucosal injury and impaired mucosal defence as contributing factors. Histopathological findings are heterogeneous. Clinical presentation includes neutropenia, fever...

  16. Clinical study of carbapenem sensitive and resistant Gram-negative bacteremia in neutropenic and nonneutropenic patients: The first series from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafur, A K; Vidyalakshmi, P R; Kannaian, P; Balasubramaniam, R

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance is a growing global concern. There is a lack of published clinical studies on the topic from Indian subcontinent. Aim of this study was to analyze clinical profile of patients with carbapenem sensitive and resistant bacteremia among neutropenic and nonneutropenic patients. Retrospective analysis of 141 patients who had carbapenem resistant or sensitive Gram-negative bacteremia, identified over a period of 1-year was done by medical records review, in Apollo Specialty Hospital, a 300-bedded tertiary care Oncology, neurosurgical and orthopedic center in South India. Of the total 141 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia, 44 had carbapenem resistant ones. Of these 44 patients, 17 were neutropenics (resistant neutropenic group) and 27 nonneutropenic patients (resistant nonneutropenic group). Of the 97 patients with carbapenem sensitive bacteremia, 43 were neutropenic (sensitive neutropenic group) and 54 nonneutropenics (sensitive nonneutropenic group). The 28 days mortality was significantly higher in carbapenem resistant bacteremic group compared to the sensitive one (P = 0.008). This is the first study from India comparing clinical features of patients with carbapenem sensitive and resistant blood stream infections. Patients with carbapenem resistant bacteremia had higher mortality compared to patients with sensitive bacteremia.

  17. Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 121 and 14 Repeatedly Isolated Within One Year of Sampling in a Rabbit Meat Processing Plant: Persistence and Ecophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen adapted to survive and persist in multiple environments. Following two previous studies on prevalence and virulence of L. monocytogenes ST121 and ST14 repeatedly collected in a the same rabbit-meat processing plant, the research questions of the present study were to: (1 assess persistence of L. monocytogenes isolates from the rabbit-plant; (2 select genes associated to physiological adaptation to the food-processing environment; (3 compare presence/absence/truncation of these genes in newly sequenced and publicly available ST121 and ST14 genomes. A total of 273 draft genomes including ST121 and ST14 newly sequenced and publicly available draft genomes were analyzed. Whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorfism (wgSNP analysis was performed separately on the assemblies of ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. SNPs alignments were used to infer phylogeny. A dataset of L. monocytogenes ecophysiology genes was built based on a comprehensive literature review. The 94 selected genes were screened on the assemblies of all ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. Significant gene enrichments were evaluated by statistical analyses. A persistent ST14 clone, including 23 out of 27 newly sequenced genomes, was circulating in the rabbit-meat plant along with two not persistent clones. A significant enrichment was observed in ST121 genomes concerning stress survival islet 2 (SSI-2 (alkaline and oxidative stress, qacH gene (resistance to benzalkonium chloride, cadA1C gene cassette (resistance to 70 mg/l of cadmium chloride and a truncated version of actA gene (biofilm formation. Conversely, ST14 draft genomes were enriched with a full-length version of actA gene along with the Listeria Genomic Island 2 (LGI 2 including the ars operon (arsenic resistance and the cadA4C gene cassette (resistance to 35 mg/l of cadmium chloride. Phenotypic tests confirmed ST121 as a weak biofilm producer in comparison to ST14. In conclusion, ST121

  18. Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 121 and 14 Repeatedly Isolated Within One Year of Sampling in a Rabbit Meat Processing Plant: Persistence and Ecophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Frédérique; Palma, Federica; Guillier, Laurent; Lucchi, Alex; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen adapted to survive and persist in multiple environments. Following two previous studies on prevalence and virulence of L. monocytogenes ST121 and ST14 repeatedly collected in a the same rabbit-meat processing plant, the research questions of the present study were to: (1) assess persistence of L. monocytogenes isolates from the rabbit-plant; (2) select genes associated to physiological adaptation to the food-processing environment; (3) compare presence/absence/truncation of these genes in newly sequenced and publicly available ST121 and ST14 genomes. A total of 273 draft genomes including ST121 and ST14 newly sequenced and publicly available draft genomes were analyzed. Whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorfism (wgSNP) analysis was performed separately on the assemblies of ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. SNPs alignments were used to infer phylogeny. A dataset of L. monocytogenes ecophysiology genes was built based on a comprehensive literature review. The 94 selected genes were screened on the assemblies of all ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. Significant gene enrichments were evaluated by statistical analyses. A persistent ST14 clone, including 23 out of 27 newly sequenced genomes, was circulating in the rabbit-meat plant along with two not persistent clones. A significant enrichment was observed in ST121 genomes concerning stress survival islet 2 (SSI-2) (alkaline and oxidative stress), qacH gene (resistance to benzalkonium chloride), cadA1C gene cassette (resistance to 70 mg/l of cadmium chloride) and a truncated version of actA gene (biofilm formation). Conversely, ST14 draft genomes were enriched with a full-length version of actA gene along with the Listeria Genomic Island 2 (LGI 2) including the ars operon (arsenic resistance) and the cadA4C gene cassette (resistance to 35 mg/l of cadmium chloride). Phenotypic tests confirmed ST121 as a weak biofilm producer in comparison to ST14. In conclusion, ST121 carried the

  19. Microorganisms isolated from cultures and infection focus and antibiotic treatments in febrile neutropenic children from Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

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    Özdemir, Z Canan; Koç, Ahmet; Ayçiçek, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia predisposes patients to life threatening infections. We aimed to determine the causative microorganisms, infection focus and antibiotic treatment success in febrile neutropenic children with leukemia. A total of 136 febrile neutropenic episodes in 48 leukemic children were reviewed retrospectively from records. Among 136 febrile neutropenic episodes, 68 (50%) episodes were microbiologically documented. Methicillin sensitive coagulase (-) Staphylococcus aureus were the most common isolates from hemoculture (20.5%). The most frequently documented infection focus was mucositis (31.9%). Ceftazidime plus amikacin was the most commonly used antimicrobial treatment for the empirical therapy (52.9%). The overall response rates were 70.5%, 86.9%, and 66.6% of first line, second line and third line therapies, respectively. The spectrum of isolates among febrile neutropenic children in our hematology clinic appears to be gram positive pathogens which are the most common agents. Therefore the, documentation of the flora in each unit could help to decide appropriate empirical therapy which is life saving.

  20. Management of acute perianal sepsis in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancy.

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    Baker, B; Al-Salman, M; Daoud, F

    2014-04-01

    In neutropenic patients with acute perianal sepsis in the setting of hematological malignancy, the classical clinical features of abscess formation are lacking. Additionally, the role of surgical intervention is not well established. In this review, we discuss the challenges and controversy regarding diagnosis and optimal management when clear surgical guidelines are absent. In the literature, there is great diversity in the surgical approach to these patients, which leads to a high percentage of diagnostic errors, risks of complications, and unnecessary interventions. We review the literature and assess whether surgical intervention produces better outcomes than a non-surgical approach. Studies published on perianal sepsis in neutropenic cancer patients were identified by searching PubMed using the following key words: "perianal sepsis/abscesses, anorectal sepsis/abscess, neutropenia, hematological malignancy, cancer". No randomized or prospective studies on the management of acute perianal sepsis in hematological malignancies were found. The largest retrospective study and most comprehensive clinical data demonstrated that 42% of patients were treated successfully without surgical intervention and without morbidity or mortality related to treatment chosen. Small retrospective studies advocated surgical intervention, while the majority of successes were in a non-operative treatment. It is difficult to formulate a conclusion given the small retrospective series on management of neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. While there is no evidence mandating a routine surgical approach in this category of patients, non-surgical management including careful follow-up to determine whether the patient's condition is deteriorating or treatment has failed is an acceptable approach in selected patients without pathognomonic features of abscess. Comprehensive and well-designed prospective studies are needed to firmly establish the guidelines of treatment

  1. Management of sepsis in neutropenic patients: 2014 updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology (AGIHO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penack, Olaf; Becker, Carolin; Buchheidt, Dieter; Christopeit, Maximilian; Kiehl, Michael; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie; Hentrich, Marcus; Reinwald, Marc; Salwender, Hans; Schalk, Enrico; Schmidt-Hieber, Martin; Weber, Thomas; Ostermann, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of mortality during the neutropenic phase after intensive cytotoxic therapies for malignancies. Improved management of sepsis during neutropenia may reduce the mortality of cancer therapies. Clinical guidelines on sepsis treatment have been published by others. However, optimal management may differ between neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients. Our aim is to give evidence-based recommendations for haematologist, oncologists and intensive care physicians on how to manage adult patients with neutropenia and sepsis.

  2. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral scedosporiosis: an emerging fungal infection in severe neutropenic patients. CT features and CT pathologic correlation

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    Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Sadaba, Pablo; Lastra Garcia-Baron, Pedro; Ruiz Delgado, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez Mandly, Andres; Gutierrez, Agustin; Diez, Consuelo [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Cuevas, Jorge; Fernandez, Fidel [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Pathology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Salesa, Ricardo [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Microbiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Bermudez, Arancha [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Hematology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Marco de Lucas, Fernando [Hospital de Basurto, Department of Hematology, Bilbao, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic fungal agent encountered in severely neutropenic patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main cranial CT findings from a retrospective review of six patients (four men and two women, 18-66 years old) afflicted with disseminated infection by S. prolificans with neurological symptoms. They were severely neutropenic and presented with severe respiratory failure and conscience deterioration, with a subsequent 100% mortality. The final diagnosis was established by autopsy (performed in five patients) and blood culture findings. Cranial CT showed multiple low-density lesions in four patients without contrast enhancement located in the basal ganglia and corticomedullary junction. Autopsy findings of these lesions demonstrated necrosis and hyphae proliferation inside brain infarcts. Also, two of the patients had a subarachnoid hemorrhage, but angiography could not be performed. CT and autopsy findings were fairly similar to those encountered in cerebral aspergillosis; however, possibly because of its rapid and fatal evolution, no edema or ring enhancing lesions were encountered. Thus, Scedosporium can be included as a rare but possible cause of invasive fungal disseminated central nervous system infections in severely neutropenic patients. (orig.)

  4. Cerebral scedosporiosis: an emerging fungal infection in severe neutropenic patients. CT features and CT pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Sadaba, Pablo; Lastra Garcia-Baron, Pedro; Ruiz Delgado, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez Mandly, Andres; Gutierrez, Agustin; Diez, Consuelo; Cuevas, Jorge; Fernandez, Fidel; Salesa, Ricardo; Bermudez, Arancha; Marco de Lucas, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic fungal agent encountered in severely neutropenic patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main cranial CT findings from a retrospective review of six patients (four men and two women, 18-66 years old) afflicted with disseminated infection by S. prolificans with neurological symptoms. They were severely neutropenic and presented with severe respiratory failure and conscience deterioration, with a subsequent 100% mortality. The final diagnosis was established by autopsy (performed in five patients) and blood culture findings. Cranial CT showed multiple low-density lesions in four patients without contrast enhancement located in the basal ganglia and corticomedullary junction. Autopsy findings of these lesions demonstrated necrosis and hyphae proliferation inside brain infarcts. Also, two of the patients had a subarachnoid hemorrhage, but angiography could not be performed. CT and autopsy findings were fairly similar to those encountered in cerebral aspergillosis; however, possibly because of its rapid and fatal evolution, no edema or ring enhancing lesions were encountered. Thus, Scedosporium can be included as a rare but possible cause of invasive fungal disseminated central nervous system infections in severely neutropenic patients. (orig.)

  5. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

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    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  6. A Randomized Case-Controlled Study of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor for the Treatment of Sepsis in Preterm Neutropenic Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aktaş, Doğukan; Demirel, Bilge; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) to treat sepsis in neutropenic preterm infants. Methods: Fifty-six neutropenic preterm infants with suspected or culture-proven sepsis hospitalized in Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children's Educational and Training Hospital, Kozyatağı/Istanbul, Turkey between January 2008 and January 2010 were enrolled. Patients were ...

  7. Pyrogenicity of polyadenylic.polyuridylic acid in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, S J; Lin, M T

    1991-05-01

    Polyadenylic.polyuridylic acid injected intravenously into rabbits produced a rapid-onset, monophasic fever. Pyrogenic tolerance occurred in rabbits following daily injections of polyadenylic.polyuridylic acid. However, direct injection of the agent into the preoptic anterior hypothalamic region of rabbit's brain produced a markedly different fever. After an intrahypothalamic injection of polyadenylic.polyuridylic acid, fever was delayed in onset and persisted for a longer period. At room temperature, the fever was due to both increased metabolism and cutaneous vasoconstriction. In a colder atmosphere the fever was due solely to increased metabolism, whereas in the heat the fever was due to reduction in cutaneous blood flow and respiratory evaporative heat loss. In addition, the fever induced by intravenous polyadenylic.polyuridylic acid injection was reversed by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, but not by a protein synthesis inhibitor. Polyadenylic.polyuridylic acid was shown to stimulate PGE2 production from rabbit's hypothalamus in vitro. The results reveal that this agent is a prostaglandin-dependent pyrogen.

  8. Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacios-Palma, Isabel; Santoro, Simone; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration. Consequently, the persistence and viability of natural populations are affected. The main goal of our study was to determine if blood biochemistry is correlated with serostatus in wild European rabbits. We carried out seven live-trapping sessions in three wild rabbit populations over a two-year period. Blood samples were collected to measure anti-MV and anti-RHDV antibody concentrations and to measure biochemical parameters related to organ function, protein metabolism, and nutritional status. Overall, we found no significant relationships between rabbit serostatus and biochemistry. Our main result was that rabbits that were seropositive for both MV and RHDV had low gamma glutamyltransferase concentrations. Given the robustness of our analyses, the lack of significant relationships may indicate that the biochemical parameters measured are poor proxies for serostatus. Another explanation is that wild rabbits might be producing attenuated physiological responses to these viruses because the latter are now enzootic in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibody Panobacumab is efficacious on acute pneumonia in neutropenic mice and has additive effects with meropenem.

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    Thomas Secher

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa infections are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients due to antibiotic resistance. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of the anti-P. aeruginosa serotype O11 lipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody Panobacumab in a clinically relevant murine model of neutropenia induced by cyclophosphamide and in combination with meropenem in susceptible and meropenem resistant P. aeruginosa induced pneumonia. We observed that P. aeruginosa induced pneumonia was dramatically increased in neutropenic mice compared to immunocompetent mice. First, Panobacumab significantly reduced lung inflammation and enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung of neutropenic host. Secondly, combination of Panobacumab and meropenem had an additive effect. Third, Panobacumab retained activity on a meropenem resistant P. aeruginosa strain. In conclusion, the present data established that Panobacumab contributes to the clearance of P. aeruginosa in neutropenic hosts as well as in combination with antibiotics in immunocompetent hosts. This suggests beneficial effects of co-treatment even in immunocompromised individuals, suffering most of the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa infections.

  10. Miliaria-rash after neutropenic fever and induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia Miliária 'rash' após neutropenia febril e quimioterapia de indução para a leucemia mielóide aguda

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    Tuyet A Nguyen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Miliaria is a disorder of the eccrine sweat glands which occurs in conditions of increased heat and humidity. It can be associated with persistent febrile states as well as with certain drugs. We presented a 40 year-old female with myelodysplastic syndrome and progression to acute myelogenous leukemia who was admitted to the hospital for chemotherapy induction. The patient was treated with idarubicin and cytarabine. She became pancytopenic and developed neutropenic fever and was started on vancomycin and cefepime, but was persistently febrile with night sweats. Five days into her fevers, she developed diffuse, nonpruritic and fragile vesicles together with drenching nightsweats. The patient's exanthem was diagnosed as Miliaria crystallina, most probably induced by neutropenic fever and idarubucin exposureMiliária é uma desordem das glândulas sudoríparas écrinas, que ocorre em condições de aumento de calor e umidade. Miliária pode ser associada com estados febris persistentes bem como com certos medicamentos. Apresentamos o caso de uma mulher de 40 anos com síndrome mielodisplásica e progressão para leucemia mielóide aguda que foi admitida no hospital para quimioterapia de indução. A paciente foi tratada com idarrubicina e citarabina. Ela se tornou pancitopênica e desenvolveu neutropenia febril. Iniciou tratamento com vancomicina e cefepime, mas a febre com sudorese noturna continou. Cinco dias depois a paciente desenvolveu vesículas difusas, não pruríticas e frágeis juntamente com a persistência de sudorese noturna. O exantema do paciente foi diagnosticado como Miliária cristalina, provavelmente induzida por neutropenia febril e exposição a idarubucin

  11. Management of acute colorectal diseases in febrile neutropenic patients

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    Camila Perazzoli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hematologic malignancies are susceptible to serious complications due to immunosuppression. Neutropenic-related infection is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in this group of diseases. Febrile neutropenia is a common complication of the hematologic neoplasm itself or chemotherapy, and has worse prognosis if prolonged (lasting more than 7 days or severe (neutrophil count below 500 cells per μL. Among the usual sites of infection, we highlight the neutropenic enterocolitis and perianal infection as gastrointestinal complications of greater interest to the colorectal surgeon. Although most cases respond to conservative treatment, a portion of patients will need surgery for complete recovery. Resumo: Os pacientes com neoplasias hematológicas estão sujeitos a uma séria de complicações devido à imunossupressão. Infecção é umas das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade nesse grupo de doenças. A neutropenia febril é uma complicação frequente da própria doença onco-hematológica ou da quimioterapia, e apresenta pior prognóstico se prolongada (duração acima de 7 dias ou severa (contagem de neutrófilos inferior a 500 células por microlitro. Dentre os focos de infecção mais comuns destacamos a enterocolite neutropênica e a infecção perianal como complicações de maior interesse para o cirurgião colorretal. Apesar de grande parte dos casos apresentar boa resposta ao tratamento conservador, uma parcela de pacientes necessitará de cirurgia para completa recuperação. Keywords: Febrile neutropenia, Typhlitis, Anal canal, Palavras-chave: Neutropenia febril, Tiflite, Canal anal

  12. Hematopoietic properties of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/immunoglobulin (G-CSF/IgG-Fc fusion proteins in normal and neutropenic rodents.

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    George N Cox

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF in vitro bioactivity is preserved when the protein is joined via a flexible 7 amino acid linker to an immunoglobulin-1 (IgG1-Fc domain and that the G-CSF/IgG1-Fc fusion protein possessed a longer circulating half-life and improved hematopoietic properties compared to G-CSF in normal rats. We have extended this analysis by comparing the relative hematopoietic potencies of G-CSF/IgG1-Fc to G-CSF in normal mice and to G-CSF and polyethylene glycol (PEG -modified G-CSF in neutropenic rats. Mice were treated for 5 days using different doses and dosing regimens of G-CSF/IgG1-Fc or G-CSF and circulating neutrophil levels in the animals measured on Day 6. G-CSF/IgG1-Fc stimulated greater increases in blood neutrophils than comparable doses of G-CSF when administered using daily, every other day or every third day dosing regimens. In rats made neutropenic with cyclophosphamide, G-CSF/IgG1-Fc accelerated recovery of blood neutrophils to normal levels (from Day 9 to Day 5 when administered as 5 daily injections or as a single injection on Day 1. By contrast, G-CSF accelerated neutrophil recovery when administered as 5 daily injections, but not when administered as a single injection. G-CSF/IgG1-Fc was as effective as PEG-G-CSF at accelerating neutrophil recovery following a single injection in neutropenic rats. G-CSF/IgG1-Fc and G-CSF/IgG4-Fc fusion proteins in which the 7 amino acid linker was deleted also were effective at accelerating neutrophil recovery following a single injection in neutropenic rats. These studies confirm the enhanced in vivo hematopoietic properties of G-CSF/IgG-Fc fusion proteins.

  13. Evaluating guideline adherence regarding empirical vancomycin use in patients with neutropenic fever

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    Daniel B. Chastain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of empirical vancomycin for patients with neutropenic fever (NF with regard to adherence to treatment guidelines. Methods: Adult patients with a diagnosis of neutropenia, who met the definition of NF as per treatment guidelines, were identified. Use of vancomycin was evaluated as part of empirical therapy and again after 72 h. Outcomes were assessed using descriptive statistics, the Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and univariate exact logistic regression analyses. Results: Sixty-four patients were included. Overall, inappropriate empirical vancomycin use was observed in more than 30% of patients. Of 35 patients with indications for empirical vancomycin, only 68% received it. At 72 h, appropriate vancomycin continuation, de-escalation, or discontinuation occurred in 21 of 33 patients. On univariate regression, hematological malignancy was associated with appropriate empirical vancomycin prescribing, whether initiating or withholding (odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval 1.31–12.1. No variable was independently associated with inappropriate continuation at 72 h. Conclusions: There is poor guideline adherence to vancomycin prescribing as empirical therapy and at 72-h reassessment in patients with NF. Further efforts are needed to foster a more rational use of vancomycin in patients with NF. Keywords: Antibiotics, Neutropenia, Neutropenic fever, Vancomycin

  14. A randomized case-controlled study of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor for the treatment of sepsis in preterm neutropenic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Doğukan; Demirel, Bilge; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) to treat sepsis in neutropenic preterm infants. Fifty-six neutropenic preterm infants with suspected or culture-proven sepsis hospitalized in Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children's Educational and Training Hospital, Kozyatağı/Istanbul, Turkey between January 2008 and January 2010 were enrolled. Patients were randomized either to receive rhG-CSF plus empirical antibiotics (Group I) or empirical antibiotics alone (Group II). Clinical features were recorded. Daily complete blood count was performed until neutropenia subsided. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Thirty-three infants received rhG-CSF plus antibiotic treatment and 23 infants received antibiotic treatment. No drug-related adverse event was recorded. Absolute neutrophil count values were significantly higher on the 2(nd) study day and 3(rd) study day in Group I. Short-term mortality did not differ between the groups. Treatment with rhG-CSF resulted in a more rapid recovery of ANC in neutropenic preterm infants. However, no reduction in short-term mortality was documented. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Management of invasive candidiasis and candidemia in adult non-neutropenic intensive care unit patients: Part II. Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guery, B.P.; Arendrup, M.C.; Auzinger, G.; Azoulay, E.; Borges Sa, M.; Johnson, E.M.; Muller, E.; Putensen, C.; Rotstein, C.; Sganga, G.; Venditti, M.; Zaragoza Crespo, R.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis and candidemia are frequently encountered in the nosocomial setting particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To review the current management of invasive candidiasis and candidemia in non-neutropenic adult ICU patients based on a review

  16. Sinus Microanatomy and Microbiota in a Rabbit Model of Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Mackey, Calvin; Van Der Pol, William J.; Skinner, Daniel; Morrow, Casey D.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Rowe, Steven M.; Swords, William E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Rabbits are useful for preclinical studies of sinusitis because of similar physiologic features to humans. The objective of this study is to develop a rabbit model of sinusitis that permits assessment of microanatomy and sampling for evaluating shifts in the sinus microbiota during the development of sinusitis and to test how the mucociliary clearance (MCC) defect might lead to dysbiosis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Methods: Generation of CRS was accomplished with an insertion of a sterile sponge into the left middle meatus of New Zealand white rabbits (n = 9) for 2 weeks. After sponge removal, 4 rabbits were observed for another 10 weeks and evaluated for CRS using endoscopy, microCT, visualization of the functional micro-anatomy by micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), and histopathological analysis of the sinus mucosa. Samples were taken from the left middle meatus and submitted for microbiome analysis. Results: CT demonstrated opacification of all left sinuses at 2 weeks in all rabbits (n = 9), which persisted in animals followed for another 12 weeks (n = 4). Histology at week 2 showed mostly neutrophils. On week 14, significant infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes was noted with increased submucosal glands compared to controls (p = 0.02). Functional microanatomy at 2 weeks showed diminished periciliary layer (PCL) depth (p < 0.0001) and mucus transport (p = 0.0044) compared to controls despite a thick mucus layer. By 12 weeks, the thickened mucus layer was resolved but PCL depletion persisted in addition to decreased ciliary beat frequency (CBF; p < 0.0001). The mucin fermenting microbes (Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales) dominated on week 2 and there was a significant shift to potential pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Burkholderia) by week 14 compared to both controls and the acute phase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We anticipate this reproducible model will provide a means for identifying underlying mechanisms of airway-surface liquid

  17. Sinus Microanatomy and Microbiota in a Rabbit Model of Rhinosinusitis

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    Do-Yeon Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rabbits are useful for preclinical studies of sinusitis because of similar physiologic features to humans. The objective of this study is to develop a rabbit model of sinusitis that permits assessment of microanatomy and sampling for evaluating shifts in the sinus microbiota during the development of sinusitis and to test how the mucociliary clearance (MCC defect might lead to dysbiosis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS.Methods: Generation of CRS was accomplished with an insertion of a sterile sponge into the left middle meatus of New Zealand white rabbits (n = 9 for 2 weeks. After sponge removal, 4 rabbits were observed for another 10 weeks and evaluated for CRS using endoscopy, microCT, visualization of the functional micro-anatomy by micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT, and histopathological analysis of the sinus mucosa. Samples were taken from the left middle meatus and submitted for microbiome analysis.Results: CT demonstrated opacification of all left sinuses at 2 weeks in all rabbits (n = 9, which persisted in animals followed for another 12 weeks (n = 4. Histology at week 2 showed mostly neutrophils. On week 14, significant infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes was noted with increased submucosal glands compared to controls (p = 0.02. Functional microanatomy at 2 weeks showed diminished periciliary layer (PCL depth (p < 0.0001 and mucus transport (p = 0.0044 compared to controls despite a thick mucus layer. By 12 weeks, the thickened mucus layer was resolved but PCL depletion persisted in addition to decreased ciliary beat frequency (CBF; p < 0.0001. The mucin fermenting microbes (Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales dominated on week 2 and there was a significant shift to potential pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Burkholderia by week 14 compared to both controls and the acute phase (p < 0.05.Conclusion: We anticipate this reproducible model will provide a means for identifying underlying mechanisms of airway

  18. Microbiological profile and nutritional quality of raw foods for neutropenic patients under hospital care

    OpenAIRE

    Galati, Paula Cristina; Lataro, Renata Cristina; Souza, Vanessa Maciel; de Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze and compare the microbiological profile and vitamin C content of raw and cooked foods destined for neutropenic inpatients. Methods Three vegetables and nine fruits, raw and boiled, washed and sanitized were examined. Heat-tolerant coliforms and coagulase-positive staphylococci were counted and the presence of Salmonella spp was investigated. The vitamin C content was analyzed by a colorimetric reaction. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) s...

  19. Microbiological profile and nutritional quality of raw foods for neutropenic patients under hospital care

    OpenAIRE

    Galati, Paula Cristina; Lataro, Renata Cristina; Souza, Vanessa Maciel; Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira de; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze and compare the microbiological profile and vitamin C content of raw and cooked foods destined for neutropenic inpatients. METHODS: Three vegetables and nine fruits, raw and boiled, washed and sanitized were examined. Heat-tolerant coliforms and coagulase-positive staphylococci were counted and the presence of Salmonella spp was investigated. The vitamin C content was analyzed by a colorimetric reaction. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)...

  20. Bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satlin, Michael J; Cohen, Nina; Ma, Kevin C; Gedrimaite, Zivile; Soave, Rosemary; Askin, Gülce; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Walsh, Thomas J; Seo, Susan K

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence, risk factors, treatments, and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in adult neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. We reviewed all BSIs between 2008 and 2012 in this population at two New York City oncology centers. A case-control study was conducted to identify CRE BSI risk factors, using three controls of non-CRE BSIs per case. CRE caused 43 (2.2%) of 1992 BSIs overall and 4.7% of Gram-negative bacteremias. Independent risk factors for CRE BSI were prior β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.2; P = 0.03) or carbapenem (aOR 3.0; P = 0.05) use, current trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (aOR 24; P = 0.001) or glucocorticoid (aOR 5.4, P = 0.004) use, and having a prior CRE culture (aOR 12; P = 0.03). Patients with CRE bacteremia had a median of 52 h from culture collection until receipt of active therapy. They had a 51% BSI-related mortality rate, with a median of 4 days from bacteremia onset until death. CRE-active empirical therapy was associated with a lower 30-day mortality rate (17% vs. 59%; P = 0.08). CRE are lethal emerging causes of bacteremia in neutropenic patients. New strategies are needed to shorten the delay in administration of CRE-active agents and improve outcomes in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring procalcitonin in febrile neutropenia: what is its utility for initial diagnosis of infection and reassessment in persistent fever?

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    James Owen Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of febrile neutropenic episodes (FE is challenged by lacking microbiological and clinical documentation of infection. We aimed at evaluating the utility of monitoring blood procalcitonin (PCT in FE for initial diagnosis of infection and reassessment in persistent fever. METHODS: PCT kinetics was prospectively monitored in 194 consecutive FE (1771 blood samples: 65 microbiologically documented infections (MDI, 33.5%; 49 due to non-coagulase-negative staphylococci, non-CNS, 68 clinically documented infections (CDI, 35%; 39 deep-seated, and 61 fever of unexplained origin (FUO, 31.5%. RESULTS: At fever onset median PCT was 190 pg/mL (range 30-26'800, without significant difference among MDI, CDI and FUO. PCT peak occurred on day 2 after onset of fever: non-CNS-MDI/deep-seated-CDI (656, 80-86350 vs. FUO (205, 33-771; p500 pg/mL distinguished non-CNS-MDI/deep-seated-CDI from FUO with 56% sensitivity and 90% specificity. PCT was >500 pg/ml in only 10% of FUO (688, 570-771. A PCT peak >500 pg/mL (1196, 524-11950 occurred beyond 3 days of persistent fever in 17/21 (81% invasive fungal diseases (IFD. This late PCT peak identified IFD with 81% sensitivity and 57% specificity and preceded diagnosis according to EORTC-MSG criteria in 41% of cases. In IFD responding to therapy, median days to PCT <500 pg/mL and defervescence were 5 (1-23 vs. 10 (3-22; p = 0.026, respectively. CONCLUSION: While procalcitonin is not useful for diagnosis of infection at onset of neutropenic fever, it may help to distinguish a minority of potentially severe infections among FUOs on day 2 after onset of fever. In persistent fever monitoring procalcitonin contributes to early diagnosis and follow-up of invasive mycoses.

  2. CT features of neutropenic enterocolitis in adult patients with hematological diseases undergoing chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, M.N.; Brodoefel, H.; Claussen, C.D.; Horger, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Goeppert, B. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Pathology; Maksimovic, O.; Faul, C. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine-Oncology

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: This study investigates the features of neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) in adults. Materials and Methods: Chart and radiology report reviews were used to identify neutropenic patients with hematological diseases undergoing chemotherapy, who had CT scans for the clarification of abdominal symptoms between October 2003 and October 2009. Patients with any cause for enteritis other than NE were excluded. The scans were analyzed with respect to imaging features and location. Morphological findings were correlated with clinical data. Results: Thirty-one patients with NE (median age 46 years; range 20 - 75) could be identified. Wall thickening and hyperemia could be found in all bowel segments from jejunum to rectum. The right hemicolon was the most frequent location in 19 patients (61 %). Involvement was generalized in 6 patients (19 %) and segmental in 25 cases (81 %). The longer the duration of neutropenia, the more likely generalized involvement of the bowel was. In 8 patients who underwent CT follow-up, the appearance of bowel segments had completely (n = 5) or partially (n = 3) returned to normal at the latest 14 days after the initial diagnosis. Eight patients (26 %) died 1 - 78 days after NE, 7 of who had previously recovered from NE. Conclusion: CT findings are useful for the diagnosis of NE and should be considered even in the presence of isolated small bowel involvement. The terms NE and typhlitis should thus no longer be used synonymously. (orig.)

  3. Microbiological profile and nutritional quality of raw foods for neutropenic patients under hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Galati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze and compare the microbiological profile and vitamin C content of raw and cooked foods destined for neutropenic inpatients. METHODS: Three vegetables and nine fruits, raw and boiled, washed and sanitized were examined. Heat-tolerant coliforms and coagulase-positive staphylococci were counted and the presence of Salmonella spp was investigated. The vitamin C content was analyzed by a colorimetric reaction. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and the nonparametric Wilcoxon test was used to compare the mean vitamin C values of the cooked and raw foods. The Spearman correlation test was applied to determine the associations between the parameters evaluated RESULTS: Salmonella spp was absent in all samples and the populations of coagulase-positive staphylococci and heat-tolerant coliforms were below the minimum detectable limits of the methods employed (< 100 colony forming units (CFU/g and < 3 most probable number (MPN/g, respectively. There was a significant loss of vitamin C in the cooked foods, 38.9% on average, compared to the raw foods, a loss that was positively correlated with cooking time. CONCLUSION: The fresh fruits and vegetables properly sanitized in this study had a microbiological profile consistent with that required by Brazilian law. Furthermore, the nutritional value of the neutropenic diet is diminished, at least in terms of the vitamin C content.

  4. Sensory Preconditioning in Newborn Rabbits: From Common to Distinct Odor Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Tourat, Audrey; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether olfactory preconditioning is functional in newborn rabbits and based on joined or independent memory of odorants. First, after exposure to odorants A+B, the conditioning of A led to high responsiveness to odorant B. Second, responsiveness to B persisted after amnesia of A. Third, preconditioning was also functional…

  5. Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kullberg, B.J.; Sobel, J.D.; Ruhnke, M.; Pappas, P.G.; Viscoli, C.; Rex, J.H.; Cleary, J.D.; Rubinstein, E.; Church, L.W.; Brown, J.M.; Schlamm, H.T.; Oborska, I.T.; Hilton, F.; Hodges, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voriconazole has proven efficacy against invasive aspergillosis and oesophageal candidiasis. This multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority study compared voriconazole with a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for the treatment of candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients.

  6. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  8. Acute Oncology Care: A narrative review of the acute management of neutropenic sepsis and immune-related toxicities of checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Thomas; Ahn, Shin; Rice, Terry W; Cooksley, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Cancer care has become increasingly specialized and advances in therapy have resulted in a larger number of patients receiving care. There has been a significant increase in the number of patients presenting with cancer related emergencies including treatment toxicities and those directly related to the malignancy. Suspected neutropenic sepsis is an acute medical emergency and empirical antibiotic therapy should be administered immediately. The goal of empirical therapy is to cover the most likely pathogens that will cause life-threatening infections in neutropenic patients. Patients with febrile neutropenia are a heterogeneous group with only a minority of treated patients developing significant medical complications. Outpatient management of low risk febrile neutropenia patients identified by the MASCC score is a safe and effective strategy. Immunotherapy with "checkpoint inhibitors" has significantly improved outcomes for patients with metastatic melanoma and evidence of benefit in a wide range of malignancies is developing. Despite these clinical benefits a number of immune related adverse events have been recognised which can affect virtually all organ systems and are potentially fatal. The timing of the onset of the adverse events is dependent on the organ system affected and unlike anti-neoplastic therapy can be delayed significantly after initiation or completion of therapy. The field of Acute Oncology is changing rapidly. Alongside, the traditional challenge of neutropenic sepsis there are many emerging toxicities. Further research into the optimal management, strategies and pathways of acutely unwell patients with cancer is required. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Fraser, Abigail; Paul, Mical; Vidal, Liat; Lawrie, Theresa A; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Kremer, Leontien C M; Leibovici, Leonard

    2012-01-18

    Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who are neutropenic following chemotherapy for malignancy. Trials have shown the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of bacterial infections but not in reducing mortality rates. Our systematic review from 2006 also showed a reduction in mortality. This updated review aimed to evaluate whether there is still a benefit of reduction in mortality when compared to placebo or no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Cancer Network Register of Trials (2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2011), EMBASE (1980 to March 2011), abstracts of conference proceedings and the references of identified studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing different types of antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo or no intervention, or another antibiotic, to prevent bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients. Two authors independently appraised the quality of each trial and extracted data from the included trials. Analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1 software. One-hundred and nine trials (involving 13,579 patients) that were conducted between the years 1973 to 2010 met the inclusion criteria. When compared with placebo or no intervention, antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of death from all causes (46 trials, 5635 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79) and the risk of infection-related death (43 trials, 5777 participants; RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.77). The estimated number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one death was 34 (all-cause mortality) and 48 (infection-related mortality).Prophylaxis also significantly reduced the occurrence of fever (54 trials, 6658 participants; RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87), clinically documented infection (48 trials, 5758 participants; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.76), microbiologically documented infection

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Fraser, Abigail; Paul, Mical; Vidal, Liat; Lawrie, Theresa A; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Kremer, Leontien CM; Leibovici, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who are neutropenic following chemotherapy for malignancy. Trials have shown the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of bacterial infections but not in reducing mortality rates. Our systematic review from 2006 also showed a reduction in mortality. Objectives This updated review aimed to evaluate whether there is still a benefit of reduction in mortality when compared to placebo or no intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Cancer Network Register of Trials (2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2011), EMBASE (1980 to March 2011), abstracts of conference proceedings and the references of identified studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing different types of antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo or no intervention, or another antibiotic, to prevent bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently appraised the quality of each trial and extracted data from the included trials. Analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1 software. Main results One-hundred and nine trials (involving 13,579 patients) that were conducted between the years 1973 to 2010 met the inclusion criteria. When compared with placebo or no intervention, antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of death from all causes (46 trials, 5635 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79) and the risk of infection-related death (43 trials, 5777 participants; RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.77). The estimated number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one death was 34 (all-cause mortality) and 48 (infection-related mortality). Prophylaxis also significantly reduced the occurrence of fever (54 trials, 6658 participants; RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87), clinically documented infection

  12. Joint distraction and movement for repair of articular cartilage in a rabbit model with subsequent weight-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, T; Chang, F; Ishii, T; Yanai, T; Mishima, H; Ochiai, N

    2010-07-01

    We have previously shown that joint distraction and movement with a hinged external fixation device for 12 weeks was useful for repairing a large articular cartilage defect in a rabbit model. We have now investigated the results after six months and one year. The device was applied to 16 rabbits who underwent resection of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone from the entire tibial plateau. In group A (nine rabbits) the device was applied for six months. In group B (seven rabbits) it was in place for six months, after which it was removed and the animals were allowed to move freely for an additional six months. The cartilage remained sound in all rabbits. The areas of type II collagen-positive staining and repaired soft tissue were larger in group B than in group A. These findings provide evidence of long-term persistence of repaired cartilage with this technique and that weight-bearing has a positive effect on the quality of the cartilage.

  13. Myxomatosis: population dynamics of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) and ecological effects in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, J R; Trout, R C; Ross, J

    1992-12-01

    In 1953-1955, myxomatosis spread among rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the United Kingdom, causing 99% mortality. Subsequently, there was a gradual increase in rabbit numbers. By 1955, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) had already found attenuated strains of myxoma virus. By 1970, genetic resistance had appeared. In the 1970s, mortality declined to 47-69% with only approximately 25% of rabbits infected, giving a field mortality of 12-19%. However, myxomatosis is persistent, generally showing a major prevalence peak in autumn and often a minor peak in spring. An eight-year MAFF experiment in which prevalence of the disease was artificially reduced indicates that myxomatosis remains a significant factor in population regulation. After rabbit numbers fell in the 1950s, important ecological changes took place: vegetation altered due to reduced grazing pressure, predators were affected by the reduction of a major prey species and these changes also affected many other animals. Currently, rabbit numbers have returned to approximately one-third of pre-myxomatosis levels and this is causing damage to farm and conservation habitats.

  14. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  15. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125 I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125 I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  16. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125 I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  17. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis and therapeutic decision for respiratory infections in hematological febrile neutropenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Bento

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile neutropenia is a common complication in patients undergoing chemotherapy or hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy has been used to aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. However, there is no consensus regarding the benefit of the exam in establishing diagnosis and in changing the treatment of lung disease in this context. Previous retrospective studies, quite heterogeneous and with non-HIV immunocompromised patients, showed that the yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in establishing etiology ranges from 13% to 81%, and in changing therapy, from 5% to 51%. Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and the procedure-related risk for neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancy. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed the medical records of patients with hematologic malignancy with febrile neutropenia who had undergone diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy between January 2011 and December 2012 at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Results: A total of 45 patients were included: 18 (36% tested positive for bronchoalveolar lavage, with change in therapeutic management occurring for 95% of them. The procedure-related risk was 2.2%, with one patient showing desaturation immediately after the procedure. Conclusion:  Despite the limited number of patients, our findings indicate that fiberoptic bronchoscopy in neutropenic patients is safe, and the results are similar to those previously reported.

  18. Rabbit analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  20. Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (Amphocil) vs fluconazole for the prevention of fungal infections in neutropenic patients : data of a prematurely stopped clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, G J; Zweegman, S; Simoons-Smit, A M; van Loenen, A C; Touw, D; Huijgens, P C

    We conducted an open label, randomised clinical trial to compare amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD, Amphocil) 2 mg/kg/day intravenously with fluconazole 200 mg/day orally, for the prevention of fungal disease in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. In the event of

  1. Acute fungal sinusitis in neutropenic patients of Namazi hospital/ Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fungal sinusitis is a well known disease in immunocompromised patients, but recently many reports have indicated an increased prevalence of fungal sinusitis in otherwise healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS in neutropenic patients and to determine outcome factors that may affect their survival. Methods: A total of 142 patients who were undergoing chemotherapy were followed by clinical and radiological features suggestive of fungal sinusitis. Patients with fever, headache, facial swelling and radiological finding underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The biopsy materials were studied by mycological and histopathological methods. Results: Eleven from 142 patients were identified to have IFS. The ethiologic agents were Aspergillus flavus (5 cases, Alternaria sp. (3 cases, Aspergillus fumigatus (2 cases and mucor (1 case. Eight of 11 cases died. Conclusions: Invasive fungal sinusitis causes a high rate of mortality among immunocompromised patients. Therefore, early diagnosis with aggressive medical and surgical intervention is critical for survival.

  2. Active immunizations with peptide-DC vaccines and passive transfer with antibodies protect neutropenic mice against disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong

    2016-01-04

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Active Immunizations with Peptide-DC Vaccines and Passive Transfer with Antibodies Protect Neutropenic Mice against Disseminated Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. PMID:26620842

  4. Delayed unpaired extinction as a treatment for hyperarousal of the rabbit nictitating membrane response and its implications for treating PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Bernard G; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Burhans, Lauren B

    2018-04-01

    Treatment for PTSD (Post-traumatic stress disorder) is rarely available immediately after trauma and often delayed for weeks or months after an event. In a rabbit eyeblink conditioning model of PTSD, we have previously shown that presentations of a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) and shock unconditioned stimulus (US) in an explicitly unpaired manner known as unpaired extinction is effective in reducing CS responding and US hyperarousal even if shock intensity is reduced eight-fold and elicits only minimal responding. Here we determined if delayed delivery of unpaired extinction would still be effective in extinguishing hyperarousal. Rabbits were tested for sensitivity to shock before CS-US pairings and after six days of unpaired extinction presented a day, a week or a month after CS-US pairings. Hyperarousal was extinguished a day and a week after conditioning but not after a month suggesting a significant delay in "treatment" can make hyperarousal persist. We next assessed if this persistence of hyperarousal was associative by comparing rabbits given CS-US pairings to those given explicitly unpaired CS and US presentations, measuring hyperarousal a day and a month later, followed by unpaired extinction and hyperarousal assessment. After four weeks, there was an increase in responding for all rabbits but only rabbits receiving CS-US pairings showed a significant increase in associatively-mediated hyperarousal. Importantly, both paired and unpaired groups showed increased levels of responding after unpaired extinction suggesting treatment delayed for too long may no longer be effective and could cause generalized hyperarousal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Late effects of low-energy gamma-emitting stents in a rabbit iliac artery model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Bradley H.; Li, Chris; Whittingham, Heather A.; Tio, Fermin O.; Kutryk, Michael J.B.; Janicki, Christian; Sparkes, John D.; Turnlund, Todd; Sweet, William L.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term dose response of novel low-dose γ-emitting stents in a rabbit iliac artery model. Methods and Materials: Control stents (n=24) and 103 Pd stents 1.0 to 4.0 mCi (n=36) were implanted in the iliac arteries of 30 New Zealand rabbits. Stents were evaluated by intravascular ultrasound (immediately post procedure and before killing) and by histomorphometry. Results: At 26 weeks, 28 rabbits were killed, with no evidence of stent thrombosis. In the body of the stent there was a dose-response relationship with 50% inhibition of intimal hyperplasia at the highest activity compared to control stents (p=0.07) and a significant increase in intimal hyperplasia at the lowest activity (p 103 Pd stents is feasible with reduction of in-stent hyperplasia in a dose-related manner. However, significant narrowing at the stent edges, increased in-stent hyperplasia at lower activities, and incomplete vascular healing with persistence of immature neointima at higher activities are significant limitations

  6. Neutropenic enterocolitis affecting the transverse colon: an unusual complication of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Jason; Bolln, Carsten; Hodnett, Robert; Al-Ani, Ahmed

    2014-05-02

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 1-day history of sudden onset of generalised abdominal pain associated with fever and vomiting. She was previously diagnosed with left breast cancer 2 months ago and completed a course of chemotherapy 1 week prior to presentation. She was clinically unwell with generalised tenderness in her abdomen. Blood investigations showed severe neutropenia. A CT scan was requested which reported a marked oedematous swelling of the transverse colon with features suggestive of a contained perforation. The decision was made to operate. Intraoperatively, the transverse colon was found to be thickened with omentum adherent focally around the distal third. A right hemicolectomy was performed with an end ileostomy and mucus fistula. The patient made a successful recovery and was discharged within 7 days of presenting. Pathology reported typical features of neutropenic enterocolitis affecting the transverse colon with a normal terminal ileum, caecum and ascending colon.

  7. Clostridium difficile Colitis and Neutropenic Fever Associated with Docetaxel Chemotherapy in a Patient with Advanced Extramammary Paget’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nonomura, Yumi; Otsuka, Atsushi; Endo, Yuichiro; Fujisawa, Akihiro; Tanioka, Miki; Kabashima, Kenji; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2012-01-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease is a rare cutaneous malignant neoplasm. Previous studies indicated the efficacy of docetaxel in advanced cases. The common side effects of docetaxel are usually tolerable and seldom life-threatening. We experienced a case of severe pseudomembranous colitis and neutropenic fever that developed just after the first cycle of docetaxel chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, there are few reports of pseudomembranous colitis associated with docetaxel administration...

  8. Effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor on empiric therapy with flomoxef sodium and tobramycin in febrile neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. Kan-etsu Hematological Disease and Infection Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Karasawa, M; Naruse, T; Fukuda, M; Hirashima, K; Oh, H; Ninomiya, H; Abe, T; Saito, K; Shishido, H; Moriyama, Y; Shibata, A; Motoyoshi, K; Nagata, N; Miura, Y

    1999-02-01

    The clinical effects of concomitant use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on empiric antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenic patients were evaluated in a randomized fashion. Two hundred and fourteen neutropenic febrile episodes (neutrophil counts flomoxef sodium and tobramycin with or without G-CSF. The resolution of fever at day 4 (excellent response) or at day 7 (good response) was deemed effective. Among 157 evaluable episodes, the observed excellent responses were 31 (38.8%) and the good responses were 20 (25.0%) in the G-CSF group; those in the control group were 26 (33.8%) and 25 (32.5%), respectively. The overall efficacy rate was 63.8% (51/80) in the G-CSF group and 66.2% (51/77) in the control group (not significant). The initial neutrophil count was 0.186 +/- 0.249 x 10(9)/l in the G-CSF group and 0.235 +/- 0.290 x 10(9)/l in the control group, and rose to 2.889 +/- 4.198 x 10(9)/l and 0.522 +/- 0.844 x 10(9)/l, respectively, at day 7. These results indicate that G-CSF does not affect the rate of response to empiric antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenic patients, although a significant effect of G-CSF was observed on neutrophil recovery.

  9. Panton-valentine leukocidin enhances the severity of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rabbit osteomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Claude Crémieux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA in the United States, and the concomitant increase in severe invasive staphylococcal infections, including osteomyelitis, in healthy children, has led to renewed interest in Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL. However, the pathogenetic role of PVL in staphylococcal infections remains controversial, possibly because it depends on the site of infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the course of experimental rabbit osteomyelitis due to the PVL-positive CA-MRSA strain USA 300 (LAC and its PVL-negative isogenic derivative (LACDeltapvl, using a low and a high inoculum (8x10(5 and 4x10(8 CFU. With the low inoculum, bone infection was less frequent on day 7 (D7 and day 28 (D28 with LACDeltapvl than with LAC (respectively 12/19 and 18/19 animals, p = 0.042. With the high inoculum of both strains, all the animals were infected on D7 and the infection persisted on D28 in almost every case. However, tibial bacterial counts and the serum CRP concentration fell significantly between D7 and D28 with LACDeltapvl but not with LAC. Respectively 67% and 60% of LAC-infected rabbits had bone deformation and muscle/joint involvement on D7, compared to 0% and 7% of LACDeltapvl-infected rabbits (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005 respectively. Between D0 and D28, the anti-PVL antibody titer increased significantly only with the high inoculum of LAC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PVL appears to play a role in the persistence and rapid local extension of rabbit osteomyelitis, in keeping with the greater severity of human bone infections due to PVL-positive S. aureus. The possible therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in febrile neutropenic patients with cancer: current epidemiology and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trecarichi, Enrico M; Tumbarello, Mario

    2014-04-01

    In the recent years, several studies involving cancer patients have demonstrated a clear trend in the epidemiology of bacterial infections showing a shift in the prevalence from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria and the extensive emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains among Gram-negatives isolated from the blood. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the recent trends in epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negatives recovered from neutropenic cancer patients, with particular emphasis on the impact of antimicrobial resistance on the clinical outcome of severe infections caused by such microorganisms. Overall, from 2007 to date, the rate of Gram-negative bacteria recovery ranged from 24.7 to 75.8% (mean 51.3%) in cancer patient cohorts. Escherichia coli represented the most common species (mean frequency of isolation 32.1%) among the Gram-negatives, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mean frequency of isolation 20.1%). An increasing frequency of Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was also reported. Increased rates of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative strains have been highlighted among Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting Gram-negative rods, despite discontinuation of fluoroquinolone-based antibacterial prophylaxis for neutropenic patients. In addition, antimicrobial resistance and/or the inadequacy of empirical antibiotic treatment have been frequently linked to a worse outcome in cancer patients with bloodstream infections caused by Gram-negative isolates. Sound knowledge of the local distribution of pathogens and their susceptibility patterns and prompt initiation of effective antimicrobial treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria are essential in cancer patients.

  11. Kinetics of Anti-Phlebotomus perniciosus Saliva Antibodies in Experimentally Bitten Mice and Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Martín-Martín

    Full Text Available Sand flies are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of Leishmania parasites. When hosts are bitten they develop cellular and humoral responses against sand fly saliva. A positive correlation has been observed between the number of bites and antibody levels indicating that anti-saliva antibody response can be used as marker of exposure to sand flies. Little is known about kinetics of antibodies against Phlebotomus perniciosus salivary gland homogenate (SGH or recombinant salivary proteins (rSP. This work focused on the study of anti-P. perniciosus saliva antibodies in sera of mice and rabbits that were experimentally exposed to the bites of uninfected sand flies.Anti-saliva antibodies were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. In addition, antibody levels against two P. perniciosus rSP, apyrase rSP01B and D7 related protein rSP04 were determined in mice sera. Anti-saliva antibody levels increased along the immunizations and correlated with the number of sand fly bites. Anti-SGH antibody levels were detected in sera of mice five weeks after exposure, and persisted for at least three months. Anti-apyrase rSP01B antibodies followed similar kinetic responses than anti-SGH antibodies while rSP04 showed a delayed response and exhibited a greater variability among sera of immunized mice. In rabbits, anti-saliva antibodies appeared after the second week of exposure and IgG antibodies persisted at high levels, even 7 months post-exposure.Our results contributed to increase the knowledge on the type of immune response P. perniciosus saliva and individual proteins elicited highlighting the use of rSP01B as an epidemiological marker of exposure. Anti-saliva kinetics in sera of experimentally bitten rabbits were studied for the first time. Results with rabbit model provided useful information for a better understanding of the anti-saliva antibody levels found in wild leporids in the human leishmaniasis focus in the Madrid region, Spain.

  12. Regional molecular and cellular differences in the female rabbit Achilles tendon complex: potential implications for understanding responses to loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Elise S; Andersson, Gustav; Scott, Alexander; Reno, Carol R; Hart, David A; Thornton, Gail M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was: (i) to analyze the morphology and expression of extracellular matrix genes in six different regions of the Achilles tendon complex of intact normal rabbits; and (ii) to assess the effect of ovariohysterectomy (OVH) on the regional expression of these genes. Female New Zealand White rabbits were separated into two groups: (i) intact normal rabbits (n = 4); and (ii) OVH rabbits (n = 8). For each rabbit, the Achilles tendon complex was dissected into six regions: distal gastrocnemius (DG); distal flexor digitorum superficialis; proximal lateral gastrocnemius (PLG); proximal medial gastrocnemius; proximal flexor digitorum superficialis; and paratenon. For each of the regions, hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histological evaluation of intact normal rabbit tissues and mRNA levels for proteoglycans, collagens and genes associated with collagen regulation were assessed by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for both the intact normal and OVH rabbit tissues. The distal regions displayed a more fibrocartilaginous phenotype. For intact normal rabbits, aggrecan mRNA expression was higher in the distal regions of the Achilles tendon complex compared with the proximal regions. Collagen Type I and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression levels were increased in the PLG compared to the DG in the intact normal rabbit tissues. The tendons from OVH rabbits had lower gene expressions for the proteoglycans aggrecan, biglycan, decorin and versican compared with the intact normal rabbits, although the regional differences of increased aggrecan expression in distal regions compared with proximal regions persisted. The tensile and compressive forces experienced in the examined regions may be related to the regional differences found in gene expression. The lower mRNA expression of the genes examined in the OVH group confirms a potential effect of systemic estrogen on tendon. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  13. The cytolethal distending toxin of Haemophilus ducreyi aggravates dermal lesions in a rabbit model of chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wising, Catharina; Mölne, Lena; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Ahlman, Karin; Lagergård, Teresa

    2005-05-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, produces a cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) that inhibits cultured cell proliferation, leading to cell death. A rabbit model of dermal infection was used to investigate the roles of H. ducreyi bacteria and HdCDT in the development, clinical appearance, and persistence of infection. A non-toxin producing H. ducreyi strain, and for comparison purposes a non-capsulated Haemophilus influenzae strain, were inoculated intradermally, with and without co-administration of purified HdCDT. Co-administration of HdCDT resulted in significant aggravation of H. ducreyi-induced inflammatory lesions, and development of ulcers in rabbit skin. Less pronounced inflammatory lesions and lack of epithelial eruption were observed after inoculation with H. influenzae. Histopathological sections of the H. ducreyi-induced lesions, in both the presence and absence of HdCDT, showed dense infiltrates of the same type inflammatory cells, with the exception of a prominent endothelial cell proliferation noted in sections from lesions caused by H. ducreyi and toxin. Signs of chronic inflammation with involvement of T cells, macrophages, eosinophils, and granuloma formation were observed after H. ducreyi inoculation both with and without toxin. In conclusion, H. ducreyi causes a pronounced, chronic inflammation with involvement of T cells and macrophages, and in combination with HdCDT production of ulcers in the rabbit model. These pathogenic mechanisms may promote the development and persistence of chancroid ulcers.

  14. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  15. Timing and severity of immunizing diseases in rabbits is controlled by seasonal matching of host and pathogen dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Konstans; Brook, Barry W; Lacy, Robert C; Mutze, Greg J; Peacock, David E; Sinclair, Ron G; Schwensow, Nina; Cassey, Phillip; O'Hara, Robert B; Fordham, Damien A

    2015-02-06

    Infectious diseases can exert a strong influence on the dynamics of host populations, but it remains unclear why such disease-mediated control only occurs under particular environmental conditions. We used 16 years of detailed field data on invasive European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia, linked to individual-based stochastic models and Bayesian approximations, to test whether (i) mortality associated with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is driven primarily by seasonal matches/mismatches between demographic rates and epidemiological dynamics and (ii) delayed infection (arising from insusceptibility and maternal antibodies in juveniles) are important factors in determining disease severity and local population persistence of rabbits. We found that both the timing of reproduction and exposure to viruses drove recurrent seasonal epidemics of RHD. Protection conferred by insusceptibility and maternal antibodies controlled seasonal disease outbreaks by delaying infection; this could have also allowed escape from disease. The persistence of local populations was a stochastic outcome of recovery rates from both RHD and myxomatosis. If susceptibility to RHD is delayed, myxomatosis will have a pronounced effect on population extirpation when the two viruses coexist. This has important implications for wildlife management, because it is likely that such seasonal interplay and disease dynamics has a strong effect on long-term population viability for many species. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial spectrum and susceptibility patterns of pathogens in adult febrile neutropenic patients: a comparison between two time periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, K.F.; Hafeez, H.; Afzal, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study trends in bacterial spectrum and susceptibility patterns of pathogens in adult febrile neutropenic patients during two time periods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 379 adult oncology patients admitted with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia at our institute during years 2003 and 2006. A total of 151 organisms were isolated during the two calendar years. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 57.6% of organisms, while gram positive organisms accounted for 42.3% of the total isolates. The most common organisms were: Escherichia coli (23.1%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.9%). The number of gram positive isolates showed an increase from 35% in 2003 to 47.2% in 2006 (p=0.13). During each calendar year, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were 100% susceptible to vancomycin and 33% strains of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin resistant. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were highly sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin during both time periods. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to ciprofloxacin increased from 0% in 2003 to 50% in 2006 (p=0.03). Gram negative organisms are the predominant organisms in adult febrile neutropenic patients at our institute. Initial empirical therapy with piperacillin/tazobactam seems appropriate to cover most gram negative pathogens while vancomycin to be added for suspected gram positive infections. During the two calendar years resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to ciprofloxacin has significantly increased. (author)

  17. Ultrasound for critical care physicians: neutropenic patient with fever snd shortness of breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraai E

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. A 63 year old female with a history of acute myelogenous leukemia presents with shortness of breath, fever and hypotension to the ICU. She is in septic shock on norepinephrine, and has been treated on the oncology unit with vancomycin, cefepime, acyclovir and voriconazole. She has been neutropenic for 1 month. The patient develops a progressive right lower chest opacity. This opacity has progressed in spite of antibiotics and antifungals. The portable AP chest radiograph is presented below (Figure 1. An ultrasound of the right chest was performed for further evaluation of the opacity (figure 2. Question: What pathology does the ultrasound reveal in the right hemithorax? 1. Air filled cavity; 2. Chest wall abscess; 3. Fractured ribs; 4. Pleural effusion and suspected empyema; 5. Simple consolidation ...

  18. Reduction of exit-site infections of tunnelled intravascular catheters among neutropenic patients by sustained-release chlorhexidine dressings: results from a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S T; Sanders, J; Patton, W N; Ganly, P; Birch, M; Crump, J A; Spearing, R L

    2005-09-01

    Exit-site and tunnel infections of tunnelled central intravascular catheters are a frequent source of morbidity among neutropenic patients and may necessitate catheter removal. They require antimicrobial therapy that increases healthcare costs and is associated with adverse drug reactions. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted among adult patients undergoing chemotherapy in a haematology unit. Tunnelled intravascular catheters were randomized to receive the control of a standard dressing regimen as recommended by the British Committee for Standards in Haematology, or to receive the intervention of a sustained-release chlorhexidine dressing. Follow-up data were available in 112 of 114 tunnelled intravascular catheters which were randomized. Exit-site or combined exit-site/tunnel infections occurred in 23 (43%) of 54 catheters in the control group, and five (9%) of 58 catheters in the intervention group [odds ratio (OR) for intervention group compared with control group =0.13, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.04-0.37, P<0.001]. More tunnelled intravascular catheters were prematurely removed from the control group than the intervention group for documented infections [20/54 (37%) vs 6/58 (10%), OR=0.20, 95%CI 0.53-0.07]. However, there was no difference in the numbers of tunnelled intravascular catheters removed for all proven and suspected intravascular catheter-related infections [21/54 (39%) vs 19/58 (33%)], or in the time to removal of catheters for any reason other than death or end of treatment for underlying disease. Thus chlorhexidine dressings reduced the incidence of exit-site/tunnel infections of indwelling tunnelled intravascular catheters without prolonging catheter survival in neutropenic patients, and could be considered as part of the routine management of indwelling tunnelled intravascular catheters among neutropenic patients.

  19. 3 Tesla proton MRI for the diagnosis of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia: initial results in comparison to HRCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenberger, U I; Morelli, J N; Henzler, T; Buchheidt, D; Fink, C; Schoenberg, S O; Reichert, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3 Tesla proton MRI for the assessment of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. In a prospective study, 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 19 febrile neutropenic patients (5 women, 14 men; mean age 61 years ± 14.2; range 23-77 years). All patients underwent high-resolution CT less than 24h prior to MRI. The MRI protocol (Magnetom Tim Trio, Siemens) included a T2-weighted HASTE sequence (TE/TR: 49 ms/∞, slice thickness 6mm) and a high-resolution 3D VIBE sequence with an ultra-short TETesla MRI with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 78.6%, resulting in an overall accuracy of 88% (NPV/PPV 66.7%/89.5%). In 51 lobes (19 of 19 patients), pulmonary abnormalities visualized by MR were judged to be concordant in their location and in the lesion type identified by both readers. In 22 lobes (11 of 19 patients), no abnormalities were present on either MR or HRCT (true negative). In 6 lobes (5 of 19 patients), ground glass opacity areas were detected on MRI but were not visible on HRCT (false positives). In 11 lobes (7 of 19 patients), MRI failed to detect ground glass opacity areas identified by HRCT. However, since the abnormalities were disseminated in these patients, accurate treatment decisions were possible in every case based on MRI. In one case MRI showed a central area of cavitation, which was not visualized by HRCT. Infectious nodules and consolidations can be detected in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia with a sufficient diagnostic accuracy by 3 Tesla MRI. Detection of ground glass opacity areas is the main limitation of 3-Tesla MRI when compared to HRCT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  1. Consequences of Androctonus mauretanicus and Buthus occitanus scorpion venoms on electrolyte levels in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Daoudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androctonus mauretanicus (A. mauretanicus and Buthus occitanus (B. occitanus scorpions, which belong to the Buthidae family, are the most venomous scorpions in Morocco. For the first time, we investigated the effects of such scorpion venoms on serum electrolytes in subcutaneously injected rabbits. For this purpose, 3 groups of 6 albinos adult male rabbits (New Zealand were used in this experiment. Two of the groups were given a single subcutaneous injection of either crude Am venom (5 μg/kg or Bo venom (8 μg/kg whereas the third group (control group only received physiological saline solution (NaCl 0.9%. The blood samples were collected from injected rabbits via the marginal vein at time intervals of 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 24 h after venom injection. The concentrations of electrolytes in the serum samples were measured. Our study indicates that scorpion envenomation in vivo, rabbit animal model, caused severe and persistent hypomagnesaemia and hypochloremia, which are accompanied of hypernatremia, hyperkalemia and hypercalcaemia. The intensity of electrolytes imbalance was clearly superior in the case of A. mauretanicus scorpion venom (although a lower quantity of venom was injected. This is coherent with the experimental data which indicate that A. mauretanicus venom is more toxic than B. occitanus venom.

  2. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  3. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  4. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  5. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  6. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  7. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  8. A Rabbit Model for Testing Helper-Dependent Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Therapy for Vein Graft Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lianxiang; Wacker, Bradley K; Bueren, Emma; Ham, Ervin; Dronadula, Nagadhara; Dichek, David A

    2017-12-15

    Coronary artery bypass vein grafts are a mainstay of therapy for human atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, the long-term patency of vein grafts is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Gene therapy, directed at the vein graft wall, is a promising approach for preventing vein graft atherosclerosis. Because helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) efficiently transduces grafted veins and confers long-term transgene expression, HDAd is an excellent candidate for delivery of vein graft-targeted gene therapy. We developed a model of vein graft atherosclerosis in fat-fed rabbits and demonstrated long-term (≥20 weeks) persistence of HDAd genomes after graft transduction. This model enables quantitation of vein graft hemodynamics, wall structure, lipid accumulation, cellularity, vector persistence, and inflammatory markers on a single graft. Time-course experiments identified 12 weeks after transduction as an optimal time to measure efficacy of gene therapy on the critical variables of lipid and macrophage accumulation. We also used chow-fed rabbits to test whether HDAd infusion in vein grafts promotes intimal growth and inflammation. HDAd did not increase intimal growth, but had moderate-yet significant-pro-inflammatory effects. The vein graft atherosclerosis model will be useful for testing HDAd-mediated gene therapy; however, pro-inflammatory effects of HdAd remain a concern in developing HDAd as a therapy for vein graft disease.

  9. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073286826; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares

  12. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhoea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Grant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eradication of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where eradication started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common.Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analysed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, approximately 260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and approximately 130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies.These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been

  13. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  14. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  15. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  17. Prolonged local persistence of cisplatin-loaded gelatin microspheres and their chemoembolic anti-cancer effect in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shinichi; Nitta, Norihisa; Sonoda, Akinaga; Seko, Ayumi; Tanaka, Toyohiko; Takahashi, Masashi; Takemura, Shizuki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To confirm prolonged cisplatin release from drug-loaded gelatin microspheres (GMSs) and their improved chemoembolic anti-cancer effect against VX2 liver tumors in rabbits. Materials and methods: Two groups of twelve rabbits each were treated intraarterially either with 2 mg/kg cisplatin-loaded GMSs (=0.04 mg/kg cisplatin) or 0.04 mg/kg cisplatin solution by administering them into the right renal artery. Platinum concentrations within the renal parenchyma were analyzed immediately following infusion (day 0) and on days 1, 3, and 7 using the atomic absorption method. In a second experiment four groups of five rabbits each with implanted VX2 liver tumors were treated intraarterially through the hepatic artery with the following drugs: 2 mg/kg cisplatin-loaded GMSs (=0.04 mg/kg cisplatin) (group I), 2 mg/kg GMSs without any drug (group II), 1.5 mg/kg cisplatin solution (group III) and saline (group IV). Tumor volumes were analyzed pre-injection and 7 days after with MRI allowing calculating the relative tumor growth rate (%). Degree of liver cell necrosis was assessed on the histopathological specimens. Results: The renal parenchymal platinum concentrations (μg/ml) with 4.51 ± 2.25 (day 0), 1.59 ± 0.70 (day 1), 0.72 ± 0.10 (day 3) and 0.20 ± 0.06 (day 7) were significantly more pronounced after cisplatin-loaded GMS on days one and three compared to cisplatin with 1.99 ± 0.55, 0.08 ± 0.03, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.10 ± 0.07, respectively. Relative tumor growth rates resulted in 84.5% ± 26.4 (group I); 241.4% ± 145.1 (II); 331.9% ± 72.2 (III), and 413.6% ± 103.6 (IV) with statistical significant differences between groups I and III, and groups I and IV. Similar degrees of necrosis were observed in both GMSs treated groups, while ballooning of hepatocytes was highest in cisplatin-loaded GMSs. Conclusions: With cisplatin-loaded GMSs more pronounced and prolonged local parenchymal cisplatin concentrations may be achieved offering the advantage of an

  18. A Rabbit Model for Testing Helper-Dependent Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Therapy for Vein Graft Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianxiang Bi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery bypass vein grafts are a mainstay of therapy for human atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, the long-term patency of vein grafts is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Gene therapy, directed at the vein graft wall, is a promising approach for preventing vein graft atherosclerosis. Because helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd efficiently transduces grafted veins and confers long-term transgene expression, HDAd is an excellent candidate for delivery of vein graft-targeted gene therapy. We developed a model of vein graft atherosclerosis in fat-fed rabbits and demonstrated long-term (≥20 weeks persistence of HDAd genomes after graft transduction. This model enables quantitation of vein graft hemodynamics, wall structure, lipid accumulation, cellularity, vector persistence, and inflammatory markers on a single graft. Time-course experiments identified 12 weeks after transduction as an optimal time to measure efficacy of gene therapy on the critical variables of lipid and macrophage accumulation. We also used chow-fed rabbits to test whether HDAd infusion in vein grafts promotes intimal growth and inflammation. HDAd did not increase intimal growth, but had moderate—yet significant—pro-inflammatory effects. The vein graft atherosclerosis model will be useful for testing HDAd-mediated gene therapy; however, pro-inflammatory effects of HdAd remain a concern in developing HDAd as a therapy for vein graft disease.

  19. Some factors affecting rabbit production under egyptian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the rabbit of the department of animal production, faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, Blood biochemical analysis and hormonal assay were conducted in tracer bio climatology Unit., Department of radiobiology, nuclear research centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Eighty male New Zealand white (NZW) and 80 male californian (Cal) rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were used. The animals were housed in rabbit building, naturally ventilated. Rabbits cages were provided with automatic nipple drinkers and drinking and drinking water ad libitum.Rabbits were fed ad libitum on balanced growing pelted rabbit ration. 21 tabs.,13 figs.,158 refs

  20. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  1. Intraabdominal abscess related fungaemia caused by Rhodotorula glutinis in a non-neutropenic cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diktas, H; Gulec, B; Baylan, O; Oncul, O; Turhan, V; Acar, A; Gorenek, L

    2013-01-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis is a rare fungal infection that is especially observed in immune-compromised patients. It is common in the skin, faeces, nails, sputum, gastrointestinal system and adenoid tissue. However, the incidence of Rhodotorula glutinis is increased in both local and systemic infections in recent years. Presented here is a case of Rhodotorula glutinis fungaemia that isolated from subhepatic abscess formation and blood in a patient who was operated with Roux-en-Y technique due to gastric adenocarcinoma. Fungal sepsis is an important cause of fever resistant to antibiotic therapy that is often taken into marginal account. It should instead be particularly considered in patients with a history of intraabdominal surgery and non-neutropenic cancer patients. The case described illustrates an episode of systemic infection by Rhodotorula glutinis, correlated with the presence of intraabdominal abscess and without central venous catheters. This is the first case of fungaemia by Rhodotorula glutinis with an intraabdominal abscess source reported from Turkey.

  2. Co‐occurrence dynamics of endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbits and free‐ranging domestic cats: Prey responses to an exotic predator removal program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2018-01-01

    The Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) is one of many endangered endemic species of the Florida Keys. The main threats are habitat loss and fragmentation from sea‐level rise, development, and habitat succession. Exotic predators such as free‐ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) pose an additional threat to these endangered small mammals. Management strategies have focused on habitat restoration and exotic predator control. However, the effectiveness of predator removal and the effects of anthropogenic habitat modifications and restoration have not been evaluated. Between 2013 and 2015, we used camera traps to survey marsh rabbits and free‐ranging cats at 84 sites in the National Key Deer Refuge, Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. We used dynamic occupancy models to determine factors associated with marsh rabbit occurrence, colonization, extinction, and the co‐occurrence of marsh rabbits and cats during a period of predator removal. Rabbit occurrence was positively related to freshwater habitat and patch size, but was negatively related to the number of individual cats detected at each site. Furthermore, marsh rabbit colonization was negatively associated with relative increases in the number of individual cats at each site between survey years. Cat occurrence was negatively associated with increasing distance from human developments. The probability of cat site extinction was positively related to a 2‐year trapping effort, indicating that predator removal reduced the cat population. Dynamic co‐occurrence models suggested that cats and marsh rabbits co‐occur less frequently than expected under random conditions, whereas co‐detections were site and survey‐specific. Rabbit site extinction and colonization were not strongly conditional on cat presence, but corresponded with a negative association. Our results suggest that while rabbits can colonize and persist at sites where cats occur, it is the number of individual cats at a site that

  3. Co-occurrence dynamics of endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbits and free-ranging domestic cats: Prey responses to an exotic predator removal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R; O'Connell, Allan F

    2018-04-01

    The Lower Keys marsh rabbit ( Sylvilagus palustris hefneri ) is one of many endangered endemic species of the Florida Keys. The main threats are habitat loss and fragmentation from sea-level rise, development, and habitat succession. Exotic predators such as free-ranging domestic cats ( Felis catus ) pose an additional threat to these endangered small mammals. Management strategies have focused on habitat restoration and exotic predator control. However, the effectiveness of predator removal and the effects of anthropogenic habitat modifications and restoration have not been evaluated. Between 2013 and 2015, we used camera traps to survey marsh rabbits and free-ranging cats at 84 sites in the National Key Deer Refuge, Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. We used dynamic occupancy models to determine factors associated with marsh rabbit occurrence, colonization, extinction, and the co-occurrence of marsh rabbits and cats during a period of predator removal. Rabbit occurrence was positively related to freshwater habitat and patch size, but was negatively related to the number of individual cats detected at each site. Furthermore, marsh rabbit colonization was negatively associated with relative increases in the number of individual cats at each site between survey years. Cat occurrence was negatively associated with increasing distance from human developments. The probability of cat site extinction was positively related to a 2-year trapping effort, indicating that predator removal reduced the cat population. Dynamic co-occurrence models suggested that cats and marsh rabbits co-occur less frequently than expected under random conditions, whereas co-detections were site and survey-specific. Rabbit site extinction and colonization were not strongly conditional on cat presence, but corresponded with a negative association. Our results suggest that while rabbits can colonize and persist at sites where cats occur, it is the number of individual cats at a site that more strongly

  4. AV-block and conduction slowing prevail over TdP arrhythmias in the methoxamine-sensitized pro-arrhythmic rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkevisser, Rosanne; Vos, Marc A; Beekman, Jet D; Tieland, Ralph G; Van Der Heyden, Marcel A

    2015-01-01

    The methoxamine-sensitized rabbit model is widely used to screen drugs for proarrhythmic properties, especially repolarization-dependent TdP arrhythmias. With the change of anesthesia and/or sensitizing agent, conduction disturbances have been reported as well. Therefore, we compared currently available in-house anesthetics in order to preserve arrhythmia sensitivity and preclude conduction disturbances. Rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (1) 35 mg/kg ketamine + 5 mg/kg xylazine; (2) 0.5 mL/kg hypnorm + 3 mg/kg midazolam; (3) 35 mg/kg ketamine + 20 mg/kg propofol. Anesthesia was maintained by 1.5% isoflurane. Concomitant infusion of methoxamine (17 μg/kg/min for 40 minutes) and dofetilide (10 μg/kg/min for 30 minutes) was used to induce arrhythmias. Sole methoxamine infusion exclusively decreased HR in groups 1 and 3. Dofetilide lengthened repolarization, followed in time by PQ/QRS prolongation, second-degree AV block, and subsequently TdP arrhythmias. TdP was seen in 80%, 0%, and 33% of the rabbits in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Decreasing the dose of dofetilide to 5 μg/kg/min in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized rabbits resulted in a drop in TdP incidence (25%) while conduction disturbances persisted. Flunarizine (n = 6) suppressed all TdP arrhythmias while conduction disturbances remained present. TdP incidence in the methoxamine-sensitized rabbit could be dramatically influenced by anesthesia, drug dose, and flunarizine, while conduction slowing remained present. Thus, conduction slowing seems to be the integral outcome in this model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of posaconazole versus fluconazole or itraconazole in the prevention of invasive fungal infections among high-risk neutropenic patients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau Santiago

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole compared with standard azole therapy (SAT; fluconazole or itraconazole for the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFI and the reduction of overall mortality in high-risk neutropenic patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. The perspective was that of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS. Methods A decision-analytic model, based on a randomised phase III trial, was used to predict IFI avoided, life-years saved (LYS, total costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; incremental cost per LYS over patients' lifetime horizon. Data for the analyses included life expectancy, procedures, and costs associated with IFI and the drugs (in euros at November 2009 values which were obtained from the published literature and opinions of an expert committee. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PAS was performed. Results Posaconazole was associated with fewer IFI (0.05 versus 0.11, increased LYS (2.52 versus 2.43, and significantly lower costs excluding costs of the underlying condition (€6,121 versus €7,928 per patient relative to SAT. There is an 85% probability that posaconazole is a cost-saving strategy compared to SAT and a 97% probability that the ICER for posaconazole relative to SAT is below the cost per LYS threshold of €30,000 currently accepted in Spain. Conclusions Posaconazole is a cost-saving prophylactic strategy (lower costs and greater efficacy compared with fluconazole or itraconazole in high-risk neutropenic patients.

  7. A case of low success of blind vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease on survival of adult European wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, Carlos; Moreno, Sacramento; Santoro, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) are commonly used in translocation programs conducted for the purpose of recovering wild European rabbit populations in Iberian Mediterranean ecosystems. In most cases rabbits are vaccinated 'blind' (i.e. without assessing their prior immunological status) for economic and logistic reasons. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of such an approach. We tested whether blind vaccination against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease improved rabbit survival in a rabbit translocation program where wild rabbits were kept in semi-natural conditions in three enclosures. We conducted nine capture sessions over two years (2008-2010) and used the information collected to compare the survival of vaccinated (n=511) versus unvaccinated (n=161) adult wild rabbits using capture-mark-recapture analysis. Average monthly survival was no different for vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals, both in the period between release and first capture (short-term) and after the first capture onward (long-term). Rabbit survival was lower in the short term than in the long term regardless of whether rabbits were vaccinated or not. Lower survival in the short-term could be due to the stress induced by the translocation process itself (e.g. handling stress). However, we did not find any overall effect of vaccination on survival which could be explained by two non-exclusive reasons. First, interference of the vaccine with the natural antibodies in the donor population. Due to donor populations have high density of rabbits with, likely, high prevalence of antibodies as a result of previous natural exposure to these diseases. Second, the lack of severe outbreaks during the study period. Based on our findings we argue that blind vaccination of adult rabbits in translocation programs may be often mostly ineffective and unnecessarily costly. In particular, since outbreaks are hard to predict

  8. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  9. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  10. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  11. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  12. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia: when one became many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J; Holmes, Edward C

    2014-02-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16-year period (1995-2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared with those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 rereleases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia -4.0 (3.3-4.7) × 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year - was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon; Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong

    1999-01-01

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  15. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  16. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  17. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  18. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  19. Proliferation during early phases of bronchiolar repair in neonatal rabbits following lung injury by 4-ipomeanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M.; Plopper, Charles G.

    2003-01-01

    Nonciliated bronchiolar (Clara cells) are progenitor cells during development. During differentiation, they are more susceptible to injury by environmental toxicants metabolized by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, and injury results in altered bronchiolar repair and development. Squamous cells and abnormal cuboidal epithelium persist into early adulthood. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the failure of bronchiolar epithelium to repair normally in neonates following injury is due to an inhibition of proliferation. A model of differential repair in rabbit kits was used. Proliferation was followed for 1 week post injury in rabbit kits treated with a single dose of the P450-mediated cytotoxicant 4-ipomeanol (IPO) at 7 days old (repair abnormal) and compared to rabbits treated with a single dose of IPO at 21 days old (repair normal). Proliferation was measured by the nuclear incorporation of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) within epithelium at the target site (terminal bronchiole). The repair pattern between the two age groups was histologically defined. There was no difference in the CdlU labeling index during the week of repair between the two age groups, even though the bronchiolar epithelium did not return to normal in the animals treated at 7 days old. In summary, proliferation (through S-phase) is not inhibited during repair in neonatal rabbits treated with IPO at 7 days old compared to animals treated at 21 days old, and we conclude that other factors may be responsible for the altered repair in the young neonates injured by a P450-mediated cytotoxicant

  20. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...

  1. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  2. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  3. Evaluating guideline adherence regarding empirical vancomycin use in patients with neutropenic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Daniel B; Wheeler, Sarah; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Olubajo, Babatunde; Hawkins, W Anthony

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of empirical vancomycin for patients with neutropenic fever (NF) with regard to adherence to treatment guidelines. Adult patients with a diagnosis of neutropenia, who met the definition of NF as per treatment guidelines, were identified. Use of vancomycin was evaluated as part of empirical therapy and again after 72h. Outcomes were assessed using descriptive statistics, the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and univariate exact logistic regression analyses. Sixty-four patients were included. Overall, inappropriate empirical vancomycin use was observed in more than 30% of patients. Of 35 patients with indications for empirical vancomycin, only 68% received it. At 72h, appropriate vancomycin continuation, de-escalation, or discontinuation occurred in 21 of 33 patients. On univariate regression, hematological malignancy was associated with appropriate empirical vancomycin prescribing, whether initiating or withholding (odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval 1.31-12.1). No variable was independently associated with inappropriate continuation at 72h. There is poor guideline adherence to vancomycin prescribing as empirical therapy and at 72-h reassessment in patients with NF. Further efforts are needed to foster a more rational use of vancomycin in patients with NF. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Can a graft be placed over a flap in complex hypospadias surgery? An experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marcondes de Mattos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop a rabbit experimental study to test the hypothesis that surgical repair of hypospadias with severe ventral curvatures might be completed in one stage, if a graft, such as buccal mucosa, could be placed over the tunica vaginalis flap used in corporoplasty for ventral lengthening, with the addition of an onlay preputial island flap to complete the urethroplasty. Materials and methods: The experimental procedure with rabbits included a tunica vaginalis flap for reconstruction of the corpora after corporotomy, simulating a ventral lengthening operation. A buccal mucosa graft was placed directly on top of the flap, and the urethroplasty was completed with an onlay preputial island flap. Eight rabbits were divided into 4 groups, sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively, and submitted to histological evaluation. Results: We observed a large number of complications, such as fistula (75%, urinary retention (50% and stenosis (50%. There were two deaths related to the procedure. Histological evaluation demonstrated a severe and persistent inflammatory reaction. No viable tunica vaginalis or buccal mucosa was identified. Conclusions: In this animal model, the association of a buccal mucosa graft over the tunica vaginalis flap was not successful, and resulted in complete loss of both tissues.

  5. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... droppings to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients (Oaktreevet, 2010). Rabbits are generally infected with numerous parasites. Parasitic infections have caused considerable losses to rabbits in the region. Numbers of parasites are responsible for illness of rabbits (Allan et al., 1999).

  6. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 re-releases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia – 4.0 (3.3 – 4.7) × 10−3 nucleotide substitutions per site per year – was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. PMID:24251353

  8. Pathophysiology of Corneal Scarring in Persistent Epithelial Defects After PRK and Other Corneal Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven E; Medeiros, Carla S; Santhiago, Marcony R

    2018-01-01

    To analyze corneal persistent epithelial defects that occurred at 3 to 4 weeks after -4.50 diopter (D) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits and apply this pathophysiology to the treatment of persistent epithelial defects that occur after any corneal manipulations or diseases. Two of 168 corneas that had -4.50 D PRK to study epithelial basement membrane regeneration developed spontaneous persistent epithelial defects that did not heal at 3 weeks after PRK. These were studied with slit-lamp photographs, immunohistochemistry for the myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and transmission electron microscopy. Myofibroblasts developed at the stromal surface within the persistent epithelial defect and for a short distance peripheral to the leading edge of the epithelium. No normal epithelial basement membrane was detectable within the persistent epithelial defect or for up to 0.3 mm behind the leading edge of the epithelium, although epithelial basement membrane had normally regenerated in other areas of the zone ablated by an excimer laser where the epithelium healed promptly. A persistent epithelial defect in the cornea results in the development of myofibroblasts and disordered extracellular matrix produced by these cells that together cause opacity within, and a short distance beyond, the persistent epithelial defect. Clinicians should treat persistent epithelial defects within 10 days of non-closure of the epithelium to facilitate epithelial healing to prevent long-term stromal scarring (fibrosis). [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(1):59-64.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

    2014-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  11. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  12. Global prevalence of carbapenem resistance in neutropenic patients and association with mortality and carbapenem use: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Elda; Peri, Anna Maria; Harris, Patrick N A; Wailan, Alexander M; Liborio, Mariana; Lane, Steven W; Paterson, David L

    2017-03-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are recognized as a cause of difficult-to-treat infections associated with high mortality. To perform a systematic review of currently available data on distribution, characteristics and outcome associated with carbapenem-resistant bloodstream infections in adult neutropenic patients. Included studies were identified through Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases between January 1995 and April 2016. Random effect meta-analysis was used to quantify the association between carbapenem resistance and mortality and between carbapenem exposure and resistance. A total of 30 studies from 21 countries were included. Overall carbapenem resistance varied from 2% to 53% (median 9%) among studies. Infections due to carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas spp . were reported in 18 (60%) studies showing high median resistance rates (44% of all carbapenem-resistant Gram-negatives and 19% of Pseudomonas isolates). Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae was less commonly reported and bloodstream infections due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. were mainly documented from endemic areas (Greece, Italy, Israel). Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. was reported in 9 (30%) studies (median resistance 58% of Acinetobacter isolates). Mortality rates ranged from 33% to 71% (median 50%) in patients with carbapenem-resistant infections. Carbapenem resistance appeared to correlate with mortality (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.30-7.26) and previous exposure to carbapenems (OR 4.63, 95% CI 3.08-6.96). Carbapenem resistance represents a threat to neutropenic patients. In this group, resistance is likely promoted by previous carbapenem use and leads to high mortality rates. The knowledge of resistance patterns is crucial and can direct clinicians in the use of alternatives to carbapenem-based regimens. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  13. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  14. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1×106 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under the retina and/or in the vitreous. New blood vessels in the tumor were observed starting at week 5. Cuffs of viable tumor cells surrounded the blood vessels with regions of necrosis present at 70–80 μm from nutrient vessels. Occasional tumor seeds in the vitreous histologically exhibited central necrosis. This rabbit model demonstrated similar fundus appearance and pathologic features to human retinoblastoma and may be used as a model to test various routes of drug delivery for retinoblastoma.

  15. Antibiotics in 30 minutes or less for febrile neutropenic patients: a quality control measure in a new hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Amy L; Snyder, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Infections are the most common complication in patients receiving treatment for cancer with neutropenia being the primary risk factor for the development of an infection. In the neutropenic patient, bacteremia remains a significant cause of mortality. Although the literature reports that prompt empiric antibiotic therapy to prevent death caused by virulent organisms is the standard of care, the literature fails to identify what prompt antibiotic administration means. Door/fever-to-patient antibiotic delivery was evaluated as a quality control measure in a new children's hospital. Initially, door/fever-to-patient time was significantly delayed. Collaboration between pharmacy, hospital bed control, medical, and nursing staff resulted in many changes in practice by all groups. As a result, the goal for prompt antibiotic delivery of thirty minutes or less is now achievable.

  16. Clostridium difficile Colitis and Neutropenic Fever Associated with Docetaxel Chemotherapy in a Patient with Advanced Extramammary Paget's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yumi; Otsuka, Atsushi; Endo, Yuichiro; Fujisawa, Akihiro; Tanioka, Miki; Kabashima, Kenji; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2012-05-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease is a rare cutaneous malignant neoplasm. Previous studies indicated the efficacy of docetaxel in advanced cases. The common side effects of docetaxel are usually tolerable and seldom life-threatening. We experienced a case of severe pseudomembranous colitis and neutropenic fever that developed just after the first cycle of docetaxel chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, there are few reports of pseudomembranous colitis associated with docetaxel administration for skin cancers. The patient showed complete resolution of her symptoms within 2 weeks with an oral metronidazole therapy. During the second and third cycles, the patient received docetaxel safely with lower doses. The present case indicated that pseudomembranous colitis should be included in the differential diagnosis when assessing patients who develop severe diarrhea during systemic chemotherapy with docetaxel.

  17. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  19. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  20. Bee pollen supplementation in diets for rabbit does and growing rabbits - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.18950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisa Mirelle Borges Dias

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effects of bee pollen (BP on the doe and kits productivity and on the carcass and organs of the rabbits. Twenty White New Zealand does and their kits were used in a randomized block design, with four treatments and five blocks, in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 with two supplementation levels for the doe and for the kits after the weaning. BP supplementation for the does did not influence (p > 0.05 the doe and kit productivity during the lactation, except by the kits survival rate (p 0.05 the rabbit performance from the weaning until the slaughter age, the slaughter weight, carcass characteristics, except by the spleen and small intestine weights, higher in supplemented rabbits. It was not recommended that BP supplementation for does and/or rabbits for not improving the rabbit productive performance.  

  1. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  2. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.. For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed products. Nowadays, even though the processing industry is pushing more and more towards the introduction of more attractive products (i.e. ready meals, ready-to-cook, etc. for consumers with little time for meal preparation, most rabbit meat worldwide is still sold as whole carcass or cut-up parts. This review analyses the main strength and weakness factors regarding the use of rabbit meat to manufacture further processed products. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the more promising processing technologies for raw meat materials to obtain added-value products (marinated, formed, emulsified, coated, etc. by exploiting rabbit meat’s intrinsic characteristics, such as high protein/low fat content coupled with a balanced n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio, low cholesterol and heme-iron content. Major trends in meat product formulation (modulation of lipid content and composition, use of novel antioxidants and salt reduction are also discussed by highlighting strategies to provide healthier meat products meeting current nutritional needs. Finally, major packaging solutions for rabbit meat and meat products (ordinary and modified atmosphere, vacuum are considered.

  3. Creating a Long-Term Diabetic Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianpu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies.

  4. Immune response in rabbit ovaries following infection of a recombinant myxoma virus expressing rabbit zona pellucida protein B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wenyi; Holland, Michael; Janssens, Peter; Seamark, Robert; Kerr, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the autoimmune response in rabbit ovaries following infection with a recombinant myxoma virus expressing rabbit zona pellucida protein B (MV-ZPB). A specific IgG antibody response to ZPB was elicited in the serum of infected rabbits and the antibody strongly bound to the zona pellucida of oocytes in secondary and tertiary follicles. T cell infiltration in the ovary was detected in a small proportion of the infected rabbits. In spite of this, the mean number of preovulatory and tertiary follicles in the ovary was significantly reduced at 30 days postinfection compared with that of the infected and uninfected controls. Histological analysis revealed that the cortex and medulla of these ovaries had accumulated a large number of probably luteinized cells and there were no follicles in these areas, indicating the ovaries were in a severe pathological condition. The data suggest that the delivery of ZP antigens using a recombinant myxoma virus is a prospective way to develop immunocontraceptive vaccines for rabbit population control, but that more understanding of the kinetics of the autoimmune response induced by viral delivery is needed

  5. Impact of Pregnancy on Zonisamide Pharmacokinetics in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Matar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes which may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profile of zonisamide (ZNM in the rabbit. Seven female rabbits were used in this study. The pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits received ZNM orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg and blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving the drug and then serially for up to 24 h. The plasma samples were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometric method. Following a single oral dose of ZNM to the rabbits, the mean values of ZNM plasma concentrations at different times were consistently low in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. The mean values of ZNM’s Cmax and AUC0-∞ were significantly (P<0.05 decreased, whereas the CL/F exhibited substantial increase (P<0.05 in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. Tmax, t1/2abs, t1/2el, MRT, and Vd/F showed no significant differences between the two groups. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy decreased ZNM plasma concentrations in rabbits and that the decrease could be due to decreased extent of gastrointestinal absorption, induced hepatic metabolism, or enhanced renal elimination of the drug.

  6. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  7. An Experimental Study for Radiation Nephritis in Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Jae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Experimental radiation nephritis was produced in 15 rabbits by X-irradiation. About 2, 000gamma(tissue doses) were given to both kidneys of a rabbit in 5 days. Other tissues and organs except both kidneys were protected with 2 mm thickened lead plates. 5 weeks after the last irradiation, blood pictures, blood pressures, B.U.N., serum creatinine, Ca, Mg, Fe levels and serum erythropoietin activity of the irradiated rabbits were studied. After finishing above studies, rabbits were sacrificed and both kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically. Same laboratory and pathological studies were performed in 6 control rabbits. In this study, the author obtained following results. 1) Both kidneys of rabbits with experimental radiation nephritis showed marked histopathological changes, i.e.: renal tubules showed diffuse cloudy swelling, impacted intraluminal hyaline casts and focal precipitations of lime salts on the tubular epithelium. Diffuse interstitial fatty necrosis and various degrees of fibrotic infiltrations on the interstitium were also seen in association with focal lymphocytic infiltrations. Hyaline degenerations were observed on the glomeruli and small vessels. 2) Experimental radiation nephritis rabbits showed marked lowering in R.B.C. counts, decreased hemoglobin levels, low hematocrit values and leucopenia in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P<0.01). (Table 1 and 2). 3) Mild proteinuria were observed in experimental radiation nephritis in rabbits. 4) The levels of B.U.N. and serum creatinine increased in experimental radiation nephritis. (P<0.01). (Table 1, 3 and 4). 5) The levels of serum Ca and Mg Showed no statistical difference in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P>0.05). (Table 3 and 4). 6) No statistical correlations were observable between the levels of B.U.N. and Hb. values. (gamma=-0. 223). No close correlations (gamma=-0.338) were noticed between the levels of B.U.N. and serum iron levels. 7) Erythropoietin activity (R

  8. Retinitis-pigmentosa-like tapetoretinal degeneration in a rabbit breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Baar, U

    1985-08-15

    By chance, we found a rabbit strain with retinal dystrophy. The eyes of these rabbits were examined by ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, histology, and cytology--the latter after retina dissociation with papaine. The results suggest this rabbit strain to be a possible animal model for human retinitis pigmentosa.

  9. Flow heterogeneity following global no-flow ischemia in isolated rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Robert C.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Reutter, Bryan W.; Schustz, Amy M.; Kuo, Chaincy; Huesman, Michelle K.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate flow heterogeneity and impaired reflow during reperfusion following 60 min global no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart. Radiolabeled microspheres were used to measure relative flow in small left ventricular (LV) segments in five ischemia + reperfused hearts and in five non-ischemic controls. Although variable in the post-ischemic hearts, flow heterogeneity was increased relative to pre-ischemia for the whole LV (0.92 plus or minus 0.41 vs. 0.37 plus or minus 0.07, P < 0.05) as well as the subendocardium (Endo) and subepicardium (Epi) considered separately (endo: 1.28 plus or minus 0.74 vs. 0.30 plus or minus 0.09; epi: 0.69 plus or minus 0.22 vs. 0.38 plus or minus 0.08; P < 0.05 for both comparisons) during early reperfusion. There were also segments with abnormally reduced reflow. The number of segments with abnormally reduced reflow increased as flow heterogeneity increased. Abnormally reduced reflow indicates that regional ischemia can persist despite restoration of normal global flow. In addition, the relationship between regional and global flow is altered and venous outflow is derived from regions with continued perfusion and not the whole LV. These observations emphasize the need to quantify regional reflow during reperfusion following sustained no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart

  10. Flow heterogeneity following global no-flow ischemia in isolated rabbit heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Robert C.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Reutter, Bryan W.; Schustz, Amy M.; Kuo, Chaincy; Huesman, Michelle K.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate flow heterogeneity and impaired reflow during reperfusion following 60 min global no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart. Radiolabeled microspheres were used to measure relative flow in small left ventricular (LV) segments in five ischemia + reperfused hearts and in five non-ischemic controls. Although variable in the post-ischemic hearts, flow heterogeneity was increased relative to pre-ischemia for the whole LV (0.92 plus or minus 0.41 vs. 0.37 plus or minus 0.07, P < 0.05) as well as the subendocardium (Endo) and subepicardium (Epi) considered separately (endo: 1.28 plus or minus 0.74 vs. 0.30 plus or minus 0.09; epi: 0.69 plus or minus 0.22 vs. 0.38 plus or minus 0.08; P < 0.05 for both comparisons) during early reperfusion. There were also segments with abnormally reduced reflow. The number of segments with abnormally reduced reflow increased as flow heterogeneity increased. Abnormally reduced reflow indicates that regional ischemia can persist despite restoration of normal global flow. In addition, the relationship between regional and global flow is altered and venous outflow is derived from regions with continued perfusion and not the whole LV. These observations emphasize the need to quantify regional reflow during reperfusion following sustained no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart.

  11. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  12. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the need for testing in a second species could be decided on a case by case basis. As part of an RIVM/CBG-MEB/HESI/US EPA consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 EFDT studies conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceutical compounds. The animal models (rat and rabbit) were assessed for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes. The database was analyzed for the prevalence of EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings in the two species. Some manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species (rat and rabbit) was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%), and EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with approximately 58% rat and 42% rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal among the 379 compounds tested. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discor

  13. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  14. Clostridium difficile Colitis and Neutropenic Fever Associated with Docetaxel Chemotherapy in a Patient with Advanced Extramammary Paget’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Nonomura

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramammary Paget's disease is a rare cutaneous malignant neoplasm. Previous studies indicated the efficacy of docetaxel in advanced cases. The common side effects of docetaxel are usually tolerable and seldom life-threatening. We experienced a case of severe pseudomembranous colitis and neutropenic fever that developed just after the first cycle of docetaxel chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, there are few reports of pseudomembranous colitis associated with docetaxel administration for skin cancers. The patient showed complete resolution of her symptoms within 2 weeks with an oral metronidazole therapy. During the second and third cycles, the patient received docetaxel safely with lower doses. The present case indicated that pseudomembranous colitis should be included in the differential diagnosis when assessing patients who develop severe diarrhea during systemic chemotherapy with docetaxel.

  15. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cutaneous lesions in pet rabbits following subcutaneous administration of a novel bivalent vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Vögtlin, Andrea; Fileccia, Ivan; Hoop, Richard; Bongiovanni, Laura

    2014-12-01

    A novel bivalent vaccine to protect against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease is commercially available for pet rabbits. To describe the appearance of cutaneous lesions arising in pet rabbits positive for myxoma virus (MV) by RT-PCR evaluation shortly after vaccination. Four pet rabbits presenting with papular, crusting skin lesions ~10 days after vaccination. Histological evaluation of formalin-fixed skin biopsies obtained from lesional skin (case 1). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evaluation of paraffin-embedded tissue from skin biopsies (case 1) and crusts obtained from the lesion surface (cases 2-4) for myxoma virus are reported as cycle threshold (Ct ) values. Lesions affecting the ear pinna, dorsal aspect of the nose, vulva and/or conjunctiva are reported. Histopathological findings included severe ulcerative, necrotizing dermatitis and intralesional cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in myxoma cells. DNA was amplified from all the paraffin-embedded skin biopsies (Ct  = 34-35) and crusts (Ct  = 20-24). Although a wild virus challenge cannot be definitively excluded, veterinarians and pet-owners should be aware that cutaneous lesions have been observed after vaccination with this novel vaccine in low numbers of rabbits. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-28

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  18. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14, from domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Huang, Yi; Wang, Ming; Guo, Rongtong; Lam, Carol S F; Tsang, Alan K L; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Che, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-05-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14 (RbCoV HKU14), from domestic rabbits. The virus was detected in 11 (8.1%) of 136 rabbit fecal samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), with a viral load of up to 10(8) copies/ml. RbCoV HKU14 was able to replicate in HRT-18G and RK13 cells with cytopathic effects. Northern blotting confirmed the production of subgenomic mRNAs coding for the HE, S, NS5a, E, M, and N proteins. Subgenomic mRNA analysis revealed a transcription regulatory sequence, 5'-UCUAAAC-3'. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RbCoV HKU14 formed a distinct branch among Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, being most closely related to but separate from the species Betacoronavirus 1. A comparison of the conserved replicase domains showed that RbCoV HKU14 possessed N-protein-based Western blot assay, whereas neutralizing antibody was detected in 1 of these 20 rabbits.

  20. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  1. Rabbit dietary supplementation with pale purple coneflower. 2. Effects on the performances, bacterial community, blood parameters and immunity of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovitvadhi, A; Gai, F; Dabbou, S; Ferrocino, I; Rotolo, L; Falzone, M; Vignolini, C; Gennero, M S; Bergagna, S; Dezzutto, Daniela; Barbero, R; Nebbia, P; Rosati, S; Cocolin, L; Zoccarato, I; Gasco, L

    2016-07-01

    Echinacea pallida (EPAL), a herbaceous flowering plant with immunomodulatory properties, has been chosen to determine the pre- and post-supplementary effects on the growth performances, bacterial community, blood parameters and immunity of growing rabbits. The same Grimaud does (14-week-old) from the studied in the first part of this study were randomly divided into two groups (n=50/group). The first group was fed a basal diet without supplementation (Control group, C) while the another group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 3 g EPAL/kg diet (Echinacea group, E). From the second parturition, 80 weaned kits (40 from the C does and 40 from the E does) were randomly assigned to four groups of 20 animals each and were fed a growing commercial diet supplemented with or without a 3 g EPAL/kg diet: the CC group (rabbits from the C does fed the control diet), CE group (rabbits from the C does fed the supplemented diet), EC (rabbits from the E does fed the control diet) and EE group (rabbits from the E does fed the supplemented diet). The dietary EPAL treatment did not affect the growth performance. Ten fattening rabbits from each group were selected to evaluate the bacterial community and blood parameters, while the remaining rabbits (n=10/group) were used to study phagocytosis and the humoral immune response. The variability was evaluated from hard faeces at 35, 49 and 89 days, and the caecal content at 89 days. The variability of the bacterial community of the EE group was higher than that of the other groups. The phagocytic activity was higher in the CE and EE groups than in the CC and EC ones (30.9 and 29.7 v. 21.2 and 21.8%; Pbacterial community, blood parameters or humoral immune responses in growing rabbits, except for an increase in phagocytic activities.

  2. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbits are characterized by small body size, short gestation period, high ... feeders and other equipment for rabbits can be made using readily available materials such as ... Limitations to rabbit production in developing countries include the ...

  3. Mass transport properties of the rabbit aortic wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Bailey

    Full Text Available Uptake of circulating macromolecules by the arterial wall may be a critical step in atherogenesis. Here we investigate the age-related changes in patterns of uptake that occur in the rabbit. In immature aortas, uptake was elevated in a triangle downstream of branch ostia, a region prone to disease in immature rabbits and children. By 16-22 months, uptake was high lateral to ostia, as is lesion prevalence in mature rabbits and young adults. In older rabbits there was a more upstream pattern, similar to the disease distribution in older people. These variations were predominantly caused by the branches themselves, rather than reflecting larger patterns within which the branches happened to be situated (as may occur with patterns of haemodynamic wall shear stress. The narrow streaks of high uptake reported in some previous studies were shown to be post mortem artefacts. Finally, heparin (which interferes with the NO pathway had no effect on the difference in uptake between regions upstream and downstream of branches in immature rabbits but reversed the difference in older rabbits, as does inhibiting NO synthesis directly. Nevertheless, examination of uptake all around the branch showed that changes occurred at both ages and that they were quite subtle, potentially explaining why inhibiting NO has only minor effects on lesion patterns in mature rabbits and contradicting the earlier conclusion that mechanotransduction pathways change with age. We suggest that recently-established changes in the patterns of haemodynamic forces themselves are more likely to account for the age-dependence of uptake patterns.

  4. Evaluation of Qualitative Indices of Meat Production in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dabija

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat, in most cases, is a basic production in rabbits. The influence on meat quality and quantity have such factors as breed, age, slaughter gain, sex, etc. By age, adult rabbits have a higher body weight compared with the young, but their meat is more expensive. The most convenient is intensive growth of youth as the age of 3 months to be 2.3 to 2.5 kg body weight, food and labor costs during this period was minimal. It is considered optimal as young rabbits are slaughtered when they reach 50-60% by weight of adult animals. The biological material which was used was represented in two groups of Chinchilla rabbit and Flanders breed, each one consisting of seven rabbits of various sex. Groups of rabbits had the same conditions of maintenance and nutrition. Carcass weight was determined at slaughter, carcass meat, bones, by-products, blood, head, skin of young rabbit. The largest share of the carcass of live weight was obtained at age 4 months - 59%, and meat in the carcass weight at 2 months of life - 71.2% at Chinchilla breed. On average 31.9% had bones, by-products - 6.23%, blood - 3.78% head - 8.21% and skin of young rabbit - 11.9%. Average of carcass weight from live weight was 52.76%, in Flanders breed the highest recorded at age 4 months and 66.78% of the carcass meat, the highest being at 2 months old. The average weight of bones was 33.21%, by-products - 6.25%, blood - 3.53%, the head - 7.86%, and the skin of young rabbit - 11.89%. Slaughter gain ranged from 47% to 59% at Chinchilla breed, and from 47% to 60% in Flanders breed. The highest index was recorded in both breeds at the age of four months.

  5. Development of a Zealand White Rabbit Deposition Model to Study Inhalation Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, A.P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits. PMID:26895308

  6. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  7. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  8. Natural immunity factors in Polish mixed breed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-breed rabbits in Poland are widely used for diagnostic and scientific research and as utility animals, therefore there is a need to know their immunological status, as well as their haematological status. In this study natural immunity factors were analyzed in Polish mixed-breed rabbits and Polish mixed-breed rabbits with addition of blood of meet-breed, considering the impact of sex and season of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) using measurement of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity parameters in peripheral blood. The study has revealed that there is a variety between the two commonly used mixed-breed types of rabbits, especially when sex and season is concerned, which is crucial for using these animals in experiments.

  9. Abstratcs of the 5th American Rabbit Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    5th American Rabbit Congress Toluca, Estado de México, Mexico, September 8-11, 2014

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 5th American Rabbit Congress was held in Toluca, Mexico State, Mexico from September 8th to the 11th, 2014. Research works representing 14 countries were accepted to take part at the congress, including papers from Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, France, Hungary, Italy, México, Uruguay, the USA and Venezuela. These research works highlight the enormous interest, effort and commitment of the scientific community that bonds the trinomium of Research+Innovation+Technology Transfer, in favour of the integral development of rabbit rearing as an important primary activity that generates permanent employment, as well as healthy and nutritive meals for their respective countries for the XXI Century World. One major impact at this 5th American Rabbit Congress was the participation of Argentina, Brazil and China. The latter country’s report was presented by Laping Wu and Dong Wang (2014, showing that from 2005 to 2010, meat production of swine, beef and poultry underwent average growth of 2.6%, whereas rabbit meat production reported an annual average growth of 6.29%, reaching an annual volume of 761 000 tons, positioning China as the world’s main rabbit meat producer. This data highlights the great potential of rabbit production, both as an economic activity and a key strategy in the fight against hunger and poverty in many countries all over the world. During the congress, scientific works were presented related with the fields of Ethology, Housing & Welfare; Genetics; Reproduction; Digestive Physiology and Basic Nutrition; Feed Evaluation and Feeding; Pathology & Hygiene, Meat Quality, Safety & Dining; Management, Social & Economy. Furthermore, the meeting of the AB-WRSA chaired by the AB-WRSA founder, Dr. Steven Lukefahr, also took place at this congress, in which the new board of the American Branch was elected and the proposal put forward for the next American Rabbit Congress to be held in Costa

  10. 3 Tesla proton MRI for the diagnosis of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia: Initial results in comparison to HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attenberger, U.I., E-mail: ulrike.attenberger@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, J.N. [Scott and White Hospital, Texas A and M Health Sciences Center, Temple (United States); Henzler, T. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Buchheidt, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Fink, C. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiology, AKH Celle, Celle (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O.; Reichert, M. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3 Tesla proton MRI for the assessment of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Material and methods: In a prospective study, 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 19 febrile neutropenic patients (5 women, 14 men; mean age 61 years ± 14.2; range 23–77 years). All patients underwent high-resolution CT less than 24 h prior to MRI. The MRI protocol (Magnetom Tim Trio, Siemens) included a T2-weighted HASTE sequence (TE/TR: 49 ms/∞, slice thickness 6 mm) and a high-resolution 3D VIBE sequence with an ultra-short TE < 1 ms (TE/TR 0.8/2.9 ms, slice thickness 2 mm). The VIBE sequence was examined before and after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet). The presence of pulmonary abnormalities, their location within the lung, and lesion type (nodules, consolidations, glass opacity areas) were analyzed by one reader and compared to the findings of HRCT, which was evaluated by a second independent radiologist who served as the reference standard. The findings were compared per lobe in each patient and rated as true positive (TP) findings if all three characteristics (presence, location, and lesion type) listed above were concordant to HRCT. Results: Pulmonary abnormalities were characterized by 3 Tesla MRI with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 78.6%, resulting in an overall accuracy of 88% (NPV/PPV 66.7%/89.5%). In 51 lobes (19 of 19 patients), pulmonary abnormalities visualized by MR were judged to be concordant in their location and in the lesion type identified by both readers. In 22 lobes (11 of 19 patients), no abnormalities were present on either MR or HRCT (true negative). In 6 lobes (5 of 19 patients), ground glass opacity areas were detected on MRI but were not visible on HRCT (false positives). In 11 lobes (7 of 19 patients), MRI failed to detect ground glass opacity areas identified by HRCT. However, since the abnormalities were

  11. Utility of ultrasound in the early diagnosis of childhood neutropenic enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Bermudez, M.; Verdeguer, A.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the utility of ultrasound in the diagnosis of neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) in children with cancer or AIDS, and to establish the differential diagnosis with respect to more common causes of acute abdomen. We studied eight patients diagnosed as having NEC over a ten-year period, gathering the clinical data and imaging studied for each. Seven of the children were cancer patients and the remaining child had AIDS. The imaging methods used were plain radiography, B-mode ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasound: in addition, one patient underwent a barium enema. All eight patients presented abdominal pain, predominantly in right iliac fossa, and fever; the neutrophil count was under 100/mm''3. The most common plain abdominal X-ray image was the absence of air in right iliac fossa and dilation of the small bowel loops. One child presented submucosal and subserosal ectopic air colon and cecum, air in the intrahepatic portal system and in peritoneum. Abdominal ultrasound revealed thickening of the cecal mucosa in every case, and color Doppler ultrasound disclosed increased vascularization of the intestinal wall. Six children received medical treatment and two underwent surgery. Three patients died, one a few hours after the surgical procedure and the other two a few days after onset of NEC and initiation of medical treatment. Abdominal ultrasound is the best imaging technique for early diagnosis of NEC and assessment of the response to medical treatment, Moreover, it can be performed at bedside, making it unnecessary to move the patient from his room. (Author) 26 refs

  12. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  13. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  14. Evaluation of rabbit meat microbiota from the viewpoint of marketing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cwiková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analysis was performed on carcasses of rabbits coming from domestic slaughter, purchased at butcher shops, vacuum-packaged and purchased in supermarkets, as well as frozen. The total number of analysed rabbits was 20. For all samples the following microbiological parameters were determined: total microorganisms count (TAC, the count of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, psychrotropic microorganisms, moulds and yeasts, as well as bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Total microorganisms count was the highest (p <0.05 in rabbit meat from butcher shops (5.34 log CFU.g-1. The counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in rabbit meat originating from domestic breeding was 2.58 log CFU.g-1, in vacuum-packaged rabbits 3.18 log CFU.g-1, in frozen rabbits 2.29 log CFU.g-1, and in rabbit meat purchased from butcher shops 3.58 log CFU.g-1. The highest count (p <0.05 of Enterobacteriaceae was observed in samples from butcher shops, namely 2.91 log CFU.g-1. In contrast the lowest count (p <0.05 was in rabbit meat from home slaughtering at 1.47 log CFU.g-1 and in frozen ones at 1.36 log CFU.g-1. The lowest counts (p <0.05 of moulds and yeasts were observed in rabbit meat from domestic slaughter, namely 1.12 log CFU.g-1. The highest counts (p <0.05 were in rabbit meat from butcher shops 2.97 log CFU.g-1. The highest counts (p <0.05 of psychrotrophic microorganisms were detected in rabbit meat from butcher shops, namely 4.98 log CFU g-1 and the lowest ones (p <0.05 in the meat of domestically slaughtered rabbits at 2.52 log CFU.g-1. In all monitored microbiological indicators, we have found differences (p <0.05 in their counts on the surface and inside the muscle tissue, both on the front and rear parts of the rabbit carcass

  15. Knowledge and attitudes of 52 UK pet rabbit owners at the point of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J L; Mullan, S M

    2011-04-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of pet rabbit owners at the time of buying their rabbit(s) and to investigate factors influencing the planned husbandry and housing of their rabbit(s). A questionnaire was used to assess the impact of demographics, knowledge and attitudes on the likelihood that respondents would neuter their rabbit(s), feed them an appropriate diet, house them in appropriately sized housing and provide them with an appropriate companion. Knowledge and attitudes were significant factors in whether respondents planned to neuter their rabbit(s) and provide them with an appropriate companion. The attribution of secondary emotions to rabbits was associated with plans to feed a mix-type diet. The majority of owners had carried out prior research into pet rabbits, but owners had a limited knowledge of the needs of rabbits, particularly with respect to their diet and social needs. Respondents who had decided to purchase a rabbit on the day were less likely to intend to get their rabbit neutered than those who had taken more time to decide to buy a rabbit.

  16. Histological analysis of femoral bones in rabbits administered by amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kováčová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glycosides are present in several economically important plant foods. Amygdalin, one of the most common cyanoglucoside, can be found abundantly in the seeds of apples, bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, various beans, cereals, cassava and sorghum. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancer, it shows killing effects on cancer cells by release of cyanide. However, its effect on bone structure has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine a possible effect of amygdalin application on femoral bone microstructure in adult rabbits. Four month old rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of three animals each. Rabbits from E group received amygdalin intramuscularly at a dose 0.6 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw (group E, n = 3 one time per day during 28 days. The second group of rabbits without amygdalin supplementation served as a control (group C, n = 3. After 28 days, histological structure of femoral bones in both groups of rabbits was analysed and compared. Rabbits from E group displayed different microstructure in middle part of the compact bone and near endosteal bone surface. For endosteal border, an absence of the primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was typical. This part of the bone was formed by irregular Haversian and/or by dense Haversian bone tissues. In the middle part of substantia compacta, primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was observed. Cortical bone thickness did not change between rabbits from E and C groups. However, rabbits from E group had a significantly lower values of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons as compared to the C group. On the other hand, all measured parameters of Haversian canals did not differ between rabbits from both groups. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular application of amygdalin at the dose used in our study affects femoral bone microstructure in rabbits.

  17. Environmental Bacteria Associated With an Institutional Rabbit House

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit ... biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when .... frequently incriminated in bovine mastitis by. Jones ...

  18. Increased virulence of Cunninghamella bertholletiae in experimental pulmonary mucormycosis: correlation with circulating molecular biomarkers, sporangiospore germination and hyphal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitis, Vidmantas; Petraitiene, Ruta; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Hughes, Johanna E; Cotton, Margaret P; Kasai, Miki; Harrington, Susan; Gamaletsou, Maria N; Bacher, John D; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Roilides, Emmanuel; Walsh, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Members of the order Mucorales are emerging invasive molds that cause infections in immunocompromised patients. However, little is known about the relation between different species of Mucorales and their virulence in invasive pulmonary mucormycosis. Based upon our earlier epidemiological studies, we hypothesized that Cunninghamella bertholletiae would demonstrate increased virulence. Therefore, we studied the relative virulence of C. bertholletiae (CB), Rhizopus oryzae (RO), R. microsporus (RM), and Mucor circinelloides (MC) in experimental invasive pulmonary mucormycosis in persistently neutropenic rabbits in relation to the fungi in vitro sporangiospore germination rate and hyphal metabolic activity. Rabbits infected with CB demonstrated (1) higher lung weights in comparison to RM (P ≤ 0.05), RO and MC (P ≤ 0.001), (2) pulmonary infarcts in comparison to RO and MC (P ≤ 0.001), (3) tissue fungal burden (CFU/g) vs. MC (P ≤ 0.001), and (4) the lowest survival of 0% (0/18), in comparison to 16% (3/18, P ≤ 0.01) of RM, 81% (21/26) of RO, and 83% (15/18) of MC-infected rabbits (P ≤ 0.001). Serum PCR concentration-time-curve showed the greatest amplitude for CB. Virulence correlated directly with sporangiospore germination rate at 4 h among species, i.e., CB (67-85%) > RM (14-56%) > RO (4-30%) > MC (0%), and hyphal metabolic activity, i.e., CB (1.22-1.51) > MC (0.54-0.64) = RM (0.38-0.41) = RO (0.37-0.59). C. bertholletiae was significantly more virulent in experimental invasive pulmonary mucormycosis than R. microsporus, R. oryzae, and M. circinelloides. In vivo virulence correlated with species-dependent differences of in vitro germination rate and hyphal metabolic activity.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K

    2008-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 6 healthy adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Then, tramadol (11 mg/kg, PO) was administered once, and blood samples were collected at various time points up to 360 minutes after administration. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol). No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Mean +/- SD half-life of tramadol after administration was 145.4 +/- 81.0 minutes; mean +/- SD maximum plasma concentration was 135.3 +/- 89.1 ng/mL. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods. Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits.

  20. Development and partial metabolic characterization of a dietary cholesterol-resistant colony of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, M.L.; Smith, S.A.; Hewett-Emmett, D.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.; Soma, M.R.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Morrisett, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more 125 I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group

  1. [Formation and persistence of L-variants of Salmonella typhi in experimental typhoid and in carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, G A; Prozorovskiĭ, S V; Iagud, S L; Grumman, M I; Gorelov, A L

    1981-07-01

    The possibility of the induction and persistence of S. typhi L-forms in the process of experimental typhoid infection and carriership has been studied in rabbits. This study has revealed that the process of L-transformation leading to the appearance of the imbalanced growth forms and unstable L-forms of S. typhi in the organism of the animals infected with S. typhi culture may occur under the conditions of carriership. Such changed forms can be detected in the organism of the animals 18 months after the primary infection.

  2. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  3. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established...

  4. Influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L on SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuo Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L(GSTTon SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit, and discusses the retina oxidative damage inhibition on chronic high intraocular pressure model of rabbit. METHODS:Totally 24 healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group(A group; high intraocular pressure model blank group(B group; high intraocular pressure model with GSTT treated group(C group; high intraocular pressure model with Erigeron brevicapas hand mass(EBHMtreated group(D group. High intraocular pressure model was induced by 20g/L methylcellulose injection into the anterior chamber in B group, C group and D group. D group was injected 5 mg/kg GSTT and C group was injected 4.5mg/kg EBHM and measured intraocular pressure with Schiotz tonometer every day for 4 weeks. The retina tissue superoxide dismutase(SODand maleic dialdehyde(MDAcontent were detected 28 days later. RESULTS: After glaucoma model of rabbit eyes were established, the intraocular pressure during observation period was maintained in 32-39mmHg; High intraocular pressure model blank group and normal control group, EBHM treatment group, GSTT treatment group were compared, the differences of retina MDA, SOD content had statistical significance(P0.05; EBHM treatment group, GSTT treatment group and normal control group were compared, the content of MDA in the retina was still slightly higher(P<0.05, the content of SOD slightly lower(P<0.05 CONCLUSION: GSTT can effectively improve the retina SOD activity of chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit and reduce the content of MDA, which has a protective effect of persistent high intraocular retinal oxidative stress.

  5. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero; L.A. Miranda-Romero; L.A. Saavedra-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC), wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC) and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC), with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w) mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM ), moisture, organic matter (OM), ash and ...

  6. Development and validation of a risk model for identification of non-neutropenic, critically ill adult patients at high risk of invasive Candida infection: the Fungal Infection Risk Evaluation (FIRE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D; Muskett, H; Harvey, S; Grieve, R; Shahin, J; Patel, K; Sadique, Z; Allen, E; Dybowski, R; Jit, M; Edgeworth, J; Kibbler, C; Barnes, R; Soni, N; Rowan, K

    2013-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that invasive fungal disease (IFD) is more likely to occur in non-neutropenic patients in critical care units. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated antifungal prophylaxis in non-neutropenic, critically ill patients, demonstrating a reduction in the risk of proven IFD and suggesting a reduction in mortality. It is necessary to establish a method to identify and target antifungal prophylaxis at those patients at highest risk of IFD, who stand to benefit most from any antifungal prophylaxis strategy. To develop and validate risk models to identify non-neutropenic, critically ill adult patients at high risk of invasive Candida infection, who would benefit from antifungal prophylaxis, and to assess the cost-effectiveness of targeting antifungal prophylaxis to high-risk patients based on these models. Systematic review, prospective data collection, statistical modelling, economic decision modelling and value of information analysis. Ninety-six UK adult general critical care units. Consecutive admissions to participating critical care units. None. Invasive fungal disease, defined as a blood culture or sample from a normally sterile site showing yeast/mould cells in a microbiological or histopathological report. For statistical and economic modelling, the primary outcome was invasive Candida infection, defined as IFD-positive for Candida species. Systematic review: Thirteen articles exploring risk factors, risk models or clinical decision rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients were identified. Risk factors reported to be significantly associated with IFD were included in the final data set for the prospective data collection. Data were collected on 60,778 admissions between July 2009 and March 2011. Overall, 383 patients (0.6%) were admitted with or developed IFD. The majority of IFD patients (94%) were positive for Candida species. The most common site of infection was blood (55%). The incidence of IFD

  7. Fattening and slaughter traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Zgur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate of 4 genotypes, two lines of Slovene SIKA meat rabbit (maternal line A and sire line C, both 50 rabbits, hybrid AxC (50 rabbits and crossbred AxCal (A and Californian, 38 rabbits was recorded from weaning (35 days of age to slaughter (93 days. Growth performance and slaughter traits of AxC were different from line A (live weight at 91st day: A 2720, C 3158, AxC 3043 g (P£0.05, heterosis effect (H +3.38%; carcass weight: A 1490, C 1787, AxC 1716 g (P£0.05, H +5.65%; dressing percentage: A 54.1, C 55.6, AxC 55.5% (P£0.05; H +1.26%. Weaning weight of AxCal was significantly lower than of AxC (AxCal 843, AxC 1050 g, P£0.05, but at the end of the experiment the weight of AxCal rabbits was very close to AxC (AxCal 2958, AxC 3043 g, P>0.05. Other growth and slaughter traits did not differ between AxC and AxCal group.

  8. Detection of rabbit Haemorrhagic disease virus 2 during the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) eradication from the Berlengas archipelago, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abade Dos Santos, F A; Carvalho, C; Nuno, Oliveira; Correia, J J; Henriques, M; Peleteiro, M C; Fevereiro, M; Duarte, M D

    2017-11-15

    In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those deaths was never investigated. Our aim was to investigate the cause of death of 11 rabbits collected between April and May 2016. While screening samples from rabbit carcasses for the major viral rabbit pathogens, five tested positive to RHDV2 but all were negative for RHDV and myxoma virus (MYXV). For six RHDV2-negative specimens, emaciation and parasitism were considered the most probable cause of death. Lesions identified in the RHDV2-positive rabbits included non-suppurative diffuse hepatic necrosis and pulmonary lesions varying from congestion and oedema of the lungs to interstitial pneumonia. Sequencing analysis of the vp60 gene obtained from two specimens showed identical vp60 sequences. Comparison with other known RHDV2 strains from public databases through BLAST analysis revealed a closer similarity with strains from Alentejo collected during 2013. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that the 2016 strains from the archipelago have a higher resemblance with a group of strains mostly collected in the South of Portugal between 2013 and 2014. The results suggest that RHDV2 may have been introduced on the Berlenga Island a few years ago, having evolved separately from mainland strains due to insularity.

  9. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  10. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  11. Detection and Circulation of a Novel Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Jackie E.; Read, Andrew J.; Gu, Xingnian; Urakova, Nadya; Mourant, Roslyn; Piper, Melissa; Haboury, Stéphanie; Holmes, Edward C.; Strive, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    The highly virulent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been widely used in Australia and New Zealand since the mid-1990s to control wild rabbits, an invasive vertebrate pest in these countries. In January 2014, an exotic RHDV was detected in Australia, and 8 additional outbreaks were reported in both domestic and wild rabbits in the 15 months following its detection. Full-length genomic analysis revealed that this virus is a recombinant containing an RHDVa capsid gene and nonstructural genes most closely related to nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Nationwide monitoring efforts need to be expanded to assess if the increasing number of different RHDV variants circulating in the Australian environment will affect biological control of rabbits. At the same time, updated vaccines and vaccination protocols are urgently needed to protect pet and farmed rabbits from these novel rabbit caliciviruses. PMID:29260677

  12. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions.

  13. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of coniine to rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A

    1993-07-01

    Conium maculatum (poison hemlock, CM) is teratogenic in several domestic species, presumably due to its piperidine alkaloids, including coniine, which has been verified to be teratogenic in cattle. Coniine/CM teratogenicity culminates in production of arthrogryposis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine-induced teratogenicity in two laboratory animal species, Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits. Pregnant rats were given coniine (25 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 16-18. Pregnant rabbits were given coniine (40 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 20-24. Rats were killed on day 19 and rabbits on day 29. Fetuses were immediately removed, weighed, and examined for external abnormalities. Alternate fetuses were either stained for skeletal examinations with alizarin red-S or fixed in Bouin's solution for visceral examination. Symptoms of maternal intoxication due to coniine administration were observed in both the rat and the rabbit, and higher doses were uniformly lethal. Rabbits treated with coniine appeared to lose more weight and eat less than controls, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Fetal weights were significantly lower in coniine-exposed rat and rabbit fetuses indicating fetotoxicity. The only statistically significant treatment-related visceral or skeletal malformation was a reduction of cranial ossification of rabbit fetuses, probably related to maternal toxicity. Coniine-exposed rabbit litters tended to be affected by arthrogryposis (no bony deformities noted on skeletal exam) more than controls (2/6 vs. 0/9).

  15. Novel bivalent vectored vaccine for control of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spibey, N; McCabe, V J; Greenwood, N M; Jack, S C; Sutton, D; van der Waart, L

    2012-03-24

    A novel, recombinant myxoma virus-rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) vaccine has been developed for the prevention of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). A number of laboratory studies are described illustrating the safety and efficacy of the vaccine following subcutaneous administration in laboratory rabbits from four weeks of age onwards. In these studies, both vaccinated and unvaccinated control rabbits were challenged using pathogenic strains of RHD and myxoma viruses, and 100 per cent of the vaccinated rabbits were protected against both myxomatosis and RHD.

  16. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  17. Oral Transmucosal Detomidine Gel in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Morika D; Long, C Tyler; Durrant, Jessica R; McKeon, Gabriel P; Shive, Heather R; Griffith, Emily H; Messenger, Kristen M; Fish, Richard E

    2017-07-01

    Handling and restraining rabbits for routine procedures may be impossible without prior sedation, result in unnecessary stress or injury to the rabbit or handler, and increase experimental variability. Parenteral administration of sedatives can cause stress also, as well as localized pain and tissue damage, especially in fractious animals. Detomidine hydrochloride, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is commercially available in an oral transmucosal (OTM) gel formulation that is FDA-approved for sedation and restraint in horses. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of detomidine gel as an alternative to injectable sedation in rabbits. Eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits each received 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg/kg OTM detomidine gel. Physiologic parameters and sedation scores (SS) were assessed at 10-min intervals from before administration until 100 min afterward. Histopathology of cardiac tissue was scored through 12 d after dosing. Gel administration increased the SS in all rabbits, but none of the animals developed clinically effective sedation (SS of 10 or greater, based on 5 reflex responses on a 3- or 4-point scale). The SS did not differ among dosage groups, and the time-dose interaction was not statistically significant. Heart rate decreased rapidly in all rabbits, with no difference among dosage groups, and there was no effect of time or dosage on peripheral capillary oxygen saturation. Minimal to mild degenerative changes were seen in the myocardium of all treated rabbits, but myocyte necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and mural thrombi-reported previously in rabbits that had received parenteral detomidine-did not occur. OTM detomidine gel was safely and easily administered to rabbits, but the duration and level of sedation were unpredictable. The use of OTM detomidine as a sole agent to facilitate handling and restraint of rabbits does not offer advantages over existing parenteral regimens.

  18. Renal nerves dynamically regulate renal blood flow in conscious, healthy rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter R; Zucker, Irving H

    2016-01-15

    Despite significant clinical interest in renal denervation as a therapy, the role of the renal nerves in the physiological regulation of renal blood flow (RBF) remains debated. We hypothesized that the renal nerves physiologically regulate beat-to-beat RBF variability (RBFV). This was tested in chronically instrumented, healthy rabbits that underwent either bilateral surgical renal denervation (DDNx) or a sham denervation procedure (INV). Artifact-free segments of RBF and arterial pressure (AP) from calmly resting, conscious rabbits were used to extract RBFV and AP variability for time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear analysis. Whereas steady-state measures of RBF, AP, and heart rate did not statistically differ between groups, DDNx rabbits had greater RBFV than INV rabbits. AP-RBF transfer function analysis showed greater admittance gain in DDNx rabbits than in INV rabbits, particularly in the low-frequency (LF) range where systemic sympathetic vasomotion gives rise to AP oscillations. In the LF range, INV rabbits exhibited a negative AP-RBF phase shift and low coherence, consistent with the presence of an active control system. Neither of these features were present in the LF range of DDNx rabbits, which showed no phase shift and high coherence, consistent with a passive, Ohm's law pressure-flow relationship. Renal denervation did not significantly affect nonlinear RBFV measures of chaos, self-affinity, or complexity, nor did it significantly affect glomerular filtration rate or extracellular fluid volume. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the renal nerves mediate LF renal sympathetic vasomotion, which buffers RBF from LF AP oscillations in conscious, healthy rabbits. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Characterization of a rabbit germ-line VH gene that is a candidate donor for VH gene conversion in mutant Alicia rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H T; Alexander, C B; Mage, R G

    1995-06-15

    Normal rabbits preferentially rearrange the 3'-most VH gene, VH1, to encode Igs with VHa allotypes, which constitute the majority of rabbit serum Igs. A gene conversion-like mechanism is employed to diversify the primary Ab repertoire. In mutant Alicia rabbits that derived from a rabbit with VHa2 allotype, the VH1 gene was deleted. Our previous studies showed that the first functional gene (VH4) or VH4-like genes were rearranged in 2- to 8-wk-old homozygous Alicia. The VH1a2-like sequences that were found in splenic mRNA from 6-wk and older Alicia rabbits still had some residues that were typical of VH4. The appearances of sequences resembling that of VH1a2 may have been caused by gene conversions that altered the sequences of the rearranged VH or there may have been rearrangement of upstream VH1a2-like genes later in development. To investigate this further, we constructed a cosmid library and isolated a VH1a2-like gene, VH12-1-6, with a sequence almost identical to VH1a2. This gene had a deleted base in the heptamer of its recombination signal sequence. However, even if this defect diminished or eliminated its ability to rearrange, the a2-like gene could have acted as a donor for gene-conversion-like alteration of rearranged VH genes. Sequence comparisons suggested that this gene or a gene like it could have acted as a donor for gene conversion in mutant Alicia and in normal rabbits.

  20. A practical method for quantifying atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zheng, H; Yu, Q; Yang, P; Li, Y; Cheng, F; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2010-01-01

    The rabbit has been widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis; however, the method for analysis of the atherosclerotic lesions has not been standardized between laboratories. The present study reports a practical method for quantifying the changes that occur in aortic atherosclerosis of rabbits. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed with either a standard chow or a diet containing 10% fat and 0.3% cholesterol for 16 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in quantitative fashion using an image analysis system that measured (1) the gross area of the entire aorta affected by atherosclerosis as defined by Sudan IV staining, (2) the microscopical intimal lesion defined by the elastic van Gieson stain and (3) the infiltration of macrophages and smooth muscle cell proliferation as determined immunohistochemically. The rabbits developed severe aortic atherosclerosis without apparent abnormality of glucose metabolism. The quantitative method described here will be useful for the further investigation of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors in rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors from rat liver have been characterized in detail by several investigators. However, little work has been done in this area using heart tissue. In this study they examined and characterized the triiodothyronine binding in rabbit hearts. Nuclei have been prepared from ventricular muscle cells of normal and thyrotoxic rabbits as well as from atrial muscle cells of normal rabbit. Hearts were perfused with a minimum essential medium containing collagenase and bovine serum albumin. Myocardial cells were isolated and then disrupted by sonication and washing with a Triton X-100 buffer solution. A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was then used to isolate the mycoardial nuclei. Radiolabelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) binding to nuclei was examined using conditions described by established procedures. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yields maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) of 0.17 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant (K/sub d/) of 400 +/- 50 pM for normal heart T 3 -receptors. The apparent capacity for T 3 binding is approximately 40% greater in myocardial nuclei prepared from hearts of hyperthyroid rabbits. The binding capacity of atrial muscle nuclei is about fourfold lower than ventricular cell nuclei. The results suggest that binding capacity for T 3 -receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle

  2. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  3. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  4. Characterisation of wild rabbit commercial game farms in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterise the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus commercial game farms in Spain using variables related to structure, management and marketing. To this end, a structured survey was administered in 2009 to 21 privately-owned farms. This subsector was an average age of 13. The average size of the breeding stock of the farms was 431 does and 64 bucks. Eighty-five percent of the farms kept all or part of the breeding stock in cages and 38.1% used artificial insemination. All the farms carried out breeder self-replacement, 4.8% by buying wild rabbits from other farms, whereas 38.1% captured wild rabbits for this purpose. Nineteen percent of the wild rabbit game farms also produced other game species, mainly red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and quail (Coturnix coturnix. Fourteen percent of the farms supplied wild rabbits to be used as prey to be released in programmes for the conservation of endangered predators, and 38.1% supplied breeding rabbits to be used by other farms to replace culled animals. Eighty-six percent of the farms offered the service of transporting the animals from the farm to the hunting grounds to their clients, and 14.3% advised customers on how to successfully release and restock hunting grounds. Seventy-six percent of the farms marketed their products throughout Spain, and 38.1% exported wild rabbits to neighbouring countries, mainly Portugal and France. Forty-three percent of the farms advertised themselves in hunting magazines, 19.1% promoted themselves by attending livestock and game fairs, and 38.1% had their own websites. In conclusion, this alternative rabbit production system constitutes a well-established subsector in Spain, despite being only 2 decades old. It also seems that it has not yet reached its development maturity. It shows wide diversity in terms of farm size and structure, as well as marketing and promotional activities.

  5. Health survey of 167 pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkitaipale, J; Harcourt-Brown, F M; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O

    2015-10-24

    Only a limited amount of information is available about health status of pet rabbits. The aim of this study was to obtain data about the health status of pet rabbits considered healthy by the owners in Finland. Physical examination and lateral abdominal and lateral skull radiography were performed on 167 pet rabbits of which 118 (70.7 per cent) had abnormal findings in at least one examination. The most common findings were acquired dental disease (n=67, 40.1 per cent), vertebral column deformities and degenerative lesions (n=52, 31.1 per cent), skin disorders (n=28, 16.8 per cent) and eye disorders (n=12, 7.2 per cent). Vertebral column angulating deformities were significantly more common in dwarf lop rabbits (P≤0.001). The prevalence of health disorders was significantly higher in rabbits over three years of age of which 51 (82.3 per cent) had findings in at least one examination (Phealth problems. Because of the high prevalence of clinical and radiological findings in apparently healthy pet rabbits, regular physical examinations are advised, especially for animals over three years old. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  7. Sequential computed tomographic imaging of a transplantable rabbit brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Beck, T.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Anderson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of CT imaging in evaluating VX-2 tumor growth in the rabbit brain was assessed. CT scanning was performed in 5 outbred New Zealand white male rabbits before and at 4, 7, 9 and 13 (in 3 animals) days after surgical implantation of 3 x 10 5 viable VX-2 tumor cells in the frontoparietal lobes. The CT studies were correlated with gross pathology in each. The tumor was visualized with CT in all 5 rabbits by the 9th day post implantation when the tumor ranged in size from 4-6 x 3-4 x 2-3 mm. Between the 9th and 13th day, the tumor increased 6-fold in two rabbits and 12-fold in the third rabbit. CT is a useful technique to evaluate brain tumor growth in this model and should be valuable in documenting the efficacy of chemotherapy on tumor growth. (orig.)

  8. Ultrastructural studies of human and rabbit alpha-M-globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloth, B; Chesebro, B; Svehag, S E

    1968-04-01

    Electron micrographs of isolated human alpha(2)M-molecules, obtained by the negative contrast technique, revealed morphologically homogenous structures resembling a graceful monogram of the two letters H and I. The modal values for the length and width of the alpha(2)M particles were 170 A and 100 A, respectively. Purified rabbit alphamacroglobulins contained about 80% alpha(1)M- and 20% alpha(2)M-globulins. The isolated rabbit alpha(1)M- and alpha(2)M-molecules were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and from human alpha(2)M-molecules. Preliminary immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two rabbit alphaM-globulins were antigenically different. Sedimentation constant determinations gave s(20, w) values of 18.8 and 18.2 for rabbit alpha(1)M and alpha(2)M, respectively.

  9. Environmental bacteria associated with an institutional rabbit house ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is the need for regular microbiological surveillance to protect our growing rabbitaries and the rabbit models in biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when the rabbits are exposed to stress conditions. Above all the importance of good hygiene and management in rabbitaries ...

  10. Participation of the Olfactory Bulb in Circadian Organization during Early Postnatal Life in Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Navarrete

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence indicates that during pre-visual stages of development in mammals, circadian regulation is still not under the control of the light-entrainable hypothalamic pacemaker, raising the possibility that the circadian rhythmicity that occurs during postnatal development is under the control of peripheral oscillators, such as the main olfactory bulb (MOB. We evaluated the outcome of olfactory bulbectomy on the temporal pattern of core body temperature and gross locomotor activity in newborn rabbits. From postnatal day 1 (P1, pups were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: intact pups (INT, intact pups fed by enteral gavage (INT+ENT, sham operated pups (SHAM, pups with unilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-UNI, and pups with bilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-BI. At the beginning of the experiment, from P1-8, the animals in all groups were fed at 11:00, from P9-13 the feeding schedule was delayed 6 h (17:00, and finally, from P14-15 the animals were subjected to fasting conditions. The rabbit pups of the INT, INT+ENT, SHAM and OBx-UNI groups exhibited a clear circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity, with a conspicuous anticipatory rise hours prior to the nursing or feeding schedule, which persisted even during fasting conditions. In addition, phase delays in the nursing or feeding schedule induced a clear phase shift in both parameters. In contrast, the OBx-BI group exhibited atypical rhythmicity in both parameters under entrained conditions that altered the anticipatory component, as well as deficient phase control of both rhythms. The present results demonstrate that the expression of circadian rhythmicity at behavioral and physiological levels during early stages of rabbit development largely depends on the integrity of the main olfactory bulb.

  11. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  12. (-)-anipamil retards atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Calcium antagonists have been reported to limit atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil on the spontaneous development of atherosclerosis in homozygote WHHL rabbits. From the age of 7 weeks, three groups...... differences were found in serum lipids (i.e., VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) in the study period among the three groups. Plasma anipamil at the end of the study was 0.23 +/- 6, and 202 +/- 19 ng/ml, respectively, in the three treatment groups. The degree of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta was significantly lower...... (p atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta in WHHL rabbits....

  13. Abstracts of the “26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Prod Kaposvár, Hungary, May 31, 2014

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available About 100 participants attended the 26th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production at Kaposvár, organised by Kaposvár University, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Twenty papers were presented by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  14. Avoidant conversations about death by clinicians cause delays in reporting of neutropenic sepsis: Grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Catherine; Taylor, Cath; Ream, Emma; Metcalfe, Alison

    2017-10-01

    Evidence suggests that patients delay reporting symptoms of neutropenic sepsis (NS) despite the risk to their life. This study aimed to elicit factors that contribute to delayed patient reporting of NS symptoms. A constructivist grounded theory study used observations of chemotherapy consultations (13 h) and 31 in-depth interviews to explore beliefs, experiences, and behaviors related to NS. Participants included women with breast cancer, their carers (partners, family, or friends), and clinicians. An explanation for patient delays was developed through theoretical sampling of participants to explore emerging areas of interest and through constant comparison of data and their coding. This entailed iterative and concurrent data collection and analysis. Data were collected until saturation. All patients who developed NS-type symptoms delayed presenting to hospital (2.5 h-8 days), sometimes repeatedly. Moderators of delay included metastatic disease, bereavement, fatalism, religious beliefs, and quality of relationships with clinicians. There was an interplay of behaviors between clinicians, patients, and carers where they subconsciously conspired to underplay the seriousness and possibility of NS occurring. Findings have implications for health risk communication and development of holistic service models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Rabbit Model for Human EBV-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Jin, Zaishun; Onoda, Sachiyo; Joko, Hiromasa; Teramoto, Norihiro; Ohara, Nobuya; Oda, Wakako; Tanaka, Takehiro; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Koirala, Tirtha Raj; Oka, Takashi; Kondo, Eisaku; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD). To elucidate the true nature of fatal LPD observed in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-induced rabbit hemophagocytosis, reactive or neoplastic, we analyzed sequential development of HVP-induced rabbit LPD and their cell lines. All of the seven Japanese White rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP died of fatal LPD 18 to 27 days after inoculation. LPD was also accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in five of these seven rabbits. Sequential autopsy revealed splenomegaly and swollen lymph nodes, often accompanied by bleeding, which developed in the last week. Atypical lymphoid cells infiltrated many organs with a “starry sky” pattern, frequently involving the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. HVP-small RNA-1 expression in these lymphoid cells was clearly demonstrated by a newly developed in situ hybridization (ISH) system. HVP-ISH of immunomagnetically purified lymphoid cells from spleen or lymph nodes revealed HVP-EBER1+ cells in each CD4+, CD8+, or CD79a+ fraction. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. HVP-DNA was detected in the tissues and peripheral blood from the infected rabbits by PCR or Southern blot analysis. Clonality analysis of HVP-induced LPD by Southern blotting with TCR gene probe revealed polyclonal bands, suggesting polyclonal proliferation. Six IL-2-dependent rabbit T-cell lines were established from transplanted scid mouse tumors from LPD. These showed latency type I/II HVP infection and had normal karyotypes except for one line, and three of them showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. These data suggest that HVP-induced fatal LPD in rabbits is reactive polyclonally in nature. PMID:12707056

  16. Effects of genipin corneal crosslinking in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Narvaez, Mauricio; Castañeda, Juan P

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, in rabbit eyes. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Centro de Tecnologia Oftalmica, Bogotá, Colombia. Experimental study. Ex vivo rabbit eyes (16; 8 rabbits) were treated with genipin 1.00%, 0.50%, and 0.25% for 5 minutes with a vacuum device to increase corneal permeability. Penetration was evaluated using Scheimpflug pachymetry (Pentacam). In the in vivo model (20 rabbits; 1 eye treated, 1 eye with vehicle), corneas were crosslinked with genipin as described. Corneal curvature, corneal pachymetry, and intraocular pressure (IOP) assessments as well as slitlamp examinations were performed 0, 7, 30, and 60 days after treatment. In the ex vivo model, Scheimpflug pachymetry showed deep penetration in the rabbit corneas with an increase in corneal density and a dose-dependent relationship. Corneal flattening was observed in treated eyes (mean 4.4 diopters ± 0.5 [SD]) compared with the control eyes. Pachymetry and IOP were stable in all evaluations. No eye showed toxicity in the anterior chamber or in the lens. Corneal crosslinking induced by genipin produced significant flattening of the cornea with no toxicity in rabbit eyes. This crosslinking could be useful in the treatment of corneal ectasia and in the modification of corneal curvature. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of febrile responsiveness of rats and rabbits to endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, J T; Shimada, S G; Bernheim, H A

    1985-12-01

    The fever responses of rats and rabbits were compared in detail using a single common source of semipurified endogenous pyrogen prepared from human monocytes. The characteristics and dynamics of the fever-response curves for each species were examined and their dose-response curves were determined and compared. The fevers displayed by rats were qualitatively similar to those of rabbits, but, typically, they developed and terminated more rapidly than those of rabbits. Rabbits were much more sensitive to the endogenous pyrogen than rats. The threshold dose of pyrogen required to elicit a fever was 5 times lower in the rabbit, and the slope of the rabbit's dose-response curve was 1.5 times steeper than that of the rat. The maximum fevers attainable in rabbits were approximately twice those attainable in rats. It was also shown that the more rapid febrile responses of the rat were not due to the 10-fold smaller mass of the rat; instead, we proposed that this difference was more likely due to a closer diffusional proximity of the pyrogen receptor sites to the circulation in rats. The lower sensitivity of the rat to endogenous pyrogen was attributed to a relative insensitivity of the pyrogen receptor sites in rats in the translation of the endogenous pyrogen stimulus into fever.

  18. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  19. Intrinsic connectivity of neural networks in the awake rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Matthew P; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Disterhoft, John F; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The way in which the brain is functionally connected into different networks has emerged as an important research topic in order to understand normal neural processing and signaling. Since some experimental manipulations are difficult or unethical to perform in humans, animal models are better suited to investigate this topic. Rabbits are a species that can undergo MRI scanning in an awake and conscious state with minimal preparation and habituation. In this study, we characterized the intrinsic functional networks of the resting New Zealand White rabbit brain using BOLD fMRI data. Group independent component analysis revealed seven networks similar to those previously found in humans, non-human primates and/or rodents including the hippocampus, default mode, cerebellum, thalamus, and visual, somatosensory, and parietal cortices. For the first time, the intrinsic functional networks of the resting rabbit brain have been elucidated demonstrating the rabbit's applicability as a translational animal model. Without the confounding effects of anesthetics or sedatives, future experiments may employ rabbits to understand changes in neural connectivity and brain functioning as a result of experimental manipulation (e.g., temporary or permanent network disruption, learning-related changes, and drug administration). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Flagella-induced immunity against experimental cholera in adult rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Willis, D L; Berry, L J

    1979-07-01

    The adult rabbit ligated ileal loop model was used to evaluate the prophylactic potential of a crude flagellar (CF) vaccine produced from the classical. Inaba strain CA401. A greater than 1,000-fold increase in the challenge inoculum was required to induce an intestinal fluid response in actively immunized adult rabbits equivalent to that produced in unimmunized animals. Similar protection was afforded against challenge with classical and El Tor biotypes of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Highly virulent 35S-labeled vibrios were inhibited in their ability to associated with the intestinal mucosa of CF-immunized rabbits. The protection conferred by CF immunization was found to be superior to that of a commercial bivalent vaccine and also to that of glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid. The critical immunogenic component of CF appears to be a flagella-derived protein. The immunogenicity of CF was destroyed by heat treatment, and absorption of CF-immune serum with aflagellated mutant vibrios did not diminish its ability to confer a high level of passive protection. The intestinal protection of CF-immunized rabbits was completely reversed by the introduction of both goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins A and G, but by neither alone.

  1. Causes of Rabbit Mortality at Mankon Research Station, Cameroon (1983-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nfi, AN.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the causes of mortality in rabbits raised at the Institute of Zootechnical and Veterinary Research Station (IRZV Mankon between 1983-1987. Three breeds of rabbits the Californian, the New Zealand White and their crosses with local rabbits were used in the study. Within the period under review, all dead animals were necropsied and faecal and gastro-intestinal tract samples were examined in the laboratory. It was shown that high mortalities in rabbits were due to snuffles, pneumonia, mucoid enteritis, coccidiosis, mange, enterotoxaemia and Tyzzer's disease. 3060 rabbits died of various diseases comprising 1591 (52 % kittens, 1220 (39.7 % fryers and 280 (9.2 % adults. Kitten mortality compared to fryer and adult was highest ail through the period of study.

  2. Virulence and pathogenesis of the MSW and MSD strains of Californian myxoma virus in European rabbits with genetic resistance to myxomatosis compared to rabbits with no genetic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, L; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

    2006-04-25

    The pathogenesis of two Californian strains of myxoma virus (MSW and MSD) was examined in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that were either susceptible to myxomatosis (laboratory rabbits) or had undergone natural selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis (Australian wild rabbits). MSW was highly lethal for both types of rabbits with average survival times of 7.3 and 9.4 days, respectively, and 100% mortality. Classical clinical signs of myxomatosis were not present except in one rabbit that survived for 13 days following infection. Previously described clinical signs of trembling and shaking were observed in laboratory but not wild rabbits. Despite the high resistance of wild rabbits to myxomatosis caused by South American strains of myxoma virus, the MSW strain was of such high virulence that it was able to overcome resistance. The acute nature of the infection, relatively low viral titers in the tissues and destruction of lymphoid tissues, suggested that death was probably due to an acute and overwhelming immunopathological response to the virus. No virus was found in the brain. The MSD strain was attenuated compared to previously published descriptions and therefore was only characterized in laboratory rabbits. It is concluded that Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus is at the extreme end of a continuum of myxoma virus virulence but that the basic pathophysiology of the disease induced is not broadly different to other strains of myxoma virus.

  3. Rabbit relinquishment through online classified advertisements in the United Kingdom: when, why, and how many?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Vikki; Hinde, Keith; Line, Elaine; Todd, Rae; Saunders, Richard Anthony

    2018-03-06

    To identify implicit causes of companion rabbit relinquishment, this study investigated whether there was annual and seasonal variation in the number of advertisements and ages of rabbits posted as free or for sale on classified websites in the United Kingdom. The number of advertisements posted decreased from 2014 to 2016. There was an increase in the number of advertisements for free rabbits in winter compared with other seasons, which could be a result of caregivers' reduced willingness to interact with their rabbits and carry out husbandry during periods of inclement weather. Rabbits advertised as free were older than rabbits advertised for sale, and rabbits relinquished due to human-related reasons were older than those relinquished because of rabbit-related factors. It is recommended that further research is undertaken to elucidate whether providing education to prospective rabbit caregivers regarding the life span of rabbits and their substantial husbandry requirements, especially in winter, would deter the purchase of rabbits by caregivers unable or unwilling to care for them in the long term.

  4. Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits | Gomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts. After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits ...

  5. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  6. A rabbit model of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Aruna; Tatarov, Ivan; Masek, Billie Jo; Hardick, Justin; Crusan, Annabelle; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen; Yang, Samuel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Lipsky, Michael M; McLeod, Charles G; Levine, Myron M; Rothman, Richard E; Gaydos, Charlotte A; DeTolla, Louis J

    2014-09-01

    Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. In this study, we focused on the development of an animal model of bacteremia induced by non-typhoidal Salmonella. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with a human isolate of non-typhoidal Salmonella strain CVD J73 via the intra-peritoneal route. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and at euthanasia from infected rabbits. Additionally, tissue samples from the heart, lungs, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were obtained at euthanasia. All experimentally infected rabbits displayed clinical signs of disease (fever, dehydration, weight loss and lethargy). Tissues collected at necropsy from the animals exhibited histopathological changes indicative of bacteremia. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteria were detected in the blood and tissue samples of infected rabbits by microbiological culture and real-time PCR assays. The development of this animal model of bacteremia could prove to be a useful tool for studying how non-typhoidal Salmonella infections disseminate and spread in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiocesium movement in a gray rabbit brush community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, B.; Rogers, L.E.; Hedlund, J.D.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Price, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    Gray rabbit brush, Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Compositae), is the dominant shrub on disturbed land surfaces on much of the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation in south-central Washington State. A stand of rabbit brush growing on an inactive liquid-waste-disposal crib was studied. Thirty percent of the shrubs showed low but detectable radiation levels in a field survey. The primary radionuclide was 137 Cs. The source of 137 Cs in shrubs was the gravel drain field in the crib, at least 2.4 m below the surface, which was the approximate maximum depth of penetration of rabbit brush taproots. Cesium-137 was observed in roots of certain rabbit brush plants, in the upper 1 cm of soil, and in litter beneath contaminated plants but was not detectable in soil samples taken at depths of 15, 50, 100, and 150 cm. Invertebrates associated with a contaminated shrub showed higher concentrations of 137 Cs than did wider-ranging species. Two of seven pocket mice trapped on the crib contaminated detectable amounts of 137 Cs

  8. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  9. Full-Mouth Intraoral Radiographic Survey in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Adriana; Legendre, Loïc

    2017-09-01

    Dental pathologies are highly prevalent in pet rabbit populations, making oral radiography an essential tool in the evaluation of lagomorph dentitions. The unique anatomy of the rabbit's mouth limits the examination of the conscious animal to the rostral portion of it's mouth. In addition, the oral examination of an aradicular hypsodont tooth is restricted to the short coronal fraction of its crown. Erstwhile images obtained by the extraoral technique were once considered the most practical and informative tool in rabbit dentistry; however, limited visualization of the key structures of individual teeth became the major drawback of this technique. As new imaging technologies are becoming widely available and affordable for veterinarians, intraoral radiography offers the ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat oral pathologies in lagomorphs. This article describes a step-by-step procedure to obtain a full-mouth radiographic survey in rabbits. For this technique, a standard dental X-ray generator and intraoral storage phosphor plates are used while applying the bisecting angle technique. Among the advantages of this technique are detailed visualization of internal and external dental structures, identification of early lesions, and detection of occult pathologies. Furthermore, intraoral images offer superior resolution and higher diagnostic quality with minimal radiation exposure, making this method safer for the veterinarian, staff members, and their patients.

  10. The effects of Vitamin C on Xylazine anaesthesia in rabbits | Kisani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin C on zylazine anaesthesia in rabbits. Ten apparently healthy rabbits of both sexes, aged 6 months and weighing 0.8-1.3 kg were grouped into two of five each. Xylazine at a dose of 4 mg/kg was administered intramuscularly to rabbits in both groups. Ten minutes ...

  11. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    Md. 20205 We have recently described a method for the direct removal of T lymphocytes by " panning " of rabbit splenocytes on plastic dishes coated...Research University of Illinois Washington, DC 20012 Chicago, IL 60612 Hammadi Ayadi Linda Cook Institut Jacques Monod University of Illinois, Chicago...other species and tested for its ability to inhibit a rabbit Id-anti-Id reaction. Guinea pigs, mice, goats, and chickens were immunized with al IgG and

  12. The CareRabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Sanne; Stegwee, R.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Motivation - Our goal is to investigate

  13. Evaluation of objects and food for environmental enrichment of NZW rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L D; Custer, L B; Soranaka, E T; Burge, J R; Ruble, G R

    2001-01-01

    The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals states that both structural and social environments should be considered when addressing the husbandry needs of laboratory animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental enrichment strategies that could potentially enhance the well-being of rabbits. Male and female 6-week old New Zealand White rabbits were divided into three groups: food-enriched (Bunny Stix, Bunny Blocks, or celery), non-food enriched (Jingle Ball, Kong toy, or Nylabone), and not enriched. Animals were given a particular enrichment for 1 h daily for 15 days. Home cages were fitted with specially designed plexiglass doors, which allowed the animals' interactions with the objects to be videotaped. The amount of time the animal interacted with each object and the total activity during the 1-h taped session were recorded for each rabbit. Rabbits were weighed weekly. Rabbits spent significantly more time interacting with the Bunny Stix than any other food item or non-food object. In addition, total activity time was significantly greater for all rabbits enriched with food versus any of the non-food items. Weight gains after 15 days did not differ significantly, but there was a trend towards increased weight gains in food-enriched rabbits. In this study, food was a stronger, more sustained enrichment device than were non-food objects.

  14. Long-term reorganization of structural brain networks in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalle, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Illa, Miriam; Figueras, Francesc; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-10-15

    Characterization of brain changes produced by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is among the main challenges of modern fetal medicine and pediatrics. This condition affects 5-10% of all pregnancies and is associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders. Better understanding of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR opens a window of opportunity to find potential imaging biomarkers in order to identify the infants with a high risk of having neurodevelopmental problems and apply therapies to improve their outcomes. Structural brain networks obtained from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to study brain reorganization and to be used as a biomarker of neurodevelopmental alterations. In the present study this technique is applied to a rabbit animal model of IUGR, which presents some advantages including a controlled environment and the possibility to obtain high quality MRI with long acquisition times. Using a Q-Ball diffusion model, and a previously published rabbit brain MRI atlas, structural brain networks of 15 IUGR and 14 control rabbits at 70 days of age (equivalent to pre-adolescence human age) were obtained. The analysis of graph theory features showed a decreased network infrastructure (degree and binary global efficiency) associated with IUGR condition and a set of generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) weighted measures associated with abnormal neurobehavior. Interestingly, when assessing the brain network organization independently of network infrastructure by means of normalized networks, IUGR showed increased global and local efficiencies. We hypothesize that this effect could reflect a compensatory response to reduced infrastructure in IUGR. These results present new evidence on the long-term persistence of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR that could underlie behavioral and developmental alterations previously described. The described changes in network organization have the potential to be used

  15. Paraquat-poisoning in the rabbit lungs: high resolution computed tomographic findings and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eui Han; Lee, Byoung Ho; Kim, Kun Sang

    1992-01-01

    The authors evaluated high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of the isolated rabbit lungs with paraquat poisoning, and the findings were correlated with pathologic specimens. The purposes of this study are 1) to obtain the HRCT findings of the normal rabbit lung. 2) to find out if pulmonary pathology can be induced in rabbits by paraquat, and 3) to correlate the HRCT findings to those of pathology. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups: group I included four control rabbits; group II included 16 rabbits given paraquat intraperitoneally (IP group); and group III included 10 rabbits given paraquat intravenously (IV group). The rabbits were sacrificed seven, 10, and 14 days after injection of various amount of paraquat, and then the lungs were isolated for HRCT and pathologic studies. Gross and microscopic findings of the three groups of control and paraquat-injected rabbit lungs were correlated with HRCT findings. Pulmonary congestion, mild thickening of alveolar walls and septae, and multifocal micro-atelectasis were the man pathologic findings of the lungs in both groups of the rabbits. Pulmonary hemorrhage was noted in five (31%) of 16 rabbits of IP group and three (30%) of 10 IV group. Pulmonary edema was seen in one rabbits (6%) of IP and four (40%) of IV group. Typical pulmonary fibrosis was seen in one rabbit of IP (6%) and IV (10%) group, respectively. There was no correlation between the amount of paraquat and frequency of the pulmonary pathology. Pulmonary fibrosis was seen at least one week after the paraquat injection. On HRCT, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema appeared as diffuse air-space consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis as linear or band-like opacities. However, minimal changes such as mild congestion

  16. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in...

  17. The distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.Y.; In, J.W.; Min, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    For clinical application of radioreceptor assay, we studied preliminarily the distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit by a dextran-charcoal method using 6,7- 3 H-es-tradiol. The results were expressed as binding index, which is the ratio of specific estradiol receptor binding radioactivity to total radioactivity. The materials consist of 5 female rabbits and 3 male rabbits. For female rabbits the binding index was highest in the uterine tissue. This binding index of the uterine tissue was 9.4 times that of the liver, 21.9 times that of the kidney, 24.6 times that of the brain, 28.1 times that of the lung and 65.7 times that of the muscle. For male rabbits the binding index was highest in the liver and decreased in the order of the kidney, the testis, the lung, the brain and the muscle. It is suggested that the estrogen receptor is not confined to any specific target organ but is widely distributed in the various organs, to a different degree. (author)

  18. The Distribution of Estrogen Receptor in Various Organs of Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ho Young; In, Jae Whan; Min, Byong Sok

    1978-01-01

    For clinical application of radioreceptor assay, we studied preliminarily the distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit by a dextran-charcoal method using 6, 7- 3 H-estradiol. The results were expressed as binding index, which is the ratio of specific estradiol receptor binding radioactivity to total radioactivity. The materials consist of 5 female rabbits and 3 male rabbits. The results were as follows: 1) Female rabbits. The binding index was highest in the uterine tissue. This binding index of the uterine tissue was 9.4 times that of the liver, 21.9 times that of the kidney, 24.6 times that of the brain, 28.1 times that of the lung and 65.7 times that of the muscle. 2) Male rabbits. The binding index was highest in the liver and decreased in the order of the kidney, the testis, the lung, the brain and the muscle. It is suggested that the estrogen receptor is not confined to any specific target organ but is widely distributed in the various organs, to a different degree.

  19. Bacteriemia por Abiotrophia defectiva en un paciente pediátrico neutropénico febril Bacteremia due to Abiotrophia defectiva in a febrile neutropenic pediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lopardo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio reciente destacó la presencia de Granulicatella spp. en episodios de bacteriemia en pacientes neutropénicos, a diferencia de Abiotrophia defectiva, que sólo se había observado en endocarditis infecciosa. El objetivo de esta presentación es describir un caso de bacteriemia por A. defectiva en un niño leucémico, neutropénico (200 GB/mm³ y febril (40 °C. En una de las muestras de hemocultivo se obtuvo el desarrollo de A. defectiva. A pesar de que el paciente estudiado cursaba una varicela, lo que podría justificar el episodio febril, el hallazgo de A. defectiva en el hemocultivo se interpretó como perteneciente a una bacteriemia verdadera ya que esta especie, según nuestros conocimientos, no forma parte de la flora habitual de la piel. Este caso sugiere que A. defectiva también puede ser responsable de casos de bacteriemia en pacientes inmunocomprometidos.The presence of Granulicatella spp. in bacteremic episodes of neutropenic patients was recently highlighted whereas Abiotrophia defectiva, was only isolated in cases of infectious endocarditis. The aim of this study is to describe a case of A.defectiva bacteremia in a leukemic and febrile (40 °C neutropenic (200 GB/mm³ boy. A.defectiva was only isolated from one of the two processed blood samples . Although the patient was undergoing an episode of varicela which could have accounted as the possible cause of fever, A. defectiva was considered a significant finding because this species is not part of the commensal skin flora. This case suggests that both A. defectiva and Granulicatella spp. should be regarded as possible causes of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients.

  20. POTENTIAL OF BREAD FRUIT- AN ECOLOGICALLY FOREST BASED FEED RESOURCE IN RABBIT NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oso Abimbola Oladele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available  Productive response of rabbits fed with diets containing graded levels of sun dried breadfruit (SBFM meal were studied using 80 unsexed weaner rabbits. Four dietary treatments were formulated such that SBFM replaced maize weight for weight at 0%, 22.2%, 44.4% and 66.6% levels respectively. Rabbits were randomly allotted to the dietary treatments such that there were 20 rabbits per treatment. Growth response, nutrient utilization, haematological indices, serum biochemistry, carcass yield and meat composition were evaluated. Rabbits fed with 22.2% maize replaced with SBFM recorded the highest (P

  1. the assessment of fasciola gigantica infection in the rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the rabbit was assessed as a laboratory host for the helminthes parasite, Fasciola gigantica. Three groups of rabbits were Infected experimentally with 5, 10 end 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica respectively. Clinical signs found included pale mucous membrane, progressive emaciation and rough hair coat.

  2. Post-splenectomy β-amyloid level changes in Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xueli; Yu Jiwei; Ji Zhe; Zhou Zhengzhong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of splenectomy on serum β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rabbit. Methods: Thirty 3yr-old rabbits underwent splenectomy and fifteen others underwent a sham-operation of laparectomy only. Serum Aβ levels were determined with RIA before and at regular intervals after operation. Results: In the splenectomy group, the Aβ levels were increased greatly after the operation and reached the peak at 5 th week. The levels then gradually declined but remained significantly higher than the pre-operative value at 6 th month. In the sham operation group, the value was no drastically changed but increased slowly (as an aging process). Conclusion: Splenectomy in rabbit would markedly increase the serum Aβ level, possibly due to a hypoimmune state impairing clearance of the substance

  3. Effect of hypothyroidism on the purinergic responses of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, M K; Bagcivan, I; Sarac, B; Kilicarslan, H; Yildirim, S; Kaya, T

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have reported evidence of hormonal abnormalities in 25-35% of impotent men. Hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 6% of impotent men. In the present study, we examined purinergic relaxation responses in hypothyroidism in an experimental rabbit model and compared them with controls to evaluate the possible involvement of the purinergic pathway. The study comprised 20 male New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into two equal groups. We tested the effects of ATP, alpha beta ATP, and adenosine precontracted with phenylephrine on the isolated corpus cavernosum preparations from control and hypothyroid rabbits. We also evaluated the effects of ATP, alpha beta ATP, and adenosine on the cGMP levels in the isolated corpus cavernosum preparations from control and hypothyroid rabbits. T3, T4, and testosterone levels were significantly lower in hypothyroid rabbits. ATP, alpha beta ATP, carbachol, and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced frequency-dependent relaxation responses in the isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum strips precontracted with phenylephrine reduced significantly (Phypothyroid rabbits. Reduction of relaxation response in hypothyroid rabbits corpus cavernosum can depend on a decreased release of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrergic nerves and endothelium.

  4. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice reduces atherosclerotic lesions in diet-induced Hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ishola, Afeez Adekunle; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2017-07-07

    Atherosclerosis is the most common disease of large and medium-sized arteries linked to oxidative stress, dyslipidemia as well as chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit juice on the aorta of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits, to detect an accumulation of fatty streak and evaluate the percentage of atherosclerotic lesion accrued. Thirty-five healthy male adults New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups. Four groups were fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL of BA fruit juice per kg of rabbit daily (atherogenic groups), while the other three groups were fed commercial rabbit pellet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mL of juice per kg of rabbit daily (normocholesterolemic groups) for 90 days. The thoracic and abdominal aorta between the heart origin and bifurcation into iliac arteries of all the rabbits were carefully removed and analyzed accordingly. The supplementation of the high-cholesterol diet of hypercholesterolemic rabbits with only 0.5 mL BA/kg rabbit per day significantly (p < 0.001) improved aortic lipid profile, attenuated aortic fatty streak development and reduced intima thickening. Higher BA doses used (1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg rabbit per day) also significantly (p < 0.001) decreased further the development of aortic fatty streaks, reduced the thickening of the tunica intima layer and preserved endothelial healing following arterial injury. Therefore, BA fruit is a potential novel functional food with effective anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic activities.

  5. Concentrations of dapivirine in the rhesus macaque and rabbit following once daily intravaginal administration of a gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine for 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Jeremy P; Thake, Daryl C; Lewis, Mark G; Ferkany, John W; Romano, Joseph W; Mitchnick, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Dapivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed as a topical microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The distribution of radioactivity and drug in plasma and in vaginal, cervical, and draining lymph node tissues was investigated after daily application of a vaginal gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine to rhesus macaques. This was preceded by a preliminary study with rabbits. Following the intravaginal administration of [14C]dapivirine ( approximately 0.1 mg/ml [15 microCi/ml]) to rabbits (0.5 ml/day) and macaques (1 ml/day) for 7 days, the dapivirine levels associated with vaginal and cervical tissue samples 1 h after the final dose were high (quantities of microg/g of tissue) and remained detectable at 24 h (mean, >or=2.5 ng/g in rabbits) and 48 h (mean, >80 ng/g in macaques). Radioactivity levels were low in the plasma and very low or unquantifiable in the draining lymph nodes of the macaques. Microautoradiography identified drug-related material (DRM) on the surfaces of the vaginal and cervical tissues of the rabbits and macaques. Although DRM was primarily associated with the outermost layer of shedding cells in rabbits, two animals showed some evidence of small quantities in the mucosal epithelium of the cervix. In macaques, DRM was seen within the keratinized layer of the vaginal epithelium and and was found to extend into the superficial cellular layers, and in at least one animal it appeared to be present in the deepest (germinal) layer of the epithelium and in submucosal tissues. The persistence of biologically significant concentrations of dapivirine in vaginal and cervical tissues for >24 h supports the development of dapivirine as a microbicide for once daily application.

  6. Concentrations of Dapivirine in the Rhesus Macaque and Rabbit following Once Daily Intravaginal Administration of a Gel Formulation of [14C]Dapivirine for 7 Days▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Jeremy P.; Thake, Daryl C.; Lewis, Mark G.; Ferkany, John W.; Romano, Joseph W.; Mitchnick, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Dapivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed as a topical microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The distribution of radioactivity and drug in plasma and in vaginal, cervical, and draining lymph node tissues was investigated after daily application of a vaginal gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine to rhesus macaques. This was preceded by a preliminary study with rabbits. Following the intravaginal administration of [14C]dapivirine (∼0.1 mg/ml [15 μCi/ml]) to rabbits (0.5 ml/day) and macaques (1 ml/day) for 7 days, the dapivirine levels associated with vaginal and cervical tissue samples 1 h after the final dose were high (quantities of μg/g of tissue) and remained detectable at 24 h (mean, ≥2.5 ng/g in rabbits) and 48 h (mean, >80 ng/g in macaques). Radioactivity levels were low in the plasma and very low or unquantifiable in the draining lymph nodes of the macaques. Microautoradiography identified drug-related material (DRM) on the surfaces of the vaginal and cervical tissues of the rabbits and macaques. Although DRM was primarily associated with the outermost layer of shedding cells in rabbits, two animals showed some evidence of small quantities in the mucosal epithelium of the cervix. In macaques, DRM was seen within the keratinized layer of the vaginal epithelium and and was found to extend into the superficial cellular layers, and in at least one animal it appeared to be present in the deepest (germinal) layer of the epithelium and in submucosal tissues. The persistence of biologically significant concentrations of dapivirine in vaginal and cervical tissues for >24 h supports the development of dapivirine as a microbicide for once daily application. PMID:18086845

  7. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  8. Comparison of degrees of maturity of rabbit lines selected for different traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pascual

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study whether commercial nucleus lines of rabbits selected for different traits, and experimental lines having commercial purposes, have the same degree of maturity when compared at the same slaughter age. The study was carried out with 17897 rabbits from Universitat Politècnica de València. Rabbits came from the maternal lines A (3902 rabbits; 44th generation, V (4238 rabbits; 39th generation and LP (6115 rabbits; 9th generation, selected for litter size at weaning; the paternal line R (2023 rabbits; 25th generation, selected for growth rate between 28 and 63 days of age; the maternal line OR (586 rabbits; 11th generation selected for ovulation rate; and the lines High (503 rabbits; 5th generation and Low (530 rabbits; 5thgeneration lines, from a divergent selection for high and low intramuscular fat, respectively. Rabbits were weighted at 28 (W28 and 63 (W63 days of age. Rabbit does (42, 25, 39, 94, 14, 32 and 22 from lines A, V, R, LP, OR, High and Low, respectively were weighed between 30 and 80 wk of age to determine adult weight (AW. Line R had higher W28 and W63, growth rate between 28 and 63 d of age and AW than lines A, V and LP (5802 g vs. 4410, 4222, and 4391 g for AW, respectively. No relevant differences between lines in degrees of maturity at 28 and 63 d of age and time to reach 40% of degree of maturity (percentage of weight compared to AW were found between lines A, V, R and LP, but the degree of maturity at 2000 g and the time taken to reach that weight were lower in line R (34.7% and 55.2 d than in lines A (45.5% and 71.1 d, V (47.4% and 69.6 d, and LP (45.8% and 68.0 d. No relevant differences were found between lines OR, High and Low in the traits analysed. A robustness analysis showed that results can be extrapolated to other commercial lines and other slaughter weights. In conclusion, comparison of lines at similar slaughter age could be considered a valid approach for comparisons at the same

  9. Prevention and treatment of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in immunosuppressed rabbits with fenbendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akkada, S S; Oda, S S

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole (20 mg/kg body weight) prior to and after experimental infection of immunosuppressed rabbits with Encephalitozoon cuniculi . A total of thirty rabbits were divided into five groups: NN (non-immunosuppressed; non-infected), IN (immunosuppressed; non-infected), IPI (immunosuppressed; protected-infected), ITI (immunosuppressed; treated-infected), and II (immunosuppressed; infected) groups. Fenbendazole was administered as a prophylactic for seven successive days before infection with E. cuniculi and as a treatment for four weeks initiated on the 28th day post-challenge (PC). Experimental rabbits were infected with intraperitoneal injection of 2 × 10 5 E. cuniculi spores. Parameters evaluated were body weight, detection of spores in urine, serum antibody assay, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes. The IPI and ITI groups showed a significant better final bwt than the II group. Spores were detected in urine of all infected rabbits from the 28th day PC until the end of the study. The IPI group showed the least values of antibodies (IgG) compared to the ITI and II groups. Concerning histopathological changes, the intensity of the lesions was marked particularly in the II rabbits and to a lesser extent in the ITI rabbits. Noticeable improvement was found in the IPI rabbits. It could be concluded that fenbendazole was effective to some extent in protection of rabbits against E. cuniculi infection, while when administered as a therapeutic no significant effects were observed.

  10. PDZ binding motif of HTLV-1 Tax promotes virus-mediated T-cell proliferation in vitro and persistence in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Yamamoto, Brenda; Haoudi, Abdelali; Semmes, O John; Green, Patrick L

    2006-03-01

    HTLV-1 cellular transformation and disease induction is dependent on expression of the viral Tax oncoprotein. PDZ is a modular protein interaction domain used in organizing signaling complexes in eukaryotic cells through recognition of a specific binding motif in partner proteins. Tax-1, but not Tax-2, contains a PDZ-binding domain motif (PBM) that promotes the interaction with several cellular PDZ proteins. Herein, we investigate the contribution of the Tax-1 PBM in HTLV-induced proliferation and immortalization of primary T cells in vitro and viral survival in an infectious rabbit animal model. We generated several HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax viral mutants, including HTLV-1deltaPBM, HTLV-2+C22(+PBM), and HTLV-2+ C18(deltaPBM). All Tax mutants maintained the ability to significantly activate the CREB/ATF or NFkappaB signaling pathways. Microtiter proliferation assays revealed that the Tax-1 PBM significantly increases both HTLV-1- and HTLV-2-induced primary T-cell proliferation. In addition, Tax-1 PBM was responsible for the micronuclei induction activity of Tax-1 relative to that of Tax-2. Viral infection and persistence were severely attenuated in rabbits inoculated with HTLV-1deltaPBM. Our results provide the first direct evidence suggesting that PBM-mediated associations between Tax-1 and cellular proteins play a key role in HTLV-induced cell proliferation and genetic instability in vitro and facilitate viral persistence in vivo.

  11. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  12. Outcome of limb fracture repair in rabbits: 139 cases (2007-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Seto, Eiko; Denda, Yuki; Imai, Yutaro; Okamoto, Kanako; Okamura, Kensaku; Furuya, Masaru; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi

    2018-02-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcome of limb fracture repair in rabbits. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 139 client-owned rabbits with limb fractures treated between 2007 and 2015. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for information on fracture location, fracture treatment, and time to fracture healing. RESULTS 25 rabbits had fractures involving the distal aspects of the limbs (ie, metacarpal or metatarsal bones, phalanges, and calcaneus or talus). Fractures were treated in 23 of these 25 rabbits (external coaptation, n = 17; external skeletal fixation, 4; and intramedullary pinning, 2) and healed in all 23, with a median healing time of 28 days (range, 20 to 45 days). One hundred ten rabbits had long bone fractures, and fractures were treated in 100 of the 110 (external skeletal fixation, n = 89; bone plating, 1; intramedullary pinning, 3; and external coaptation, 7). The percentage of fractures that healed was significantly lower for open (14/18) than for closed (26/26) tibial fractures and was significantly lower for femoral (19/26) and treated humeral (4/6) fractures than for radial (23/24) or closed tibial (26/26) fractures. Micro-CT was used to assess fracture realignment during external skeletal fixator application and to evaluate fracture healing. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prognosis for rabbits with limb fractures was good, with fractures healing in most rabbits following fracture repair (109/123). Micro-CT was useful in assessing fracture realignment and evaluating fracture healing.

  13. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  15. The median preoptic nucleus exhibits circadian regulation and is involved in food anticipatory activity in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Rabbit pups are a natural model to study food anticipatory activity (FAA). Recently, we reported that three areas in the forebrain - the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and medial preoptic area - exhibit activation during FAA. Here, we examined the PER1 protein profile of these three forebrain regions in both nursed and fasted subjects. We found robust PER1 oscillations in the MnPO in nursed subjects, with high PER1 levels during FAA that persisted in fasted subjects. In conclusion, our data indicate that periodic nursing is a strong signal for PER1 oscillations in MnPO and future experiments are warranted to explore the specific role of this area in FAA.

  16. Species differences in methanol and formic acid pharmacokinetics in mice, rabbits and primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeting, J. Nicole; Siu, Michelle; McCallum, Gordon P.; Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) is metabolized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase in humans, but by catalase in rodents, with species variations in the pharmacokinetics of its formic acid (FA) metabolite. The teratogenic potential of MeOH in humans is unknown, and its teratogenicity in rodents may not accurately reflect human developmental risk due to differential species metabolism, as for some other teratogens. To determine if human MeOH metabolism might be better reflected in rabbits than rodents, the plasma pharmacokinetics of MeOH and FA were compared in male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys over time (24, 48 and 6 h, respectively) following a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 2 g/kg MeOH or its saline vehicle. Following the high dose, MeOH exhibited saturated elimination kinetics in all 3 species, with similar peak concentrations and a 2.5-fold higher clearance in mice than rabbits. FA accumulation within 6 h in primates was 5-fold and 43-fold higher than in rabbits and mice respectively, with accumulation being 10-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Over 48 h, FA accumulation was nearly 5-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Low-dose MeOH in mice and rabbits resulted in similarly saturated MeOH elimination in both species, but with approximately 2-fold higher clearance rates in mice. FA accumulation was 3.8-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Rabbits more closely than mice reflected primates for in vivo MeOH metabolism, and particularly FA accumulation, suggesting that developmental studies in rabbits may be useful for assessing potential human teratological risk.

  17. Context-dependent responses to neighbours and strangers in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclús, Raquel; Saavedra, Irene; de Miguel, Javier

    2014-07-01

    Territorial animals defend their territories against intruders. The level of aggression directed to intruders depends on the familiarity and/or the relative threat they pose, and it could be modified by the context of the interaction. We explored in a wild social mammal, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), whether residents responded more aggressively to strangers or to neighbours (dear enemy or nasty neighbour effects, respectively). We simulated the intrusion of neighbours or strangers in different parts of the territory of wild European rabbits in a suburban area in central Spain. For that, we placed faecal pellets of neighbouring or stranger rabbits in the territory of 5 rabbit colonies. Resident rabbits counter-marked preferably the odour stations with stranger odour, compared to the ones with neighbour odour, and they did not make a difference between neighbour and a non-odour control stimuli. The results suggest that rabbits show a dear enemy effect. However, repeated intrusions escalated the responses of rabbits towards neighbours. The location within the territory or the sex of the stranger did not affect the level of response. We conclude that in rabbits the relative threat posed by the intruder triggers the intensity of the interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloning and functional characterization of the rabbit C-C chemokine receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdouchi Chafiq

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CC-family chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 is implicated in the trafficking of blood-borne monocytes to sites of inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis. The major challenge in the development of small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists is the lack of cross-species activity to the receptor in the preclinical species. Rabbit models have been widely used to study the role of various inflammatory molecules in the development of inflammatory processes. Therefore, in this study, we report the cloning and characterization of rabbit CCR2. Data regarding the activity of the CCR2 antagonist will provide valuable tools to perform toxicology and efficacy studies in the rabbit model. Results Sequence alignment indicated that rabbit CCR2 shares 80 % identity to human CCR2b. Tissue distribution indicated that rabbit CCR2 is abundantly expressed in spleen and lung. Recombinant rabbit CCR2 expressed as stable transfectants in U-937 cells binds radiolabeled 125I-mouse JE (murine MCP-1 with a calculated Kd of 0.1 nM. In competition binding assays, binding of radiolabeled mouse JE to rabbit CCR2 is differentially competed by human MCP-1, -2, -3 and -4, but not by RANTES, MIP-1α or MIP-1β. U-937/rabbit CCR2 stable transfectants undergo chemotaxis in response to both human MCP-1 and mouse JE with potencies comparable to those reported for human CCR2b. Finally, TAK-779, a dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist effectively inhibits the binding of 125I-mouse JE (IC50 = 2.3 nM to rabbit CCR2 and effectively blocks CCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Conclusion In this study, we report the cloning of rabbit CCR2 and demonstrate that this receptor is a functional chemotactic receptor for MCP-1.

  19. Comparison of the MASCC and CISNE scores for identifying low-risk neutropenic fever patients: analysis of data from three emergency departments of cancer centers in three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Shin; Rice, Terry W; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Cooksley, Tim

    2018-05-01

    Patients with febrile neutropenia are a heterogeneous group with a minority developing serious medical complications. Outpatient management of low-risk febrile neutropenia has been shown to be safe and cost-effective. Scoring systems, such as the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) score and Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia (CISNE), have been developed and validated to identify low-risk patients. We aimed to compare the performance of these two scores in identifying low-risk febrile neutropenic patients. We performed a pooled analysis of patients presenting with febrile neutropenia to three tertiary cancer emergency centers in the USA, UK, and South Korea in 2015. The primary outcome measures were the occurrence of serious complications. Admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and 30-day mortality were secondary outcomes. The predictive performance of each score was analyzed. Five hundred seventy-one patients presented with febrile neutropenia. With MASCC risk index, 508 (89.1%) were classified as low-risk febrile neutropenia, compared to 60 (10.5%) with CISNE classification. Overall, the MASCC score had a greater discriminatory power in the detection of low-risk patients than the CISNE score (AUC 0.772, 95% CI 0.726-0.819 vs. 0.681, 95% CI 0.626-0.737, p = 0.0024). Both MASCC and CISNE scores have reasonable discriminatory value in predicting patients with low-risk febrile neutropenia. Risk scores should be used in conjunction with clinical judgment for the identification of patients suitable for outpatient management of neutropenic fever. Developing more accurate scores, validated in prospective settings, will be useful in facilitating more patients being managed in an outpatient setting.

  20. SEMEN QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBIT BUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Błaszczyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used QuickPhoto Micro system. Received data were statistically analyzed. Our research showed decrease of semen parameters value after one hour storage in 37°C. Correlation analysis showed negative correlation between presence of spermatozoa with separated flagellum and CASA parameters value e.g. motility, progressive motility, DAP, DCL, DSL, VAP, VCL, VSL, ALH and BCF. From among 3000 analyzed spermatozoa 14.2% posed abnormal forms. We observed negative influence of semen storage on its quality. Also negative correlations between all types of tail defect and motility of spermatozoa were detectedRabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used Quick

  1. RESEARCHES ON THE PHENOTYPIC CORRELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT MEASUREMENTS ON THE CARCASS OF RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA MARCELA TOBĂ (GOINA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to get more experimental data on newmethodologies for rabbit meat production evaluation. The trial was carried out on30 rabbits. The rabbits were weaned at 35 days, having an average live weight of499.11+25.98 g. Rabbits were all slaughtered on the same day, that was on the 84th day of living (at this time the average live weight was 1701.7+34.07, andsome linear measurements (body length, loin width, chest width, carcass lengthchest dept and hind leg length were performed on cold carcasses. The rabbitshave been kept in wire fattening cages: 6 rabbits / cage.

  2. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  3. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  4. [Diet of neutropenic patients in pediatric oncology service; the experience of the university hospital of Strasbourg (HUS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutel, T; Foeglé, J; Belotti, L; Sery, V; Bourneton, O; Hernandez, C; Lutz, P; Lavigne, T

    2012-12-01

    This article clarifies the choices made by the HUS concerning the ways of preparing food reserved to neutropenic children hospitalized in pediatric oncology service. We will describe the results of microbiological analysis of food realized from 2002 to 2007. A specific team prepares this food which is canned and treated by "appertisation" (autoclaving). Each dish portion produced is provided to the service only if the microbiological results are conform, that is to say free of organisms. Three thousand and seventy-eight dishes were analysed: 82.9% of the analysed packs were conform. The contamination ratio decreased significantly (Pfood which is the most frequently "nonconform" is the dry food with a contamination rate of 37.9%. The identified concentrations remain mainly lower than 50 colony-forming units per millilitre (CFU/mL): 66.2% for the bacteria and 97.2% for the fungi. Considering the lack of consensus on the acceptable microbiological thresholds and on the food protection level, the HUS make it a rule to have a maximal precautionary principle. Currently, this principle appears to us to be a safety option required for the patients hospitalized in pediatric oncology service. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. X-Ray structure and biophysical properties of rabbit fibroblast growth factor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jihun; Blaber, Sachiko I.; Irsigler, Andre; Aspinwall, Eric; Blaber, Michael; (FSU)

    2010-01-14

    The rabbit is an important and de facto animal model in the study of ischemic disease and angiogenic therapy. Additionally, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) is emerging as one of the most important growth factors for novel pro-angiogenic and pro-arteriogenic therapy. However, despite its significance, the fundamental biophysical properties of rabbit FGF-1, including its X-ray structure, have never been reported. Here, the cloning, crystallization, X-ray structure and determination of the biophysical properties of rabbit FGF-1 are described. The X-ray structure shows that the amino-acid differences between human and rabbit FGF-1 are solvent-exposed and therefore potentially immunogenic, while the biophysical studies identify differences in thermostability and receptor-binding affinity that distinguish rabbit FGF-1 from human FGF-1.

  6. Assessing Anticalcification Treatments in Bioprosthetic Tissue by Using the New Zealand Rabbit Intramuscular Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gregory A; Faught, Joelle M; Olin, Jane M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit intramuscular model can be used for detecting calcification in bioprosthetic tissue and to compare the calcification in the rabbit to that of native human valves. The rabbit model was compared with the commonly used Sprague–Dawley rat subcutaneous model. Eighteen rabbits and 18 rats were used to assess calcification in bioprosthetic tissue over time (7, 14, 30, and 90 d). The explanted rabbit and rat tissue discs were measured for calcium by using atomic absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Calcium deposits on the human valve explants were assessed by using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the NZW rabbit model is robust for detecting calcification in a shorter duration (14 d), with less infection complications, more space to implant tissue groups (thereby reducing animal use numbers), and a more metabolically and mechanically dynamic environment than the rat subcutaneous model . The human explanted valves and rabbit explanted tissue both showed Raman peaks at 960 cm−1 which is representative of hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is the final calcium and phosphate species in the calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves and rabbit intramuscular implants. The NZW rabbit intramuscular model is an effective model for assessing calcification in bioprosthetic tissue. PMID:19619417

  7. Epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis in a free-living population of wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Villafuerte, R; Osácar, J J; Lucientes, J

    2002-06-22

    From January 1993 to June 1996, the epidemiology of myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) was studied in a free-living population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain by means of serological surveys and radiotracking. Myxomatosis was endemic and associated with the breeding period. Its serological pattern was characterised by a 100 per cent prevalence of antibodies in adult rabbits and a rapid increase in antibodies in young rabbits in their first year. No mortality from myxomatosis was detected in adults, and mortality in young rabbits could not be estimated because of interference by predators and scavengers and the deaths of many radiotagged rabbits inside their burrows. VHD was also an endemic disease associated with the breeding period. Adults had a higher prevalence of antibodies against VHD than young rabbits, reaching values of 80 to 90 per cent. During the study, there was an increase in rabbit numbers as a result of a decrease in mortality from predation which was associated with an increase in mortality due to VHD and in the prevalence of antibodies to VHD. Mortality from VHD was lower in rabbits with VHD antibodies than in seronegative rabbits, but some mortality from the disease was also detected in seropositive rabbits. The annual mean mortality rate due to VHD in adult rabbits was estimated to be 21.8 per cent.

  8. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional ingredient. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... groups of 8 rabbits each and the groups were assigned randomly to the three diets with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a Complete Randomized Design experiment.

  9. Establishment and characterization of CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ri-ichi; Kuramochi, Takashi; Aoyagi, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Shu; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kasai, Noriyuki; Hakamata, Yoji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Masatsugu

    2007-02-01

    Cell marking is a very important procedure for identifying donor cells after cell and/or organ transplantation in vivo. Transgenic animals expressing marker proteins such as enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their tissues are a powerful tool for research in fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The purpose of this study was to establish transgenic rabbit lines that ubiquitously express EGFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/beta-actin promoter (CAG) to provide a fluorescent transgenic animal as a bioresource. We microinjected the EGFP expression vector into 945 rabbit eggs and 4 independent transgenic candidate pups were obtained. Two of them died before sexual maturation and one was infertile. One transgenic male candidate founder rabbit was obtained and could be bred by artificial insemination. The rabbit transmitted the transgene in a Mendelian manner. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, we detected the transgene at 7q11 on chromosome 7 as a large centromeric region in two F1 offspring (one female and one male). Eventually, one transgenic line was established. Ubiquitous EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in all examined organs. There were no gender-related differences in fluorescence. The established CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit will be an important bioresource and a useful tool for various studies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  10. Vaccine breaks: Outbreaks of myxomatosis on Spanish commercial rabbit farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; de Llano, D; Gullón, J; Inza, M; Petralanda, M; Arroita, Z; Parra, F

    2015-08-05

    Despite the success of vaccination against myxoma virus, myxomatosis remains a problem on rabbit farms throughout Spain and Europe. In this study we set out to evaluate possible causes of myxoma virus (MYXV) vaccine failures addressing key issues with regard to pathogen, vaccine and vaccination strategies. This was done by genetically characterising MYXV field isolates from farm outbreaks, selecting a representative strain for which to assay its virulence and measuring the protective capability of a commercial vaccine against this strain. Finally, we compare methods (route) of vaccine administration under farm conditions and evaluate immune response in vaccinated rabbits. The data presented here show that the vaccine tested is capable of eliciting protection in rabbits that show high levels of seroconversion. However, the number of animals failing to seroconvert following subcutaneous vaccination may leave a large number of rabbits unprotected following vaccine administration. Successful vaccination requires the strict implication of workable, planned, on farm programs. Following this, analysis to confirm seroconversion rates may be advisable. Factors such as the wild rabbit reservoir, control of biting insects and good hygienic practices must be taken into consideration to prevent vaccine failures from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of adult weight and CT-based selection on rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the meat quality of different genotypes. Maternal (M; adult weight/AW/=4.0-4.5kg; selected for the number of kits born alive, Pannon White (P; AW=4.3-4.8kg and Large type (L; AW=4.8-5.4kg rabbits were analysed. P and L genotypes were selected for carcass traits based on CT/Computer tomography/data. Rabbits were slaughtered at 11wk of age and hindleg (HL meat and M. Longissimus dorsi (LD were analysed for proximate composition and fatty acid (FA profile. Proximate composition was unaffected by the selection programme, even though the meat of P rabbits was leaner and had higher ash content (P<0.10. The LD meat of P rabbits exhibited significantly lower MUFA contents compared to M and L rabbits (25.4 vs 28.0 vs 27.7%; P<0.01 and higher PUFA content compared to M rabbits (31.9 vs 24.9%; P<0.05. This study revealed that long-term CT-based selection is effective in increasing meat leanness and PUFA content.

  12. Derivation of Rabbit Embryonic Stem Cells from Vitrified–Thawed Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hong; Li, Yi; Hu, Yeshu; An, Li-You; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Jifeng; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The rabbit is a useful animal model for regenerative medicine. We previously developed pluripotent rabbit embryonic stem cell (rbESC) lines using fresh embryos. We also successfully cryopreserved rabbit embryos by vitrification. In the present work, we combined these two technologies to derive rbESCs using vitrified–thawed (V/T) embryos. We demonstrate that V/T blastocysts (BLs) can be used to derive pluripotent rbESCs with efficiencies comparable to those using fresh BLs. These ESCs are undistinguishable from the ones derived from fresh embryos. We tested the developmental capacity of rbESCs derived from V/T embryos by BL injection experiments and produced chimeric kits. Our work adds cryopreservation to the toolbox of rabbit stem cell research and applications and will greatly expand the available research materials for regenerative medicine in a clinically relevant animal model. PMID:26579970

  13. Arrival of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 to northern Europe: Emergence and outbreaks in wild and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimanis, A S; Ahola, H; Zohari, S; Larsson Pettersson, U; Bröjer, C; Capucci, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2018-02-01

    Incursion of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Sweden was documented in 1990 and it is now considered endemic in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a new, related lagovirus was first detected in France in 2010, and has spread rapidly throughout Europe and beyond. However, knowledge of RHDV2 in northern Europe is sporadic and incomplete, and in Sweden, routinely available diagnostic methods to detect rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) do not distinguish between types of virus causing disease. Using RHDV2-specific RT-qPCR, sequencing of the VP60 gene and immunological virus typing of archived and prospective case material from the National Veterinary Institute's (SVA) wildlife disease surveillance programme and diagnostic pathology service, we describe the emergence of RHDV2 in Sweden in both wild and domestic rabbits. The earliest documented outbreak occurred on 22 May 2013, and from May 2013 to May 2016, 10 separate incidents of RHDV2 were documented from six different municipalities in the southern half of Sweden. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP60 gene shows clear clustering of Swedish isolates into three separate clusters within two different clades according to geographic location and time, suggesting viral evolution, multiple introduction events or both. Almost all cases of RHD examined by SVA from May 2013 to May 2016 were caused by RHDV2, suggesting that RHDV2 may be replacing RHDV as the predominant cause of RHD in Sweden. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using

  15. How does domain replacement affect fibril formation of the rabbit/human prion proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yan

    Full Text Available It is known that in vivo human prion protein (PrP have the tendency to form fibril deposits and are associated with infectious fatal prion diseases, while the rabbit PrP does not readily form fibrils and is unlikely to cause prion diseases. Although we have previously demonstrated that amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs, we do not know which domains of PrPs cause such differences. In this study, we have constructed two PrP chimeras, rabbit chimera and human chimera, and investigated how domain replacement affects fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs.As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays and Sarkosyl-soluble SDS-PAGE, the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes fibril formation of both chimeras. As evidenced by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proteinase K digestion assays, amyloid fibrils formed by human chimera have secondary structures and proteinase K-resistant features similar to those formed by the human PrP. However, amyloid fibrils formed by rabbit chimera have proteinase K-resistant features and secondary structures in crowded physiological environments different from those formed by the rabbit PrP, and secondary structures in dilute solutions similar to the rabbit PrP. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that macromolecular crowding caused human chimera but not rabbit chimera to form short fibrils and non-fibrillar particles.We demonstrate for the first time that the domains beyond PrP-H2H3 (β-strand 1, α-helix 1, and β-strand 2 have a remarkable effect on fibrillization of the rabbit PrP but almost no effect on the human PrP. Our findings can help to explain why amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and why macromolecular crowding has different

  16. [Influence of high-voltage electric burn on the microcirculation of heart in rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-fu; Zhou, Hui-min; Wang, Che-jiang; Shao, Hong-bo

    2012-06-01

    To study the influence of high-voltage electric burn on the microcirculation of heart in rabbit. One-hundred and twenty New Zealand rabbits of clean grade were divided into control group (C) and electric burn group (EB) according to the random number table, with 60 rabbits in each group. Rabbits in EB group were subjected to high-voltage electric burn (the electrical current flow into the left foreleg at the lateral side of proximal end and out from the corresponding site of the right hind leg) with voltage regulator and experimental transformer. Rabbits in C group were sham injured with the same devices without electrification. At 15 minutes before injury, and 5 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 8 hour (s) post injury (PIM or PIH), ten rabbits in each group were chosen to examine the cardiac apex microcirculation hemoperfusion (CAMH) with laser Doppler hemoperfusion image instrument. The morphologic changes of microvessels of left ventricular wall tissues of 2 rabbits from each of the 10 rabbits collected at above-mentioned time points were observed with light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Auricular vein blood of rabbit was harvested at above-mentioned time points for the determination of aspartate amino transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase isozyme MB (CK-MB) by full-automatic biochemical analyzer. Data were processed with two-factor analysis of variance and LSD test. (1) The differences between C group and EB group in detection results were statistically significant, with F values from 425.991 to 3046.834, P values all below 0.01. Only the data within EB group were comparable. (2) At PIM 5, the CAMH value of rabbits in EB group was (1.96 ± 0.09) V, which was lower than that at 15 minutes before injury [(4.34 ± 0.35) V, P electric burn can bring damage to the microvessels of heart in rabbits and change blood flow of microcirculation, which should be given adequate

  17. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2016-09-01

    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin on intravenous injection into rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, H.J.; Esmon, N.L.; Bang, N.U.

    1990-01-01

    Thrombomodulin is a thrombin endothelial cell membrane receptor. The thrombomodulin-thrombin complex rapidly activates protein C resulting in anticoagulant activity. We investigated the anticoagulant effects and pharmacokinetic behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin labeled with iodine 125 when intravenously injected into rabbits. Thrombomodulin half-life (t1/2) was determined by tracking the 125I-radiolabeled protein and the biologic activity as determined by the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin clotting time (TCT). When 200 micrograms/kg 125I-thrombomodulin was injected into rabbits, the APTT and TCT were immediately prolonged, whereas no effect on the prothrombin time was seen. In vitro calibration curves enabled us to convert the prolongations of the clotting times into micrograms per milliliter thrombomodulin equivalents. The best fit (r greater than 0.99) for the disappearance curves was provided by a two-compartment model with mean t1/2 alpha (distribution phase) of 18 minutes for 125I, 12 minutes for APTT, and 20 minutes for TCT, and mean t1/2 beta (elimination phase) of 385 minutes for 125I, 460 for APTT, and 179 for TCT. The administration of two doses of endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) 24 hours apart did not accelerate the turnover rate of 125I-thrombomodulin as measured by the disappearance of 125I from the circulation. Thus, detergent-solubilized purified thrombomodulin administered intravenously circulates in a biologically active form for appreciable time periods

  19. Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Safwat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group; for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%, which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1st method (34.28%, which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use.

  20. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  1. Pharmacological activation of Kv11.1 in transgenic long QT-1 rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Bahrke, Sophia; Wu, Kezhong

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic rabbits expressing pore mutants of K(V)7.1 display a long QT syndrome 1 (LQT1) phenotype. Recently, NS1643 has been described to increase I(Kr).We hypothesized that NS1643 would shorten the action potential duration (APD(90)) in LQT1 rabbits. Transgenic LQT1 rabbits were compared...... with littermate control (LMC) rabbits. In vivo electrocardiogram studies in sedated animals were performed at baseline and during 45 minutes of intravenous infusion of NS1643 or vehicle in a crossover design. Ex vivo monophasic action potentials were recorded from Langendorff-perfused hearts at baseline...

  2. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1984-06-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in Britain. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the co-evolution of the disease and its host.

  3. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  5. Investigation into Host Selection of the Cecal Acetogen Population in Rabbits after Weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Yang

    Full Text Available Homoacetogenic bacteria have received attention as a hydrogenotrophic population that offers a significant energetic advantage to the host animal. Reductive acetogenesis is likely an important hydrogen disposal mechanism in the cecum of rabbits. However, molecular ecology information about cecal acetogen candidates has rarely been reported. To better understand the effect of host selection in the rabbit cecal acetogen community with respect to growth, rabbits at four different age stages (30, 60, 120 and 180 days with the same diet were studied. Although the abundance of potential acetogens and methanogens was high in the cecum of rabbits undergoing growth, many novel potential acetogen populations were observed in the cecum of rabbits across all age groups. Young and adult rabbits had their own distinct acetogen community although they received the same diet, which suggests that as the rabbit ages, acetogens in the cecum undergo developmental changes because of host selection that are independent of diet, and perhaps the different acetogen communities result in different hydrogenotrophic characteristics. The within-group similarity increased with age, indicating that the acetogen community converges to a more homogeneous and stable arrangement with aging.

  6. Apoptosis of rabbit retinal cell after eyeball rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue-Min; Zhu, Yu

    2013-04-13

    To establish rabbit eyeball rupture model by air gun in order to observe and analyze the early injury condition and reasons of retinal cell after eyeball rupture. Forty eight healthy rabbits were randomly divided into control group and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after injury groups. After anesthesia, the rabbit eyeball rupture model was established by air gun. Then the early pathological changes of rabbit retina were observed, and apoptotic index (AI), oncosis index (OI), the relationship between the expression amounts of apoptosis-related genes and AI were analyzed. Obvious pathological lesion appeared in retina 6 h after injury. Irreversible damage occurred 12-24 h after injury. The results of AI and OI indicated that the OI peak appeared 6 h after injury and then gradually declined, while the AI increased with the prolongation of time, and the AI was higher than OI in 12 h after injury. Immunohistochemical results indicated that there was no obvious bcl-2 protein expression change. Compared with the control group and the 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after the injury groups, the expressions of p53 and Caspase-3 were significantly improved and peaked at 12 h (Peyeball rupture. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The model of pulmonary embolism caused by autologous thrombus in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jiao Ding; Yang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To establish a model of pulmonary embolism in rabbits by using autologous thrombosis of rabbit ear vein, to study the method of establishing acute pulmonary embolism by using autologous thrombus and to explore the diagnostic value of oxygen partial pressure in acute pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into normal group (n=5), 7 h group, 24h group, 1 week after model establishment Group. The arterial blood gas analysis was performed on th...

  8. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals. A total number of 12 mixed bred rabbits weighing. 3.5 ± 0.5 kg were selected. Then, the necessary blood and parasite analysis as well as clinical ..... 8. Flecknell PA, Ed. BSAVA manual of rabbit medicine and surgery. London: British Small Animal Veterinary. Association; 2000; pp 30-31, 106. 9. Ji Y, Gao H, Zhang ...

  9. The effect of rapid decompression on femur blood flow of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shaoning; Tian Wuxun; Zhu Xiangqi

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the influence of regional blood flow in femur trochanter (FT) of rabbits' under rapid decompression after exposure to hyperbaric air. METHODS: Rabbits were placed in a hyperbaric chamber and exposed to the pressure of 0.5 MPa for 1.5 h, and the pressure was reduced to the atmosphere pressure at a uniform rate of 0.03 mPa/min. The regional blood flow of FT in rabbits were measured with 133 Xe washout methods. RESULTS: The normal average regional blood flow in left and right FT were 14.5 +- 1.7 and 14.1 +- 1.9 ml/(min·100g) respectively. After exposure to hyperbaric air with rapid decompression, the average regional blood flow of left and right FT were 11.1 +- 1.2 and 10.5 +- 1.6 ml/(min·100g) respectively. But the symptoms of dysbarism in these rabbits were various each other. CONCLUSIONS: After being exposed to hyperbaric air with rapid decompression, the blood flow of rabbits' femur trochanter were noticeably reduced

  10. Effect of Stocking Density on Performance of Growing Rabbits in Semi-Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyeghe-Erakpotobor Grace, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the adoption possibility of Maize- Mucuna-Fertiliser (mineral System (MMFS, for soil fertilisation in the southern part of Togo, 52 farms from three representative villages of the region were analysed and classified into three types according to their adoption potential for the innovation: type A characterised by heads of farm being in majority land owners; type B whose head of farm are young, literate and in majority land tenants; and type C whose heads are old mainly land tenants. Participatory surveys, based on contingent ranking of the constraints, conducted with homogenous groups of farmers chosen according to three types of farm, helped to sort out the major constraints to the adoption of MMFS. These constraints, having a high degree of severity (≥ 45%, were in order of importance: the lack of money/loan, the land problem (lack of arable lands and insecurity on rented ones, the suppression of mixed cropping by the MMFS and the non availability of mucuna seed. For the farmers of type A, the non availability of mucuna seed and the lack of money/loan presented a degree of severity of 100% each. For those of type B and C, the land problem was the most important: it presented a degree of severity of 100% for the farmers of type B and 80% for those of type C. Sixty growing rabbits were housed at densities of 6.7, 10, 13.3, 16.7 and 20 rabbits/m2 in wood and poultry wire mesh cages for six weeks and fed a common diet of 22.6% CP and 2600 kcal/kg ME. Parameters measured were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body condition, fur condition and body bites. Stocking density significantly (P< 0.05 affected feed intake and weight gain but not feed conversion ratio of rabbits. Rabbits stocked at densities of 6.7, 10 and 13.3 rabbits/m2 had higher average daily gain than those stocked at higher densities. Feed intake was higher at higher densities. The trend shows a significant decrease in feed intake by individual

  11. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL IMMUNOMODULATORS ON PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND CORTISOL CONTENT IN RABBIT BLOOD UNDER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabovskyi S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of determination of protein fractions, cortisol content in blood of rabbits, which further added to the feed of natural origin biologically active substances are presented in the article. As an antistressors and immunomodulators in pre-slaughter period are using of spleen extract biologically active substances were obtained with ultrasound application. The purpose of research — determination of changes of protein fractions, cortisol content in rabbits blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances (spleen extract. Object and research methods. The experiment was conducted on 15 rabbits with standard diet. Three groups of rabbits five month of age (5 rabbits each was formed for research. The spleen extract were using as an biologically active substances to the feed rabbits in pre-slaughter period (five days before slaughter. The extracts were applied to feed by aerosol method (70 °alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per rabbit (group I. The rabbits (group II received to the feed in the same way of 70 °alcohol solution in the same volume. The control group rabbits received the standard feed in the same volume. The feed eating by rabbits was exercised daily. The rabbits ate food completely. The rabbits slaughter was carried out in the morning. The blood plasma protein fractions separation was carried out by horizontal electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (PAAG. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0 and Microsoft Excel for Windows XP. Probability differences was assessed by Student t-test and results considered likely at P ≤ 0.05. Results and discussion. We measured the ratio of blood plasma protein fractions of rabbits, which in addition to the feed fed of natural origin biologically active substances. As a result of research was found that aerosol introduction of the spleen extract to the rabbits

  12. Placental transfer of radioactive salts in the pregnant rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachner, E.; Shani, J.; Shechtman, M.; Pfeiffer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The risks of radionuclidic contamination due to the easy transfer of water-soluble ions from the circulation of the pregnant woman to her fetus, encouraged us to study whether the ease of penetration of such ions is size-dependent. Three radiochemicals--/sup 22/NaCl, /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/Na and /sup 201/TlCl were injected i.v. into pregnant rabbits on the 16th day of their pregnancy, and the rabbits were killed 15, 30, 60 or 120 min later. From each rabbit the blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle were sampled and counted as well as placenta, amniotic fluid and some fetuses. At 15 and 60 min hearts and livers were excised from selected fetuses and blood clearance, organ-to-muscle and fetus-to-placenta ratios were calculated. The results indicate that the transplacental transfer of the small radionuclide /sup 22/Na+ is faster than that of 99mTcO4- and /sup 201/Tl+, reaching equilibrium about 3 h after its injection to the pregnant rabbit. /sup 201/Tl+ demonstrated a high localization in the pregnant rabbits' and fetuses' heart and kidneys, with a similar myocardial retention in both groups. Due to the concentration of /sup 201/Tl+, in spite of its large diameter, into the fetuses' heart muscle, careful consideration should be taken when injecting /sup 201/TlCl into pregnant women for myocardial imaging.

  13. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (μm2, perimeter (μm, maximum and minimum diameter (μm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  14. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (µm2, perimeter (µm, maximum and minimum diameter (µm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  15. Evaluation of milled pearl millet in the feeding of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Catelan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in order to estimate the nutritional value and the performance of growing rabbits fed different levels of pearl millet (ADR 7010. In the digestibility trial, nutritional values of pearl millet were determined in 22 45-day-old New Zealand White rabbits, allotted in a completely randomized design, subjected to two treatments - a reference diet and a test diet with 70% of its volume composed of reference diet and 30% of pearl millet - and 11 replications. The apparent digestibility values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and gross energy of the pearl millet were 88.7, 85.4, 24.4 and 75.0%, respectively. In the performance trial, 120 32-day-old New Zealand White rabbits were used. Rabbits were allotted in a completely randomized design and subjected to six treatments, with 10 replications and two animals for each experimental unit. The diets were formulated with increasing levels of pearl millet (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, substituting the corn in the reference diet, according to the digestible energy. No differences were observed in daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion, carcass traits and feed cost per kilogram of rabbit. Regardless of the amount of corn substituted, pearl can replace corn in diets for growing rabbits.

  16. Biotransformation of hydralazine (HDZ) in monolayer cultures of rabbit hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, C.A.; Rosado, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Adverse reactions to HDZ have been associated with the acetylator polymorphism; slow acetylators are more likely to develop HDZ-induced lupus erythematosus. In studying the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to HDZ toxicity, the biotransformation of HDZ was investigated in rabbit hepatocytes. New Zealand white rabbits, like humans, are classified as rapid or slow acetylators. Heptocytes were isolated from rapid acetylator rabbits by collagenase perfusion. Monolayer cultures were initiated and exposed to 14 C-HDZ. Since HDZ is unstable at neutral pH, parallel incubations were done in the absence of cells. Metabolites in the media were determined by reverse phase HPLC. Phthalazine (P), phthalazinone (PZ), triazoloph-thalazine (TP), methyl TP (MTP) and 3-hydroxy MTP were identified. In the absence of cells, more TP was formed than MTP, probably resulting from reaction of HDZ with components in the medium. In the presence of cells, there was a three-fold increase in MTP, while the amount of TP was relatively constant. Only trace amounts of P, PZ 3-hydroxy MTP were detected. These data indicate that monolayer cultures of rapid acetylator rabbit hepatocytes were capable of metabolizing HDZ with acetylation playing a major role. These studies are being extended to cells from slow acetylator rabbits

  17. EPR persistence measurements of UV-induced melanin free radicals in whole skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, B.; Poehler, T.O.; Bryden, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance is used to detect the formation of free radicals caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation in chemically untreated rabbit skin. A fast jump in EPR signal level, occurring over a few seconds, is observed immediately after a skin sample is exposed to UV. This is followed by a slower increase toward an elevated steady-state signal over a period of hours as the skin is continuously exposed to a UV light source. Upon cessation of UV light exposure, EPR signal levels undergo an abrupt drop followed by a slower decay toward natural levels. Elevated free radical concentrations following UV exposure are found to persist for several hours in whole skin. These results are consistent with time resolved EPR measurements of photoinduced radicals in various natural melanins. (Author)

  18. Quercetin-induced changes in femoral bone microstructure of adult male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Babosová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites with antioxidant effects. One of the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet is quercetin. It is found widely in fruits, vegetables and has a lot of beneficial effects on human health. Quercetin has a positive pharmacological effect on bone metabolism and it prevents the organism against bone loss. However, its impact on the size of basic structural units of the compact bone is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the impact of the quercetin on femoral bone microstructure in 5-month-old male rabbits. Five rabbits of Californian broiler line were randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group (E group; n=3, animals were intramuscularly injected with quercetin at dose 1000 μg.kg-1 body weight (bw for 90 days, 3 times per week. Two rabbits without quercetin administration served as a control group (C group. According to our results, intramuscular application of quercetin had an insignificant effect on cortical bone thickness in male rabbits. In these rabbits, changes in qualitative histological characteristics were present in the middle part of the compacta, where primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was present and expanded there from the periosteum. Also, a lower number of secondary osteons was found in these animals. From the histomorphometrical point of view, significantly decreased sizes of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons (p <0.05 were found in rabbits administered by quercetin. Our findings indicate that subchronic administration of quercetin at the dose used in our study had considerable impact on both qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of the compact bone in adult male rabbits.

  19. On micro- and macrocirculatory effects of the whole body exposure to γ-rays in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Makishige; Ohkubo, Chiyoji; Chiba, Masashi

    1988-01-01

    Immediate and prolonged microcirculatory effects of varying single doses of the whole body exposure of γ-rays irradiation were studied by using the intravital-microscopy concurrently with macrocirculatory hematological determination in the healthy male rabbit. The intravital-microscopy applied to the subcutaneous microcirculatory system in a transparent round-table chamber, that has been installed in advance into the ear lobe, revealed that markedly increased intravascular adhesiveness of white blood cells (WBCs) and extensive stasis similar to the intravascular coagulation of red blood cells (RBCs) developed as immediate changes soon after the γ-rays irradiation regardless of difference of exposure doses such as 50, 250, 500 and 1000 R. Although these changes disappeared within 3 - 4 weeks in animals exposed to 50 R, they persisted throughout the whole experimental period of 4 weeks at higher doses of γ-rays and the extent of the persisting changes appeared to be dose-dependent. Similarly the macrocirculatory changes such as decreases in measurements of RBCs, WBCs, hematocrit values, hemoglobin concentrations, and platelet counts and increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rates were also noticed in a dose-dependent manner. (author)

  20. Journey length and high temperatures: effects on rabbit welfare and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liste, G; María, G A; Buil, T; García-Belenguer, S; Chacón, G; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Villarroel, M

    2006-02-01

    The transport of domestic animals by road can increase levels of stress and decrease meat quality, especially in unfavourable climates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of journey duration and vertical position on the transport truck on some physiological indicators of stress and on instrumental meat quality parameters in commercial rabbits. In the summer months (June and July, 2003), 78 rabbits were subjected to either long (7 h) (LJ) or short (1 h) (SJ) journeys (3 replicates each, n = 6) between the farm and an abattoir in northern Spain. The position (top, middle, or bottom) occupied by the rabbits on the Multi-Floor cage Rolling Stand (MFRS) of the transport truck was recorded. Blood samples were collected at sticking and meat pH was measured at 24 h post-mortem (pH24). At 48 h post-mortem, samples of the M. longissimus dorsi were used to determine water-holding capacity (WHC) and instrumental tenderness using an INSTRON machine. The levels of corticosterone, glucose, lactate, and creatine kinase were slightly higher in LJ than in SJ samples, but the difference was not statistically significant (p MFRS showed higher levels (p < or = 0.05) of glucose and creatine kinase (middle), and corticosterone (bottom) than the rabbits located at the top floor. The pH 24 and WHC values of the SJ and LJ rabbits did not differ significantly. Journey length had a significant effect (p < or = 0.01) on meat tenderness. The meat from rabbits subjected to LJ had higher values of maximum stress and total toughness than did the SJ rabbits (p < or = 0.05). There were similar differences (p < or = 0.05) between LJ and SJ rabbits in their stress values of compression at 20% and 40% (measures of the tenderness of raw meat). In hot weather, the position on the transport truck appeared to have a greater effect on rabbit welfare than the duration of the journey.

  1. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse...

  2. First field trial of a transmissible recombinant vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J M; Sánchez, C; Ramírez, M A; Morales, M; Bárcena, J; Ferrer, J; Espuña, E; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2001-08-14

    As a novel approach for immunisation of wild rabbits, we have recently developed a transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) based on a recombinant myxoma virus (MV) expressing the RHDV capsid protein [J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1114]. The efficacy and safety of the vaccine have been extensively evaluated under laboratory conditions. In this study, we report the first limited field trial of the candidate vaccine that was undertaken in an island of 34 Has containing a population of around 300 rabbits. Following administration by the subcutaneous route to 76 rabbits, the vaccine induced specific antibody responses against both myxomatosis and RHDV in all the inoculated rabbits. Furthermore, the recombinant virus exhibited a limited horizontal transmission capacity, promoting seroconversion of around 50% of the uninoculated rabbit population. No evidence of undesirable effects due to the recombinant virus field release was detected.

  3. Meta-analysis of treatment with rabbit and horse antithymocyte globulin for aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Jin; Kanda, Junya; Akahoshi, Yu; Harada, Naonori; Kameda, Kazuaki; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Yamazaki, Rie; Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2017-05-01

    Aplastic anemia patients who received rabbit antithymocyte globulin exhibited response and survival rates inferior to those who received horse antithymocyte globulin in several studies. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to compare rabbit and horse antithymocyte globulin as immunosuppressive therapy for aplastic anemia. We searched online databases for studies that compared antithymocyte globulin regimens as first-line treatment for aplastic anemia, including both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. The early mortality rate at 3 months and overall response rate at 6 months were evaluated. Thirteen studies were included in the analysis. The risk ratio (RR) of early mortality for rabbit vs. horse antithymocyte globulin was 1.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-2.57; P = 0.39], with significant heterogeneity. A sensitivity analysis suggested higher early mortality rate in patients who received rabbit antithymocyte globulin. The overall response rate was significantly higher in patients who received horse antithymocyte globulin (RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.05-1.54; P = 0.015). In conclusion, in aplastic anemia patients treated with ATG, early mortality rate was not significantly different in patients receiving horse or rabbit ATG, although a sensitivity analysis showed higher early mortality in the rabbit ATG group. Horse ATG was associated with significantly higher response rate than rabbit ATG.

  4. Roles of the WHHL Rabbit in Translational Research on Hypercholesterolemia and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conquering cardiovascular diseases is one of the most important problems in human health. To overcome cardiovascular diseases, animal models have played important roles. Although the prevalence of genetically modified animals, particularly mice and rats, has contributed greatly to biomedical research, not all human diseases can be investigated in this way. In the study of cardiovascular diseases, mice and rats are inappropriate because of marked differences in lipoprotein metabolism, pathophysiological findings of atherosclerosis, and cardiac function. On the other hand, since lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits closely resemble those in humans, several useful animal models for these diseases have been developed in rabbits. One of the most famous of these is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbit, which develops hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis spontaneously due to genetic and functional deficiencies of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. The WHHL rabbit has been improved to develop myocardial infarction, and the new strain was designated the myocardial infarction-prone WHHL (WHHLMI rabbit. This review summarizes the importance of selecting animal species for translational research in biomedical science, the development of WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits, their application to the development of hypocholesterolemic and/or antiatherosclerotic drugs, and future prospects regarding WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits.

  5. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC, wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC, with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM , moisture, organic matter (OM, ash and ammonia was measured. The substrates were aerated by turning at 25 days of composting. The analysis was performed with the GLM procedure (SAS, 2009 and the Tukey test. The inoculum had no effect on the composting of the substrates investigated. The PAC had the highest substrate temperature (30 ° C, although this is low compared to conventional composting which manure. After the substrates were overturned, the temperature increased only in PAEC. Compost PAC had a low content of organic matter and a more alkaline pH. It was concluded that it is feasible composting dead rabbit, but to optimize the process requires improving the conditions of composting to achieve a higher temperature and mineralization and reduce nitrogen loss by degradation of the protein of meat.

  6. Early Ankle Mobilization Promotes Healing in a Rabbit Model of Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jielile, Jiasharete; Asilehan, Batiza; Wupuer, Aikeremu; Qianman, Bayixiati; Jialihasi, Ayidaer; Tangkejie, Wulanbai; Maimaitiaili, Abudouheilil; Shawutali, Nuerai; Badelhan, Aynaz; Niyazebieke, Hadelebieke; Aizezi, Adili; Aisaiding, Amuding; Bakyt, Yerzat; Aibek, Rakimbaiev; Wuerliebieke, Jianati

    2016-01-01

    The use of early mobilization of the ankle joint without orthosis in the treatment of Achilles tendon rupture has been advocated as the optimal management. The goal of this study was to compare outcomes in a postoperative rabbit model of Achilles tendon rupture between early mobilization and immobilized animals using a differential proteomics approach. In total, 135 rabbits were randomized into the control group (n=15), the postoperative cast immobilization (PCI) group (n=60), and the early mobilization (EM) group (n=60). A rupture of the Achilles tendon was created in each animal model and repaired microsurgically, and tendon samples were removed at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days postoperatively. Proteins were separated using 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified using peptide mass fingerprinting, tandem mass spectrometry, NCBI database searches, and bioinformatics analyses. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups, some of which may play an important role in Achilles tendon healing. Notable candidate proteins that were upregulated in the EM group were identified, such as CRMP-2, galactokinase 1, tropomyosin-4, and transthyretin. The healing of ruptured Achilles tendons appears to be affected at the level of protein expression with the use of early mobilization. The classic postoperative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture with an orthosis ignored the self-protecting instinct of humans. With a novel operative technique, the repaired tendon can persist the load that comes from traction in knee and ankle joint functional movement. In addition, kinesitherapy provided an excellent experimental outcome via a mechanobiological mechanism. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. The rabbit as an experimental model in laryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro, Christiano de Giacomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the research in laryngology we normally use animal models. The animal experimentation may also contribute largely for this evolution, mainly for the easy access compared to human larynxes and for they are more easily controlled. Objective: The objective of this work is to analyze the laryngofissure with vocal cords graft as an experimental surgical technique in male adult rabbits. Method: We studied 46 New Zealand albino rabbits submitted to microsurgery in both vocal cords with autologous unilateral or bilateral graft of fat or fascia. Results: There were 4 losses of 3 animals until the first week of the postoperative period and another after 19 days after surgery. In the subsequent animals there were no infection, hematoma or sutures dehiscence. Conclusion: The study enables the conclusion that the experimental laryngofissure in rabbits is a safe method that may be used for laryngological studies.

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  10. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  11. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabóová, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42. Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococcus faecium by PCR method. The isolates have possessed the structural genes for enterocins A, P, B production. The inhibitory substances produced by the isolated enterococci inhibited the growth of 12 indicators. Of 34 isolates, 15 strains have shown the antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes CCM 4699, 12 strains against S. aureus 3A3, 10 strains against S. aureus 5A2 as well as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. Moreover, enterococci have tolerated 5 % bile, low pH; they have produced lactid acid in the amount from 0.740 ± 0.091 to 1.720 ± 0.095 mmol/l. The isolates were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Bacteriocin-producing strain E. faecium M3a has been selected for more detail characterization of its bacteriocin and probiotic properties with the aim for its further application as an additive.

  12. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindt Thomas J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

  13. Acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Roseberry, H.; Stevenson, J.L.; Clayton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors measured lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA) as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 equal-size groups: control, all smoke exposure (ASE), and limited smoke exposure (LSE). Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 20-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biologic half-life (T 1 / 2 ). Mean T 1 / 2 minimum was significantly lower for ASE and LSE rabbits than by control rabbits. They observed a significant difference at 20 and 30 breath exposures between the control and ASE group mean values for T 1 / 2 , arterial blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. A combination of light and electron microscopy showed focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the ASE and LSE groups but no alveolar-capillary membrane damage. In summary, acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability as measured by /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance, but there was no detectable ultrastructural alteration of the alveolar-capillary membrane

  14. Cryotherapy increases features of plaque stability in atherosclerotic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheye, Stefan; Roth, Lynn; De Meyer, Inge; Van Hove, Cor E; Nahon, Daniel; Santoianni, Domenic; Yianni, John; Martinet, Wim; Buchbinder, Maurice; De Meyer, Guido R Y

    2016-08-20

    In the last 10 years, cryotherapy has been investigated as a new technology to treat vascular disease. The efficiency of cryotherapy in stabilising atherosclerotic plaques has never been described. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of catheter-based cryotherapy on atherosclerotic plaque composition in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were fed a 0.3% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 24 weeks. At two predefined sites of the atherosclerotic thoracic aorta, catheter-based cryotherapy, applying either single-dose, double-dose cryotherapy or control inflation, was performed after randomisation. Rabbits were continued on a cholesterol-supplemented diet for one day (acute) or four weeks (chronic). One day after cryotherapy, apoptotic cell death of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) was observed, whereas macrophages were unaffected. Four weeks later, the amount of SMCs was restored, the EC layer was regenerated, and a subendothelial macrophage-free layer was formed, indicative of a more stable plaque. In addition, both the thickness and the type I collagen content of the fibrous cap were increased. The present study demonstrated that cryotherapy is feasible and appears to stabilise atherosclerotic plaques in a rabbit model.

  15. Subunit Rotavirus Vaccine Administered Parenterally to Rabbits Induces Active Protective Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarlet, Max; Crawford, Sue E.; Barone, Christopher; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea; Ramig, Robert F.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    1998-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are being evaluated as a candidate rotavirus vaccine. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different formulations of VLPs administered parenterally to rabbits were tested. Two doses of VLPs (2/6-, G3 2/6/7-, or P[2], G3 2/4/6/7-VLPs) or SA11 simian rotavirus in Freund’s adjuvants, QS-21 (saponin adjuvant), or aluminum phosphate (AlP) were administered. Serological and mucosal immune responses were evaluated in all vaccinated and control rabbits before and after oral challenge with 103 50% infective doses of live P[14], G3 ALA lapine rotavirus. All VLP- and SA11-vaccinated rabbits developed high levels of rotavirus-specific serum and intestinal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies but not intestinal IgA antibodies. SA11 and 2/4/6/7-VLPs afforded similar but much higher mean levels of protection than 2/6/7- or 2/6-VLPs in QS-21. The presence of neutralizing antibodies to VP4 correlated (P < 0.001, r = 0.55; Pearson’s correlation coefficient) with enhanced protection rates, suggesting that these antibodies are important for protection. Although the inclusion of VP4 resulted in higher mean protection levels, high levels of protection (87 to 100%) from infection were observed in individual rabbits immunized with 2/6/7- or 2/6-VLPs in Freund’s adjuvants. Therefore, neither VP7 nor VP4 was absolutely required to achieve protection from infection in the rabbit model when Freund’s adjuvant was used. Our results show that VLPs are immunogenic when administered parenterally to rabbits and that Freund’s adjuvant is a better adjuvant than QS-21. The use of the rabbit model may help further our understanding of the critical rotavirus proteins needed to induce active protection. VLPs are a promising candidate for a parenterally administered subunit rotavirus vaccine. PMID:9765471

  16. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  17. Establishment of a rabbit Oct4 promoter-based EGFP reporter system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longquan Quan

    Full Text Available Rabbits are commonly used as laboratory animal models to investigate human diseases and phylogenetic development. However, pluripotent stem cells that contribute to germline transmission have yet to be established in rabbits. The transcription factor Oct4, also known as Pou5f1, is considered essential for the maintenance of the pluripotency of stem cells. Hence, pluripotent cells can be identified by monitoring Oct4 expression using a well-established Oct4 promoter-based reporter system. This study developed a rabbit Oct4 promoter-based enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP reporter system by transfecting pROP2-EGFP into rabbit fetal fibroblasts (RFFs. The transgenic RFFs were used as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. The EGFP expression was detected in the blastocysts and genital ridges of SCNT fetuses. Fibroblasts and neural stem cells (NSCs were derived from the SCNT fetuses. EGFP was also reactivated in blastocysts after the second SCNT, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were obtained after reprogramming using Yamanaka's factors. The results above indicated that a rabbit reporter system used to monitor the differentiating status of cells was successfully developed.

  18. Ocular distribution of topically applied adrenaline in albino and pigmented rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urtti, A.; Periviita, L.; Salminen, L.

    1984-01-01

    Systemic absorption, ocular distribution and ocular metabolism in albino and pigmented rabbit of topically applied 1% [ 3 H]1-adrenaline eye drops was studied by liquid scintillation counting and thin layer chromatography. The effect of adrenaline on the pupillary diameter was also registered. The peak plasma level of adrenaline was reached at 150 min. The corneal adrenaline metabolism was substantial, but did not vary with the rabbit strain. At 30 min after instillation, the total adrenaline concentration of pigmented iris and ciliary body exceeded that of corresponding albino tissues. At 180 min the drug concentration of the iris and ciliary body did not differ between the rabbit strains. Th time course of adrenaline induced mydriasis was equal in both rabbit strains. Since neither total adrenaline concentration at 180 min nor the time course of adrenaline induced mydriasis differed between the rabbit strains, the higher initial adrenaline uptake by pigmented tissues is not explained by pigment binding. It is proposed that the increased initial binding of adrenaline by pigmented tissues is caused by a difference between pigmented and albino tissues in the number of adrenergic neurones; this is also supported by the literature. (author)

  19. Mining Naïve Rabbit Antibody Repertoires by Phage Display for Monoclonal Antibodies of Therapeutic Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haiyong; Nerreter, Thomas; Chang, Jing; Qi, Junpeng; Li, Xiuling; Karunadharma, Pabalu; Martinez, Gustavo J; Fallahi, Mohammad; Soden, Jo; Freeth, Jim; Beerli, Roger R; Grawunder, Ulf; Hudecek, Michael; Rader, Christoph

    2017-09-15

    Owing to their high affinities and specificities, rabbit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated value and potential primarily as basic research and diagnostic reagents, but, in some cases, also as therapeutics. To accelerate access to rabbit mAbs bypassing immunization, we generated a large naïve rabbit antibody repertoire represented by a phage display library encompassing >10 billion independent antibodies in chimeric rabbit/human Fab format and validated it by next-generation sequencing. Panels of rabbit mAbs selected from this library against two emerging cancer targets, ROR1 and ROR2, revealed high diversity, affinity, and specificity. Moreover, ROR1- and ROR2-targeting rabbit mAbs demonstrated therapeutic utility as components of chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cells, further corroborating the value of the naïve rabbit antibody library as a rich and virtually unlimited source of rabbit mAbs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of lapine rotavirus, astrovirus, and hepatitis E virus in Canadian domestic rabbit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, XiaoTing; Bil, Joanna; Shantz, Emily; Hammermueller, Jutta; Nagy, Eva; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-01

    Lapine rotavirus and astrovirus have been associated with disease in rabbits, and there is strong evidence of zoonotic transmission of lapine hepatitis E virus (HEV). Outbreaks of enteritis are common on commercial meat farms, resulting in poor welfare, high rabbit mortality, and significant financial losses for rabbit producers. Currently, none of these viruses are routinely tested by diagnostic laboratories. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of rotavirus, astrovirus, and HEV RNA in 205 pooled and individual fecal samples from healthy Canadian laboratory, companion, shelter and commercial meat rabbit populations. Viral RNA were extracted and amplified via RT-PCR using virus-specific primers. Positive samples from the first cohort of samples tested were sequenced and aligned to previously identified viruses to confirm the products. Almost 45% (13/29) of the surveyed commercial rabbit farms were astrovirus-positive. Three commercial meat rabbit samples were positive for rotavirus, and either astrovirus or HEV RNA was also detected. Three companion rabbit samples also tested positive for lapine HEV. Samples from specific pathogen-free laboratory animals were negative for all viruses. Sequencing results showed highest identity to rotavirus A strain 30-96, lapine astrovirus strain 2208 and lapine HEV strain CMC-1. These results permit a better understanding of the prevalence of rotavirus, astrovirus, and hepatitis E virus in Canadian domestic rabbit populations, and continued screening for viruses may help to reduce risk of zoonotic agent transmission as well as providing a better understanding of potential causative agents of rabbit enteritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound features of kidneys in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the normal sonographic features of rabbit kidneys with regard to their use in diagnostic imaging of renal lesions in this species. Materials: Twelve sexually mature clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits weighing 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were examined after anaesthesia. Methods: A diagnostic ultrasound system with microconvex multifrequency 6.5 MHz probe was used. The animals were positioned in dorsal recumbency. The transabdominal paravertebral imaging approach was used. Longitudinal and transverse scans of the kidneys were obtained. Six rabbits were sacrificed, their kidneys removed and studied in isotonic liquid medium. Results: The shape of kidneys was elliptical. The fibrous capsule was visualized as a straight hyperechoic band. The fatty capsule was hyperechoic and with irregular borders. The cortex exhibited a heterogeneous echogenicity. The acoustic density of the cortex was lower than that of the liver. The echoicity of the medulla was lower as compared to the cortex and the structures of the kidney pelvis. The latter appeared as a centrally located hyperechoic structure. The post mortem examination showed that kidneys were oval and hyperechoic. The kidney pelvis was seen as a centrally located longitudinal finding, and the renal hilum – as a centrally located hyperechoic finding. Conclusions: The transabdominal paravertebral approach was a good method for visualization of rabbit kidneys. The dorsal recumbency of the subjects allowed the visualization. The in vivo results corresponded to those from the post mortem study. The rabbit kidney was oval in shape. The hypoechoic peripheral zone is occupied by the cortex and the medulla, while the hyperechoic central zone – by the kidney pelvis. The cortex was less echoic than the liver parenchyma. The kidney pelvic cavity had a lower acoustic density than its walls, due to the presence of peripelvic adipose tissue. The present results could be used in the interpretation

  2. Comparative anatomy of rabbit and human achilles tendons with magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Geoffrey P; Koike, Yoichi; Uhthoff, Hans K; Lecompte, Martin; Trudel, Guy

    2006-02-01

    We sought to describe the comparative anatomy of the Achilles tendon in rabbits and humans by using macroscopic observation, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The calcaneus-Achilles tendon-gastrocnemius-soleus complexes from 18 New Zealand white rabbits underwent ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic sectioning; these results were compared with those from a cadaveric gastrocnemius-soleus-Achilles tendon-calcaneus specimen from a 68-y-old human male. The medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscle tendons merged 5.2 +/- 0.6 mm proximal to the calcaneal insertion macroscopically, at 93% of their course, different from the gastrocnemius human tendons, which merged at 23% of their overall course. The rabbit flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, corresponding to the flexor digitorum longus tendon in human and comparable in size with the gastrocnemius tendons, was located medial and anterior to the medial gastrocnemius tendon proximally and rotated dorsally and laterally to run posterior to the Achilles tendon-calcaneus insertion. In humans, the flexor digitorum longus tendon tracks posteriorly to the medial malleolus. The soleus muscle and tendon are negligible in the rabbit; these particular comparative anatomic features in the rabbit were confirmed on the MR images. Therefore the rabbit Achilles tendon shows distinctive gross anatomical and MR imaging features that must be considered when using the rabbit as a research model, especially for mechanical testing, or when generalizing results from rabbits to humans.

  3. Key role of European rabbits in the conservation of the Western Mediterranean basin hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Delibes, Miguel; Ferreras, Pablo; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2008-10-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a global hotspot of biodiversity. Hotspots are said to be experiencing a major loss of habitat, but an added risk could be the decline of some species having a special role in ecological relationships of the system. We reviewed the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a keystone species in the Iberian Peninsula portion of the Mediterranean hotspot. Rabbits conspicuously alter plant species composition and vegetation structure through grazing and seed dispersal, which creates open areas and preserves plant species diversity. Moreover, rabbit latrines have a demonstrable effect on soil fertility and plant growth and provide new feeding resources for many invertebrate species. Rabbit burrows provide nest sites and shelter for vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition, rabbits serve as prey for a number of predators, including the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Thus, the Mediterranean ecosystem of the Iberian Peninsula should be termed "the rabbit's ecosystem." To our knowledge, this is the first empirical support for existence of a multifunctional keystone species in a global hotspot of biodiversity. Rabbit populations have declined drastically on the Iberian Peninsula, with potential cascading effects and serious ecological and economic consequences. From this perspective, rabbit recovery is one of the biggest challenges for conservation of the Mediterranean Basin hotspot.

  4. The Rabbit as a Model for Studying Lung Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfatin Asyikhin Kamaruzaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No single animal model can reproduce all of the human features of both acute and chronic lung diseases. However, the rabbit is a reliable model and clinically relevant facsimile of human disease. The similarities between rabbits and humans in terms of airway anatomy and responses to inflammatory mediators highlight the value of this species in the investigation of lung disease pathophysiology and in the development of therapeutic agents. The inflammatory responses shown by the rabbit model, especially in the case of asthma, are comparable with those that occur in humans. The allergic rabbit model has been used extensively in drug screening tests, and this model and humans appear to be sensitive to similar drugs. In addition, recent studies have shown that the rabbit serves as a good platform for cell delivery for the purpose of stem-cell-based therapy.

  5. Myocardial hydroxyproline reduced by early administration of methylprednisolone or ibuprofen to rabbits with radiation-induced heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.C.; Cunningham, D.; Schwiter, E.J.; Abt, A.; Skarlatos, S.; Wood, M.A.; Whitesell, L.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of methylprednisolone (MP) and ibuprofen (IB) to reduce the severity of the late state of radiation-induced heart disease was assessed in 57 New Zealand white rabbits. Before and shortly after cardiac irradiation, 15 rabbits received i.v. MP, 30 mg/kg twice daily for 3 days, and 15 others received IB, 12.5 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days. No drug administered to 14 irradiated rabbits, and neither irradiation nor drugs were administered to 13 rabbits that served as controls. All 15 rabbits treated with MP and 13 of the 15 treated with IB lived for 100 days. Only seven of the untreated, irradiated rabbits lived that long. Longevity of each treated group of rabbits was better (p < 0.01 and 0.05) than that of the untreated, irradiated rabbits. Surviving rabbits were killed 100 days after irradiation. Pericarditis (p < 0.05) and pericardial effusion (p < 0.01) were less frequent in the treated, irradiated groups than in the untreated, irradiated rabbits. At least some rabbits in each irradiated group had microscopic evidence of myocardial fibrosis. The fibrosis was quantitated by determination of myocardial hydroxyproline concentrations (MHP). MHP concentration in the untreated, irradiated rabbits was greater than in those treated with MP (p < 0.05) or IB (p < 0.01) and in the untreated, unirradiated rabbits (p < 0.01). Early administrative of MP or IB retarded the development of myocardial fibrosis, pericarditis and pericardial effusin, and improved survival in this experimental model of radiation-induced heart disease

  6. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  7. The E7 protein of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus immortalizes normal rabbit keratinocytes and reduces pRb levels, while E6 cooperates in immortalization but neither degrades p53 nor binds E6AP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzenmueller, Tina; Matthaei, Markus; Muench, Peter; Scheible, Michael; Iftner, Angelika; Hiller, Thomas; Leiprecht, Natalie; Probst, Sonja; Stubenrauch, Frank; Iftner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer and are associated with the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. A suitable animal model for papillomavirus-associated skin carcinogenesis is the infection of domestic rabbits with the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV). As the immortalizing activity of CRPV genes in the natural target cells remains unknown, we investigated the properties of CRPV E6 and E7 in rabbit keratinocytes (RK) and their influence on the cell cycle. Interestingly, CRPV E7 immortalized RK after a cellular crisis but showed no such activity in human keratinocytes. Co-expressed CRPV E6 prevented cellular crisis. The HPV16 or CRPV E7 protein reduced rabbit pRb levels thereby causing rabbit p19 ARF induction and accumulation of p53 without affecting cellular proliferation. Both CRPV E6 proteins failed to degrade rabbit p53 in vitro or to bind E6AP; however, p53 was still inducible by mitomycin C. In summary, CRPV E7 immortalizes rabbit keratinocytes in a species-specific manner and E6 contributes to immortalization without directly affecting p53

  8. Differential Decomposition Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Vidoli, Giovanna M; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Mundorff, Amy; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2018-03-30

    While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD). Decomposition trajectories were analyzed by comparing the estimated and actual ADD for each seasonal trial and by fuzzy cluster analysis. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the rabbits formed one group while pigs and humans, although more similar to each other than either to rabbits, still showed important differences in decomposition patterns. The decomposition trends show that neither nonhuman model captured the pattern, rate, and variability of human decomposition. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Experimental and finite element analysis of tibial stress fractures using a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Melanie; Field, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    To determine if rabbit models can be used to quantify the mechanical behaviour involved in tibial stress fracture (TSF) development. Fresh rabbit tibiae were loaded under compression using a specifically-designed test apparatus. Weights were incrementally added up to a load of 30 kg and the mechanical behaviour of the tibia was analysed using tests for buckling, bone strain and hysteresis. Structural mechanics equations were subsequently employed to verify that the results were within the range of values predicted by theory. A finite element (FE) model was developed using cross-sectional computer tomography (CT) images scanned from one of the rabbit bones, and a static load of 6 kg (1.5 times the rabbit's body weight) was applied to represent running. The model was validated using the experimental strain gauge data, then geometric and elemental convergence tests were performed in order to find the minimum number of cross-sectional scans and elements respectively required for convergence. The analysis was then performed using both the model and the experimental results to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the rabbit tibia under compressive load and to examine crack initiation. The experimental tests showed that under a compressive load of up to 12 kg, the rabbit tibia demonstrates linear behaviour with little hysteresis. Up to 30 kg, the bone does not fail by elastic buckling; however, there are low levels of tensile stress which predominately occur at and adjacent to the anterior border of the tibial midshaft: this suggests that fatigue failure occurs in these regions, since bone under cyclic loading initially fails in tension. The FE model predictions were consistent with both mechanics theory and the strain gauge results. The model was highly sensitive to small changes in the position of the applied load due to the high slenderness ratio of the rabbit's tibia. The modelling technique used in the current study could have applications in the development of

  10. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  11. Vaccination of free-living juvenile wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) against myxomatosis improved their survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Devillard, Sébastien; Guénézan, Michel; Fouchet, David; Pontier, Dominique; Marchandeau, Stéphane

    2008-04-17

    For several decades, the populations of the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have declined, which is partly due to myxomatosis. Vaccination against this disease is expected to contribute to restoration of rabbit populations but the actual impact of myxomatosis is not well known and vaccination might have some negative effects. We analyzed the capture-mark-recapture data obtained in a 4-year field experiment (1991-1994) in a park near Paris, France wherein 300 out of 565 seronegative juvenile rabbits were vaccinated at first capture against myxomatosis with the nontransmissible Dervaximyxo SG33 vaccine. After accounting for weight at first capture, age-class (juvenile/adult), "trap-happiness" and season (spring/autumn) of the capture event, vaccinated rabbits had 1.8-fold greater odds of surviving than the unvaccinated rabbits. The average summer survival risk for vaccinated juveniles was 0.63 (+/-0.08 S.E.) whereas it was 0.48 (+/-0.08 S.E.) for unvaccinated juvenile rabbits.

  12. AHP 47: THE PROVOCATIVE RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rnam rgyal རྣམ་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A retreatant finished chanting for a family, packed up the offerings from the host, and started back to his hermitage feeling satisfied. A rabbit, called Ja dkrug mgo 'Trouble Maker', watched the retreatant through an evergreen bush, and decided he wanted to cheat the retreatant out of his offerings. Trouble Maker came out of the bush and stood in front of the retreatant in the middle of the path. As the retreatant came closer, Trouble Maker ran forward a few steps and then again turned back to watch the retreatant, who chased the rabbit for a while, but the heavy bag burdened him and he soon got very tired. He finally threw down his bag and chased Trouble Maker, who ran just beyond the retreatant’s grasp. Finally, having left the retreatant far behind, Trouble Maker doubled back, picked up the retreatant's bag, and carried it off. ...

  13. Comparison of two regimens of RhG-CSF in neutropenic neonatal septicemia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Fatemeh; Soheili, Habib; Kaveh, Mahbod; Oloomi Yazdi, Zohre; Shariat, Mamak; Dalili, Hosein

    2011-01-01

    Considering the 50% mortality rate of neonatal septicemia associated with neutropenia and increasing resistance to antibiotics, simultaneous antibiotic therapy strategies are becoming more important. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate effectiveness of RhG-CSF in the treatment of neutropenia in neonates. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 40 neutropenic neonates with septicemia who were hospitalized in Vali-e-Asr and Mirza Koochak Khan Hospitals (Tehran, Iran). The neonates were randomly divided into two equal groups RhG-CSF was administered as a subcutaneous single dose of 10 μg/kg/s.c. to neonates in group A and as 10 μg/kg/s.c./day once daily for 3 days to neonates in group B. CBC and differential count was checked 6, 24 and 48 hours after the last dose. There was no significant difference in mean birth weight, gender, age, and risk factors between two groups. Neutropenia was improved 48 hours after the last dose, whilst there was no significant statistical difference between two groups (P>0.05). The final outcome including death, duration of hospitalization and duration of antibiotics therapy after RhG-CSF administration did not differ between two groups (P>0.05). The results of this study showed that administration of a single dose of RhG-CSF (10 μg/kg) was effective in treating neonatal septicemic neutropenia.

  14. Contrasting effects of climate change on rabbit populations through reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its effects at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current climatic conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between climate and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to climatic alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that climate change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future climate-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which climate will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover, this approach allows us to predict not only distribution shifts but also future

  15. Intravitreal docosahexaenoic acid in a rabbit model: preclinical safety assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Dolz-Marco

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the retinal toxicity of a single dose of intravitreal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in rabbit eyes over a short-term period. METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand albino rabbits were selected for this pre-clinical study. Six concentrations of DHA (Brudy Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain were prepared: 10 mg/50 µl, 5 mg/50 µl, 2'5 mg/50 µl, 50 µg/50 µl, 25 µg/50 µl, and 5 µg/50 µl. Each concentration was injected intravitreally in the right eye of two rabbits. As a control, the vehicle solution was injected in one eye of four animals. Retinal safety was studied by slit-lamp examination, and electroretinography. All the rabbits were euthanized one week after the intravitreal injection of DHA and the eyeballs were processed to morphologic and morphometric histological examination by light microscopy. At the same time aqueous and vitreous humor samples were taken to quantify the concentration of omega-3 acids by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 21.0. RESULTS: Slit-lamp examination revealed an important inflammatory reaction on the anterior chamber of the rabbits injected with the higher concentrations of DHA (10 mg/50 µl, 5 mg/50 µl, 2'5 mg/50 µ Lower concentrations showed no inflammation. Electroretinography and histological studies showed no significant difference between control and DHA-injected groups except for the group injected with 50 µg/50 µl. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that administration of intravitreal DHA is safe in the albino rabbit model up to the maximum tolerated dose of 25 µg/50 µl. Further studies should be performed in order to evaluate the effect of intravitreal injection of DHA as a treatment, alone or in combination, of different retinal diseases.

  16. Haematology and serum profile of rabbits due to generation interval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of ninety-six (96) weaner rabbits (Chinchilla and New Zealand White crossbred) were used for this study and were divided into forty-eight (48) per generation. These fortyeight weaner rabbits were further divided into three replicates of four males (12) and four females each (12) housed in cage (24) and deep litter ...

  17. Effects of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis on long-term mortality rates of European wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Osacar, J J; Villafuerte, R

    2004-09-25

    The effects of vaccination against myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) on long-term mortality rates in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were studied from 1993 to 1996 by radiotracking a free-living population of wild rabbits. During the three months after immunisation, unvaccinated young rabbits weighing between 180 and 600 g were 13.6 times more likely to die than vaccinated young rabbits. In adult rabbits, vaccination did not significantly decrease mortality, mainly owing to the high proportion of rabbits which had previously been exposed to the antigens of both diseases. Compared with adult rabbits with natural antibodies to VHD, rabbits without these antibodies were 5.2 times more likely to die of VHD during annual outbreaks.

  18. Decreased angiogenesis and arthritic disease in rabbits treated with an αvβ3 antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storgard, Chris M.; Stupack, Dwayne G.; Jonczyk, Alfred; Goodman, Simon L.; Fox, Robert I.; Cheresh, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease associated with intense angiogenesis and vascular expression of integrin αvβ3. Intra-articular administration of a cyclic peptide antagonist of integrin αvβ3 to rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis early in disease resulted in inhibition of synovial angiogenesis and reduced synovial cell infiltrate, pannus formation, and cartilage erosions. These effects were not associated with lymphopenia or impairment of leukocyte function. Furthermore, when administered in chronic, preexisting disease, the αvβ3 antagonist effectively diminished arthritis severity and was associated with a quantitative increase in apoptosis of the angiogenic blood vessels. Therefore, angiogenesis appears to be a central factor in the initiation and persistence of arthritic disease, and antagonists of integrin αvβ3 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for RA. PMID:9884333

  19. Pharmacokinetics of chlorhexidine gluconate 0.02% in the rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuguang, Sun; Yanchuang, Liang; Feng, Zhang; Shiyun, Luo; Xiaotang, Yin

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in the rabbit cornea. Each eye of 16 New Zealand white rabbits were topically instilled with 50 microL of CHG 0.02% eye drops twice with a 5-min interval. Four (4) corneas of 2 rabbits were harvested at each time point. The concentration of CHG in the cornea was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 387 software to simulate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The concentration of CHG in the cornea displayed an open two-compartment model. Tmax was 13.75 min, Cmax 0.713 microg.g1, clearance rate 1.64 microg.g-1.min-1, and t1/2alpha, t1/2beta, and t1/2ka was 2.65, 48.72, and 2.67 min, respectively. The concentration of CHG in the rabbit cornea could be determined by means of HPLC. The maximum concentration of CHG in the corneal tissue was much higher than the trophozoite minimum amoebicidal concentration (TMAC) in vitro.

  20. Animal in vivo models of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases: special references to rabbit models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Teramoto, N; Akagi, T

    2002-10-01

    Animal models of human EBV-associated diseases are essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of EBV-associated diseases. Here we review those previous models using EBV or EBV-like herpesviruses and describe the details on our two newly-developed rabbit models of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) induced by simian EBV-like viruses. The first is Cynomolgus-EBV-induced T-cell lymphomas in rabbits inoculated intravenously (77-90%) and orally (82-89%) during 2-5 months. EBV-DNA was detected in peripheral blood by PCR from 2 days after oral inoculation, while anti-EBV-VCA IgG was raised 3 weeks later. Rabbit lymphomas and their cell lines contained EBV-DNA and expressed EBV-encoded RNA-1 (EBER-1). Rabbit lymphoma cell lines, most of which have specific chromosomal abnormality, showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. The second is the first animal model for EBV-infected T-cell LPD with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS), using rabbits infected with an EBV-like herpesvirus, Herpesvirus papio (HVP). Rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP-producing cells showed increased anti-EBV-VCA-IgG titers, and most (85%) subsequently died of fatal LPD and VAHS, with bleeding and hepatosplenomegaly, during 22-105 days. Peroral spray of cell-free HVP induced viral infection with seroconversion in 3 out of 5 rabbits, with 2 of the 3 infected rabbits dying of LPD with VAHS. Atypical T lymphocytes containing HVP-DNA and expressing EBER-1 were observed in many organs. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. These rabbit models are also useful and inexpensive alternative experimental model systems for studying the biology and pathogenesis of EBV, and prophylactic and therapeutic regimens.

  1. Impaired atrial electromechanical function and atrial fibrillation promotion in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaying; Liu, Changle; Li, Jian; Zhou, Changyu; Cheng, Lijun; Liu, Tong; Li, Guangping

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical function, atrial electrophysiological changes and AF inducibility in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. In 8 alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and 8 controls, we evaluated atrial electromechanical function by tissue Doppler imaging. Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were prepared to measure atrial refractory effective period (AERP) and its dispersion (AERPD), interatrial conduction time (IACT) and vulnerability to AF. Atrial interstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius-Red staining. Compared with controls, left atrial lateral wall Pa'-start interval (Pastart) and right atrial wall Pastart were increased in diabetic rabbits. AERPD was increased and IACT was prolonged in diabetic rabbits. Inducibility of AF in diabetic group was significant higher than controls (6/8 vs. 1/8, p TEMA); left atrial lateral wall Papeak and TEMA, left atrial posterior wall TEMA, and IACT were correlated with atrial areas of fibrosis. Atrial electromechanical function is impaired in diabetic rabbits, and is associated with atrial fibrosis and interatrial electrical conduction delay.

  2. Myocardial hydroxyproline reduced by early administration of methylprednisolone or ibuprofen to rabbits with radiation-induced heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.C.; Cunningham, D.; Schwiter, E.J.; Abt, A.; Skarlatos, S.; Wood, M.A.; Whitesell, L.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of methylprednisolone (MP) and ibuprofen (IB) to reduce the severity of the late state of radiation-induced heart disease was assessed in 57 New Zealand white rabbits. Before and shortly after cardiac irradiation, 15 rabbits received i.v. MP, 30 mg/kg twice daily for 3 days, and 15 others received IB, 12.5 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days. No drug was administered to 14 irradiated rabbits, and neither irradiation nor drugs were administered to 13 rabbits that served as controls, All 15 rabbits treated with MP and 13 of the 15 treated with IB lived for 100 days. Only seven of the untreated, irradiated rabbits lived that long. Longevity of each treated group of rabbits was better (p less than 0.01 and 0.05) than that of the untreated, irradiated rabbits. Surviving rabbits were killed 100 days after irradiation. Pericarditis (p less than 0.05) and pericardial effusion (p less than 0.01) were less frequent in the treated, irradiated groups than in the untreated, irradiated rabbits. At least some rabbits in each irradiated group had microscopic evidence of myocardial fibrosis. The fibrosis was quantitated by determination of myocardial hydroxyproline concentrations (MHP). MHP concentration in the untreated, irradiated rabbits was greater than in those treated with MP (p less than 0.05) or IB (p less than 0.01) and in the untreated, unirradiated rabbits (p less than 0.01). Early administration of MP or IB retarded the development of myocardial fibrosis, pericarditis and pericardial effusion, and improved survival in this experimental model of radiation-induced heart disease

  3. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  4. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Urinary System in New Zealand White Rabbit and Tolai Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolvahed Moarabi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonographic examination of urinary system (kidney and urinary bladder was conducted in New Zealand white rabbit [NZwr] and Tolai hare (Lepus tolai. Ultrasound images of the kidney and urinary bladder were evaluated on fifteen healthy rabbits of New Zealand white rabbit and another fifteen Tolai hares. The healthy rabbits were 8-12 months old (mean = 9.3 months, of both sexes and weighed between 1.1-1.7 kg (mean = 1.250 kg. All examinations were performed while the rabbits were in dorsal recumbancy. The kidneys were examined from fossa by the use of an 8 MHz linear real-time scanner. This study revealed the following measurements normal rabbit kidneys: 27.80-35.70 mm and 16.90-22.40 mm in length and width in New Zealand white rabbit, respectively. The length and width were 26.67-34.50 and 15.82-20.60 mm, in Tolai hare, respectively. Bladder wall thickness varies from 1.70-2.50 mm (in New Zealand white rabbit to 1.80-2.60 mm (in Tolai hare. Statistical analysis showed that the gender did not have effect on length, width and weight (P > 0.05, but the type of the animal, had significant effect on the cortex and surface (P < 0.05. In the present study, the renal cortex was uniform in echogenicity, hyperechoic to the renal medulla, hypoechoic to the spleen, and isoechoic to the hepatic parenchyma.

  5. Characterization of a novel alphaherpesvirus associated with fatal infections of domestic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, L.; Loehr, C.V.; Vanarsdall, A.L.; Baker, R.J.; Moerdyk-Schauwecker, M.; Levine, C.; Gerlach, R.F.; Cohen, S.A.; Alvarado, D.E.; Rohrmann, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    A virus was found to be associated with a severe disease affecting rabbits on a farm near Anchorage, Alaska. Extracts from the skin of infected rabbits produced syncytia and cell lysis in cultured rabbit skin, rabbit kidney, and Vero cells. Examination of the infectious agent by electron microscopy revealed an icosahedral nucleocapsid surrounded by an envelope with a diameter of about 120 nm, suggesting that it was a herpesvirus. The viral genome was determined to be composed of double-stranded DNA of 120-130 kbp. PCR using degenerate primers to conserved herpesvirus genes was used to amplify sequences from purified viral DNA. Sequencing of these products allowed the design of specific primers so that complete sequence data for a number of genes could be determined. Analysis of these data indicated that the virus is most closely related to bovine herpesvirus 2. The next most closely related viruses are human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and a number of cercopithecine herpesviruses. Experimental exposure of domestic rabbits to the isolate resulted in severe clinical disease and necrosis in the spleen and lymph node. In addition, viral DNA was identified in a variety of tissues by PCR, consistent with a systemic infection. Taken together, these data suggest that this virus is highly pathogenic for domestic rabbits and belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Simplexvirus

  6. Limited number of immunoglobulin VH regions expressed in the mutant rabbit "Alicia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, L A; Short, J A; Zhai, S K; Kelus, A S; Meier, D; Knight, K L

    1990-06-01

    A unique feature of rabbit Ig is the presence of VH region allotypic specificities. In normal rabbits, more than 80% of circulating immunoglobulin molecules bear the VHa allotypic specificities, al, a2 or a3; the remaining 10% to 20% of immunoglobulin molecules lack VHa allotypic specificities and are designated VHa-. A mutant rabbit designated Alicia, in contrast, has predominantly serum immunoglobulin molecules that lack the VHa allotypic specificities (Kelus and Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1986. 83: 4883). To study the nature and molecular complexity of VHa- molecules, we cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of seven cDNA prepared from splenic RNA of an Alicia rabbit. Six of the clones appeared to encode VHa- molecules; the framework regions encoded by these clones were remarkably similar to each other, each having an unusual insertion of four amino acids at position 10. This insertion of four amino acids has been seen in only 2 of 54 sequenced rabbit VH genes. The similarity of the sequences of the six VHa- clones to each other and their dissimilarity to most other VH genes leads us to suggest that the VHa- molecules in Alicia rabbits are derived predominantly from one or a small number of very similar VH genes. Such preferential utilization of a small number of VH genes may explain the allelic inheritance of VH allotypes.

  7. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in Canadian commercial meat, companion, laboratory, and shelter rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and its association with routine antimicrobial use in commercial meat rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylie, Jennifer; McEwen, Scott A; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in zoonotic (e.g. Salmonella spp.), pathogenic, and opportunistic (e.g. E. coli) bacteria in animals represents a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistance genes to bacteria infecting humans and other animals. This study evaluated the prevalence of E. coli and Salmonella enterica, and the presence of associated AMR in commercial meat, companion, research, and shelter rabbits in Canada. Associations between antimicrobial usage and prevalence of AMR in bacterial isolates were also examined in commercial meat rabbits. Culture and susceptibility testing was conducted on pooled fecal samples from weanling and adult commercial meat rabbits taken during both summer and winter months (n=100, 27 farms), and from pooled laboratory (n=14, 8 laboratory facilities), companion (n=53), and shelter (n=15, 4 shelters) rabbit fecal samples. At the facility level, E. coli was identified in samples from each commercial rabbit farm, laboratory facility, and 3 of 4 shelters, and in 6 of 53 companion rabbit fecal samples. Seventy-nine of 314 (25.2%; CI: 20.7-30.2%) E. coli isolates demonstrated resistance to >1 antimicrobial agent. At least one E. coli isolate resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent was present in samples from 55.6% of commercial farms, and from 25% of each laboratory and shelter facilities, with resistance to tetracycline being most common; no resistance was identified in companion animal samples. Salmonella enterica subsp. was identified exclusively in pooled fecal samples from commercial rabbit farms; Salmonella enterica serovar London from one farm and Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from another. The S. Kentucky isolate was resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, streptomycin, and tetracycline, whereas the S. London isolate was pansusceptible. Routine use of antimicrobials on commercial meat rabbit farms was not significantly associated with the

  8. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  9. Behavioral testing and litter effects in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, H G; Agyemang, A A; Romantsik, O; Sandgren, R; Karlsson, H; Gram, M; Vallius, S; Ley, D; van den Hove, D L A; Bruschettini, M

    2018-02-23

    Behavioral testing provides an essential approach in further developing our understanding of brain structure and function. The aim of our study was to outline a more expanded approach to cognition- and anxiety-related behavior in the rabbit. Twenty-one 70-day old rabbits (13 female, 8 male) were exposed to open field test, dark-light box test and object recognition testing with variations in inter-trial-interval, olfactory recognition and object location testing. Independent T-tests were used to compare data by individual baseline characteristics, i.e. birth weight, weight at testing, sex, litter #, litter size. In the open field test, median time spent in the center was 3.64 s (0.84-41.36) for the 9 rabbits who entered the center; median distance moved in the arena was 874.42 cm (54.20-3444.83). In the dark light box test, 12 rabbits entered the light compartment. In the object recognition task, rabbits spent significantly less time exploring the familiar object compared to the novel (0.40 s [0-2.8] vs. 3.17 s [1.30-32.69]; P = 0.003) when using a 30-min inter-trial interval, as well with a 90-min inter-trial interval: 0.87 s [0-7.8] vs. 7.65 s [0-37.6] (P = 0.008). However, recognition was lost when using a 24-h inter-trial interval (time spent exploring the familiar object: 3.33 [0-10.90]; novel object:3.87 [1.15-48.53]; n.s). In the object location task and in olfactory object recognition task, median discrimination indexes were 0.69 (-1 to 1) and 0.37 (-0.38 to 0.78) respectively, higher than level expected by chance (P Litter size >3 during the neonatal period was associated with increased explorative behavior in the dark light box test (P = 0.046) and in the visual object recognition task (P = 0.005), whereas body weight and sex were not. Settings and outcome measures for multiple behavioral tests, providing reference values and considerations for future developmental studies are reported. Discrimination and memory in the rabbit

  10. Rabbit models of cerebral vasospasm established with endovascular puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Jianfei; Liu Yizhi; Ji Jiansong; Zhao Zhongwei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the method of endovascular puncture to establish rabbit models of cerebral vasospasm. Methods: New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups (12 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d and 7 d) randomly, and each group was separated into subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) subgroup (n=5) and control subgroup (n=2). cerebral vascular spasm (CVS) models were established after SAH with endovascular puncture. CT scans before and after operation were performed. The internal diameters and the wall thicknesses of posterior communicans artery (PcoA) and basilar artery (BA) were measured with HE stain after the animals were executed. Results: CVS model was successfully eastblished in 35 rabbits (SAH subgroup 25, control subgroup 10), resulting a successful rate of 48.61%. Compared with control subgroup, PcoA and BA showed shrinkage of internal diameters of 43.60% and 51.82% 12 h after SAH, respectively, and the shrinkage appeared as biphasic patterns until the 7th study day with another peaks of 29.32% and 45.19%, respectively. Conclusions: Endovascular puncture is an effective method to establish rabbit of CVS. The death rate of animals can be decreased with the asage of new interventional material and perfection for the details of operation. (authors)

  11. The Effect of Feed Form on Diet Digestibility and Cecal Parameters in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Isabella Corsato; Aldrich, Charles Gregory; Kohles, Micah

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary In addition to hay or forage in the diet pet rabbits are commonly fed a supplementary food as a muesli (granular mix), pellets, or extruded croquettes. This study aimed to determine if form of this supplementary diet (pelleted vs. extruded) or composition (muesli) had an effect on the diets total tract digestibility and cecal fermentation patterns. Rabbits had slightly higher intake when fed extruded and pelleted diets compared to muesli. Digestibility results were inconsistent between estimation methods. The extruded diet was more digestible than pelleted according to the total collection digestibility method, but according to internal marker acid insoluble ash the pelleted diet was the most digestible. Both the extruded and pelleted diet had similar fermentation patterns, with lower cecal pH and greater proportions of butyrate. Our findings suggest that diet composition, rather than form, may have a greater impact on nutrient utilization by rabbits. Abstract Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatment groups of 5 animals each and fed pelleted, extruded, or muesli diets in a completely randomized design experiment. Rabbits were placed in individual cages with ad libitum access to water and food for 45 days acclimation followed by 30 days experimental period. Feed intake of rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets was greater (p digestibility among the treatments was inconsistent when comparing results obtained from total fecal collection and AIA (please define) as an internal marker. Rabbits fed extruded and pelleted diets had lower (p < 0.05) cecal pH (6.42 and 6.38 vs. 7.02, respectively), and higher (p < 0.05) production of SCFA (18.5 and 19.0 vs. 11.7 mM, respectively) than those fed muesli. The fermentation products from rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets had a greater proportion of butyrate and less propionate than rabbits fed muesli. The results of this study indicate that the basal dietary composition

  12. Lithium absorption by the rabbit gall-bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    Lithium (Li+) absorption across the low-resistance epithelium of the rabbit gall-bladder was studied in order to elucidate possible routes and mechanisms of Li+ transfer. Li+ at a concentration of 0.4 mM in both mucosal and serosal media did not affect isosmotic mucosa-to-serosa fluid absorption...... was elicited from the mucosal side and was not accounted for by compensatory Li+ absorption; water and Na+ absorption rates decreased nearly in parallel. The effects of 0.4 mM amiloride and of substitution with 20 mM Li+ were only partly additive. It is concluded that Li+ absorption in the rabbit gall...

  13. Newly formed skeletal muscle fibers are prone to false positive immunostaining by rabbit antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Kliem, Anette; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2011-01-01

    rely on controls that reveal non-specific binding by the secondary antibody and neglect that the primary rabbit antibody itself may cause false positive staining of the muscle. We suggest that reliable immuno-based protein detection in newly formed muscle fibers at least requires a nonsense rabbit......Reports on muscle biology and regeneration often implicate immuno(cyto/histo)chemical protein characterization using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In this study we demonstrate that newly formed myofibers are especially prone to false positive staining by rabbit antibodies and this unwanted staining...

  14. Nutritive value of brewers’ grain and maize silage for fattening rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guermah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific knowledge of the nutritive value of raw materials is fundamental to formulate balanced diets for rabbits and allows greater use of by-products and non-conventional feedstuffs. This paper examines the feeding value of sun-dried brewers’ grain and maize silage (whole plant for fattening rabbits. Twenty-four individually caged 8-wk-old rabbits were used to determine the digestibility. Both wet products were sun-dried and ground before being incorporated into a basal diet. The inclusion level at the expense of all basal ingredients amounted to 30%. Basal diet and both experimental diets were fed ad libitum to 8 rabbits during the 4-d balance trial. The determined digestibility of protein, fat, crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre digestibility amounted to 76.2 and 77.2%; 86.5 and 99.1%; 8.1 and 8.3% and 28.0 and 13.5%, respectively, for brewers’ grain and maize silage. The digestible energy content amounted to 11.66 MJ/kg dry matter (DM (brewers’ grain and 11.10 MJ/kg DM (maize silage. Both by-products have potential as alternative feedstuff in rabbit diets. However, further experiments are necessary to determine the effect of ensilaging the whole maize plant, as a significantly lower (P<0.001 feed intake was observed.

  15. Herbage intake regulation and growth of rabbits raised on grasslands: back to basics and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G; Duprat, A; Goby, J-P; Theau, J-P; Roinsard, A; Descombes, M; Legendre, H; Gidenne, T

    2016-10-01

    Organic agriculture is developing worldwide, and organic rabbit production has developed within this context. It entails raising rabbits in moving cages or paddocks, which enables them to graze grasslands. As organic farmers currently lack basic technical information, the objective of this article is to characterize herbage intake, feed intake and the growth rate of rabbits raised on grasslands in different environmental and management contexts (weather conditions, grassland type and complete feed supplementation). Three experiments were performed with moving cages at an experimental station. From weaning, rabbits grazed a natural grassland, a tall fescue grassland and a sainfoin grassland in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Rabbit diets were supplemented with a complete pelleted feed limited to 69 g dry matter (DM)/rabbit per day in experiment 1 and 52 g DM/rabbit per day in experiments 2 and 3. Herbage allowance and fiber, DM and protein contents, as well as rabbit intake and live weight, were measured weekly. Mean herbage DM intake per rabbit per day differed significantly (P<0.001) between experiments. It was highest in experiment 1 (78.5 g DM/day) and was 43.9 and 51.2 g DM/day in experiments 2 and 3, respectively. Herbage allowance was the most significant determinant of herbage DM intake during grazing, followed by rabbit metabolic weight (live weight0.75) and herbage protein and fiber contents. Across experiments, a 10 g DM increase in herbage allowance and a 100 g increase in rabbit metabolic weight corresponded to a mean increase of 6.8 and 9.6 g of herbage DM intake, respectively. When including complete feed, daily mean DM intakes differed significantly among experiments (P<0.001), ranging from 96.1 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 2 to 163.6 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 1. Metabolic weight of rabbits raised on grasslands increased linearly over time in all three experiments, yielding daily mean growth rates of 26.2, 19.2 and 28.5 g/day in

  16. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdad Khiati; Moussa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated...

  17. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32 were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin. The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05. However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05. In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

  18. Blood brain barrier and brain tissue injury by Gd-DTPA in uremia-induced rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Seob; Huh, Ki Yeong; Han, Jin Yeong; Lee, Yong Chul; Eun, Choong Gi; Yang, Yeong Il

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the morphological changes in the blood brain barrier and neighbouring brain tissue caused by Gd-DTPA in uremia-induced rabbits. Bilateral renal arteries and veins of ten rabbits were ligated. Gd-DTPA(0.2mmol/kg) was intravenously injected into seven rabbits immediately after ligation. After MRI, they were sacrificed 2 or 3 days after ligation in order to observe light and electron microscopic changes in the blood brain barrier and brain tissue. MRI findings were normal, except for enhancement of the superior and inferior sagittal sinuses on T1 weighted images in uremia-induced rabbits injected with Gd-DTPA. On light microscopic examination, these rabbits showed perivascular edema and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression: electron microscopic examination showed separation of tight junctions of endothelial cells, duplication/rarefaction of basal lamina, increased lysosomes of neurons with neuronal death, demyelination of myelin, and extravasation of red blood cells. Uremia-induced rabbits injected with Gd-DTPA showed more severe changes than those without Gd-DTPA injection. Injuries to the blood brain barrier and neighbouring brain tissue were aggravated by Gd-DTPA administration in uremia-induced rabbits. These findings appear to be associated with the neurotoxicity of Gd-DTPA

  19. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Potential of a High Fiber Diet in Healthy versus Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Díez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate potential hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects of Plantago ovata husk included in the diet, in healthy and diabetic rabbits. We also examined the effects of this fiber in other biochemical parameters. Two groups of 18 rabbits were used. The first group was fed with standard chow and the second with chow supplemented with Plantago ovata husk (3.5 mg/kg/day. On day 14 diabetes mellitus was induced by the intravenous administration of alloxan (80 mg/kg. After an oral glucose load (3 g, glucose, insulin, and other biochemical parameters were determined on day 14 (healthy rabbits and on day 28 (diabetic rabbits. In healthy rabbits, fiber did not modify glucose or insulin levels but decreased significantly total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, and glycosylated hemoglobin. In diabetic rabbits, fiber was more beneficial in mild diabetics than in severe diabetics with significant decreases in glucose levels and increases in insulin concentrations. In these animals fiber caused an important reduction in cholesterol, indicating a beneficial effect of Plantago ovata husk in diabetic rabbits. Although further studies in patients are necessary, we think that Plantago ovata husk offers interesting perspectives to be administered to patients with diabetes mellitus.

  20. A study on early microstructural changes in the rabbit gallbladder induced by shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eun Oak [Hong-Sung Koryo Hospital, Hongsung (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Kun Sang; Ryo, Dae Sik; Choi, Yun Sun; Song, In Sup; Kim, Young Koo [College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    In order to evaluate microstructural changes after shock wave exposure, gross, light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic findings were analyzed with rabbit gallbladders. A preliminary study(2 rabbits) was performed to determine the dosage intensity of shock waves needed to inflict damage, using a EDAP LT 01 piezoelectric extracorporeal shock wave lothotriptor. The Gallbladders of three different groups of rabbits were given shock waves of various intensity. A storage value of 100, 50, 25 at rate of 20/sec under 80% power were given to group I (4 rabbits), group II (4 rabbits), and group III (3 rabbits), respectively. The rabbits were sacrificed 6-12 hours later. The observed pathologic changes in the transmission electron microscopy were vaculization of cytoplasm and swelling of epithelial cells with dilatation and structural alteration of intracellular organelles, especially endoplasmic reticulum. Cell membrane rupture and necrosis were observed at the markedly affected area. The structural changes of intracellular organelles were minimally found at a storage value of 25. However, above pathologic changes with dilatation and structural alterations of endoplasmic reticulums were more profound at value of 100. Early histologic changes induced by shocked waves are dose dependent and findings of cellular damage caused by ESWL might be explained as above.

  1. Study on phototherapeutic keratotomy for bacterial corneal lesions in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of phototherapeutic keratectomy(PTKon rabbit bacterial corneal ulcer model and explore the clinical potential of this method. METHODS: Totally 48 eyes from all the 24 New Zealand rabbits were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial corneal ulcer model was established successfully. At 1d after inoculation, 48 eyes were given levofloxacin eye drops when corneal ulcer was confirmed. Then slit lamp inspection and optical coherence tomography(OCTwere performed to measure the central corneal ulcer depth. All the rabbits right eyes were treated with PTK, as an observation group, left eyes were not treated as a control group. The eye section were observed by slit lamp and central thickness of corneal ulcer was measured by OCT at 3 and 7d after this operation. Rabbits were sacrificed and the cornea was removed for pathological section 7d later. RESULTS: The corneal ulcers in both groups had a tendency to heal, showing a decrease in ulcer area and smoothness of the surface. There was no significant difference in the depth of corneal ulcer between the observation group and the control group before PTK(t=0.706, P=0.484. The difference between the two groups of eyes at 3 and 7d after PTK was obviously(PCONCLUSION: PTK can effectively cure rabbit Staphylococcus aureus corneal ulcer and promote ulcer wound healing, which may be used for clinical treatment of patients with bacterial corneal lesions.

  2. In vivo determination of arterial collagen synthesis in atherosclerotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opsahl, W.P.; DeLuca, D.J.; Ehrhart, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Collagen and non-collagen protein synthesis rates were determined in vivo in tissues from rabbits fed a control or atherogenic diet supplemented with 2% peanut oil and 0.25% cholesterol for 4 months. Rabbits received a bolus intravenous injection of L-[ 3 H]-proline (1.0 mCi/kg) and unlabeled L-proline (7 mmoles/kg) in 0.9% NaCl. Plasma proline specific activity decreased only 20% over 5 hr and was similar to the specific activity of free proline in tissues. Thoracic aortas from atherosclerotic rabbits exhibited raised plaques covering at least 75% of the surface. Thoracic intima plus a portion of the media (TIM) was separated from the remaining media plus adventitia (TMA). Dry delipidated weight, total collagen content, and collagen as a percent of dry weight were increased significantly in the TIM of atherosclerotic rabbits. Collagen synthesis rates and collagen synthesis as a percent of total protein synthesis were likewise increased both in the TIM and in the abdominal aortas. No differences from controls either in collagen content or collagen synthesis rates were observed in the TMA, lung or skin. These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that formation of atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increased rates of collagen synthesis. Furthermore, as previously observed with incubations in vitro, collagen synthesis was elevated to a greater extent than noncollagen protein synthesis in atherosclerotic aortas from rabbits fed cholesterol plus peanut oil

  3. HARMONIZATION OF CRITERIA AND TERMINOLOGY IN RABBIT MEAT RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Mateu, Agustín; Ouhayoun, J.; Masoero, G.

    1993-01-01

    [EN] The harmonization of rabbit carcass criteria is a result of an international work. lts task was to specify the main traits to be considerad from the birth of the animal to carcass analysis, to define these traits with enough accuracy and to propose a common terminology. Work on harmonization has been initialized by the Mediterranean Rabbit Group Conference (BLASCO, OUHAYOUN and MASOERO, 1992), completad by several research teams and, finally, discussed during a round...

  4. Rabbit articular cartilage defects treated by allogenic chondrocyte transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Sathishkumar, Solomon; Kumar, Senthil; Chittaranjan, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects have a poor capacity for repair. Most of the current treatment options result in the formation of fibro-cartilage, which is functionally inferior to normal hyaline articular cartilage. We studied the effectiveness of allogenic chondrocyte transplantation for focal articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured in vitro from cartilage harvested from the knee joints of a New Zealand White rabbit. A 3 mm defect was created in the articular cartilag...

  5. Chondromalacia induced by patellar subluxation in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, B.N.; Møller-Larsen, F.; Frich, Lars Henrik

    1989-01-01

    A unilateral patellar malalignment was induced in 20 young and 20 mature rabbits by lateral displacement of the tibial tuberosity, the other knee serving as osteotomized in situ control. At 6 weeks, all the knees appeared macroscopically normal, but histologically definite cartilage degeneration...... was found on the experimental side. At 3 months, macroscopic changes occurred in 5 of 10 mature rabbits, and histologic cartilage degeneration was found in all the experimental knees, most pronounced in mature animals, and particularly in joint facets submitted to high pressure. This experimental model...

  6. Rabbit urethra replacement with a defined biomatrix or small intestinal submucosa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuininga, J.E.; Moerkerk, H.; Hanssen, A.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Oosterwijk-Wakka, J.C.; Oosterwijk, E.; Gier, R.P.E. de; Schalken, J.A.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Feitz, W.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of collagen-based biomatrix (SIS COOK((R))) in comparison to a biochemically reconstructed biomatrix for replacement of the urethra in a rabbit model as a preclinical model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rabbits underwent partial urethra replacement (resection of 0.5 to 1.0 cm

  7. Myosin heavy chain expression in rabbit masseter muscle during postnatal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredman, J. J.; Weijs, W. A.; Korfage, H. A.; Brugman, P.; Moorman, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC) during postnatal development was studied in the masseter muscle of the rabbit. Evidence is presented that in addition to adult fast and slow myosin, the rabbit masseter contains neonatal and 'cardiac' alpha-MHC. During postnatal growth myosin

  8. Effects of diet composition on intake by adult wild European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, K A

    1989-12-01

    The voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) of several grass and legume diets, and the amount of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, fibre, and energy assimilated from each diet (i.e. the digestibility coefficients) are presented for the wild European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. The DMI may be predicted from DM% and percentage of total nitrogen (on a DM basis) for a high DM diet (90-95%) but the general relationship may stand for fresh forage also. The metabolizable energy of a diet is correlated with DMI through the DM% and the percentage of nitrogen and fibre in the diet on a DM basis. The DM digestibility coefficient is correlated with fibre content. The wild rabbit's high efficiency of protein digestibility and low fibre digestibility compared with ruminants is also a characteristic of the domestic rabbit. It is suggested that the proportions of different nutrients required by wild rabbits are similar to those required by domestic animals.

  9. Oral administration of myostatin-specific recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaccine in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongtian; Zhou, Gang; Ren, Chonghua; Xu, Kun; Yan, Qiang; Li, Xinyi; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Zhiying

    2016-04-29

    Yeast is considered as a simple and cost-effective host for protein expression, and our previous studies have proved that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can deliver recombinant protein and DNA into mouse dendritic cells and can further induce immune responses as novel vaccines. In order to know whether similar immune responses can be induced in rabbit by oral administration of such recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine, we orally fed the rabbits with heat-inactivated myostatin-recombinant S. cerevisiae for 5 weeks, and then myostatin-specific antibody in serum was detected successfully by western blotting and ELISA assay. The rabbits treated with myostatin-recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine grew faster and their muscles were much heavier than that of the control group. As a common experimental animal and a meat livestock with great economic value, rabbit was proved to be the second animal species that have been successfully orally immunized by recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine after mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The remnant of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus IgD gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K Lanning

    Full Text Available Although IgD first appeared, along with IgM, in the cartilaginous fishes and has been retained throughout subsequent vertebrate evolution, it has been lost in a diverse group of vertebrate species. We previously showed that, unlike vertebrates that express IgD, the rabbit lacks an IgD (Cδ gene within 13.5 kb downstream of the IgM gene. We report here that, by conducting BLAST searches of rabbit Ig heavy chain genomic DNA with known mammalian IgD exons, we identified the remnant of the rabbit Cδ gene approximately 21 kb downstream of the IgM gene. The remnant Cδ locus lacks the δCH1 and hinge exons, but contains truncated δCH2 and δCH3 exons, as well as largely intact, but non-functional, secretory and transmembrane exons. In addition, we report that the Cδ gene probably became non-functional in leporids at least prior to the divergence of rabbits and hares ~12 million years ago.

  11. Absorption of enzymatically active 125I-labeled bovine milk xanthine oxidase fed to rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzucidlo, S.J.; Zikakis, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Rabbits fed a regular laboratory diet supplemented with a high-fat milk containing xanthine oxidase (XO) were studied to determine the presence of active XO in the blood. A pilot feeding study, where rabbits consumed a high-fat diet containing xanthine oxidase, showed a correlation between dairy food consumption and XO activity in the blood. Antibody to dietary XO was also found. In a second study, rabbits were fed ad libitum the high-fat milk and blood serum samples were tested weekly for XO activity. No elevation in serum XO activity was found. A third study showed that serum XO activity was increased when rabbits were force fed the high-fat milk. The final study consisted of force feeding 125 I-labeled XO to one rabbit to ascertain whether the observed increase in serum XO was due to dietary or endogenous XO. Isoelectric focusing of sera collected from the test rabbit strongly suggested that at least a portion of the serum XO contained the radioactive label. This is the first direct evidence showing the uptake of dietary active XO from the gut

  12. Effect of aguamiel (agave sap) on hematic biometry in rabbits and its antioxidant activity determination

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Silos-Espino; José Luis Moreno Hernández-Duque; Fidel Guevara-Lara; Juan Florencio Gómez-Leyva; Luis Lorenzo Valera-Montero; Alejandro Nava-Cedillo; Catarino Perales-Segovia; Clara Lourdes Tovar-Robles

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we analysed the effect of aguamiel (sap from Agave salmiana) on haematic biometry in rabbits as well as its antioxidant activity with the objective of determining its nutritional value. Nine male Landrace 55-day-old rabbits were sorted into three groups of three rabbits each, which had access to fresh aguamiel, boiled aguamiel and water instead of aguamiel. Commercial rabbit food was supplied ad libitum to each experimental unit. Fresh aguamiel promoted weight increases of about...

  13. Malignant neoplasms of decidual origin (deciduosarcomas) induced by estrogen-progestin-releasing intravaginal devices in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Zook, B. C.; Spiro, I.; Hertz, R.

    1987-01-01

    A combination of estrogen and levonorgestrel was continuously delivered to 23 adult rabbits for up to 2 years via a Silastic ring device sutured into the vagina. Twenty-one control rabbits were given similar rings devoid of drugs. A marked decidual reaction of the endometrium occurred in 16 of 23 test rabbits. In 14 test rabbits (61%) malignant tumors developed of decidual type cells not heretofore described. The deciduosarcomas were composed of anaplastic cells that invaded the uterine walls...

  14. [Correlation analysis between single nucleotide polymorphism of FGF5 gene and wool yield in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Xiao; Jiang, Mei-Shan; Chen, Shi-Yi; Lai, Song-Jia

    2008-07-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 1 and 3 of fibroblast growth factor (FGF5) gene was studied by DNA sequencing in Yingjing angora rabbit, Tianfu black rabbit and California rabbit. A frameshift mutation (TCT insert) at base position 217 (site A) of exon 1 and a T/C missense mutation at base position 59 (site B) of exon 3 were found in Yingjing angora rabbit with a high frequency; a T/C same-sense mutation at base position 3 (site C) of exon 3 was found with similar frequency in three rabbit breeds. Least square analysis showed that different genotypes had no significant association with wool yield in site A, and had high significant association with wool yield in site B (Plink with the major gene, and polymorphic loci B and C may be used as molecular markers for im-proving wool yield in angora rabbits.

  15. N-nitrosamines induced infertility and hepatotoxicity in male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheweita, S A; El Banna, Y Y; Balbaa, M; Abdullah, I A; Hassan, H E

    2017-09-01

    N-nitrosamines are widely spread environmental pollutants of well-known toxicity and carcinogenicity in various animal species. These compounds are metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 system predominantly in the liver and in other tissues into more active metabolites leading to generation of both alkylating agents that alkylate DNA and reactive oxygen species. In the current study, we investigated the influence of four types of N-nitrosamines that are commonly present in the environment [methyethylnitrosamine, (MEN), diethylnitrosamine (DEN), diphenylnitroasamine (DPN) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)] on both livers and testes of male rabbits through assessment of 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 β-HSD) activity. The protein expression of the three cytochrome P450s (CYP11A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2) is involved in the steroidogenesis. The levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were also determined in the plasma of N-nitrosamines-treated rabbits after one, four-, eight- and twelve weeks of treatment of male New Zealand rabbits with an oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg B.W/day of each compound. In addition, activities of glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and levels of free radicals measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) level were quantified in both livers and testes. The present study showed that levels of free radicals (TBARS) were markedly increased, whereas GSH levels were depleted in the tissues of both livers and testes after treatment of rabbits with any of N-nitrosamines. In addition, all tested N-nitrosamines inhibited the activities of antioxidant enzyme activities (GR, GST, SOD, and CAT) in hepatic and testicular tissues of rabbits after 12 weeks of treatment. Histopathological examination showed that N-nitrosamines caused lymphocytic infiltration with vascular degeneration and necrosis, congestion of central vein with RBCs hemolysis, dilated sinusoids, as well as

  16. Modelling landscape-level numerical responses of predators to prey: the case of cats and rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyffer Cruz

    Full Text Available Predator-prey systems can extend over large geographical areas but empirical modelling of predator-prey dynamics has been largely limited to localised scales. This is due partly to difficulties in estimating predator and prey abundances over large areas. Collection of data at suitably large scales has been a major problem in previous studies of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus and their predators. This applies in Western Europe, where conserving rabbits and predators such as Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus is important, and in other parts of the world where rabbits are an invasive species supporting populations of introduced, and sometimes native, predators. In pastoral regions of New Zealand, rabbits are the primary prey of feral cats (Felis catus that threaten native fauna. We estimate the seasonal numerical response of cats to fluctuations in rabbit numbers in grassland-shrubland habitat across the Otago and Mackenzie regions of the South Island of New Zealand. We use spotlight counts over 1645 km of transects to estimate rabbit and cat abundances with a novel modelling approach that accounts simultaneously for environmental stochasticity, density dependence and varying detection probability. Our model suggests that cat abundance is related consistently to rabbit abundance in spring and summer, possibly through increased rabbit numbers improving the fecundity and juvenile survival of cats. Maintaining rabbits at low abundance should therefore suppress cat numbers, relieving predation pressure on native prey. Our approach provided estimates of the abundance of cats and rabbits over a large geographical area. This was made possible by repeated sampling within each season, which allows estimation of detection probabilities. A similar approach could be applied to predator-prey systems elsewhere, and could be adapted to any method of direct observation in which there is no double-counting of individuals. Reliable estimates of numerical

  17. Economic Comparison of an Empirical Versus Diagnostic-Driven Strategy for Treating Invasive Fungal Disease in Immunocompromised Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rosemary; Earnshaw, Stephanie; Herbrecht, Raoul; Morrissey, Orla; Slavin, Monica; Bow, Eric; McDade, Cheryl; Charbonneau, Claudie; Weinstein, David; Kantecki, Michal; Schlamm, Haran; Maertens, Johan

    2015-06-01

    Patients with persistent or recurrent neutropenic fevers at risk of invasive fungal disease (IFD) are treated empirically with antifungal therapy (AFT). Early treatment using a diagnostic-driven (DD) strategy may reduce clinical and economic burdens. We compared costs and outcomes of both strategies from a UK perspective. An empirical strategy with conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate (C-AmB), liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB), or caspofungin was compared with a DD strategy (initiated based on positive ELISA results for galactomannan antigen) and/or positive results for Aspergillus species on polymerase chain reaction assay) using C-AmB, voriconazole, or L-AmB in a decision-analytic model. Rates of IFD incidence, overall mortality, and IFD-related mortality in adults expected to be neutropenic for ≥10 days were obtained. The empirical strategy was assumed to identify 30% of IFD and targeted AFT to improve survival by a hazard ratio of 0.589. AFT-specific adverse events were obtained from a summary of product characteristics. Resource use was obtained, and costs were estimated by using standard UK costing sources. All costs are presented in 2012 British pounds sterling. Total costs were 32% lower for the DD strategy (£1561.29) versus the empirical strategy (£2301.93) due to a reduced incidence of adverse events and decreased use of AFT. Administration of AFT was reduced by 41% (DD strategy, 74 of 1000; empirical strategy, 125 of 1000), with similar survival rates. This study suggests that a DD strategy is likely to be cost-saving versus empirical treatment for immunocompromised patients with persistent or recurrent neutropenic fevers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Divalent cations in tears, and their influence on tear film stability in humans and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojia Eric; Markoulli, Maria; Millar, Thomas J; Willcox, Mark D P; Zhao, Zhenjun

    2012-06-05

    Reduced tear film stability is reported to contribute to dry eye. Rabbits are known to have a more stable tear film than humans. Thus, we sought to examine the tears of rabbits and humans for metal cations, and to test how they influence tear film stability. Tears were collected from 10 healthy humans and 6 rabbits. Tear osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometer, and metals analyzed using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry or ICP atomic emission spectroscopy. The influence of divalent cations on tears was analyzed by measuring surface tension using the Langmuir trough in vitro, using different concentrations of cations in the subphase, and grading the tear break-up in rabbits in vivo after instillation of chelating agents. Rabbit tears had a higher osmolality compared to humans. Major metals did not differ between species; however, rabbits had higher levels of Mg(2+) (1.13 vs. 0.39 mM) and Ca(2+) (0.75 vs. 0.36 mM). In rabbit tears in vitro, diminishing divalent cations resulted in a decrease in the maximum surface pressure from 37 to 30 mN/m. In vivo, an increase in the amount of tear film that was broken-up was found. In contrast, when changing divalent cation concentrations in human tears, the maximum surface pressure remained at 26 mN/m. The normal osmolality of rabbit tears is significantly higher than that in humans. While divalent cations had little influence on human tears, they appear to have an important role in maintaining tear film stability in rabbits.

  19. The site of action of corticosteroid antipyresis in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willies, G H; Woolf, C J

    1980-01-01

    1. The antipyretic effects of corticosteroids on the fevers produced by bacterial and endogenous pyrogens in the rabbit were investigated. 2. Intravenous infusions of hydrocortisone and methyl prednisolone, when administered simultaneously with bacterial or endogenous pyrogens, failed to produce an antipyresis. 3. Pretreatment of rabbits with methyl prednisolone for 3 days diminished the febrile effect of both bacterial and endogenous pyrogens. 4. The fever produced by intrahypothalamic micro-injections of endogenous pyrogen was significantly attenuated by the simultaneous micro-injection of methyl prednisolone. 5. These results indicate that the antipyretic effect of steroids in the rabbit is the result not of a peripheral inhibition of endogenous pyrogen production, but rather of an action on the central nervous system. PMID:7381781

  20. Pregnancy-induced insulin resistance in liver and skeletal muscles of the conscious rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauguel, S.; Gilbert, M.; Girard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity of maternal nonuterine tissues (liver and skeletal muscles) has been investigated in the conscious rabbit during late gestation (24 and 30 days). The specific effect of insulin on glucose production and utilization was evaluated with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique using two types of labelled microspheres ( 57 Co and 113 Sn). The net balance of glucose across the hindlimb muscles was studied by means of the Fick principle in basal and insulin stimulated conditions (clamp study). The results show that an insulin-resistant state developed between days 24 and 30 of gestation in the rabbit and involves both glucose producing (liver) and utilizing (muscles) tissues. On day 30 of gestation, muscle glucose uptake was not significantly stimulated at a plasma insulin concentration of 700 μU/ml determined by radioimmunoassay, whereas it was stimulated by 30-40% in nonpregnant and 24 day pregnant rabbits. At similar plasma insulin concentration, endogenous glucose production was suppressed by 85% in both nonpregnant and 24 day pregnant rabbits, whereas it was decreased by only 30% in 30 day pregnant rabbits. The present data suggest that hindlimb muscles of late pregnant rabbits are able to reduce their insulin-induced glucose utilization. This could contribute to meet the glucose requirements of pregnant uterus in late gestation

  1. Pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone after topical administration in rabbit eye

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Guoying; Lin, Xianchai; Zhong, Hua; Yang, Yangfan; Qiu, Xuan; Ye, Chengtian; Wu, Kaili; Yu, Minbin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-[1H]-pyridone) is a new, broad-spectrum agent that has an inhibition effect on the proliferation, migration, and collagen contraction of human Tenon’s fibroblasts, and thus modulating the wound healing process of glaucoma filtering surgical site. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of topically administered pirfenidone (0.5%) in rabbit eyes. Methods Pirfenidone solution (50 μl) was instilled into the rabbit’s conjunctival sac. The rabbits were...

  2. Transport of cholesterol autoxidation products in rabbit lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shi-Kaung; Phillips, G.A.; Xia, Guang-Zhi; Morin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled pure [4- 14 C] cholesterol was kept at 60 0 C under air to autoxidize for 5 weeks, after which approximately 12% cholesterol oxidation products were formed. The mixture, suspended in gelatin, was given to rabbits by gastric gavage. Rabbits were killed 4, 24 and 48 h after treatment. Cholesterol and its autoxidation products were separated by thin-layer chromatography into 5 fractions and radioactivities of each fraction were measured. Percentages of each fraction of cholesterol oxidation products and cholesterol in the original mixture before administration and in the rabbit sera after administration were similar, suggesting that the rates of absorption of cholesterol oxidation products are not significantly different from that of cholesterol. Lipoproteins were fractioned by ultracentrifugation into VLDL, LDL and HDL. Radioactivities of each fraction in lipoproteins separated by thin layer chromatography showed that fractions containing cholestane-3β, 5α, 6β-triol, 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were more selectively transported in VLDL, whereas most of the 25-hydroxycholesterol was present in LDL. HDL contained only minute amounts of cholesterol oxidation products. 22 refs

  3. Dissociative anesthetic combination reduces intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of three anesthetic combinations, ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam, on IOP in rabbits. In a experimental, blind, randomized, crossover study, six rabbits were anesthetized with each of 3 treatments in random order. Groups KM (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + midazolam, 1 mg/kg; KX (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + xylazine, 3 mg/kg; and TZ (tiletamine + zolazepam, 20 mg/kg. The drugs were mixed in the same syringe injected intramuscularly (IM into the quadriceps muscle. IOP was measured before drug administration (baseline and at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The data were analyzed by a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. All groups had significant decreases in IOP compared to baseline (p 0.05. Administration of either ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine, or tiletamine-zolazepam similarly decrease IOP in rabbits within 30 minutes of injection.

  4. Chronologic changes of free fat graft in rabbit using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Norihiro; Kurita, Kenichi; Yajima, Tetsuya; Izumi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Free fat grafts are now used for preventing osteal readhesion, filling dead space, and protecting grafted nerves and vessels. However, it is reported that grafted fat tissue is unstable resulting in high risk of cicatrization and infection. We grafted free fat to a rabbit's back and observed the chronologic change using CT. Ten adult male Japanese white rabbits (3.5 kg) were used. In five rabbits, fat tissue was obtained from the back under general anaesthesia, and transplanted into the back about 50 mm posterior from the donor site. CT was taken in the fixed scan condition five times (preoperation, immediate postoperation, postoperative 1-month, 2-month, and 3-month). In the remaining five rabbits, only CT scan was taken three times as a control. It was observed that we compared preoperative fat volume with the postoperative volume using RealINTAGE. Grafted fat tissue decreased postoperatively at 1-month and completely disappeared at 3-months. We were able to prove that CT scan is effective to observe the chronologic change of grafted fat tissue. Techniques of tissue engineering are necessary for survival of grafted fat tissue. (author)

  5. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken and imported into FIJI software for analysis. Neural retinal cell densities of deprived eyes were reduced along with increasing period of deprivation. The percentage of reductions were 60.9% (P < 0.001), 41.6% (P = 0.003), and 18.9% (P = 0.326) for ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In non-deprived eyes, cell densities in contrast were increased by 116% (P < 0.001), 52% (P < 0.001) and 59.6% (P < 0.001) in ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  6. Antigenic structure of the capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...

  7. Novel mechanism by which probucol lowers low density lipoprotein levels demonstrated in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruszewicz, M.; Carew, T.E.; Pittman, R.C.; Witztum, J.L.; Steinberg, D.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits (WHHL rabbits) with probucol (1% w/w in a chow diet) lowered their LDL-cholesterol levels by 36%, consonant with the reported effectiveness of the drug in patients deficient in the LDL receptor. Initial studies of LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) using 125 I-labeled LDL prepared from the serum of untreated WHHL rabbits showed no difference between probucol-treated WHHL rabbits and untreated WHHL rabbits. When, however, 125 I-labeled LDL was prepared from donor WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol and injected back into them, the FCR was found to be increased by about 50% above that measured simultaneously using 131 I-labeled LDL prepared from untreated WHHL donors. The labeled LDL from probucol-treated donors was also metabolized more rapidly than that from untreated donors when injected into untreated WHHL rabbits or into untreated wild-type New Zealand White rabbits. Finally, it was shown that rabbit skin fibroblasts in culture degraded labeled LDL prepared from probucol-treated WHHL rabbits more rapidly than that prepared from untreated WHHL donors. This was true both for normal rabbit fibroblasts and also for WHHL skin fibroblasts, although the absolute degradation rates in the latter were, of course, much lower for both forms of LDL. The data indicate that a major mechanism by which probucol lowers LDL levels relates not to changes in the cellular mechanisms for LDL uptake or to changes in LDL production but rather to intrinsic changes in the structure and metabolism of the plasma LDL of the probucol-treated animal

  8. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  9. Evaluation of acute toxicity of genabilic acid (menbutone 10% in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. El Okle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A complete investigation of the acute toxicity of a choleretic compound, menbutone, was performed in rabbits, including lethal dose for 50% of rabbits determination, clinical signs observation and in vivo and post-mortem examinations. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes resulting from intramuscular injection of menbutone were also investigated at dose 400 mg/kg body weight. Acute toxicity of menbutone at dose of 400 mg/kg BW induced interstitial myocarditis and multifocal necrosis, whereas serum creatine phosphokinase, creatinine phosphokinase-MB isoenzyme and aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly increased. Elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and total bilirubin level associated with lowered albumin content was consistent with histopathological changes of hepatic tissues; hepatic necrosis and fatty infiltration were pronounced indicators of injuries. Renal tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis were also observed in intoxicated rabbits. Menbutone also induced variations in some haematological parameters. We concluded that acute toxicity of menbutone in rabbits occurred at accidental high doses, as the lethal dose was about 50 fold over the recommended therapeutic dose for other animals. Cardiac muscle, liver and kidneys are the main target organs for menbutone toxicity. Menbutone is not recommended for use in rabbits suffering from any cardiacand hepatic disorders, especially in overdosing situations.

  10. Adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Katsuya [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tadokoro, Hiroyuki [and others

    2000-12-01

    The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit develops coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia because of a genetic deficiency of low-density lipoprotein receptors and is therefore a good animal model for studying the relationships of coronary atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia and coronary flow reserve. The aim of the present study was to assess myocardial perfusion at baseline and during adenosine infusion (0.2 mg{center_dot}kg{sup -1}{center_dot}min{sup -1}) in 8 WHHL rabbits (13.8{+-}0.5 months) with {sup 13}N-ammonia, small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) and colored microspheres. Results were compared with those from 6 age-matched Japanese white rabbits. Plaque distribution was also examined in the extramural coronary arteries. All 8 WHHL rabbits had coronary plaques, with 6 showing multiple plaques. Mean global myocardial blood flow (ml{center_dot}min{sup -1}{center_dot}g{sup -1}) did not differ significantly between control and WHHL groups both at baseline (3.67{+-}0.72 vs 4.26{+-}1.12 ml{center_dot}min{sup -1}{center_dot}g{sup -1}, p=NS) and with adenosine (7.92{+-}2.00 vs 9.27{+-}2.91 ml{center_dot}min{sup -1}{center_dot}g{sup -1}, p=NS), nor did coronary flow reserve (2.16{+-}0.37 vs 2.18{+-}0.41, p=NS). None showed evidence of regional perfusion abnormalities by visual and semiquantitative analyses of PET images. It was concluded that WHHL rabbits preserve adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve despite coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia, suggesting that a compensatory mechanism develops in this animal model. (author)

  11. Adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Katsuya; Tadokoro, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit develops coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia because of a genetic deficiency of low-density lipoprotein receptors and is therefore a good animal model for studying the relationships of coronary atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia and coronary flow reserve. The aim of the present study was to assess myocardial perfusion at baseline and during adenosine infusion (0.2 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 ) in 8 WHHL rabbits (13.8±0.5 months) with 13 N-ammonia, small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) and colored microspheres. Results were compared with those from 6 age-matched Japanese white rabbits. Plaque distribution was also examined in the extramural coronary arteries. All 8 WHHL rabbits had coronary plaques, with 6 showing multiple plaques. Mean global myocardial blood flow (ml·min -1 ·g -1 ) did not differ significantly between control and WHHL groups both at baseline (3.67±0.72 vs 4.26±1.12 ml·min -1 ·g -1 , p=NS) and with adenosine (7.92±2.00 vs 9.27±2.91 ml·min -1 ·g -1 , p=NS), nor did coronary flow reserve (2.16±0.37 vs 2.18±0.41, p=NS). None showed evidence of regional perfusion abnormalities by visual and semiquantitative analyses of PET images. It was concluded that WHHL rabbits preserve adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve despite coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia, suggesting that a compensatory mechanism develops in this animal model. (author)

  12. Perceptions among university students in Seville (Spain of the rabbit as livestock and as a companion animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rabbit has various utilities and roles, mainly as a meat-producing animal, game species, companion animal, laboratory animal or pest. Among these roles, rabbit breeding for meat has traditionally prevailed in the Mediterranean countries. However, in recent decades the practice of keeping this species as a companion animal has been on the rise; a factor that could be changing public perception of the rabbit. A survey of 492 university students from Seville, Andalusia, Spain, was conducted to determine young people’s perceptions of the rabbit as livestock and as a companion species. The rabbit received the lowest score when regarded as livestock compared to the pig, cow, goat, sheep and hen. Regarding companion animals, young Spanish people preferred the dog and cat, respectively. The rabbit and the hamster were rated at the same level as a pet, while the budgerigar was rated lower than these two mammals by women and higher by men. The goldfish occupied the last position among the pet species in the women’s perceptions. With regard to the perception of various rabbit breeds and varieties when evaluated as pets, it was found that the pet Lop Dwarf, Netherland Dwarf, Angora and Lionhead breeds were rated higher than a typical meat breed (New Zealand White and than the wild rabbit. The gender of the young people surveyed influenced their perception of the rabbit. Women rated the rabbit lower as livestock while they rated it higher as a pet, also rating the pet rabbit breeds higher than men did. It is proposed that, in keeping with the rabbit’s attributes related to its cuteness, conceptually linked with pets, young Andalusian people’s perception of the rabbit is ambivalent and this perception might partly be shifting from perceiving it as livestock to regarding it as a pet.

  13. Pyrogenicity of interferon and its inducer in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, S J; Lin, M T

    1988-03-01

    The effects of intracerebral administration of interferon (IFN) or its inducer polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) on thermoregulatory responses were assessed in conscious rabbits. Administration of IFN (10(2)-10(6) IU) or poly I:C (0.012-12 micrograms) into the preoptic anterior hypothalamus or the third cerebral ventricle caused a dose-dependent fever in rabbits at three ambient temperatures (Ta) tested. In the cold (Ta = 8 degrees C), the fever was due to increased metabolism, whereas in the heat (Ta = 32 degrees C) the fever was due to a reduction in respiratory evaporative heat loss and ear skin blood flow. At the moderate environmental temperature (Ta = 22 degrees C), the fever was due to increased metabolism and cutaneous vasoconstriction. Compared with the febrile responses induced by cerebroventricular route injection of IFN or poly I:C, the hypothalamic route of injection required a much lower dose of IFN or poly I:C to produce a similar fever. Furthermore, the fever induced by intrahypothalamic injection of IFN or poly I:C was reduced by pretreatment of animals with a systemic dose of indomethacin (an inhibitor of all prostaglandins formation) or cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein synthesis). The data indicate that IFN or its inducer may act through the endogenous release of a prostaglandin or a protein factor of an unknown chemical nature in the preoptic anterior hypothalamic region to induce fever in rabbits. The fever induced by IFN or its inducer is brought about by a decrease in heat loss and/or an increase in heat production in rabbits.

  14. Experimental study on lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve allografts in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Sun Shiquan; Liu Hechen

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve grafts in rabbits were used in allogeneic nerve transplantation. The result show that about 76% of experimental rabbits had fairly well morphologic (microscopic and electron microscopic) and electrophysiological recovery 3 month after operation. Preservation of neurilemmal tubes in nerve grafts, repopulation of Schwann cells in this tube and suppression of immune rejection are the key points in allogeneic nerve transplantation

  15. Pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone after topical administration in rabbit eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoying; Lin, Xianchai; Zhong, Hua; Yang, Yangfan; Qiu, Xuan; Ye, Chengtian; Wu, Kaili; Yu, Minbin

    2011-01-01

    Pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-[1H]-pyridone) is a new, broad-spectrum agent that has an inhibition effect on the proliferation, migration, and collagen contraction of human Tenon's fibroblasts, and thus modulating the wound healing process of glaucoma filtering surgical site. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of topically administered pirfenidone (0.5%) in rabbit eyes. Pirfenidone solution (50 μl) was instilled into the rabbit's conjunctival sac. The rabbits were quickly sacrificed at 2, 5, 8, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the administration and ocular tissues were obtained. The concentrations of pirfenidone in conjunctiva, sclera, cornea, aqueous humor, and vitreous were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. After topical administration, there was wide distribution and fast clearance of pirfenidone among the various ocular tissues. The mean maximum concentrations (C(max)) of pirfenidone in cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, aqueous humor, and vitreous were 9.64 mg/g, 9.62 mg/g, 2.13 mg/g, 34.88 mg/l and 0.52 mg/l, respectively. The half-life for these tissues was 18.26, 34.16, 15.71, 70.91, and 39.48 min, respectively. Measurable concentrations of pirfenidone are achieved in ocular tissues after topical application in rabbit model. Topical administration of pirfenidone may be an effective approach for modulation of wound healing responses in glaucoma filtration surgical site.

  16. Contrasting effects of climate change on rabbit populations through reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulima Tablado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its effects at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current climatic conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between climate and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to climatic alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that climate change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future climate-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which climate will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover

  17. Characterization of serotonergic receptors in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen C; Alvarez, Lawrence J; Candia, Oscar A; Bernstein, Audrey M

    2003-10-01

    To characterize the serotonin (5-HT) receptors linked to the modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae. Serotonin receptor-subtype expression was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and receptor subtype-specific polyclonal antibodies for the immunofluorescent labeling of conjunctival cryosections. In addition, measurements of the effects of serotonergics on the short-circuit current (I(sc)) across rabbit and porcine conjunctivae were contrasted. RT-PCR assays indicated the expression of 5-HT(1B ) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, subtypes negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, in the rabbit conjunctiva. This approach also suggested the co-expression of 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(1F), 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) mRNA's in the porcine conjunctiva, and 5-HT( 1D), 5-HT(1F) and 5-HT(7) in the human conjunctiva. Since the 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) receptors are positively linked to adenylyl cyclase, these results implied that the porcine and human tissues exhibited subtypes both positively and negatively linked to the enzyme. However, immunohistochemical observations, using currently available antibodies solely localized the 5-HT(7) moiety in the porcine and human epithelia, suggested that the 1B/1D forms may be minor elements. Consistent with this prospect, 5-HT was a stimulant of the transepithelial I(sc) across the porcine conjunctiva, an opposite response from earlier findings that demonstrated inhibitory effects by 5-HT on the rabbit I(sc), which are now explained by the localization of the 1B/1D receptors in the rabbit stratified epithelium. The 5-HT receptors expressed by mammalian conjunctivae are not identical. In terms of 5-HT receptor expression, the porcine tissue may be a more appropriate model for human, than is the rabbit, in that 5-HT may serve as a secretagogue in the human epithelium.

  18. Effect of stunning methods on quality of rabbit carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter the were dissected into 2 halves and fabricated into primal cuts. Carcass characteristics as well as physical, chemical and sensory properties of the rabbit meat were determined. The results showed that carcasses of rabbits stunned with gas gave higher (P<0.05) blood loss and lower (P<0.05) chilling loss.

  19. Expression of active recombinant human alpha 1-antitrypsin in transgenic rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoud, M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Dalemans, W.; Pointu, H.; Attal, J.; Schultz, H.; Clesse, D.; Stinnakre, M.G.; Pavirani, A.; Houdebine, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    A DNA construct containing the human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene including 1.5 and 4 kb of 5' and 3' flanking sequences, was microinjected into the pronucleus of rabbit embryos. The recombinant human protein was (a) expressed in the blood circulation of F0 and F1 transgenic rabbits at an average

  20. Iodine-129 in rabbit thyroids near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, L. Jr.; Bowman, G.C.; Markham, O.D.

    1982-01-01

    The 129 I/ 127 I atom ratios in rabbits collected on the INEL site were larger than ratios in rabbits from a control area. Maximum 129 I/ 127 I atom ratios (9.1 x 10 -4 ) occurred near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Based on rabbit thyroid concentrations, the 129 I appeared to be deposited primarily in the direction of the predominant winds from the ICPP, northeast and southwest. Dose rates from the 129 I to thyroids of INEL rabbits varied from 0.1 to 260 μGy/y (0.01 to 26 mrad/y). Iodine-129 atmospheric releases from the ICPP appeared to have increased the 129 I/ 127 I atom ratios on and near the INEL site. (author)

  1. Comparison the efficacy of ceftazidime and imipenem in treatment of neutropenic febrile due to chemotherapy in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra fotokian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In cancer patients various infections were developed due to severe neutropeniaresulted from chemotherapy. There is controversy between initial monotherapy or multidrugprescription. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of ceftazidime and imipenem incontrol of fever in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.Materials ands Methods: 40 patients with cancer, fever and neutropenia (PMN<500, withoutrecognized source of infection, were selected using the convenience and consecutive method. Using arandom sampling, twenty patients were treated with imipenem (500mg Iv/Q8hr and others withceftazidime (2mg Iv/Q8hr. The criteria for positive response to the drugs were: fever disappearanceduring maximally 72 hours lasted for up to 24 hours, and increased neutrophil counts more than500/ml.Results: Our results show that 60% and 55% patients with ceftazidime and imipenem were cured,respectively. 40% patients treated with ceftazidime and 45% patients treated with imipenem neededanother antibiotic therapy at the same time. No significant relationship was found between differenttypes of drug regime among the groups.Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that ceftazidime and imipenem have similar efficacy intreatment of febrile neutropenic patients. Due to more availability and lower cost of ceftazidime thanimipenem, ceftazidime is suggested as first line treatment in febrile neutropenia.

  2. [Effects of herb cake-separated moxibustion on spleen in immunosuppressive rabbits:a morphology study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuefeng; Wu, Aihua; Wang, Jun; Shan, Zengtian

    2016-10-12

    To observe the influence of different methods of moxibustion on spleen morphology in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressive rabbits. A total of 50 rabbits were randomly assigned into a blank group, a model group, a herbal cake-separated moxibustion group, a moxibustion group and a sham cake-separated moxibustion group, 10 rabbits in each group. Except the blank group, the rabbits in each group were treated with intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg), once a day, for 7 consecutive days to establish immunosuppressive model. After the model establishment, the rabbits in the herbal cake-separated moxibustion group were treated with herbal cake-separated moxibustion at "Shenque" (CV 8), "Guanyuan" (CV 4), "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Pishu" (BL 20) and "Shenshu" (BL 23); the moxa cone was placed on the herbal cake which was made of Liuwei Dihuang decoction, three cones for each acupoint. The rabbits in the moxibustion group were treated with moxa stick moxibustion which contained equal moxa of three moxa cones. The rabbits in the sham cake-separated moxibustion group were treated with cake which was made of flour. The acupoint selection in the above three groups was identical, and the intervention was given once every other day for totally 10 times. The rabbits in the blank group and model group were immobilized for identical time without any intervention. After treatment, the rabbits were sacrificed to collect the spleen. With routine HE staining, the morphology changes of spleen were observed under microscope. In addition, the white pulp, splenic corpuscle and the counts of lymphatic cells of lymphatic sheath around the arteries were observed. Compared with the blank group, the average size of white pulp and the radius of splenic corpuscle were reduced (both P 0.05). Compared with the model group, the averagesize of white pulp and the radius of splenic corpuscle were significantly increased in the herbal cake-separated moxibustion group and moxibustion

  3. The Rabbit as a Model for Studying Lung Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruzaman, Nurfatin Asyikhin; Kardia, Egi; Kamaldin, Nurulain ‘Atikah; Latahir, Ahmad Zaeri; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2013-01-01

    No single animal model can reproduce all of the human features of both acute and chronic lung diseases. However, the rabbit is a reliable model and clinically relevant facsimile of human disease. The similarities between rabbits and humans in terms of airway anatomy and responses to inflammatory mediators highlight the value of this species in the investigation of lung disease pathophysiology and in the development of therapeutic agents. The inflammatory responses shown by the rabbit model, e...

  4. In vitro confocal imaging of the rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B R; Paddock, S

    1990-05-01

    We were able to observe in vitro the fine structure of the rabbit cornea using a laser scanning confocal microscope, especially in the regions between Descemet's membrane and the epithelial basal lamina. We observed submicrometre filaments throughout the stroma with high concentrations adjacent to Descemet's membrane, and found extensive interconnecting processes between stromal keratocytes. There are numerous regions containing nerve plexuses in the stroma. We found a deeply convoluted basal lamina adjacent to the epithelium, and observed regions containing junctions between endothelial cells in fluorescent images of rabbit corneas stained with the actin-specific compound fluorescein phalloidin.

  5. PAPAIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN RABBIT CARTILAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Theodore T.

    1958-01-01

    Some biochemical aspects of the collapse of the rabbit ears produced by the intravenous injection of papain have been studied. A marked depletion of chondromucoprotein (M.C.S.) and a reduction of the S35 content of cartilage matrix were found to coincide with the gross and histologic changes in the cartilage. At the same time there was a marked increase in the amount of S35 in the serum and an increase of S35 and glucuronic acid excreted in the urine. Alteration in the composition of the M.C.S. remaining in the cartilage of the papain-injected animals was detected. The findings indicate that the collapse of the rabbit ears is due to loss of chondromucoprotein from cartilage and reduction of chondroitin sulfate in the chondromucoprotein that remains. All these changes were reversed in recovery. PMID:13575681

  6. Development and homology of the incisor teeth in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muylle, S.; Simoens, P.; Lauwers, H.

    1996-01-01

    The morphology and development of the incisors were investigated stercomicroscopically, radiographically and by means of serial histologic sections in fetal, juvenile and adult New Zealand White rabbits. A vestigial and a major incisor develop on both sides of the upper and of the lower jaw, while a diphyodont minor incisor is located caudal to the major incisor on both sides of the upper jaw. The present study describes a unique case of incisor polyodontia in an adult wild rabbit, that exhibited all the characteristics of a typical atavistic dentition. From these observations it was deduced that the vestigial and the major incisors in the rabbit are monophyodont and correspond to the first and second incisors respectively, while the minor diphyodont incisor in the upper jaw is homologous with the third incisor

  7. Rabbit models for biomedical research revisited via genome editing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONDA, Arata; OGURA, Atsuo

    2017-01-01

    Although the laboratory rabbit has long contributed to many paradigmatic studies in biology and medicine, it is often considered to be a “classical animal model” because in the last 30 years, the laboratory mouse has been more often used, thanks to the availability of embryonic stem cells that have allowed the generation of gene knockout (KO) animals. However, recent genome-editing strategies have changed this unrivaled condition; so far, more than 10 mammalian species have been added to the list of KO animals. Among them, the rabbit has distinct advantages for application of genome-editing systems, such as easy application of superovulation, consistency with fertile natural mating, well-optimized embryo manipulation techniques, and the short gestation period. The rabbit has now returned to the stage of advanced biomedical research. PMID:28579598

  8. Effect of floor type on carcass and meat quality of pen raised growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits housed on different floor types. At the age of 35 d, rabbits (n=126 were randomly sorted into 3 groups and housed in pens with different floor types: plastic-mesh, deep-litter straw or wire-mesh. Slaughter weight, carcass and its parts’ weight, meat (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum [LL] muscle and hind leg pH and colour, oxidative status and fatty acid profile were measured and correlations calculated. The deep-litter straw rabbits showed the lowest pHu and b* values of LL muscle and oxidation of the both muscles. The fatty acid profile of LL muscle of deep-litter straw rabbits showed a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, whereas the content of  18:2n-6 and total PUFA was lower. We concluded that housing the growing rabbits on wire- or plastic-mesh floors showed no substantial differences, while housing rabbits on deep-litter negatively affected certain qualitative traits.

  9. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  10. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG... Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified...

  11. Absorption and excretion of black currant anthocyanins in human and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L.. F.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins are thought to protect against cardiovascular diseases. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits are hypercholesterolemic and used as a model of the development of atherosclerosis. To compare the uptake and excretion of anthocyanins in humans and WHHL rabbits, single-dose black......). The excretion and absorption of anthocyanins from black currant juice were found to be within the same order of magnitude in the two species regarding urinary excretion within the first 4 h (rabbits, 0.035%; humans, 0.072%) and t(ma)x (rabbits, similar to30 min; humans, similar to45 min). A food matrix effect...... was detected in rabbits, resulting in the absorption of a higher proportion of the anthocyanins from black currant juice than from an aqueous citric acid matrix. In humans the absorption and urinary excretion of anthocyanins from black currant juice were found to be proportional with dose and not influenced...

  12. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P 4 ) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with 125 I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  13. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ciencias Animais]. E-mail: cfmeirel@esalq.usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P{sub 4}) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with {sup 125} I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  14. Hepatic VX2 tumor after portal vein occlusion in rabbits: evaluation with DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Dai Shuhua; Zhang Qichuan; Chen Lin; Huang Xiaobing; Huan Guangqiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of DSA for hepatic vascular anatomy, and to evaluate the efficacy of portal vein occlusion in rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumor. Methods: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups with 10 in each group, including test group A and positive control group B of ham operation. For the test group A, portal branch ligation (PBL) was performed for the left external branch after 3 weeks of the tumor implantation to the left external lobe. Two weeks later, the DSA of hepatic artery and portal vein were performed in all of the rabbits. Results: The total displaying effectiveness of the branches of hepatic artery by DSA was better than that by vascular perfusion. There was hypovascular blood supply to hepatic artery implantation of the tumor in the test group A, comparing with that of the group B. Conclusion: DSA can clearly display special details of the hepatic vascular anatomy in rabbits, and play an important role in post-procedural evaluation of the portal vein occlusion in rabbits. (authors)

  15. [Preparation and preliminary application of rabbit anti-human PON2 antibodies(paraoxonase-2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Yang, Jin-Ju; Li, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Gao, Jian-En; Sun, Qi-Hong

    2008-07-01

    To preparation and characterize the rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human PON2 (paraoxonase-2). A fragment of human PON2 gene which was of low homology with rabbits but of higher hydrophilicity and immunogenicity was selected for recombinant expression in prokaryotic expression system. The rabbits were immunized with the purified GST fusion protein 3 times. The specificity and sensitivity of the anti-human PON2 polyclonal antibodies were detected by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence. The GST-PON2 fusion protein was highly expressed in Ecoli with a molecular weight of 46 kDa. Western blot analysis proved the rabbit polyclonal antibodies could specifically recognize 39 kDa native PON2 protein expressed in several cells and tissues, such as HeLa cells, U937 cells, and human liver tissue. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that PON2 protein was located in the cytoplasm of SY5Y cells. The rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human PON2 can specifically recognize natural protein expressed in human cells and tissues, Which can be used for further study and clinical detection of human PON2.

  16. Anatomical Arrangement of the Subclavian Artery Branches in the Rabbit and European Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maženský D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical arrangements of the branches arising from the subclavian arteries in the domesticated rabbit and hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. The arterial system of the entire body was injected by Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17. After polymerization of the medium, the maceration was carried out in KOH solution. The arrangement of the origins of the branches of the bilateral subclavian arteries were more variable in the hare. The number of branches arising from the subclavian artery were more regular in the rabbit on the right side and in the hare on the left side. In the rabbit, we found in two cases, the origins of the branches of the left subclavian artery from the aortic arch. The anatomical found between the rabbit and the hare may possibly be associated with their different ways of life.

  17. Acquired incisor malocclusion in an adult rabbit buck. A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A diagnosis of acquired incisor malocclusion was made based on the history, physical examination of the rabbit and postmortem examination of the skull. To the best of our knowledge, this appears to be the first reported case of this condition in Nigeria. It is suggested that the condition may be more common among rabbits ...

  18. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus, but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus and Hare (Lepus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Loo Wessel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster. Results We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus. Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed. Conclusion The biological function of a gene was often

  19. Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eells, J.T.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ([R,S]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl[R,S]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine or [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions

  20. Antibody production in rabbits administered Freund's complete adjuvant and carprofen concurrently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishback, Joanna E; Stronsky, Sabrina M; Green, Catherine A; Bean, Krystal D; Froude, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-01

    Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) is a commonly used immunopotentiator that can boost polyclonal antibody production in animal models such as rabbits, but FCA is also known to cause inflammation and pain. It is important to balance the welfare of animals with the goal of efficiently producing antibodies, but little is known about how common treatments for pain and inflammation, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), affect the production of polyclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to measure polyclonal antibody production in rabbits that were administered FCA either with or without a concurrent treatment of a NSAID, carprofen. Rabbits were divided into two groups and were administered identical treatments of an antigen with adjuvant, and the treatment group also received carprofen injections at different stages of the study. Carprofen treatment did not significantly affect polyclonal antibody production, which suggests that carprofen and other NSAIDs can be used alongside FCA in rabbits to achieve desired levels of antibody production while minimizing pain and distress associated with the use of FCA.

  1. Susceptibility to cartap-induced lethal effect and diaphragmatic injury via ocular exposure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Hwang, Jenn-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Cheng

    2003-11-05

    Cartap is extensively used to control agricultural pests. Pertinent literatures have indicated that it causes no eye irritation [D.E. Ray, Insecticides derived from plants and other organisms, in: W.J. Hayes, E.R. Laws (Eds.), Handbook of Insecticide Toxicology, Classes of Insecticides, vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1991, p. 611; C. Tomlin, Cartap, in: C. Tomlin (Ed.), The Insecticide Manual, 12th ed., British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK, 2000, p. 144]; however, the instillation of a little cartap through the eye has caused death in rabbits. The aim of this study was to determine the ocular toxicity of cartap in New Zealand White rabbits. Cartap was directly instilled into the low conjunctival sac of eyes, at doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight. The changes in the enzymes and isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), as well as pathological changes in the muscles of the heart, thigh and diaphragm were determined in the cartap-treated rabbits. Moreover, the neuromuscular effect of cartap was examined using the isolated rabbit phrenic-nerve diaphragm model. The results indicated that rabbits developed severe signs and they died within 20 min of ocular instillation. The ocular LD50 of cartap was 8.1 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with cartap increased the activities of CK and LD enzymes and their isoenzymes, CK-1, CK-2, and CK-3 in serum, and CK-3 and LD-5 in the diaphragm. Microscopically, hypercontraction bands and the rupture of myofibers of the diaphragm were observed in dead rabbits. Cartap did not affect nerve-evoked twitch but induced irreversible contracture and twitch depression on the isolated rabbit's diaphragm. These results indicate that the rabbit is susceptible to cartap toxicity; the effect of cartap caused contracture and damage to the diaphragm might play a pivotal role in respiratory paralysis and death of rabbits during intoxication.

  2. Comparison of Two Regimens of RhG-CSF in Neutropenic Neonatal Septicemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nConsidering the 50% mortality rate of neonatal septicemia associated with neutropenia and increasing resistance to antibiotics, simultaneous antibiotic therapy strategies are becoming more important. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate effectiveness of RhG-CSF in the treatment of neutropenia in neonates. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 40 neutropenic neonates with septicemia who were hospitalized in Vali-e-Asr and Mirza Koochak Khan Hospitals (Tehran, Iran. The neonates were randomly divided into two equal groups RhG-CSF was administered as a subcutaneous single dose of 10μg/kg/s.c. to neonates in group A and as 10μg/kg/s.c./day once daily for 3 days to neonates in group B. CBC and differential count was checked 6, 24 and 48 hours after the last dose. There was no significant difference in mean birth weight, gender, age, and risk factors between two groups. Neutropenia was improved 48 hours after the last dose, whilst there was no significant statistical difference between two groups (P>0.05. The final outcome including death, duration of hospitalization and duration of antibiotics therapy after RhG-CSF administration did not differ between two groups (P>0.05. The results of this study showed that administration of a single dose of RhG-CSF (10μg/kg was effective in treating neonatal septicemic neutropenia.

  3. Response of human and rabbit lymphocytes to low doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, L.

    1982-01-01

    The response of human and rabbit lymphocytes to low doses of X-rays was studied by the yields of dicentrics in first division metaphases. For both species, the dose-response curve was best fitted to the linear-quadratic model with a linear component predominating up to 67 and 42 rad respectively for man and rabbit. A calibration curve (5-400 rad) was obtained by combining the present results on man with previous data at higher doses. On the other hand, it appears that, at low doses, the radiosentivity of human lymphocytes is significantly higher than that of rabbit lymphocytes [fr

  4. The establishment and spread of myxomatosis and its effect on rabbit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M

    1986-12-15

    The establishment of myxomatosis, the spread of the disease and its effects on rabbit populations in Australia and in Britain are briefly reviewed. Though the disease is endemic, with regular outbreaks in most rabbit populations, its effect is now much less dramatic than previously. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the rate of spread of infection, the proportion of rabbits infected and the proportion dying from the disease are very much smaller than recorded in earlier outbreaks. The reasons for these changes are discussed, and the epidemiology of the disease in Britain is compared with that in Australia.

  5. Dying like rabbits: general determinants of spatio-temporal variability in survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy; Palomares, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    1. Identifying general patterns of how and why survival rates vary across space and time is necessary to truly understand population dynamics of a species. However, this is not an easy task given the complexity and interactions of processes involved, and the interpopulation differences in main survival determinants. 2. Here, using European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a model and information from local studies, we investigated whether we could make inferences about trends and drivers of survival of a species that are generalizable to large spatio-temporal scales. To do this, we first focused on overall survival and then examined cause-specific mortalities, mainly predation and diseases, which may lead to those patterns. 3. Our results show that within the large-scale variability in rabbit survival, there exist general patterns that are explained by the integration of factors previously known to be important at the local level (i.e. age, climate, diseases, predation or density dependence). We found that both inter- and intrastudy survival rates increased in magnitude and decreased in variability as rabbits grow old, although this tendency was less pronounced in populations with epidemic diseases. Some causes leading to these higher mortalities in young rabbits could be the stronger effect of rainfall at those ages, as well as, other death sources like malnutrition or infanticide. 4. Predation is also greater for newborns and juveniles, especially in population without diseases. Apart from the effect of diseases, predation patterns also depended on factors, such as, density, season, and type and density of predators. Finally, we observed that infectious diseases also showed general relationships with climate, breeding (i.e. new susceptible rabbits) and age, although the association type varied between myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease. 5. In conclusion, large-scale patterns of spatio-temporal variability in rabbit survival emerge from the combination

  6. Investigations of a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, BAFF and its receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available B-cell activation factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF is a major contributor to survival of B lymphocytes during development and maturation. A relationship between circulating BAFF levels and disease activity has been reported in patients with the autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Clinical trials targeting BAFF or its receptors are currently in progress. In order to further characterize a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus model of SLE, we investigated the expression of BAFF and its receptors in non-inbred, pedigreed rabbits derived from breeding and selection based on autoantibody responses. We immunized rabbits related to previous groups that developed autoantibodies and inflammatory responses after immunizations with peptides synthesized on multiple antigen-branched polylysine backbones. Blood and sera collected before immunization and after boosts were used for health monitoring, analyses of serum autoantibody responses by ELISA and immunofluorescence. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were studied by flow cytometry and were the source of mRNA for quantitative PCR analyses. We hypothesized that BAFF mRNA expression and serum BAFF levels measured indirectly through BAFF receptor binding might increase in autoantibody-producing rabbits. Immunized rabbits developed elevated levels of leucocyte populations, anti-nuclear, anti-dsDNA and other autoantibodies. BR3 mRNA levels in total PBMC decreased and BAFF levels remained low and unchanged in most immunized rabbits. By flow cytometry, percentages of BAFF positive cells decreased. Percentages of transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI decreased in most rabbits from all the immunized groups. The rabbit is an important model for human autoimmune and infectious diseases, and a high quality draft rabbit genome assembly was recently completed. Human disease models developed in non-inbred pedigreed animals are better able to reflect the complexities

  7. Expression of rabbit IL-4 by recombinant myxoma viruses enhances virulence and overcomes genetic resistance to myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, P J; Perkins, H D; Inglis, B; Stagg, R; McLaughlin, E; Collins, S V; Van Leeuwen, B H

    2004-06-20

    Rabbit IL-4 was expressed in the virulent standard laboratory strain (SLS) and the attenuated Uriarra (Ur) strain of myxoma virus with the aim of creating a Th2 cytokine environment and inhibiting the development of an antiviral cell-mediated response to myxomatosis in infected rabbits. This allowed testing of a model for genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits that have undergone 50 years of natural selection for resistance to myxomatosis. Expression of IL-4 significantly enhanced virulence of both virulent and attenuated virus strains in susceptible (laboratory) and resistant (wild) rabbits. SLS-IL-4 completely overcame genetic resistance in wild rabbits. The pathogenesis of SLS-IL-4 was compared in susceptible and resistant rabbits. The results support a model for resistance to myxomatosis of an enhanced innate immune response controlling virus replication and allowing an effective antiviral cell-mediated immune response to develop in resistant rabbits. Expression of IL-4 did not overcome immunity to myxomatosis induced by immunization.

  8. A Panel of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Reveals the Variety and Dynamic of Pluripotent States in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Osteil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional rabbit embryonic stem cell (ESC lines are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM of pre-implantation embryos using methods and culture conditions that are established for primate ESCs. In this study, we explored the capacity of the rabbit ICM to give rise to ESC lines using conditions similar to those utilized to generate naive ESCs in mice. On single-cell dissociation and culture in fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2-free, serum-supplemented medium, rabbit ICMs gave rise to ESC lines lacking the DNA-damage checkpoint in the G1 phase like mouse ESCs, and with a pluripotency gene expression profile closer to the rabbit ICM/epiblast profiles. These cell lines can be converted to FGF2-dependent ESCs after culture in conventional conditions. They can also colonize the rabbit pre-implantation embryo. These results indicate that rabbit epiblast cells can be coaxed toward different types of pluripotent stem cells and reveal the dynamics of pluripotent states in rabbit ESCs.

  9. Multiplex PCR assay discriminates rabbit, rat and squirrel meat in food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Mohammad Nasir Uddin; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hossain, M A Motalib; Asing, Asing; Sultana, Sharmin; Jahurul, M H A

    2017-12-01

    Rabbit meat is receiving increasing attention because it contains a high level of proteins with relatively little fat. On the other hand, squirrel meat is served in upper-class meals in certain countries, so is sold at higher prices. The other side of the coin is rat meat, which has family ties with rabbit and squirrel but poses substantial threats to public health because it is a potential carrier of several zoonotic organisms. Recently, rat meat was mislabelled and sold as lamb after chemical modification. Thus, the chances of rabbit and squirrel meat substitution by rat meat cannot be ruled out. For the first time, a multiplex PCR assay was developed in Malaysia for the discriminatory identification of rat, rabbit and squirrel in the food chain. Rabbit (123 bp), rat (108 bp) and squirrel (243 bp) targets were amplified from ATP6 and cytb genes, along with a eukaryotic internal control (141bp). The products were sequenced and cross-tested against 22 species. A total of 81 reference samples and 72 meatball specimens were screened to validate the assay. Analyte stability was evaluated through boiling, autoclaving and micro-oven cooking. The tested lower limits of detection were 0.01 ng DNA for pure meat and 0.1% for meatballs.

  10. The comparative safety of genipin versus UVA-riboflavin crosslinking of rabbit corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjing; Tang, Yun; Qiao, Jing; Li, Haili; Rong, Bei; Yang, Songlin; Wu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate, after 24 h, the safety of genipin or ultraviolet A (UVA)-riboflavin crosslinking of keratocytes and endothelial cells. Methods Fifteen New Zealand white rabbits were selected and divided into a PBS group (five rabbits), a 0.2% genipin crosslinking (GP-CXL) group (five rabbits), and a UVA-riboflavin crosslinking (UVA-CXL) group (five rabbits). In the GP-CXL and PBS groups, 0.2% genipin or PBS was applied to the corneal surface of the right eyes. In the UVA-CXL group, a clinical crosslinking procedure was used. Before and after surgery, the operated eyes of each group were characterized with confocal microscopy, and the corneal buttons were excised for endothelium staining and electron microscopy. Results The corneal endothelial cell density of the GP-CXL, UVA-CLX, and PBS groups changed. There was a statistically significant difference in thickness and changes in corneal endothelial cell density between the UVA-CXL group and the PBS group (pUVA-CXL group and the GP-CXL group (pUVA-CXL group. In the GP-CXL group, only active keratocytes were found and minimal endothelial cell damage. Conclusions Treatment of rabbit corneas with 0.2% genipin showed minimal toxicity toward keratocytes and endothelial cells. Genipin is safer than UVA-CXL for crosslinking of thin corneas. PMID:28761323

  11. Effects of Khaya senegalensis leaves on performance, carcass traits, hemtological and biochemical parameters in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wareth, A. A. A.; Hammad, Seddik; Ahmed, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing farmers today is to ensure adequate integration of natural resources into animal feeds. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Khaya senegalensis (KS) leaves on the performance of growing male rabbits, carcass traits and biochemical as well as hematological parameters. Thirty New Zealand White male growing rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits per group). Group I (control) received standard rabbit diet. Rabbits in group II and group III were fed standard rabbit diet supplemented with 35 % and 65 % KS leaves, respectively. All rabbits were fed daily for 25 days. The performance parameters and carcass criteria, including daily body weight gain, final body weight, and the percentage of dressing, were increased in rabbits fed 35 % KS when compared to the control group. Kidney and liver weight ratios increased significantly in group II but dropped in group III. Furthermore, liver enzymes - alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and kidney function parameters - urea, and creatinine - increased in both group II (significant P<0.05) and in group III (significant P<0.01) when compared to the control group. Moreover, KS leaves induced a significant increase (P<0.05) in the total white blood cell count, the percentage of granulocytes and the platelet count; whereas, the percentage of lymphocytes, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were not statistically significantly changed. This study demonstrates that the performance parameters and carcass traits are improved by the replacement of rabbit's diet with KS leaves. However, KS leaves may adversely affect liver and kidney function in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, further studies are required to elucidate the maximum tolerable and toxic, as well as lethal doses, and to isolate the pharmacologically active components from KS leaves. PMID

  12. In vitro stimulation of rabbit T lymphocytes by cells expressing herpes simplex antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, A K; Ling, N R; Nash, A A; Bachan, A; Wildy, P

    1982-04-01

    Lymphocyte stimulation responses to herpes antigens were studied using virus-infected X-irradiated cells. Rabbits were immunized with herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain HFEM) grown in RK 13 cells. For in vitro stimulation assay BHK21 cells were X-irradiated (15 000 rad) and infected with a high m.o.i. of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant (N102) of HFEM strain at the non-permissive temperature (38.5 degrees C) of virus. Virus antigens were expressed on the infected cells and there was no leakage of infectious virus into the medium at 38.5 degrees C. T lymphocytes from rabbits immunized with herpes simplex virus were specifically activated by herpesvirus-infected X-irradiated cells; lymph node cells from rabbits immunized with RK13 cells and from non-immune rabbits showed no proliferative response.

  13. Carcass traits and meat quality of growing rabbits in pens with and without different multilevel platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of the presence of wire or plastic mesh elevated platforms on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics, with particular attention to the oxidative status of growing rabbits. A total of 174 five-week old rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups with 2 replications (6 pens; 29 rabbits/pen: pens without platforms (NoP with a stocking density of 16 rabbits/m2 and pens with wire-mesh platforms (WP or plastic-mesh platforms (PP that were placed on 2 levels, with a stocking density of 16 rabbits/m2 on the floor or 9.14 rabbits/m2 when the platform were included. At 84 d rabbits were slaughtered. The slaughter traits and Longissimus lumborum (LL physical and chemical compositition were not affected by treatments. Rabbits from the PP group showed the highest retinol and γ-tocotrienol content on LL muscle, whereas the NoP ones showed a higher α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol level. The absence of platforms led to decreased (P<0.001 thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values and induced an improvement in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of linoleic, linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids were equal to those of the WP group (23.45, 3.75, 0.64% in NoP and 22.6, 4.14, 0.53% in WP, respectively but higher than in PP rabbits (20.86, 3.05, 0.45%, respectively. It can be concluded that the pens with elevated platforms provide greater possibilities for movement, which is beneficial from the viewpoint of animal welfare. However, this greater activity influences the oxidative status of the meat, decreasing the antioxidant content and worsening the lipid oxidation of rabbit meat.

  14. Clozapine-induced rabbit syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicek Hocaoglu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit syndrome (RS is an antipsychoticinduced rhythmic motion of the mouth/lips resembling the chewing movements of a rabbit. The movement consists of a vertical-only motion, at about 5 Hz, with no involvement of the tongue. Long-term exposure to typical antipsychotics has clearly been associated with RS, but little is known of the risk of RS due to exposure to newer atypical antipsychotics. There have been isolated reports of RS in patients treated with the atypical agents risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and clozapine. We present the case history of a 44-year old female patient treated for paranoid schizophrenia for 22 years and RS during her last 10-month clozapine treatment. Background information from the literature is also discussed.

  15. Farming for pests? Local and landscape-scale effects of grassland management on rabbit densities

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovan , Silviu O.; Barrio , Isabel C.; Ward , Alastair I.; Wheeler , Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In recent decades in the UK, there has been an increasing trend in numbers of the European wild rabbit, a significant agricultural pest typically associated with grassland habitats. However, the relationship between rabbit abundance and grassland management, in particular grazing, has not been sufficiently explained. We studied rabbit densities in seven pasture-dominated sites in north-east England between autumn and spring in two consecutive years, and used generalised li...

  16. Coronavirus-like particles in laboratory rabbits with different syndromes in The Netherlands (Coronavirus-like particles in rabbits).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.S. Teppema; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractVirus-like particles were identified from the plasma of rabbits which developed pleural effusion disease after inoculation with different strains of Treponema pallidum. These particles were considered coronavirus-like on the basis of their size, morphology, and buoyant density. Clinical

  17. Immunogenicity of Phleum pratense depigmented allergoid vaccines: experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, V; Gallego, M T; López-Matas, M A; Morales, M; Bel, I; García, N; Carnés, J

    2012-01-01

    Immunogenicity studies are based on accurate preclinical and clinical assessment of pharmaceutical products. The immunogenicity of modified allergen vaccines has not been fully elucidated, and the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Animal and human models have recently shown that depigmented allergoids induce specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G against individual allergens, thus supporting the clinical efficacy of these vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the production of specific IgG against individual antigens and their isoforms in rabbits injected with depigmented allergoid extracts of Phleum pratense pollen. Two New Zealand rabbits were immunized with depigmented-polymerized extracts adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide (Depigoid) of P pratense. Rabbits were injected 3 times (35 microg Phl p 5). Specific IgG titers against native, depigmented, and depigmented-polymerized extracts and individual allergens (rPhl p 1 and rPhl p 5a) were analyzed by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The capacity of these synthesized antibodies to recognize individual native and depigmented allergens and different isoforms was evaluated by immunoblot and 2-D analysis. All rabbits produced high titers of specific IgG against the 3 extracts. Rabbits injected with depigmented allergoids produced similar specific antibody titers against native, depigmented, and depigmented-polymerized extracts. Serum samples recognized individual allergens and their isoforms in the nonmodified extracts. Vaccines containing depigmented allergoid extracts of P pratense induce immunogenicity in vivo. The antibodies produced after injection of these extracts clearly recognized allergens and different isoforms in their native configuration.

  18. On-farm euthanasia practices and attitudes of commercial meat rabbit producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jessica; Percival, Aaron; Tapscott, Brian; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-16

    Appropriate and timely on-farm euthanasia is the responsibility of the producer, working together with their herd veterinarian. Unfortunately, validated methods for euthanasia of commercial meat rabbits are lacking and there are few educational materials available for producer training. Because euthanasia must be performed in a timely fashion to minimise suffering, it is critical to ensure that methods used are aesthetic, humane and effective. We surveyed Canadian meat rabbit producers for current on-farm euthanasia practices as well as attitudes towards the methods they employed and thoughts on novel euthanasia techniques. Surveys were distributed with a response rate of 26 per cent (n=26). Blunt force trauma was the most common euthanasia method used (54 per cent), followed by assisted manual cervical dislocation (31 per cent). Half of producers admitted to not having a euthanasia method in place for all age groups of rabbits, instead electing to let sick and injured rabbits die on their own. While some producers reported feeling highly skilled and satisfied with their current euthanasia method, 58 per cent reported concerns with their current method and 42 per cent desired alternative methods to be developed. Responses to additional questions on training and awareness of euthanasia resources indicated that veterinarians are not part of on-farm euthanasia planning for meat rabbits. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Pleural fluid exchange in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Gregg J; Robichaux, Amy; Lee, Y C Gary; Sanders, Jonathan R; Roselli, Robert J; Light, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The study was designed to better characterize pleural fluid absorption in rabbits with the following two objectives: to determine the relative absorption of saline versus high-protein solutions, and to identify the relative rates of absorption of dextran molecules of varying sizes. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits received a 12-mL intrapleural injection of saline solution and a 10% protein solution on opposite sides, each solution containing dextran molecules with varying MWs. At sacrifice at 1, 4, 8, 18 and 24 h, the volume of pleural fluid and the concentrations of the dextran molecules were determined. Saline was absorbed faster than the high-protein fluid (P higher than those in the protein solution at all times after injection (P = 0.005; P higher-MW dextrans were cleared more slowly than the lower-MW dextrans in a continuously graded manner. Saline was absorbed faster than a solution with a high protein content. There was a continuous spectrum in the rate of absorption of the dextran molecules, with the larger molecules being absorbed more slowly.

  20. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  1. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  2. Age-dependent variations of somatomedin-A activity in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrier, J.

    1978-01-01

    Somatomedin-A (SM-A) was assayed by Hall's method using chick embryo pelvis. The relatively high inorganic SO 4 concentration of rabbit sera (1.5 mM) interfered with the estimation of the relative potency R of SM activity. Separation of the serum stimulation period from radioactive sulfate incorporation (post-incubation system) thus permitted this inconvenience to be eliminated. Using this technique rabbit SM-A activity from birth to 180 days of age was estimated. The sera from 0 to 2-day old newborn rabbits inhibited 35 SO 4 uptake by chick pelvis cartilage. A transition period between 3 and 5 days of age after which the sera obtained became stimulant was observed. SM-A activity increased slowly from 0.5 to about 1 U/ml in the age period between 10 and 180 days, but there was considerable individual variation

  3. Studies on experimental infection of rabbits with irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola giganticas Cobbold, 1885

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; Srivastava, V.K.; Verma, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Worm burden, gross pathology and serological response of rabbits infected with gamma irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica has been studied with a view to prepare a vaccine against the pathogen. Infection with metacercariae irradiated at 2 or 3 kr caused reduced worm burden and gross pathology and produced antibody titres comparable to the titres in rabbits infected with normal cysts. Infection with metacercariae irradiated at 4 kr resulted in total absence of worm burden and caused no rise of antibody titre in the sera of rabbits. In every case after infection, worm burden was progressively eliminated over long duration. The pathogenicity was comparatively severe in rabbits infected with normal cysts. (M.G.B.)

  4. Experimental atheromatous plaque imaging with 99mTc labelled low density lipoproteins in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanshi; Chen Yu; Wu Chunshan; Zhang Yijin; Liu Dexuan

    1996-01-01

    Atheromatous plaque imaging with 99m Tc labeled low density lipoproteins ( 99m Tc-LDL) were evaluated in rabbits for its clinical prospect. The 99m Tc-LDL atheromatous plaque imaging were performed in 9 rabbit models of atherosclerosis and 4 controls. The imagings were compared with autoradiographic and pathological results. The rabbit models of atherosclerosis by high cholesterol and high fat diet were successful in 100%. The atheromatous plaques well visualized in 8 of 9 rabbit models 24 hours after injection. The site and density of radioactive accumulation was closely correlated in autoradiography also. There was no radioactive spot in 4 controls. 99m Tc-LDL imaging may have a significant value for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis

  5. Impact of rearing mangement on health in domestic rabbits: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Schlolaut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High mortality in rabbit rearing is not only an economical problem but also an animal welfare issue.  Without doubt, certain common rearing practices are the main reasons for the high mortality rates.  In this review, we point out different and commonly used management practices, which neither represent adequate housing conditions for the animals’ behavioural requirements nor correspond to their nutritional needs, and discuss possibilities to reduce the risk of disease. (1  Usually the doe is forced to build the nursery nest in the cage or in a box with a permanently open entrance, often not protected from the light.  This can lead to perinatal mortality due to disturbed maternal behaviour, such as failure to build a proper nest, depositing the kits outside the nest, or infanticide. (2  Continuous housing of the doe with the kits does not conform to this species’ pattern of unusually limited maternal care. Stimulated by olfactory and acoustic signals emanating from the nest, the doe disturbs the inactivity of the kits by her frequent entries to the nest or attempts to close the entrance. Cooling of the kits caused by maladaptive maternal behaviour under such unnatural conditions is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity during the nursing period. (3  When the doe is left to nurse the kits for longer than four weeks, which does not conform to the reproductive biology of the rabbit, kit morbidity is caused by the following factors: (a Prolonged mother-offspring contact increases the risk of the kits becoming infected with pathogens such as coccidiosis, EPEC and pasteurellosis persisting in the doe. (b Pre-disposition of the kits to bacterial enteropathies is encouraged by the retarded development of the enzymatic system, delayed establishment of a stable gut flora (due to the use of wood shavings or straw as nest material and by consumption of the doe’s feed. (c The increased energy demands of lactation as well as

  6. Phase separation of X-irradiated lenses of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.I.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.; Benedek, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    The phase separation temperature (Tcat) was studied as a function of time (age) after the administration of a single dose of radiation (2000 rad), which induces cataract in the rabbit lens. In the normal unirradiated lens, Tcat decreases linearly with age at a rate (DTcat/dt) approximately 2.2 degrees/week. In the irradiated lens, Tcat initially decreases with age much less than the normal lens, then rises sharply with age at the time of the appearance of opacity in the living rabbit eye. We suggest that the phase separation temperature may serve as a sensitive and early indicator of cataractogenic processes in the lens

  7. Mammary blood flow regulation in the nursing rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.; Creasy, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac output and mammary blood flow distribution prior to and after suckling were studied in 10 nursing rabbits by means of radionuclide-labeled microspheres. Suckling was followed by a 5.8% rise in cardiac output and a 20.4% rise in mammary blood flow. Determinations of intraglandular blood flow distribution have shown that there was a 43% increase in blood flow to the glands suckled from as compared to a 22.7% rise to the contralateral untouched glands and a 4.9% rise in the remainder of untouched glands. The conclusion is that a local mechanism may be involved in the regulation of mammary blood flow in the nursing rabbit

  8. Effects of Variants in and Genes on Growth, Carcass, and Meat Quality Traits in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chao Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Appetite-related neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC and Neuropeptide Y (NPY are essential for regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of variants in POMC and NPY genes on growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of six SNPs were identified for POMC (n = 2 and NPY (n = 4 genes by direct sequencing. Three SNPs were subsequently genotyped by using MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay in 235 individuals, which belong to three meat rabbit breeds, including 93 Ira rabbits; 81 Champagne rabbits and 61 Tianfu black rabbits. The SNP c.112-12G>T was in intron-exon boundaries (intron 1 of POMC gene, and the association analysis showed that individuals with TT genotype had a greater 84 d body weight (BW84, eviscerated weight and semi-eviscerated weight than those with GT genotype (pC SNP, which was in complete linkage with other three SNPs (g.1491G>A, g.1525G>T and g.1530C>T in intron 1 of NPY gene, was significantly correlated with eviscerated slaughter percentage and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage in rabbits, and the individuals with CC genotype had a better performance than CG genotype (p<0.05. These findings would provide primary clues for the biological roles of POMC and NPY underlying the rabbit growth-related traits.

  9. The effect of defibrotide on thromboembolism in the pulmonary vasculature of mice and rabbits and in the cerebral vasculature of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, W.; Gresele, P.; Momi, S.; Bianchi, G.; Page, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    1. Administration of bovine thrombin (100 u kg-1) into the carotid artery of rabbits induces a sustained accumulation of 111 Indium-labelled platelets within the cranial vasculature over the subsequent 3 h. 2. Intracarotid (i.c.) administration of defibrotide (64 mg kg-1 bolus plus 64 mg kg-1 h-1 for 1 h) prior to i.c. thrombin (100 u kg-1) significantly reduces the ability of thrombin to induce cranial thromboembolism in rabbits. 3. Intravenous (i.v.) administration of thrombin (20 u kg-1) in rabbits induces a reversible accumulation of radiolabelled platelets into the thoracic circulation which is significantly reduced by i.v. administration of defibrotide (64 mg kg-1 bolus plus 64 mg kg-1 h-1 for 1 h) prior to i.v. thrombin. In contrast, platelet accumulation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 20 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) or platelet activating factor (PAF; 50 ng kg-1, i.v.) is not significantly affected by this treatment. 4. Intravenous administration of the nitric oxide (NO)-synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg kg-1) potentiates platelet accumulation induced by low dose thrombin (10 u kg-1, i.v.) within the pulmonary vasculature of rabbits. The potentiated response is significantly abrogated following pretreatment with defibrotide (64 mg kg-1 bolus plus 64 mg kg-1 h-1 for 1 h, i.v.). 5. Intravenous injection of human thrombin (1250 u kg-1) to mice induces death within the majority of animals which is significantly reduced by pretreatment with defibrotide (150-175 mg kg-1, i.v.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8306102

  10. Establishment of a new model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xianying; Yin Meizhen; Zhang Lina; Li Shipu; Cao Yang

    2006-01-01

    To establish an experimental model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro, the osteoblasts were isolated from the calvarial bone of a 15-day old rabbit using a method of culturing the bone pieces in a medium after they had been digested by an enzyme for 15 min. The acquired cells were assayed by cell morphology, alkaline phosphatase activity and production of a mineralized matrix. The results showed that the cells had the morphologic characteristics and some biological behaviours of osteoblasts. Based on the primary isolation of osteoblasts from bone and combining digestion with explants, a novel model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro was established, which is easy, efficient and effective. This model can be used in many studies of osteogenesis mechanisms and bone replacement materials. (communication)

  11. Persistence of the immune response after MenACWY-CRM vaccination and response to a booster dose, in adolescents, children and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Roger; Keshavan, Pavitra; Welsch, Jo Anne; Han, Linda; Smolenov, Igor

    2016-05-03

    Persistence of bactericidal antibodies following vaccination is extremely important for protection against invasive meningococcal disease, given the epidemiology and rapid progression of meningococcal infection. We present an analysis of antibody persistence and booster response to MenACWY-CRM, in adolescents, children and infants, from 7 clinical studies. Immunogenicity was assessed using the serum bactericidal assay with both human and rabbit complement. Post-vaccination hSBA titers were high, with an age- and serogroup-specific decline in titers up to 1 y and stable levels up to 5 y The waning of hSBA titers over time was more pronounced among infants and toddlers and the greatest for serogroup A. However, rSBA titers against serogroup A were consistently higher and showed little decline over time, suggesting that protection against this serogroup may be sustained. A single booster dose of MenACWY-CRM administered at 3 to 5 y induced a robust immune response in all age groups.

  12. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  13. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  14. A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Californian rabbits in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Liu, Hongbin; Fang, Sufang; Gu, Xiaolong; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chunling; Tao, Geru; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis is caused by infection with one or usually several Eimeria species, parasitizing in hepatobiliary ducts or intestinal epithelium of rabbits. To date, 11 species of rabbit coccidia have been well documented. Here we report a new species of Eimeria from rabbits. Sporulated oocysts were ellipsoidal to slightly ovoidal, 37.4 (32.6-41.2) μm in length, 23.5 (20.9-25.5) μm in width, with a shape index (length/width) 1.6 (1.43-1.91) and smooth, bilayered, homogeneously thick wall. The micropyle was obvious and with an inner diameter of 6.2 (5.0-7.5) μm. Both oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal to elongate, 17.2 (13.2-20.0) μm long and 8.4 (7.5-9.1) μm wide, with a shape index (length/width) of 2.1 (1.74-2.21) and the presence of Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. The prepatent period was 132h. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 18S rDNA sequence of the new species clustered together with the 11 rabbit Eimeria species into a clade. However, ITS-1 sequence of the new species shared low similarities (27.1%-30%) with those of 11 rabbit Eimeria species. As the data above supported the erection of a new species, we named it as Eimeria kongi n. sp., in honor of Fanyao Kong, a Chinese parasitologist. The finding of the new species has important implications for the diagnosis and prevention of rabbit coccidiosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Critical assessment of the efficiency of CD34 and CD133 antibodies for enrichment of rabbit hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašíček, Jaromír; Shehata, Medhat; Schnabl, Susanne; Hilgarth, Martin; Hubmann, Rainer; Jäger, Ulrich; Bauer, Miroslav; Chrenek, Peter

    2018-06-08

    Rabbits have many hereditary diseases common to humans and are therefore a valuable model for regenerative disease and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) therapies. Currently, there is no substantial data on the isolation and/or enrichment of rabbit HSCs. This study was initiated to evaluate the efficiency of the commercially available anti-CD34 and anti-CD133 antibodies for the detection and potential enrichment of rabbit HSCs from peripheral blood. PBMCs from rabbit and human blood were labelled with different clones of anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies (AC136, 581 and 8G12) and rabbit polyclonal CD34 antibody (pCD34) and anti-human CD133 monoclonal antibodies (AC133 and 293C3). Flow cytometry showed a higher percentage of rabbit CD34 + cells labelled by AC136 in comparison to the clone 581 and pCD34 (Penrichment of rabbit CD34 + cells using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). The enrichment of the rabbit CD34 + cells after sorting was low in comparison to human samples (2.4% vs. 39.6%). PCR analyses confirmed the efficient enrichment of human CD34 + cells and the low expression of CD34 mRNA in rabbit positive fraction. In conclusion, the tested antibodies might be suitable for detection, but not for sorting the rabbit CD34 + HSCs and new specific anti-rabbit CD34 antibodies are needed for efficient enrichment of rabbit HSCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-08-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2011 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  17. The effects of a slow release GnRH agonist implant on male rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Groeger, Gesa; Wehrend, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Surgical castration is done in male pet rabbits for reproduction control, to reduce inter-male aggression and to control hyper-sexuality, territory marking and aggression against humans. Alternatives to surgical castration are requested because of a relatively great anaesthetic risk in rabbits....... Long-term application of a GnRH agonist implant results in a fully reversible "hormonal" castration in male dogs, cats, boars and many other species. Therefore, the present study using New Zealand White hybrid and German Giant rabbits aimed to investigate the effects of a 4.7mg deslorelin implant...

  18. Cerebellar nodulectomy impairs spatial memory of vestibular and optokinetic stimulation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmack, N H; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Fushiki, H; Pettorossi, V E; Yakhnitsa, V

    2002-02-01

    Natural vestibular and optokinetic stimulation were used to investigate the possible role of the cerebellar nodulus in the regulation and modification of reflexive eye movements in rabbits. The nodulus and folium 9d of the uvula were destroyed by surgical aspiration. Before and after nodulectomy the vertical and horizontal vestibuloocular reflexes (VVOR, HVOR) were measured during sinusoidal vestibular stimulation about the longitudinal (roll) and vertical (yaw) axes. Although the gain of the HVOR (G(HVOR) = peak eye movement velocity/peak head velocity) was not affected by the nodulectomy, the gain of the VVOR (G(VVOR)) was reduced. The gains of the vertical and horizontal optokinetic reflexes (G(VOKR), G(HOKR)) were measured during monocular, sinusoidal optokinetic stimulation (OKS) about the longitudinal and vertical axes. Following nodulectomy, there was no reduction in G(VOKR) or G(HOKR). Long-term binocular OKS was used to generate optokinetic afternystagmus, OKAN II, that lasts for hours. After OKAN II was induced, rabbits were subjected to static pitch and roll, to determine how the plane and velocity of OKAN II is influenced by a changing vestibular environment. During static pitch, OKAN II slow phase remained aligned with earth-horizontal. This was true for normal and nodulectomized rabbits. During static roll, OKAN II remained aligned with earth-horizontal in normal rabbits. During static roll in nodulectomized rabbits, OKAN II slow phase developed a centripetal vertical drift. We examined the suppression and recovery of G(VVOR) following exposure to conflicting vertical OKS for 10-30 min. This vestibular-optokinetic conflict reduced G(VVOR) in both normal and nodulectomized rabbits. The time course of recovery of G(VVOR) after conflicting OKS was the same before and after nodulectomy. In normal rabbits, the head pitch angle, at which peak OKAN II velocity occurred, corresponded to the head pitch angle maintained during long-term OKS. If the head was

  19. Rabbit model for human EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS): sequential autopsy analysis and characterization of IL-2-dependent cell lines established from herpesvirus papio-induced fatal rabbit lymphoproliferative diseases with HPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Jin, Zaishun; Onoda, Sachiyo; Joko, Hiromasa; Teramoto, Norihiro; Ohara, Nobuya; Oda, Wakako; Tanaka, Takehiro; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Koirala, Tirtha Raj; Oka, Takashi; Kondo, Eisaku; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu

    2003-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD). To elucidate the true nature of fatal LPD observed in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-induced rabbit hemophagocytosis, reactive or neoplastic, we analyzed sequential development of HVP-induced rabbit LPD and their cell lines. All of the seven Japanese White rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP died of fatal LPD 18 to 27 days after inoculation. LPD was also accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in five of these seven rabbits. Sequential autopsy revealed splenomegaly and swollen lymph nodes, often accompanied by bleeding, which developed in the last week. Atypical lymphoid cells infiltrated many organs with a "starry sky" pattern, frequently involving the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. HVP-small RNA-1 expression in these lymphoid cells was clearly demonstrated by a newly developed in situ hybridization (ISH) system. HVP-ISH of immunomagnetically purified lymphoid cells from spleen or lymph nodes revealed HVP-EBER1+ cells in each CD4+, CD8+, or CD79a+ fraction. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. HVP-DNA was detected in the tissues and peripheral blood from the infected rabbits by PCR or Southern blot analysis. Clonality analysis of HVP-induced LPD by Southern blotting with TCR gene probe revealed polyclonal bands, suggesting polyclonal proliferation. Six IL-2-dependent rabbit T-cell lines were established from transplanted scid mouse tumors from LPD. These showed latency type I/II HVP infection and had normal karyotypes except for one line, and three of them showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. These data suggest that HVP-induced fatal LPD in rabbits is reactive polyclonally in nature.

  20. Digestion, growth performance and caecal fermentation in growing rabbits fed diets containing foliage of browse trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Abu Hafsa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding dried foliage (leaves and petioles of Acacia saligna, Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera on the performance, digestibility, N utilisation, caecal fermentation and microbial profiles in New Zealand White (NZW rabbits. One hundred weaned male NZW rabbits weighing 819.2±16.6 g and aged 35±1 d were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 25 rabbits each. Rabbits were fed on pelleted diets containing 70% concentrate mixture and 30% Egyptian berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum hay (Control diet or one of the other 3 experimental diets, where 50% of berseem hay was replaced with A. saligna (AS, L. leucocephala (LL or M. oleifera (MO. Compared to Control diet, decreases in dry matter (DM; P=0.004, organic matter (P=0.028, crude protein (CP; P=0.001, neutral detergent fibre (P=0.033 and acid detergent fibre (P=0.011 digestibility were observed with the AS diet. However, DM and CP digestibility were increased by 3% with the MO diet, and N utilisation was decreased (P<0.05 with AS. Rabbits fed AS and LL diets showed decreased (P=0.001 average daily gain by 39 and 7%, respectively vs. Control. Feed conversion was similar in Control and MO rabbits, whereas rabbits fed AS diet ate up to 45% more feed (P=0.002 than Control rabbits to gain one kg of body weight. Caecal ammonia-N was increased (P=0.002 with LL, while acetic acid was decreased (P=0.001 with AS diet vs. other treatments. Caecal E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria counts were decreased with MO by about 44 and 51%, respectively, vs. Control. In conclusion, under the study conditions, tree foliage from M. oleifera and L. leucocephala are suitable fibrous ingredients to be included up to 150 g/kg in the diets of growing rabbits, and can safely replace 50% of berseem hay in diets of NZW rabbits without any adverse effect on their growth performance. Foliage from M. oleifera had a better potential as a feed for rabbits than that from L

  1. Preference of rabbit does among different nest materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Farkas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nest quality is important for the survival of new-born rabbits. Nesting material in rabbit farms generally consists of wood shavings, which is completely different from the dry grass used by the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The aim of the experiments was to examine which nest materials are preferred by rabbit does when building their nest. In experiment 1, the choice of multiparous rabbit does (n=37 among nest boxes bedded with different nesting materials was monitored. In each pen (1.0×1.83 m 1 doe and 4 nest boxes (0.37×0.23×0.31 m with different nest materials (meadow hay [H], wheat straw [S], fine fibre material [Lignocel®, L] or wood shavings [W] were placed 3 days before the expected parturition (gestation length is about 31 d in the Pannon White breed. Some 48.6% of the does kindled in nest boxes that contained pure materials (L: 40.5%, S: 5.4%, H: 2.7%, and 51.3% of the does kindled in nest boxes where the nest materials of different nest boxes were mixed by the does (S with L: 21.5%, S with L and H: 5.4%, W with L: 8.1%, L with H and S: 5.4%. Does preferred kindling in the nest box bedded with L, and most of them refused the nest box with W. In experiment 2/a (n=32 does and 2/b (n=25 does, each pen (1×0.91 m was equipped with 3 and 2 hay racks and filled with H, S or L, and H or S, respectively. The experiments lasted from the 27th day of pregnancy until the day of parturition and 24-h video recordings (10 does/experiment were evaluated throughout the experiment. The events of carrying the nest materials from the hay racks were registered. In experiment 2/a, the frequency of nest material carrying was highest on the day of parturition. The preferred nest material was L (compared to H and S on each experimental day except day 30 of pregnancy. At the day of kindling, 87.5, 6.3 and 6.3% of the nests contained pure L, mixed L-H and L-S, respectively. In experiment 2/b, the frequency of nest material carrying (mostly S

  2. DETECTING PRESENCE OF C/T POLYMORPHISM AT POSITION 34 SECOND INTRON OF THE MYOSTATIN GENE IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka MARKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin gene is a negative regulator of skeletal muscles growth. It is responsible for normal development of skeletal muscles. The objective of the research was to detect variation of C/T at position 34 of the second intron of the MNST gene in rabbits. The research included 114 rabbits: 54 of them Polish Rabbits, and 60 of them White Flemish Giants, examined by means of the PCR-RFLP method using AluI restriction enzyme. We found allele C with a frequency of 0.6184 of the examined rabbit population, and allele T with a frequency of 0.3816 of the examined rabbits.

  3. Common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of irradiated human skin and ventilated isolated rabbit lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, A.; Wendel, M.; Knels, L.; Knuschke, P.; Mehner, M.; Koch, T.; Boller, D.; Koch, P.; Koch, E.

    2005-08-01

    A compact common path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system based on a broadband superluminescence diode is used for biomedical imaging. The epidermal thickening of human skin after exposure to ultraviolet radiation is measured to proof the feasibility of FD-OCT for future substitution of invasive biopsies in a long term study on natural UV skin protection. The FD-OCT system is also used for imaging lung parenchyma. FD-OCT images of a formalin fixated lung show the same alveolar structure as scanning electron microscopy images. In the ventilated and blood-free perfused isolated rabbit lung FD-OCT is used for real-time cross-sectional image capture of alveolar mechanics throughout tidal ventilation. The alveolar mechanics changing from alternating recruitment-derecruitment at zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to persistent recruitment after applying a PEEP of 5 cm H2O is observed in the OCT images.

  4. The possibility of using irradiated untraditional feed-stuffs in rabbits nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekawy, H.M.S.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present work was designed and carried out at food irradiation research department , National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Nasr City, Cairo , Egypt , in co-operation with animal production department, faculty of agriculture, Moshtohor, Benha University. The main target of the present study was to evaluate, improve and upgrade the utilization of olive cake and the possibility of replacing part of (clover hay) in rabbits diets by either non-or irradiated processed olive cake with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 20 and 60 kGy . The performance of growing rabbits digestibility, nutritive values of experimental diets, alongside some blood haematological and biochemical parameters, violability rate and economical efficiency were also studied. The growing rabbits were fed on diets without olive cake by - product (control diet) , or with 15% raw or processed olive cake at the above mentioned radiation dose (20 and 60 kGy) from cobalt-60 radioisotopes. Accordingly, a total of 4 experimental diets were used. The experimental diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous ( ∼ 17% CP), iso - caloric (∼2500 kcal DE/kg diet) and to , satisfy the nutrients requirements of growing rabbits according to agriculture ministry decree (1996)

  5. Esophageal replacement by hydroxylated bacterial cellulose patch in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changlai; Liu, Fang; Qian, Wenbo; Wang, Yingjie; You, Qingsheng; Zhang, Tianyi; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To repair esophageal defects by hydroxylated and kombucha-synthesized bacterial cellulose (HKBC) patch in a rabbit model. Semicircular esophageal defects 1 cm in length of the cervical esophagus were initially created in 18 Japanese big-ear rabbits and then repaired with HKBC patch grafts. The clinical outcomes including survival rate, weight change, food intake, and hematological and radiologic evaluation were observed. After X-ray evaluation, the rabbits were sacrificed sequentially at 1, 3, and 6 months for histopathologic analysis with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Survival rate during the first month was 88.9% (n = 16). Two rabbits died from anastomotic leakage during the entire follow-up. Postoperatively, feeding function and body weight were gradually restored in the surviving animals. No hematological abnormalities were found, and no obvious anastomotic leakage, stenosis, or obstruction was observed under X-ray examination. The histopathologic results showed a progressive regeneration of the esophagus in the graft area, where the neo-esophagus tissue had characteristics similar to native esophageal tissue after 3 months of surgery. HKBC is beneficial for esophageal tissue regeneration and may be a promising material for esophageal reconstruction.

  6. A study of growth and some blood parameters in Czech rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tůmová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to describe selected performance characteristics of Czech local breeds and to compare these breeds with a commercial hybrid. Seven original Czech breeds were included in the study: the giant breed Moravian Blue (MB, the medium breeds Czech White (CW, Czech Spotted (CS, Czech Solver (CSo, Moravian White of Brown Eye (MW and the small breeds Czech Black Guard Hair (CB and Czech Gold (CG and the Hyplus rabbits. Growth of the rabbits was significantly (P=0.001 affected by genotype; MB and CW breeds grew non-significantly faster than Hyplus. The highest daily weight gain was observed in MB (42.6 g/d and the lowest was in CB (23.9 g/d. Digestibility of ether extract was significantly (P=0.001 affected by genotype, with the lowest value for MB (0.823. Slaughter characteristics mostly correlated with live weight; the highest dressing-out percentage was in the small breed CG (62.0% and the lowest in the Hyplus rabbit (57.0%. Of the biochemical traits evaluated, only cholesterol concentration was significantly (P=0.041 affected by genotype, with the highest values observed in Hyplus rabbits (4.2 mmol/L.

  7. Development of the New Zealand White Rabbit Eye: I. Pre- and Postnatal Development of Eye Tunics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, M; Haddad, S; Emam, M

    2017-10-01

    The New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit has been and is right now regularly utilized in ophthalmic surgery evaluation. Inside NZW rabbit eye, the visibility of ocular structures throughout surgical procedure is fantastic. Younger rabbits are used in different ages for the evaluation of ophthalmic surgery. Complete studies of ocular development in the NZW rabbits have not been reported previously. The aim of the present investigation was to describe the major landmarks and the time course of the pre- and post-natal development of the complete eye tunics of the NZW rabbit to give a superb model as well as a fruitful area for further ophthalmological investigations. Serial histological sections of NZW rabbit prenatal (E13-E28) and post-natal (P1-P14) stages were examined, respectively. The eye of the NZW rabbit developed in a similar manner to that of the human and domestic animals eyes; the principal differences were at the time of occurrence of certain developmental events, absence of pigmentation which represent an exploited benefit for ophthalmic surgery, remarkable Bowman's membrane at E25, poor developed ciliary stroma and juvenile retinal layer until P9. In human, the basic morphogenetic processes of the development of eye tunics are completed towards the end of the first half of gestation period. However, the latter represents the beginning stage of the development of eye tunics in the rabbit. Thus, allowing various extensive ophthalmic researches to be performed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF RABBITS FED ON DIETS OF GRADUAL LEVELS OF BARLEY GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-Adawy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight male New Zealand White rabbits of 6 weeks age (BW 875 ± 28.3 g were randomly allocated among six groups in different levels of barley grains (BG; 0 (B0, 5 (B5, 10 (B10, 15 (B15, 20 (B20, 25% (B25 of the total diet on growth performance and carcass composition of rabbits . The highest live BW value (P < 0.05 was obtained in B20 rabbits, whereas the highest feed intake (P < 0.05 value was obtained in B25 rabbits followed by those fed on the other diets. The better-feed conversion ratio (FCR was obtained in B20 rabbits followed by those of B15 and B25. Animals of B20 had better FCR than those of the other experimental diets. The relative contribution of soft feces to dry matter or crude protein intake differed (P < 0.05 among the experimental diets. The caecal turnover rate was increased (P < 0.05 in B15 and B20 rabbits than those other diets. The per-slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were differed (P < 0.05 among the experimental groups and highest values were recorded in B20 rabbits. Data suggested that a partial replacement of corn grains (CG by 20% BG in rabbit diets was increased live body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio.

  9. Myxoma virus in the European rabbit: interactions between the virus and its susceptible host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Marianne M; Werden, Steven J; McFadden, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a poxvirus that evolved in Sylvilagus lagomorphs, and is the causative agent of myxomatosis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This virus is not a natural pathogen of O. cuniculus, yet is able to subvert the host rabbit immune system defenses and cause a highly lethal systemic infection. The interaction of MV proteins and the rabbit immune system has been an ideal model to help elucidate host/poxvirus interactions, and has led to a greater understanding of how other poxvirus pathogens are able to cause disease in their respective hosts. This review will examine how MV causes myxomatosis, by examining a selection of the identified immunomodulatory proteins that this virus expresses to subvert the immune and inflammatory pathways of infected rabbit hosts.

  10. Alternatives to Autograft Evaluated in a Rabbit Segmental Bone Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    mesenchymal stem cells for off-the-shelf bone tissue engineering application. Biomaterials 33(9):2656–2672. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.12.025 14...segmental bone defects in the rabbit with vascularized tissue engineered bone . Biomaterials 31(6):1171– 1179. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.10.043 International Orthopaedics (SICOT) ...ORIGINAL PAPER Alternatives to autograft evaluated in a rabbit segmental bone defect Jennifer S. McDaniel1 & Marcello Pilia1 & Vivek Raut2 & Jeffrey

  11. Using light and melatonin in the management of New Zealand White rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mousa-Balabel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lighting system is a stimulant for reproduction in some species (Horses and an inhibitor for others (Sheep. This study started on September 1st and planned to study the effects of different lighting regimes and melatonin treatment on the receptivity and performance of 78 (60-does and 18-bucks New Zealand White rabbits, which were reared in a private Rabbitary in Menuofia Governorate, Egypt. These rabbits were randomly assigned to six treatment groups of 10 does and three bucks for each (8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours light (HL and melatonin- treated. Ejaculate traits, sexual activity of bucks, sexual receptivity and reproductive performance of does were recorded. Results revealed that exposure of rabbits to long photoperiods (14 and 16HL or treatment with melatonin improved the quantity and quality of ejaculate traits and buck sexual activity. Moreover, does sexual receptivity, feed intake, litter size and weight at birth and weaning were increased by long photoperiods (14 and 16HL or treatment with melatonin. On the other hand, gestation period and pre-weaning mortality rate were decreased. It can be concluded that application of long photoperiods is beneficial to rabbit producers and 14 HL : 10 hours dark is optimal for satisfying the biological requirements of the rabbits. Finally, the light schedules can be used for biostimulation instead of melatonin.

  12. Anatomical Comparison of the Renal Arteries in the Rabbit and European Hare

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    Flešárová S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the level of origin of the renal arteries in the rabbit and hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerization of the medium, the maceration was carried out in KOH solution. We found variable levels of the origin of renal arteries in the rabbit, in the hare and between both species. In the rabbit, the right renal artery originated at the level of the second lumbar vertebra in 70 % of the cases and at the level of the first lumbar vertebra in 30 % of the cases, and the left-sided renal artery originated in 60 % of the cases at the level of the second lumbar vertebra and at the level of the third lumbar vertebra in 40 % of the cases. In the hare, the bilateral renal arteries originated at the level of the second lumbar vertebra. According to the results, it can be concluded that the origin level of the renal arteries from the abdominal aorta is more variable in the domesticated rabbit in comparison with the hare.

  13. Study of protective effects of melatonin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, J.; Khan, W.; Bakhtiar, S.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effects of melatonin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Clinico Pathologic Laboratory, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from Apr to Jun 2015. Material and Methods: Eighteen rabbits were divided into three groups, each consisting of six rabbits. Baseline serum urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium were measured. Rabbits were weighed for dose calculation. A single dose of cisplatin 10mg/kg was given as I/P injection to the toxic group. The protective group received 5 mg/kg I/P melatonin for three days. Rabbits were sacrificed 72 hours after the cisplatin dose and both kidneys were sent for histopathology. Statistical analysis was carried out by using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and SPSS version 21. Student's t-test and one way ANOVA, followed by 'Post Hoc Tukey' test was used for biochemical parameters, while Chi Square' test was used for histopathological comparison. Results: Moderate nephrotoxicity (grade-II) was seen in the toxic group, with substantial elevations of serum urea and creatinine (p<0.001), and serum sodium and potassium (p<0.01). Melatonin ameliorated the renal injury. Conclusion: The protective effects of melatonin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity were due to its antioxidant properties. (author)

  14. The effect of transport on the quality of rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Składanowska-Baryza, Joanna; Ludwiczak, Agnieszka; Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Ewa; Kołodziejski, Paweł; Bykowska, Marta; Stanisz, Marek

    2018-04-01

    The analyzed material included 40 hybrid rabbits slaughtered at the age of 90 days. The control group was transported directly after weaning, while the transport group was transported directly prior to slaughter. The experiment was designed to assess the transport stress, carcass and meat quality implications, taking into account the muscle type and sex. The transported animals were characterized by a higher level of blood cortisol, glucose and triglycerides (P meat were affected by the transport (P meat from the control group was characterized by greater plasticity compared to the transport group (P = 0.003). The chemical composition of rabbit meat was not changed by the effect of transport (P = 0.643-0.979). To conclude, the quality traits of meat from the transported hybrid rabbits clearly indicated the development of dark firm and dry-like lower quality of meat. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Healthy rabbits are susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus infection and infected cells proliferate in immunosuppressed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gulfaraz; Ahmed, Waqar; Philip, Pretty S; Ali, Mahmoud H; Adem, Abdu

    2015-02-18

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus implicated in the pathogenesis of several human malignancies. However, due to the lack of a suitable animal model, a number of fundamental questions pertaining to the biology of EBV remain poorly understood. Here, we explore the potential of rabbits as a model for EBV infection and investigate the impact of immunosuppression on viral proliferation and gene expression. Six healthy New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated intravenously with EBV and blood samples collected prior to infection and for 7 weeks post-infection. Three weeks after the last blood collection, animals were immunosuppressed with daily intramuscular injections of cyclosporin A at doses of 20 mg/kg for 15 days and blood collected twice a week from each rabbit. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and tissues from all major organs were collected for subsequent analysis. Following intravenous inoculation, all 6 rabbits seroconverted with raised IgG and IgM titres to EBV, but viral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could only be detected intermittently. Following immunosuppression however, EBV DNA could be readily detected in PBMCs from all 4 rabbits that survived the treatment. Quantitative PCR indicated an increase in EBV viral load in PBMCs as the duration of immunosuppression increased. At autopsy, splenomegaly was seen in 3/4 rabbits, but spleens from all 4 rabbit were EBV PCR positive. EBER-in situ hybridization and immunoshistochemistry revealed the presence of a large number of EBER-positive and LMP-1 positive lymphoblasts in the spleens of 3/4 rabbits. To a lesser extent, EBER-positive cells were also seen in the portal tract regions of the liver of these rabbits. Western blotting indicated that EBNA-1 and EBNA-2 were also expressed in the liver and spleen of infected animals. EBV can infect healthy rabbits and the infected cells proliferate when the animals are immunocompromised. The infected cells expressed several EBV

  16. Ocular injury by transient formaldehyde exposure in a rabbit eye model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ju Lai

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is frequently used in sterilizing surgical instruments and materials. Exposure to FA is highly concerned for eye tissues. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were examined for changes after FA exposure. Our results showed that cell survival decreased 7 days after transient 3 min exposure to more than 100 ppm FA by trypan blue staining while MTT assay detected significant decrease at 20 ppm at 24 hours observation. The decrease of cell survival rate was concentration (up to 600 ppm- and observation time (1-7 day- dependent. The cell number decreased after 100 ppm FA exposure for more than 10 min at 7-day observation. The FA treated cells showed increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle accumulation at sub G1 phase as well as mitochondria clustering around nucleus. The in vivo rabbit eye exposure for tear production by Schirmer's test revealed that the FA-induced overproduction of tear also exhibited observation time (1-10 day- and FA concentration (20-300 ppm for 5 min exposure-dependent. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK2 in cornea explants by western blotting was reduced and increased c-Jun amino - terminal kinase (JNK activation (pJNK in cornea and conjunctiva was evident at 2 month after exposure to 50-200 ppm FA for 5 min. In conclusion, injury to the eye with transient exposure of up to 100 ppm FA for 3 min decreased corneal cell survival while a more sensitive MTT test detected the cell decrease at 20 ppm FA exposure. Morphology changes can be observed even at 5 ppm FA exposure for 3 min at 7 days after. The FA exposure also increased apoptotic/necrotic cells and sub-G1 phase in cell cycle. Long term effect (2 months after exposure on the eye tissues even after the removal of FA can be observed with persistent JNK activation in cornea and conjunctiva.

  17. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  18. Replacing starch with digestible fibre in growing rabbit feeding

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    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of replacing dietary starch with digestible fibre (DF=pectin and hemicelluloses on health status, digestive physiology, growth performance, and carcass traits, 250 hybrid rabbits weaned at 27 d were fed until slaughter (76 d five diets with increasing DF to starch ratio (1.0 to 1.9; DF 18.9 to 22.2%; starch 19.6 to 11.5%. The digestibility of dry matter (64.7, 65.2, 66.8, 67.5 and 67.6% and NDF (27.9, 32.2, 35.0, 40.2 and 41.5% increased (probability of linear component of variance, L<0.001 with increasing DF to starch ratio. Final live weight and daily growth tended to decrease (L=0.06, feed intake significantly lowered (130 to 122 g/d, L=0.01 and feed conversion ratio improved (2.72 to 2.68; L<0.01. Health status, caecal fermentation and ileal mucosa traits of rabbits did not change. The feeding strategy failed in controlling the diffusion of epizootic rabbit enteropathy.

  19. The effect of intensive and extensive production systems on carcass quality in New Zealand White rabbits

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    Tomasz Daszkiewicz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty New Zealand White rabbits weaned at 30 days were divided into 2 groups and reared under intensive or extensive production system till slaughter age (90 days of age.  In the extensive production system, rabbits were housed in free-standing cages on straw litter and fed farm-made feed ad libitum.  Control rabbits were raised intensively in wire mesh slatted floor cages, indoors and on a commercial pellet ad libitum. Hot carcass weight was 16,6% lower (P<0.01 in extensive production, although the difference of 1 point both in hot and cold dressing percentage in favour of the intensively reared rabbits was not significant (P>0.05. The higher carcass weight of the control rabbits led to heavier primal cuts, including head (P0.05 and the fore part, intermediate part and hind part of the carcass (P0.01.  However, expressed as % of carcass weight, a significantly higher ratio was only found for the head (P0.01 and edible offal (P0.05 in intensively produced rabbits.  The production systems investigated  had no significant (P>0.05 effect on the chemical composition, physicochemical properties and organoleptic characteristics of meat from New Zealand White rabbits.

  20. Effects of probiotic supplement ( and on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population of weaning rabbits

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    Thanh Lam Phuoc

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of single or/and double strains of probiotic supplement on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population in distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT of weaning rabbits. Methods Sixty-four weaning (28 days old New Zealand White rabbits were randomly distributed into four groups with treatments including: basal diet without probiotic supplement (control or supplemented as follows: 1×106 cfu/g B. subtilis (BS group, 1×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (LA group, or 0.5×106 cfu/g B. subtilis plus 0.5×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (BL group. During the research, the male and female rabbits were fed separately. Body weight of the rabbits was recorded at 28, 42, and 70 d of age. Results There was an increase (p<0.05 in body weight gain for the LA group at 42 d. Rabbits fed BL responsed with a greater growth (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05 than those fed with no probiotic. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and gross energy were higher (p<0.05 in LA and BL groups than those in the control group. Male rabbits had higher (p<0.05 Bacilli spp. and Coliformis spp. in the ileum than female rabbits. Rabbits supplemented with BS had greater (p<0.05 numbers of bacilli in all intestinal segments than those receiving no probiotic, whereas intestinal Lactobacilli populations were greater (p<0.001 in the LA and BL diets compared to control. Average intestinal coliform populations were lowest (p<0.05 in the rabbits supplemented with LA as compared to those fed the control and BS. Conclusion Supplementation of L. acidophilus alone or in combination with B. subtilis at a half of dose could enhance number of gut beneficial bacteria populations, nutrient digestibility, cecal fermentation, feed efficiency, and growth performance, but rabbits receiving only B. subtilis alone were not different from the controls without probiotic.

  1. Analysis of Host Range Restriction Determinants in the Rabbit Model: Comparison of Homologous and Heterologous Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarlet, Max; Estes, Mary K.; Barone, Christopher; Ramig, Robert F.; Conner, Margaret E.

    1998-01-01

    The main limitation of both the rabbit and mouse models of rotavirus infection is that human rotavirus (HRV) strains do not replicate efficiently in either animal. The identification of individual genes necessary for conferring replication competence in a heterologous host is important to an understanding of the host range restriction of rotavirus infections. We recently reported the identification of the P type of the spike protein VP4 of four lapine rotavirus strains as being P[14]. To determine whether VP4 is involved in host range restriction in rabbits, we evaluated infection in rotavirus antibody-free rabbits inoculated orally with two P[14] HRVs, PA169 (G6) and HAL1166 (G8), and with several other HRV strains and animal rotavirus strains of different P and G types. We also evaluated whether the parental rhesus rotavirus (RRV) (P5B[3], G3) and the derived RRV-HRV reassortant candidate vaccine strains RRV × D (G1), RRV × DS-1 (G2), and RRV × ST3 (G4) would productively infect rabbits. Based on virus shedding, limited replication was observed with the P[14] HRV strains and with the SA11 Cl3 (P[2], G3) and SA11 4F (P6[1], G3) animal rotavirus strains, compared to the homologous ALA strain (P[14], G3). However, even limited infection provided complete protection from rotavirus infection when rabbits were challenged orally 28 days postinoculation (DPI) with 103 50% infective doses of ALA rabbit rotavirus. Other HRVs did not productively infect rabbits and provided no significant protection from challenge, in spite of occasional seroconversion. Simian RRV replicated as efficiently as lapine ALA rotavirus in rabbits and provided complete protection from ALA challenge. Live attenuated RRV reassortant vaccine strains resulted in no, limited, or productive infection of rabbits, but all rabbits were completely protected from heterotypic ALA challenge. The altered replication efficiency of the reassortants in rabbits suggests a role for VP7 in host range restriction

  2. [Idiopathic rabbit syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, H; Sasaki, Y; Hatori, K; Tanaka, S; Mizuno, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a patient with idiopathic oromandibular tremor resembling rabbit syndrome. The patient is a 36-year-old Japanese woman without any past and medical histories. On neurological examination, there was no abnormal finding except the oromandibular tremor. The tremor was confined to the jaw and perioral muscles. There was no extremity tremor. Laboratory findings were all normal, as well as her MRI and EEG. Surface EMG studies revealed that regular grouped discharges at a frequency of about 6 Hz appeared in the masseter, the orbicularis oris, and the digastric, and that the alternative contractions were found between the masseter and the digastric. Oral administration of tiapride was effective, but diazepam, trihexyphenydil, levodopa, and a beta-blocker were without effect. Although she had not taken neuroleptics, the appearance of the tremor was identical to the rabbit syndrome. The efficacy of the dopamine blockade may suggest that an abnormal basal ganglia function contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying this type of tremor.

  3. Safety evaluation of a recombinant myxoma-RHDV virus inducing horizontal transmissible protection against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J M; Ramírez, M A; Morales, M; Bárcena, J; Vázquez, B; Espuña, E; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2000-09-15

    We have recently developed a transmissible vaccine to immunize rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease based on a recombinant myxoma virus (MV) expressing the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) capsid protein [Bárcena et al. Horizontal transmissible protection against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorragic disease using a recombinant myxoma virus. J. Virol. 2000;74:1114-23]. Administration of the recombinant virus protects rabbits against lethal RHDV and MV challenges. Furthermore, the recombinant virus is capable of horizontal spreading promoting protection of contact animals, thus providing the opportunity to immunize wild rabbit populations. However, potential risks must be extensively evaluated before considering its field use. In this study several safety issues concerning the proposed vaccine have been evaluated under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that vaccine administration is safe even at a 100-fold overdose. No undesirable effects were detected upon administration to immunosuppressed or pregnant rabbits. The recombinant virus maintained its attenuated phenotype after 10 passages in vivo.

  4. Factors affecting wild rabbit production in extensive breeding enclosures: how can we optimise efforts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Casado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The declining rabbit population in the Iberian Peninsula has led hunters and authorities to rear rabbits in captivity systems for their subsequent release. One alternative method to intensive rabbitry systems is the use of extensive breeding enclosures, since they produce animals of greater quality for hunting and conservation purposes. However, some of the factors that affect rabbit production in breeding enclosures are still unknown. The present study used partial least squares regression (PLSR to analyse the effects of plot size, scrub cover, slope, initial rabbit abundance, the resources needed to dig warrens, predation and proximity to other enclosures on rabbit abundance. The results of our study show a positive effect of the number of other fenced plots within a radius of 3 km, a positive relationship with the availability of optimal resources for building warrens and a positive influence of intermediate values of scrub cover. According to our results, to maximise rabbit production in the enclosures it would be advisable to concentrate the restocking effort by ensuring that the restocking plots are close to each other, thus avoiding isolated enclosures. Furthermore, the selection of plots with an appropriate scrub cover and high availability of elements that favour the construction of warrens, such as large stones, sloping land or tall shrubs, may optimise results.

  5. Effects of Antisense Oligonucleotides against C-Reactive Protein on the Development of Atherosclerosis in WHHL Rabbits

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    Qi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP are closely associated with cardiovascular diseases, but whether CRP is directly involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still under debate. Many controversial and contradictory results using transgenic mice and rabbits have been published but it is also unclear whether CRP lowering can be used for the treatment of atherosclerosis. In the current study, we examined the effects of the rabbit CRP antisense oligonucleotides (ASO on the development of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. CRP ASO treatment led to a significant reduction of plasma CRP levels; however, both aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions were not significantly changed compared to those of control WHHL rabbits. These results suggest that inhibition of plasma CRP does not affect the development of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism of the growth hormone (GH encoding gene in inbred and outbred domestic rabbits

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    Deyana Gencheva Hristova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the growth hormone (GH gene in rabbits is a candidate for meat production, understanding the genetic diversity and variation in this locus is of particular relevance. The present study comprised 86 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus divided into 3 groups: New Zealand White (NZW outbred rabbits; first-generation inbred rabbits (F1 and second-generation inbred rabbits (F2. They were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. A 231 bp fragment of the polymorphic site of the GH gene was digested with Bsh1236 restriction enzyme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for the studied GH locus corresponding to 3 genotypes were detected in the studied rabbit populations: CC, CT and TT. In the synthetic inbred F1 and F2 populations, the frequency of the heterozygous genotype CT was 0.696 and 0.609, respectively, while for the homozygous CC genotype the frequency was lower (0.043 and 0.000, and respective values for the homozygous TT genotype were 0.261 and 0.391. This presumed a preponderance of the T allele (0.609 and 0.696 over the C allele (0.391 and 0.304 in these groups. In outbred rabbits, the allele frequencies were 0.613 (allele C and 0.387 (allele Т; consequently, the frequency of the homozygous CC genotype was higher than that of the homozygous TT genotype (0.300 vs. 0.075. Observed heterozygosity for the GH gene was higher than expected, and the result was therefore a negative inbreeding coefficient (Fis=–0.317 for outbred NZW rabbits; –0.460 for inbred F1 and –0.438 for inbred F2, indicating a sufficient number of heterozygous forms in all studied groups of rabbits. The application of narrow inbreeding by breeding full sibs in the synthetic population did not cause a rapid increase in homozygosity.

  7. Distribution and prevalence of the Australian non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus is correlated with rainfall and temperature.

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    June Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Australia relies heavily on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV for the biological control of introduced European wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, which are significant economic and environmental pests. An endemic non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus termed RCV-A1 also occurs in wild rabbits in Australian and provides partial protection against lethal RHDV infection, thus interfering with effective rabbit control. Despite its obvious importance for rabbit population management, little is known about the epidemiology of this benign rabbit calicivirus. METHODS: We determined the continent-wide distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 by analysing 1,805 serum samples from wild rabbit populations at 78 sites across Australia for the presence of antibodies to RCV-A1 using a serological test that specifically detects RCV-A1 antibodies and does not cross-react with co-occurring RHDV antibodies. We also investigated possible correlation between climate variables and prevalence of RCV-A1 by using generalised linear mixed effect models. RESULTS: Antibodies to RCV-A1 were predominantly detected in rabbit populations in cool, high rainfall areas of the south-east and south-west of the continent. There was strong support for modelling RCV-A1 prevalence as a function of average annual rainfall and minimum temperature. The best ranked model explained 26% of the model structural deviance. According to this model, distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 is positively correlated with periods of above average rainfall and negatively correlated with periods of drought. IMPLICATIONS: Our statistical model of RCV-A1 prevalence will greatly increase our understanding of RCV-A1 epidemiology and its interaction with RHDV in Australia. By defining the environmental conditions associated with the prevalence of RCV-A1, it also contributes towards understanding the distribution of similar viruses in New Zealand and Europe.

  8. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed Hibiscus Sabdariffa in Graded Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenkola, A Y; Oluremi, O I A

    2014-12-29

    This study was conducted for 10 weeks with the aim of investigating the erythrocyte membrane integrity as measured by erythrocyte osmotic fragility and excitability scores of rabbits fed graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (HSC). Twenty weaners' rabbit of both sexes were used for the study and were placed on four experimental diets which contain the following percentages of HSC 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, as feed additive and were added at 0 g, 62.5 g, 125 g, 187.5 g designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 experimental diets. Excitability scores were measured weekly as described by Voisnet et al. (1997). At the end of the experiment, the rabbits were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. A Blood sample (2 ml) was collected from each rabbit into sampled bottles, containing the Na EDTA as anticoagulant for hematological analysis. Packed cell volume (PCV) Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Total red blood cell (RBC) count, Total leukocyte count as well as differential leukocyte was determined using standard method. The percentage haemolysis recorded at 0.3 % to 0.8 % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rabbits in T1 compared to the remaining 3 diets. The result of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on diets 3 and 4 with a value of 65.5 ± 5.0 and 70.00 ± 5.50 % respectively. In conclusion this study demonstrated for the first time that chronic administration of HSC improves haematological parameters, brain mood and function as well as maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity.

  9. Long-Term Protection of Genetically Ablated Rabbit Retinal Degeneration by Sustained Transscleral Unoprostone Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Nobuhiro; Koyanagi, Eri; Izumida, Yasuko; Liu, Junjun; Katsuyama, Aya; Kaji, Hirokazu; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko; Osumi, Noriko; Kondo, Mineo; Terasaki, Hiroko; Mashima, Yukihiko; Nakazawa, Toru; Abe, Toshiaki

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term protective effects of transscleral unoprostone (UNO) against retinal degeneration in transgenic (Tg) rabbits (Pro347Leu rhodopsin mutation). The UNO release devices (URDs) were implanted into the sclerae of Tg rabbits and ERG, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ophthalmic examinations were conducted for 40 weeks. Unoprostone metabolites in retina, choroid/RPE, aqueous humor, and plasma from wild-type (Wt) rabbits were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry evaluated the retinal distribution of big potassium (BK) channels, and RT-PCR evaluated the expressions of BK channels and m-opsin at 1 week after URD treatment. The URD released UNO at a rate of 10.2 ±1.0 μg/d, and the release rate and amount of UNO decreased during 32 weeks. Higher ERG amplitudes were observed in the URD-treated Tg rabbits compared with the placebo-URD, or nontreated controls. At 24 weeks after implantation into the URD-treated Tg rabbits, OCT images showed preservation of retinal thickness, and histologic examinations (44 weeks) showed greater thickness of outer nuclear layers. Unoprostone was detected in the retina, choroid, and plasma of Wt rabbits. Retina/plasma ratio of UNO levels were 38.0 vs. 0.68 ng UNO*hour/mL in the URD-treated group versus control (topical UNO), respectively. Big potassium channels were observed in cone, cone ON-bipolar, and rod bipolar cells. Reverse-transcriptase PCR demonstrated BK channels and m-opsins increased in URD-treated eyes. In Tg rabbits, URD use slowed the decline of retinal function for more than 32 weeks, and therefore provides a promising tool for long-term treatment of RP.

  10. EFFECT OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES AND PROBIOTICS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF RABBITS

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    Vladimír Parkányi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4  The aim of this work was determined effect of supplemental humic substances and probiotics on growth performance and meat quality of rabbits.  The growth performances were observed on two hundred and twelve growing rabbits assigned randomly by weight to two treatments. The treatments included: 1 Control group: in this group were rabbits fed with basal diet during all experiment (35th – 77th day, 2 experimental group: the animals were fed with basal diet+3kg/t humic substances – Humac Nature during whole experiment.  In this group was during fattening period (35th – 49th and 63rd – 70th days of age added to feed the probiotic preparation – Propoul (Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7158 1x108 CFU 2 g per ten pieces. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly in order to determine the average daily gain, average daily feed intake and gain/feed. The characteristics of meat quality were determined on twelve rabbit males at the age of 77 days, when the rabbits achieved average slaughter weight 2500g. Results of the whole experimental period showed that addition humic substances and probiotic preparation to the diet had positive effect (not significantly on intensity of growth live weight in the last phase of fattening period. The results of this study suggest that humic substances with probiotics might be utilized as a feed additive in the rabbit diet. It could not significantly improve growth performance and meat quality of rabbits.doi:10.5219/192 

  11. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br; Ozaki, Michiko Regina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5): G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16{sup th} day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg); G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg); G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg); G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg). After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  12. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Branà, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levodropropizine. In contrast to the guinea pig, hypertussive responses in the rabbit were not inhibited by bronchodilator drugs (β2 agonists or muscarinic receptor antagonists), suggesting that the observed hypertussive state was not secondary to bronchoconstriction in this species. The ozone-induced hypertussive response in the rabbit was inhibited by chronic pretreatment with capsaicin, suggestive of a sensitization of airway sensory nerve fibers. However, we could find no evidence for a role of TRPA1 in this response, suggesting that ozone was not sensitizing airway sensory nerves via activation of this receptor. Whereas the ozone-induced hypertussive response was accompanied by a significant influx of neutrophils into the airway, the hypertussive response was not inhibited by the anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast at a dose that clearly exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. In summary, our results suggest that ozone-induced hypertussive responses to citric acid may provide a useful model for the investigation of novel drugs for the treatment of cough, but some important differences were noted between the two species with respect to sensitivity to bronchodilator drugs. PMID:26837703

  13. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

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    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  14. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eros Antonio de; Ozaki, Michiko Regina

    2014-01-01

    Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol